WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-linguistic stimulation preliminary

  1. Functional MR imaging of cerebral auditory cortex with linguistic and non-linguistic stimulation: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Su Jin; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Shin, Tae Min

    1999-01-01

    To obtain preliminary data for understanding the central auditory neural pathway by means of functional MR imaging (fMRI) of the cerebral auditory cortex during linguistic and non-linguistic auditory stimulation. In three right-handed volunteers we conducted fMRI of auditory cortex stimulation at 1.5 T using a conventional gradient-echo technique (TR/TE/flip angle: 80/60/40 deg). Using a pulsed tone of 1000 Hz and speech as non-linguistic and linguistic auditory stimuli, respectively, images-including those of the superior temporal gyrus of both hemispheres-were obtained in sagittal plases. Both stimuli were separately delivered binaurally or monoaurally through a plastic earphone. Images were activated by processing with homemade software. In order to analyze patterns of auditory cortex activation according to type of stimulus and which side of the ear was stimulated, the number and extent of activated pixels were compared between both temporal lobes. Biaural stimulation led to bilateral activation of the superior temporal gyrus, while monoaural stimulation led to more activation in the contralateral temporal lobe than in the ipsilateral. A trend toward slight activation of the left (dominant) temporal lobe in ipsilateral stimulation, particularly with a linguistic stimulus, was observed. During both biaural and monoaural stimulation, a linguistic stimulus produced more widespread activation than did a non-linguistic one. The superior temporal gyri of both temporal lobes are associated with acoustic-phonetic analysis, and the left (dominant) superior temporal gyrus is likely to play a dominant role in this processing. For better understanding of physiological and pathological central auditory pathways, further investigation is needed

  2. Language dominance shapes non-linguistic rhythmic grouping in bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel; Gervain, Judit

    2016-07-01

    To what degree non-linguistic auditory rhythm perception is governed by universal biases (e.g., Iambic-Trochaic Law; Hayes, 1995) or shaped by native language experience is debated. It has been proposed that rhythmic regularities in spoken language, such as phrasal prosody affect the grouping abilities of monolinguals (e.g., Iversen, Patel, & Ohgushi, 2008). Here, we assessed the non-linguistic tone grouping biases of Spanish monolinguals, and three groups of Basque-Spanish bilinguals with different levels of Basque experience. It is usually assumed in the literature that Basque and Spanish have different phrasal prosodies and even linguistic rhythms. To confirm this, first, we quantified Basque and Spanish phrasal prosody (Experiment 1a) and duration patterns used in the classification of languages into rhythm classes (Experiment 1b). The acoustic measurements revealed that regularities in phrasal prosody systematically differ across Basque and Spanish; by contrast, the rhythms of the two languages are only minimally dissimilar. In Experiment 2, participants' non-linguistic rhythm preferences were assessed in response to non-linguistic tones alternating in either intensity (Intensity condition) or in duration (Duration condition). In the Intensity condition, all groups showed a trochaic grouping bias, as predicted by the Iambic-Trochaic Law. In the Duration Condition the Spanish monolingual and the most Basque-dominant bilingual group exhibited opposite grouping preferences in line with the phrasal prosodies of their native/dominant languages, trochaic in Basque, iambic in Spanish. The two other bilingual groups showed no significant biases, however. Overall, results indicate that duration-based grouping mechanisms are biased toward the phrasal prosody of the native and dominant language; also, the presence of an L2 in the environment interacts with the auditory biases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-linguistic analysis of call center conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Kopparapu, Sunil Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The book focuses on the part of the audio conversation not related to language such as speaking rate (in terms of number of syllables per unit time) and emotion centric features. This text examines using non-linguistics features to infer information from phone calls to call centers. The author analyzes 'how' the conversation happens and not 'what' the conversation is about by audio signal processing and analysis.

  4. Non-Linguistic Vocal Event Detection Using Online Random

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Tan, Zheng-Hua; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    areas such as object detection, face recognition, and audio event detection. This paper proposes to use online random forest technique for detecting laughter and filler and for analyzing the importance of various features for non-linguistic vocal event classification through permutation. The results...... show that according to the Area Under Curve measure the online random forest achieved 88.1% compared to 82.9% obtained by the baseline support vector machines for laughter classification and 86.8% to 83.6% for filler classification....

  5. Mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic major students

    OpenAIRE

    KAPRANCHIKOVA KSENIYA

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses methodological potential of mobile technologies in teaching a foreign language to non-linguistic students. The author a) gives definition of the term "mobile education", b) suggests a list of mobile technologies used in foreign language teaching; c) develops a list of non-linguistic major students'' language abilities and language skills, which can be developed via mobile technologies.

  6. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc.), but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten , or Turkish korkmak 'fear, be afraid' and korkutmak 'frighten, scare', or Finnish istua 'sit' and istutta 'seat (someone)', or Spanish sentarse 'sit down' and sentar 'seat (someone)' is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where 'seat' is derived from 'sit' by addition of a suffix-is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  7. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an element is an attractor are linguistic (auditory salience, ease of processing, paradigm structure, etc., but the factors that make selection possible and propagate selected items through the speech community are non-linguistic. This paper uses the consonants in personal pronouns to show what makes for an attractor and how selection and diffusion work, then presents a survey of several language families and areas showing that the derivational morphology of pairs of verbs like fear and frighten, or Turkish korkmak ‘fear, be afraid’ and korkutmak ‘frighten, scare’, or Finnish istua ‘sit’ and istutta ‘seat (someone’, or Spanish sentarse ‘sit down’ and sentar ‘seat (someone’ is susceptible to selection. Specifically, the Turkish and Finnish pattern, where ‘seat’ is derived from ‘sit’ by addition of a suffix—is an attractor and a favored target of selection. This selection occurs chiefly in sociolinguistic contexts of what is defined here as linguistic symbiosis, where languages mingle in speech, which in turn is favored by certain demographic, sociocultural, and environmental factors here termed frontier conditions. Evidence is surveyed from northern Eurasia, the Caucasus, North and Central America, and the Pacific and from both modern and ancient languages to raise the hypothesis that frontier conditions and symbiosis favor causativization.

  8. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    ‘symbol’, non-verbal form’ and ‘non-linguistic form’ – are they synonymous designations of one data category or do they designate diff erent data categories? In the presentation we will discuss defi nitions from e.g. ISOcat, ISO 704:2009 and the DanTermBank taxonomy of terminological data categories......, and we will present some thoughts about the relevance of non-linguistic information in a national term bank....

  9. The Use of Non-linguistic Data in a Terminology and Knowledge Bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bodil Nistrup

    2016-01-01

    is carried out at Copenhagen Business School, will be introduced. In order to illustrate the need for a taxonomy for terminological data, some examples from the Data Category Registry of ISO TC 37 (ISOcat) will be given, and the taxonomy which has been developed for the DanTermBank project will be compared...... to the structure of ISOcat, the first printed standard comprising data categories for terminology management, ISO 12620:1999, and other standards from ISO TC 37. Finally some examples of linguistic and non-linguistic representations of concepts which we plan to introduce into the DanTermBank will be presented.......This paper will discuss definitions and give examples of linguistic and non -linguistic representation of concepts in a terminology and knowledge bank, and it will be argued that there is a need for a taxonomy of terminological data categories. As a background the DanTermBank project, which...

  10. CONDITIONS FOR OVERCOMING COMMUNICATION-LANGUAGE BARRIERS IN THE SYSTEM OF NON-LINGUISTIC HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Olegovna Polyakova

    2016-01-01

    Results. Results of our scientific work are such conditions should be implemented based on the principle of «vertical integration», covering the social levels of the customer of higher education (economic sector, national systems of higher education, the University, the faculty, the chair. Practical implications. Presents a set of tools that is effective in solving problems of communication-language barriers of future specialists of non-linguistic profile.

  11. Thresholds of visibility for masked lexical, non-lexical, and non-linguistic items in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JoAnn P Silkes

    2015-04-01

    Data collected to date demonstrate a clear difference between individuals with and without aphasia in their ability to perceive masked real words, but there appears to be no difference between groups for non-words and non-linguistic stimuli, although a trend is seen for these groups. Given the high variability for the NW and NL conditions, these analyses may be underpowered; therefore, data collection is ongoing and a clearer picture should be available by the time of presentation. Regardless of the eventual outcome, this poster will discuss the theoretical motivation for the study, and will discuss the possible implications for understanding the nature of underlying deficits in aphasia.

  12. Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on Pain Distress Tolerance: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y; van't Wout, Mascha; Jacobson, Benjamin L; Garnaat, Sarah L; Kirschner, Jason L; Rasmussen, Steven A; Greenberg, Benjamin D

    2015-08-01

    Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal ("inhibitory") stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli vs anodal stimulation. Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal vs anodal stimulation (P = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (P = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (P = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all P tDCS (P = 0.072). Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary

    2018-01-01

    Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  14. Non-linguistic learning and aphasia: Evidence from a paired associate and feedback-based task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Though aphasia is primarily characterized by impairments in the comprehension and/or expression of language, research has shown that patients with aphasia also show deficits in cognitive-linguistic domains such as attention, executive function, concept knowledge and memory (Helm-Estabrooks, 2002 for review). Research in aphasia suggests that cognitive impairments can impact the online construction of language, new verbal learning, and transactional success (Freedman & Martin, 2001; Hula & McNeil, 2008; Ramsberger, 2005). In our research, we extend this hypothesis to suggest that general cognitive deficits influence progress with therapy. The aim of our study is to explore learning, a cognitive process that is integral to relearning language, yet underexplored in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. We examine non-linguistic category learning in patients with aphasia (n=19) and in healthy controls (n=12), comparing feedback and non-feedback based instruction. Participants complete two computer-based learning tasks that require them to categorize novel animals based on the percentage of features shared with one of two prototypes. As hypothesized, healthy controls showed successful category learning following both methods of instruction. In contrast, only 60% of our patient population demonstrated successful non-linguistic category learning. Patient performance was not predictable by standardized measures of cognitive ability. Results suggest that general learning is affected in aphasia and is a unique, important factor to consider in the field of aphasia rehabilitation. PMID:23127795

  15. Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed. PMID:23695914

  16. Dissociating linguistic and non-linguistic gesture processing: electrophysiological evidence from American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-04-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language sentences, each consisting of a "frame" (a sentence without the last word; e.g. BOY SLEEP IN HIS) followed by a "last item" belonging to one of four categories: a high-close-probability sign (a "semantically reasonable" completion to the sentence; e.g. BED), a low-close-probability sign (a real sign that is nonetheless a "semantically odd" completion to the sentence; e.g. LEMON), a pseudo-sign (phonologically legal but non-lexical form), or a non-linguistic grooming gesture (e.g. the performer scratching her face). We found significant N400-like responses in the incongruent and pseudo-sign contexts, while the gestures elicited a large positivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Implicit learning of non-linguistic and linguistic regularities in children with dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-07-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been investigated through non-linguistic tasks exploring implicit learning in a general domain. In this study, we examined the abilities of children with dyslexia to implicitly acquire positional regularities embedded in both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. In experiment 1, 42 children (21 with dyslexia and 21 typically developing) were exposed to rule-governed shape sequences; whereas in experiment 2, a new group of 42 children were exposed to rule-governed letter strings. Implicit learning was assessed in both experiments via a forced-choice task. Experiments 1 and 2 showed a similar pattern of results. ANOVA analyses revealed no significant differences between the dyslexic and the typically developing group, indicating that children with dyslexia are not impaired in the acquisition of simple positional regularities, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. However, within group t-tests suggested that children from the dyslexic group could not transfer the underlying positional rules to novel instances as efficiently as typically developing children.

  18. Working Memory for Linguistic and Non-linguistic Manual Gestures: Evidence, Theory, and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Rudner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic manual gestures are the basis of sign languages used by deaf individuals. Working memory and language processing are intimately connected and thus when language is gesture-based, it is important to understand related working memory mechanisms. This article reviews work on working memory for linguistic and non-linguistic manual gestures and discusses theoretical and applied implications. Empirical evidence shows that there are effects of load and stimulus degradation on working memory for manual gestures. These effects are similar to those found for working memory for speech-based language. Further, there are effects of pre-existing linguistic representation that are partially similar across language modalities. But above all, deaf signers score higher than hearing non-signers on an n-back task with sign-based stimuli, irrespective of their semantic and phonological content, but not with non-linguistic manual actions. This pattern may be partially explained by recent findings relating to cross-modal plasticity in deaf individuals. It suggests that in linguistic gesture-based working memory, semantic aspects may outweigh phonological aspects when processing takes place under challenging conditions. The close association between working memory and language development should be taken into account in understanding and alleviating the challenges faced by deaf children growing up with cochlear implants as well as other clinical populations.

  19. Cross-cultural decoding of positive and negative non-linguistic emotion vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Elfenbein, Hillary Anger; Söder, Nela; Nordström, Henrik; Althoff, Jean; Chui, Wanda; Iraki, Frederick K; Rockstuhl, Thomas; Thingujam, Nutankumar S

    2013-01-01

    Which emotions are associated with universally recognized non-verbal signals?We address this issue by examining how reliably non-linguistic vocalizations (affect bursts) can convey emotions across cultures. Actors from India, Kenya, Singapore, and USA were instructed to produce vocalizations that would convey nine positive and nine negative emotions to listeners. The vocalizations were judged by Swedish listeners using a within-valence forced-choice procedure, where positive and negative emotions were judged in separate experiments. Results showed that listeners could recognize a wide range of positive and negative emotions with accuracy above chance. For positive emotions, we observed the highest recognition rates for relief, followed by lust, interest, serenity and positive surprise, with affection and pride receiving the lowest recognition rates. Anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and negative surprise received the highest recognition rates for negative emotions, with the lowest rates observed for guilt and shame. By way of summary, results showed that the voice can reveal both basic emotions and several positive emotions other than happiness across cultures, but self-conscious emotions such as guilt, pride, and shame seem not to be well recognized from non-linguistic vocalizations.

  20. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Wojtecki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD.

  1. Effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on pain distress tolerance: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Timothy Y.; Wout, Mascha van’t; Jacobson, Benjamin L.; Garnaat, Sarah L.; Kirschner, Jason L.; Rasmussen, Steven A.; Greenberg, Benjamin D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pain remains a critical medical challenge. Current treatments target nociception without addressing affective symptoms. Medically intractable pain is sometimes treated with cingulotomy or deep brain stimulation to increase tolerance of pain-related distress. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may noninvasively modulate cortical areas related to sensation and pain representations. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that cathodal (“inhibitory”) stimulation targeting left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) would increase tolerance to distress from acute painful stimuli versus anodal stimulation. Methods Forty healthy volunteers received both anodal and cathodal stimulation. During stimulation, we measured pain distress tolerance with three tasks: pressure algometer, cold pressor, and breath holding. We measured pain intensity with a visual-analog scale before and after each task. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed that mean cold pressor tolerance tended to be higher with cathodal versus anodal stimulation (p = 0.055) for participants self-completing the task. Pressure algometer (p = 0.81) and breath holding tolerance (p = 0.19) did not significantly differ. The pressure algometer exhibited a statistically significant order effect irrespective of stimulation polarity (all p Pain intensity ratings increased acutely after cold pressor and pressure algometer tasks (both p pain ratings tended to rise less after cathodal versus anodal tDCS (p = 0.072). Conclusions Although our primary results were nonsignificant, there is a preliminary suggestion that cathodal tDCS targeting left dACC may increase pain distress tolerance to cold pressor. Pressure algometer results are consistent with task-related sensitization. Future studies are needed to refine this novel approach for pain neuromodulation. PMID:26115372

  2. Effects of sensitive electrical stimulation based cueing in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Sijobert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD. 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU. An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD.

