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Sample records for non-linguistic stimulation preliminary

  1. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  2. Non-linguists' judgments of linguistic distances between dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooskens, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the relative contribution of geographic and objective linguistic distances to the perceived and estimated linguistic distances between Norwegian dialects as judged by non-linguists. The perceived linguistic distances were quantified by playing recordings of fifteen Norwegian

  3. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...

  4. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  5. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    ‘symbol’, non-verbal form’ and ‘non-linguistic form’ – are they synonymous designations of one data category or do they designate diff erent data categories? In the presentation we will discuss defi nitions from e.g. ISOcat, ISO 704:2009 and the DanTermBank taxonomy of terminological data categories......, and we will present some thoughts about the relevance of non-linguistic information in a national term bank....

  6. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...... to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented....

  7. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  8. APPLICATION OF THE COMMUNICATIVE METHOD IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES IN A NON-LINGUISTIC MILITARY COLLEGE

    OpenAIRE

    Gennady Ivanovich SHEMET

    2014-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the problem of exploring and developing new methods and techniques in teaching foreign languages in a non-linguistic military college. The article presents the design and the results of an educa-tional experiment on checking the efficiency of commu-nicative teaching method for translation skills formation in the course of language training in the Cherepovets higher military engineering college of radio-electronics.

  9. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations

    OpenAIRE

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K.; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emot...

  10. CROSS-CULTURAL EDUCATION IN NON-LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITIES: THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzina, Y.N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with foreign language teaching conditions in large groups, as well as possible ways of mastering skills and abilities of using language as a means of communication on the example of a business situation. Special attention is paid to the use of interactive and discussion method of teaching in the process of mastering Intercultural and business communication in foreign language for Master programs in an economic university. The authors analyze the process of integration of case study method into traditional way of teaching foreign languages in non-linguistic university.

  11. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnn P Silkes

    2015-04-01

    Data collected to date demonstrate a clear difference between individuals with and without aphasia in their ability to perceive masked real words, but there appears to be no difference between groups for non-words and non-linguistic stimuli, although a trend is seen for these groups. Given the high variability for the NW and NL conditions, these analyses may be underpowered; therefore, data collection is ongoing and a clearer picture should be available by the time of presentation. Regardless of the eventual outcome, this poster will discuss the theoretical motivation for the study, and will discuss the possible implications for understanding the nature of underlying deficits in aphasia.

  12. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD.

  13. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: Evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory (Helm-Estabrooks, 2002 for review). Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Hula & McNeil, 2008; Ramsberger, 2005). In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  14. Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed. PMID:23695914

  15. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K.; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S.

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations. PMID:23914178

  16. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory. Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success. In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dissociating linguistic and non-linguistic gesture processing: electrophysiological evidence from American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language sentences, each consisting of a "frame" (a sentence without the last word; e.g. BOY SLEEP IN HIS) followed by a "last item" belonging to one of four categories: a high-close-probability sign (a "semantically reasonable" completion to the sentence; e.g. BED), a low-close-probability sign (a real sign that is nonetheless a "semantically odd" completion to the sentence; e.g. LEMON), a pseudo-sign (phonologically legal but non-lexical form), or a non-linguistic grooming gesture (e.g. the performer scratching her face). We found significant N400-like responses in the incongruent and pseudo-sign contexts, while the gestures elicited a large positivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pain distress tolerance: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y.; Wout, Mascha van’t; Jacobson, Benjamin L.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Kirschner, Jason L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli versus anodal stimulation. Methods Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal versus anodal stimulation (p = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (p = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (p = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all p Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both p pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal versus anodal tDCS (p = 0.072). Conclusions Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. PMID:26115372

  19. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on social cognition in schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassovsky, Yuri; Dunn, Walter; Wynn, Jonathan; Wu, Allan D; Iacoboni, Marco; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F

    2015-07-01

    In this preliminary study, we examined the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on social cognition in 36 individuals with schizophrenia. Participants received a baseline assessment and one week later received either anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS, with 12 participants randomized to each condition. A single 20-minute session tDCS was administered bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (centered at positions Fp1 and Fp2) at 2 mA. Among the 4 social cognitive tasks, participants showed a significant improvement on one of them, emotion identification, following anodal stimulation. Findings demonstrate the safety of this procedure and suggest potential therapeutic effects on one aspect of social cognition in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Do infants discriminate non-linguistic vocal expressions of positive emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderstrom, Melanie; Reimchen, Melissa; Sauter, Disa; Morgan, James L

    2017-02-01

    Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation of signals with the same valence. The studies reported here employed a habituation paradigm to test whether preverbal infants discriminate between non-linguistic vocal expressions of relief and triumph. Infants as young as 6 months who had habituated to relief or triumph showed significant discrimination of relief and triumph tokens at test (i.e. greater recovery to the unhabituated stimulus type), when exposed to tokens from a single individual (Study 1). Infants habituated to expressions from multiple individuals showed less consistent discrimination in that consistent discrimination was only found when infants were habituated to relief tokens (Study 2). Further, infants tested with tokens from individuals from different cultures showed dishabituation only when habituated to relief tokens and only at 10-12 months (Study 3). These findings suggest that discrimination between positive emotional expressions develops early and is modulated by learning. Further, infants' categorical representations of emotional expressions, like those of speech sounds, are influenced by speaker-specific information.

  1. Infant auditory short-term memory for non-linguistic sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Newman, Rochelle S

    2015-04-01

    This research explores auditory short-term memory (STM) capacity for non-linguistic sounds in 10-month-old infants. Infants were presented with auditory streams composed of repeating sequences of either 2 or 4 unique instruments (e.g., flute, piano, cello; 350 or 700 ms in duration) followed by a 500-ms retention interval. These instrument sequences either stayed the same for every repetition (Constant) or changed by 1 instrument per sequence (Varying). Using the head-turn preference procedure, infant listening durations were recorded for each stream type (2- or 4-instrument sequences composed of 350- or 700-ms notes). Preference for the Varying stream was taken as evidence of auditory STM because detection of the novel instrument required memory for all of the instruments in a given sequence. Results demonstrate that infants listened longer to Varying streams for 2-instrument sequences, but not 4-instrument sequences, composed of 350-ms notes (Experiment 1), although this effect did not hold when note durations were increased to 700 ms (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicates and extends results from Experiments 1 and 2 and provides support for a duration account of capacity limits in infant auditory STM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  3. The relationship between linguistic and non-linguistic cognitive control skills in bilingual children from low socio-economic backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buac, Milijana; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether linguistic cognitive control skills were related to non-linguistic cognitive control skills in monolingual children (Study 1) and in bilingual children from low socio-economic status (SES) backgrounds (Study 2). Linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a grammaticality judgment (GJ) task in which children judged the grammaticality of sentences while ignoring their meaning. Non-linguistic inhibitory control was measured using a flanker task. Study 1, in which we tested monolingual English-speaking children, revealed that better inhibitory control skills, as indexed by the performance on the flanker task, were associated with improved performance on the GJ task. Study 2, in which we tested bilingual English-Spanish speaking children from low SES backgrounds, revealed that better non-linguistic inhibitory control skills did not yield better performance on the GJ task. Together, these findings point to a role of domain-general attention mechanisms in language performance in typically developing monolingual children, but not in bilingual children from low SES. Present results suggest that the relationship between linguistic and domain-general cognitive-control abilities is instantiated differently in bilingual vs. monolingual children, and that language-EF interactions are sensitive to language status and SES. PMID:25309499

  4. Effects of emotionally charged auditory stimulation on gait performance in the elderly: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J R; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task-walking under auditory constraints-on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Validation cohort. General community. Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Not applicable. In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; Pgait velocity (F1.87,190.83=5.62; P=.005) and an average reduction of 3.88 steps/min in cadence (F1.79,183.10=8.21; P=.001) under both auditory stimulation conditions. Neither baseline fall history nor performance of activities of daily living accounted for these differences. Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait performance in older individuals with minimal cognitive impairment compared with those without minimal cognitive impairment. A divided attention task using emotionally charged auditory stimuli might be able to elicit compensatory improvement in gait performance in cognitively intact older individuals

  5. Vagus nerve stimulation in drug-resistant daily chronic migraine with depression: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, Alberto Proietti; Mea, Eliana; Tullo, Vincenzo; Curone, Marcella; Franzini, Angelo; Broggi, Giovanni; Savino, Mario; Bussone, Gennaro; Leone, Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Drug refractory chronic daily headache (CDH) is a highly disabling condition. CDH is usually regarded as the negative evolution of chronic migraine (CM) and is characterized by high prevalence of psychiatric disorders, especially mood disorders. Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) is an established treatment option for selected patients with medically refractory epilepsy and depression. Neurobiological similarities suggest that VNS could be useful in the treatment of drug-refractory CM associated with depression. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of VNS in patients suffering from drug-refractory CM and depressive disorder. We selected four female patients, mean age 53 (range 43-65 years), suffering from daily headache and drug-refractory CM. Neurological examination and neuroradiological investigations were unremarkable. Exclusion criteria were psychosis, heart and lung diseases. The preliminary results in our small case series support a beneficial effect of chronic VNS on both drug-refractory CM and depression, and suggest this novel treatment as a valid alternative for this otherwise intractable and highly disabling condition.

  6. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  7. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangen Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Patients and methods Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. Results This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2% and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. Trial registration This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096.

  8. Brain activation areas of sexual arousal with olfactory stimulation in men: a preliminary study using functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joon; Park, Kwangsung; Hwang, In Sang; Jung, Seung Il; Kim, Hyeong-Jung; Chung, Tae-Woong; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2008-03-01

    There have been extensive studies evaluating the functional neuroanatomy of the brain during visual sexual stimulation. However, little data exist concerning the role of olfactory stimulation in human sexuality. This preliminary study intended to elucidate the brain areas responding to an olfactory sexual stimulus using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eight healthy right-handed heterosexual male volunteers (20-35 years of age), having normal olfaction and no brain diseases, were recruited. During fMRI, a women's perfume was given as an olfactory sexual stimulant in an alternating block design with a 30-second stimulation period followed by a 30-second rest. After the fMRI sessions, the participants provided ratings for both the odorant's intensity and perceived arousal. The study subjects rated the odorant stimulation and perceived sexual arousal response by Likert-type rating scales. Brain activation maps were made by blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-based fMRI with an echo-planar imaging pulse sequence. Two out of eight subjects experienced "strong" sexual arousal, and three subjects experienced "moderate" arousal during olfactory stimulation, resulting in a mean score of 2.25 on a 4-point scale. The common brain areas activated in response to the odor stimulus in all eight subjects included the insula, the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, and the hypothalamus. The median cingulate gyrus, thalamus, angular gyrus, lingual gyrus, and cerebellar cortex were activated in subjects who had moderate or strong sexual arousal response. Olfactory stimulation with women's perfume produces the activation of specific brain areas in men. The brain areas activated differed according to the degree of perceived sexual arousal response. Further studies are needed to elucidate brain activation response according to the different kinds and intensities of olfactory stimulation.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of a model of stimulant use, oxidative damage and executive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa; Walker, Jessica; Brigham, Gregory; Lewis, Daniel; Somoza, Eugene; Theobald, Jeff; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-07-01

    Illicit stimulant use increases oxidative stress and oxidative stress has been found to be associated with deficits in memory, attention and problem-solving. To test a model of the association among oxidative DNA damage, a severe form of oxidative stress, and stimulant use, executive function and stimulant-use outcomes. Six sites evaluating 12-step facilitation for stimulant abusers obtained peripheral blood samples from methamphetamine-dependent (n = 45) and cocaine-dependent (n = 120) participants. The blood samples were submitted to a comet assay to assess oxidative DNA damage. Executive Dysfunction was assessed with the Frontal Systems Behavior Scale (FrSBe), which is a reliable and valid self-report assessment of executive dysfunction, disinhibition and apathy. Stimulant-use measures included self-reported stimulant use and stimulant urine drug screens (UDS). While more recent cocaine use (executive dysfunction and stimulant use outcomes for cocaine-dependent patients. Support for the model was found for methamphetamine-dependent patients, with oxidative DNA damage significantly greater in methamphetamine-dependent patients with executive dysfunction (W = 2.2, p executive dysfunction being a significant mediator of oxidative DNA damage and stimulant use during active treatment (ab = 0.089, p executive dysfunction, which in turn increases vulnerability to future stimulant use.

  10. Electrical stimulation to reduce the overload in upper limbs during sitting pivot transfer in paraplegic: a preliminary study

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    Ana Claudia G. Lopes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Transfer is a key ability and allows greater interact with the environment and social participation. Conversely, paraplegics have great risk of pain and injury in the upper limbs due to joint overloads during activities of daily living, like transfer. The main goal of this study is to verify if the use of functional electrical stimulation (FES in the lower limbs of paraplegic individuals can assist the sitting pivot transfer (SPT. The secondary objective is to verify if there is a greater participation of the lower limbs during lift pivot phase. A preliminary study was done with one complete paraplegic individual. Temporal parameters were calculated and a kinetic assessment was done during the SPT. The preliminary results showed the feasibility of FES for assisting the SPT.

  11. Reflections on Addiction in Students Using Stimulants for Neuroenhancement: A Preliminary Interview Study.

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    Hildt, Elisabeth; Lieb, Klaus; Bagusat, Christiana; Franke, Andreas G

    2015-01-01

    The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE) among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants--the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis-reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction.

  12. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

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    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation

  13. Spinal Cord Stimulation in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Effects on Posture and Gait—A Preliminary 3D Biomechanical Study

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    L. Brugliera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied 8 patients with spinal cord stimulation (SCS devices which had been previously implanted to treat neuropathic chronic pain secondary to Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of SCS on posture and gait by means of clinical scales (Short Form Health Survey-36, Visual Analogue Scale for pain, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and instrumented evaluation with 3D Gait Analysis using a stereophotogrammetric system. The latter was performed with the SCS device turned both OFF and ON. We recorded gait and posture using the Davis protocol and also trunk movement during flexion-extension on the sagittal plane, lateral bending on the frontal plane, and rotation on the transversal plane. During and 30 minutes after the stimulation, not only the clinical scales but also spatial-temporal gait parameters and trunk movements improved significantly. Improvement was not shown under stimulation-OFF conditions. Our preliminary data suggest that SCS has the potential to improve posture and gait and to provide a window of pain-free opportunity to optimize rehabilitation interventions.

  14. A Preliminary Report on Disordered Speech with Deep Brain Stimulation in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

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    Christopher Dromey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has proven effective in treating the major motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD. The aim of this study was to learn which laryngeal and articulatory acoustic features changed in patients who were reported to have worse speech with stimulation. Six volunteers with PD who had bilateral STN electrodes were recorded with DBS turned on or off. Perceptual ratings reflected poorer speech performance with DBS on. Acoustic measures of articulation (corner vowel formants, diphthong slopes, and a spirantization index and phonation (perturbation, long-term average spectrum as well as verbal fluency scores showed mixed results with DBS. Some speakers improved while others became worse on individual measures. The magnitude of DBS effects was not predictable based on the patients' demographic characteristics. Future research involving adjustments to stimulator settings or electrode placement may be beneficial in limiting the negative effects of DBS on speech.

  15. Children with speech sound disorder: Comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

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    Cristina eMurphy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder. A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with speech sound disorder were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2 or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2. The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production and phonological awareness skills. The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (eg. backward masking and frequency discrimination, whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (eg. phonological organisation and awareness. Both interventions consisted of twelve 45-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of nine hours. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

  16. Stimulated infrared thermography applied to differentiate scar tissue from peri-scar tissue: a preliminary study.

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    Riquet, Damien; Houel, Nicolas; Bodnar, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-01

    Every human injury leads to a scar formation. The healing process leads to the formation of new tissue: the scar, which is different from the original tissue. This process is influenced by mechanical strength and the local vasculature is modified. The purpose of this study is to show that there are various temperatures between the scar and the peri-scar area associated with the healing process that can be estimated using the thermal infrared camera. In the study, 12 scars were stimulated by cold. Several changes of temperature were observed between scar and peri-scar area for 10 min. Scars appeared significantly colder with a Wilcoxon test (p = 0.01). Results showed that stimulated infrared thermography can be used to monitor the temperature difference between the scar and peri-scar tissue.

  17. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia: a preliminary efficacy and mechanisms-based investigation.

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    Palmer, Shea; Cramp, Fiona; Propert, Kate; Godfrey, Helen

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia (TSE) on mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and vibration threshold (VT). A prospective, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Laboratory based. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (12 men and 22 women; mean age+/-standard deviation 30+/-8 years). Exclusion criteria were conditions affecting upper limb sensation and contraindications to electrical stimulation. Participants were allocated at random to receive TENS (n=8), TSE (n=8), placebo (n=9) or control (n=9). Electrical stimulation was applied for 30 minutes (from time 18 minutes to 48 minutes) via electrodes (5 cmx5 cm) placed centrally above and below the space between the C6 and C7 spinous processes, with 5 cm between electrodes. MPT (using an algometer) and VT (using a vibrameter) were recorded on seven occasions from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand - at baseline (0 minutes) and then at 10-minute intervals until the end of the 60-minute testing period. There were no statistically significant group differences in MPT (all p>0.05). Significant group differences in VT were found at 20, 30 and 40 minutes (all ptests showed that the TENS group had significantly greater VT than both the placebo [median difference 0.30 microm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 0.66] and control (0.51 microm, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97) groups at 20 minutes, and significantly greater VT than the control group (0.69 microm, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) at 30 minutes (all p<0.008). Electrical stimulation did not alter MPT. The increase in VT during TENS may be due to distraction or antidromic block of large-diameter nerve fibres. TSE failed to alter either outcome measure significantly.

  18. Preliminary thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence investigation of commercial pharmaceutical preparations towards the drug sterilization dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakis, Nikolaos A.; Tsirliganis, Nestor C.; Kitis, George

    2014-01-01

    Drug sterilization with ionizing radiation is a well-established technology and is gaining ground the last decades due to its numerous advantages. Identification of irradiated drugs would be interesting and, in this respect, the present work aims, for the first time to the authors’ best knowledge, to explore whether OSL and TL can be employed as methods for post-sterilization dosimetry on commercial drugs, i.e., as tools for the detection of irradiated drugs. Five widely used drugs, i.e., Daktarin ® , Aspirin ® , Panadol ® , Brufen ® and Procef ® , are used for this purpose. Preliminary findings are very promising towards the post-sterilization dosimetry and the use of commercial drugs for normal and/or accidental dosimetry. - Highlights: • A study of the potential use of certain drugs in post-sterilization dosimetry with TL and OSL is conducted. • All investigated drugs exhibit detectable OSL and TL signals in a dose range of 20–1400 Gy. • Presence of slow components in the OSL signals is probable. • Dose response data can be fitted with a second order polynomial or a power function. • Preliminary results are promising and a more thorough study is imperative

  19. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

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    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  20. Effect of tone-based sound stimulation on balance performance of normal subjects: preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnacco, Guido; Klotzek, Adam S; Carrick, Frederick R; Wright, Cameron H G; Oggero, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Sound is known to affect the human brain, hence sound or music therapy is sometimes used to improve a subject's physicaland mental health. In this study, the effects sound stimulation has on balance were investigated by means of computerizeddynamic posturography tests performed with eyes closed on an unstable surface using a CAPS® system, exceeding theInternational Society for Posture and Gait Research (ISPGR) recommended metrological performance standards. Subjectswere tested without listening to any music (baseline), listening to “pure music”, and listening to the same music with differenttones embedded into it (one for each key). We found that different subjects react differently to different tones. Music alonedid not have a statistically significant effect on balance compared to the baseline, but the “best” tone significantly improvedbalance compared to the baseline or the “pure music” conditions. Furthermore, the “worst” tone reduced the balancecompared to “pure music”, but the reduction was not statistically significant relative to the baseline. The results thereforeindicate that, at least relative to balance performance, the tone-based sound stimulation we investigated is effective andinherently safe, but that tone selection depends on the individual subject.

  1. Mood and cognitive function following repeated transcranial direct current stimulation in healthy volunteers: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Nobutaka; Yamaguchi, Masayasu; Fujii, Tomokazu; Kitahara, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Although mood and cognitive function have been reported to change following transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with neurological and psychiatric diseases, little is known about the effects of repeated tDCS on mood and cognition in healthy humans. We recruited 11 healthy male participants for this single-blind, sham-controlled crossover trial. We used Profile of Mood States, brief-form (POMS), and CogHealth (Detection Task, Identification Task, One Back Task, One Card Learning Task and Continuous Monitoring Task) to evaluate the changes in mood and cognitive function, respectively, before and immediately after 4-daily, 20 min, 1 mA sham or anodal tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). While there were no significant changes in six factors of POMS and performance (speed and accuracy) of CogHealth between sham and anodal stimulation, the accuracy of One Card Learning was increased at the end of the experiment. Signal detection analyses revealed that both hit rate and discriminability were improved in this task. These results suggest that 4-daily anodal tDCS over left DLPFC may not change mood and cognitive function in healthy subjects, and further support the safety of tDCS. A slight improvement in a visual recognition and learning task at the end of experiment may be susceptible to practice effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Mucus-stimulating activity in the sera of patients with cystic fibrosis: demonstration and preliminary fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurlandsky, L E; Berninger, R W; Talamo, R C

    1980-11-01

    The ciliated, mucus-secreting urn cell complex (UCC) is found swimming in the coelomic cavity of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus. This cell complex, which can be maintained in suspension cultures, responds to various stimuli by hypersecreting mucus in the form of a cohesive mucus "tail." This tail can be measured and expressed as a multiple of "urn cell diameters." Using this bioassay, heated sera from 35 patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), 29 patients who were obligate heterozygotes for the CF gene, and 42 controls with a variety of diseases were tested. Control sera yielded a mean (+/- S.D.) mucus tail length of 2.5 (+/-2.3); CF sera yielded a mean mucus tail length of 7.5 (+/- 2.9), (P Sipunculus, as well as from different Sipunculi. In addition, sera from 3 CF patients and 3 controls were chromatographed on protein A-Sepharose. The bound IgG fraction was then washed with 8 M urea and subsequently eluted with 1 M acetic acid. Pooled dialyzed, lyophilized fractions were assayed as coded samples in the UCC assay. Mucus-stimulating activity as measured by mucus tail length per mg protein was greatest in the fractions eluted with 8 M urea. The 8 M urea fractions from 3 CF sera were 2.8 to 5.5 times as active as fractions from 3 control sera. The UCC assay can quantitatively measure mucus-stimulating activity in CF serum. This activity appears to be associated with a serum fraction which can be dissociated from IgG.

  3. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  4. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

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    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  5. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

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    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  6. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  7. Time-dependent effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on changes in spinal excitability are dependent on stimulation frequency: a preliminary study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Soichiro; Tanabe, Shigeo; Ishikawa, Takuma; Itoh, Syunpei; Kubota, Shinji; Sakurai, Hiroaki; Kanada, Yoshikiyo

    2014-12-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) can be used as treatment for spasticity. The present study examined differences in time-dependent effects of NMES depending on stimulation frequency. Forty healthy subjects were separated into four groups (no-stim, NMES of 50, 100, and 200 Hz). The un-conditioned H-reflex amplitude and the H-reflex conditioning-test paradigm were used to measure the effectiveness on monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons in the soleus (SOL) muscle, disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition from tibialis anterior (TA) to SOL, and presynaptic inhibition of SOL Ia afferents. Each trial consisted of a 30-min period of NMES applied to the deep peroneal nerve followed by a 30-min period with no stimulation to measure prolonged effects. Measurements were performed periodically. Stimulation applied at all frequencies produced a significant reduction in monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons in the SOL muscle, however, only stimulation with 50 Hz showed prolonged reduction after NMES. NMES frequency did not affect the amount of disynaptic reciprocal Ia inhibition and presynaptic inhibition of Ia afferents. The results show a frequency-dependent effect of NMES on the monosynaptic Ia excitation of motoneurons. This result has implications for selecting the optimal NMES frequency for treatment in patients with spasticity.

  8. The effect of bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation on early auditory processing in schizophrenia: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Walter; Rassovsky, Yuri; Wynn, Jonathan; Wu, Allan D; Iacoboni, Marco; Hellemann, Gerhard; Green, Michael F

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was applied bilaterally over the auditory cortex in 12 schizophrenia patients to modulate early auditory processing. Performance on a tone discrimination task (tone-matching task-TMT) and auditory mismatch negativity were assessed after counterbalanced anodal, cathodal, and sham tDCS. Cathodal stimulation improved TMT performance (p stimulation condition by negative symptom interaction in which greater negative symptoms were associated with a better TMT performance after anodal tDCS.

  9. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuromuscular electrical stimulation on upper extremity motor recovery in the early period after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Aliye; Türe, Sabiha; Askin, Ayhan; Yardimci, Engin Ugur; Demirdal, Secil Umit; Kurt Incesu, Tülay; Tosun, Ozgur; Kocyigit, Hikmet; Akhan, Galip; Gelal, Fazıl Mustafa

    2017-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on upper extremity motor function in patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. Twenty-five ischemic acute/subacute stroke subjects were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial. Experimental group 1 received low frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT) including activities to improve strength, flexibility, transfers, posture, balance, coordination, and activities of daily living, mainly focusing on upper limb movements; experimental group 2 received the same protocol combined with NMES to hand extensor muscles; and the control group received only PT. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan was used to evaluate the activation or inhibition of the affected and unaffected primary motor cortex. No adverse effect was reported. Most of the clinical outcome scores improved significantly in all groups, however no statistically significant difference was found between groups due to the small sample sizes. The highest percent improvement scores were observed in TMS + NMES group (varying between 48 and 99.3%) and the lowest scores in control group (varying between 13.1 and 28.1%). Hand motor recovery was significant in both experimental groups while it did not change in control group. Some motor cortex excitability changes were also observed in fMRI. LF-rTMS with or without NMES seems to facilitate the motor recovery in the paretic hand of patients with acute/subacute ischemic stroke. TMS or the combination of TMS + NMES may be a promising additional therapy in upper limb motor training. Further studies with larger numbers of patients are needed to establish their effectiveness in upper limb motor rehabilitation of stroke.

  10. [Transitory transesophageal atrial electric stimulation. Preliminary report on 19 cases and considerations on the method, indications and results (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistolese, M; Richichi, G; Catalano, V; Boccadamo, R

    1975-01-01

    Literature provides sufficient evidence that transitory electric stimulation via esophagus (SATE) - after the first positive experimental attempts on dogs - can be applied to man with a simple, rapid and harmless method. The study covers 19 patients subjected to high frequency transesophageal atrial stimulation by way of a bipolar electrode inserted through a nasogastric tube and connected to an external generator capable of producing tension impulses. Said impulses are variable up to 150 volts, lasting 2.5 microsec. with a frequency of up to 450/min. The 19 patients can be divided into 2 groups. The first including 15 patients on which SATE was effected for diagnostic purposes: in coronary deficiency (8 patients), in the disease of sinus node (3 patients), and lastly in the research for the A-V-block latent in 4 patients with acute post-infarctual A-V-block which regressed during the immediate clinical course of the illness. The other group includes 4 patients in which the atrial stimulation indication was the treatment of rapid, paroxysmic atrial rhythms, inaffected by drugs. By using impulses of 25-30 volts, the AA. have obtained a stable stimulation.

  11. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  12. The molecular evidence of neural plasticity induced by cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the rat brain: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Oh, Byung-Mo; Kim, Sang Jeong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2014-07-11

    Cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied to treat several pathological conditions with insufficient evidence of molecular mechanism. Neural plasticity is proposed as one of mechanism. This study aimed to (1) confirm the feasibility of focal stimulation over cerebellar cortex and (2) investigate cerebellar rTMS effects on molecular changes associated with neural plasticity in the rat. For feasibility, six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to confirm focal stimulation on the cerebellar cortex after rTMS. For molecular evidence, thirty rats underwent a single (N=15) or 10 sessions (N=15) of rTMS with low-, high-frequency, or sham stimulation. In cerebellar cortex, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were performed on mRNA and proteins associated with neural plasticity: metabotrophic glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1), 2-amino-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionatic acid (AMPA) receptor (GluR2) and protein kinase C (PKC). As a result, (18)F-FDG-PET showed an increase of glucose metabolism in the cerebellar cortex. The transcription of mGluR1 decreased following a single session of high-frequency rTMS. Synthesis of mGluR, PKC and GluR2 was reduced after rTMS, especially high frequency stimulation. It is suggested that rTMS could focus on the cerebellar cortex in the rat and induce neural plasticity associated with long-term depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation for the treatment of fecal and urinary leaks in children: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Jean-François; Hery, Geraldine; Guys, Jean-Michel; Louis-Borrione, Claude

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effectiveness of posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) for the treatment of fecal and urinary incontinence in children with malformations of the bowel or neurological pathologies. Treatment of fecal and urinary leaks, in cases of congenital malformations remains a challenge. Recent studies in adults have shown the effectiveness of PTNS. Eight children: 4 with anorectal malformations, 3 with neurological causes (1 medullary lipoma, 1 Arnold Chiari malformation, 1 sacrococcygeal teratoma) and 1 with Hirschsprung's disease presenting with serious anal incontinence, despite extensive bowel management during at least 2 years, were treated with PTNS. Six children had associated urinary leaks. Jorge-Wexner score for defecation and Schurch score for urine were used before treatment and after the second and sixth months of stimulation. After six months, five patients had no more fecal leakage, two patients were improved and one did not respond. Five out of the 6 patients with urinary leaks were continent at 6 months. PTNS is a noninvasive technique and painless modality which seems to be effective for the treatment of fecal and urinary leaks in children even with congenital digestive pathologies or neurological malformations. These results will be confirmed in a prospective study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. IMOCUR stimulates production of immunoglobulins; preliminary results concerning a correlation between in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutartre, P; Annat, J; Derrepas, P; Guerrin, F; Reboul, A; Tripier, M

    1992-01-01

    The bacterial extract IMOCUR is described as an in vivo stimulant of antibody production during animal testing and human clinical trials. Using a slightly modified procedure (13) dealing with in vitro immunoglobulin production by C57B1/6 mouse spleen cells, we have shown that IMOCUR potentiates spontaneous IgM production. In order to explore the putative relation between this in vitro activity and the current in vivo control test (stimulation of plaque-forming cell production after sheep red blood cell injection to Balb/c mouse), we have assayed 10 lyophilisates in vitro and in vivo before and after heat inactivation (80 degrees C, 7 days in a saturated water atmosphere). Results have shown that this treatment inhibits, respectively, totally and partially in vivo and in vitro activities. Thus the in vitro technique seems to be appropriate for the control of activity of the various batches of IMOCUR. Experiments are under way to clarify the mathematical correlation which may exist between the in vitro and in vivo experiments.

  15. A preliminary transcranial magnetic stimulation study of cortical inhibition and excitability in high-functioning autism and Asperger disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G; Rinehart, Nicole J; Tonge, Bruce J; Bradshaw, John L; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2010-08-01

    Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Participants were diagnosed by experienced clinicians strictly according to DSM-IV criteria. Participants with HFA (nine males, two females; mean age 16y 8mo, SD 4y 5mo) or Asperger disorder (11 males, three females; mean age 19y 1mo, SD 4y 2mo) and neurotypical participants (eight males, three females; mean age 19y 0mo, SD 3y 1mo) were administered a paired-pulse TMS paradigm intended to assess motor cortical inhibition and excitability. Responses to TMS were recorded by electromyography. Cortical inhibition was significantly reduced in the HFA group compared with both the Asperger disorder (pAsperger disorder based on GABAergic function.

  16. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  17. Preliminary pilot fMRI study of neuropostural optimization with a noninvasive asymmetric radioelectric brain stimulation protocol in functional dysmetria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mura1, Alessandro Castagna2, Vania Fontani2, Salvatore Rinaldi21Institute of Radiology, University of Cagliari, 2Rinaldi Fontani Institute – Department of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Florence, ItalyPurpose: This study assessed changes in functional dysmetria (FD and in brain activation observable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a leg flexion-extension motor task following brain stimulation with a single radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC pulse, according to the precisely defined neuropostural optimization (NPO protocol.Population and methods: Ten healthy volunteers were assessed using fMRI conducted during a simple motor task before and immediately after delivery of a single REAC-NPO pulse. The motor task consisted of a flexion-extension movement of the legs with the knees bent. FD signs and brain activation patterns were compared before and after REAC-NPO.Results: A single 250-millisecond REAC-NPO treatment alleviated FD, as evidenced by patellar asymmetry during a sit-up motion, and modulated activity patterns in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, during the performance of the motor task.Conclusion: Activity in brain areas involved in motor control and coordination, including the cerebellum, is altered by administration of a REAC-NPO treatment and this effect is accompanied by an alleviation of FD.Keywords: motor behavior, motor control, cerebellum, dysmetria, functional dysmetria, fluctuating asymmetry

  18. Clinical improvement in patients with borderline personality disorder after treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Reyes-López

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Current treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD consists of psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS could be beneficial to improve some BPD symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical improvement in patients with BPD after application of rTMS over the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. Method: Twenty-nine patients with BPD from the National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico, were randomized in two groups to receive 15 sessions of rTMS applied over the right (1 Hz, n=15 or left (5 Hz, n=14 DLPFC. Improvement was measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale for BPD (CGI-BPD, Borderline Evaluation of Severity Over Time (BEST, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS. Results: Intragroup comparison showed significant (p < 0.05 reductions in every psychopathologic domain of the CGI-BPD and in the total scores of all scales in both groups. Conclusions: Both protocols produced global improvement in severity and symptoms of BPD, particularly in impulsiveness, affective instability, and anger. Further studies are warranted to explore the therapeutic effect of rTMS in BPD. Clinical trial registration: NCT02273674.

  19. A preliminary assessment of the radiological implications of commercial utilization of natural gas from a nuclearly stimulated well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Struxness, E.G.; Bowman, C.R.

    1970-01-01

    Widespread utilization of nuclear explosives, in conjunction with the natural gas industry, can result in radiation exposure of sizable population groups. It is prudent to make realistic assessments of such potential radiation exposures before they occur and, unless the expected exposures are clearly insignificant, to consider these exposures in evaluating the net benefit of this particular use of nuclear energy. All pertinent facts relating to such assessments should be made public and presented in such a way that those who are to assume the risks, if any, can make a reasonable judgment as to whether the risks are acceptable. Radioactivity in natural gas from the Gasbuggy cavity has been analyzed prior to and during flaring operations. None of this gas has entered the collection and distribution system, but a theoretical analysis has been made of the hypothetical impact on members of the public that would have occurred if the gas had been introduced into the commercial stream. Dose equivalents have been estimated for both workers and consumers. In this analysis, Gasbuggy gas has been traced through a real gas-collection system and processing plant, as represented by the present situation existing in the San Juan Production Division, El Paso Natural Gas Company. In addition, a number of considerations are presented which would apply to radiation exposure in metropolitan areas. Results of this analysis for the Gasbuggy well indicate hypothetical dose equivalents to various population groups to be well within the annual dose limits suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Projection to a steady-state situation involving extensive natural gas production from many producing wells also resulted in hypothetical dose equivalents within the annual dose limits. Simple extrapolation of the results from this analysis to potential exposures resulting from nuclear stimulation of other gas reservoirs cannot be made on a direct basis, but this method

  20. A novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation for neuropathic pain management after spinal cord injury – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Matthew Davis,1 Joel E Frontera,1 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 2TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, TIRR Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim – for neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Subjects and methods: There were two experiments: 1 to compare the effectiveness between BreEStim and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim in Experiment (Exp 1 and 2 to examine the dose–response effect of BreEStim in Exp 2. In Exp 1, 13 SCI subjects (6 males and 7 females, history of SCI: 58.2 months, from 7 to 150 months, impairments ranging from C4 AIS B to L1 AIS B received both BreEStim and EStim in a randomized order with at least 3 days apart. A total of 120 electrical stimuli to the median nerve transcutaneously were triggered by voluntary inhalation during BreEStim or were randomly delivered during EStim. In Exp 2, a subset of 7 subjects received BreEStim120 and 240 stimuli randomly on two different days with 7 days apart (BreEStim120 vs BreEStim240. The primary outcome variable was the visual analog scale (VAS score. Results: In Exp 1, both BreEStim and EStim showed significant analgesic effects. Reduction in VAS score was significantly greater after BreEStim (2.6±0.3 than after EStim (0.8±0.3 (P<0.001. The duration of analgesic effect was significantly longer after BreEStim (14.2±6 hours than after EStim (1.9±1 hours (P=0.04. In Exp 2, BreEStim120 and BreEStim240 had similar degree and duration of analgesic effects. Conclusion: The findings from this preliminary study suggest that BreEStim is an effective alternative nonpharmacological treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in patients suffering from SCI. Keywords

  1. An integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete spinal cord injury patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Battini, E; Rustici, A; Stampacchia, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI). Clinical outcome measures were assessed before (T0) after (T1) the FES-cycling training and after (T2) the powered overground gait training. The ability to walk when using exoskeleton was assessed by means of 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), standing time, walking time and number of steps. Statistically significant changes were found on the MAS score, NRS-spasticity, 6MWT, TUG, standing time and number of steps. The preliminary results of this study show that an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on FES-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete SCI patients can provide a significant reduction of spasticity and improvements in terms of patient-robot interaction.

  2. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with spinal cord stimulation frequency in patients with neuropathic pain: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K F; McCrory, C

    2014-08-01

    Case series. To evaluate relationships between spinal cord stimulation (SCS) parameters and levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Ambulatory pain clinic of St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Nine patients with an implanted SCS and Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) were administered the Brief Pain Inventory and Short Form (36) Health Survey. Following a lumbar puncture, levels of GDNF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were assayed and correlated with stimulation parameters. Controls were patients with arthritic back pain who were matched for age, gender and SF-36 score. Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in patients with FBSS than controls (P=0.002) and correlate with SCS frequency (P=0.029). Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in neuropathic pain and appear to be related to stimulation frequency. Further work is needed to evaluate this potential relationship, both in neuropathic pain and in other contexts such as locomotor dysfunction.

  4. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  5. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  6. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Wang, Ying; Hao, Dongmei; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects). The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and sample entropy (SampEn), were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant ( p 0.05). In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p < 0.001) and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p < 0.001).

  7. Non-invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation Effects on Hyperarousal and Autonomic State in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Damon G.; Porges, Eric C.; Lewis, Greg F.; Williamson, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a reaction to trauma that results in a chronic perception of threat, precipitating mobilization of the autonomic nervous system, and may be reflected by chronic disinhibition of limbic structures. A common injury preceding PTSD in veterans is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). This may be due to the vulnerability of white matter in these networks and such damage may affect treatment response. We evaluated transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS), ...

  8. Brain activity modification produced by a single radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation pulse: a new tool for neuropsychiatric treatments. Preliminary fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna1 1Department of Neuro-Psycho-Physio Pathology, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC brain stimulation pulse (BSP, applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further indepth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. Keywords: fMRI, brain stimulation, brain modulation, REAC, neuropsychiatric treatments

  9. Non-invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation Effects on Hyperarousal and Autonomic State in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon G. Lamb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a reaction to trauma that results in a chronic perception of threat, precipitating mobilization of the autonomic nervous system, and may be reflected by chronic disinhibition of limbic structures. A common injury preceding PTSD in veterans is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. This may be due to the vulnerability of white matter in these networks and such damage may affect treatment response. We evaluated transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS, a non-invasive, low-risk approach that may alter the functions of the limbo-cortical and peripheral networks underlying the hyperarousal component of PTSD and thus improve patient health and well-being. In this single visit pilot study evaluating the impact of tVNS in 22 combat veterans, we used a between-subjects design in people with either PTSD with preceding mTBI or healthy controls. Participants were randomized into stimulation or sham groups and completed a posturally modulated autonomic assessment and emotionally modulated startle paradigm. The primary measures used were respiratory sinus arrhythmia (high-frequency heart rate variability during a tilt-table procedure derived from an electrocardiogram, and skin conductance changes in response to acoustic startle while viewing emotional images (International Affective Picture System. The stimulation was well tolerated and resulted in improvements in vagal tone and moderation of autonomic response to startle, consistent with modulation of autonomic state and response to stress in this population. Our results suggest that tVNS affects systems underlying emotional dysregulation in this population and, therefore, should be further evaluated and developed as a potential treatment tool for these patients.

  10. Optimal duration of ultra low frequency-transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) therapy for muscular relaxation in neuromuscular occlusion: A preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Rumerio, Anaïs; Monsarrat, Paul; Combadazou, Jean Claude; Champion, Jean; Destruhaut, Florent; Ghrenassia, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the duration of ultra-low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) application necessary to achieve sufficient relaxation of the masticatory muscles. A secondary aim was to analyze the influence of stimulation on muscle relaxation in pathological subjects and determine whether ULF-TENS has a noteworthy impact on muscle relaxation. Sixteen adult subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and muscle pain and a group of four control subjects were included in this study. ULF-TENS was applied, and muscular activities of the masseter, temporal, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) were recorded for 60 min. Significant relaxation was achieved in the TMD group from 20, 40, and 60 min for the temporal, masseter, and SCM muscles (p TENS application would last 40 min to obtain sufficient muscle relaxation both in patients with masticatory system disorders and healthy subjects, a time constraint that is consistent with everyday clinical practice.

  11. Chronic motor cortex stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effects on striatal dopaminergic transmission as assessed by 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Calcagni, Maria L; Totaro, Manuela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Piano, Carla; Soleti, Francesco; Fasano, Alfonso; Cioni, Beatrice; Bentivoglio, Anna R; Giordano, Alessandro

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after 13 months of unilateral extradural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2-β-carbo-methoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT). Six PD patients (five women and one man, aged 63.2 ± 5.6 years) underwent 123I-FP-CIT SPECT and clinical evaluation [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQL)] preoperatively, 8 and 13 months after EMCS. Striatum-to-occipital cortex, caudate-to-occipital cortex and putamen-to-occipital cortex 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were calculated using the region of interest method. Total and part III UPDRS scores significantly decreased at 8 and 13 months after stimulation (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively); UPDRS part II and PDQL scores improved after 13 months (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). No significant differences in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios between baseline and follow-up were found in the examined regions. However, a progressive reduction in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in the striatum contralateral to the implant was found. In contrast, no further decrease in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios was detected in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant. There were no correlations between changes in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios with disease duration, changes in medication dosage and motor UPDRS scores. Despite a small but highly selected sample of advanced PD patients, our results showed that no further dopamine transporter reduction occurred in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant side. This finding could lead to the hypothesis that EMCS might elicit a 'neuroprotective' effect, as suggested by significant clinical benefits.

  12. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Trunk Muscle Training Augmented with Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation Appears to Improve Function in Older Adults with Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized Preliminary Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Gregory E; Sions, J. Megan; Velasco, Teonette O.; Manal, Tara J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility of a trial to evaluate a trunk muscle training program augmented with neuromuscular electrical stimulation (TMT+NMES) for the rehabilitation of older adults with chronic LBP and to preliminarily investigate whether TMT+NMES could improve physical function and pain compared with a passive control intervention. Methods We conducted a single-blind, randomized feasibility trial. Patients aged 60-85 years were allocated to TMT+NMES (n=31) or a passive control intervention (n=33), consisting of passive treatments, i.e. heat, ultrasound and massage. Outcomes assessed 3-months and 6-months post-randomization included Timed Up and Go Test, gait speed, pain and LBP-related functional limitation. Results Feasibility was established by acceptable adherence (>/= 80%) and attrition (pain of greater than 2 points on a numeric pain rating scale during the course of the trial. But, only the TMT+NMES group had clinically important improvements in both performance-based and self-reported measures of function. In terms of the participants' global rating of functional improvement at 6-months, the TMT+NMES group improved by 73.9% and the passive control group improved by 56.7% compared to baseline. The between-group difference was 17.2% (95%CI: 5.87-28.60) in favor of TMT+NMES. Discussion It appears that a larger randomized trial investigating the efficacy of trunk muscle training augmented with NMES for the purpose of improving physical function in older adults with chronic LBP is warranted. PMID:26736024

  14. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  15. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  16. Enhanced Modiolar Stimulation Effects in the Inferior Colliculus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lithgow, Brian

    2001-01-01

    This preliminary study quantifies and provides one explanation for the extent of modiolar stimulation observed as a function of current level as recorded in a population of Inferior Colliculus units...

  17. Optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Bogard, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The use of Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) for radiation dosimetry has become increasingly popular in recent years. The OSL method is based on luminescence emitted from semiconductor materials stimulated with specific wavelengths of light, after being exposed to ionizing radiation. The OSL intensity is a function of the radiation dose absorbed by the material. This work complements previous studies by the authors of the thermoluminescence (TL) response by SiO 2 commercial optical fiber exposed to ionizing radiation and provides preliminary results describing some of the material's OSL properties. Linear OSL response to beta radiation dose, along with a consistent shape of the photon emission curve with time, were observed using a green/blue OSL excitation laser. The reproducibility of OSL response after repeated irradiations and the change in intensity with time were also examined. The search and characterization of materials that exhibit this OSL response, in parallel with the continued development of OSL methodology and instrumentation, is an important scientific and commercial issue. (Author)

  18. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  19. Use of a single bolus of GnRH agonist triptorelin to trigger ovulation after GnRH antagonist ganirelix treatment in women undergoing ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, with special reference to the prevention of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: preliminary report: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itskovitz-Eldor, J; Kol, S; Mannaerts, B

    2000-09-01

    A new treatment option for patients undergoing ovarian stimulation is the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol, with the possibility to trigger a mid-cycle LH surge using a single bolus of GnRH agonist, reducing the risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in high responders and the chance of cycle cancellation. This report describes the use of 0.2 mg triptorelin (Decapeptyl) to trigger ovulation in eight patients who underwent controlled ovarian hyperstimulation with recombinant FSH (rFSH, Puregon) and concomitant treatment with the GnRH antagonist ganirelix (Orgalutran) for the prevention of premature LH surges. All patients were considered to have an increased risk for developing OHSS (at least 20 follicles > or =11 mm and/or serum oestradiol at least 3000 pg/ml). On the day of triggering the LH surge, the mean number of follicles > or =11 mm was 25.1 +/- 4.5 and the median serum oestradiol concentration was 3675 (range 2980-7670) pg/ml. After GnRH agonist injection, endogenous serum LH and FSH surges were observed with median peak values of 219 and 19 IU/l respectively, measured 4 h after injection. The mean number of oocytes obtained was 23.4 +/- 15.4, of which 83% were mature (metaphase II). None of the patients developed any signs or symptoms of OHSS. So far, four clinical pregnancies have been achieved from the embryos obtained during these cycles, including the first birth following this approach. It is concluded that GnRH agonist effectively triggers an endogenous LH surge for final oocyte maturation after ganirelix treatment in stimulated cycles. Our preliminary results suggest that this regimen may prove effective in triggering ovulation and could be said to prevent OHSS in high responders. The efficacy and safety of such new treatment regimen needs to be established in comparative randomized studies.

  20. A pilot study of the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients during x-radiation therapy: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolatou, Ourania; Sotiropoulou-Lontou, Anastasia; Skarlatos, John; Kyprianou, Konstantinos; Kolitsi, Georgia; Dardoufas, Konstantinos

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in reduction of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients who were going to be irradiated with a total dose of 50-70 Gy for head and neck malignancies were included in the study. After the second week of radiotherapy, with the experience of oral pain, GM-CSF 400 μg was administered locally, once a day, until completion of radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated weekly for mucosal reaction and functional impairment. Results: Three patients with gross and functional mucositis grade I after the second week, completed the planned radiotherapy showing mucositis grade I. Eleven patients who experienced, after 2 weeks of radiotherapy, mucositis grade II and III, presented after the third week with gross mucositis grade I and II and functional impairment grade I. One of these 11 patients was then lost to follow-up and the remaining 10 completed their planned radiotherapy having an almost asymptomatic mucositis grade I. The 15th patient with gross mucositis grade III after the 2 weeks of radiotherapy, had a 2-day interruption because of painful mucositis and then continued and completed radiotherapy with gross and functional mucositis grade I. The 16th patient with mucositis grade III after the second week, did not show any improvement, and completed her planned radiotherapy with mucositis grade III which finally healed after the administration of acyclovir. The last, 17th patient discontinued radiotherapy at the third week because of mucositis grade IV and severe ulceration in apposition to an extensive gold prosthesis. Conclusion: The local administration of GM-CSF significantly reduced and almost healed radiation-induced oral mucositis in 14 of 17 patients during the radiotherapy, which was completed within the preplanned time and without any significant patient weight loss or functional impairment

  1. Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Reynolds, John M.

    1991-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, Atomic Oxygen Simulated Outgassing, consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge and, for reference, to the relative wake environment on the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of the various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and a optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to the RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  2. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made......, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially...

  3. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  4. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  5. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the ...

  6. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  7. Deep brain stimulation for obesity: past, present, and future targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupré, Derrick A; Tomycz, Nestor; Oh, Michael Y; Whiting, Donald

    2015-06-01

    The authors review the history of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients for treating obesity, describe current DBS targets in the brain, and discuss potential DBS targets and nontraditional stimulation parameters that may improve the effectiveness of DBS for ameliorating obesity. Deep brain stimulation for treating obesity has been performed both in animals and in humans with intriguing preliminary results. The brain is an attractive target for addressing obesity because modulating brain activity may permit influencing both sides of the energy equation--caloric intake and energy expenditure.

  8. Deep brain stimulation for bipolar disorder-review and outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gippert, Sabrina M; Switala, Christina; Bewernick, Bettina H; Kayser, Sarah; Bräuer, Alena; Coenen, Volker A; Schlaepfer, Thomas E

    2017-06-01

    Research on deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders has established preliminary efficacy signals for treatment-resistant depression. There are only few studies on DBS that included patients suffering from bipolar disorder. This article gives an overview of these studies concerning DBS targets, antidepressant efficacy, and the occurrence of manic/hypomanic symptoms under stimulation. First, promising results show that all patients experienced significant improvement in depressive symptomatology. In a single case, hypomanic symptoms occurred, but they could be resolved by adjusting stimulation parameters. Furthermore, this article highlights important clinical differences between unipolar and bipolar depression that have to be considered throughout the course of treatment.

  9. Vestibular stimulation for management of premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johny, Minu; Kumar, Sai Sailesh; Rajagopalan, Archana; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurien

    2017-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to observe the effectiveness of vestibular stimulation in the management of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The present study was an experimental study; twenty female participants of age group 18-30 years were recruited in the present study. Conventional swing was used to administer vestibular stimulation. Variables were recorded before and after vestibular stimulation and compared. Depression and stress scores are significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. Anxiety scores decreased followed by vestibular stimulation. However, it is no statistically significant. Serum cortisol levels significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. WHOQOL-BREF-transformed scores were not significantly changed followed by the intervention. However, psychological domain score (T2) and social relationships domain score (T3) were increased followed by intervention. Systolic blood pressure was significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. No significant change was observed in diastolic pressure and pulse rate. Pain score was significantly decreased after 2 months of intervention. Mini mental status examination scores and spatial and verbal memory score were significantly improved followed by intervention. The present study provides preliminary evidence for implementing vestibular stimulation for management of PMS as a nonpharmacological therapy. Hence, we recommend further well-controlled, detailed studies in this area with higher sample size.

  10. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms...

  11. Optically stimulated luminesence dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiujiang; Zhu Lei; Zhu Lei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Chen Zhaoyang; Fan Yanwei; Ba Weizhen; Cong Xiuyun; Tang Xinqiang; Guo Qi; Lu Wu

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the principle and makeup of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter is described, and a measurement for radiation is carried, some actual problem is discussed. The dosimeter has high sensitive and can be reseted in-flight by stimulated light. (authors)

  12. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Neural Stimulation and Chemical Detection: The Era of "Smart" Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable smart therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  14. Carbon Nanofiber Nanoelectrodes for Neural Stimulation and Chemical Detection: The Era of Smart Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Jessica E.

    2016-01-01

    A sensor platform based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (CNFs) has been developed. Their inherent nanometer scale, high conductivity, wide potential window, good biocompatibility and well-defined surface chemistry make them ideal candidates as biosensor electrodes. Here, we report two studies using vertically aligned CNF nanoelectrodes for biomedical applications. CNF arrays are investigated as neural stimulation and neurotransmitter recording electrodes for application in deep brain stimulation (DBS). Polypyrrole coated CNF nanoelectrodes have shown great promise as stimulating electrodes due to their large surface area, low impedance, biocompatibility and capacity for highly localized stimulation. CNFs embedded in SiO2 have been used as sensing electrodes for neurotransmitter detection. Our approach combines a multiplexed CNF electrode chip, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, with the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) system, developed at the Mayo Clinic. Preliminary results indicate that the CNF nanoelectrode arrays are easily integrated with WINCS for neurotransmitter detection in a multiplexed array format. In the future, combining CNF based stimulating and recording electrodes with WINCS may lay the foundation for an implantable "smart" therapeutic system that utilizes neurochemical feedback control while likely resulting in increased DBS application in various neuropsychiatric disorders. In total, our goal is to take advantage of the nanostructure of CNF arrays for biosensing studies requiring ultrahigh sensitivity, high-degree of miniaturization, and selective biofunctionalization.

  15. Analysis of fractal electrodes for efficient neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golestanirad, Laleh; Elahi, Behzad; Molina, Alberto; Mosig, Juan R.; Pollo, Claudio; Chen, Robert; Graham, Simon J.

    2013-01-01

    Planar electrodes are increasingly used in therapeutic neural stimulation techniques such as functional electrical stimulation, epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS), and cortical stimulation. Recently, optimized electrode geometries have been shown to increase the efficiency of neural stimulation by increasing the variation of current density on the electrode surface. In the present work, a new family of modified fractal electrode geometries is developed to enhance the efficiency of neural stimulation. It is shown that a promising approach in increasing the neural activation function is to increase the “edginess” of the electrode surface, a concept that is explained and quantified by fractal mathematics. Rigorous finite element simulations were performed to compute electric potential produced by proposed modified fractal geometries. The activation of 256 model axons positioned around the electrodes was then quantified, showing that modified fractal geometries required a 22% less input power while maintaining the same level of neural activation. Preliminary in vivo experiments investigating muscle evoked potentials due to median nerve stimulation showed encouraging results, supporting the feasibility of increasing neural stimulation efficiency using modified fractal geometries. PMID:23874290

  16. Stimulant-induced trichotillomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamalian, Gareen; Citrome, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    A prior report described the presentation of cocaine-induced trichotillomania, which resolved with the cessation of cocaine use. Here the authors describe the case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania that resolved with the discontinuation of stimulants and initiation of olanzapine. To the authors' knowledge this is the first reported adult case of stimulant-induced trichotillomania. The case is of a patient with a previous diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder whose symptoms of trichotillomania coincide with abuse of amphetamine and with the resolution of symptoms in the absence of amphetamine use. Given the increase in exposure of prescription amphetamines among adults, further study into the association between stimulants and adverse events such as trichotillomania is needed.

  17. Vagus Nerve Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you do certain activities such as public speaking, singing or exercising, or when you're eating if ... of life. Research is still mixed on the benefits of vagus nerve stimulation for the treatment of ...

  18. Multipolar intrafascicular stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meier, Jan H.; Meier, J.H.; Rutten, Wim

    1992-01-01

    The suppressing effect of two intrafascicular anodes on the neural recruitment elicited by one intrafascicular cathode has been studied. Recruitment curves are calculated with a nerve stimulation model and are compared to experimental curves for the peroneal nerve of rat.

  19. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms........ The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  20. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms....... The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  1. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for fecal incontinence: a video demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotouras, Alexander; Allison, Marion; Currie, Ann; Knowles, Charles H; Chan, Christopher L; Thaha, Mohamed A

    2012-06-01

    Fecal incontinence is an increasingly common condition with significant negative impact on quality on life and health care resources. It frequently presents a therapeutic challenge to clinicians. Emerging evidence suggests that percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is an effective treatment for fecal incontinence with the added benefit of being minimally invasive and cost effective. Pursuant to the preliminary report of our early experience of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation in patients with fecal incontinence published in this journal in 2010, in this dynamic article, we now describe and demonstrate the actual technique that can be performed in a nurse-led clinic or outpatient or community setting. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation is a technically simple procedure that can potentially be performed in an outpatient or community setting. The overall early success rate of 68% following its use reported by our unit compares favorably with the success rate following other forms of neuromodulation, including sacral nerve stimulation. When completed, our long-term outcome data will provide further information on the efficacy of tibial nerve stimulation in a larger cohort of patients (n > 100). Future studies, including our currently planned randomized controlled trial of percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation vs sham stimulation, will provide controlled efficacy data and may provide information on its exact mechanism of action.

  2. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  3. Shared Neural Mechanisms for the Evaluation of Intense Sensory Stimulation and Economic Reward, Dependent on Stimulation-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Valton, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2016-09-28

    Why are some people strongly motivated by intense sensory experiences? Here we investigated how people encode the value of an intense sensory experience compared with economic reward, and how this varies according to stimulation-seeking preference. Specifically, we used a novel behavioral task in combination with computational modeling to derive the value individuals assigned to the opportunity to experience an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric shock). We then examined functional imaging data recorded during task performance to see how the opportunity to experience the sensory stimulus was encoded in stimulation-seekers versus stimulation-avoiders. We found that for individuals who positively sought out this kind of sensory stimulation, there was common encoding of anticipated economic and sensory rewards in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conversely, there was robust encoding of the modeled probability of receiving such stimulation in the insula only in stimulation-avoidant individuals. Finally, we found preliminary evidence that sensory prediction error signals may be positively signed for stimulation-seekers, but negatively signed for stimulation-avoiders, in the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings may help explain why high intensity sensory experiences are appetitive for some individuals, but not for others, and may have relevance for the increased vulnerability for some psychopathologies, but perhaps increased resilience for others, in high sensation-seeking individuals. People vary in their preference for intense sensory experiences. Here, we investigated how different individuals evaluate the prospect of an unusual sensory experience (electric shock), compared with the opportunity to gain a more traditional reward (money). We found that in a subset of individuals who sought out such unusual sensory stimulation, anticipation of the sensory outcome was encoded in the same way as that of monetary gain, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

  4. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... (PGE2) as well as their regulatory genes such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-. 2), in LPS-stimulated ... mediated NF-κB activity. Keywords: Myelophycus caespitosus, Nitric oxide, Prostaglandin E2, Nuclear factor-κB. ..... induced by hypoxia and endotoxin. J Immunol. 2000 ...

  5. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Deep brain stimulation surgery for alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Juergen; Müller, Ulf; Bogerts, Bernhard; Münte, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of chronic alcohol dependence cause important health and economic burdens worldwide. Relapse rates after standard treatment (medication and psychotherapy) are high. There is evidence from in vivo investigations and from studies in patients that the brain's reward system is critically involved in the development and maintenance of addictive behavior, suggesting that modification of this system could significantly improve the prognosis of addictive patients. Motivated by an accidental observation, we used the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a central position in the dopaminergic reward system for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of alcohol addiction. We report our first experiences with NAc DBS for alcohol dependence and review the literature addressing the mechanisms leading to addiction. Five patients were treated off-label with bilateral NAc DBS for severe alcohol addiction (average follow-up 38 months). All patients experienced significant and ongoing improvement of craving. Two patients remained completely abstinent for more than 4 years. NAc stimulation was tolerated without permanent side effects. Simultaneous recording of local field potentials from the target area and surface electroencephalography while patients performed neuropsychological tasks gave a hint on the pivotal role of the NAc in processing alcohol-related cues. To our knowledge, the data presented here reflect the first attempt to treat alcohol-addicted patients with NAc DBS. Electrical NAc stimulation probably counterbalances the effect of drug-related stimuli triggering involuntarily drug-seeking behavior. Meanwhile, two prospective clinical studies using randomized, double-blind, and crossover stimulation protocols for DBS are underway to corroborate these preliminary results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  8. Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic sensing and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gaoming [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin, E-mail: yjzheng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Qiu, Yishen [Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Multiple stimulated emission fluorescence photoacoustic (MSEF-PA) phenomenon is demonstrated in this letter. Under simultaneous illumination of pumping light and stimulated emission light, the fluorescence emission process is speeded up by the stimulated emission effect. This leads to nonlinear enhancement of photoacoustic signal while the quantity of absorbed photons is more than that of fluorescent molecules illuminated by pumping light. The electronic states' specificity of fluorescent molecular can also be labelled by the MSEF-PA signals, which can potentially be used to obtain fluorescence excitation spectrum in deep scattering tissue with nonlinearly enhanced photoacoustic detection. In this preliminary study, the fluorescence excitation spectrum is reconstructed by MSEF-PA signals through sweeping the wavelength of exciting light, which confirms the theoretical derivation well.