  3. Infant auditory short-term memory for non-linguistic sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Newman, Rochelle S

    2015-04-01

    This research explores auditory short-term memory (STM) capacity for non-linguistic sounds in 10-month-old infants. Infants were presented with auditory streams composed of repeating sequences of either 2 or 4 unique instruments (e.g., flute, piano, cello; 350 or 700 ms in duration) followed by a 500-ms retention interval. These instrument sequences either stayed the same for every repetition (Constant) or changed by 1 instrument per sequence (Varying). Using the head-turn preference procedure, infant listening durations were recorded for each stream type (2- or 4-instrument sequences composed of 350- or 700-ms notes). Preference for the Varying stream was taken as evidence of auditory STM because detection of the novel instrument required memory for all of the instruments in a given sequence. Results demonstrate that infants listened longer to Varying streams for 2-instrument sequences, but not 4-instrument sequences, composed of 350-ms notes (Experiment 1), although this effect did not hold when note durations were increased to 700 ms (Experiment 2). Experiment 3 replicates and extends results from Experiments 1 and 2 and provides support for a duration account of capacity limits in infant auditory STM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as an adjuvant method in the treatment of depression: Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a method of brain stimulation which is increasingly used in both clinical practice and research. Up-to-date studies have pointed out a potential antidepressive effect of rTMS, but definitive superiority over placebo has not yet been confirmed. Objective. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of rTMS as an adjuvant treatment with antidepressants during 18 weeks of evaluation starting from the initial application of the protocol. Methods. Four patients with the diagnosis of moderate/severe major depression were included in the study. The protocol involved 2000 stimuli per day (rTMS frequency of 10 Hz, intensity of 120% motor threshold administered over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC for 15 days. Subjective and objective depressive symptoms were measured before the initiation of rTMS and repeatedly evaluated at week 3, 6, 12 and 18 from the beginning of the stimulation. Results. After completion of rTMS protocol two patients demonstrated a reduction of depressive symptoms that was sustained throughout the 15-week follow-up period. One patient showed a tendency of remission during the first 12 weeks of the study, but relapsed in week 18. One patient showed no significant symptom reduction at any point of follow-up. Conclusion. Preliminary findings suggest that rTMS has a good tolerability and can be efficient in accelerating the effect of antidepressants, particularly in individuals with shorter duration of depressive episodes and moderate symptom severity. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III41029 i br. ON175090

  5. Effects of emotionally charged auditory stimulation on gait performance in the elderly: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Raghavan, Preeti; McCrery, J R; Oh-Park, Mooyeon; Verghese, Joe

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a novel divided attention task-walking under auditory constraints-on gait performance in older adults and to determine whether this effect was moderated by cognitive status. Validation cohort. General community. Ambulatory older adults without dementia (N=104). Not applicable. In this pilot study, we evaluated walking under auditory constraints in 104 older adults who completed 3 pairs of walking trials on a gait mat under 1 of 3 randomly assigned conditions: 1 pair without auditory stimulation and 2 pairs with emotionally charged auditory stimulation with happy or sad sounds. The mean age of subjects was 80.6±4.9 years, and 63% (n=66) were women. The mean velocity during normal walking was 97.9±20.6cm/s, and the mean cadence was 105.1±9.9 steps/min. The effect of walking under auditory constraints on gait characteristics was analyzed using a 2-factorial analysis of variance with a 1-between factor (cognitively intact and minimal cognitive impairment groups) and a 1-within factor (type of auditory stimuli). In both happy and sad auditory stimulation trials, cognitively intact older adults (n=96) showed an average increase of 2.68cm/s in gait velocity (F1.86,191.71=3.99; P=.02) and an average increase of 2.41 steps/min in cadence (F1.75,180.42=10.12; Pactivities of daily living accounted for these differences. Our results provide preliminary evidence of the differentiating effect of emotionally charged auditory stimuli on gait performance in older individuals with minimal cognitive impairment compared with those without minimal cognitive impairment. A divided attention task using emotionally charged auditory stimuli might be able to elicit compensatory improvement in gait performance in cognitively intact older individuals, but lead to decompensation in those with minimal cognitive impairment. Further investigation is needed to compare gait performance under this task to gait on other dual-task paradigms and to separately examine the

  6. Safety and feasibility of transcranial direct current stimulation in pediatric hemiparesis: randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillick, Bernadette T; Feyma, Tim; Menk, Jeremiah; Usset, Michelle; Vaith, Amy; Wood, Teddi Jean; Worthington, Rebecca; Krach, Linda E

    2015-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that has shown improved adult stroke outcomes. Applying tDCS in children with congenital hemiparesis has not yet been explored. The primary objective of this study was to explore the safety and feasibility of single-session tDCS through an adverse events profile and symptom assessment within a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled preliminary study in children with congenital hemiparesis. A secondary objective was to assess the stability of hand and cognitive function. A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled pretest/posttest/follow-up study was conducted. The study was conducted in a university pediatric research laboratory. Thirteen children, ages 7 to 18 years, with congenital hemiparesis participated. Adverse events/safety assessment and hand function were measured. Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a control group, with safety and functional assessments at pretest, at posttest on the same day, and at a 1-week follow-up session. An intervention of 10 minutes of 0.7 mA tDCS was applied to bilateral primary motor cortices. The tDCS intervention was considered safe if there was no individual decline of 25% or group decline of 2 standard deviations for motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and behavioral data and no report of adverse events. No major adverse events were found, including no seizures. Two participants did not complete the study due to lack of MEP and discomfort. For the 11 participants who completed the study, group differences in MEPs and behavioral data did not exceed 2 standard deviations in those who received the tDCS (n=5) and those in the control group (n=6). The study was completed without the need for stopping per medical monitor and biostatisticial analysis. A limitation of the study was the small sample size, with data available for 11 participants. Based on the results of this study, tDCS appears to be safe

  7. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Roth, Yiftach; Kotler, Moshe; Zangen, Abraham; Dannon, Pinhas

    2011-02-09

    Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel) ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session) to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS) as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS), Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2%) and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%). In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096).

  8. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of auditory hallucinations: a preliminary open-label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangen Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a chronic and disabling disease that presents with delusions and hallucinations. Auditory hallucinations are usually expressed as voices speaking to or about the patient. Previous studies have examined the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS over the temporoparietal cortex on auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Our aim was to explore the potential effect of deep TMS, using the H coil over the same brain region on auditory hallucinations. Patients and methods Eight schizophrenic patients with refractory auditory hallucinations were recruited, mainly from Beer Ya'akov Mental Health Institution (Tel Aviv university, Israel ambulatory clinics, as well as from other hospitals outpatient populations. Low-frequency deep TMS was applied for 10 min (600 pulses per session to the left temporoparietal cortex for either 10 or 20 sessions. Deep TMS was applied using Brainsway's H1 coil apparatus. Patients were evaluated using the Auditory Hallucinations Rating Scale (AHRS as well as the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores (SAPS, Clinical Global Impressions (CGI scale, and the Scale for Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS. Results This preliminary study demonstrated a significant improvement in AHRS score (an average reduction of 31.7% ± 32.2% and to a lesser extent improvement in SAPS results (an average reduction of 16.5% ± 20.3%. Conclusions In this study, we have demonstrated the potential of deep TMS treatment over the temporoparietal cortex as an add-on treatment for chronic auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic patients. Larger samples in a double-blind sham-controlled design are now being preformed to evaluate the effectiveness of deep TMS treatment for auditory hallucinations. Trial registration This trial is registered with clinicaltrials.gov (identifier: NCT00564096.

  9. The CCH Vision Stimulation Program for Infants with Low Vision: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leguire, L. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated the Columbus (Ohio) Children's Hospital vision stimulation program, involving in-home intervention with 15 visually impaired infants. Comparison with controls indicated benefits of appropriate vision stimulation in increasing the neural foundation for vision and visual-motor function in visually impaired infants. (Author/DB)

  10. Reflections on Addiction in Students Using Stimulants for Neuroenhancement: A Preliminary Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hildt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants—the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis—reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction.

  11. Preliminary findings of cerebral responses on transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation on experimental heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usichenko, Taras; Laqua, René; Leutzow, Bianca; Lotze, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (TVNS) is a promising complementary method of pain relief. However, the neural networks associated with its analgesic effects are still to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, in a randomized order, with twenty healthy subjects who were exposed to experimental heat pain stimulation applied to the right forearm using a Contact Heat-Evoked Potential Stimulator. While in one session TVNS was administered bilaterally to the concha auriculae with maximal, non-painful intensity, the stimulation device was switched off in the other session (placebo condition). Pain thresholds were measured before and after each session. Heat stimulation elicited fMRI activation in cerebral pain processing regions. Activation magnitude in the secondary somatosensory cortex, posterior insula, anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus was associated with heat stimulation without TVNS. During TVNS, this association was only seen for the right anterior insula. TVNS decreased fMRI signals in the anterior cingulate cortex in comparison with the placebo condition; however, there was no relevant pain reducing effect over the group as a whole. In contrast, TVNS compared to the placebo condition showed an increased activation in the primary motor cortex, contralateral to the site of heat stimulation, and in the right amygdala. In conclusion, in the protocol used here, TVNS specifically modulated the cerebral response to heat pain, without having a direct effect on pain thresholds.

  12. Children with speech sound disorder: Comparing a non-linguistic auditory approach with a phonological intervention approach to improve phonological skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMurphy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of a non-linguistic auditory intervention approach with a phonological intervention approach on the phonological skills of children with speech sound disorder. A total of 17 children, aged 7-12 years, with speech sound disorder were randomly allocated to either the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention group (n = 10, average age 7.7 ± 1.2 or phonological intervention group (n = 7, average age 8.6 ± 1.2. The intervention outcomes included auditory-sensory measures (auditory temporal processing skills and cognitive measures (attention, short-term memory, speech production and phonological awareness skills. The auditory approach focused on non-linguistic auditory training (eg. backward masking and frequency discrimination, whereas the phonological approach focused on speech sound training (eg. phonological organisation and awareness. Both interventions consisted of twelve 45-minute sessions delivered twice per week, for a total of nine hours. Intra-group analysis demonstrated that the auditory intervention group showed significant gains in both auditory and cognitive measures, whereas no significant gain was observed in the phonological intervention group. No significant improvement on phonological skills was observed in any of the groups. Inter-group analysis demonstrated significant differences between the improvement following training for both groups, with a more pronounced gain for the non-linguistic auditory temporal intervention in one of the visual attention measures and both auditory measures. Therefore, both analyses suggest that although the non-linguistic auditory intervention approach appeared to be the most effective intervention approach, it was not sufficient to promote the enhancement of phonological skills.

  13. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuculano, Teresa; Cohen Kadosh, Roi

    2014-01-01

    Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD), which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small-yet constant-current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES). Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The first subject (DD1) received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance's improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2) received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i) automaticity of number processing; and (ii) mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation, and education.

  14. Preliminary evidence for performance enhancement following parietal lobe stimulation in Developmental Dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eIuculano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nearly 7% of the population exhibit difficulties in dealing with numbers and performing arithmetic, a condition named Developmental Dyscalculia (DD, which significantly affects the educational and professional outcomes of these individuals, as it often persists into adulthood. Research has mainly focused on behavioral rehabilitation, while little is known about performance changes and neuroplasticity induced by the concurrent application of brain-behavioral approaches. It has been shown that numerical proficiency can be enhanced by applying a small – yet constant – current through the brain, a non-invasive technique named transcranial electrical stimulation (tES. Here we combined a numerical learning paradigm with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in two adults with DD to assess the potential benefits of this methodology to remediate their numerical difficulties. Subjects learned to associate artificial symbols to numerical quantities within the context of a trial and error paradigm, while tDCS was applied to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC. The first subject (DD1 received anodal stimulation to the right PPC and cathodal stimulation to the left PPC, which has been associated with numerical performance’s improvements in healthy subjects. The second subject (DD2 received anodal stimulation to the left PPC and cathodal stimulation to the right PPC, which has been shown to impair numerical performance in healthy subjects. We examined two indices of numerical proficiency: (i automaticity of number processing; and (ii mapping of numbers onto space. Our results are opposite to previous findings with non-dyscalculic subjects. Only anodal stimulation to the left PPC improved both indices of numerical proficiency. These initial results represent an important step to inform the rehabilitation of developmental learning disabilities, and have relevant applications for basic and applied research in cognitive neuroscience, rehabilitation

  15. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Lopez-Alonso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1 on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI. We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, paired associative stimulation (PAS25, and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS, along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28 were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online, 1 day after training (consolidation, and 1 week after training (retention. We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning.

  16. A Preliminary Comparison of Motor Learning Across Different Non-invasive Brain Stimulation Paradigms Shows No Consistent Modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Alonso, Virginia; Liew, Sook-Lei; Fernández del Olmo, Miguel; Cheeran, Binith; Sandrini, Marco; Abe, Mitsunari; Cohen, Leonardo G.

    2018-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been widely explored as a way to safely modulate brain activity and alter human performance for nearly three decades. Research using NIBS has grown exponentially within the last decade with promising results across a variety of clinical and healthy populations. However, recent work has shown high inter-individual variability and a lack of reproducibility of previous results. Here, we conducted a small preliminary study to explore the effects of three of the most commonly used excitatory NIBS paradigms over the primary motor cortex (M1) on motor learning (Sequential Visuomotor Isometric Pinch Force Tracking Task) and secondarily relate changes in motor learning to changes in cortical excitability (MEP amplitude and SICI). We compared anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), paired associative stimulation (PAS25), and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS), along with a sham tDCS control condition. Stimulation was applied prior to motor learning. Participants (n = 28) were randomized into one of the four groups and were trained on a skilled motor task. Motor learning was measured immediately after training (online), 1 day after training (consolidation), and 1 week after training (retention). We did not find consistent differential effects on motor learning or cortical excitability across groups. Within the boundaries of our small sample sizes, we then assessed effect sizes across the NIBS groups that could help power future studies. These results, which require replication with larger samples, are consistent with previous reports of small and variable effect sizes of these interventions on motor learning. PMID:29740271

  17. A Preliminary Report on Disordered Speech with Deep Brain Stimulation in Individuals with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dromey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN has proven effective in treating the major motor symptoms of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD. The aim of this study was to learn which laryngeal and articulatory acoustic features changed in patients who were reported to have worse speech with stimulation. Six volunteers with PD who had bilateral STN electrodes were recorded with DBS turned on or off. Perceptual ratings reflected poorer speech performance with DBS on. Acoustic measures of articulation (corner vowel formants, diphthong slopes, and a spirantization index and phonation (perturbation, long-term average spectrum as well as verbal fluency scores showed mixed results with DBS. Some speakers improved while others became worse on individual measures. The magnitude of DBS effects was not predictable based on the patients' demographic characteristics. Future research involving adjustments to stimulator settings or electrode placement may be beneficial in limiting the negative effects of DBS on speech.

  18. Spinal Cord Stimulation in Failed Back Surgery Syndrome: Effects on Posture and Gait—A Preliminary 3D Biomechanical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Brugliera

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied 8 patients with spinal cord stimulation (SCS devices which had been previously implanted to treat neuropathic chronic pain secondary to Failed Back Surgery Syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of SCS on posture and gait by means of clinical scales (Short Form Health Survey-36, Visual Analogue Scale for pain, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and instrumented evaluation with 3D Gait Analysis using a stereophotogrammetric system. The latter was performed with the SCS device turned both OFF and ON. We recorded gait and posture using the Davis protocol and also trunk movement during flexion-extension on the sagittal plane, lateral bending on the frontal plane, and rotation on the transversal plane. During and 30 minutes after the stimulation, not only the clinical scales but also spatial-temporal gait parameters and trunk movements improved significantly. Improvement was not shown under stimulation-OFF conditions. Our preliminary data suggest that SCS has the potential to improve posture and gait and to provide a window of pain-free opportunity to optimize rehabilitation interventions.

  19. Epidural cortical stimulation as adjunctive treatment for non-fluent aphasia: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R; Erickson, Robert K; Small, Steven L

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the safety and feasibility of targeted epidural cortical stimulation delivered concurrently with intensive speech-language therapy for treatment of chronic non-fluent aphasia. Eight stroke survivors with non-fluent aphasia received intensive behavioural therapy for 3 h daily for 6 weeks using a combination of articulation drills, oral reading and conversational practice. Four of these participants (investigational participants) also underwent functional MRI guided surgical implantation of an epidural stimulation device which was activated only during therapy sessions. Behavioural data were collected before treatment, immediately after treatment and at 6 and 12 weeks following termination of therapy. Imaging data were collected before and after treatment. Investigational participants showed a mean Aphasia Quotient change of 8.0 points immediately post-therapy and at the 6 week follow-up, and 12.3 points at 12 weeks. The control group had changes of 4.6, 5.5 and 3.6 points, respectively. Similar changes were noted on subjective caregiver ratings. Functional imaging suggested increased consolidation of activity in interventional participants. Behavioural speech-language therapy improves non-fluent aphasia, independent of cortical stimulation. However, epidural stimulation of the ipsilesional premotor cortex may augment this effect, with the largest effects after completion of therapy. The neural mechanisms underlying these effects are manifested in the brain by decreases in the volume of activity globally and in particular regions. Although the number of participants enrolled in this trial precludes definitive conclusions, targeted epidural cortical stimulation appears safe and may be a feasible adjunctive treatment for non-fluent aphasia, particularly when the aphasia is more severe.

  20. Laser-Induced Evoked Potentials in the Brain after Nonperceptible Optical Stimulation at the Neiguan Acupoint: A Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on small but reproducible human cerebral evoked potentials after bilateral nonperceptible laser needle (658 nm, 40 mW, 500 μm, 1 Hz irradiation of the Neiguan acupoint (PC6. The results which are unique in scientific literature were obtained in a 26-year-old female healthy volunteer within a joint study between the Medical University of Graz, the Karl-Franzens University of Graz, and the Graz University of Technology. The findings of the 32-channel evoked potential analysis indicate that exposure to laser needle stimulation with a frequency of 1 Hz can modulate the ascending reticular activating system. Further studies are absolutely necessary to confirm or refute the preliminary findings.

  1. Home electrical stimulation for women with fecal incontinence: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zubary, Nira; Gingold-Belfer, Rachel; Lambort, Inna; Wasserberg, Nir; Krissi, Haim; Levy, Sigal; Niv, Yaron; Dickman, Ram

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness and cost of home electrical stimulation and standardized biofeedback training in females with fecal incontinence Thirty-six females suffering from fecal incontinence were randomized into two groups, matched for mean age (67.45 ± 7.2 years), mean body mass index (kg/m2) (26.2 ± 3.9), mean disease duration (4.1 ± 0.8 years), mean number of births (2.7 ± 1.3), and reports of obstetric trauma (25%). Questionnaires were used to evaluate their demographics, medical, and childbearing history. Subjects were randomized to home electrical stimulation or standardized biofeedback training for a period of 6 weeks. Subjective outcome measures included the frequency of fecal, urine, and gas incontinence by visual analog scale, Vaizey incontinence score, and subjects' levels of fecal incontinence related anxiety. Objective outcome measures included pelvic floor muscle strength assessed by surface electromyography. We also compared the cost of each treatment modality. Only females who received home electrical stimulation (HES) reported a significant improvement in Vaizey incontinence score (p = 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.046), and in frequency of leaked solid stool (p = 0.013). A significant improvement in pelvic floor muscle strength was achieved by both groups. HES was much cheaper compared to the cost of standardized biofeedback training (SBT) (US $100 vs. US $220, respectively). Our study comprised a small female population, and the study endpoints did not include objective measures of anorectal function test, such as anorectal manometry, before and after treatment. Home electrical stimulation may offer an alternative to standardized biofeedback training as it is effective and generally well-tolerated therapy for females with fecal incontinence.

  2. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia: a preliminary efficacy and mechanisms-based investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Shea; Cramp, Fiona; Propert, Kate; Godfrey, Helen

    2009-09-01

    To determine the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and transcutaneous spinal electroanalgesia (TSE) on mechanical pain threshold (MPT) and vibration threshold (VT). A prospective, single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Laboratory based. Thirty-four healthy volunteers (12 men and 22 women; mean age+/-standard deviation 30+/-8 years). Exclusion criteria were conditions affecting upper limb sensation and contraindications to electrical stimulation. Participants were allocated at random to receive TENS (n=8), TSE (n=8), placebo (n=9) or control (n=9). Electrical stimulation was applied for 30 minutes (from time 18 minutes to 48 minutes) via electrodes (5 cmx5 cm) placed centrally above and below the space between the C6 and C7 spinous processes, with 5 cm between electrodes. MPT (using an algometer) and VT (using a vibrameter) were recorded on seven occasions from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the right hand - at baseline (0 minutes) and then at 10-minute intervals until the end of the 60-minute testing period. There were no statistically significant group differences in MPT (all p>0.05). Significant group differences in VT were found at 20, 30 and 40 minutes (all ptests showed that the TENS group had significantly greater VT than both the placebo [median difference 0.30 microm, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.05 to 0.66] and control (0.51 microm, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.97) groups at 20 minutes, and significantly greater VT than the control group (0.69 microm, 95% CI 0.20 to 1.17) at 30 minutes (all p<0.008). Electrical stimulation did not alter MPT. The increase in VT during TENS may be due to distraction or antidromic block of large-diameter nerve fibres. TSE failed to alter either outcome measure significantly.

  3. Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice Using Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Alexandria; Zenitsky, Gary; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive surgery-free tool used to stimulate the brain by time-varying magnetic fields. TMS is currently being investigated as a treatment for neurological disorders such as depression, Parkinson's disease and TBI. Before moving to human TMS/TBI trials, animal testing should be pursued to determine suitability and adverse effects. As an initial study, four healthy mice were treated with TMS at different power levels to determine short-term behavioral effects and set a control group baseline. The mouse's behavior was studied using the Rotorod test, which measures the animal's latency to fall off a rotating rod, and the Versamax test, which measures horizontal and vertical movement, and total distance traveled. The Rotorod test has shown for TMS power levels >=90% the mice begin to fall directly post-treatment. Similarly, the Versamax test has shown for power levels >=80% the mice are less mobile directly post-treatment. Versamax mobility was found to return to normal the day following treatment. These mice were housed in the facility for 4 months and the behavioral tests were repeated. Versamax results showed there was no significant variation in mobility indicating there are no long-term side effects of TMS treatment on the mice. This work was supported by the Barbara and James Palmer Endowment and the Carver Charitable Trust at the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University.

  4. Chemical stimulation in unconventional hydrocarbons extraction in the USA: a preliminary environmental risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutra, Emilie; Spada, Matteo; Burgherr, Peter

    2016-04-01

    While the exploitation of unconventional resources recently shows an extensive development, the stimulation techniques in use in this domain arouse growing public concerns. Often in the shadow of the disputed hydraulic fracturing process, the matrix acidizing is however a complementary or alternative procedure to enhance the reservoir connectivity. Although acidizing processes are widespread within the traditional hydrocarbons sources exploration, the matrix acidizing does not appear to be commonly used in unconventional hydrocarbons formations due to their low permeability. Nonetheless, this process has been recently applied to the Monterey formation, a shale oil play in California. These stimulation fluids are composed by various chemicals, what represents a matter of concern for public as well as for authorities. As a consequence, a risk assessment implying an exposure and toxicity analysis is needed. Focusing on site surface accidents, e.g., leak of a chemical from a storage tank, we develop in this study concentration scenarios for different exposure pathways to estimate the potential environmental risk associated with the use of specific hazardous substances in the matrix acidizing process for unconventional hydrocarbon reservoirs in the USA. Primary, information about the usage of different hazardous substances have been collected in order to extract the most frequently used chemicals. Afterwards, a probabilistic estimation of the environmental risk associated with the use of these chemicals is carried out by comparing the Predicted Environmental Concentrations (PEC) distribution with the Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNEC) value. The latter is collected from a literature review, whereas the PEC is estimated as probability distribution concentrations in different environmental compartments (e.g., soil) built upon various predefined accident scenarios. By applying a probabilistic methodology for the concentrations, the level at which the used chemicals

  5. Potential of intestinal electrical stimulation for obesity: a preliminary canine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jieyun; Ouyang, Hui; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2007-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of intestinal electrical stimulation (IES) for obesity. Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of IES on food intake, gastric tone, gastric accommodation, and its possible pathway. Ten normal dogs and six dogs with truncal vagotomy were used in this study. Each dog was equipped with a gastric cannula for the measurement of gastric tone and accommodation by barostat and one pair of duodenal serosal electrodes for IES. The experiment on food intake was composed of both control session without IES and IES session after a 28-hour fast. The experiment on gastric tone and accommodation was performed in the fasting and fed states and composed of three sessions: control, IES, and IES with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine. IES significantly reduced food intake in the normal dogs (459.0 vs. 312.6 grams, p < 0.001). The food intake was negatively correlated with the fasting gastric volume during IES. IES significantly decreased fasting gastric tone in the normal dogs reflected as a decrease in gastric volume (89.1 vs. 261.3 mL, p < 0.01), which was abolished by vagotomy and N(G)-nitro-l-arginine. IES reduces food intake and inhibits gastric tone in the fasting state. The inhibitory effect of IES on gastric tone is mediated by both vagal and nitrergic pathway.

  6. Treatment of Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia with Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS:A Preliminary Result

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Akdeniz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Unilateral or bilateral testicular pain lasting more than 3 months is called as chronic orchialgia. Aproximately 25-50% of chronic orchialgia is idiopatic origin. This study aimed the effectiveness of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS therapy due to Idiopathic Chronic Orchialgia (ICO. Methods: Five patients were included into this study with ICO that diagnosed with physical examination, urine analyses, urinary system x-ray film, and scrotal doppler ultrasound. Medical history revealed that multiple conservative therapy attempts failed to alleviate the pain. Two of the patients had right sided ICO. Traditional TENS device is placed to the most painful points. TENS applied 3 times in a week with duration 30 minutes for 4 weeks. Before and after TENS application, patients were evaluated by using Visual Analog Scale (VAS at first and third months. Results: Median age of patients was 26.20±2.38 (22-30. Mean VAS value was 6.52 ± 0.89 before the procedure. After 1 month VAS value was 3.82 ± 0.83 (p0.05. None of the patients needed any analgesics after during the one month. No complications, hyperemia or hypoesthesia of the scrotal or penile skin, occurred after the procedure. Conclusion: TENS reduces pain by increasing endorphin release in the spinal cord dorsal horn. TENS is very effective method for first 1 month in patients with ICO but its effect reduces by the time. There is no standard therapeutic protocol for idiopathic chronic orchialgia. Therefore TENS may be an alternative for patients who do not benefit from medical therapy and do not want invasive procedures. Short-term use of TENS and low number of the patients are the limitations of this study. Randomized, placebo-controlled, and longer follow-up period studies are needed to better assess the efficacy of TENS for ICO.

  7. Isolated low follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males – a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Salama

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH in infertile males received a significant attention and exploration. Studies investigating the isolated deficiency of FSH in males are few, and its real prevalence is still unknown. Therefore, the objectives of the current study was to report the prevalence of isolated low FSH in infertile males and highlight their demographics and standard sperm parameters. Methods: Records of 3335 infertile men were retrospectively checked. Patients with isolated low FSH were retrieved. FSH levels were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of affected sperm parameter (s. Study variables were also arranged into 2 groups in relation to smoking history. A control group was included to document the changes in sperm morphology. Results: Isolated low FSH (1.146 ± 0.219 mIU/mL was found in 29 (0.87% patients. All patients showed at least one abnormal sperm parameter. The abnormal parameters were present in different combinations within the same patient but with no significant correlations with the FSH levels. The FSH levels got lower as the number of the affected sperm parameters increased although the decline was insignificant. The most frequent abnormal parameter presented was sperm morphology (86.2%. Anomalous sperm morphology was highly and significantly demonstrated in the head; specifically in acrosome. Abnormal sperm parameters were present in both smoking and nonsmoking groups but with no significant differences in between. Conclusions: Isolated low FSH among infertile males has a low prevalence. This may be associated with abnormality in semen parameters; particularly sperm morphology. These patients are suggested to be found as a primary entity. However, an additional work-up is highly recommended to validate this hypothesis.

  8. Corticospinal integrity and motor impairment predict outcomes after excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chih-Jou; Wang, Chih-Pin; Tsai, Po-Yi; Chan, Rai-Chi; Lin, Shan-Hui; Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Chin-Yi

    2015-01-01

    To identify the effective predictors for therapeutic outcomes based on intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS). A sham-controlled, double-blind parallel study design. A tertiary hospital. People with stroke (N=72) who presented with unilateral hemiplegia. Ten consecutive sessions of real or sham iTBS were implemented with the aim of enhancing hand function. Patients were categorized into 4 groups according to the presence (MEP+) or absence (MEP-) of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and grip strength according to the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Cortical excitability, Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), finger-tapping task (FT), and simple reaction time were performed before and after the sessions. MEPs and the MRC scale were predictive of iTBS therapeutic outcomes. Group A (MEP+, MRC>1) exhibited the greatest WMFT change (7.6±2.3, P1; 5.2±2.2 score change) and group C (MEP-, MRC=0; 2.3±1.5 score change). These improvements were correlated significantly with baseline motor function and ipsilesional maximum MEP amplitude. The effectiveness of iTBS modulation for poststroke motor enhancement depends on baseline hand grip strength and the presence of MEPs. Our findings indicate that establishing neurostimulation strategies based on the proposed electrophysiological and clinical criteria can allow iTBS to be executed with substantial precision. Effective neuromodulatory strategies can be formulated by using electrophysiological features and clinical presentation information as guidelines. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Nonlinear Dynamics-Based Estimator for Functional Electrical Stimulation: Preliminary Results From Lower-Leg Extension Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marcus; Zhong, Qiang; Kirsch, Nicholas; Dani, Ashwin; Clark, William W; Sharma, Nitin

    2017-12-01

    Miniature inertial measurement units (IMUs) are wearable sensors that measure limb segment or joint angles during dynamic movements. However, IMUs are generally prone to drift, external magnetic interference, and measurement noise. This paper presents a new class of nonlinear state estimation technique called state-dependent coefficient (SDC) estimation to accurately predict joint angles from IMU measurements. The SDC estimation method uses limb dynamics, instead of limb kinematics, to estimate the limb state. Importantly, the nonlinear limb dynamic model is formulated into state-dependent matrices that facilitate the estimator design without performing a Jacobian linearization. The estimation method is experimentally demonstrated to predict knee joint angle measurements during functional electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle. The nonlinear knee musculoskeletal model was identified through a series of experiments. The SDC estimator was then compared with an extended kalman filter (EKF), which uses a Jacobian linearization and a rotation matrix method, which uses a kinematic model instead of the dynamic model. Each estimator's performance was evaluated against the true value of the joint angle, which was measured through a rotary encoder. The experimental results showed that the SDC estimator, the rotation matrix method, and EKF had root mean square errors of 2.70°, 2.86°, and 4.42°, respectively. Our preliminary experimental results show the new estimator's advantage over the EKF method but a slight advantage over the rotation matrix method. However, the information from the dynamic model allows the SDC method to use only one IMU to measure the knee angle compared with the rotation matrix method that uses two IMUs to estimate the angle.