  9. Preliminary y remarks y

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ranjeetha

    Preliminary. Rohini M. G. Chair, WiS Pan. March 1. S.N. S.Adar y remarks y. Godbole nel of IASc. 11 2014, , rsh College. Page 2. What will this. Little bit about the pro. Science: Career in Scie today and a bit about th. (WiS) Panel of the Indi. Sciences' and by implic. Sciences and by implic .... education but more to attr.

  10. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains...

  11. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  12. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  13. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, A.; Alekseichuk, I.; Bikson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  14. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the

  15. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  16. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  17. Frequent Nonprescription Stimulant Use and Risky Behaviors in College Students: The Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…

  18. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  19. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  20. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait......-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified...

  1. The moral stimulation as motivation process the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Díaz Torres

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The moral stimulation contributes benefits to the cooperative sector, contributing the one sustained increase of the productivity, quality and development of the creative thought. Under the current conditions it is comprehensible the necessity that in the relationship with the peasants is present the Moral Stimulation, in such a sense the reservations of intangible efficiencies are minimized, without investing more resources, also the absence of recognitions, in its consequence, shows frustration, monotony and in some cases I jade siquico, being the stimulation moral reguladora of different emotional states that you/they brake the growth of the results in its absence. As consequence of the previously exposed thing, and result of a study exploratory preliminary carried out starting from a group of investigative methods as studies of documents, interviews, surveys and the author's observation, he/she was proven the empiric formation of those that direct, they control and they regulate the work in the cooperative sector. They appeared weaknesses related with the insufficient use of the moral stimulation, in the results of the work, the values, increment of the productivity, the labor fluctuation and the quality, in such a sense this problem becomes a priority that should be assisted. This study, forces to investigate with depth in the Administration of the Moral Stimulation, it implies a process of continuous preparation of the cooperative sector, so that potencien its acting according to its responsibilities also becomes a scientific problem and the central topic of this investigation.

  2. Distributed stimulation increases force elicited with functional electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmire, Alie J.; Lockwood, Danielle R.; Doane, Cynthia J.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. The maximum muscle forces that can be evoked using functional electrical stimulation (FES) are relatively modest. The reason for this weakness is not fully understood but could be partly related to the widespread distribution of motor nerve branches within muscle. As such, a single stimulating electrode (as is conventionally used) may be incapable of activating the entire array of motor axons supplying a muscle. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether stimulating a muscle with more than one source of current could boost force above that achievable with a single source. Approach. We compared the maximum isometric forces that could be evoked in the anterior deltoid of anesthetized monkeys using one or two intramuscular electrodes. We also evaluated whether temporally interleaved stimulation between two electrodes might reduce fatigue during prolonged activity compared to synchronized stimulation through two electrodes. Main results. We found that dual electrode stimulation consistently produced greater force (~50% greater on average) than maximal stimulation with single electrodes. No differences, however, were found in the fatigue responses using interleaved versus synchronized stimulation. Significance. It seems reasonable to consider using multi-electrode stimulation to augment the force-generating capacity of muscles and thereby increase the utility of FES systems.

  3. Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibhor Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a select group of refractory epilepsy patients. Future investigations into the mechanism underlying ′response′ to brain stimulation are desired.

  4. Vagus Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekçi, Hakan; Kaptan, Hülagu

    2017-06-15

    The vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is an approach mainly used in cases of intractable epilepsy despite all the efforts. Also, its benefits have been shown in severe cases of depression resistant to typical treatment. The aim of this study was to present current knowledge of vagus nerve stimulation. A new value has emerged just at this stage: VNS aiming the ideal treatment with new hopes. It is based on the placement of a programmable generator on the chest wall. Electric signals from the generator are transmitted to the left vagus nerve through the connection cable. Control on the cerebral bioelectrical activity can be achieved by way of these signal sent from there in an effort for controlling the epileptic discharges. The rate of satisfactory and permanent treatment in epilepsy with monotherapy is around 50%. This rate will increase by one-quarters (25%) with polytherapy. However, there is a patient group roughly constituting one-thirds of this population, and this group remains unresponsive or refractory to all the therapies and combined regimes. The more the number of drugs used, the more chaos and side effects are observed. The anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) used will have side effects on both the brain and the systemic organs. Cerebral resection surgery can be required in some patients. The most commonly encountered epilepsy type is the partial one, and the possibility of benefiting from invasive procedures is limited in most patients of this type. Selective amygdala-hippocampus surgery is a rising value in complex partial seizures. Therefore, as epilepsy surgery can be performed in very limited numbers and rather developed centres, success can also be achieved in limited numbers of patients. The common ground for all the surgical procedures is the target of preservation of memory, learning, speaking, temper and executive functions as well as obtaining a good control on seizures. However, the action mechanism of VNS is still not exactly known. On the other hand

  5. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  6. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  7. Motor stimulation with interferential currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Domenico, G G; Strauss, G R

    1985-01-01

    The stimulation of motor nerves to produce muscle contraction in normally innervated muscles is a long established part of orthodox physiotherapy. Recently however, a revival of interest in the area has occurred, particularly in the U.S.A. Recent research has indicated that such stimulation can improve muscle strength, reduce muscle spasm and modulate spasticity, in addition to the more usual re-educative role of electrical stimulation. The concept of functional electrical stimulation (F.E.S.) seems destined to become an integral part of many programmes for the neurologically handicapped patient. This paper describes the technique of motor stimulation using interferential currents. The stimulating parameters and electrode placement are considered, along with a detailed explanation of the pre-modulated system of electrode arrangement. Copyright © 1985 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  10. The Preliminaries of a Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Sadl, Urska

    2018-01-01

    On 11 June 2015, the President of the First Chamber of the Court of Justice of the EU (the Court) issued an order to delete Bogdan Chain v Atlanco Ltd (C-189/14) from the Registry. This comment and the reflection are thus not motivated by a judgment, but rather by the reasons why the Court after ...... in the preliminary reference procedure. It highlights the fact that preliminary references can only work when the preliminaries of a reference—the culture of sincere co-operation and litigation, efficient communication, and flexible procedural rules—are in place....

  11. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  13. Transient Sensory Recovery in Stroke Patients After Pulsed Radiofrequency Electrical Stimulation on Dorsal Root Ganglia: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Gezer, Ilknur A; Levendoglu, Funda

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia. After PRF electrical stimulation, significant improvement was achieved in the examination of patients with superficial and deep sensation. However, during the follow-up visits were observed that the effect of PRF electrical stimulation disappeared. We believe that these preliminary results could be used in the development of future prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the effect of PRF electrical stimulation on dorsal root ganglia to treat sensory deficits in poststroke patients.

  14. Combined effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke: A pilot, single blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Chemello, Elena; Castellazzi, Paola; Filippetti, Mirko; Brugnera, Annalisa; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Waldner, Andreas; Saltuari, Leopold; Smania, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking. Despite its key role in gait control, to date the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum have not been investigated on brain stroke patients treated with robot-assisted gait training. To evaluate the effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation combined with transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke. After balanced randomization, 20 chronic stroke patients received ten, 20-minute robot-assisted gait training sessions (five days a week, for two consecutive weeks) combined with central nervous system stimulation. Group 1 underwent on-line cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional cerebellar hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. Group 2 received on-line anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. The primary outcome was the 6-minute walk test performed before, after, and at follow-up at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. The significant differences in the 6-minute walk test noted between groups at the first post-treatment evaluation (p = 0.041) were not maintained at either the 2-week (P = 0.650) or the 4-week (P = 0.545) follow-up evaluations. Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional

  15. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  16. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  17. Immersive virtual environment for visuo-vestibular therapy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascuel, J D; Payno, H; Schmerber, S; Martin, O

    2012-01-01

    The sense of equilibrium aggregates several interacting cues. On vestibular areflexic patients, vision plays a major role. We developed an immersive therapeutic platform, based on 3D opto-kinetic stimulation that enables to tune the difficulty of the balance task by managing the type of optic flow and its speed. The balance adjustments are recorded by a force plate, quantified by the length of the center of pressure trajectory and detection of disequilibrium corrections (leans, compensation step). Preliminary analysis shows that (i) patients report a strong immersion feeling in the motion flow, triggering intense motor response to "fight against fall"; (ii) the ANOVA factorial design shows a significant effect of flow speed, session number and gaze anchor impact. In conclusion, this study shows that 3D immersive stimulation removes essential limits of traditional opto-kinetic stimulators (limited 2D motions and remaining fixed background cues). Moreover, the immersive optic flow stimulation is an efficient tool to induce balance adaptive reactions in vestibular patients. Hence, such a platform appears to be a powerful therapeutic tool for training and relearning of balance control processes.

  18. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  19. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  20. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  1. Growth hormone stimulation test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stimulation test is usually performed to identify if hGH (human growth hormone) is deficient. The test is ... amino acid arginine in a vein to raise hGH levels. The test measures the ability of the ...

  2. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  3. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » All Disorders Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page What research is being done? The ...

  4. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  5. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the laccase from Ganoderma lucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Belova, Oksana; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Lisov, Alexandr V.; Leontievsky, Alexey A.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2011-01-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the laccase from G. lucidum are reported. The ligninolytic enzymes of the basidiomycetes play a key role in the global carbon cycle. A characteristic property of these enzymes is their broad substrate specificity, which has led to their use in various biotechnologies, thus stimulating research into the three-dimensional structures of ligninolytic enzymes. This paper presents the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the laccase from the ligninolytic basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

  6. Implicit Learning of Non-Linguistic and Linguistic Regularities in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C.; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been…

  7. Priorities of Dialogic Speech Teaching Methodology at Higher Non-Linguistic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Asanavičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a number of relevant methodological issues. First of all, the author analyses psychological peculiarities of dialogic speech and states that the dialogue is the product of at least two persons. Therefore, in this view, dialogic speech, unlike monologic speech, happens impromptu and is not prepared in advance. Dialogic speech is mainly of situational character. The linguistic nature of dialogic speech, in the author’s opinion, lies in the process of exchanging replications, which are coherent in structural and functional character. The author classifies dialogue groups by the number of replications and communicative parameters. The basic goal of dialogic speech teaching is developing the abilities and skills which enable to exchange replications. The author distinguishes two basic stages of dialogic speech teaching: 1. Training of abilities to exchange replications during communicative exercises. 2. Development of skills by training the capability to perform exercises of creative nature during a group dialogue, conversation or debate.

  8. Do infants discriminate non-linguistic vocal expressions of positive emotions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soderstrom, M.; Reimchen, M.; Sauter, D.; Morgan, J.L.

    Adults are highly proficient in understanding emotional signals from both facial and vocal cues, including when communicating across cultural boundaries. However, the developmental origin of this ability is poorly understood, and in particular, little is known about the ontogeny of differentiation

  9. Perceiving differences in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch: A pilot study with German congenital amusics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Krause-Burmester, M.; Cambouropoulos, F.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of pitch differences by seven German congenital amusics in speech and two types of non-speech material (sinusoidal waves and pulse trains). Congenital amusia is defined by a deficit in musical pitch perception, and recent studies indicate that at least a

  10. Congenital Amusia in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch perception - What behavior and reaction times reveal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, J.; Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Campbell, N.; Gibbon, D.; Hirst, D.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Amusia is a developmental disorder that has a negative influence on pitch perception. While it used to be described as a disorder of musical pitch perception, recent studies indicate that congenital amusics also show deficits in linguistic pitch perception. This study investigates the

  11. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  12. The WalkTrainer--a new generation of walking reeducation device combining orthoses and muscle stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Y; Allemand, Y; Bouri, M; Fournier, J; Clavel, R; Metrailler, P; Brodard, R; Reynard, F

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents a novel reeducation device for paraplegics that combines hybrid orthoses and closed-loop electrical muscle stimulation. Based on the so called Cyberthosis concept, the WalkTrainer enables an active muscular participation of the subject in the walking reeducation process by the mean of closed-loop muscle stimulation. The WalkTrainer is also equipped with a leg and pelvic orthosis, an active bodyweight support, and motorized wheels to allow true over ground deambulation. This paper will focus on the development of the WalkTrainer, the presentation of the control strategies, and also give some preliminary results of the first clinical trials.

  13. [The stimulated recall method: a research tool applicable to learning at science museums].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcão, Douglas; Gilbert, John

    2005-01-01

    The article reports on preliminary research aimed at developing a methological tool applicable to studies of learning in informal educational settings. The study was conducted at two science museums, using a modified version of the stimulated recall method. Digital photographs replaced the traditional video in the final phase, during which eight interviews were conducted, with satisfactory results. The digital photos efficaciously and efficiently stimulated visitors to narrate their experiences and to convey the meanings they took with them from their interactions with the exhibits.

  14. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  15. Ovarian stimulation, endometrium and implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mandana Beigi Boroujeni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the Paper article, the collection of the studies related to the effect of ovarian stimulation on endometrium of uterus and implantation have been investigated. History: Monash group used ovarian stimulation method for the first time in infertility treatment and also, they could increase the pregnancy rate using this method. However, the percentage of successful embryonic implantation has been decreased by this method due to imbalance of hormones and the effect of these hormonal changes on endometrium. Materials and Methods: Studies done by researchers have shown that ovarian stimulation causes undesirable changes in endometrium which in turn such alterations lead to inadequate attachment of embryo to endometrium and finally decrease the percentage of embryonic implantation. Conclusion: Based on several researches and the importance of using the ovarian stimulation method in treatment of infertility, also due to undesirable effects that ovarian stimulation has on endometrium during embryonic implantation it is inevitable that more investigations should be done for improvement of treatment methods in infertility clinics.

  16. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  17. The Electrical Stimulation Modifies the Cerebral Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luisa Lilia; López-Meraz, María Leonor; Cuéllar-Herrera, Manola; Neri-Bazán., Leticia

    2002-08-01

    Electrical stimulation has been used for therapeuthic purposes. In this review, we present the clinical and scientific bases for using electrical stimulation as a treatment for pharmacological refractory epilepsy. We also describe results in receptors of inhibitory neurotransmitters obtained in rat brain with or without epilepsy, undergoing brain stimulation. Brain electrical stimulation may improve our understanding of brain function and neuroplasticity.

  18. Mechanisms of deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jennifer J.; Eskandar, Emad N.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is widely used for the treatment of movement disorders including Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia and, to a lesser extent, certain treatment-resistant neuropsychiatric disorders including obsessive-compulsive disorder. Rather than a single unifying mechanism, DBS likely acts via several, nonexclusive mechanisms including local and network-wide electrical and neurochemical effects of stimulation, modulation of oscillatory activity, synaptic plasticity, and, potentially, neuroprotection and neurogenesis. These different mechanisms vary in importance depending on the condition being treated and the target being stimulated. Here we review each of these in turn and illustrate how an understanding of these mechanisms is inspiring next-generation approaches to DBS. PMID:26510756

  19. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain activation in response to mechanical nociceptive stimulation targeting muscle and bone were measured by fMRI and analyzed. Painful mechanical stimulation targeting muscle and bone activated the common areas including bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), inferior parietal lobe, and basal ganglia. The contralateral S2 was more activated by strong stimulation than by weak stimulation. Some areas in the basal ganglia (bilateral putamen and caudate nucleus) were more activated by muscle stimulation than by bone stimulation. The putamen and caudate nucleus may have a more significant role in brain processing of muscle pain compared with bone pain.

  20. Comparison of mild stimulation and conventional stimulation in ART outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Ahmadi, Shahnaz; Oskouian, Homa; Rahmani, Elham

    2010-04-01

    To provide a treatment for particular condition that is the most effective treatment with the least risk and cost for the patient we compared the efficacy of using clomiphene 100 mg + delayed low dose gonadotropin + flexible GnRH antagonist administration for ovarian stimulation protocol and GnRH agonist + gonadotropin for stimulation protocol in IVF outcome. Clinical outcome of 243 women with regularly menstruation who were candidate for IVF. They had undergone stimulation with GnRH agonist and gonadotropin (group A) or clomiphene citrate, gonadotropin and GnRH antagonist (group B). Main outcome was ongoing pregnancy. There were no significant difference in mean age, cause of infertility, basal FSH, BMI, duration of infertility, endometrial thickness on the day HCG administration in two groups. The number of recovered oocytes, obtained embryos, transferred embryos, peak of estradiol on the day HCG administration and OHSS were significantly higher in group A. Significantly more patients in control group had embryos for cryopreservation. There were no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate and ongoing pregnancy rate between two groups. Clomiphene + delayed low dose gonadotropin + flexible GnRH - antagonist stimulation is an acceptable alternative protocol for IVF in patients with regularly menstruation.

  1. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain ac...

  2. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1988-02-01

    The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr

  3. The implementation of a multi-channel interferential current electrical stimulation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Chay; Huang, Ke-Nung; Jen, Sun-Lon; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we developed a signal generation method which can be used in the interferential current electrical stimulating device. A low-cost, 8-bit microcontroller and a very compact algorithm were adopted here to generate the sine wave. Using the method, we can easily modify the frequency and phase difference between two channels with high resolution. The preliminary experiment shows that this method can reduce the circuit complexity and improve the signal stability.

  4. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  5. Thermally stimulated properties of amber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowlt, C.

    1983-01-01

    Thermoelectrets yielded thermally stimulated currents but radioelectrets could not be produced even following exposures of 16000 R of ionising radiation. It is concluded that the thermally stimulated currents are due to the depolarisation of dipoles, with activation energy of 1.4 +- 0.1 eV, rather than to discharge of trapped charge carriers. Amber exhibits thermal luminescence following exposure to light of lambda < 500 nm but not to ionising radiation after exposures up to 5500 R, indicating localised impurity/trap/recombination complexes in the specimen surface, with a trap depth of 1.5 +- 0.1 eV. (author)

  6. Preliminary investigations of Agrobacterium -mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary steps in the genetic transformation of indica rice MR219 was investigated in the plant- Agrobacterium tumefaciens interaction. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 carrying a binary vector pCAMBIA 1305.2 harboring the modified GUS gene driven by the CaMV 35S promoter was used. Various ...

  7. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  8. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  9. 19 CFR 4.8 - Preliminary entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary entry. 4.8 Section 4.8 Customs Duties... VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.8 Preliminary entry. (a) Generally. Preliminary entry allows a U.S. or foreign vessel arriving under circumstances that require it to formally...

  10. 29 CFR 1955.31 - Preliminary conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary conference. 1955.31 Section 1955.31 Labor... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955.31 Preliminary conference. (a) Upon his own motion, or the motion of a party, the administrative law...

  11. Optimizing performance by stimulating conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vliert, E.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    1994-01-01

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  12. Stimulated emission during axial channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ternov, I.M.; Khalilov, V.R.; Kholomai, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical analysis shows that it would be possible to achieve stimulated emission in an axisymmetric focusing electric field by a mechanism based on the nonuniform spacing of levels in the electron energy spectrum and on recoil effects during the emission and absorption of photons by the electrons

  13. Optimizing performance by conflict stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Vliert, E; De Dreu, C K W

    To enhance the quality of group decision making, to promote affective acceptance of decisions by all participants involved, or to increase joint outcomes, a principal party or a third party may stimulate social conflict. We argue that when conflict focuses on identity issues, when tension level is

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  15. Thermally stimulated luminescence and photoluminescence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-01-13

    Jan 13, 2012 ... Peltier cooled photo-multiplier tube as detector (Jain et al. 2008). The acquisition and analysis of the data were carried out by F-900 software supplied by Edinburgh Analytical. Instruments, UK. Thermally stimulated luminescence (TSL) glow curves were recorded using home-built unit between. 300 and ...

  16. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  17. Breast Cancer Stimulation of Osteolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    number seen in osteoporosis . M- increase osteoclast activity. Paracrine stimulation of osteo-clas aciviy my bea pi ay mchansm y wich CSF also promotes the...effects on gies, including periodontitis and orthopedic implant loos- kidney and bone metabolism. Paracrine actions of ening. Antibody blockade of

  18. Orientation selective deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Lauri J.; Slopsema, Julia P.; Johnson, Matthew D.; Shatillo, Artem; Teplitzky, Benjamin A.; Utecht, Lynn; Adriany, Gregor; Mangia, Silvia; Sierra, Alejandra; Low, Walter C.; Gröhn, Olli; Michaeli, Shalom

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Target selectivity of deep brain stimulation (DBS) therapy is critical, as the precise locus and pattern of the stimulation dictates the degree to which desired treatment responses are achieved and adverse side effects are avoided. There is a clear clinical need to improve DBS technology beyond currently available stimulation steering and shaping approaches. We introduce orientation selective neural stimulation as a concept to increase the specificity of target selection in DBS. Approach. This concept, which involves orienting the electric field along an axonal pathway, was tested in the corpus callosum of the rat brain by freely controlling the direction of the electric field on a plane using a three-electrode bundle, and monitoring the response of the neurons using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Computational models were developed to further analyze axonal excitability for varied electric field orientation. Main results. Our results demonstrated that the strongest fMRI response was observed when the electric field was oriented parallel to the axons, while almost no response was detected with the perpendicular orientation of the electric field relative to the primary fiber tract. These results were confirmed by computational models of the experimental paradigm quantifying the activation of radially distributed axons while varying the primary direction of the electric field. Significance. The described strategies identify a new course for selective neuromodulation paradigms in DBS based on axonal fiber orientation.

  19. Photoluminescence, thermally stimulated luminescence and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    an important role in the development of thermolumine- scent dosimeters (Vohra et al 1980; Shinde et al 1996) and offer a very fertile area for further studies to eluci- date the thermally stimulated reactions resulting in lumine- scence. Actinide doped alkaline-earth sulphates are of spe- cial interest due to an array of defect ...

  20. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  1. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  2. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  3. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Zhou; Yi Lu; Wanzhen Chen; Zhen Wu; Haiqing Zou; Ludovic Krundel; Guanglin Li

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel ele...

  4. Preliminary results from APE-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoloni, A.; Battista, C.; Cabasino, S.; Marzano, F.; Paolucci, P.S.; Pech, J.; Rapuano, F.; Sarno, R.; Todesco, G.M.; Torelli, M.; Tross, W.; Vicini, P.; Tripiccione, R.; Cabibbo, N.; Salina, G.; Fucci, A.; Lubicz, V.; Maiani, L.; Martinelli, G.; Vladikas, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the preliminary results obtained on the 6 Gigaflop prototype which is the building block of the APE-100 computer. Results are presented for pseudoscalar and vector mesons for the Wilson and the improved action with a statistics of about 100 configurations. Static heavy-light meson propagator have also been studied for different smeared operators. We find that large smearing (≥ 9) are bad projectors on the lightest pseudoscalar states. (orig.)

  5. Role of Functional Electrical Stimulation in Tetraplegia Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersch, Ines; Fridén, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to improve upper limb function is an established method in the rehabilitation of persons with tetraplegia after spinal cord injury. Surgical reconstruction is another well-established yet underused technique to improve the performance of the upper extremities. Hand surgery plays an essential role in restoring hand function, mobility, and quality of life in the tetraplegic population. The knowledge about the effects of FES on a structural and functional level is fundamental for understanding how and when FES can be used best to support the effect of hand surgery, both pre- and postoperatively. In this article we discuss principles of FES and how FES improves functional outcome after surgical reconstruction. The reported results are based on preliminary clinical observations. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of photo stimulated luminescence technique for detecting irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photo stimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  7. Metabolic inhibitors as stimulating factors for citric acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adham, N.Z.; Ahmed, E.M.; Refai, H.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger in cane molasses medium was investigated. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM iodoacetic acid and sodium arsenate, 0.05-1.0 mM sodium malonate, 0.01 mM sodium azide, 0.01-0.05 mM sodium fluoride, 0.1-1.0 mM EDTA stimulated CA production (5-49%). Higher concentrations (10 mM) of iodoacetic acid, sodium malonate and 0.5 mM sodium azide caused a complete inhibition of fungal growth, Iodoacetic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium fluoride (0.2 mM) caused a remarkable inhibition of CA production. The implications of those preliminary functions was discussed. (author)

  8. "Slinky" coils for neuromagnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, K P; Simpson, R K

    1996-04-01

    Future advances in neuromagnetic stimulation depend significantly on the design of coils with improved focality. Although in the absence of internal current sources, no true focusing of magnetically induced currents is possible, improvements in the focality of current concentrations passing through an area of biologic tissue are achievable through variations of the shape, orientation and size of neuromagnetic stimulating coils. The "butterfly" and the "4-leaf" coils are two examples of planar designs which achieve improved focality through centralization of the maximum coil current and peripheral distribution of the return currents. We introduce the "slinky" coil design as a 3-dimensional generalization of the principle of peripheral distribution of return currents and demonstrate its advantages over planar designs.

  9. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  10. Stimulated Superconductivity at Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning; Dong, Xi; Silverstein, Eva; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2011-08-12

    Stimulating a system with time dependent sources can enhance instabilities, thus increasing the critical temperature at which the system transitions to interesting low-temperature phases such as superconductivity or superfluidity. After reviewing this phenomenon in non-equilibrium BCS theory (and its marginal fermi liquid generalization) we analyze the effect in holographic superconductors. We exhibit a simple regime in which the transition temperature increases parametrically as we increase the frequency of the time-dependent source.

  11. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding ef...

  12. Deep brain stimulation in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Pavel

    2008-11-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a reversible surgical procedure that involves stereotactic implantation of electrodes into the targeted brain regions, with a subcutaneously placed pulse generator powering the electrodes via one or two leads. The mechanism of action can be explained by the stimulation-induced modulation of impaired network activity. So far, the main use of DBS has been for neurological conditions, such as essential tremor, motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease, dystonia, epilepsy, and chronic pain. In psychiatry, case series and open studies indicate treatment efficacy of DBS in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder, and refractory major depression. Neuroimaging studies have confirmed the effects of DBS on the brain regions implicated in specific neuropsychiatric disorders. It is a well-tolerated method with relatively few serious side effects. Additional well-designed and appropriately powered controlled clinical trials are needed to conclusively establish the efficacy and safety of DBS and to identify the patient population(s) who may benefit most. Ongoing research with stimulation techniques may also significantly contribute to our understanding of major neuropsychiatric disorders.

  13. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato

  14. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  15. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  16. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  17. A Preliminary Study of Two Different Clays for Separation of Some Artificial Radionuclides in Stimulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheen, Y.F.; Seliman, A.F.; Shehata, F.A.; Youssef, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of long lived radionuclides, such as 134 Cs(I), 133 Ba(II), 90 Sr(II) and 152 Eu(III) by bentonite (W-Bent) and kaolin (S-Kaol) was studied as a function of different parameters using a batch technique. The results showed that the optimum ph was selected to be 6. Kinetically in case of W-Bent, the adsorption is heterogeneous for 134 Cs, 133 Ba and homogenous for 90 Sr and 152 Eu. The distribution coefficient values follow the order of 1 '5 2 Eu> 134 Cs> 90 Sr> 133 Ba. Langmuir, Freundlish, Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were applied. According to the D-R model, W-Bent showed a high affinity to 152 Eu with a maximum capacity (q m = 0.43 mol/Kg) in comparison with S-Kaol (q m =0.023 mol/Kg). Also according to D-R model the adsorption energy (E> 8.0 KJ mol -1 ) that means the adsorption reaction is expected to be chemisorption. Finally both clays are cost-effective sorbent materials with an excellent adsorption capacity, but some surface modification for S-Kaol is recommended to be more effective than its natural form

  18. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    . The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed...

  19. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  20. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... two main groups: 1. Control – incubated without any auditory stimulation and. 2. Sitar music stimulated – incubated with slow and fast sitar music. Therefore, the experimental paradigm as described by. Jain et al. (2004) for the sound stimulation was followed. Briefly, first sounds of low to mid frequencies, i.e. ...

  1. Modeling and Field Results from Seismic Stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majer, E.; Pride, S.; Lo, W.; Daley, T.; Nakagawa, Seiji; Sposito, Garrison; Roberts, P.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the effect of seismic stimulation employing Maxwell-Boltzmann theory shows that the important component of stimulation is mechanical rather than fluid pressure effects. Modeling using Biot theory (two phases) shows that the pressure effects diffuse too quickly to be of practical significance. Field data from actual stimulation will be shown to compare to theory

  2. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  3. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...

  4. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  5. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  6. LDEF experiment A0034: Atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Roger C.; Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Reynolds, John M.; Burris, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    The passive Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Experiment A0034, 'Atomic Oxygen Stimulated Outgassing', consisted of two identical one-sixth tray modules, exposing selected thermal control coatings to atomic oxygen and the combined space environment on the leading edge, and for reference, to the relative 'wake' environment of the trailing edge. Optical mirrors were included adjacent to the thermal coatings for deposition of the outgassing products. Ultraviolet grade windows and metal covers were provided for additional assessment of the effects of various environmental factors. Preliminary results indicate that orbital atomic oxygen is both a degrading and optically restorative factor in the thermo-optical properties of selected thermal coatings. There is evidence of more severe optical degradation on collector mirrors adjacent to coatings that were exposed to RAM-impinging atomic oxygen. This evidence of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing is discussed in relation to alternative factors that could affect degradation. The general effects of the space environment on the experiment hardware as well as the specimens are discussed.

  7. Highly Flexible Silicone Coated Neural Array for Intracochlear Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bhatti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an effective method for tailoring the flexibility of a commercial thin-film polymer electrode array for intracochlear electrical stimulation. Using a pneumatically driven dispensing system, an average 232±64 μm (mean ± SD thickness layer of silicone adhesive coating was applied to stiffen the underside of polyimide multisite arrays. Additional silicone was applied to the tip to protect neural tissue during insertion and along the array to improve surgical handling. Each array supported 20 platinum sites (180 μm dia., 250 μm pitch, spanning nearly 28 mm in length and 400 μm in width. We report an average intracochlear stimulating current threshold of 170±93 μA to evoke an auditory brainstem response in 7 acutely deafened felines. A total of 10 arrays were each inserted through a round window approach into the cochlea’s basal turn of eight felines with one delamination occurring upon insertion (preliminary results of the in vivo data presented at the 48th Annual Meeting American Neurotology Society, Orlando, FL, April 2013, and reported in Van Beek-King 2014. Using microcomputed tomography imaging (50 μm resolution, distances ranging from 100 to 565 μm from the cochlea’s central modiolus were measured. Our method combines the utility of readily available commercial devices with a straightforward postprocessing step on the order of 24 hours.