  10. A preliminary evaluation of immune stimulation following exposure to metal particles and ions using the mouse popliteal lymph node assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvermoes, Brooke E., E-mail: brooke.tvermoes@cardno.com [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 4940 Pearl East Circle Suite 100, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Unice, Kenneth M. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Winans, Bethany [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kovochich, Michael [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Christian, Whitney V. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 20 Stanwix St. Suite 505, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 (United States); Donovan, Ellen [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Fung, Ernest S. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 130 Vantis Suite 170, Aliso Viejo, CA 92656 (United States); Finley, Brent L. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States); Kimber, Ian [University of Manchester, Faculty of Life Sciences, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PT (United Kingdom); Paustenbach, Dennis J. [Cardno ChemRisk, LLC., 101 2nd St. Suite 700, San Francisco, CA 94105 (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the threshold for immune stimulation in mice following local exposure to metal particles and ions representative of normal-functioning cobalt-chromium (CoCr) metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The popliteal lymph node assay (PLNA) was used in this study to assess immune responses in BALB/c mice following treatment with chromium-oxide (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) particles, metal salts (CoCl{sub 2}, CrCl{sub 3} and NiCl{sub 2}), or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts using single-dose exposures representing approximately 10 days (0.000114 mg), 19 years (0.0800 mg), and 40 years (0.171 mg) of normal implant wear. The immune response elicited following treatment with Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles together with metal salts was also assessed at four additional doses equivalent to approximately 1.5 months (0.0005 mg), 0.6 years (0.0025 mg), 2.3 years (0.01 mg), and 9.3 years (0.04 mg) of normal implant wear. Mice were injected subcutaneously (50 μL) into the right hind foot with the test article, or with the relevant vehicle control. The proliferative response of the draining lymph node cells (LNC) was measured four days after treatment, and stimulation indices (SI) were derived relative to vehicle controls. The PLNA was negative (SI < 3) for all Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particle doses, and was also negative at the lowest dose of the metal salt mixture, and the lowest four doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with metal salt mixture. The PLNA was positive (SI > 3) at the highest two doses of the metal salt mixture and the highest three doses of the Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with the metal salt mixture. The provisional NOAEL and LOAEL values identified in this study for immune activation corresponds to Co and Cr concentrations in the synovial fluid approximately 500 and 2000 times higher than that reported for normal-functioning MoM hip implants, respectively. Overall, these results indicate that normal wear

  11. Visual-spatial memory may be enhanced with theta burst deep brain stimulation of the fornix: a preliminary investigation with four cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonathan P; Sweet, Jennifer A; Bailey, Christopher M; Munyon, Charles N; Luders, Hans O; Fastenau, Philip S

    2015-07-01

    Memory loss after brain injury can be a source of considerable morbidity, but there are presently few therapeutic options for restoring memory function. We have previously demonstrated that burst stimulation of the fornix is able to significantly improve memory in a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. The present study is a preliminary investigation with a small group of cases to explore whether theta burst stimulation of the fornix might improve memory in humans. Four individuals undergoing stereo-electroencephalography evaluation for drug-resistant epilepsy were enrolled. All participants were implanted with an electrode into the proximal fornix and dorsal hippocampal commissure on the language dominant (n = 3) or language non-dominant (n = 1) side, and stimulation of this electrode reliably produced a diffuse evoked potential in the head and body of the ipsilateral hippocampus. Each participant underwent testing of verbal memory (Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test), visual-spatial memory (Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test), and visual confrontational naming (Boston Naming Test Short Form) once per day over at least two consecutive days using novel test forms each day. For 50% of the trials, the fornix electrode was continuously stimulated using a burst pattern (200 Hz in 100 ms trains, five trains per second, 100 µs, 7 mA) and was compared with sham stimulation. Participants and examiners were blinded to whether stimulation was active or not, and the order of stimulation was randomized. The small sample size precluded use of inferential statistics; therefore, data were analysed using descriptive statistics and graphic analysis. Burst stimulation of the fornix was not perceived by any of the participants but was associated with a robust reversible improvement in immediate and delayed performance on the Medical College of Georgia Complex Figure Test. There were no apparent differences on either Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test or Boston Naming

  12. Modulating Emotional Experience Using Electrical Stimulation of the Medial-Prefrontal Cortex: A Preliminary tDCS-fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Rany; Sar-El, Roy; Gonen, Tal; Jalon, Itamar; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Bar-Haim, Yair; Hendler, Talma

    2018-05-09

    Implicit regulation of emotions involves medial-prefrontal cortex (mPFC) regions exerting regulatory control over limbic structures. Diminished regulation relates to aberrant mPFC functionality and psychopathology. Establishing means of modulating mPFC functionality could benefit research on emotion and its dysregulation. Here, we tested the capacity of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting mPFC to modulate subjective emotional states by facilitating implicit emotion regulation. Stimulation was applied concurrently with functional magnetic resonance imaging to validate its neurobehavioral effect. Sixteen participants were each scanned twice, counterbalancing active and sham tDCS application, while undergoing negative mood induction (clips featuring negative vs. neutral contents). Effects of stimulation on emotional experience were assessed using subjective and neural measures. Subjectively, active stimulation led to significant reduction in reported intensity of experienced emotions to negatively valenced (p = 0.005) clips but not to neutral clips (p > 0.99). Active stimulation further mitigated a rise in stress levels from pre- to post-induction (sham: p = 0.004; active: p = 0.15). Neurally, stimulation increased activation in mPFC regions associated with implicit emotion regulation (ventromedial-prefrontal cortex; subgenual anterior-cingulate cortex, sgACC), and in ventral striatum, a core limbic structure (all ps  0.64, ps < 0.018), suggesting individual differences in stimulation responsivity. Results of this study indicate the potential capacity of tDCS to facilitate brain activation in mPFC regions underlying implicit regulation of emotion and accordingly modulate subjective emotional experiences. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  13. A Preliminary Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study of Cortical Inhibition and Excitability in High-Functioning Autism and Asperger Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticott, Peter G.; Rinehart, Nicole J.; Tonge, Bruce J.; Bradshaw, John L.; Fitzgerald, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Controversy surrounds the distinction between high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger disorder, but motor abnormalities are associated features of both conditions. This study examined motor cortical inhibition and excitability in HFA and Asperger disorder using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Method: Participants were diagnosed by…

  14. The preliminary study of prebiotic potential of Polish wild mushroom polysaccharides: the stimulation effect on Lactobacillus strains growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Renata; Nowacka-Jechalke, Natalia; Juda, Marek; Malm, Anna

    2018-06-01

    According to the vast body of evidence demonstrating that the intestinal microbiota is undoubtedly linked with overall health, including cancer risk, searching for functional foods and novel prebiotic influencing on beneficial bacteria is necessary. The present study aimed to investigate the potential of polysaccharides from 53 wild-growing mushrooms to stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and to determine the digestibility of polysaccharide fractions. Mushroom polysaccharides were precipitated with ethanol from aqueous extracts. Determination of growth promoting activity of polysaccharides was performed in U-shaped 96-plates in an ELISA reader in relation to the reference strain of L. acidophilus and two clinical strains of L. rhamnosus. The digestibility of mushroom polysaccharides was investigated in vitro by exposing them to artificial human gastric juice. Obtained results revealed that fungal polysaccharides stimulate the growth of Lactobacillus strains stronger than commercially available prebiotics like inulin or fructooligosaccharides. Moreover, selected polysaccharides were subjected to artificial human gastric juice and remain undigested in more than 90%. Obtained results indicate that mushroom polysaccharides are able to pass through the stomach unchanged, reaching the colon and stimulating the growth of beneficial bacteria. Majority of 53 polysaccharide fractions were analysed for the first time in our study. Overall, our findings suggest that polysaccharide fractions from edible mushrooms might be useful in producing functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  15. Effective Relief of Pain and Associated Symptoms With Closed-Loop Spinal Cord Stimulation System: Preliminary Results of the Avalon Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Marc; Cousins, Michael J; Brooker, Charles; Taylor, Nathan; Boesel, Tillman; Sullivan, Richard; Poree, Lawrence; Shariati, Nastaran Hesam; Hanson, Erin; Parker, John

    2018-01-01

    Conventional spinal cord stimulation (SCS) delivers a fixed-input of energy into the dorsal column. Physiologic effects such as heartbeat, respiration, spinal cord movement, and history of stimulation can cause both the perceived intensity and recruitment of stimulation to increase or decrease, with clinical consequences. A new SCS system controls stimulation dose by measuring the recruitment of fibers in the dorsal column and by using the amplitude of the evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) to maintain stimulation within an individualized therapeutic range. Safety and efficacy of this closed-loop system was evaluated through six-month postimplantation. Chronic pain subjects with back and/or leg pain who were successfully trialed received a permanent system (Evoke; Saluda Medical, Sydney, Australia). Ratings of pain (100-mm visual analogue scale [VAS] and Brief Pain Instrument [BPI]), quality of life (EuroQol instrument [EQ-5D-5L]), function (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]), and sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]) were collected at baseline and repeated three and six months after implantation. Fifty-one subjects underwent a trial procedure; permanent implants were placed in 36 subjects. The proportion of subjects with ≥50% relief was 92.6% (back) and 91.3% (leg) at three months, and 85.7% (back) and 82.6% (leg) at six months. The proportion with ≥80% pain relief was 70.4% (back) and 56.5% (leg) at three months, and 64.3% (back) and 60.9% (leg) at six months. Statistically significant improvements in mean BPI, EQ-5D-5L, ODI, and PSQI were also observed at both time points. The majority of subjects experienced profound pain relief at three and six months, providing preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of the closed-loop SCS system. The exact mechanism of action for these outcomes is still being explored, although one likely hypothesis holds that ECAP feedback control may minimize recruitment of Aβ nociceptors and Aδ fibers during daily

  16. Continuous theta-burst stimulation combined with occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Naoki; Kakuda, Wataru; Kondo, Takahiro; Shimizu, Masato; Sageshima, Masashi; Mitani, Sugao; Abo, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility and efficacy of continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke. Ten patients with history of stroke and upper limb hemiparesis (age 62.0 ± 11.1 years, time since stroke 95.7 ± 70.2 months, mean ± SD) were studied. Each patient received 13 sessions, each comprising 160 s of cTBS applied to the skull on the area of the non-lesional hemisphere (using a 70-mm figure-8 coil, three pulse bursts at 50 Hz, repeated every 200 ms, i.e., 5 Hz, with total stimulation of 2,400 pulses), followed by intensive OT (comprising 120-min one-to-one training and 120-min self-training) during 15-day hospitalization. The motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated by Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) and Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) on the days of admission and discharge. All patients completed the 15-day protocol without any adverse effects. Treatment significantly increased the FMA score (from 46.6 ± 8.7 to 51.6 ± 8.2 points, p hemiparesis after stroke.

  17. High-cervical spinal cord electrical stimulation in brain low perfusion syndromes: experimental basis and preliminary clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broseta, J; García-March, G; Sánchez-Ledesma, M J; Gonçalves, J; Silva, I; Barcia, J A; Llácer, J L; Barcia-Salorio, J L

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies of our group showed that C1-C2 spinal cord stimulation increases carotid and brain blood flow in normal conditions in the goat and dog and it has a beneficial vasomotor effect in a model of vasospasm in the rat. For further clinical application it seemed rational to investigate the possible vascular changes mediated by this technique in experimental brain infarction. To this aim, 45 New Zealand rabbits were used. Brain infarction was produced by bilateral carotid ligation in 15, unilateral microcoagulation of the middle cerebral artery in 15 and by microcoagulation of the vertebral artery at the craniocervical junction in the other 15. One week later, following daily clinical scoring and cortical and posterior fossa blood flow readings by laser Doppler, a period of 120 min of right C1-C2 spinal cord electric stimulation was performed. A mean of 27% increase in previous blood flow recordings was obtained at the right hemisphere and a mean of 32% in the posterior fossa. This procedure was used in 10 patients presenting with various cerebral low perfusion syndromes. Though not constant, an increase in alertness, retention, speech, emotional lability and performance in skilled acts was achieved. No MR changes were observed, though SPECT readings showed an increase in blood flow in the penumbral perilesional area.

  18. Augmentation of spelling therapy with transcranial direct current stimulation in primary progressive aphasia: Preliminary results and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapkini, Kyrana; Frangakis, Constantine; Gomez, Yessenia; Davis, Cameron; Hillis, Argye E

    Primary progressive aphasia (PPA) is a neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects language functions and often begins in the fifth or sixth decade of life. The devastating effects on work and family life call for the investigation of treatment alternatives. In this article, we present new data indicating that neuromodulatory treatment, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) combined with a spelling intervention, shows some promise for maintaining or even improving language, at least temporarily, in PPA. The main aim of the present article is to determine whether tDCS plus spelling intervention is more effective than spelling intervention alone in treating written language in PPA. We also asked whether the effects of tDCS are sustained longer than the effects of spelling intervention alone. We present data from six PPA participants who underwent anodal tDCS or sham plus spelling intervention in a within-subject crossover design. Each stimulation condition lasted 3 weeks or a total of 15 sessions with a 2-month interval in between. Participants were evaluated on treatment tasks as well as on other language and cognitive tasks at 2-week and 2-month follow-up intervals after each stimulation condition. All participants showed improvement in spelling (with sham or tDCS). There was no difference in the treated items between the two conditions. There was, however, consistent and significant improvement for untrained items only in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition. Furthermore, the improvement lasted longer in the tDCS plus spelling intervention condition compared to sham plus spelling intervention condition. Neuromodulation with tDCS offers promise as a means of augmenting language therapy to improve written language function at least temporarily in PPA. The consistent finding of generalisation of treatment benefits to untreated items and the superior sustainability of treatment effects with tDCS justifies further investigations. However

  19. Effect of electroconvulsive therapy in repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation non-responder MDD patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, P N; Grunhaus, L

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effectiveness of ECT in-patients who had failed to respond to a course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Seventeen patients with severe MDD who had not responded to a course of rTMS were switched to receive ECT treatments. All the patients were assessed with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, the Global Assessment Functioning Scale, the Global Depression Scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Response to the treatment was defined as a 50% decrease in HDRS final score and a final GAS higher than 60. Seven out of 17 patients responded to ECT. Three out of 5 non-psychotics and 4 out of 12 psychotic patients responded. ECT seems to be an effective treatment for 40% of patients who failed to respond to rTMS treatment. Whether this is a result of reduced responsiveness to ECT in rTMS-resistant patients or a consequence of small sample size requires further study.

  20. Preliminary pilot fMRI study of neuropostural optimization with a noninvasive asymmetric radioelectric brain stimulation protocol in functional dysmetria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mura M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Marco Mura1, Alessandro Castagna2, Vania Fontani2, Salvatore Rinaldi21Institute of Radiology, University of Cagliari, 2Rinaldi Fontani Institute – Department of Neuro Psycho Physical Optimization, Florence, ItalyPurpose: This study assessed changes in functional dysmetria (FD and in brain activation observable by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during a leg flexion-extension motor task following brain stimulation with a single radioelectric asymmetric conveyer (REAC pulse, according to the precisely defined neuropostural optimization (NPO protocol.Population and methods: Ten healthy volunteers were assessed using fMRI conducted during a simple motor task before and immediately after delivery of a single REAC-NPO pulse. The motor task consisted of a flexion-extension movement of the legs with the knees bent. FD signs and brain activation patterns were compared before and after REAC-NPO.Results: A single 250-millisecond REAC-NPO treatment alleviated FD, as evidenced by patellar asymmetry during a sit-up motion, and modulated activity patterns in the brain, particularly in the cerebellum, during the performance of the motor task.Conclusion: Activity in brain areas involved in motor control and coordination, including the cerebellum, is altered by administration of a REAC-NPO treatment and this effect is accompanied by an alleviation of FD.Keywords: motor behavior, motor control, cerebellum, dysmetria, functional dysmetria, fluctuating asymmetry

  1. Preliminary Upper Estimate of Peak Currents in Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation at Distant Locations From a TMS Coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Sergey N; Yanamadala, Janakinadh; Piazza, Matthew W; Helderman, Alex M; Thang, Niang S; Burnham, Edward H; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is increasingly used as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for numerous neuropsychiatric disorders. The use of TMS might cause whole-body exposure to undesired induced currents in patients and TMS operators. The aim of this study is to test and justify a simple analytical model known previously, which may be helpful as an upper estimate of eddy current density at a particular distant observation point for any body composition and any coil setup. We compare the analytical solution with comprehensive adaptive mesh refinement-based FEM simulations of a detailed full-body human model, two coil types, five coil positions, about 100 000 observation points, and two distinct pulse rise times; thus, providing a representative number of different datasets for comparison, while also using other numerical data. Our simulations reveal that, after a certain modification, the analytical model provides an upper estimate for the eddy current density at any location within the body. In particular, it overestimates the peak eddy currents at distant locations from a TMS coil by a factor of 10 on average. The simple analytical model tested in this study may be valuable as a rapid method to safely estimate levels of TMS currents at different locations within a human body. At present, safe limits of general exposure to TMS electric and magnetic fields are an open subject, including fetal exposure for pregnant women.

  2. Clinical improvement in patients with borderline personality disorder after treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Julian; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina; Armas-Castañeda, Gabriela; García-Anaya, María; Arango-De Montis, Iván; González-Olvera, Jorge J; Pellicer, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    Current treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD) consists of psychotherapy and pharmacological interventions. However, the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could be beneficial to improve some BPD symptoms. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical improvement in patients with BPD after application of rTMS over the right or left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Twenty-nine patients with BPD from the National Institute of Psychiatry, Mexico, were randomized in two groups to receive 15 sessions of rTMS applied over the right (1 Hz, n=15) or left (5 Hz, n=14) DLPFC. Improvement was measured by the Clinical Global Impression Scale for BPD (CGI-BPD), Borderline Evaluation of Severity Over Time (BEST), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A), and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Intragroup comparison showed significant (p < 0.05) reductions in every psychopathologic domain of the CGI-BPD and in the total scores of all scales in both groups. Both protocols produced global improvement in severity and symptoms of BPD, particularly in impulsiveness, affective instability, and anger. Further studies are warranted to explore the therapeutic effect of rTMS in BPD. NCT02273674

  3. Add-on deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) for the treatment of chronic migraine: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Del Casale, Antonio; Scatena, Paola; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Di Pietro, Simone; Ferri, Vittoria Rachele; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Brugnoli, Roberto; Raccah, Ruggero Nessim; Zangen, Abraham; Ferracuti, Stefano; Orzi, Francesco; Girardi, Paolo; Sette, Giuliano

    2016-06-03

    Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (dTMS) can be an alternative treatment to relieve pain in chronic migraine (CM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high-frequency dTMS in add-on to standard treatment for CM in patients not responding to effective abortive or preventive drug treatment. We randomized 14 patients with International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd Edition (ICHD-3) treatment-resistant CM to add-on dTMS (n=7) or standard abortive or preventive antimigraine treatment (n=7). Three sessions of alternate day 10Hz dTMS consisting of 600 pulses in 10 trains were delivered to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilaterally, but with left hemisphere prevalence, for 12 sessions spread over one month. The add-on dTMS treatment was well tolerated. Patients treated with dTMS showed significant reduction of pain intensity, frequency of attacks, analgesic overuse, and depressive symptoms during treatment and one month later, compared to the month preceding treatment and at the same time-points compared to the control group. As compared to standard pharmacological treatment alone, add-on high-frequency dTMS of the bilateral DLPFC reduced the frequency and intensity of migraine attack, drug overuse, and depressive symptoms. This study supports the add-on dTMS treatment in treatment-resistant CM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Follow-up study of children whose mothers were treated with transcranial magnetic stimulation during pregnancy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryılmaz, Gul; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı; Özten, Eylem; Gül, Işıl Göğcegöz; Yorbik, Özgür; Işiten, Nuket; Bağcı, Eda

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the impact of repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS) treatment during pregnancy on neurodevelopment of children. Women who were treated with rTMS during pregnancy and delivered liveborn children between 2008 and 2013 were selected. A control group consisted of children whose mothers had a history of untreated depression during their pregnancy (N = 26). Early developmental characteristics of all the children in the study were evaluated, and their developmental levels were determined using the Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory. The mean age of the children in the rTMS treatment group was 32.4 months (range 16-64 months), and that of the untreated group was 29.04 (range 14-63 months). Jaundice (N = 2) and febrile convulsion (N = 1) were the reported medical conditions in the children of the rTMS-treated group; jaundice (N = 3) and low birth weight (N = 1) were reported in the untreated group. In the rTMS group, mothers' perception of delay in language development was observed, but there were not any statistically significant differences in the prevalence rate compared with the untreated group (OR = 0.38; 95% CI 0.0860-1.6580). Our results suggest that rTMS exposure during pregnancy is not associated with poorer cognitive or motor development outcomes in children aged 18-62 months. Although language development as reported by the mothers was found to be poorer than expected in the rTMS-treated group, the delay was found to be similar to the language delay observed in offspring of untreated mothers, as reported in previous studies of prenatal depression treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. © 2014 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. A preliminary assessment of the radiological implications of commercial utilization of natural gas from a nuclearly stimulated well

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, D G; Struxness, E G [Health Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, C R [El Paso Natural Gas Company, El Paso, TX (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Widespread utilization of nuclear explosives, in conjunction with the natural gas industry, can result in radiation exposure of sizable population groups. It is prudent to make realistic assessments of such potential radiation exposures before they occur and, unless the expected exposures are clearly insignificant, to consider these exposures in evaluating the net benefit of this particular use of nuclear energy. All pertinent facts relating to such assessments should be made public and presented in such a way that those who are to assume the risks, if any, can make a reasonable judgment as to whether the risks are acceptable. Radioactivity in natural gas from the Gasbuggy cavity has been analyzed prior to and during flaring operations. None of this gas has entered the collection and distribution system, but a theoretical analysis has been made of the hypothetical impact on members of the public that would have occurred if the gas had been introduced into the commercial stream. Dose equivalents have been estimated for both workers and consumers. In this analysis, Gasbuggy gas has been traced through a real gas-collection system and processing plant, as represented by the present situation existing in the San Juan Production Division, El Paso Natural Gas Company. In addition, a number of considerations are presented which would apply to radiation exposure in metropolitan areas. Results of this analysis for the Gasbuggy well indicate hypothetical dose equivalents to various population groups to be well within the annual dose limits suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Projection to a steady-state situation involving extensive natural gas production from many producing wells also resulted in hypothetical dose equivalents within the annual dose limits. Simple extrapolation of the results from this analysis to potential exposures resulting from nuclear stimulation of other gas reservoirs cannot be made on a direct basis, but this method

  6. Electrical Stimulation During Gait Promotes Increase of Muscle Cross-sectional Area in Quadriplegics: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliquet, Alberto; Rondina, Jane Maryan; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Increases in muscular cross-sectional area (CSA) occur in quadriplegics after training, but the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) along with training are unknown. Thus, we addressed two questions: (1) Does NMES during treadmill gait training increase the quadriceps CSA in complete quadriplegics?; and (2) Is treadmill gait training alone enough to observe an increase in CSA? Fifteen quadriplegics were divided into gait (n = 8) and control (n = 7) groups. The gait group performed training with NMES for 6 months twice a week for 20 minutes each time. After 6 months of traditional therapy, the control group received the same gait training protocol but without NMES for an additional 6 months. Axial images of the thigh were acquired at the beginning of the study, at 6 months (for both groups), and at 12 months for the control group to determine the average quadriceps CSA. After 6 months, there was an increase of CSA in the gait group (from 49.8 ± 9.4 cm2 to 57.3 ± 10.3 cm2), but not in the control group (from 43.6 ± 7.6 cm2 to 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2). After another 6 months of gait without NMES in the control group, the CSA did not change (from 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2 to 41.7 ± 7.9 cm2). The increase in quadriceps CSA after gait training in patients with chronic complete quadriplegia appears associated with NMES. PMID:18791775

  7. A preliminary assessment of the radiological implications of commercial utilization of natural gas from a nuclearly stimulated well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, D.G.; Struxness, E.G.; Bowman, C.R.

    1970-01-01

    Widespread utilization of nuclear explosives, in conjunction with the natural gas industry, can result in radiation exposure of sizable population groups. It is prudent to make realistic assessments of such potential radiation exposures before they occur and, unless the expected exposures are clearly insignificant, to consider these exposures in evaluating the net benefit of this particular use of nuclear energy. All pertinent facts relating to such assessments should be made public and presented in such a way that those who are to assume the risks, if any, can make a reasonable judgment as to whether the risks are acceptable. Radioactivity in natural gas from the Gasbuggy cavity has been analyzed prior to and during flaring operations. None of this gas has entered the collection and distribution system, but a theoretical analysis has been made of the hypothetical impact on members of the public that would have occurred if the gas had been introduced into the commercial stream. Dose equivalents have been estimated for both workers and consumers. In this analysis, Gasbuggy gas has been traced through a real gas-collection system and processing plant, as represented by the present situation existing in the San Juan Production Division, El Paso Natural Gas Company. In addition, a number of considerations are presented which would apply to radiation exposure in metropolitan areas. Results of this analysis for the Gasbuggy well indicate hypothetical dose equivalents to various population groups to be well within the annual dose limits suggested by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Projection to a steady-state situation involving extensive natural gas production from many producing wells also resulted in hypothetical dose equivalents within the annual dose limits. Simple extrapolation of the results from this analysis to potential exposures resulting from nuclear stimulation of other gas reservoirs cannot be made on a direct basis, but this method

  8. A novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation for neuropathic pain management after spinal cord injury – a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li S

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Shengai Li,1,2 Matthew Davis,1 Joel E Frontera,1 Sheng Li1,2 1Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, 2TIRR Memorial Hermann Research Center, TIRR Memorial Hermann Hospital, Houston, TX, USA Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a novel nonpharmacological intervention – breathing-controlled electrical stimulation (BreEStim – for neuropathic pain management in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. Subjects and methods: There were two experiments: 1 to compare the effectiveness between BreEStim and conventional electrical stimulation (EStim in Experiment (Exp 1 and 2 to examine the dose–response effect of BreEStim in Exp 2. In Exp 1, 13 SCI subjects (6 males and 7 females, history of SCI: 58.2 months, from 7 to 150 months, impairments ranging from C4 AIS B to L1 AIS B received both BreEStim and EStim in a randomized order with at least 3 days apart. A total of 120 electrical stimuli to the median nerve transcutaneously were triggered by voluntary inhalation during BreEStim or were randomly delivered during EStim. In Exp 2, a subset of 7 subjects received BreEStim120 and 240 stimuli randomly on two different days with 7 days apart (BreEStim120 vs BreEStim240. The primary outcome variable was the visual analog scale (VAS score. Results: In Exp 1, both BreEStim and EStim showed significant analgesic effects. Reduction in VAS score was significantly greater after BreEStim (2.6±0.3 than after EStim (0.8±0.3 (P<0.001. The duration of analgesic effect was significantly longer after BreEStim (14.2±6 hours than after EStim (1.9±1 hours (P=0.04. In Exp 2, BreEStim120 and BreEStim240 had similar degree and duration of analgesic effects. Conclusion: The findings from this preliminary study suggest that BreEStim is an effective alternative nonpharmacological treatment for chronic neuropathic pain in patients suffering from SCI. Keywords

  9. An integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete spinal cord injury patients: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoleni, S; Battini, E; Rustici, A; Stampacchia, G

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES)-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in a group of seven complete spinal cord injury patients on spasticity and patient-robot interaction. They underwent a robot-assisted rehabilitation training based on two phases: n=20 sessions of FES-cycling followed by n= 20 sessions of robot-assisted gait training based on an overground robotic exoskeleton. The following clinical outcome measures were used: Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) on spasticity, Penn Spasm Frequency Scale (PSFS), Spinal Cord Independence Measure Scale (SCIM), NRS on pain and International Spinal Cord Injury Pain Data Set (ISCI). Clinical outcome measures were assessed before (T0) after (T1) the FES-cycling training and after (T2) the powered overground gait training. The ability to walk when using exoskeleton was assessed by means of 10 Meter Walk Test (10MWT), 6 Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), standing time, walking time and number of steps. Statistically significant changes were found on the MAS score, NRS-spasticity, 6MWT, TUG, standing time and number of steps. The preliminary results of this study show that an integrated gait rehabilitation training based on FES-cycling and overground robotic exoskeleton in complete SCI patients can provide a significant reduction of spasticity and improvements in terms of patient-robot interaction.

  10. Influence of inter-stimulus interval of spinal cord stimulation in patients with disorders of consciousness: A preliminary functional near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujin; Yang, Yi; Si, Juanning; Xia, Xiaoyu; He, Jianghong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a promising treatment for disorders of consciousness (DOC), but the underlying mechanism and most effective procedures remain uncertain. To optimize the protocol, previous studies evaluated the frequency-specific effects of SCS on neurophysiological activities. However, whether and how the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) parameter affects the SCS neuromodulation in DOC remains unknown. We enrolled nine DOC patients who had implanted SCS devices and conducted three different durations of ISIs. Using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we monitored the blood volume fluctuations in the prefrontal and occipital cortices during the SCS. The results showed that short stimuli (30 s) induced significant cerebral blood volume changes, especially in the prefrontal cortex, an important area in the consciousness system. By comparing the mean value of the responses from the first and the last block in each session, a shorter ISI was found to improve the blood volume in the prefrontal cortex. This phenomenon was more significant for the subgroup of patients with a favorable prognosis. These preliminary results imply that the ISI may be an important factor for SCS. The research paradigm proposed here also provides insights for further quantitative evaluations of the therapeutic effects of neuromodulation.

  11. Glucose metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina using [{sup 18}F]FDG PET: a preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Woo, Se Joon; Seo, Jong Mo; Chung, Hum; Lee, Dong Soo; Zhou, Zing Ai; Kim, Sung June [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    We studied to compare the cerebral cortical metabolic change after visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina. Five PET scans were performed on five different days in an albino rabbit. One FDG PET study was done at rest state. In another two FDG PET studies, repetitive flash light stimulation (0.3 Hz, 6 min total) on each eye started 1 min prior to FDG injection and continued for 5 min into uptake. In the other two FDG studies, electrical retinal stimulation (500 {mu}A, 1 Hz, 6 min total) of each eye using a suprachoroidal electrode placed under the visual streak was performed with the same procedure. Static PET data was acquired for 10 min after injection of [{sup 18}F]FDG (37 MBq) through the catheter placed in the ear vein. All images were realigned to the rest state image. To remove the effects of global differences, each voxel value of the images was normalized versus mean value in whole brain. Change of cerebral glucose metabolism was examined with difference between rest and stimulation state. After visual and electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina, the cerebral area of increased metabolism could be determined. The hypermetabolic area of electrical stimulation overlapped with the area of visual stimulation, while electrically simulated cerebral area was focal and confined within the visually activated area. The electrical stimulation of the rabbit retina could increase the metabolism of the visual cortex which indicates electrical retinal stimulation caused visual perception of brain.

  12. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  13. Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Performing Eye-Hand Integration Tasks: Four Preliminary Studies with Children Showing Low-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Lanuzza, Bartolo; Trubia, Grazia; Ferri, Raffaele; Musso, Sabrina; Alagona, Giovanna; Di Guardo, Giuseppe; Barone, Concetta; Gaglione, Maria P.; Elia, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    This report, based on four studies with children with low-functioning autism, aimed at evaluating the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation delivered on the left and right premotor cortices on eye-hand integration tasks; defining the long-lasting effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; and…

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor correlate with spinal cord stimulation frequency in patients with neuropathic pain: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, K F; McCrory, C

    2014-08-01

    Case series. To evaluate relationships between spinal cord stimulation (SCS) parameters and levels of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Ambulatory pain clinic of St James's Hospital, Dublin, Ireland. Nine patients with an implanted SCS and Failed Back Surgery Syndrome (FBSS) were administered the Brief Pain Inventory and Short Form (36) Health Survey. Following a lumbar puncture, levels of GDNF in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were assayed and correlated with stimulation parameters. Controls were patients with arthritic back pain who were matched for age, gender and SF-36 score. Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in patients with FBSS than controls (P=0.002) and correlate with SCS frequency (P=0.029). Concentrations of GDNF in CSF are higher in neuropathic pain and appear to be related to stimulation frequency. Further work is needed to evaluate this potential relationship, both in neuropathic pain and in other contexts such as locomotor dysfunction.

  15. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Intensive Occupational Therapy for Poststroke Patients with Upper Limb Hemiparesis: Preliminary Study of a 15-Day Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuda, Wataru; Abo, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kazushige; Momosaki, Ryo; Yokoi, Aki; Fukuda, Akiko; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ito, Hiroshi; Tominaga, Ayumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the safety and feasibility of a 15-day protocol of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) combined with intensive occupational therapy (OT) on motor function and spasticity in hemiparetic upper limbs in poststroke patients. Fifteen poststroke patients (age at study entry 55 [plus…

  16. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liu; Wang, Ying; Hao, Dongmei; Rong, Yao; Yang, Lin; Zhang, Song; Zheng, Dingchang

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG) signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body) with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects). The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject's deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS), median frequency (MDF), and sample entropy (SampEn), were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant ( p 0.05). In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p < 0.001) and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p < 0.001).