  8. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B.; Foerster, B.; Li, L.M.; Covolan, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate

  9. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  10. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  11. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  12. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  13. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    stimulator is used as a test bench to simulate high-precision navigation by different types of camera systems that are used onboard spacecraft, planetary rovers, and for spacecraft rendezvous and proximity maneuvers. Careful hardware design and preoperational calibration of the stimulator result in high......We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...... precision and long-term stability. The system can be continuously used over several days. By facilitating a full camera including optics in the loop, the stimulator enables the more realistic simulation of flight maneuvers based on navigation cameras than pure computer simulations or camera stimulations...

  14. Therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue using implantable thin-film wireless nerve stimulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwan, Matthew R; Gamble, Paul; Stephen, Manu; Ray, Wilson Z

    2018-02-09

    OBJECTIVE Electrical stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue has been shown to accelerate axonal regeneration. Yet existing methods of applying electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerves have presented significant barriers to clinical translation. In this study, the authors examined the use of a novel implantable wireless nerve stimulator capable of simultaneously delivering therapeutic electrical stimulation of injured peripheral nerve tissue and providing postoperative serial assessment of functional recovery. METHODS Flexible wireless stimulators were fabricated and implanted into Lewis rats. Thin-film implants were used to deliver brief electrical stimulation (1 hour, 20 Hz) to sciatic nerves after nerve crush or nerve transection-and-repair injuries. RESULTS Electrical stimulation of injured nerves via implanted wireless stimulators significantly improved functional recovery. Brief electrical stimulation was observed to increase the rate of functional recovery after both nerve crush and nerve transection-and-repair injuries. Wireless stimulators successfully facilitated therapeutic stimulation of peripheral nerve tissue and serial assessment of nerve recovery. CONCLUSIONS Implantable wireless stimulators can deliver therapeutic electrical stimulation to injured peripheral nerve tissue. Implantable wireless nerve stimulators might represent a novel means of facilitating therapeutic electrical stimulation in both intraoperative and postoperative settings.

  15. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G

    2007-01-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  16. 75 FR 21314 - Medicaid Program; Final FY 2008, Revised Preliminary FY 2009, and Preliminary FY 2010...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... ``preliminary.'' Only after we receive States' reports of the actual medical assistance expenditures through the... and safety effects, distributive impacts, and equity). A regulatory impact analysis (RIA) must be... 0938-AP66 Medicaid Program; Final FY 2008, Revised Preliminary FY 2009, and Preliminary FY 2010...

  17. A polylysine-induced aggregation of substrate accompanies the stimulation of casein kinase II by polylysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, F J; Lechuga, C G; Collado, M; Benítez, M J; Jiménez, J S

    1993-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CK-II) activation by polylysine parallels an aggregation of substrates promoted by the polycation. CK-II is known to be stimulated by basic polypeptides and polyamines. The mechanism by which this stimulation takes place, however, is not yet fully understood. Here we show that, in the usual CK-II assay, polylysine induces the aggregation of casein. This aggregation has been monitored by turbidimetry, electron microscopy and gel filtration. The polylysine-concentration-dependence of the casein aggregation parallels the polylysine-concentration-dependence of the enzyme stimulation. In the presence of polylysine the enzyme is incorporated into the casein aggregates promoted by the polycation, thus supporting the view that this substrate aggregation is directly related to the mechanism of CK-II stimulation. Preliminary results show that a similar parallelism occurs with other natural substrates of the enzyme. The physiological meaning of this substrate aggregation, and its possible relation to other polylysine-stimulated enzymes and polylysine-aggregated proteins, are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8435062

  18. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a neuropsychiatric tool: present status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Kimbrell, T A; McCann, U D; Dunn, R T; Osuch, E A; Speer, A M; Weiss, S R

    1999-03-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation of a major motor seizure to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, it carries the potentially important clinical advantages of not requiring anesthesia and of avoiding side effects such as transient memory loss. Preclinical studies on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal and amygdala slices, as well as clinical data from neuroimaging studies, have provided encouraging clues for potential frequency-dependent effects of rTMS. Preliminary evidence from position emission tomography (PET) scans suggests that higher frequency (20 Hz) stimulation may increase brain glucose metabolism in a transsynaptic fashion, whereas lower frequency (1 Hz) stimulation may decrease it. Therefore, the ability of rTMS to control the frequency as well as the location of stimulation, in addition to its other advantages, has opened up new possibilities for clinical explorations and treatments of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  19. Modification of spasticity by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; McKay, William B.; Tansey, Keith E.; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut; Minassian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Context/objective To examine the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) on lower-limb spasticity. Design Interventional pilot study to produce preliminary data. Setting Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Participants Three subjects with chronic motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk ≥10 m. Interventions Two interconnected stimulating skin electrodes (Ø 5 cm) were placed paraspinally at the T11/T12 vertebral levels, and two rectangular electrodes (8 × 13 cm) on the abdomen for the reference. Biphasic 2 ms-width pulses were delivered at 50 Hz for 30 minutes at intensities producing paraesthesias but no motor responses in the lower limbs. Outcome measures The Wartenberg pendulum test and neurological recordings of surface-electromyography (EMG) were used to assess effects on exaggerated reflex excitability. Non-functional co-activation during volitional movement was evaluated. The timed 10-m walk test provided measures of clinical function. Results The index of spasticity derived from the pendulum test changed from 0.8 ± 0.4 pre- to 0.9 ± 0.3 post-stimulation, with an improvement in the subject with the lowest pre-stimulation index. Exaggerated reflex responsiveness was decreased after tSCS across all subjects, with the most profound effect on passive lower-limb movement (pre- to post-tSCS EMG ratio: 0.2 ± 0.1), as was non-functional co-activation during voluntary movement. Gait speed values increased in two subjects by 39%. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that tSCS, similar to epidurally delivered stimulation, may be used for spasticity control, without negatively impacting residual motor control in incomplete SCI. Further study in a larger population is warranted. PMID:24090290

  20. Comparison of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) for spasticity in spinal cord injury - A pilot randomized cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Anjali; Solomon, John M; Manikandan, Natarajan

    2017-10-25

    Spasticity following spinal cord injury (SCI) can impair function and affect quality of life. This study compared the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and functional electrical stimulation (FES) on lower limb spasticity in patients with SCI. Double blind randomized crossover design. Neuro-rehabilitation unit, Manipal University, India. Ten participants (age: 39 ± 13.6 years, C1-T11, 1-26 months post SCI) with lower limb spasticity were enrolled in this study. Participants were administered electrical stimulation with TENS and FES (duration - 30 minutes) in a cross over manner separated by 24 hours. Spasticity was measured using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) [for hip abductors, knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors] and spinal cord assessment tool for spastic reflexes (SCATS). Assessments were performed at baseline, immediately, 1 hour, 4 hours, and 24 hours post intervention. A between group analysis did not show statistically significant differences between FES and TENS (P > 0.05). In the within group analyses, TENS and FES significantly reduced spasticity up to 4 hours in hip adductors and knee extensors (P electrical stimulation with FES and TENS appears to have similar anti-spasticity effects that last for 4 hours. The findings of this preliminary study suggest that both TENS and FES have the potential to be used as therapeutic adjuncts to relieve spasticity in the clinic. In addition, FES may have better effects on patients presenting with spastic reflexes.

  1. Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Studies On The Limnological Stock Assessment, Productivity And Potential Fish Yield Of Ojirami Reservoir, Edo State, Nigeria. ... Tropical Freshwater Biology ... This report has only provided preliminary data on the reservoir but it is hoped that future studies would benefit from this initial benchmark information.

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Phytochemical Screening, Acute Oral Toxicity and Anticonvulsant Activity of the Berries of Solanum nigrum Linn. HL Son, PTH Yen. Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the preliminary phytochemical properties, acute oral toxicity and anticonvulsant activity of the berries of Solanum nigrum Linn (S. nigrum) Methods: ...

  3. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  4. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  5. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  6. Magnetic-motor-root stimulation: review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Terao, Yasuo; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2013-06-01

    Magnetic stimulation can activate the human central and peripheral nervous systems non-invasively and virtually painlessly. Magnetic stimulation over the spinal enlargements can activate spinal nerves at the neuroforamina (magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation). This stimulation method provides us with information related to the latency of compound-muscle action potential (CMAP), which is usually interpreted as peripheral motor-conduction time (PMCT). However, this stimulation method has faced several problems in clinical applications. One is that supramaximal CMAPs were unobtainable. Another is that magnetic stimulation did not usually activate the spinal nerves in the spinal canal, i.e., the cauda equina, which prevented an evaluation of its conduction. For these reasons, magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation was rarely used to evaluate the conduction of peripheral nerves. It was mainly used to evaluate the conduction of the corticospinal tract using the parameter of central motor-conduction time (CMCT), which was calculated by subtracting PMCT from the latency of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex. Recently, supramaximal stimulation has been achieved in magnetic-neuroforamina stimulation, and this has contributed to the measurement of both CMAP size and latency. The achievement of supramaximal stimulation is ascribed to the increase in magnetic-stimulator output and a novel coil, the magnetic augmented translumbosacral stimulation (MATS) coil. The most proximal part of the cauda equina can be reliably activated using the MATS coil (magnetic-conus stimulation), thus contributing to the measurement of cauda equina conduction time (CECT) and cortico-conus motor-conduction time (CCCT). These recent developments in magnetic-motor-root stimulation enable us to more precisely evaluate the conduction of the proximal part of peripheral nerves and that of the corticospinal tract for lower-limb muscles

  7. Socioeconomic evaluation of vagus stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Sabers, Anne; Christensen, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the health costs and social outcomes in terms of education, employment and income level after insertion of a vagus nerve stimulator (VNS) in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This is a case-control study using Danish health care and socioeconomic register data....... The analysis of the effect involved a comparison of the health care costs, occupation and income status of VNS-treated epilepsy patients with those of a control group of epilepsy patients who had a VNS implanted during the 12 months before the index date (pre-period) and during the two years after the index...... implantation. VNS implantation was not associated with changes in occupational status (including employment and income). In fact, the number of people on disability pension increased during the period. CONCLUSIONS: VNS implantation in people with epilepsy is associated with reduced health care use...

  8. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Birgitta Johansson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, or various kinds of music therapy. Several studies have shown positive effects been reported but to give general recommendation more studies are needed. Patient heterogeneity and the interactions of age, gender, genes and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation.

  9. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  10. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  11. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  12. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report

  13. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  14. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  15. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  16. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  17. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  18. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  19. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prescription stimulants? dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine ® ) dextroamphetamine/amphetamine combination product (Adderall ® ) methylphenidate (Ritalin ® , Concerta ® ). Popular slang terms for prescription ...

  20. Infrared rays stimulate silkworm productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolov, A.

    1977-01-01

    The tests involving the hybrids 48-I x 157-K and J-124 x C-122 were conducted at the experimental base of the Sericulture Experiment Station in Vratza. Silkworm seed was irradiated once daily from the first day of incubation to whitening of the seed at 60 and 80 min exposure. The combined quartz lamp, type ''MLKK-5'' (500 W, 220 V) was used. Seed was irradiated at a distance of 100 cm from the burner after its preliminary heating in the course of at least 10 min. Silkworm infrared irradiation exerts a stimulatory effect on embryonal and larval development, silkworm viability, and row cocoon yield. Sixty minutes irradiation exposure proved to be more effective for the native hybrid 48-I x 157-K, silkworm viability increasing by 3.75% and row cocoon yield per g silkworm seed - by 0.37 kg. On the contrary, 80 min irradiation exposure proved more effective in the case of the Japanese hybrid J-124 x C-122. (B.Ch.)

  1. Cognitive stimulation in healthy older adults: a cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities compared to a conventional cognitive stimulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Élisabeth; Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group. The different measures have been evaluated before and after the training program. Results show that the cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities is as effective on memory span, updating and memory self-perception as the program using conventional cognitive stimulation, and more effective on self-esteem than the conventional program. There is no difference between the two stimulated groups and the control group on speed of processing. Neither of the two cognitive stimulation programs provides a benefit over shifting and inhibition. These results indicate that it seems to be possible to enhance working memory and to observe far transfer benefits over self-perception (self-esteem and memory self-perception) when using leisure activities as a tool for cognitive stimulation.

  2. Multiple sessions of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in focal hand dystonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R; Arora, Sanjeev

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The ability of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to enhance intracortical inhibition has motivated its use as a potential therapeutic intervention in focal hand dystonia (FHD). In this preliminary investigation, we assessed the physiologic and behavioral...... effects of multiple sessions of rTMS in FHD. Methods: 12 patients with FHD underwent five daily-sessions of 1 Hz rTMS to contralateral dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). Patients held a pencil and made movements that did not elicit dystonic symptoms during rTMS. We hypothesized that an active but non...

  3. Current density in radiation stimulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wafelbakker, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Eliashberg's theory of stimulated superconductivity is reviewed and discussed within the BCS-Mattis formalism for impure superconductors. Stimulation by microwaves as well as by acoustical fields is considered. Eliashberg's results are completed by obtaining the nonequilibrium current response to an applied transverse vector potential. The resulting expression may be used to obtain the critical current of small specimens. (Auth.)

  4. Are Prescription Stimulants “Smart Pills”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. Elizabeth; Farah, Martha J.

    2013-01-01

    Use of prescription stimulants by normal healthy individuals to enhance cognition is said to be on the rise. Who is using these medications for cognitive enhancement, and how prevalent is this practice? Do prescription stimulants in fact enhance cognition for normal healthy people? We review the epidemiological and cognitive neuroscience literatures in search of answers to these questions. Epidemiological issues addressed include the prevalence of nonmedical stimulant use, user demographics, methods by which users obtain prescription stimulants, and motivations for use. Cognitive neuroscience issues addressed include the effects of prescription stimulants on learning and executive function, as well as the task and individual variables associated with these effects. Little is known about the prevalence of prescription stimulant use for cognitive enhancement outside of student populations. Among college students, estimates of use vary widely but, taken together, suggest that the practice is commonplace. The cognitive effects of stimulants on normal healthy people cannot yet be characterized definitively, despite the volume of research that has been carried out on these issues. Published evidence suggests that declarative memory can be improved by stimulants, with some evidence consistent with enhanced consolidation of memories. Effects on the executive functions of working memory and cognitive control are less reliable but have been found for at least some individuals on some tasks. In closing, we enumerate the many outstanding questions that remain to be addressed by future research and also identify obstacles facing this research. PMID:21859174

  5. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...... in feldspar. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  7. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  8. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  9. Inhibition of Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Neuro- Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of Tetragonia tetragonoides (Pall.) Kuntze extract (TKE) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated BV-2 microglial cells. Methods: To evaluate the effects of TKE, LPS-stimulated BV microglia were used and the expression and production of ...

  10. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...

  11. Selective brain stimulation using conditioning pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holsheimer, J.

    2005-01-01

    A system and method is described for preferentially stimulating dorsal column fibers while avoiding stimulation of dorsal root fibers. The invention applies hyperpolarizing (anodic) pre-pulses (HPP) and depolarizing (cathodic) pre-pulses (DPP) to neural tissue, such as spinal cord tissue, through a

  12. Violet stimulated luminescence: geo- or thermochronometer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankjærgaard, Christina; Guralnik, Benny; Porat, N.

    2015-01-01

    The method of quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is widely used, but generally limited to the past ~0.1 million years (Ma) due to early saturation of the desired signal. Violet stimulated luminescence (VSL) of quartz has previously been shown as a promising alternative...

  13. Motor cortex stimulation: role of computer modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, L.; Holsheimer, J.; Sakas, D.E.; Simpson, B.A

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a promising clinical technique used to treat chronic, otherwise intractable pain. However, the mechanisms by which the neural elements that are stimulated during MCS induce pain relief are not understood. Neither is it known which neural elements (fibers (parallel

  14. Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Chan, Yuen; Chong, Hsu Pheen; Farah, Jibril Osman

    2016-01-01

    The aims are to present a case series of Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulators with analysis of the possible mechanism of this syndrome and discuss how this phenomenon can be prevented. Data were collected retrospectively between 2007 and 2013 for all patients presenting with failure of spinal cord stimulators. The diagnostic criterion for Twiddler's syndrome is radiological evidence of twisting of wires in the presence of failure of spinal cord stimulation. Our unit implants on average 110 spinal cord stimulators a year. Over the 5-year study period, all consecutive cases of spinal cord stimulation failure were studied. Three patients with Twiddler's syndrome were identified. Presentation ranged from 4 to 228 weeks after implantation. Imaging revealed repeated rotations and twisting of the wires of the spinal cord stimulators leading to hardware failure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported series of Twiddler's syndrome with implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for spinal cord stimulation. Hardware failure is not uncommon in spinal cord stimulation. Awareness and identification of Twiddler's syndrome may help prevent its occurrence and further revisions. This may be achieved by implanting the IPG in the lumbar region subcutaneously above the belt line. Psychological intervention may have a preventative role for those who are deemed at high risk of Twiddler's syndrome from initial psychological screening.

  15. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Marjorie A; Mall, Volker

    2008-05-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding effective interventions for these disorders. We review the literature pertaining to the use of TMS in pediatrics. Most TMS-evoked parameters show age-related changes in typically developing children and some of these are abnormal in a number of childhood-onset neurological disorders. Although no TMS-evoked parameters are diagnostic for any disorder, changes in certain parameters appear to reflect disease burden or may provide a measure of treatment-related improvement. Furthermore, TMS may be especially useful when combined with other neurophysiologic modalities (e.g. fMRI). However, much work remains to be done to determine if TMS-evoked parameters can be used as valid and reliable biomarkers for disease burden, the natural history of neurological injury and repair, and the efficacy of pharmacological and rehabilitation interventions.

  16. Digital electronic bone growth stimulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to the electrical treatment of biological tissue. In particular, the present invention discloses a device that produces discrete electrical pulse trains for treating osteoporosis and accelerating bone growth. According to its major aspects and broadly stated, the present invention consists of an electrical circuit configuration capable of generating Bassett-type waveforms shown with alternative signals provide for the treatment of either fractured bones or osteoporosis. The signal generator comprises a quartz clock, an oscillator circuit, a binary divider chain, and a plurality of simple, digital logic gates. Signals are delivered efficiently, with little or no distortion, and uniformly distributed throughout the area of injury. Perferably, power is furnished by widely available and inexpensive radio batteries, needing replacement only once in several days. The present invention can be affixed to a medical cast without a great increase in either weight or bulk. Also, the disclosed stimulator can be used to treat osteoporosis or to strengthen a healing bone after the cast has been removed by attaching the device to the patient`s skin or clothing.

  17. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  18. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  19. Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in early stage Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, David; Konrad, Peter E; Neimat, Joseph S; Molinari, Anna L; Tramontana, Michael G; Finder, Stuart G; Gill, Chandler E; Bliton, Mark J; Kao, Chris; Phibbs, Fenna T; Hedera, Peter; Salomon, Ronald M; Cannard, Kevin R; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Davis, Thomas L

    2014-07-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective and approved therapy for advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), and a recent study suggests efficacy in mid-stage disease. This manuscript reports the results of a pilot trial investigating preliminary safety and tolerability of DBS in early PD. Thirty subjects with idiopathic PD (Hoehn & Yahr Stage II off medication), age 50-75, on medication ≥6 months but ≤4 years, and without motor fluctuations or dyskinesias were randomized to optimal drug therapy (ODT) (n = 15) or DBS + ODT (n = 15). Co-primary endpoints were the time to reach a 4-point worsening from baseline in the UPDRS-III off therapy and the change in levodopa equivalent daily dose from baseline to 24 months. As hypothesized, the mean UPDRS total and part III scores were not significantly different on or off therapy at 24 months. Medication requirements in the DBS + ODT group were lower at all time points with a maximal difference at 18 months. With a few exceptions, differences in neuropsychological functioning were not significant. Two subjects in the DBS + ODT group suffered serious adverse events; remaining adverse events were mild or transient. This study demonstrates that subjects with early stage PD will enroll in and complete trials testing invasive therapies and provides preliminary evidence that DBS is well tolerated in early PD. The results of this trial provide the data necessary to design a large, phase III, double-blind, multicenter trial investigating the safety and efficacy of DBS in early PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatially selective photoconductive stimulation of live neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob eCampbell

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic activity is intimately linked to neuronal structure and function. Stimulation of live cultured primary neurons, coupled with fluorescent indicator imaging, is a powerful technique to assess the impact of synaptic activity on neuronal protein trafficking and function. Current technology for neuronal stimulation in culture include chemical techniques or microelectrode or optogenetic based techniques. While technically powerful, chemical stimulation has limited spatial resolution and microelectrode and optogenetic techniques require specialized equipment and expertise. We report an optimized and improved technique for laser based photoconductive stimulation of live neurons using an inverted confocal microscope that overcomes these limitations. The advantages of this approach include its non-invasive nature and adaptability to temporal and spatial manipulation. We demonstrate that the technique can be manipulated to achieve spatially selective stimulation of live neurons. Coupled with live imaging of fluorescent indicators, this simple and efficient technique should allow for significant advances in neuronal cell biology.

  1. Adaptive deep brain stimulation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudel, M; Brown, P

    2016-01-01

    Although Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD), there are still limitations in terms of effectivity, side-effects and battery consumption. One of the reasons for this may be that not only pathological but also physiological neural activity can be suppressed whilst stimulating. For this reason, adaptive DBS (aDBS), where stimulation is applied according to the level of pathological activity, might be advantageous. Initial studies of aDBS demonstrate effectiveness in PD, but there are still many questions to be answered before aDBS can be applied clinically. Here we discuss the feedback signals and stimulation algorithms involved in adaptive stimulation in PD and sketch a potential road-map towards clinical application. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  3. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  4. Preliminary assessment of Ignitor performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johner, J

    2000-04-01

    Thermal equilibrium O-D calculations are shown to give useful information in the case of non-stationary discharges if a proper generalization of the plasma amplification factor Q* is chosen. With this definition, Q*={infinity} corresponds to a plasma state where P{sub {alpha}} P{sub loss}. This approach is used for a preliminary assessment of Ignitor performances. For parabolic density and temperature profiles, it is shown that Q{sup *}={infinity} can be obtained in this machine only for an enhancement factor H{sub L} with respect to ITER-97P(th) scaling law of the energy confinement time of the order of 1.9. Using ITER-FEAT assumptions for the density and temperature profiles, it is shown that Q{sup *}={infinity} can be obtained in H-mode with IPB98(y,2) scaling of the energy confinement time. Analysis of the reference operating point of Ignitor proposed by Coppi et al. shows that their alpha power and energy content can be reproduced only with peaked density and temperature profiles. With such profiles, Q{sup *}={infinity} still requires an enhancement factor H{sub L} of 1.44. (author)

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  6. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  7. The Efficacy of Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Primary Open-angle Glaucoma: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yuka; Ozeki, Naoki; Yuki, Kenya; Shiba, Daisuke; Kimura, Itaru; Tsunoda, Kazushige; Shinoda, Kei; Ohde, Hisao; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2018-02-07

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of transcorneal electrical stimulation in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Five eyes of four male subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma (average age: 52.25 ± 14.68 years) were enrolled. The subjects underwent transcorneal electrical stimulation every 3 months according to the following procedure. A Dawson-Trick-Litzkow electrode was placed on the cornea, and biphasic electric current pulses (10 ms, 20 Hz) were delivered using a stimulator (BPG-1,BAK Electronics) and a stimulus isolation unit (BSI-2). A current that evoked a phosphene that the subject perceived in the whole visual area was delivered continuously for 30 min. Humphrey visual field testing was performed after every third transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment. Changes in mean deviation (MD) values were evaluated with a linear regression model. Transcorneal electrical stimulation was performed 18.2 ± 9.4 times over a period of 49.8 ± 23.0 months. The average pretranscorneal electrical stimulation intraocular pressure, best corrected visual acuity, and MD values were 11.8 ± 1.79 mmHg, 0.14 ± 0.19 (logMAR) and -17.28 ± 6.24 dB, respectively. No significant differences were observed in intraocular pressure before and after transcorneal electrical stimulation. However, there was a significant positive linear relationship between changes in MD values and the number of transcorneal electrical stimulation treatments (R 2 = 0.176, P = 0.005, Spearman correlation R =0.294, P = 0.008). Transcorneal electrical stimulation treatment may improve glaucomatous visual field defects in subjects with primary open-angle glaucoma. Large-scale studies are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  8. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of subthalamic stimulation on voice and speech in Parkinson´s disease: for the better or worse ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSkodda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, although highly effective for the treatment of motor impairment in Parkinson´s disease, can induce speech deterioration in a subgroup of patients. The aim of the current study was to survey 1 if there are distinctive stimulation effects on the different parameters of voice and speech and 2 if there is a special pattern of preexisting speech abnormalities indicating a risk for further worsening under stimulation. Methods: N = 38 patients with Parkinson´s disease had to perform a speech test without medication with stimulation ON and OFF. Speech samples were analysed: 1 according to a four-dimensional perceptual speech score and 2 by acoustic analysis to obtain quantifiable measures of distinctive speech parameters.Results: Quality of voice was ameliorated with stimulation ON, and there were trends to increased loudness and better pitch variability. N = 8 patients featured a deterioration of speech with stimulation ON, caused by worsening of articulation or/and fluency. These patients had more severe overall speech impairment with characteristic features of articulatory slurring and articulatory acceleration already under StimOFF condition.Conclusion: The influence of subthalamic stimulation on Parkinsonian speech differs considerably between individual patients, however, there is a trend to amelioration of voice quality and prosody. Patients with stimulation-associated speech deterioration featured higher overall speech impairment and showed a distinctive pattern of articulatory abnormalities at baseline. Further investigations to confirm these preliminary findings are necessary to allow neurologists to pre-surgically estimate the individual risk of deterioration of speech under stimulation.

  10. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SEEDS OF GLYPHAEA BREVIS. (SPRENG) MONACHINO FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL PRINCIPLES. Michael Lahai1, Tiwalade Adewale Olugbade2. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine ...

  11. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  12. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  13. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  14. Preliminary materials assessment in solar demonstration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, C. F.

    1978-11-01

    A preliminary assessment of materials performance in solar demonstration system are reviewed from published literature and limited service experience. The review is a summary of the solar demonstration systems and the materials used in the collector and transport systems.

  15. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  16. Nanotechnology for Stimulating Osteoprogenitor Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, A.; Bulstrode, N.W.; Whitaker, I.S.; Eastwood, D.M.; Dunaway, D.; Ferretti, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bone is the second most transplanted tissue and due to its complex structure, metabolic demands and various functions, current reconstructive options such as foreign body implants and autologous tissue transfer are limited in their ability to restore defects. Most tissue engineering approaches target osteoinduction of osteoprogenitor cells by modifying the extracellular environment, using scaffolds or targeting intracellular signaling mechanisms or commonly a combination of all of these. Whilst there is no consensus as to what is the optimal cell type or approach, nanotechnology has been proposed as a powerful tool to manipulate the biomolecular and physical environment to direct osteoprogenitor cells to induce bone formation. Methods: Review of the published literature was undertaken to provide an overview of the use of nanotechnology to control osteoprogenitor differentiation and discuss the most recent developments, limitations and future directions. Results: Nanotechnology can be used to stimulate osteoprogenitor differentiation in a variety of way. We have principally classified research into nanotechnology for bone tissue engineering as generating biomimetic scaffolds, a vector to deliver genes or growth factors to cells or to alter the biophysical environment. A number of studies have shown promising results with regards to directing ostroprogenitor cell differentiation although limitations include a lack of in vivo data and incomplete characterization of engineered bone. Conclusion: There is increasing evidence that nanotechnology can be used to direct the fate of osteoprogenitor and promote bone formation. Further analysis of the functional properties and long term survival in animal models is required to assess the maturity and clinical potential of this. PMID:28217210

  17. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilula, Marshall F

    2007-07-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a well-documented neuroelectrical modality that has been proven effective in some good studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients. CES is no panacea but, for some FM patients, the modality can be valuable. This article discusses aspects of both CES and FM and how they relate to the individual with the condition. FM frequently has many comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, insomnia and a great variety of different rheumatologic and neurological symptoms that often resemble multiple sclerosis, dysautonomias, chronic fatigue syndrome and others. However, despite long-standing criteria from the American College of Rheumatology for FM, some physicians believe there is probably no single homogeneous condition that can be labeled as FM. Whether it is a disease, a syndrome or something else, sufferers feel like they are living one disaster after another. Active self-involvement in care usually enhances the therapeutic results of various treatments and also improves the patient's sense of being in control of the condition. D-ribose supplementation may prove to significantly enhance energy, sleep, mental clarity, pain control and well-being in FM patients. A form of evoked potential biofeedback, the EPFX, is a powerful stress reduction technique which assesses the chief stressors and risk factors for illness that can impede the FM patient's built-in healing abilities. Future healthcare will likely expand the diagnostic criteria of FM and/or illuminate a group of related conditions and the ways in which the conditions relate to each other. Future medicine for FM and related conditions may increasingly involve multimodality treatment that features CES as one significant part of the therapeutic regimen. Future medicine may also include CES as an invaluable, cost-effective add-on to many facets of clinical pharmacology and medical therapeutics.

  18. Uncommon Applications of Deep Brain Stimulation in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kara M.; Spindler, Meredith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS) and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study. Methods A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. Results We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi) DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies. Discussion Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study. PMID:25713746

  19. Uncommon Applications of Deep Brain Stimulation in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara M. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study.Methods: A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. Results: We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies.Discussion: Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study.

  20. Non-invasive brain stimulation to assess and modulate neuroplasticity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo Sérgio; Valasek, Claudia Aparecida; Campanhã, Camila; Giglio, Ana Carolina Alem; Baptista, Nathalia Ishikawa; Lapenta, Olivia Morgan; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease related to a gradual decline in cognitive functions such as memory, attention, perceptual-spatial abilities, language, and executive functions. Recent evidence has suggested that interventions promoting neural plasticity can induce significant cognitive gains especially in subjects at risk of or with mild AD. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques that can induce significant and long-lasting changes in focal and non-focal neuroplasticity. In this review, we present initial preliminary evidence that TMS and tDCS can enhance performance in cognitive functions typically impaired in AD. Also, we reviewed the initial six studies on AD that presented early findings showing cognitive gains such as in recognition memory and language associated with TMS and tDCS treatment. In addition, we showed that TMS has also been used to assess neuroplasticity changes in AD supporting the notion that cortical excitability is changed in AD due to the neurodegenerative process. Due to the safe profile, cost of these tools, and initial clinical trials results, further studies are warranted in order to replicate and extend the initial findings of rTMS and tDCS as cognitive enhancers in AD. Further trials should explore different targets of stimulation along with different paradigms of stimulation including combination with behavioural interventions.