  17. Effects of Force Load, Muscle Fatigue, and Magnetic Stimulation on Surface Electromyography during Side Arm Lateral Raise Task: A Preliminary Study with Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantitatively investigate the effects of force load, muscle fatigue, and extremely low-frequency (ELF magnetic stimulation on surface electromyography (SEMG signal features during side arm lateral raise task. SEMG signals were recorded from 18 healthy subjects on the anterior deltoid using a BIOSEMI ActiveTwo system during side lateral raise task (with the right arm 90 degrees away from the body with three different loads on the forearm (0 kg, 1 kg, and 3 kg; their order was randomized between subjects. The arm maintained the loads until the subject felt exhausted. The first 10 s recording for each load was regarded as nonfatigue status and the last 10 s before the subject was exhausted was regarded as fatigue status. The subject was then given a five-minute resting between different loads. Two days later, the same experiment was repeated on every subject, and this time the ELF magnetic stimulation was applied to the subject’s deltoid muscle during the five-minute rest period. Three commonly used SEMG features, root mean square (RMS, median frequency (MDF, and sample entropy (SampEn, were analyzed and compared between different loads, nonfatigue/fatigue status, and ELF stimulation and no stimulation. Variance analysis results showed that the effect of force load on RMS was significant (p0.05. In comparison with nonfatigue status, for all the different force loads with and without ELF stimulation, RMS was significantly larger at fatigue (all p<0.001 and MDF and SampEn were significantly smaller (all p<0.001.

  18. Brain activity modification produced by a single radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation pulse: a new tool for neuropsychiatric treatments. Preliminary fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castagna A

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salvatore Rinaldi1,2, Vania Fontani1, Alessandro Castagna1 1Department of Neuro-Psycho-Physio Pathology, Rinaldi Fontani Institute, Florence, Italy; 2Medical School of Occupational Medicine, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Purpose: Radioelectric asymmetric brain stimulation technology with its treatment protocols has shown efficacy in various psychiatric disorders. The aim of this work was to highlight the mechanisms by which these positive effects are achieved. The current study was conducted to determine whether a single 500-millisecond radioelectric asymmetric conveyor (REAC brain stimulation pulse (BSP, applied to the ear, can effect a modification of brain activity that is detectable using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Methods: Ten healthy volunteers, six females and four males, underwent fMRI during a simple finger-tapping motor task before and after receiving a single 500-millisecond REAC-BSP. Results: The fMRI results indicate that the average variation in task-induced encephalic activation patterns is lower in subjects following the single REAC pulse. Conclusion: The current report demonstrates that a single REAC-BSP is sufficient to modulate brain activity in awake subjects, able to be measured using fMRI. These initial results open new perspectives into the understanding of the effects of weak and brief radio pulses upon brain activity, and provide the basis for further indepth studies using REAC-BSP and fMRI. Keywords: fMRI, brain stimulation, brain modulation, REAC, neuropsychiatric treatments

  19. Non-invasive Vagal Nerve Stimulation Effects on Hyperarousal and Autonomic State in Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and History of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Preliminary Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon G. Lamb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a reaction to trauma that results in a chronic perception of threat, precipitating mobilization of the autonomic nervous system, and may be reflected by chronic disinhibition of limbic structures. A common injury preceding PTSD in veterans is mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI. This may be due to the vulnerability of white matter in these networks and such damage may affect treatment response. We evaluated transcutaneous vagal nerve stimulation (tVNS, a non-invasive, low-risk approach that may alter the functions of the limbo-cortical and peripheral networks underlying the hyperarousal component of PTSD and thus improve patient health and well-being. In this single visit pilot study evaluating the impact of tVNS in 22 combat veterans, we used a between-subjects design in people with either PTSD with preceding mTBI or healthy controls. Participants were randomized into stimulation or sham groups and completed a posturally modulated autonomic assessment and emotionally modulated startle paradigm. The primary measures used were respiratory sinus arrhythmia (high-frequency heart rate variability during a tilt-table procedure derived from an electrocardiogram, and skin conductance changes in response to acoustic startle while viewing emotional images (International Affective Picture System. The stimulation was well tolerated and resulted in improvements in vagal tone and moderation of autonomic response to startle, consistent with modulation of autonomic state and response to stress in this population. Our results suggest that tVNS affects systems underlying emotional dysregulation in this population and, therefore, should be further evaluated and developed as a potential treatment tool for these patients.

  20. Optimal duration of ultra low frequency-transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) therapy for muscular relaxation in neuromuscular occlusion: A preliminary clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esclassan, Rémi; Rumerio, Anaïs; Monsarrat, Paul; Combadazou, Jean Claude; Champion, Jean; Destruhaut, Florent; Ghrenassia, Christophe

    2017-05-01

    The primary aim of this work was to determine the duration of ultra-low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ULF-TENS) application necessary to achieve sufficient relaxation of the masticatory muscles. A secondary aim was to analyze the influence of stimulation on muscle relaxation in pathological subjects and determine whether ULF-TENS has a noteworthy impact on muscle relaxation. Sixteen adult subjects with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and muscle pain and a group of four control subjects were included in this study. ULF-TENS was applied, and muscular activities of the masseter, temporal, and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) were recorded for 60 min. Significant relaxation was achieved in the TMD group from 20, 40, and 60 min for the temporal, masseter, and SCM muscles (p TENS application would last 40 min to obtain sufficient muscle relaxation both in patients with masticatory system disorders and healthy subjects, a time constraint that is consistent with everyday clinical practice.

  1. Chronic motor cortex stimulation in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease and effects on striatal dopaminergic transmission as assessed by 123I-FP-CIT SPECT: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giuda, Daniela; Calcagni, Maria L; Totaro, Manuela; Cocciolillo, Fabrizio; Piano, Carla; Soleti, Francesco; Fasano, Alfonso; Cioni, Beatrice; Bentivoglio, Anna R; Giordano, Alessandro

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess striatal dopamine transporter availability in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) before and after 13 months of unilateral extradural motor cortex stimulation (EMCS) with [123I]N-ω-fluoropropyl-2-β-carbo-methoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane single photon emission computed tomography (123I-FP-CIT SPECT). Six PD patients (five women and one man, aged 63.2 ± 5.6 years) underwent 123I-FP-CIT SPECT and clinical evaluation [Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and Parkinson's Disease Quality of Life Scale (PDQL)] preoperatively, 8 and 13 months after EMCS. Striatum-to-occipital cortex, caudate-to-occipital cortex and putamen-to-occipital cortex 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios were calculated using the region of interest method. Total and part III UPDRS scores significantly decreased at 8 and 13 months after stimulation (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively); UPDRS part II and PDQL scores improved after 13 months (P=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). No significant differences in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios between baseline and follow-up were found in the examined regions. However, a progressive reduction in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios in the striatum contralateral to the implant was found. In contrast, no further decrease in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios was detected in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant. There were no correlations between changes in 123I-FP-CIT uptake ratios with disease duration, changes in medication dosage and motor UPDRS scores. Despite a small but highly selected sample of advanced PD patients, our results showed that no further dopamine transporter reduction occurred in the striatum ipsilateral to the implant side. This finding could lead to the hypothesis that EMCS might elicit a 'neuroprotective' effect, as suggested by significant clinical benefits.

  2. Changes of cortical excitability as markers of antidepressant response in bipolar depression: preliminary data obtained by combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canali, Paola; Sferrazza Papa, Giovanna; Casali, Adenauer G; Schiena, Giandomenico; Fecchio, Matteo; Pigorini, Andrea; Smeraldi, Enrico; Colombo, Cristina; Benedetti, Francesco

    2014-12-01

    It is still unclear which biological changes are needed to recover from a major depressive episode. Current perspectives focus on cortical synaptic neuroplasticity. Measures of cortical responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) change with sleep homeostasic pressure in humans and approximate measures of synaptic strength in animal models. Using repeated total sleep deprivation as a model of antidepressant treatment, we aimed to correlate recovery from depression with these measures of cortical excitability. We recorded electroencephalographic responses to TMS in the prefrontal cortex of 21 depressed inpatients with bipolar disorder treated with repeated sleep deprivation combined with light therapy. We performed seven TMS/electroencephalography sessions during one week and calculated three measures of cortical excitability. Cortical excitability progressively increased during the antidepressant treatment and as a function of time awake. Higher values differentiated responders from non-responders at baseline and during and after treatment on all measures. Changes in measures of cortical excitability parallel and predict antidepressant response to combined sleep deprivation and light therapy. Data suggest that promoting cortical plasticity in bipolar depression could be a major effect of successful antidepressant treatments, and that patients not responding could suffer a persistent impairment in their neuroplasticity mechanisms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Consumption of selenium-enriched broccoli increases cytokine production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo, a preliminary human intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley-Hewitt, Kerry L; Chen, Ronan K-Y; Lill, Ross E; Hedderley, Duncan I; Herath, Thanuja D; Matich, Adam J; McKenzie, Marian J

    2014-12-01

    Selenium (Se) is a micronutrient essential for human health, including immune function. Previous research indicates that Se supplementation may cause a shift from T helper (Th)1- to Th2-type immune responses. We aim to test the potential health promoting effects of Se-enriched broccoli. In a human trial, 18 participants consumed control broccoli daily for 3 days. After a 3-day wash-out period, the participants were provided with Se-enriched broccoli containing 200 μg of Se per serving for 3 days. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples were collected at the start and end of each broccoli feeding period for analysis of total Se and measurement of cytokine production from PBMC stimulated with antigens ex vivo. Plasma Se content remained consistent throughout the control broccoli feeding period and the baseline of the Se-enriched broccoli period (1.22 μmol/L) and then significantly increased following 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding. Interleukin (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-22) production from PBMC significantly increased after 3 days of Se-enriched broccoli feeding compared with baseline. This study indicates that consumption of Se-enriched broccoli may increase immune responses toward a range of immune challenges. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. COOPERATIVE LEARNING AS A MEANS OF STIMULATING LIFE SKILLS IN PROFESSIONALLY-BIASED FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Komarov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the contribution of foreign language learning to stimulating students’ life skills at non-linguistic higher institutions. In the article, the author considers the possibilities of motivating students to exercise life skills in the process of foreign language instruction. The author analyses the cooperative learning technology as a means that enables students to be involved into interaction with one another as well as it develops their team-building skills to successfully cooperate and communicate with each other. The author describes different forms of cooperative leaning, which give students an opportunity to mutually enrich and complement each other’s skills in foreign language learning. The author argues that cooperative learning technology stimulates the students’ existent life skills and makes them work in the process of professionally-biased instruction of a foreign language.

  5. growth stimulant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of timing and duration of supplementation of LIVFIT VET ® (growth stimulant) as substitute for fish meal on the growth performance, haematology and clinical enzymes concentration of growing pigs.

  6. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  7. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, G W [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Coffer, H F; Luetkehans, G R [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  8. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, G.W.; Coffer, H.F.; Luetkehans, G.R.

    1970-01-01

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  9. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  10. Molecular signatures distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, after in vitro antigenic stimulation with purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) or Candida: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Joel N H; Keskin, Derin B; Romero, Viviana; Zuniga, Joaquin; Encinales, Liliana; Li, Changlin; Awad, Carlos; Yunis, Edmond J

    2009-01-01

    Purified protein derivative (PPD) or tuberculin skin testing is used to identify infected individuals with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and to assess cell-mediated immunity to Mtb. In the present study, we compared PBMC cultures in the presence of tuberculin or Candida antigens using cytokine bead arrays and RNA microarrays. Measurements of different cytokines and chemokines in supernatants of PMBC cultures in the presence of PPD showed increased levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma in active tuberculosis infection (ATBI) and latent TB infected (LTBI) compared to controls, and increased levels of TNF-alpha in ATBI compared with LTBI. Also, we found increase of IL-6 in cultures of PPD positive and controls but not in the cultures with Candida. We also report the molecular signature of tuberculosis infection, in ATBI patients, the following genes were found to be up-regulated and absent in LTBI individuals: two kinases (JAK3 and p38MAPK), four interleukins (IL-7, IL-2, IL-6, and IFNbeta1), a chemokine (HCC-4) a chemokine receptor (CxCR5), two interleukin receptors (IL-1R2 and IL-18R1), and three additional ones (TRAF5, Smad2, CIITA, and NOS2A). By contrast, IL-17 and IGFBP3 were significantly up-regulated in LTBI. And, STAT4, GATA3, Fra-1, and ICOS were down-regulated in ATBI but absent in LTBI. Conversely, TLR-10, IL-15, DORA, and IKK-beta were down-regulated in LTBI but not in ATBI. Interestingly, the majority of the up-regulated genes found in ATBI were found in cultures stimulated with tuberculin (PPD) or Candida antigens, suggesting that these pathogens stimulate similar immunological pathways. We believe that the molecular signature distinguishing active from latent tuberculosis infection may require using cytokine bead arrays along with RNA microarrays testing cell cultures at different times following in vitro proliferation assays using several bacterial antigens and PPD.

  11. 10 kHz High-Frequency Spinal Cord Stimulation for Chronic Axial Low Back Pain in Patients With No History of Spinal Surgery: A Preliminary, Prospective, Open Label and Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaisy, Adnan; Palmisani, Stefano; Smith, Thomas E; Pang, David; Lam, Khai; Burgoyne, William; Houghton, Russell; Hudson, Emma; Lucas, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of 10 kHz high frequency spinal cord stimulation (HF10 therapy) treatment of chronic low back pain in patients who have not had spinal surgery. Patients with chronic low back pain without prior spinal surgery were evaluated by a team of spine surgeons to rule out any spinal pathology amenable to surgical interventions and by a multidisciplinary pain team to confirm eligibility for the study. After a successful (>50% back pain reduction) trial of HF10 therapy, enrolled subjects underwent permanent system implantation and were followed-up one year post-implant. About 95% of the enrolled subjects (20/21) received the permanent system. At 12 months post-implant, both back pain VAS score and ODI were significantly reduced compared with baseline values (by 73% and 48%, respectively); an estimated quality-adjusted life year gain of 0.47 and a reduction in opioid use by 64% was observed. Four more patients among those unable to work at baseline due to back pain were employed at 12 months post-implant. There were no serious adverse events. HF10 therapy may provide significant back pain relief, reduction in disability, improvement quality of life, and reduction in opioid use in chronic low back pain not resulting from spinal surgery. © 2016 The Authors. Neuromodulation: Technology at the Neural Interface published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Neuromodulation Society.

  12. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  13. Non-linguistic Conditions for Causativization as a Linguistic Attractor

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols; Johanna Nichols

    2018-01-01

    An attractor, in complex systems theory, is any state that is more easily or more often entered or acquired than departed or lost; attractor states therefore accumulate more members than non-attractors, other things being equal. In the context of language evolution, linguistic attractors include sounds, forms, and grammatical structures that are prone to be selected when sociolinguistics and language contact make it possible for speakers to choose between competing forms. The reasons why an e...

  14. A pilot study of the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on oral mucositis in head and neck cancer patients during x-radiation therapy: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolatou, Ourania; Sotiropoulou-Lontou, Anastasia; Skarlatos, John; Kyprianou, Konstantinos; Kolitsi, Georgia; Dardoufas, Konstantinos

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in reduction of radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis. Methods and Materials: Seventeen patients who were going to be irradiated with a total dose of 50-70 Gy for head and neck malignancies were included in the study. After the second week of radiotherapy, with the experience of oral pain, GM-CSF 400 μg was administered locally, once a day, until completion of radiotherapy. Patients were evaluated weekly for mucosal reaction and functional impairment. Results: Three patients with gross and functional mucositis grade I after the second week, completed the planned radiotherapy showing mucositis grade I. Eleven patients who experienced, after 2 weeks of radiotherapy, mucositis grade II and III, presented after the third week with gross mucositis grade I and II and functional impairment grade I. One of these 11 patients was then lost to follow-up and the remaining 10 completed their planned radiotherapy having an almost asymptomatic mucositis grade I. The 15th patient with gross mucositis grade III after the 2 weeks of radiotherapy, had a 2-day interruption because of painful mucositis and then continued and completed radiotherapy with gross and functional mucositis grade I. The 16th patient with mucositis grade III after the second week, did not show any improvement, and completed her planned radiotherapy with mucositis grade III which finally healed after the administration of acyclovir. The last, 17th patient discontinued radiotherapy at the third week because of mucositis grade IV and severe ulceration in apposition to an extensive gold prosthesis. Conclusion: The local administration of GM-CSF significantly reduced and almost healed radiation-induced oral mucositis in 14 of 17 patients during the radiotherapy, which was completed within the preplanned time and without any significant patient weight loss or functional impairment

  15. Preliminary Monthly Climatological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary Local Climatological Data, recorded since 1970 on Weather Burean Form 1030 and then National Weather Service Form F-6. The preliminary climate data pages...