  1. Dual ovarian stimulation and random start in assisted reproductive technologies: from ovarian biology to clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiarelli, Alberto; Venturella, Roberta; Vizziello, Damiano; Bulletti, Francesco; Ubaldi, Filippo M

    2017-06-01

    The opportunity to use gonadotropins to stimulate the growth of antral follicles coming from different follicular waves available in different moment of the menstrual cycle allowed the implementation of innovative protocols in assisted reproductive technologies. The purpose of this review is to explore the possible advantages related to these new controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) strategies. Women exhibit major and minor wave patterns of ovarian follicular development during the menstrual cycle, as it is in animal species. These observations led to the introduction of two new strategies for COS: the random start and the double ovarian stimulation within a single menstrual cycle. The use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist COS protocols, started randomly at any day of the menstrual cycle, is today a standard procedure in those cases where obtaining oocytes is an urgent task, such as in case of fertility preservation for malignant diseases or other medical indications.On the other hand, in poor prognosis patients, double ovarian stimulation has been suggested with the aim of maximizing the number of oocytes retrieved within a single menstrual cycle and, in turn increasing the chance to obtain a reproductively competent embryo. Randomized control trials are necessary to confirm these preliminary findings.

  2. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-07-16

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  3. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  4. P2X1 stimulation promotes thrombin receptor-mediated platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, J A; Toomey, J R; Douglas, S A; Johns, D G

    2006-04-01

    P2X1 receptors are ATP-gated channel demonstrated to be involved in multiple platelet responses, although in vitro analysis has been complicated by the effects of rapid desensitization. To further investigate potential roles of P2X1 receptors in platelet activation, the current study employed methods which maximally preserved P2X1 functionality. In preliminary in vivo studies, P2X1-deficiency reduced thrombus formation following the laser-induced, but not FeCl3-induced injury. Given the multiple potential mechanisms involved in thrombus formation in vivo, including tissue-factor/thrombin generation pathways, subsequent studies were designed to investigate the effects of P2X1 inhibition or stimulation on platelet activation in vitro; specifically, the interaction of P2X1 with thrombin receptor stimulation. Aggregation initiated by low/threshold levels of a protease-activated receptor (PAR)4 agonist was reduced in P2X1-deficient murine platelets, and inhibition of P2X1 in wild-type platelets similarly reduced PAR4-mediated aggregation. In human platelets, aggregation to low/threshold stimulation of PAR1 was inhibited with the P2X1 antagonist MRS2159. In addition, P2X1 stimulation primed human platelet responses, such that subsequent sub-threshold PAR1 responses were converted into significant aggregation. Selective ADP receptor inhibitors attenuated P2X1-mediated priming, suggesting that the synergy between P2X1 and sub-threshold PAR1 stimulation was in part because of enhanced granular release of ADP. Overall, the present study defines a novel interaction between platelet P2X1 and thrombin receptors, with P2X1 functioning to amplify aggregation responses at low levels of thrombin receptor stimulation.

  5. Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation delays fatigue of stimulated muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneski, Lana Z Popović; Malešević, Nebojša M; Savić, Andrej M; Keller, Thierry; Popović, Dejan B

    2013-12-01

    One important reason why functional electrical stimulation (FES) has not gained widespread clinical use is the limitation imposed by rapid muscle fatigue due to non-physiological activation of the stimulated muscles. We aimed to show that asynchronous low-pulse-rate (LPR) electrical stimulation applied by multipad surface electrodes greatly postpones the occurrence of muscle fatigue compared with conventional stimulation (high pulse rate, HPR). We compared the produced force vs. time of the forearm muscles responsible for finger flexion in 2 stimulation protocols, LPR (fL = 10 Hz) and HPR (fH = 40 Hz). Surface-distributed low-frequency asynchronous stimulation (sDLFAS) doubles the time interval before the onset of fatigue (104 ± 80%) compared with conventional synchronous stimulation. Combining the performance of multipad electrodes (increased selectivity and facilitated positioning) with sDLFAS (decreased fatigue) can improve many FES applications in both the lower and upper extremities. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Adrenaline stimulates the proliferation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards the LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could modulate inflammation in experimental lung injury. On the other hand, adrenergic receptor agonists could increase DNA synthesis of stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic role of adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BMSCs were cultured with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists. Suspensions of lung cells or sliced lung tissue from animals with or without LPS-induced injury were co-cultured with BMSCs. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages were co-cultured with BMSCs (with adrenaline stimulation or not) in Transwell for 6 hrs. A preliminary animal experiment was conducted to validate the findings in ex vivo study. We found that adrenaline at 10 μM enhanced proliferation of BMSCs through both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Adrenaline promoted the migration of BMSCs towards LPS-injured lung cells or lung tissue. Adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs decreased the inflammation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, probably through the expression and secretion of several paracrine factors. Adrenaline reduced the extent of injury in LPS-injured rats. Our data indicate that adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs might contribute to the prevention from acute lung injury through the activation of adrenergic receptors, promotion of proliferation and migration towards injured lung, and modulation of inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  7. Smart control for functional electrical stimulation with optimal pulse intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinert Aljoscha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcutaneous electrical stimulation is a common treatment option for patients suffering from spinal cord injury or stroke. Two major difficulties arise when employing electrical stimulation in patients: Accurate stimulation electrode placement and configuration of optimal stimulation parameters. Optimizing the stimulation parameters has the advantage to reduce muscle fatigue after repetitive stimulation. Here we present a newly developed system which is able to automatically find the optimal individual stimulation intensity by varying the pulse length. The effectiveness is measured with flex sensors. By adapting the stimulation parameters, the effect of muscle fatigue can be compensated, allowing for a more stable movement upon stimulation over time.

  8. Electrical stimulation to accelerate wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakral, Gaurav; LaFontaine, Javier; Najafi, Bijan; Talal, Talal K.; Kim, Paul; Lavery, Lawrence A.

    2013-01-01

    Background There are several applications of electrical stimulation described in medical literature to accelerate wound healing and improve cutaneous perfusion. This is a simple technique that could be incorporated as an adjunctive therapy in plastic surgery. The objective of this review was to evaluate the results of randomized clinical trials that use electrical stimulation for wound healing. Method We identified 21 randomized clinical trials that used electrical stimulation for wound healing. We did not include five studies with treatment groups with less than eight subjects. Results Electrical stimulation was associated with faster wound area reduction or a higher proportion of wounds that healed in 14 out of 16 wound randomized clinical trials. The type of electrical stimulation, waveform, and duration of therapy vary in the literature. Conclusion Electrical stimulation has been shown to accelerate wound healing and increase cutaneous perfusion in human studies. Electrical stimulation is an adjunctive therapy that is underutilized in plastic surgery and could improve flap and graft survival, accelerate postoperative recovery, and decrease necrosis following foot reconstruction. PMID:24049559

  9. Transcranial magnetic stimulation intensities in cognitive paradigms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob A Kaminski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has become an important experimental tool for exploring the brain's functional anatomy. As TMS interferes with neural activity, the hypothetical function of the stimulated area can thus be tested. One unresolved methodological issue in TMS experiments is the question of how to adequately calibrate stimulation intensities. The motor threshold (MT is often taken as a reference for individually adapted stimulation intensities in TMS experiments, even if they do not involve the motor system. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether it is reasonable to adjust stimulation intensities in each subject to the individual MT if prefrontal regions are stimulated prior to the performance of a cognitive paradigm. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Repetitive TMS (rTMS was applied prior to a working memory task, either at the 'fixed' intensity of 40% maximum stimulator output (MSO, or individually adapted at 90% of the subject's MT. Stimulation was applied to a target region in the left posterior middle frontal gyrus (pMFG, as indicated by a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI localizer acquired beforehand, or to a control site (vertex. Results show that MT predicted the effect size after stimulating subjects with the fixed intensity (i.e., subjects with a low MT showed a greater behavioral effect. Nevertheless, the individual adaptation of intensities did not lead to stable effects. CONCLUSION: Therefore, we suggest assessing MT and account for it as a measure for general cortical TMS susceptibility, even if TMS is applied outside the motor domain.

  10. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  11. Mucus-stimulating factor in tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, R M; Bang, B G

    1980-04-01

    Mechanisms responsible for regulation of tear film mucus are poorly understood. Humoral factors responsible for stimulation of mucus secretion can be studied in vitro by using the free-swimming urn cell, a normal component of the coelomic fluid of the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus. With this system, a tear mucus-stimulating factor was found in normal human tears but was markedly decreased in patients with dry eye syndromes. It is suggested that a mucus-stimulating factor exists in normal human tears and that a decrease in this substance may be instrumental in the pathophysiology of certain dry eye syndromes.

  12. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  13. Controlling illegal stimulants: a regulated market model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haden Mark

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prohibition of illegal drugs is a failed social policy and new models of regulation of these substances are needed. This paper explores a proposal for a post-prohibition, public health based model for the regulation of the most problematic drugs, the smokable and injectable stimulants. The literature on stimulant maintenance is explored. Seven foundational principles are suggested that could support this regulatory model of drug control that would reduce both health and social problems related to illegal stimulants. Some details of this model are examined and the paper concludes that drug policies need to be subject to research and based on evidence.

  14. Innovations in deep brain stimulation methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Andrea A; Volkmann, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a powerful clinical method for movement disorders that no longer respond satisfactorily to pharmacological management, but its progress has been hampered by stagnation in technological procedure solutions and device development. Recently, the combined research efforts of bioengineers, neuroscientists, and clinicians have helped to better understand the mechanisms of deep brain stimulation, and solutions for the translational roadblock are emerging. Here, we define the needs for methodological advances in deep brain stimulation from a neurophysiological perspective and describe technological solutions that are currently evaluated for near-term clinical application. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  15. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing......By perianal electrical stimulation and EMG recording from the external anal sphincter three responses were found with latencies of 2-8, 13-18 and 30-60 ms, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in most cases. They were characterised by constant latency and uniform pattern, were...

  16. Computational analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the presence of deep brain stimulation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, F.; Holloway, K.; El-Gendy, A. A.; Hadimani, R. L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is an emerging non-invasive treatment for depression, Parkinson's disease, and a variety of other neurological disorders. Many Parkinson's patients receive the treatment known as Deep Brain Stimulation, but often require additional therapy for speech and swallowing impairment. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has been explored as a possible treatment by stimulating the mouth motor area of the brain. We have calculated induced electric field, magnetic field, and temperature distributions in the brain using finite element analysis and anatomically realistic heterogeneous head models fitted with Deep Brain Stimulation leads. A Figure of 8 coil, current of 5000 A, and frequency of 2.5 kHz are used as simulation parameters. Results suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation leads cause surrounding tissues to experience slightly increased E-field (Δ Emax =30 V/m), but not exceeding the nominal values induced in brain tissue by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation without leads (215 V/m). The maximum temperature in the brain tissues surrounding leads did not change significantly from the normal human body temperature of 37 °C. Therefore, we ascertain that Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the mouth motor area may stimulate brain tissue surrounding Deep Brain Stimulation leads, but will not cause tissue damage.

  17. Towards a Switched-Capacitor Based Stimulator for Efficient Deep-Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel 4-channel prototype stimulation circuit for implantable neurological stimulators (INS). This Switched-Capacitor based Stimulator (SCS) aims to utilize charge storage and charge injection techniques to take advantage of both the efficiency of conventional voltage-controlled stimulators (VCS) and the safety and controllability of current-controlled stimulators (CCS). The discrete SCS prototype offers fine control over stimulation parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, frequency, and active electrode channel via a LabVIEW graphical user interface (GUI) when connected to a PC through USB. Furthermore, the prototype utilizes a floating current sensor to provide charge-balanced biphasic stimulation and ensure safety. The stimulator was analyzed using an electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) model as well as with a pair of pacing electrodes in saline. The primary motivation of this research is to test the feasibility and functionality of a safe, effective, and power-efficient switched-capacitor based stimulator for use in Deep Brain Stimulation. PMID:21095987

  18. Development of Functional Electrical Stimulation Rowing: The Rowstim Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian; Gibbons, Robin; Wheeler, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin. The stimulated muscle contractions are synchronized with voluntary rowing movements of the upper limbs. A range of steady-state FES rowing exercise intensities have been demonstrated from 15.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min in tetraplegia to 22.9 ±7.1 mL/kg/min in paraplegia. We expect that such high levels may help some to achieve significant reductions in the risks to their health, particularly where a dose-response relationship exists as is the case for cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that cyclical forces more than 1.5 times body weight are imposed on the leg long bones which may help to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of FES rowing on land and water using adapted rowing technology that includes; a fixed stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2, Model E), a floating stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2 Dynamic), a turbine powered water rowing tank, a custom hydraulic sculling simulator and a single scull (adapted Alden 16). This has involved volunteers with paraplegia and tetraplegia with SCI ranging from C4 to T12 AIS A using at least 4-channels of surface electrical stimulation. FES rowers, with SCI, have competed alongside non-SCI rowers over the Olympic distance of 2000 m at the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2004, 2005, and 2006

  19. Stimulation of Indigenous Carbonate Precipitating Bacteria for Ground Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekar, Adharsh; Moy, Charles K. S.; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2017-05-01

    Calcite minerals are precipitated in soil through biomineralisation which can be either organic or inorganic in nature. Biomineralisation can be employed to improve ground conditions in its natural state. Usually, studies of applied biomineralisation are highly interdisciplinary involving expertise from engineers, chemists and microbiologists. In this paper, we study the potential of biomineralisation from indigenous bacteria present in soil. The soil samples were collected from a high permeable zone and the bacteria that inhabit the soil were stimulated at a temperature of 15°C. A cementation solution consisting of 500mM calcium chloride, urea and nutrient broth at a pH of 7.5 was added to the soil samples. Inorganic precipitation was found to be dominant and was more efficient when compared to organic precipitation. Carbonate precipitation data indicated that inorganic precipitation were 1.37 times better at carbonate formation in comparison to organic precipitation. Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis identified cementation bonds formed between soil particles. It was deducted that organic precipitation is dependent on temperature, and may take an extended time at such low temperature. The preliminary data presented in this paper suggests that the implementation of biomineralisation with in-situ microbes is promising but requires further laboratory and field investigation before being considered for engineering application.

  20. Prototype neural semicircular canal prosthesis using patterned electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, W; Merfeld, D M

    2000-05-01

    The design of a prototype semicircular canal prosthesis is presented along with preliminary results. This device measures angular velocity of the head (+/-500 degrees/s) using a piezoelectric vibrating gyroscope. With a digital filter this velocity is filtered to match the dynamic characteristics of the semicircular canals, which are the physiological rotation sensors of the vestibular system. This digitally filtered signal is used to modulate the pulse rate of electrical stimulation. The pulse rate is varied between 50 and 250 Hz via a sigmoidal lookup table relating pulse rate to angular velocity; the steady-state rate is 150 Hz. A current source utilizes these timing pulses to deliver charge balanced, cathodic-first, biphasic, current pulses to the nerves innervating the semicircular canal via platinum electrodes. Power is supplied via lithium batteries. dc/dc converters are used to generate regulated +/-5 V supplies from the batteries. All of the components are contained in a small, lightweight, Nylon box measuring roughly 43 mm x 31 mm x 25 mm, which can be mounted on the top of an animal's head. This device has been tested in guinea pigs having surgically implanted platinum electrodes, and the results show that the prosthesis can provide a rotational cue to the nervous system.

  1. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Dyslexia Treated by Hemisphere Stimulation Technic

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1997-01-01

    Results of treatment of severe dyslexia in 80 children, ages 6 to 15 years, using hemisphere stimulation technics, are reported from the outpatient Department for Dyslexia, Child Psychiatric Center, Paedological Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  3. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  4. Rewiring neural interactions by micro-stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M Rebesco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity is a crucial component of normal brain function and a critical mechanism for recovery from injury. In vitro, associative pairing of presynaptic spiking and stimulus-induced postsynaptic depolarization causes changes in the synaptic efficacy of the presynaptic neuron, when activated by extrinsic stimulation. In vivo, such paradigms can alter the responses of whole groups of neurons to stimulation. Here, we used in vivo spike-triggered stimulation to drive plastic changes in rat forelimb sensorimotor cortex, which we monitored using a statistical measure of functional connectivity inferred from the spiking statistics of the neurons during normal, spontaneous behavior. These induced plastic changes in inferred functional connectivity depended on the latency between trigger spike and stimulation, and appear to reflect a robust reorganization of the network. Such targeted connectivity changes might provide a tool for rerouting the flow of information through a network, with implications for both rehabilitation and brain-machine interface applications.

  5. Imbibition well stimulation via neural network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, William

    2007-08-14

    A method for stimulation of hydrocarbon production via imbibition by utilization of surfactants. The method includes use of fuzzy logic and neural network architecture constructs to determine surfactant use.

  6. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  7. Transient effects on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, G.W.; Dyer, M.J.; Hickman, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for transient stimulated Brillouin scattering for a pump pulse with Gaussian temporal profile. A new approach for measuring Brillouin linewidths is demonstrated, and an unexplained asymmetry is observed

  8. Treatment Pulse Application for Magnetic Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Seob Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and diagnosis can be made in difficult areas simply by changing the output pulse form of the magnetic stimulation device. However, there is a limitation in the range of treatments and diagnoses of a conventional sinusoidal stimulation treatment pulse because the intensity, width, and form of the pulse must be changed according to the lesion type. This paper reports a multidischarge method, where the stimulation coils were driven in sequence via multiple switching control. The limitation of the existing simple sinusoidal pulse form could be overcome by changing the intensity, width, and form of the pulse. In this study, a new sequential discharge method was proposed to freely alter the pulse width. The output characteristics of the stimulation treatment pulse were examined according to the trigger signal delay applied to the switch at each stage by applying a range of superposition pulses to the magnetic simulation device, which is widely used in industry and medicine.

  9. Ethical issues in deep brain stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.N. Schermer (Maartje)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDeep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently used to treat neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia, and is explored as an experimental treatment for psychiatric disorders like major depression and obsessive compulsive disorder. This mini review

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  11. [Novel functional electrical stimulation for neurorehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yukihiro

    2010-02-01

    Our understanding of motor learning, neuroplasticity, and functional recovery after the occurrence of brain lesions has increased considerably. New findings in basic neuroscience have provided an impetus for research in motor rehabilitation. Several prospective studies have shown that repeated motor practice and motor activity in a real world environment have a favorable effect on motor recovery in stroke patients. Electrical stimulation can be applied in a variety of ways to the hemiparetic upper extremity following a stroke. In particular, electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical muscle stimulation improves the motor function of the hemiparetic arm and hand. Triggered electrical stimulation is reported to be more effective than non-triggered electrical stimulation in facilitating upper extremity motor recovery after stroke. Power-assisted functional electrical stimulation (FES) induces greater muscle contraction by electrical stimulation that is in proportion to voluntary integrated EMG signals. Daily power-assisted FES home-program therapy with novel equipment has been shown to effectively improve wrist, finger extension, and shoulder flexion. Combined modulation of voluntary movement, proprioceptive sensory feedback, and electrical stimulation might play an important role in improving impaired sensory-motor integration by power-assisted FES therapy. A multi-channel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies in which the hemoglobin levels in the brain were non-invasively and dynamically measured during functional activity found that the cerebral blood flow in the injured sensory-motor cortex area is greater during a power-assisted FES session than during simple active movement or simple electrical stimulation. A novel power-assisted FES sleeve (Cyberhand) has been developed for the rehabilitation of hemiplegic upper extremities.

  12. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Unidirectional ephaptic stimulation between two myelinated axons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capllonch-Juan, Miguel; Kolbl, Florian; Sepulveda, Francisco

    2017-07-01

    Providing realistic sensory feedback for prosthetic devices strongly relies on an accurate modelling of machine-nerve interfaces. Models of these interfaces in the peripheral nervous system usually neglect the effects that ephaptic coupling can have on the selectivity of stimulating electrodes. In this contribution, we study the ephaptic stimulation between myelinated axons and show its relation with the separation between fibers and the conductivity of the medium that surrounds them.

  14. Considering optogenetic stimulation for cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marcus; Moser, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Electrical cochlear implants are by far the most successful neuroprostheses and have been implanted in over 300,000 people worldwide. Cochlear implants enable open speech comprehension in most patients but are limited in providing music appreciation and speech understanding in noisy environments. This is generally considered to be due to low frequency resolution as a consequence of wide current spread from stimulation contacts. Accordingly, the number of independently usable stimulation channels is limited to less than a dozen. As light can be conveniently focused, optical stimulation might provide an alternative approach to cochlear implants with increased number of independent stimulation channels. Here, we focus on summarizing recent work on optogenetic stimulation as one way to develop optical cochlear implants. We conclude that proof of principle has been presented for optogenetic stimulation of the cochlea and central auditory neurons in rodents as well as for the technical realization of flexible μLED-based multichannel cochlear implants. Still, much remains to be done in order to advance the technique for auditory research and even more for eventual clinical translation. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Prenatal stimulation: results in the peripartum period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Cordero, M J; Vieite Ravelo, M; Padilla López, C A; Mur Villar, N; Rizo Baeza, M; Gómez García, C I

    2012-01-01

    During pregnancy, the prolonged stress and worry felt by mothers can alter the development and function of the right brain hemisphere. For this reason, importance is given to prenatal stimulation programs for pregnant women. To determine the perinatal results in the moment of childbirth in mothers who had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. An experimental study was conducted in five health districts in the town of Cienfuegos (Cuba) with a view to identifying the perinatal results at the moment of childbirth in women that had participated in prenatal stimulation programs. The study consisted of an intentional sampling of all of the subjects (n = 200 women who were 20-28 weeks pregnant). The variables studied were the following: duration of labor, baby's birth weight, Apgar score at birth, type of childbirth, and opinion of the subjects about the prenatal stimulation program. Of the population sample, 36% of the subjects gave birth in less than six hours; 67.5% had babies weighing 2,500-3,000 grams; and 96.5% had babies whose Apgar scores were between 8 and 9. Finally, 68.5% of the subjects had natural childbirths and 96% were satisfied with the prenatal stimulation program. The results obtained showed that these new prenatal stimulation programs were well received by the subjects in this study.

  16. Cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Mark K; Shaker, Reza

    2002-02-01

    Although brain registration of subliminal somatic stimulations such as masked visual stimuli and their influence on electrical and hemodynamic measures of cerebral activity have been reported previously, there have been no reports on cerebral cortical registration of subliminal visceral stimulation. Because studies evaluating the consequences of subliminal somatic stimulation have shown that subliminal stimulation can effect behavior, it is conceivable that such subliminal messages from the intestine could potentially influence intestinal sensory/motor function or effect the perception/interpretation of sensory signals originating from the gut. We studied the cerebral cortical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to subliminal, liminal, and supraliminal rectal distention in healthy volunteers. Study findings indicate that subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex without reaching the level of awareness. Locations of cortical activity caused by intestinal subliminal stimulation are similar to those of liminal and supraliminal stimulation but their intensity and volume are significantly lower (P Subliminal afferent signals originating from the gut are registered in the cerebral cortex and induce changes in measures of brain activity, such as hemodynamic changes detectable by fMRI.

  17. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  18. Initial activation state, stimulation intensity and timing of stimulation interact in producing behavioral effects of TMS

    OpenAIRE

    Silvanto, Juha; Bona, Silvia; Cattaneo, Zaira

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been shown to depend on various factors, such as neural activation state, stimulation intensity, and timing of stimulation. Here we examined whether these factors interact, by applying TMS at either sub- or suprathreshold intensity (relative to phosphene threshold, PT) and at different time points during a state-dependent TMS paradigm. The state manipulation involved a behavioral task in which a visual prime (color grating) wa...

  19. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    Full Text Available This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW. Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP fenestration (N = 10 as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9, SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8 and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10 were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs. Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL, being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL. Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  20. Stimulating at the right time: phase-specific deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Pedrosa, David; Little, Simon; Pogosyan, Alek; Cheeran, Binith; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander; Fitzgerald, James; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Friston, Karl J; Denison, Timothy; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    SEE MOLL AND ENGEL DOI101093/AWW308 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Brain regions dynamically engage and disengage with one another to execute everyday actions from movement to decision making. Pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and tremor emerge when brain regions controlling movement cannot readily decouple, compromising motor function. Here, we propose a novel stimulation strategy that selectively regulates neural synchrony through phase-specific stimulation. We demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic potential of such a stimulation strategy for the treatment of patients with pathological tremor. Symptom suppression is achieved by delivering stimulation to the ventrolateral thalamus, timed according to the patient's tremor rhythm. Sustained locking of deep brain stimulation to a particular phase of tremor afforded clinically significant tremor relief (up to 87% tremor suppression) in selected patients with essential tremor despite delivering less than half the energy of conventional high frequency stimulation. Phase-specific stimulation efficacy depended on the resonant characteristics of the underlying tremor network. Selective regulation of neural synchrony through phase-locked stimulation has the potential to both increase the efficiency of therapy and to minimize stimulation-induced side effects. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  1. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  2. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  3. Mechanism of adrenergic stimulation of hepatic ketogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosugi, K; Harano, Y; Nakano, T; Suzuki, M; Kashiwagi, A; Shigeta, Y

    1983-11-01

    The effects of alpha- and beta-adrenergic stimulation on ketogenesis were examined in freshly isolated rat hepatocytes in order to determine which alpha- or beta-adrenergic stimulation is involved in the enhancement of ketogenesis. In the presence of 0.3 mmol/L (U-14C)-palmitate, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and phenylephrine at 500 ng/mL increased ketogenesis by 25% (16.0 +/- 0.17 v 12.8 +/- 0.13 nmol/mg protein per hour), 20% (15.3 +/- 0.28) and 20% (15.4 +/- 0.36), respectively. However, isoproterenol even at 1 microgram/mL did not stimulate ketogenesis. Phentolamine (5 micrograms/mL) almost completely abolished the effect of epinephrine on ketogenesis (13.7 +/- 0.30 v 16.0 +/- 0.17) but propranolol did not inhibit the stimulation by epinephrine (15.6 +/- 0.38 v 16.0 +/- 0.17). Trifluoperazine (10 mumol/L), presumably an inhibitor of calcium-dependent protein kinase, abolished the effect of epinephrine (13.6 +/- 0.22 v 16.0 +/- 0.17). These results indicate that catecholamines increase ketogenesis predominantly through the alpha-adrenergic system independent of cyclic AMP, and calcium-dependent protein kinase is thought to be involved in the activation of ketogenesis. On the other hand, glucagon stimulated ketogenesis with an increase of cyclic AMP, which was not inhibited by alpha- and beta-adrenergic antagonists. Alpha-adrenergic stimulation increased hepatic glycogenolysis much more at much lower concentrations when compared with ketogenesis. Stimulation of ketogenesis by catecholamines seemed to be less sensitive and responsive compared with hepatic glycogenolysis.

  4. Vagus nerve stimulation improves working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lihua; Peräkylä, Jari; Holm, Katri; Haapasalo, Joonas; Lehtimäki, Kai; Ogawa, Keith H; Peltola, Jukka; Hartikainen, Kaisa M

    2017-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is used for treating refractory epilepsy and major depression. While the impact of this treatment on seizures has been established, its impact on human cognition remains equivocal. The goal of this study is to elucidate the immediate effects of vagus nerve stimulation on attention, cognition, and emotional reactivity in patients with epilepsy. Twenty patients (12 male and 8 female; 45 ± 13 years old) treated with VNS due to refractory epilepsy participated in the study. Subjects performed a computer-based test of executive functions embedded with emotional distractors while their brain activity was recorded with electroencephalography. Subjects' cognitive performance, early visual event-related potential N1, and frontal alpha asymmetry were studied when cyclic vagus nerve stimulation was on and when it was off. We found that vagus nerve stimulation improved working memory performance as seen in reduced errors on a subtask that relied on working memory, odds ratio (OR) = 0.63 (95% confidence interval, CI [0.47, 0.85]) and increased N1 amplitude, F(1, 15) = 10.17, p = .006. In addition, vagus nerve stimulation resulted in longer reaction time, F(1, 16) = 8.23, p = .019, and greater frontal alpha asymmetry, F(1, 16) = 11.79, p = .003, in response to threat-related distractors. This is the first study to show immediate improvement in working memory performance in humans with clinically relevant vagus nerve stimulation. Furthermore, vagus nerve stimulation had immediate effects on emotional reactivity evidenced in behavior and brain physiology.

  5. Stimulation of Cl(-) secretion by chlorzoxazone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A K; Devor, D C; Gerlach, A C; Gondor, M; Pilewski, J M; Bridges, R J

    2000-02-01

    We previously demonstrated that 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolone (1-EBIO) directly activates basolateral membrane calcium-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), thereby stimulating Cl(-) secretion across several epithelia. In our pursuit to identify potent modulators of Cl(-) secretion that may be useful to overcome the Cl(-) secretory defect in cystic fibrosis (CF), we have identified chlorzoxazone [5-chloro-2(3H)-benzoxazolone], a clinically used centrally acting muscle relaxant, as a stimulator of Cl(-) secretion in several epithelial cell types, including T84, Calu-3, and human bronchial epithelium. The Cl(-) secretory response induced by chlorzoxazone was blocked by charybdotoxin (CTX), a known blocker of K(Ca). In nystatin-permeabilized monolayers, chlorzoxazone stimulated a basolateral membrane I(K), which was inhibited by CTX and also stimulated an apical I(Cl) that was inhibited by glibenclamide, indicating that the G(Cl) responsible for this I(Cl) may be cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In membrane vesicles prepared from T84 cells, chlorzoxazone stimulated (86)Rb(+) uptake in a CTX-sensitive manner. In excised, inside-out patches, chlorzoxazone activated an inwardly-rectifying K(+) channel, which was inhibited by CTX. 6-Hydroxychlorzoxazone, the major metabolite of chlorzoxazone, did not activate K(Ca), whereas zoxazolamine (2-amino-5-chlorzoxazole) showed a similar response profile as chlorzoxazone. In normal human nasal epithelium, chlorzoxazone elicited hyperpolarization of the potential difference that was similar in magnitude to isoproterenol. However, in the nasal epithelium of CF patients with the DeltaF508 mutation of CFTR, there was no detectable Cl(-) secretory response to chlorzoxazone. These studies demonstrate that chlorzoxazone stimulates transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in normal airway epithelium in vitro and in vivo, and suggest that stimulation requires functional CFTR in the epithelia.

  6. High definition transcranial pink noise stimulation of anterior cingulate cortex on food craving: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Sook Ling; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Sutherland, Wayne; Ross, Samantha; Manning, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Dysfunctional neural activity in the cortical reward system network has been implicated in food addiction. This is the first study exploring the potential therapeutic effects of high definition transcranial pink noise stimulation (HD-tPNS) targeted at the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving and brain activity in women with obesity who showed features of food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale score of ≥3). Sixteen eligible females participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Participants received six 20-minute sessions of either 1 mA (n = 8) or sham (n = 8) stimulation with HD-tPNS over two weeks. Anode was placed above the ACC (Fz) with 4 cathodes (F7, T3, F8, and T4). Food craving was assessed using the Food Cravings Questionnaire State (FCQ-S) and brain activity was measured using electroencephalogram (EEG). Assessments were at baseline, and two days, four weeks, and six weeks after stimulation. A 22% decrease (mean decrease of -1.11, 95% CI -2.09, -0.14) was observed on the 5-point 'intense desire to eat' subscale two days after stimulation in the HD-tPNS group compared to sham. Furthermore, whole brain analysis showed a significant decrease in beta 1 activity in the ACC in the stimulation group compared to sham (threshold 0.38, p = 0.04). These preliminary findings suggest HD-tPNS of the ACC transiently inhibits the desire to eat and, thus, warrants further examination as a potential tool in combating food craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preliminary experience with dexmedetomidine in neonatal anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcengiz Dilek

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine 1 μgkg -1 followed by maintenance dose of 0.5 μg kg -1 h -1 as an adjacent to sevoflurane anaesthesia in new born undergoing laparatomy provides haemodynamic stability during heightened surgical stimulate.

  8. In vitro magnetic stimulation: a simple stimulation device to deliver defined low intensity electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Grehl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electromagnetic field brain stimulation (NIBS appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined.Here we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS delivered at 3 frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modelling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency (BHFS, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganisation. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-minute stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially

  9. A pilot study of cranial electrotherapy stimulation for generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystritsky, Alexander; Kerwin, Lauren; Feusner, Jamie

    2008-03-01

    Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is a noninvasive procedure that has been used for decades in the United States to treat anxiety, depression, and insomnia in the general population. Whether CES is an effective treatment for patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) has not previously been explored. The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CES in alleviating anxiety in patients with DSM-IV-diagnosed GAD. Twelve patients from 29 to 58 years of age with a DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD were enrolled from August 2005 to March 2006 through the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Anxiety Disorders Program. Cranial electrotherapy stimulation treatment was administered for 6 weeks using the Alpha-Stim Stress Control System at 0.5-Hz frequency and 300-muA intensity. The primary efficacy measures were the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. Response to treatment was defined as a reduction of 50% or more on the HAM-A and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2 ("much improved" or "very much improved," respectively). Cranial electrotherapy stimulation was associated with a significant decrease in HAM-A scores (t = 3.083, p = .01). At endpoint, 6 patients (50% of the intent-to-treat sample and 67% of completers) had a 50% decrease in HAM-A score and a CGI-I score of 1 or 2. One additional patient significantly improved in anxiety scores but did not meet criteria for response. Adverse events were generally mild in severity, mostly consisting of headache and nausea. This preliminary study suggests that CES may reduce symptoms of anxiety in GAD. We hope that these preliminary results will encourage further research to explore the use of CES in clinical settings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00539357.

  10. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  11. Visual Deficits in Developmental Dyslexia: Relationships between Non-Linguistic Visual Tasks and Their Contribution to Components of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Manon W.; Branigan, Holly P.; Kelly, M. Louise

    2008-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is often characterized by a visual deficit, but the nature of this impairment and how it relates to reading ability is disputed ("Brain" 2003; "126": 841-865). In order to investigate this issue, we compared groups of adults with and without dyslexia on the Ternus, visual-search and symbols tasks.…

  12. Synergic principles as a base working out of curriculums for professional formation on foreign language in non-linguistic universities

    OpenAIRE

    Anzina T. I.; Rozhina E.Yu.; Selivanova I.V.

    2017-01-01

    the conception of synergic approach presented in the article concerns building curriculums for foreign language. The competency format of the Federal State Educational Standard is a ground for structuring curriculums on the following principles: interdisciplinary, homeostatic, hierarchical, open, complimentary, nonlinear and activity and communication unity. It enables the education system to prepare a perspective specialist for an efficient professional performance.

  13. Language plasticity after hemispherotomy of the dominant hemisphere in 3 patients: Implication of non-linguistic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, Christine; Jambaqué, Isabelle; Chiron, Catherine; Rodrigo, Sebastian; Dorfmüller, Georg; Dulac, Olivier; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Noulhiane, Marion

    2017-04-01

    The neural networks involved in language recovery following hemispherotomy of the dominant hemisphere after language acquisition in children remain poorly known. Twelve hemispherotomized children (mean age at surgery: 11.3years) with comparable post-operative neuropsychological patterns underwent multi-task language functional MRI. Three of them had recovered from an initial postoperative aphasia i.e., hemispherotomy was performed on the language-dominant hemisphere. Our main results revealed (1) perisylvian activations in all patients after either left or right hemispherotomy; (2) no differences in activations between groups regarding the side of hemispherotomy; (3) additional activations in pre-frontal (3/3) and hippocampal/parahippocampal and occipito-parietal (2/3) areas, when comparing language activation in each of the three subjects with hemispherotomy of the language-dominant hemisphere to the group of 9 non-dominant hemispherotomized patients. These neural networks support the stronger engagement of learning and memory during language recovery in a hemisphere that was not initially actively subserving language. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Proverb at English lesson as a basis for creating a model of the personal compromise of non-linguistic students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubeva M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article discovers the features of the method of proverbs at English lessons of the students of nonlinguistic specialties. The authors outline the aspects of psychological effect of proverbs being the basis for creating a model of the personal compromise. What is more, the results of this research might well be applied at interactive English lessons.

  15. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features: implications for mapping language recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The influence of non-linguistic factors on the usage of the pre-prefix in Bantu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Karoline; Petzell, Malin

    2017-01-01

    and social factors, taking into account the situation of intense language contact between Luguru and the dominating language Swahili, where the pre-prefix is non-existent. Not much has been published on Luguru overall, and this is the first study of the pre-prefix. Moreover, it is, to our knowledge...

  17. Trimodal nanoelectrode array for precise deep brain stimulation: prospects of a new technology based on carbon nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Andrews, R J

    2007-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been shown to be effective for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, there are many limitations of the current technology: the large size of current microelectrodes (approximately 1 mm diameter); the lack of monitoring of local brain electrical activity and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine in Parkinson's disease); the open-loop nature of the stimulation (i.e. not guided by brain electrochemical activity). Reducing the size of the monitoring and stimulating electrodes by orders of magnitude (to the size of neural elements) allows remarkable improvements in both monitoring (spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and sensitivity) and stimulation. Carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode technology offers the possibility of trimodal arrays (monitoring electrical activity, monitoring neurotransmitter levels, precise stimulation). DBS can then be guided by changes in brain electrical activity and/or neurotransmitter levels (i.e. closed-loop DBS). Here, we describe the basic manufacture and electrical characteristics of a prototype nanoelectrode array for DBS, as well as preliminary studies with electroconductive polymers necessary to optimize DBS in vivo. An approach such as the nanoelectrode array described here may offer a generic electrical-neural interface for use in various neural prostheses.

  18. Cartography of human diaphragmatic innervation: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verin, Eric; Marie, Jean-Paul; Similowski, Thomas

    2011-04-30

    In humans, anatomy indicates that the phrenic nerve mainly arises from the C4 cervical root, with variable C3 and C5 contributions. How this translates into functional innervation is unknown. The diaphragm response to electrical stimulation of C3, C4 and C5 was described in three patients undergoing surgical laryngeal reinnervation with an upper phrenic root (surface chest electrodes at anterior, lateral and posterior sites; oesophageal and gastric pressures (Pes and Pga) to derive transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi)). Anatomically, the phrenic nerve predominantly originated from C4. Phrenic stimulation elicited motor responses at the three sites in the three patients, as did C4 stimulation. It produced Pdi values of 9, 11, and 14cmH(2)O in the three patients, respectively, vs. 9, 9, and 7cmH(2)O for C4. C3 stimulation produced modest Pdi responses, whereas C5 stimulation could produce Pdi responses close to those observed with C4 stimulation. These singular observations confirm the dominance of C4 in diaphragm innervation but suggest than C5 can be of importance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns considered harmful

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, Andy; Maimaitijiang, Yasheng; Gaggero, Pascal Olivier

    2011-01-01

    We characterize the ability of electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to distinguish changes in internal conductivity distributions, and analyze it as a function of stimulation and measurement patterns. A distinguishability measure, z, is proposed which is related to the signal-to-noise ratio of a medium and to the probability of detection of conductivity changes in a region of interest. z is a function of the number of electrodes, the EIT stimulation and measurement protocol, the stimulation amplitude, the measurement noise, and the size and location of the contrasts. Using this measure we analyze various choices of stimulation and measurement patterns under the constraint of medical electrical safety limits (maximum current into the body). Analysis is performed for a planar placement of 16 electrodes for simulated 3D tank and chest shapes, and measurements in a saline tank. Results show that the traditional (and still most common) adjacent stimulation and measurement patterns have by far the poorest performance (by 6.9 ×). Good results are obtained for trigonometric patterns and for pair drive and measurement patterns separated by over 90°. Since the possible improvement over adjacent patterns is so large, we present this result as a call to action: adjacent patterns are harmful, and should be abandoned. We recommend using pair drive and measurement patterns separated by one electrode less than 180°. We describe an approach to modify an adjacent pattern EIT system by adjusting electrode placement

  20. Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sally Poulton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.

  1. Stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendler, Reuben A; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Gilman, Jodi; Hommer, Daniel W

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol produces both stimulant and sedating effects in humans. These two seemingly opposite effects are central to the understanding of much of the literature on alcohol use and misuse. In this chapter we review studies that describe and attempt to measure various aspects of alcohol's subjective, autonomic, motor, cognitive and behavioral effects from the perspective of stimulation and sedation. Although subjective sedative and stimulatory effects can be measured, it is not entirely clear if all motor, cognitive and behavioral effects can be unambiguously assigned to either one or the other category. Increased heart rate and aggression seem strongly associated with stimulation, but motor slowing and cognitive impairment can also show a similar time course to stimulation, making their relation to sedation problematic. There is good agreement that alcohol's ability to induce striatal dopamine release is the mechanism underlying alcohol's stimulatory effects; however, the change in brain function underlying sedation is less well understood. In general, stimulatory effects are thought to be more rewarding than sedative effects, but this may not be true for anxiolytic effects which seem more closely related to sedation than stimulation. The two major theories of how response to alcohol predicts risk for alcoholism both postulate that individuals at high risk for alcohol use disorders have a reduced sedative response to alcohol compared to individuals not at high risk. In addition one theory proposes that alcoholism risk is also associated with a larger stimulatory response to alcohol.

  2. Stimulation of suicidal erythrocyte death by sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzoubi, Kousi; Calabrò, Salvatrice; Faggio, Caterina; Lang, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Sulforaphane, an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetable, counteracts malignancy. The effect is at least in part due to the stimulation of suicidal death or apoptosis of tumour cells. Mechanisms invoked in sulforaphane-induced apoptosis include mitochondrial depolarization and altered gene expression. Despite the lack of mitochondria and nuclei, erythrocytes may, similar to apoptosis of nucleated cells, enter eryptosis, a suicidal cell death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca(2+)-activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether sulforaphane stimulates eryptosis. Cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface from annexin V binding and [Ca(2+)]i from Fluo-3 fluorescence. A 48-hr treatment of human erythrocytes with sulforaphane (50-100 μM) significantly decreased forward scatter, significantly increased the percentage of annexin V binding cells and significantly increased [Ca(2+)]i. The effect of sulforaphane (100 μM) on annexin V binding was significantly blunted but not abrogated by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+). Sulforaphane (100 μM) significantly increased ceramide formation. In conclusion, sulforaphane stimulates suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, an effect at least partially, but not exclusively, due to the stimulation of Ca(2+) entry and ceramide formation. © 2014 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  3. Technological Advances in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughratdar, Ismail; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2015-01-01

    Functional and stereotactic neurosurgery has always been regarded as a subspecialty based on and driven by technological advances. However until recently, the fundamentals of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware and software design had largely remained stagnant since its inception almost three decades ago. Recent improved understanding of disease processes in movement disorders as well clinician and patient demands has resulted in new avenues of development for DBS technology. This review describes new advances both related to hardware and software for neuromodulation. New electrode designs with segmented contacts now enable sophisticated shaping and sculpting of the field of stimulation, potentially allowing multi-target stimulation and avoidance of side effects. To avoid lengthy programming sessions utilising multiple lead contacts, new user-friendly software allows for computational modelling and individualised directed programming. Therapy delivery is being improved with the next generation of smaller profile, longer-lasting, re-chargeable implantable pulse generators (IPGs). These include IPGs capable of delivering constant current stimulation or personalised closed-loop adaptive stimulation. Post-implantation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has long been an issue which has been partially overcome with 'MRI conditional devices' and has enabled verification of DBS lead location. Surgical technique is considering a shift from frame-based to frameless stereotaxy or greater role for robot assisted implantation. The challenge for these contemporary techniques however, will be in demonstrating equivalent safety and accuracy to conventional methods. We also discuss potential future direction utilising wireless technology allowing for miniaturisation of hardware.

  4. Deep brain stimulation: how does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnesi, Filippo; Johnson, Matthew D; Vitek, Jerrold L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a widely accepted surgical treatment for medication-refractory movement disorders and is under evaluation for a variety of neurological disorders. In order to create opportunities to improve treatment efficacy, streamline parameter selection, and foster new potential applications, it is important to have a clear and comprehensive understanding of how DBS works. Although early hypothesis proposed that high-frequency electrical stimulation inhibited neuronal activity proximal to the active electrode, recent studies have suggested that the output of the stimulated nuclei is paradoxically activated by DBS. Such regular, time-locked output is thought to override the transmission of pathological bursting and oscillatory activity through the stimulated nuclei, as well as inducing synaptic plasticity and network reorganization. This chapter reviews electrophysiological experiments, biochemical analyses, computer modeling and imaging studies positing that, although general principles exist, the therapeutic mechanism(s) of action depend both on the site of stimulation and on the disorder being treated. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of

  6. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study

  7. 21 CFR 862.1690 - Thyroid stimulating hormone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. 862.1690... Systems § 862.1690 Thyroid stimulating hormone test system. (a) Identification. A thyroid stimulating hormone test system is a device intended to measure thyroid stimulating hormone, also known as...

  8. 21 CFR 882.5860 - Implanted neuromuscular stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted neuromuscular stimulator. 882.5860... neuromuscular stimulator. (a) Identification. An implanted neuromuscular stimulator is a device that provides... Administration on or before July 13, 1999 for any implanted neuromuscular stimulator that was in commercial...

  9. 21 CFR 882.5820 - Implanted cerebellar stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted cerebellar stimulator. 882.5820 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5820 Implanted cerebellar stimulator. (a) Identification. An implanted cerebellar stimulator is a device used to stimulate...

  10. An Implantable Mixed Analog/Digital Neural Stimulator Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and signal transmission to the stimulator is carried out via an inductive link. From the signal...

  11. Early experiences with tachycardia-triggered vagus nerve stimulation using the AspireSR stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tahry, Riëm; Hirsch, Martin; Van Rijckevorsel, Kenou; Santos, Susana Ferrao; de Tourtchaninoff, Marianne; Rooijakkers, Herbert; Coenen, Volker; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Many epilepsy patients treated with vagus nerve stimulation additionally use an "on-demand" function, triggering an extra stimulation to terminate a seizure or diminish its severity. Nevertheless, a substantial number of patients are not able to actively trigger stimulations by use of a magnet, due to the absence of an aura or inability for voluntary actions in the early phase of a seizure. To address this need, a novel implantable pulse generator, the AspireSR VNS system, was developed to provide automated ictal stimulation triggered by a seizure-detecting algorithm. We report our experience with three patients in assessing the functionality of ictal stimulation, illustrating the detection system in practice. Detection of ictal tachycardia and variable additional detections of physiological tachycardia depended on the individual seizure-detecting algorithm settings.

  12. Thermally stimulated currents in gamma irradiated polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Thermally stimulated currents of polymers have some properties as radiation dosimetry, especially polymer could be made as a good dosimeter in biological fields because of tissue equivlent material. We experimented the radiation response of polymers and attempted to apply it in clinical use. Polymers have properties of thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated currents which are due to several kinds of charged particles such as dipoles, electronic trapped charges and mobile ions. Several peaks are detected in the thermally stimulated currents in polyethylene under vias field V, by heating from room temperature to 100degC shortly after irradiation. As V increases, both the peak temperature Tsub(m) and the activation energy H decreases, while the peak current Isub(m) increases. We plotted the Tsub(m)-V and Isub(m)-V curves and calculated the electron trap depth with the recombination operative TSC theory and compared the peak TSC with radiation doses. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  14. Gender and injuries predict stimulant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine whether injuries in early childhood and gender predict prescriptions of stimulant medication in three groups of children: With attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other psychiatric disorders (OPD...... follow-up of all cases. We found that the number of injuries prior to diagnosis was associated with initiation of stimulant treatment in all three groups of patients. In addition, male gender predicted treatment with ADHD medications. Our results suggest that the number of injuries early in life prior......). Methods: This was a population-based study with prospective and complete follow-up of children with ADHD (n=11,553), ASD (n=9698), and OPD (n=48,468), of whom 61%, 16%, and 3%, respectively, were treated with stimulants. For all 69,719 individual children data on psychiatric diagnoses, injuries, and drug...

  15. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  16. Pathways of translation: deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Michael R; Greenberg, Alexandra J; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L; Lee, Kendall H

    2013-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brain has a 2000 year history. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), one form of neurostimulation, is a functional neurosurgical approach in which a high-frequency electrical current stimulates targeted brain structures for therapeutic benefit. It is an effective treatment for certain neuropathologic movement disorders and an emerging therapy for psychiatric conditions and epilepsy. Its translational journey did not follow the typical bench-to-bedside path, but rather reversed the process. The shift from ancient and medieval folkloric remedy to accepted medical practice began with independent discoveries about electricity during the 19th century and was fostered by technological advances of the 20th. In this paper, we review that journey and discuss how the quest to expand its applications and improve outcomes is taking DBS from the bedside back to the bench. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep has a sleep-stabilizing effect in chronic insomnia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saebipour, Mohammad R; Joghataei, Mohammad T; Yoonessi, Ali; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Khalighinejad, Nima; Khademi, Soroush

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lack of slow-wave activity may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of insomnia. Pharmacological approaches and brain stimulation techniques have recently offered solutions for increasing slow-wave activity during sleep. We used slow (0.75 Hz) oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation during stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleeping insomnia patients for resonating their brain waves to the frequency of sleep slow-wave. Six patients diagnosed with either sleep maintenance or non-restorative sleep insomnia entered the study. After 1 night of adaptation and 1 night of baseline polysomnography, patients randomly received sham or real stimulation on the third and fourth night of the experiment. Our preliminary results show that after termination of stimulations (sham or real), slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation increased the duration of stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 33 ± 26 min (P = 0.026), and decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep duration by 22 ± 17.7 min (P = 0.028), compared with sham. Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep and wake time after sleep-onset durations, together, by 55.4 ± 51 min (P = 0.045). Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation also increased sleep efficiency by 9 ± 7% (P = 0.026), and probability of transition from stage 2 to stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 20 ± 17.8% (P = 0.04). Meanwhile, slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased transitions from stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep to wake by 12 ± 6.7% (P = 0.007). Our preliminary results suggest a sleep-stabilizing role for the intervention, which may mimic the effect of sleep slow-wave-enhancing drugs. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Pilot study assessing the feasibility of applying bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in very early stage Parkinson's disease: study design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, David; Tolleson, Christopher; Davis, Thomas L; Gill, Chandler E; Molinari, Anna L; Bliton, Mark J; Tramontana, Michael G; Salomon, Ronald M; Kao, Chris; Wang, Lily; Hedera, Peter; Phibbs, Fenna T; Neimat, Joseph S; Konrad, Peter E

    2012-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation provides significant symptomatic benefit for people with advanced Parkinson's disease whose symptoms are no longer adequately controlled with medication. Preliminary evidence suggests that subthalamic nucleus stimulation may also be efficacious in early Parkinson's disease, and results of animal studies suggest that it may spare dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. We report the methodology and design of a novel Phase I clinical trial testing the safety and tolerability of deep brain stimulation in early Parkinson's disease and discuss previous failed attempts at neuroprotection. We recently conducted a prospective, randomized, parallel-group, single-blind pilot clinical trial of deep brain stimulation in early Parkinson's disease. Subjects were randomized to receive either optimal drug therapy or deep brain stimulation plus optimal drug therapy. Follow-up visits occurred every six months for a period of two years and included week-long therapy washouts. Thirty subjects with Hoehn & Yahr Stage II idiopathic Parkinson's disease were enrolled over a period of 32 months. Twenty-nine subjects completed all follow-up visits; one patient in the optimal drug therapy group withdrew from the study after baseline. Baseline characteristics for all thirty patients were not significantly different. This study demonstrates that it is possible to recruit and retain subjects in a clinical trial testing deep brain stimulation in early Parkinson's disease. The results of this trial will be used to support the design of a Phase III, multicenter trial investigating the efficacy of deep brain stimulation in early Parkinson's disease.

  19. Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of severe faecal incontinence: results after 10 years experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Carmona, M Dolores; Martín Arévalo, José; Moro Valdezate, David; Plá Martí, Vicente; Checa Ayet, Félix

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study is to report our experience with sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of severe faecal incontinence after the first 10 years with this technique. Between 2001 and 2011, 49 patients with severe faecal incontinence underwent sacral nerve stimulation. Anorectal manometry, endoanal ultrasound and pudendal nerve latency were performed. Bowel habit diary, severity of faecal incontinence and quality of life scales were evaluated preoperatively and at the end of follow-up. Morbidity occurred in a third of patients, mostly minor. Four definitive devices were explanted. With a median follow-up of 37 months, severity of faecal incontinence, urge and incontinence episodes significantly improved at the end of follow-up. Patients' subgroup with major follow-up of 5 years significantly improved the severity of faecal incontinence but not the parameters of the bowel habit diary. Quality of life showed no significant improvement. Descriptive data in patients with sphincter defects did not show worse results than with sphincter integrity. Sacral nerve stimulation is a safe technique for severe faecal incontinence with good functional medium-term results. In the long term, severity of the faecal incontinence also improves but studies with larger sample are necessary to show if other clinical parameters and the quality of life support this information. Preliminary results in patients with sphincter defects suggest that this technique could be effective in this group but future studies will have to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-electrode stimulation in somatosensory cortex increases probability of detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaaimi, Boubker; Ruiz-Torres, Ricardo; Solla, Sara A.; Miller, Lee E.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Brain machine interfaces (BMIs) that decode control signals from motor cortex have developed tremendously in the past decade, but virtually all rely exclusively on vision to provide feedback. There is now increasing interest in developing an afferent interface to replace natural somatosensation, much as the cochlear implant has done for the sense of hearing. Preliminary experiments toward a somatosensory neuroprosthesis have mostly addressed the sense of touch, but proprioception, the sense of limb position and movement, is also critical for the control of movement. However, proprioceptive areas of cortex lack the precise somatotopy of tactile areas. We showed previously that there is only a weak tendency for neighboring neurons in area 2 to signal similar directions of hand movement. Consequently, stimulation with the relatively large currents used in many studies is likely to activate a rather heterogeneous set of neurons. Approach. Here, we have compared the effect of single-electrode stimulation at subthreshold levels to the effect of stimulating as many as seven electrodes in combination. Main results. We found a mean enhancement in the sensitivity to the stimulus (d‧) of 0.17 for pairs compared to individual electrodes (an increase of roughly 30%), and an increase of 2.5 for groups of seven electrodes (260%). Significance. We propose that a proprioceptive interface made up of several hundred electrodes may yield safer, more effective sensation than a BMI using fewer electrodes and larger currents.

  1. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco LH

    2015-03-01

    plasticity. We also developed a finite element method (FEM model to predict current flow in the spinal cord when using different electrode montages. We identified gaps in our knowledge of noninvasive electrical stimulation in the modulation of spinal neuronal networks in patients with SCI. tsDCS, TENS, and NMES have a positive influence on the promotion of plasticity in SCI. Although there are no randomized controlled studies of tsDCS in SCI, preliminary evidence is encouraging. FEMs predict that tsDCS electrode montage can be used to shape which spinal segments are modulated and what detailed areas of spinal anatomy can concentrate current density (eg, spinal roots. tsDCS is a technique that can influence conduction along ascending tracts in the spinal cord, so could modulate supraspinal activity. It may also be a promising new approach for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions.Keywords: spinal cord injury, transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, motor, spasticity, pain

  2. Lubiprostone stimulates small intestinal mucin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Lisle Robert C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lubiprostone is a synthetic bicyclic fatty acid derivative of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1 used for chronic constipation. The best known action of lubiprostone is simulation of Cl- dependent fluid secretion. In a mouse model of the genetic disease cystic fibrosis, we previously showed that in vivo administration of lubiprostone resulted in greater mucus accumulation in the small intestine. The aim of this study was to directly test whether lubiprostone stimulates intestinal mucin release. Methods Mucin release was measured by mounting segments (4-5 cm of mouse proximal-mid small intestine in an organ bath, allowing access to the perfusate (luminal and the bath (serosal solutions. Nifedipine (10-6 M and indomethacin (10-5 M were included in all solutions to inhibit smooth muscle activity and endogenous prostaglandin production, respectively. The tissue was equilibrated under flow for 30 min, using the perfusate collected during the final 10 min of the equilibration period to measure unstimulated release rate. Stimulus was then added to either the perfusate or the bath and the perfusate was collected for another 30 min to measure the stimulated mucin release rate. Mucin in perfusates was quantified by periodic acid-Schiff's base dot-blot assay, using purified pig gastric mucin as a standard. Results When applied luminally at 1 μM lubiprostone was ineffective at stimulating mucin release. When added to the serosal solution, 1 μM lubiprostone stimulated mucin release to ~300% of the unstimulated rate. As a positive control, serosal 1 μM prostaglandin E2 increased mucin release to ~400% of the unstimulated rate. Conclusions These results support the idea that lubiprostone has prostaglandin-like actions on the intestine, which includes stimulation of mucin release. Stimulation of mucin release by lubiprostone may be protective in gastrointestinal conditions where loss of mucus is believed to contribute to pathogenesis. Thus, in

  3. Stimulation of Managers in Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the principles related to top managers work incentives were inherited from the planned economy that produces demotivation and opportunistic behaviour. Remuneration is a commercial secret and shall not be disclosed. The system of top managers’ stimulation is unbalanced and does not motivate them to achieve medium- and long-term goals of the company. The study pays great attention to the development of managers’ stimulation policies, the transparency of remuneration, correlation between pay and performance. We provide practical examples of foreign and national experience, showing the ability to ensure the transparency of remuneration of managers, and the relation between compensation and performance. These examples show that managers’ remuneration amount does not always correspond to the efficiency of enterprises and return on capital. To solve these problems, we offer to develop philosophy and policy for the stimulation of managers in enterprises. It will allow to find a balance between the interests of shareholders and managers. Furthermore, this philosophy will have a positive impact on the competitiveness of enterprises in a region. The policy of stimulating managers should include certain key areas. Firstly, it should ensure the competitiveness of managers’ remuneration. Secondly, it implies studying the motives of managers’ work and the integration of these motives in the development of incentive system for the managers. Thirdly, it should include an optimal combination of elements to stimulate labour: base salary, material and social remuneration, short and long-term remuneration, etc. And last, it should consider the indicators and norms of enterprise’s effectiveness as well as the assessment of working results of managers. The results of this research can be used for further study of the stimulation of managers’ work in Russian companies. They can also be used in practice for the analysis of labour incentives of

  4. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  5. Measuring immigration policies: preliminary evidence from IMPALA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beine, M.; Burgoon, B.M.; Crock, M.; Gest, J.; Hiscox, M.; McGovern, P.; Rapoport, H.; Thielemann, E.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the methods and preliminary findings from IMPALA, a database that systematically measures the character and stringency of immigration policies. Based on a selection of data for six pilot countries between 1990 and 2008, we document the variation of immigration policies across

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary Evaluation of Some Engineering Geological Properties of Soils in the New Yenagoa Town, Bayelsa State, Central Niger Delta. ... Therefore, adequate attention should be given to the likely physical environmental degradation of river bank failure and liquefaction condition that may evolve as a result of ...

  7. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reduction (p<0.05). The estrogen level in the female rats showed a general significant increase (p<0.05) in all the groups when compared with the female control group. This preliminary result suggest that Bonny-Light crude oil may have the potential to alter reproductive activity and hence a possible endocrine disruptor.

  8. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  9. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  10. Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chicken Astrovirus Infection: Minireview and Preliminary Serologic Evidence of Antigenically and Genetically Distinct Chicken Astroviruses in Nigerian ... This knowledge will engender research into the prevalence, distribution, pathogenicity and economic losses caused by these diseases, and ultimately lead to the design ...

  11. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits...

  12. Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    Preliminary investigation into the possible endocrine disrupting activity of Bonny light crude oil contaminated - diet on ... rats (twenty male and twenty five females) were expose to Bonny –light crude oil contaminated diet at concentrations of 1%, 5% and 10% .... also being implicated in possessing antiestrogenic activity9.

  13. preliminary multidomain modelling and simulation study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    PRELIMINARY MULTIDOMAIN MODELLING AND SIMULATION STUDY OF A. HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE (HAWT) TOWER VIBRATION. I. lliyasu1, I. Iliyasu2, I. K. Tanimu3 and D. O Obada4. 1,4 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, AHMADU BELLO UNIVERSITY, ZARIA, KADUNA STATE. NIGERIA.

  14. Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...

  15. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  16. Preliminary characterization of Rhizobium strains isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Rhizobium strains from chickpea nodules exercised an antagonism against Ascocyhta rabiei the agent of ascocyhta blight disease of chickpea. Key words: Rhizobium, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), preliminary characterization. INTRODUCTION. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a major source of protein.

  17. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  18. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  19. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6, October 2015, pp. 1527–1531. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Combustion synthesis and preliminary luminescence studies of. LiBaPO4 : Tb. 3+ phosphor. C B PALAN1,∗, N S BAJAJ1, ... MS received 28 April 2015; accepted 8 June 2015. Abstract. ... In CW-OSL mode its sensitivity for beta expo- sure was found to be ...