  16. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  17. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  18. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  19. Project Rulison: A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Miles Jr [Austral Oil Company Incorporated, Houston, TX (United States); Bray, Bruce G; Mann, Robert L [CER Geonuclear Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1970-05-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Rulison Field in Garfield County, Colorado. Since discovery in 1952, this reservoir has been tested by nine widely-spaced conventionally completed wells. A method of stimulation, far greater in magnitude and efficiency than conventional hydraulic fracturing, is needed to recover this gas at economic rates. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90-125 billion cubic feet per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on two conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas flow computer model. A nuclear explosive with a design yield of 40 kilotons was emplaced in a 10-3/4 inch hole at a depth of 8426 feet below ground surface and detonated on September 10, 1969. A preliminary appraisal of the data taken at shot time indicate that the explosive behaved as predicted. The explosion was completely contained underground as predicted and no major seismic damage occurred. The post-shot drilling program, to reenter the chimney, will congruence in March 1970, approximately six months after detonation. A test program will be initiated at that time to determine the degree of reservoir stimulation achieved. (author)

  20. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation for the treatment of pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Oded; Klein, Limor Dinur; Dannon, Pinhas N

    2013-03-30

    Five pathological gamblers received deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS). Evaluations included rating scales and collateral anamnesis. Despite initial improvement in ratings, collateral anamnesis demonstrated failure to respond. DTMS to the pre-frontal cortex using an H1 coil was an ineffective treatment. Our study is preliminary, and additional studies are required. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormos, J M; Catalá, M D; Pascual-Leone, A

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) permits stimulation of the cerebral cortex in humans without requiring open access to the brain and is one of the newest tools available in neuroscience. There are two main types of application: single-pulse TMS and repetitive TMS. The magnetic stimulator is composed of a series of capacitors that store the voltage necessary to generate a stimulus of the sufficient intensity of generate an electric field in the stimulation coil. The safety of TMS is supported by the considerable experience derived from studies involving electrical stimulation of the cortex in animals and humans, and also specific studies on the safety of TMS in humans. In this article we review historical and technical aspects of TMS, describe its adverse effects and how to avoid them, summarize the applications of TMS in the investigation of different cerebral functions, and discuss the possibility of using TMS for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  2. Preliminary clinical trial of immunotherapy for malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Shelden, C H; Jacques, S; Skillen, R G; Bradley, W G; Techy, G B; Freshwater, D B; Abts, R M; Rand, R W

    1987-10-01

    An immunotherapy protocol based on intracranial implantation of stimulated, autologous lymphocytes into the tumor bed following surgical debulking of malignant glioma is described. Phase I clinical trials in human patients are now in progress. Preliminary data representing the first 39 patients treated are presented briefly.

  3. Music acupuncture stimulation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brătilă, F; Moldovan, C

    2007-01-01

    Harmonic Medicine is the model using the theory that the body rhythms synchronize to an outer rhythm applied for therapeutic purpose, can restores the energy balance in acupuncture channels and organs and the condition of well-being. The purpose of this scientific work was to demonstrate the role played by harmonic sounds in the stimulation of the Lung (LU) Meridian (Shoutaiyin Feijing) and of the Kidney (KI) Meridian (Zushaoyin Shenjing). It was used an original method that included: measurement and electronic sound stimulation of the Meridian Entry Point, measurement of Meridian Exit Point, computer data processing, bio feed-back adjustment of the music stimulation parameters. After data processing, it was found that the sound stimulation of the Lung Meridian Frequency is optimal between 122 Hz and 128 Hz, with an average of 124 Hz (87% of the subjects) and for Kidney Meridian from 118 Hz to 121 Hz, with an average of 120 Hz (67% of the subjects). The acupuncture stimulation was more intense for female subjects (> 7%) than for the male ones. We preliminarily consider that an informational resonance phenomenon can be developed between the acupuncture music stimulation frequency and the cellular dipole frequency, being a really "resonant frequency signature" of an acupoint. The harmonic generation and the electronic excitation or low-excitation status of an acupuncture point may be considered as a resonance mechanism. By this kind of acupunctural stimulation, a symphony may act and play a healer role.

  4. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Juan, Daniel; Morales-Quezada, León; Orozco Garduño, Adolfo Josué; Alonso-Vanegas, Mario; González-Aragón, Maricarmen Fernández; Espinoza López, Dulce Anabel; Vázquez Gregorio, Rafael; Anschel, David J; Fregni, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an emerging non-invasive neuromodulation therapy in epilepsy with conflicting results in terms of efficacy and safety. Review the literature about the efficacy and safety of tDCS in epilepsy in humans and animals. We searched studies in PubMed, MedLine, Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar (January 1969 to October 2013) using the keywords 'transcranial direct current stimulation' or 'tDCS' or 'brain polarization' or 'galvanic stimulation' and 'epilepsy' in animals and humans. Original articles that reported tDCS safety and efficacy in epileptic animals or humans were included. Four review authors independently selected the studies, extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of the studies using the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, PRISMA guidelines and Jadad Scale. A meta-analysis was not possible due to methodological, clinical and statistical heterogeneity of included studies. We analyzed 9 articles with different methodologies (3 animals/6 humans) with a total of 174 stimulated individuals; 109 animals and 65 humans. In vivo and in vitro animal studies showed that direct current stimulation can successfully induce suppression of epileptiform activity without neurological injury and 4/6 (67%) clinical studies showed an effective decrease in epileptic seizures and 5/6 (83%) reduction of inter-ictal epileptiform activity. All patients tolerated tDCS well. tDCS trials have demonstrated preliminary safety and efficacy in animals and patients with epilepsy. Further larger studies are needed to define the best stimulation protocols and long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortical inhibition effect in musicians and non-musicians using P300 with and without contralateral stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Camila Maia; Neves-Lobo, Ivone Ferreira; Rocha-Muniz, Caroline Nunes; Ubiali, Thalita; Schochat, Eliane

    2015-01-01

    Musicians have more robust and efficient neural responses in the cortical and sub-cortical regions, demonstrating that musical experience benefits the processing of both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. This study aimed to verify P300's latency and amplitude behavioral using contralateral stimulation in musicians and non-musicians. This was a case-control study. Subjects were divided in two groups: musicians, comprising 30 professional musicians, and non-musicians, comprising 25 subjects without musical experience. The present study showed that the musicians had lower latencies and higher amplitudes than the non-musicians in the P300 without contralateral noise. For the P300 amplitude values, the difference between groups persisted, and the musicians presented significantly higher amplitude values compared with the non-musicians; additionally, the analysis of the noise effect on the P300 response showed that the latency values were significantly increased in the musicians. The central auditory nervous system of musicians presents peculiar characteristics of electrophysiological responses probably due to the plasticity imposed by musical practice. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortical inhibition effect in musicians and non-musicians using P300 with and without contralateral stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Maia Rabelo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Musicians have more robust and efficient neural responses in the cortical and sub-cortical regions, demonstrating that musical experience benefits the processing of both non-linguistic and linguistic stimuli. Objective: This study aimed to verify P300's latency and amplitude behavioral using contralateral stimulation in musicians and non-musicians. Methods: This was a case-control study. Subjects were divided in two groups: musicians, comprising 30 professional musicians, and non-musicians, comprising 25 subjects without musical experience. Results: The present study showed that the musicians had lower latencies and higher amplitudes than the non-musicians in the P300 without contralateral noise. For the P300 amplitude values, the difference between groups persisted, and the musicians presented significantly higher amplitude values compared with the non-musicians; additionally, the analysis of the noise effect on the P300 response showed that the latency values were significantly increased in the musicians. Conclusion: The central auditory nervous system of musicians presents peculiar characteristics of electrophysiological responses probably due to the plasticity imposed by musical practice.

  7. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Zeinab G.; Kalansuriya, Pabasara; Capon, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    We report on a preliminary investigation of the use the Gram-negative bacterial cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a natural chemical cue to stimulate and alter the expression of fungal secondary metabolism. Integrated high-throughput micro-cultivation and micro-analysis methods determined that 6 of 40 (15%) of fungi tested responded to an optimal exposure to LPS (0.6 ng/mL) by activating, enhancing or accelerating secondary metabolite production. To explore the possible mechanisms behind this effect, we employed light and fluorescent microscopy in conjunction with a nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive fluorescent dye and an NO scavenger to provide evidence that LPS stimulation of fungal secondary metabolism coincided with LPS activation of NO. Several case studies demonstrated that LPS stimulation can be scaled from single microplate well (1.5 mL) to preparative (>400 mL) scale cultures. For example, LPS treatment of Penicillium sp. (ACM-4616) enhanced pseurotin A and activated pseurotin A1 and pseurotin A2 biosynthesis, whereas LPS treatment of Aspergillus sp. (CMB-M81F) substantially accelerated and enhanced the biosynthesis of shornephine A and a series of biosynthetically related ardeemins and activated production of neoasterriquinone. As an indication of broader potential, we provide evidence that cultures of Penicillium sp. (CMB-TF0411), Aspergillus niger (ACM-4993F), Rhizopus oryzae (ACM-165F) and Thanatephorus cucumeris (ACM-194F) were responsive to LPS stimulation, the latter two examples being particular noteworthy as neither are known to produce secondary metabolites. Our results encourage the view that LPS stimulation can be used as a valuable tool to expand the molecular discovery potential of fungal strains that either have been exhaustively studied by or are unresponsive to traditional culture methodology. PMID:25379339

  8. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  9. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms....... The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  10. Functional MR imaging at 1.5 T. Initial results using photic and motoric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Larsson, H B; Ring, P

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the effects of stimulation of the visual and the motor cortex was made on a conventional 1.5 T MR imaging scanner. Both types of activation gave a detectable change in the signal between rest and stimulation using a gradient echo sequence with an echo time of 60 ms........ The observed effects were assumed to be caused by variation in the amount of paramagnetic deoxyhemoglobin between stimulation and rest due to local increase of capillary blood flow in the human brain during stimulation....

  11. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  12. stimulated BV2 Microglial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-26

    Mar 26, 2012 ... 2), in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The level of NO production was analyzed using Griess reaction. The release of PGE2 was determined using sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay ...

  13. Brain stimulation in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighina, Filippo; Cosentino, Giuseppe; Fierro, Brigida

    2013-01-01

    Migraine is a very prevalent disease with great individual disability and socioeconomic burden. Despite intensive research effort in recent years, the etiopathogenesis of the disease remains to be elucidated. Recently, much importance has been given to mechanisms underlying the cortical excitability that has been suggested to be dysfunctional in migraine. In recent years, noninvasive brain stimulation techniques based on magnetic fields (transcranial magnetic stimulation, TMS) and on direct electrical currents (transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS) have been shown to be safe and effective tools to explore the issue of cortical excitability, activation, and plasticity in migraine. Moreover, TMS, repetitive TMS (rTMS), and tDCS, thanks to their ability to interfere with and/or modulate cortical activity inducing plastic, persistent effects, have been also explored as potential therapeutic approaches, opening an interesting perspective for noninvasive neurostimulation for both symptomatic and preventive treatment of migraine and other types of headache. In this chapter we critically review evidence regarding the role of noninvasive brain stimulation in the pathophysiology and treatment of migraine, delineating the advantages and limits of these techniques together with potential development and future application. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Programmable High-Voltage Compliance Neural Stimulator for Deep Brain Stimulation in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep brain stimulation (DBS is one of the most effective therapies for movement and other disorders. The DBS neurosurgical procedure involves the implantation of a DBS device and a battery-operated neurotransmitter, which delivers electrical impulses to treatment targets through implanted electrodes. The DBS modulates the neuronal activities in the brain nucleus for improving physiological responses as long as an electric discharge above the stimulation threshold can be achieved. In an effort to improve the performance of an implanted DBS device, the device size, implementation cost, and power efficiency are among the most important DBS device design aspects. This study aims to present preliminary research results of an efficient stimulator, with emphasis on conversion efficiency. The prototype stimulator features high-voltage compliance, implemented with only a standard semiconductor process, without the use of extra masks in the foundry through our proposed circuit structure. The results of animal experiments, including evaluation of evoked responses induced by thalamic electrical stimuli with our fabricated chip, were shown to demonstrate the proof of concept of our design.

  15. Impact of deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule on cognition in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, Isidoor O.; Mantione, Mariska; Hoogendoorn, M L C; Ruhe, H. G.; Horst, Ferdinand; Notten, P; van Laarhoven, J; van den Munckhof, M. P.; Beute, G. N.; Schuurman, P R; Denys, D

    Background. Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. Method. To

  16. Impact of deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule on cognition in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, I O; Mantione, M; Hoogendoorn, M L C; Ruhé, H G; Horst, F; Notten, P; van Laarhoven, J; van den Munckhof, P; Beute, G; Schuurman, P R; Denys, D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. METHOD: To

  17. Impact of deep brain stimulation of the ventral anterior limb of the internal capsule on cognition in depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergfeld, I. O.; Mantione, M.; Hoogendoorn, M. L. C.; Ruhé, H. G.; Horst, F.; Notten, P.; van Laarhoven, J.; van den Munckhof, P.; Beute, G.; Schuurman, P. R.; Denys, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Preliminary studies report no negative and a possible positive impact of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on cognition of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, these studies neither controlled for practice effects nor compared active with sham stimulation. Method. To

  18. Shared Neural Mechanisms for the Evaluation of Intense Sensory Stimulation and Economic Reward, Dependent on Stimulation-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, Agnes; Valton, Vincent; Rees, Geraint; Roiser, Jonathan P; Husain, Masud

    2016-09-28

    Why are some people strongly motivated by intense sensory experiences? Here we investigated how people encode the value of an intense sensory experience compared with economic reward, and how this varies according to stimulation-seeking preference. Specifically, we used a novel behavioral task in combination with computational modeling to derive the value individuals assigned to the opportunity to experience an intense tactile stimulus (mild electric shock). We then examined functional imaging data recorded during task performance to see how the opportunity to experience the sensory stimulus was encoded in stimulation-seekers versus stimulation-avoiders. We found that for individuals who positively sought out this kind of sensory stimulation, there was common encoding of anticipated economic and sensory rewards in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Conversely, there was robust encoding of the modeled probability of receiving such stimulation in the insula only in stimulation-avoidant individuals. Finally, we found preliminary evidence that sensory prediction error signals may be positively signed for stimulation-seekers, but negatively signed for stimulation-avoiders, in the posterior cingulate cortex. These findings may help explain why high intensity sensory experiences are appetitive for some individuals, but not for others, and may have relevance for the increased vulnerability for some psychopathologies, but perhaps increased resilience for others, in high sensation-seeking individuals. People vary in their preference for intense sensory experiences. Here, we investigated how different individuals evaluate the prospect of an unusual sensory experience (electric shock), compared with the opportunity to gain a more traditional reward (money). We found that in a subset of individuals who sought out such unusual sensory stimulation, anticipation of the sensory outcome was encoded in the same way as that of monetary gain, in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex

  19. [Transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor cortex stimulation in neuropathic pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, V; Ayache, S S; Teepker, M; Kappus, C; Kolodziej, M; Rosenow, F; Nimsky, C; Oertel, W H; Lefaucheur, J P

    2012-12-01

    Non-invasive and invasive cortical stimulation allows the modulation of therapy-refractory neuropathic pain. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the contralateral motor cortex yields therapeutic effects at short-term and predicts the benefits of epidural motor cortex stimulation (MCS). The present article summarizes the findings on application, mechanisms and therapeutic effects of cortical stimulation in neuropathic pain.

  20. Grating stimulated echo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubetsky, B.; Berman, P.R.; Sleator, T.

    1992-01-01

    A theory of a grating simulated echo (GTE) is developed. The GSE involves the sequential excitation of atoms by two counterpropagating traveling waves, a standing wave, and a third traveling wave. It is shown that the echo signal is very sensitive to small changes in atomic velocity, much more sensitive than the normal stimulated echo. Use of the GSE as a collisional probe or accelerometer is discussed

  1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  2. Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antal, Andrea; Alekseichuk, I; Bikson, M

    2017-01-01

    Low intensity transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) in humans, encompassing transcranial direct current (tDCS), transcutaneous spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS), transcranial alternating current (tACS), and transcranial random noise (tRNS) stimulation or their combinations, appears...