  20. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps in de...

  1. Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute Toxicity Studies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... Preliminary Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Acute. Toxicity Studies of the Stem, bark and the Leaves of a cultivated Syzygium cumini Linn. (Family: Myrtaceae) in. Nigeria. *Ugbabe, G.E1, *Ezeunala, M.N2, Edmond, I.N3, Apev, J1 and Salawu, O.A3. 1Medicinal Plant Research and Traditional Medicine ...

  2. Preliminary Toxicological Screening of Ichthyotoxic Compound of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous tree growing in Southwestern Nigeria for food and medicinal property. Therefore this study evaluates the preliminary toxicological screening of ichthyotoxic compounds in Moringa oleifera to freshwater fish, Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. The morphological parts such as leaf, seed, ...

  3. Transcranial Random Noise Stimulation Does Not Improve Behavioral and Neurophysiological Measures in Patients with Subacute Vegetative-Unresponsive Wakefulness State (VS-UWS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Mauro; Abbruzzese, Laura; Canova, Stefania; Landi, Giulia; Rossi, Simone; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    Background: The absence of efficient treatments capable to promote central nervous system recovery in patients in vegetative state (VS) due to a severe acquired brain injury highlights the need of exploring alternative neuromodulatory treatments that can lead to neurobehavioral gains. Some encouraging preliminary observations suggest that transcranial direct current stimulation could be effective in disorders of consciousness (DoC) patients, especially when applied on the dorsolateral prefron...

  4. Investigating Tactile Stimulation in Symbiotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orso, Valeria; Mazza, Renato; Gamberini, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The core characteristics of tactile stimuli, i.e., recognition reliability and tolerance to ambient interference, make them an ideal candidate to be integrated into a symbiotic system. The selection of the appropriate stimulation is indeed important in order not to hinder the interaction from...... the user’s perspective. Here we present the process of selecting the most adequate tactile stimulation delivered by a tactile vest while users were engaged in an absorbing activity, namely playing a video-game. A total of 20 participants (mean age 24.78; SD= 1.57) were involved. Among the eight tactile...

  5. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    to be taken into account when using TMS in the context of neuroimaging. We then discuss the use of specific brain mapping techniques in conjunction with TMS. We emphasize that the various neuroimaging techniques offer complementary information and have different methodologic strengths and weaknesses....... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need...

  6. Stimulation-induced cerebral glycolytic glucose metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, R.F.; Lear, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have developed a method to estimate the relative amounts of cerebral oxidative and glycolytic glucose metabolism with sequentially administered radiolabeled fluorode-oxyglucose (FDG) and 6-glucose (GLU). Cerebral FDG metabolite concentration was found to reflect total glucose metabolism. Cerebral GLU metabolite concentration, however, was found to reflect mainly oxidative metabolism, because of significant fraction of the radiolabel was lost through lactate production and diffusion from the brain with glycolysis. The authors applied the method to normal rats, to seizing rats, and to optically stimulated rats. Normal cerebral glucose metabolism was primarily oxidative, but stimulation caused profound increases in glycolysis in activated brain regions

  7. Fetal intermediate lobe is stimulated by parturition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchinetti, F; Lanzani, A; Genazzani, A R

    1989-11-01

    The fetal pituitary gland secretes beta-endorphin in blood in response to delivery. However, other forms of endorphin have recently been observed in the fetal pituitary, such as N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, which is devoid of opiate activity, and a desacetylated form of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone. Both endorphins originate in the pituitary intermediate lobe. The sensitivity of this lobe to labor stress was assessed by the evaluation of beta-endorphin, N-acetyl-beta-endorphin, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in maternal plasma and cord blood in 11 cases of vaginal delivery and 10 cases of elective cesarean section without labor. Plasma peptide levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassays after extraction on Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges and high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation. Cord blood samples of infants delivered vaginally showed higher beta-endorphin (8.5 +/- 1.6 pmol/L, mean +/- SE) and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) levels than those delivered by elective cesarean section (3.7 +/- 0.8 and 4.2 +/- 1.1 pmol/L, for beta-endorphin and desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, respectively). N-acetyl-beta-endorphin and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone levels do not differ in relation to the mode of delivery. In maternal circulation beta-endorphin levels were higher in those delivered vaginally (5.2 pm 1) than in women who had cesarean sections (2.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/L), whereas no changes were found for the other peptides. In vaginal deliveries, the level of desacetylated alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was higher in cord blood (13.6 +/- 3.2 pmol/L) than in maternal plasma (6.5 +/- 3 pmol/L); there were no significant differences with regard to the other peptides. Fetal and maternal levels of all the peptides were similar in cases of cesarean section. We conclude that parturition activates proopiomelanocortin peptide release from

  8. Differences in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following exposure to electrical stimulation versus the Trier Social Stress Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Maruyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cortisol is an essential hormone in the regulation of the stress response along the HPA axis, and salivary cortisol has been used as a measure of free circulating cortisol levels. Recently, salivary alpha-amylase (sAA has also emerged as a novel biomarker for psychosocial stress responsiveness within the sympathetic adrenomedullary (SAM system. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured sAA and salivary cortisol in healthy volunteers after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and electric stimulation stress. One hundred forty-nine healthy volunteers participated in this study. All subjects were exposed to both the TSST and electric stimulation stress on separate days. We measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels three times immediately before, immediately after, and 20 min after the stress challenge. The State (STAI-S and Trait (STAI-T versions of the Spielberger Anxiety Inventory test and the Profile of Mood State (POMS tests were administered to participants before the electrical stimulation and TSST protocols. We also measured HF, LF and LF/HF Heart Rate Variability ratio immediately after electrical stimulation and TSST exposure. Following TSST exposure or electrical stimulation, sAA levels displayed a rapid increase and recovery, returning to baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Salivary cortisol responses showed a delayed increase, which remained significantly elevated from baseline levels 20 min after the stress challenge. Analyses revealed no differences between men and women with regard to their sAA response to the challenges (TSST or electric stimulations, while we found significantly higher salivary cortisol responses to the TSST in females. We also found that younger subjects tended to display higher sAA activity. Salivary cortisol levels were significantly correlated with the strength of the applied electrical stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results suggest that the HPA axis (but not the SAM

  9. A novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Han; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Zhuying; Hu, Yong; Li, Yingxin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order

  10. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  11. NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION. Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-24

    NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research Statement of John Neumann, Director...Representatives May 24, 2017 NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Preliminary Observations on Indirect Costs for Research What GAO Found GAO’s preliminary...analysis of National Science Foundation (NSF) data indicates that for fiscal years 2000 through 2016, indirect costs on NSF awards ranged from 16

  12. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-03-03

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20-80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100-180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200-280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis.

  13. Light stimulation of iris tyrosinase in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryja, T.P.; Kimball, G.P.; Albert, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that light stimulates tyrosinase activity in iris melanocytes in rabbits. Levels of iris tyrosinase were found to be greater in eyes of rabbits exposed to light for 6 weeks than in eyes of rabbits maintained in darkness. Despite increasing tyrosinase levels, exposure to light produced no clinically observable change in iris color

  14. Modeling of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Dipole–dipole interaction; relaxation; modeling; TSDC; activation energy; PVC; ABS. Abstract. The study of thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) using the dipole–dipole interaction model is described in this work. The dipole–dipole interactionmodel (DDIM) determines the TSDC peak successfully ...

  15. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of acti-.

  16. Thermally stimulated discharge conductivity in polymer composite ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the results of thermally stimulated discharge conductivity study of activated charcoal–polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thin film thermoelectrets. TSDC has been carried out in the temperature range 308–400°K and at four different polarizing fields. Results are discussed on the basis of mobility of activated ...

  17. Nonlinear electrodynamics in microwave-stimulated superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, J.E.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    In practical experiments on microwave-stimulated superconductivity the current source character of the microwave coupling leads to a strong dependence of the field strength on the value of the gap. Various consequences are pointed out, in particular, for a quantitative comparison between critical current and gap or order-parameter enhancement

  18. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Florene Carnicelli

    Currently, research is being performed in the area of nonsurgical and nonchemical means for influencing the body's threshold for pain. Today, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is being widely used for this purpose. Application of this treatment can be confusing, however, because determining such things as selection of the proper…

  19. Thermally stimulated luminescence studies in combustion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    resonance, photoacoustic studies/optical absorption etc in order to understand the TSL mechanism leading to gene- ration and trapping of defect centres due to ionizing radiation and light emission in aluminum oxide during thermal stimulation. Figure 3 shows the variation of TSL intensity with γ- ray dose in combustion ...

  20. Stimulated secondary emission from semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Mizeikis, V.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2001-01-01

    We find strong influence of final-state stimulation on the time-resolved light emission dynamics from semiconductor microcavities after pulsed excitation allowing angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch. The polariton dynamics can be controlled by injection...

  1. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  2. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  3. Investigating Tactile Stimulation in Symbiotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orso, Valeria; Mazza, Renato; Gamberini, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    the user’s perspective. Here we present the process of selecting the most adequate tactile stimulation delivered by a tactile vest while users were engaged in an absorbing activity, namely playing a video-game. A total of 20 participants (mean age 24.78; SD= 1.57) were involved. Among the eight tactile...

  4. Conducting Polymers in Neural Stimulation Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, David D.; Cui, X. Tracy; Hines, Amy; Greenberg, Robert J.

    With advances in neural prostheses, the demand for high-resolution and site-specific stimulation is driving microelectrode research to develop electrodes that are much smaller in area and longer in lifetime. For such arrays, the choice of electrode material has become increasingly important. Currently, most neural stimulation devices use platinum, iridium oxide, or titanium nitride electrodes. Although those metal electrodes have low electrode impedance, high charge injection capability, and high corrosion resistance, the neural interface between solid metal and soft tissue has undesilable characteristics. Recently, several conducting polymers, also known as inherently conducting polymers (ICPs), have been explored as new electrode materials for neural interfaces. Polypyrrole (PPy), polyaniline (PANi), and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymers may offer the organic, improved bionic interface that is necessary to promote biocompatibility in neural stimulation applications. While conducting polymers hold much promise in biomedical applications, more research is needed to further understand the properties of these materials. Factors such as electrode impedance, polymer volume changes under electrical stimulation, charge injection capability, biocompatibility, and long-term stability are of significant importance and may pose as challenges in the future success of conducting polymers in biomedical applications.

  5. Stimulation of Erythrocyte Death by Phloretin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Bissinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phloretin, a natural component of apples, pears and strawberries, has previously been shown to stimulate apoptosis of nucleated cells. Erythrocytes may similarly enter suicidal death or eryptosis, which is characterized by cell shrinkage and phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Stimulators of eryptosis include increase of cytosolic Ca2+-activity ([Ca2+]i, ceramide, ATP depletion, and activation of protein kinase C (PKC as well as p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 kinase. Methods: Phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface was estimated from annexin V binding, cell volume from forward scatter, [Ca2+]i from Fluo3-fluorescence, and ceramide abundance from binding of specific antibodies. Results: A 48 h exposure of human erythrocytes to phloretin significantly increased the percentage of annexin-V-binding cells (≥100 µM without significantly influencing forward scatter. Phloretin did not significantly modify [Ca2+]i and the stimulation of annexin-V-binding by phloretin (300 µM did not require presence of extracellular Ca2+. Phloretin did not significantly modify erythrocyte ATP levels, and the effect of phloretin on annexin-V-binding was not significantly altered by PKC inhibitor staurosporine (1 µM or p38 kinase inhibitor SB2203580 (2 µM. However, phloretin significantly increased the ceramide abundance at the cell surface. Conclusions: Phloretin stimulates phospholipid scrambling of the erythrocyte cell membrane, an effect at least partially due to up-regulation of ceramide abundance.

  6. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  7. Optically stimulated luminescence techniques in retrospective dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    windows, and detection sensitivity, (ii) experience with various stimulation light sources, including filtered incandescent lamps (420-550 nm) and high intensity light emitting diodes (470 nm) and laser diodes (830-850 nm). We also discuss recently developed high-precision single-aliquot measurement...

  8. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during incubation were exposed either to music or no sound from embryonic day 10 until hatching. Auditory and ...

  9. Three-beam double stimulated Raman scatterings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Minhaeng

    2018-01-01

    Two-beam stimulated Raman scattering with pump and Stokes beams is manifest in both the Raman loss of the pump beam and the Raman gain of the Stokes beam, and it has been used in various label-free bioimaging applications. Here, a three-beam stimulated Raman scattering that involves pump, Stokes, and depletion beams is considered, where two stimulated Raman gain-loss processes are deliberately made to compete with each other. It is shown that the three-beam Raman scattering process can be described by coupled differential equations for the increased numbers of Stokes and depletion beam photons. From approximate solutions of the coupled differential equations and numerical calculation results, it is shown that a highly efficient suppression of the Stokes Raman gain is possible by using an intense depletion beam whose frequency difference from that of the pump beam is identical to another acceptor Raman mode frequency. I anticipate that the present work will provide a theoretical framework for super-resolution stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

  10. Stimulated Deep Neural Network for Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    approaches yield state-of-the-art performance in a range of tasks, including speech recognition . However, the parameters of the network are hard to analyze...advantage of the smoothness con- straints that stimulated training offers. The approaches are eval- uated on two large vocabulary speech recognition

  11. Computer Games Functioning as Motivation Stimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Tsai, Tony Kung Wan; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have recommended computer games can function as influential motivation stimulants of English learning, showing benefits as learning tools (Clarke and Dede, 2007; Dede, 2009; Klopfer and Squire, 2009; Liu and Chu, 2010; Mitchell, Dede & Dunleavy, 2009). This study aimed to further test and verify the above suggestion,…

  12. Stimulating Interest in Science and Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Albert C.

    1988-01-01

    Two programs were designed at Millersville University (Pennsylvania) to stimulate interest in science and mathematics: (1) academically talented students from grades 4-11 attend science lectures/demonstrations and participate in a science knowledge competition, and (2) secondary teachers and students in grades 8-11 participate in hands-on…

  13. Stimulating Economic Development Through the Capital Market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stimulating Economic Development Through the Capital Market: The Nigerian Experience. ... Journal of Research in National Development ... The explanatory variables were Market capitalization, All shares index Value of transactions, Volume of transactions and Number of listed companies for each of the models.

  14. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of rock surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohbati, Reza

    There are many examples of rock surfaces, rock art and stone structures whose ages are of great importance to the understanding of various phenomena in geology, climatology and archaeology. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating is a well-established chronological tool that has successful...

  16. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  17. Social Early Stimulation of Trisomy-21 Babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Maria Teresa Sanz; Balana, Javier Menendez

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated with twenty Down's syndrome babies to verify whether subjects undergoing social early stimulation would benefit from this type of treatment. An experimental study was designed with two training groups: visual or written instructions. The analyses of the results established statistically significant differences in the…

  18. Does civic participation stimulate political activity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stekelenburg, J.; Klandermans, P.G.; Akkerman, A.

    2016-01-01

    Activists are the engines of social movements. What spurs their activism? This article scrutinizes the role of civic participation in stimulating political action. We examine how the type of voluntary organization, scope of involvement and intensity of activity relate to political activity. Contrary

  19. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  20. Progesterone stimulates pancreatic cell proliferation in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, AG; Schuiling, GA; Liem, SMS; Moes, H; Koiter, TR; Uilenbroek, JTJ

    Treatment of cyclic and pregnant rats with progesterone stimulates cell proliferation within the islets of Langerhans. It was investigated whether this effect of progesterone depends on sex and/or the presence of the gonads or the presence of oestradiol, For this purpose, Silastic tubes containing

  1. Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Nicholls, Sophie; Pattenden, Charlotte; Kilduff, Patrick; Milberg, William

    2008-08-01

    The experiments of Alessandro Volta were amongst the first to indicate that visuo-spatial function can be altered by stimulating the vestibular nerves with galvanic current. Until recently, the beneficial effects of the procedure were masked by the high levels of electrical current applied, which induced nystagmus-related gaze deviation and spatial disorientation. However, several neuropsychological studies have shown that much weaker, imperceptible currents that do not elicit unpleasant side-effects can help overcome visual loss after stroke. Here, we show that visual processing in neurologically healthy individuals can also benefit from galvanic vestibular stimulation. Participants first learnt the names of eight unfamiliar faces and then after a short delay, answered questions from memory about how pairs of these faces differed. Mean correct reaction times were significantly shorter when sub-sensory, noise-enhanced anodal stimulation was administered to the left mastoid, compared to when no stimulation was administered at all. This advantage occurred with no loss in response accuracy, and raises the possibility that the procedure may constitute a more general form of cognitive enhancement.

  2. Thermally stimulated discharge current (TSDC) and dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2001-10-09

    Oct 9, 2001 ... current (TSDC) peak above room temperature. Hong and Day (1979) applied the techniques of thermally stimulated polarization and depolarization current for studying alkaline ion motion in glasses of sodium silicate and lead silicate. The peaks observed are discussed on the basis of d.c. conductivity and ...

  3. Prenatal music stimulation facilitates the postnatal functional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-27

    Jan 27, 2014 ... Rhythmic sound or music is known to improve cognition in animals and humans. We wanted to evaluate the effects of prenatal repetitive music stimulation on the remodelling of the auditory cortex and visual Wulst in chicks. Fertilized eggs (0 day) of white leghorn chicken (Gallus domesticus) during ...

  4. Optically stimulated luminescence dating of young sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anni Tindahl; Murray, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of young (... of OSL dating, outlines the problems specific to the dating of young material, and then uses recent applications to young sediments to illustrate the greatly increased scope and potential of the method in geomorphology and the geology of recent deposits. The overall reliability of this new generation...

  5. Motor Cortex Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa De Rose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor Cortex Stimulation (MCS is less efficacious than Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS in Parkinson's disease. However, it might be proposed to patients excluded from DBS or unresponsive to DBS. Ten patients with advanced PD underwent unilateral MCS contralaterally to the worst clinical side. A plate electrode was positioned over the motor cortex in the epidural space through single burr hole after identification of the area with neuronavigation and neurophysiological tests. Clinical assessment was performed by total UPDRS, UPDRS III total, UPDRS III-items 27–31, UPDRS IV, and UPDRS II before implantation in off-medication and on-medication states and after surgery at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in on-medication/on-stimulation and off-medication/on-stimulation states. We assessed changes of quality of life, throughout the Parkinson's disease quality of life scale (PDQoL-39, and the dose of anti-Parkinson's disease medications, throughout the Ldopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD. During off-medication state, we observed moderate and transitory reduction of total UPDRS and UPDRS total scores and significant and long-lasting improvement in UPDRS III items 27–31 score for axial symptoms. There was marked reduction of UPDRS IV score and LEDD. PDQL-39 improvement was also significant. No important complications and adverse events occurred.

  6. A level stimulator programmed for audiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard

    1976-02-01

    This stimulator has been designed for automated audiometric experiments on lemurians. The variations of the transmission level are programmed on punched tape whose reading is controlled by an audiofrequency attenuator. The positive answers of the animal are stored in a seven-counter memory and the results are read by display [fr

  7. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by

  8. Transgalactooligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption in postmenopausal women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Schoterman, M.H.C.; Muijs, T.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a product rich in transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS, Elix'or) stimulates true Ca absorption in postmenopausal women. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover study, consisting of two 9-d treatment periods separated by a 19-d washout period.

  9. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-01-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final...

  10. Tissue damage thresholds during therapeutic electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Ludwig, Kip A.; Welle, Cristin G.; Takmakov, Pavel

    2016-04-01

    Objective. Recent initiatives in bioelectronic modulation of the nervous system by the NIH (SPARC), DARPA (ElectRx, SUBNETS) and the GlaxoSmithKline Bioelectronic Medicines effort are ushering in a new era of therapeutic electrical stimulation. These novel therapies are prompting a re-evaluation of established electrical thresholds for stimulation-induced tissue damage. Approach. In this review, we explore what is known and unknown in published literature regarding tissue damage from electrical stimulation. Main results. For macroelectrodes, the potential for tissue damage is often assessed by comparing the intensity of stimulation, characterized by the charge density and charge per phase of a stimulus pulse, with a damage threshold identified through histological evidence from in vivo experiments as described by the Shannon equation. While the Shannon equation has proved useful in assessing the likely occurrence of tissue damage, the analysis is limited by the experimental parameters of the original studies. Tissue damage is influenced by factors not explicitly incorporated into the Shannon equation, including pulse frequency, duty cycle, current density, and electrode size. Microelectrodes in particular do not follow the charge per phase and charge density co-dependence reflected in the Shannon equation. The relevance of these factors to tissue damage is framed in the context of available reports from modeling and in vivo studies. Significance. It is apparent that emerging applications, especially with microelectrodes, will require clinical charge densities that exceed traditional damage thresholds. Experimental data show that stimulation at higher charge densities can be achieved without causing tissue damage, suggesting that safety parameters for microelectrodes might be distinct from those defined for macroelectrodes. However, these increased charge densities may need to be justified by bench, non-clinical or clinical testing to provide evidence of device

  11. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  12. Theory of multichannel magnetic stimulation: toward functional neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, J; Ravazzani, P; Grandori, F; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1999-06-01

    Human excitable cells can be stimulated noninvasively with externally applied time-varying electromagnetic fields. The stimulation can be achieved either by directly driving current into the tissue (electrical stimulation) or by means of electro-magnetic induction (magnetic stimulation). While the electrical stimulation of the peripheral neuromuscular system has many beneficial applications, peripheral magnetic stimulation has so far only a few. This paper analyzes theoretically the use of multiple magnetic stimulation coils to better control the excitation and also to eventually mimic electrical stimulation. Multiple coils allow electronic spatial adjustment of the shape and location of the stimulus without moving the coils. The new properties may enable unforeseen uses for peripheral magnetic stimulation, e.g., in rehabilitation of patients with neuromuscular impairment.

  13. A new device combining mechanical stimulation of plantar sole and Achilles' tendon to alleviate the consequences of muscle deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canu, Marie-Hélène; Fryziel, Fabrice; Noel, Jean-Pierre; Tiffreau, Vincent; Digumber, Marc; Bastide, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Limb immobilization or confinement to bed results in a severe atrophy and weakness of lower leg muscles. Full recovery of muscle strength and physical function is rare and may impact the patient's outcome. Studies performed on rodents have demonstrated that the deleterious structural and functional adaptations which occur during muscle deconditioning can be counteracted through adequate physiological stimuli. Thus, based on this fundamental work, we developed a device that combines mechanical stimulation of proprioceptors located in the plantar sole and Achilles' tendon. The device is adapted to patients immobilized and confined to bed. Stimulations can be applied on muscle in passive state. The protocol is non-invasive and is well accepted by patients. This paper presents the technical features of the device, as well as preliminary results of the first clinical study. This device might allow considering new therapeutic strategies for prevention of atrophy in many pathologies.

  14. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of parietal cortex enhances action naming in Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eManenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS is a neurodegenerative disorder that overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with Frontotemporal dementia and is characterized by apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, cognitive impairment, behavioural changes and aphasia. It has been recently demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves naming in healthy subjects and in subjects with language deficits.Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC could facilitate naming performance in CBS subjects. Methods: Anodal tDCS was applied to the left and right PARC during object and action naming in seventeen patients with a diagnosis of possible CBS. Participants underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right and one session of placebo tDCS. Vocal responses were recorded and analyzed for accuracy and vocal Reaction Times (vRTs. Results: A shortening of naming latency for actions was observed only after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC, as compared to placebo and right stimulations. No effects have been reported for accuracy.Conclusions: Our preliminary finding demonstrated that tDCS decreased vocal reaction time during action naming in a sample of patients with CBS. A possible explanation of our results is that anodal tDCS over the left PARC effects the brain network implicated in action observation and representation. Further studies, based on larger patient samples, should be conducted to investigate the usefulness of tDCS as an additional treatment of linguistic deficits in CBS patients.

  16. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  17. A new brain stimulation method: Noninvasive transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Chen Yu-Dong; Li Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation (TMAS) for noninvasive brain neuromodulation in vivo. TMAS as a novel technique uses an ultrasound wave to induce an electric current in the brain tissue in the static magnetic field. It has the advantage of high spatial resolution and penetration depth. The mechanism of TMAS onto a neuron is analyzed by combining the TMAS principle and Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model. The anesthetized rats are stimulated by TMAS, resulting in the local field potentials which are recorded and analyzed. The simulation results show that TMAS can induce neuronal action potential. The experimental results indicate that TMAS can not only increase the amplitude of local field potentials but also enhance the effect of focused ultrasound stimulation on the neuromodulation. In summary, TMAS can accomplish brain neuromodulation, suggesting a potentially powerful noninvasive stimulation method to interfere with brain rhythms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. (paper)

  18. Electrical stimulation of the upper extremity in stroke: cyclic versus EMG-triggered stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kroon, Joke R.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of cyclic and electromyography (EMG)-triggered electrical stimulation on motor impairment and function of the affected upper extremity in chronic stroke. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Outpatient clinic of a rehabilitation centre. Subjects and

  19. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  20. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  1. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  2. In vivo charge injection limits increased after 'unsafe' stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijs, Suzan; Sørensen, Søren; Rechendorff, Kristian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of unsafe stimulation on charge injection limits (Qinj) and pulsing capacitance (Cpulse) was investigated. Four stimulation protocols were applied: 20 mA – 200 and 400 Hz, 50 mA – 200 and 400 Hz. Increasing Qinj and Cpulse were observed for all stimulation protocols. Corrosion was not ......The effect of unsafe stimulation on charge injection limits (Qinj) and pulsing capacitance (Cpulse) was investigated. Four stimulation protocols were applied: 20 mA – 200 and 400 Hz, 50 mA – 200 and 400 Hz. Increasing Qinj and Cpulse were observed for all stimulation protocols. Corrosion...

  3. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.

  4. The safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation with deep brain stimulation instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojima, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kodaira, Minori; Hashimoto, Takao; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been employed in patients with an implanted deep brain Stimulation (DBS) device. We investigated the safety of TMS using Simulation models with an implanted DBS device. Methods: The DBS lead was inserted into plastic phantoms filled with dilute gelatin showing impedance similar to that of human brain. TMS was performed with three different types of magnetic coil. During TMS (I) electrode movement, (2) temperature change around the lead, ...

  5. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Kees J; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H

    2017-10-15

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells. We defined the optimal stimulation setting as the configuration that activated the highest percentage of STN cells, without activating any IC fibers. With this criterion, we compared monopolar stimulation using a single contact of the steering-DBS lead and CC lead, on three locations and four orientations of the lead. In addition, we performed a current steering test case by dividing the current over two contacts with the steering-DBS lead in its worst-case orientation. In most cases, the steering-DBS lead is able to stimulate a significantly higher percentage of STN cells compared to the CC lead using single contact stimulation or using a two contact current steering protocol when there is approximately a 1 mm displacement of the CC lead. The results also show that correct placement and orientation of the lead in the target remains an important aspect in achieving the optimal stimulation outcome. Currently, clinical trials are set up in Europe with a similar design as the steering-DBS lead. Our results illustrate the importance of the orientation of the new steering-DBS lead in avoiding side effects induced by stimulation of IC fibers. Therefore, in clinical trials sufficient attention should be paid to implanting the steering DBS-lead in the most effective orientation. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  6. Rare earth optogalvanic spectroscopy: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destro, Marcelo G.; Neri, Jose W.; Rodrigues, Nicolau A.S.; Silveira, Carlos A.B.; Riva, Rudimar [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/EFO), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Fotonica]. E-mail: destro@ieav.cta.br; Victor, Alessandro R. [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The IEAv has special interest in the studies of rare earth isotope applications in laser medium and integrated optics as well as aerospace research. We are starting to work with Ytterbium, Erbium, Dysprosium and Neodymium laser selective photoionization research. This paper describes the preliminary results of emission and optogalvanic spectroscopy obtained from a Neodymium hollow cathode lamps. Furthermore these results were used to setup our laser systems to work to leads a Nd isotopes selective laser photoionization. (author)

  7. Preliminary investigations of piezoelectric based LED luminary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Meyer, Kaspar Sinding

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study of PT (Piezoelectric Transformer) based SMPS’s (Switch Mode Power Supplies) for LED luminary. The unique properties of PTs (efficiency, power density and EMI) make them highly suitable for this application. Power stage topologies, rectifiers circuits, modul....... The prototype constitutes a light source equivalent to the 40 W incandescent bulb. Experimental results shows, that the prototype are capable of ZVS and dimming (the later trough use of burst mode control)....

  8. Preliminary model for core/concrete interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murfin, W.B.

    1977-08-01

    A preliminary model is described for computing the rate of penetration of concrete by a molten LWR core. Among the phenomena included are convective stirring of the melt by evolved gases, admixture of concrete decomposition products to the melt, chemical reactions, radiative heat loss, and variation of heat transfer coefficients with local pressure. The model is most applicable to a two-phase melt (metallic plus oxidic) having a fairly high metallic content

  9. [Ethnic entrepreneurship in Montreal: some preliminary results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juteau, D; Daviau-guay, J; Moallem, M

    1992-01-01

    "This research note presents a first sketch of a study we are undertaking on ethnic entrepreneurship [in Montreal]. It details first of all our theoretical framework and then presents some preliminary results. For this research, we are studying various ethnic groups, those in the majority as well as the minority. For each of them, we will analyze the impact that immigration status, sex, the industrial sector and urban context play on entrepreneurial activity." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) excerpt

  10. Life cycle analysis in preliminary design stages

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo , Lina-Maria; Mejía-Gutiérrez , Ricardo; Nadeau , Jean-Pierre; PAILHES , Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In a design process the product is decomposed into systems along the disciplinary lines. Each stage has its own goals and constraints that must be satisfied and has control over a subset of design variables that describe the overall system. When using different tools to initiate a product life cycle, including the environment and impacts, its noticeable that there is a gap in tools that linked the stages of preliminary design and the stages of materialization. Differen...

  11. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J, RODWELL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  12. PLANT COMMUNITIES OF ALBANIA - A PRELIMINARY OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. DRING

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The phytosociological analysis of Albania was initiated by F. Markgraf in the 30ies, but still remains incomplete. This is a preliminary list of the plant communities resulting from the literature and from field research carried out during the last years and may represent a first contribution for further research. Many communities are described only by dominant species, other are quoted as nomina nuda. Some further syntaxa. probably present in the study area, are added.

  13. Preliminary safety analysis methodology for the SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Y. J.; Kim, H. C.; Sim, S. K.; Lee, W. J.; Chung, B. D.; Song, J. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    This technical report was prepared for a preliminary safety analysis methodology of the 330MWt SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which has been developed by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) since July 1996. This preliminary safety analysis methodology has been used to identify an envelope for the safety of the SMART conceptual design. As the SMART design evolves, further validated final safety analysis methodology will be developed. Current licensing safety analysis methodology of the Westinghouse and KSNPP PWRs operating and under development in Korea as well as the Russian licensing safety analysis methodology for the integral reactors have been reviewed and compared to develop the preliminary SMART safety analysis methodology. SMART design characteristics and safety systems have been reviewed against licensing practices of the PWRs operating or KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) under construction in Korea. Detailed safety analysis methodology has been developed for the potential SMART limiting events of main steam line break, main feedwater pipe break, loss of reactor coolant flow, CEA withdrawal, primary to secondary pipe break and the small break loss of coolant accident. SMART preliminary safety analysis methodology will be further developed and validated in parallel with the safety analysis codes as the SMART design further evolves. Validated safety analysis methodology will be submitted to MOST as a Topical Report for a review of the SMART licensing safety analysis methodology. Thus, it is recommended for the nuclear regulatory authority to establish regulatory guides and criteria for the integral reactor. 22 refs., 18 figs., 16 tabs. (Author)

  14. Computational electromagnetic methods for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis J.

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique used both as a research tool for cognitive neuroscience and as a FDA approved treatment for depression. During TMS, coils positioned near the scalp generate electric fields and activate targeted brain regions. In this thesis, several computational electromagnetics methods that improve the analysis, design, and uncertainty quantification of TMS systems were developed. Analysis: A new fast direct technique for solving the large and sparse linear system of equations (LSEs) arising from the finite difference (FD) discretization of Maxwell's quasi-static equations was developed. Following a factorization step, the solver permits computation of TMS fields inside realistic brain models in seconds, allowing for patient-specific real-time usage during TMS. The solver is an alternative to iterative methods for solving FD LSEs, often requiring run-times of minutes. A new integral equation (IE) method for analyzing TMS fields was developed. The human head is highly-heterogeneous and characterized by high-relative permittivities (107). IE techniques for analyzing electromagnetic interactions with such media suffer from high-contrast and low-frequency breakdowns. The novel high-permittivity and low-frequency stable internally combined volume-surface IE method developed. The method not only applies to the analysis of high-permittivity objects, but it is also the first IE tool that is stable when analyzing highly-inhomogeneous negative permittivity plasmas. Design: TMS applications call for electric fields to be sharply focused on regions that lie deep inside the brain. Unfortunately, fields generated by present-day Figure-8 coils stimulate relatively large regions near the brain surface. An optimization method for designing single feed TMS coil-arrays capable of producing more localized and deeper stimulation was developed. Results show that the coil-arrays stimulate 2.4 cm into the head while stimulating 3

  15. Urinary incontinence and sport: first and preliminary experience with a combined pelvic floor rehabilitation program in three female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivalta, Massimo; Sighinolfi, Maria Chiara; Micali, Salvatore; De Stefani, Stefano; Torcasio, Francesca; Bianchi, Giampaolo

    2010-05-01

    A relationship between sport or fitness activities and urinary incontinence (UI) previously has been described in women. We report our preliminary experience with the use of a complete pelvic floor rehabilitation program in three female athletes affected by UI. The athletes were submitted to a combined pelvic floor rehabilitation program, including biofeedback, functional electrical stimulation, pelvic floor muscle exercises, and vaginal cones. After the scheduled rehabilitation scheme, none of the patients reported incontinence, nor referred to urine leakage during sport or during daily life. We therefore conclude that UI that affects female agonistic athletes may be effectively treated with this combined approach.

  16. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. On the possible role of stimulation duration for after-effects of transcranial alternating current stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eStrüber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation is a novel method that allows application of sinusoidal currents to modulate brain oscillations and cognitive processes. Studies in humans have demonstrated tACS after-effects following stimulation durations in the range of minutes. However, such after-effects are absent in animal studies using much shorter stimulation protocols in the range of seconds. Thus, stimulation duration might be a critical parameter for after-effects to occur. To test this hypothesis, we repeated a recent human tACS experiment with a short duration. We applied alpha tACS intermittently for one second duration while keeping other parameters identical. The results demonstrate that this very short intermittent protocol did not produce after-effects on amplitude or phase of the electroencephalogram. Since synaptic plasticity has been suggested as a possible mechanism for after-effects, our results indicate that a stimulation duration of one second is too short to induce synaptic plasticity. Future studies in animals are required that use extended stimulation durations to reveal the neuronal underpinnings. A better understanding of the mechanisms of tACS after-effects is crucial for potential clinical applications.

  18. Systemic Evaluation of Electrical Stimulation for Ischemic Wound Therapy in a PreclinicalIn VivoModel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graebert, Jennifer K; Henzel, M Kristi; Honda, Kord S; Bogie, Kath M

    2014-06-01

    Objective: In a systematic preclinical investigation of ischemic wound healing, we investigated the hypothesis that electrical stimulation (ES) promotes the healing of ischemic wounds. Approach: The effects of varying clinically relevant ES variables were evaluated using our modified version of the Gould F344 rat ischemic wound model. Stimulation was delivered using the novel lightweight integrated, single-channel, current-controlled modular surface stimulation (MSS) device. Stepwise variation allowed the effects of five different stimulation paradigms within an appropriate current density range to be studied. Within each group, 8-10 animals were treated for 28 days or until the ischemic wounds were healed and 5 animals were treated for 12 days. Eight rats received sham devices. A quantitative multivariable outcomes assessment procedure was used to evaluate the effects of ES. Results: Ischemic wounds treated with a decreased interpulse interval (IPI) had the highest rate of complete wound closure at 3 weeks. Wounds treated with decreased pulse amplitude (PA) had a lower proportion of closed wounds than sham ischemic wounds and showed sustained inflammation with a lack of wound contraction. Innovation: Our systematic study of varying ES paradigms using the novel MSS device provides preliminary insight into potential mechanisms of ES in ischemic wound healing. Conclusion: Clinically appropriate ES can more than double the proportion of ischemic wounds closed by 3 weeks in this model. Ninety percent of wounds treated with a decreased IPI healed by 21 days compared with only 29% of ischemic wounds treated with decreased PA, which appears to inhibit healing.

  19. [Multi-sensory interaction in tinnitus: visual evoked potentials and somatosensory stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz, C; Hernández-Calvín, F J; Plaza, G; Toledano, A; De los Santos, G

    2003-05-01

    Anomalous cross-modal interactions along the audiovestibular, visual and soma-tosensorial pathways could be the responsible for aberrant signals, clinically expressed as phantom perceptions. This results in tinnitus that can be modified by gaze movements or somatosensorial stimulation through skin, orofacial (jaw) and cervical movements. This phenomenon has also been described in some patients with acute unilateral deafferentation of the auditory peripheral system as a result of surgery to remove a tumour in the posterior fossal. Neuroimaging preliminary studies (PET, f-MRI) describe multisensorial interactions and cortical reorganisation processes in chronic tinnitus. Treatment approaches are still unknown although counselling regarding the benignity of the process and the high percentage of habituation to the symptom is the most effective framework. We present our experience in four cases.

  20. Reduction of post-ECT memory complaints through brief, partial restricted environmental stimulation (REST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, P; Ramirez, C E; Remick, R A; Fleming, J A

    1989-01-01

    1. A previous paper (Suedfeld, et al. 1987) reported on preliminary results of placing patients into a room with substantially reduced environmental stimulation (REST) immediately after recovery from ECT. 2. Comparing two depressed patients who had undergone this experience with three who had instead returned to their own hospital room (Ward), Suedfeld et al. (1987) found that the former registered much fewer complaints concerning memory loss related to ECT administration than the latter. 3. The current report extends this finding to a total of 19 patients, of whom 13 completed four testing sessions. Once again, objective tests of memory showed no significant change as a function of ECT. Both groups of patients complained of substantial memory disruption after the first ECT. By the one-week follow-up, such complaints were minimal among REST patients but showed only a slight decline among the Ward group. This was the only significant intergroup difference.

  1. Transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation modulates cardiac vagal tone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, C; Brock, B; Aziz, Q; Møller, H J; Pfeiffer Jensen, M; Drewes, A M; Farmer, A D

    2017-05-01

    The vagus nerve is a central component of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathways. We sought to evaluate the effect of bilateral transcutaneous cervical vagal nerve stimulation (t-VNS) on validated parameters of autonomic tone and cytokines in 20 healthy subjects. 24 hours after t-VNS, there was an increase in cardiac vagal tone and a reduction in tumor necrosis factor-α in comparison to baseline. No change was seen in blood pressure, cardiac sympathetic index or other cytokines. These preliminary data suggest that t-VNS exerts an autonomic and a subtle antitumor necrosis factor-α effect, which warrants further evaluation in larger controlled studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Frequent nonprescription stimulant use and risky behaviors in college students: the role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.

  3. Field modeling for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielscher, Axel; Antunes, Andre; Saturnino, Guilherme B

    2015-01-01

    ) improving the usability of the tools for field calculation to the level that they can be easily used by non-experts. We then introduce a new version of our pipeline for field calculations (www.simnibs.org) that substantially simplifies setting up and running TMS and tDCS simulations based on Finite......Electric field calculations based on numerical methods and increasingly realistic head models are more and more used in research on Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). However, they are still far from being established as standard tools for the planning and analysis in practical applications...... of TMS. Here, we start by delineating three main challenges that need to be addressed to unravel their full potential. This comprises (i) identifying and dealing with the model uncertainties, (ii) establishing a clear link between the induced fields and the physiological stimulation effects, and (iii...

  4. Stimulation of bone healing with interferential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganne, J M

    1988-01-01

    Methods of electrical stimulation of bone are reviewed for a comparison with the use of interference currents and for a consideration of the possible merits of various methods. A summary is given of results of treatment of 38 patients with delayed or non-union and predisposition to non-union, and the technique used with Interferential Therapy is described in detail. Results are also given of a study of the effects of stimulation on 11 patients with acute fractures of the tibial shaft, compared with 11 closely matched patients with similar acute fractures who did not receive Interferential Therapy. The advantages of surgically non-invasive techniques are emphasised and recommendations are made for the use of interference currents prophylactically in specific cases. Copyright © 1988 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  5. Deep brain stimulation for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grover, Patrick J; Pereira, Erlick A C; Green, Alexander L

    2009-01-01

    Cluster headache is a severely debilitating disorder that can remain unrelieved by current pharmacotherapy. Alongside ablative neurosurgical procedures, neuromodulatory treatments of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and occipital nerve simulation have emerged in the last few years as effective...... treatments for medically refractory cluster headaches. Pioneers in the field have sought to publish guidelines for neurosurgical treatment; however, only small case series with limited long-term follow-up have been published. Controversy remains over which surgical treatments are best and in which...... circumstances to intervene. Here we review current data on neurosurgical interventions for chronic cluster headache focusing upon DBS and occipital nerve stimulation, and discuss the indications for and putative mechanisms of DBS including translational insights from functional neuroimaging, diffusion weighted...

  6. New method of stimulation of gastric peristalsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilyasova, E.B.; Dmitriev, Yu.Ya.

    1986-01-01

    Diadynamic currents were first used in an X-ray study for the stimulation of gastric peristalsis in cancer, a SNIM-1 apparatus serving as a source. It was based on a number of experimental studies indicating a possibility of using diadynamic currents, a variety of direct current, in cancer patients. Altogether 283 stomach cancer patients were examined. A method of peristalsis stimulation with diadynamic currents made it possible to significantly raise the accuracy of standard X-ray examination in establishing the anatomical form of the growth of stomach cancer, its intraorganic extension, the level of proximal and distal limits. The proposed method is simple to perform, the equipment is available in physiotherapeutic units

  7. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  8. Stimulated recall interviews for describing pragmatic epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubert, Christopher W.; Meredith, Dawn C.

    2015-12-01

    Students' epistemologies affect how and what they learn: do they believe physics is a list of equations, or a coherent and sensible description of the physical world? In order to study these epistemologies as part of curricular assessment, we adopt the resources framework, which posits that students have many productive epistemological resources that can be brought to bear as they learn physics. In previous studies, these epistemologies have been either inferred from behavior in learning contexts or probed through surveys or interviews outside of the learning context. We argue that stimulated recall interviews provide a contextually and interpretively valid method to access students' epistemologies that complement existing methods. We develop a stimulated recall interview methodology to assess a curricular intervention and find evidence that epistemological resources aptly describe student epistemologies.

  9. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  10. Spinal cord stimulation: Background and clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Background Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain refractory to conventional treatment. SCS treatment consists of one or more leads implanted in the epidural space of the spinal canal, connected to an implantable pulse generator (IPG). Each lead carries...... a number of contacts capable of delivering a weak electrical current to the spinal cord, evoking a feeling of peripheral paresthesia. With correct indication and if implanted by an experienced implanter, success rates generally are in the range of about 50–75%. Common indications include complex regional...... is described in detail and illustrated with a series of intraoperative pictures. Finally, indications for SCS are discussed along with some of the controversies surrounding the therapy. Implications The reader is presented with a broad overview of spinal cord stimulation, including the historical...

  11. Stimulated Brillouin processes in crystals and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, G.W.; Hickman, A.P.

    1992-02-01

    The basic physics and material properties needed to describe and predict the Brillouin gain for a variety of materials have been investigated. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has identified transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) as an important limiting mechanism in high power laser fusion systems. At sufficiently high laser intensities, SBS drives acoustic vibrations that can damage optical components. SRI has performed measurements and developed the corresponding theory for stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in anisotropic crystals. Absolute Brillouin steady-state gain coefficients, linewidths, and frequency shifts have been determined at 532 nm for a number of optical materials of interest to LLNL. This knowledge can be used to select optical materials and devise suppression schemes that will allow much higher laser fluences to be used in laser fusion

  12. The transition process: Stimulating free entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of two parts. In the first we expound the thesis that transition is actually a process of creation of institutional preconditions for development of private entrepreneurship at a given moment and under the inherited circumstances. To create an environment that stimulates free entrepreneurship and enables a successful transition requires a lot of knowledge, creativity and pragmatism (there is no general model. The rest remains on the entrepreneurs. In the second part we analyse the experience of FRY before and after the change of regime. During the former regime FRY was an example of degenerative connection between politics and economy geared to prevent reforms. The task of the new government is to make a radical break with the earlier practice. If the reform is not radical and not aiming to create an institutional environment that fully stimulates competition and private entrepreneurship (which has not been the case so far, it has no good prospects to succeed.

  13. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  14. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilieva, Irena P; Farah, Martha J

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey, and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially "energy" and "motivation," and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including the effects on "attention."

  15. Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: Background corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Carey E.; Sharma, Amy C.; Bender, Janelle E.; Kapadia, Anuj J.; Xia, Jessie Q.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Kiser, Matthew R.; Crowell, Alexander S.; Pedroni, Ronald S.; Macri, Robert A.; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Howell, Calvin R.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is an imaging technique that provides an in-vivo tomographic spectroscopic image of the distribution of elements in a body. To achieve this, a neutron beam illuminates the body. Nuclei in the body along the path of the beam are stimulated by inelastic scattering of the neutrons in the beam and emit characteristic gamma photons whose unique energy identifies the element. The emitted gammas are collected in a spectrometer and form a projection intensity for each spectral line at the projection orientation of the neutron beam. Rotating and translating either the body or the beam will allow a tomographic projection set to be acquired. Images are reconstructed to represent the spatial distribution of elements in the body. Critical to this process is the appropriate removal of background gamma events from the spectrum. Here we demonstrate the equivalence of two background correction techniques and discuss the appropriate application of each

  16. Standardizing therapeutic parameters of acupuncture for pain suppression in rats: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sujung; Lim, Hyungtaeck; Choe, Ilwhan; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2014-01-15

    Despite acupuncture's wide and successful use, it is still considered as lacking scientifically rigorous evidence, especially with respect to its effectiveness. To address this problem, it is necessary to re-examine the practice of acupuncture using scientific methodology. The standardization of acupuncture practices may offer a solution. As a preliminary step towards the standardization of acupuncture stimulation in animal experiments, this study attempted to clarify the various therapeutic parameters that contribute to acupuncture's efficacy. This study identified specific acupoints, temporal point of needling, rotation of the needle, duration of acupuncture, and diameter of the needle as the parameters, through formalin test. In this test, acupuncture was performed on either the ST36 or LR2 point immediately after pain induction and 5 minutes after pain induction. The formalin test yielded no significant suppression of pain in the case of ST36 and LR2 acupuncture stimulation immediately following pain induction. When acupuncture was applied 5 minutes after pain induction, however, the ST36 stimulation resulted in a significant decrease in pain, while the LR2 stimulation produced no change. The duration of acupuncture, but not the diameter of the needle, was also significant. As for the rotation of the needle, there was no significant difference in the pain reduction achieved in the rotation and non-rotation groups. We determined that specific acupoint, temporal point of needling, and duration of treatment are important factors in the inhibition of pain. These finding strongly suggest that in animal experiments, the application of a set of appropriate therapeutic parameters can significantly influence the outcome.

  17. Bubble nonlinear dynamics and stimulated scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Shi; De-Sen, Yang; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Bo, Hu; Hao-Yang, Zhang; Shi-Yong, Hu

    2016-02-01

    A complete understanding of the bubble dynamics is deemed necessary in order to achieve their full potential applications in industry and medicine. For this purpose it is first needed to expand our knowledge of a single bubble behavior under different possible conditions including the frequency and pressure variations of the sound field. In addition, stimulated scattering of sound on a bubble is a special effect in sound field, and its characteristics are associated with bubble oscillation mode. A bubble in liquid can be considered as a representative example of nonlinear dynamical system theory with its resonance, and its dynamics characteristics can be described by the Keller-Miksis equation. The nonlinear dynamics of an acoustically excited gas bubble in water is investigated by using theoretical and numerical analysis methods. Our results show its strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to the pressure amplitude and excitation frequency as the control parameters, and give an intuitive insight into stimulated sound scattering on a bubble. It is seen that the stimulated sound scattering is different from common dynamical behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos, which is the result of the nonlinear resonance of a bubble under the excitation of a high amplitude acoustic sound wave essentially. The numerical analysis results show that the threshold of stimulated sound scattering is smaller than those of bifurcation and chaos in the common condition. Project supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1228) and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204050 and 11204049).

  18. Mechanism of stimulated radiation by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, W.W.

    1979-01-01

    We have studied the mechanism for radiation by charged particles called stimulated electromagnetic shock radiation (SESR) by Schneider and Spitzer caused by the interaction between a relativistic charged particle and an externally applied electromagnetic plane wave in a dielectric. The present theory predicts that the SESR effect is large when the frequency of the plane wave lies in the microwave region but is small at higher frequencies for plane-wave field strengths smaller than the breakdown field of the dielectric

  19. Anesthesia for Pediatric Deep Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Sebeo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In patients refractory to medical therapy, deep brain stimulations (DBSs have emerged as the treatment of movement disorders particularly Parkinson's disease. Their use has also been extended in pediatric and adult patients to treat epileptogenic foci. We here performed a retrospective chart review of anesthesia records from 28 pediatric cases of patients who underwent DBS implantation for dystonia using combinations of dexmedetomidine and propofol-based anesthesia. Complications with anesthetic techniques including airway and cardiovascular difficulties were analyzed.

  20. Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated guanosinetriphosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, D R; Asano, T; Pedersen, S E; Ross, E M

    1983-09-13

    beta-Adrenergic receptors were partially purified from turkey erythrocyte membranes by alprenolol-agarose chromatography to 0.25-2 nmol/mg of protein, and the stimulatory guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) binding protein of adenylate cyclase (Gs) was purified from rabbit liver. These proteins were reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles by addition of phospholipids and removal of detergent by gel filtration. This preparation hydrolyzes GTP to guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) plus inorganic phosphate (Pi) in response to beta-adrenergic agonists. The initial rate of isoproterenol-stimulated hydrolysis is approximately 1 mol of GTP hydrolyzed min-1 X mol-1 of Gs. This low rate may be limited by the hormone-stimulated binding of substrate, since it is roughly equal to the rate of binding of the GTP analogue guanosine 5'-O-(3-[35S] thiotriphosphate) [( 35S]GTP gamma S) to Gs in the vesicles. Activity in the absence of agonist, or in the presence of agonist plus a beta-adrenergic antagonist, is 8-25% of the hormone-stimulated activity. Guanosinetriphosphatase (GTPase) is not saturated at 10 microM GTP, and the response to GTP is formally consistent either with the existence of multiple Km's or of a separate stimulatory site for GTP. The GTPase activity of Gs in vesicles is also stimulated by 50 mM MgCl2 in the presence or absence of receptor. Significant GTPase activity is not observed with Lubrol-solubilized Gs, although [35S]-GTP gamma S binding is increased by Lubrol solubilization.

  1. Hippocampal correlates of aversive mibdrain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routtenberg, A; Kramis, R C

    1968-06-21

    Hippocampal synchronization during aversive dorsal midbrain stimulation was observed in rats both in a conditioning procedure and under d-tubo-curarine paralysis. The results restrict the generality of previous reports which correlated hippocampal synchronization and desynchronization with approach and withdrawal behavior, respectively. Relative to the condition of free movement, curarization reduced the frequency of both "spontaneous" and dorsal midbrain-evoked synchronization, thus suggesting possible direct and indirect effects of d-tubocurarine on subcortical structures.

  2. Concurrent electrical cervicomedullary stimulation and cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation result in a stimulus interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongés, Siobhan C; Bai, Siwei; Taylor, Janet L

    2017-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? We previously showed that the motor pathway is not modified after cervical transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied using anterior-posterior electrodes. Here, we examine the motor pathway during stimulation. What is the main finding and its importance? We show that electrically elicited muscle responses to cervicomedullary stimulation are modified during tsDCS, whereas magnetically elicited responses are not. Modelling reveals electrical field modifications during concurrent tsDCS and electrical cervicomedullary stimulation. Changes in muscle response probably result from electrical field modifications rather than physiological changes. Care should be taken when applying electrical stimuli simultaneously. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) can modulate neuronal excitability within the human spinal cord; however, few studies have used tsDCS at a cervical level. This study aimed to characterize cervical tsDCS further by observing its acute effects on motor responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation and cervicomedullary stimulation. In both studies 1 and 2, participants (study 1, n = 8, four female; and study 2, n = 8, three female) received two periods of 10 min, 3 mA cervical tsDCS on the same day through electrodes placed in an anterior-posterior configuration over the neck; one period with the cathode posterior (c-tsDCS) and the other with the anode posterior (a-tsDCS). In study 1, electrically elicited cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (eCMEPs) and transcranial magnetic stimulation-elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured in biceps brachii and flexor carpi radialis before, during and after each tsDCS period. In study 2, eCMEPs and magnetically elicited CMEPs (mCMEPs) were measured before, during and after each tsDCS period. For study 3, computational modelling was used to observe possible interactions of cervical tsDCS and electrical

  3. A brush stimulator for functional brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousmäki, V; Nishitani, N; Hari, R

    2007-12-01

    To describe a novel non-magnetic hand-held device to stimulate various parts of the skin and to evaluate its performance in magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings. The hand-held part of the device consists of an optic fiber bundle that forms a small brush. Half of the fibers emit modulated red light and the other half detect the reflected light from the skin so that the brush-to-skin contact is detected by means of reflectance. Light tapping of the back of the hand at the innervation area of the radial nerve elicited clear responses in all 10 subjects studied, with the main deflections peaking 40-70 ms after the stimulus. The earliest responses, obtained with a higher number of averaged trials, peaked 27-28 ms after the tap to the left hand dorsum. Source analysis of the MEG signals indicated neuronal sources at the primary somatosensory (SI) cortex, with a clear somatotopical order for face vs. hand. The device seems feasible for both MEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments to address functional anatomy of the human somatosensory system with a real-life like stimulation. Non-magnetic and artefact-free tactile stimulator with a selective stimulus offers new possibilities for experimental designs to study the human mechanoreceptor system.

  4. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Varela-Nallar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (ANDRO is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  5. Luminescence optically stimulated: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2002-01-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) has occupied an important place in the Solid state physics (FES) by the flexibility of the phenomena, mainly for its applications in the fields of Radiation Physics (FR) and Medical Physics (MF). The reason of this phenomena lies in the fact of the electrons release by the action of heat. Under that same reason, it can be used the action of another stimulant agent for releasing the trapped electrons in the metastable states (EM), this agent is the light which has the same effect that the heat, giving as result the production of light photons at using light in the visible spectra, of different wavelength that the excitation light. This phenomena is called Luminescence optically stimulated (LOE). The LOE has a great impact in the Solid State Physics (FES), dating and now in the use of the phenomena as a dosimetric method, alternate to the Tl, for its use in the ionizing and non-ionizing radiations fields. (Author)

  6. Fetal stimulation by pulsed diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M; Ogburn, P L; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-08-01

    To show that pulsed ultrasound from a clinical ultrasonic imaging system can stimulate the fetus. Stimulation is defined mainly as increased fetal gross body movements in response to excitation. Fetuses of a group of 9 volunteer women (mean gestational age, 33.37 weeks; range, 25-40 weeks) were evaluated for body movement under 3 different conditions: (1) control, with no ultrasound exposure; (2) ultrasound in continuous wave Doppler mode; and (3) pulsed ultrasound in pulsed Doppler and B modes. A conventional external fetal monitor, with negligible ultrasonic output, was used to monitor fetal gross body motions. After an initial rest period of 3 minutes with 1 or no fetal motion, fetuses were monitored for an additional 3 minutes under the exposure criterion defined for each condition. Resulting fetal motions under the 3 conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test showed that fetuses moved significantly more frequently under condition 3 (mean +/- SD, 3.43 +/- 1.93 movements per minute) than under condition 1 (0.40 +/- 7.33 movements per minute) or condition 2 (0.63 +/- 7.67 movements per minute); P = .004 and .016, respectively. Fetal movements under conditions 1 and 2 did not differ significantly. Diagnostic ultrasound may stimulate fetal body motion.

  7. Measured stimulated Raman gain in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopert, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report is about the stimulated Raman effect in methane due to the nu 1 vibration. For various gas pressures between 150 torr and 30 atm, the Raman lineshape function was both experimentally measured and synthesized using a computer model. The stimulated Raman gain was measured by sending a pump laser beam provided by an argon-ion laser and a weak probe beam provided by a tunable dye laser through a cell of methane gas. The stimulated Raman effect caused some of the energy from the pump beam to be transferred to the probe beam. The intensity of the pump beam was low so the gain of the probe beam was on the order of parts per million. A two detector arrangement and a differential amplifier system that had a feedback loop to balance the detectors was constructed to measure the small gains. A detailed description of this detection system that was able to measure gains as small as 0.2 parts per million is provided

  8. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  9. Peripheral nerve stimulator-induced electrostimulation at the P6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    group B) received train-of-four electrical stimulation using the peripheral nerve stimulator (PNS) immediately prior to spinal anaesthesia until the completion of surgery. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was mean arterial ...

  10. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  11. Stimulation of artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua hairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the OGA-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) were involved in stimulating the artemisinin biosynthesis in the hairy roots. This is the first report on the stimulation of artemisinin production in hairy roots by an oligogalacturonide elicitor.

  12. Dynamics of the Alpha Peak Frequency During Flicker Stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Molina, G.; Milanowski ,P.

    2012-01-01

    Repetitive visual stimulation elicits specific brain responses knownas steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEP). The SSVEP manifests as oscillatory components at the stimulation frequency or harmonics in brain signals such as the electroencephalogram (EEG) or magnetoencephalogram. Analysis of

  13. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  14. Analysis of Postural Control Adaptation During Galvanic and Vibratory Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fransson, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate whether the postural control adaptation during galvanic stimulation of the vestibular nerve were similar to that found during vibration stimulation to the calf muscles...

  15. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, D.M.; de Ruiter, C.J.; de Haan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  16. Effect of stimulation intensity on assessment of voluntary activation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. D.M. van Leeuwen; C.J. de Ruiter; A.J. de Haan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The interpolated twitch technique is often used to assess voluntary activation (VA) of skeletal muscles. We investigated VA and the voluntary torque-superimposed torque relationship using either supramaximal nerve stimulation or better tolerated submaximal muscle stimulation, which is

  17. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. A. Akinbo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Primary dysmenorrhoea (PD is definedas the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD.Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes.Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001.Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  18. Effect of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS on hormones profile in subjects with primary dysmenorrhoea - a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. A. Akinbo

    2007-01-01

    as the occurrence of painful menstrual cramps of uterine origin which occurs in the absence of any underlying disease. The pathogenesis is unclear, but uterine hyperactivity, elevated prostaglandin and leukotrienes levels, and hormonal level fluctuations have all been implicated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TENS on the hormones cortisol and prolactin in individuals with PD. Methods: Plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin were studied in twenty-one (21 subjects with PD by obtaining blood samples from each subject pre-and post-TENS therapy on the first day of menstruation. The mean age of subjects was 23 (+ 2 years.  The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS was used to assess the pre-and post-treatment pain intensity.  The TENS unit was applied for a duration of 30 minutes. Results: A paired t-test showed that there was an overall reduction in the mean cortisol and prolactin from  pre treatment values of 28.45µg/dl ((5.27 and 56.81ng/ml ((31.86 to post treatment values of 27.33µg/dl ((5.13 and 53.23ng/ml ((37.63 respectively. However, these differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05.  Pain intensity was significantly reduced comparing pre and post treatment VAS scores (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The probable mechanism by which TENS effected alterations in cortisol and prolactin levels and pain reduction in subjects with PD might be through the opioid-modulating analgesia system, which releases B-endorphins and other endogenous opiates in response to pain.  This is because there is a close relationship between B-endorphin, cortisol and neurons, which secrete dopamine into the hypothalamic-pituitary-portal system.

  19. Functional Electrical Stimulation in Children and Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Marietta

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about functional electrical stimulation in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is defined as the electrical stimulation of muscles that have impaired motor control, in order to produce a contraction to obtain functionally useful movement. It was first proposed in…

  20. Medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bottenberg, E. (Eliza); Brinks, G.J. (Ger); Hesse, J. (Jenny)

    2014-01-01

    The medical back belt with integrated neuromuscular electrical stimulation is anorthopedic device, which has two main functions. The first function is to stimulate the backmuscles by using a neuromuscular electrical stimulation device that releases regular,electrical impulses. The second function of