  3. Transcranial alternating current stimulation with sawtooth waves: simultaneous stimulation and EEG recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James eDowsett

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS has until now mostly been administered as an alternating sinusoidal wave. Despite modern tACS stimulators being able to deliver alternating current with any arbitrary shape there has been no systematic exploration into the relative benefits of different waveforms. As tACS is a relatively new technique there is a huge parameter space of unexplored possibilities which may prove superior or complimentary to the traditional sinusoidal waveform. Here we begin to address this with an investigation into the effects of sawtooth wave tACS on individual alpha power. Evidence from animal models suggests that the gradient and direction of an electric current should be important factors for the subsequent neural firing rate; we compared positive and negative ramp sawtooth waves to test this. An additional advantage of sawtooth waves is that the resulting artefact in the electroencephalogram (EEG recording is significantly simpler to remove than a sine wave; accordingly we were able to observe alpha oscillations both during and after stimulation.We found that positive ramp sawtooth, but not negative ramp sawtooth, significantly enhanced alpha power during stimulation relative to sham (p<0.01. In addition we tested for an after-effect of both sawtooth and sinusoidal stimulation on alpha power but in this case did not find any significant effect. This preliminary study paves the way for further investigations into the effect of the gradient and direction of the current in tACS which could significantly improve the usefulness of this technique.

  4. Temporal lobe cortical electrical stimulation during the encoding and retrieval phase reduces false memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo S Boggio

    Full Text Available A recent study found that false memories were reduced by 36% when low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS was applied to the left anterior temporal lobe after the encoding (study phase. Here we were interested in the consequences on a false memory task of brain stimulation throughout the encoding and retrieval task phases. We used transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS because it has been shown to be a useful tool to enhance cognition. Specifically, we examined whether tDCS can induce changes in a task assessing false memories. Based on our preliminary results, three conditions of stimulation were chosen: anodal left/cathodal right anterior temporal lobe (ATL stimulation ("bilateral stimulation"; anodal left ATL stimulation (with a large contralateral cathodal electrode--referred as "unilateral stimulation" and sham stimulation. Our results showed that false memories were reduced significantly after the two active conditions (unilateral and bilateral stimulation as compared with sham stimulation. There were no significant changes in veridical memories. Our findings show that false memories are reduced by 73% when anodal tDCS is applied to the anterior temporal lobes throughout the encoding and retrieval stages, suggesting a possible strategy for improving certain aspects of learning.

  5. UVISS preliminary visibility analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part of the w......The goal of this work is to obtain a preliminary assessment of the sky visibility for anastronomical telescope located on the express pallet of the International SpaceStation (ISS)} taking into account the major constraints imposed on the instrument by the ISSattitude and structure. Part...... of the work is also to setup the kernel of a software tool for the visibility analysis thatshould be easily expandable to consider more complex strucures for future activities.This analysis is part of the UVISS assessment study and it is meant to provide elementsfor the definition and the selection...

  6. Antares: preliminary demonstrator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchner, A.

    2000-05-01

    The ANTARES collaboration is building an undersea neutrino telescope off Toulon (Mediterranean sea) with effective area ∼ 0.1 km 2 . An extensive study of the site properties has been achieved together with software analysis in order to optimize the performance of the detector. Results are summarized here. An instrumented line, linked to shore for first time via an electro-optical cable, has been immersed late 1999. The preliminary results of this demonstrator line are reported. (author)

  7. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  8. A distributed current stimulator ASIC for high density neural stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong Hoan Park; Chaebin Kim; Seung-Hee Ahn; Tae Mok Gwon; Joonsoo Jeong; Sang Beom Jun; Sung June Kim

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a novel distributed neural stimulator scheme. Instead of a single stimulator ASIC in the package, multiple ASICs are embedded at each electrode site for stimulation with a high density electrode array. This distributed architecture enables the simplification of wiring between electrodes and stimulator ASIC that otherwise could become too complex as the number of electrode increases. The individual ASIC chip is designed to have a shared data bus that independently controls multiple stimulating channels. Therefore, the number of metal lines is determined by the distributed ASICs, not by the channel number. The function of current steering is also implemented within each ASIC in order to increase the effective number of channels via pseudo channel stimulation. Therefore, the chip area can be used more efficiently. The designed chip was fabricated with area of 0.3 mm2 using 0.18 μm BCDMOS process, and the bench-top test was also conducted to validate chip performance.

  9. Computationally Developed Sham Stimulation Protocol for Multichannel Desynchronizing Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magteld Zeitler

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation has been developed to specifically counteract abnormally strong synchronization by desynchronization. CR is a spatio-temporally patterned multichannel stimulation which reduces the extent of coincident neuronal activity and aims at an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of both synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. Apart from acute desynchronizing effects, CR may cause sustained, long-lasting desynchronizing effects, as already demonstrated in pre-clinical and clinical proof of concept studies. In this computational study, we set out to computationally develop a sham stimulation protocol for multichannel desynchronizing stimulation. To this end, we compare acute effects and long-lasting effects of six different spatio-temporally patterned stimulation protocols, including three variants of CR, using a no-stimulation condition as additional control. This is to provide an inventory of different stimulation algorithms with similar fundamental stimulation parameters (e.g., mean stimulation rates but qualitatively different acute and/or long-lasting effects. Stimulation protocols sharing basic parameters, but inducing nevertheless completely different or even no acute effects and/or after-effects, might serve as controls to validate the specific effects of particular desynchronizing protocols such as CR. In particular, based on

  10. The moral stimulation as motivation process the cooperative sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lázaro Díaz Torres

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The moral stimulation contributes benefits to the cooperative sector, contributing the one sustained increase of the productivity, quality and development of the creative thought. Under the current conditions it is comprehensible the necessity that in the relationship with the peasants is present the Moral Stimulation, in such a sense the reservations of intangible efficiencies are minimized, without investing more resources, also the absence of recognitions, in its consequence, shows frustration, monotony and in some cases I jade siquico, being the stimulation moral reguladora of different emotional states that you/they brake the growth of the results in its absence. As consequence of the previously exposed thing, and result of a study exploratory preliminary carried out starting from a group of investigative methods as studies of documents, interviews, surveys and the author's observation, he/she was proven the empiric formation of those that direct, they control and they regulate the work in the cooperative sector. They appeared weaknesses related with the insufficient use of the moral stimulation, in the results of the work, the values, increment of the productivity, the labor fluctuation and the quality, in such a sense this problem becomes a priority that should be assisted. This study, forces to investigate with depth in the Administration of the Moral Stimulation, it implies a process of continuous preparation of the cooperative sector, so that potencien its acting according to its responsibilities also becomes a scientific problem and the central topic of this investigation.

  11. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  12. Engagement sensitive visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is one of leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Early detection during golden hour and treatment of individual neurological dysfunction in stroke using easy-to-access biomarkers based on a simple-to-use, cost-effective, clinically-valid screening tool can bring a paradigm shift in healthcare, both urban and rural. In our research we have designed a quantitative automatic home-based oculomotor assessment tool that can play an important complementary role in prognosis of neurological disorders like stroke for the neurologist. Once the patient has been screened for stroke, the next step is to design proper rehabilitation platform to alleviate the disability. In addition to the screening platform, in our research, we work in designing virtual reality based rehabilitation exercise platform that has the potential to deliver visual stimulation and in turn contribute to improving one’s performance.

  13. Frequent Nonprescription Stimulant Use and Risky Behaviors in College Students: The Role of Effortful Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M.; Graziano, Paulo A.; Balkhi, Amanda M.; McNamara, Joseph P. H.; Cottler, Linda B.; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. Participants: A sample of 555 college students was…

  14. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung-chi Lihn.

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  15. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  16. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  17. OMEGA Upgrade preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craxton, R.S.

    1989-10-01

    The OMEGA laser system at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester is the only major facility in the United States capable of conducting fully diagnosed, direct-drive, spherical implosion experiments. As such, it serves as the national Laser Users Facility, benefiting scientists throughout the country. The University's participation in the National Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program underwent review by a group of experts under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences (the Happer Committee) in 1985. The Happer Committee recommended that the OMEGA laser be upgraded in energy to 30 kJ. To this end, Congress appropriated $4,000,000 for the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade, spread across FY88 and FY89. This document describes the preliminary design of the OMEGA Upgrade. The proposed enhancements to the existing OMEGA facility will result in a 30-kHJ, 351-nm, 60-beam direct-drive system, with a versatile pulse-shaping facility and a 1%--2% uniformity of target drive. The Upgrade will allow scientists to explore the ignition-scaling regime, and to study target behavior that is hydrodynamically equivalent to that of targets appropriate for a laboratory microfusion facility (LMF). In addition, it will be possible to perform critical interaction experiments with large-scale-length uniformly irradiated plasmas

  18. Ultrasound stimulation on bone healing. The optimization of stimulation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosim, R.C.; Paulin, J.B.P.; Goncalves, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Previous works in ultrasonic simulation of bone healing dealt with parameters optimization. Albertin (1983) studied the stimulation time and found forty minutes as ideal. However, this stimulation time was the largest one employed and remained some doubt about the most appropriated value. 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes of stimulation time were selected, while others parameters were held constant with: pulse width in 200 μs, repetition rate in 1000 pulses per second and amplitude in 30 V. Partial incomplete transverse osteotomies were done in the middle third of radio in the right forearm of rabbits. Twenty four animals divided in four subgroups, with 6 animals each were stimulated. The daily stimulation time for each subgroup was 30, 40, 50 and minutes respectively, during 15 consecutive days. The stimulation procedure started 24 hours after surgery. After the stimulation period, radiological, histological and morphometric evaluations were done and greater bone healing was found for the 50 minutes stimulation subgroup, in them new bone was also prominent. (author)

  19. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    -related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... stimulation. Trait-related and state-related determinants contribute to this variability, challenging the standard approach to apply stimulation in a rigid, one-size-fits-all fashion. Several strategies have been identified to reduce variability and maximize the plasticity-inducing effects of noninvasive...

  20. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  1. Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trank, Douglas M.

    Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

  2. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  3. Preliminary rail access study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain site, located on the southwestern edge of the Nevada Test Site, is an undeveloped area under investigation as a potential site for nuclear waste disposal by the US Department of Energy. The site currently lacks rail service and an existing rail right-of-way. If the site is suitable and selected for development as a disposal site, rail service is desirable to the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program because of the potential of rail to reduce number of shipments and costs relative to highway transportation. This preliminary report is a summary of progress to date for activities to identify and evaluate potential rail options from major rail carriers in the region to the Yucca Mountain site. It is currently anticipated that the rail spur will be operational after the year 2000. 9 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  4. Method to stimulate dose gradient in liquid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, F.

    1993-01-01

    The depth absorbed dose from electrons with energy higher than 10 MeV shows a distribution with a big-percentage absorbed dose at the entrance surface and a small dose gradient. This is due to the big distance between the virtual focus and irradiated liquid medium. In order to stimulate dose gradient and decrease the surface dose, this paper presents a method for obtaining the second focus by means of a magnetostatic planar wiggler. Preliminary calculations indicated that the absorbed dose rate increases two-three times at the reference plane in the irradiated liquid medium. (Author)

  5. Pharmacological interventions for adolescents and adults with ADHD: stimulant and nonstimulant medications and misuse of prescription stimulants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyandt LL

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lisa L Weyandt, Danielle R Oster, Marisa E Marraccini, Bergljot Gyda Gudmundsdottir, Bailey A Munro, Brynheld Martinez Zavras, Ben Kuhar Department of Psychology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, USA Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity that cause functional impairment. Recent research indicates that symptoms persist into adulthood in the majority of cases, with prevalence estimates of approximately 5% in the school age population and 2.5%–4% in the adult population. Although students with ADHD are at greater risk for academic underachievement and psychosocial problems, increasing numbers of students with ADHD are graduating from high school and pursuing higher education. Stimulant medications are considered the first line of pharmacotherapy for individuals with ADHD, including college students. Although preliminary evidence indicates that prescription stimulants are safe and effective for college students with ADHD when used as prescribed, very few controlled studies have been conducted concerning the efficacy of prescription stimulants with college students. In addition, misuse of prescription stimulants has become a serious problem on college campuses across the US and has been recently documented in other countries as well. The purpose of the present systematic review was to investigate the efficacy of prescription stimulants for adolescents and young adults with ADHD and the nonmedical use and misuse of prescription stimulants. Results revealed that both prostimulant and stimulant medications, including lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, methylphenidate, amphetamines, and mixed-amphetamine salts, are effective at reducing ADHD symptoms in adolescents and adults with ADHD. Findings also suggest that individuals with ADHD may have higher rates of stimulant misuse than individuals without the disorder, and

  6. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Guy; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John A; Zamir, Mair

    2014-01-01

    Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  7. Vagal nerve stimulation therapy: what is being stimulated?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Kember

    Full Text Available Vagal nerve stimulation in cardiac therapy involves delivering electrical current to the vagal sympathetic complex in patients experiencing heart failure. The therapy has shown promise but the mechanisms by which any benefit accrues is not understood. In this paper we model the response to increased levels of stimulation of individual components of the vagal sympathetic complex as a differential activation of each component in the control of heart rate. The model provides insight beyond what is available in the animal experiment in as much as allowing the simultaneous assessment of neuronal activity throughout the cardiac neural axis. The results indicate that there is sensitivity of the neural network to low level subthreshold stimulation. This leads us to propose that the chronic effects of vagal nerve stimulation therapy lie within the indirect pathways that target intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons because they have the capacity for plasticity.

  8. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  9. Transient Sensory Recovery in Stroke Patients After Pulsed Radiofrequency Electrical Stimulation on Dorsal Root Ganglia: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apiliogullari, Seza; Gezer, Ilknur A; Levendoglu, Funda

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of the somatosensory system is important for motor recovery and neuroplasticity after strokes. Peripheral stimulation or central stimulation in patients with central nervous system lesions can be an effective modality in improving function and in facilitating neuroplasticity. We present 2 hemiplegic cases with sensory motor deficit and the result of the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) electrical stimulation to the dorsal root ganglia. After PRF electrical stimulation, significant improvement was achieved in the examination of patients with superficial and deep sensation. However, during the follow-up visits were observed that the effect of PRF electrical stimulation disappeared. We believe that these preliminary results could be used in the development of future prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trials that focus on the effect of PRF electrical stimulation on dorsal root ganglia to treat sensory deficits in poststroke patients.

  10. Combined effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke: A pilot, single blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picelli, Alessandro; Chemello, Elena; Castellazzi, Paola; Filippetti, Mirko; Brugnera, Annalisa; Gandolfi, Marialuisa; Waldner, Andreas; Saltuari, Leopold; Smania, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    Preliminary evidence showed additional effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere combined with cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation during robot-assisted gait training in chronic stroke patients. This is consistent with the neural organization of locomotion involving cortical and spinal control. The cerebellum is crucial for locomotor control, in particular for avoidance of obstacles, and adaptation to novel conditions during walking. Despite its key role in gait control, to date the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation of the cerebellum have not been investigated on brain stroke patients treated with robot-assisted gait training. To evaluate the effects of cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation combined with transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation on robot-assisted gait training in patients with chronic brain stroke. After balanced randomization, 20 chronic stroke patients received ten, 20-minute robot-assisted gait training sessions (five days a week, for two consecutive weeks) combined with central nervous system stimulation. Group 1 underwent on-line cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional cerebellar hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. Group 2 received on-line anodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the damaged cerebral hemisphere + cathodal transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation. The primary outcome was the 6-minute walk test performed before, after, and at follow-up at 2 and 4 weeks post-treatment. The significant differences in the 6-minute walk test noted between groups at the first post-treatment evaluation (p = 0.041) were not maintained at either the 2-week (P = 0.650) or the 4-week (P = 0.545) follow-up evaluations. Our preliminary findings support the hypothesis that cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the contralesional

  11. Multielectrode intrafascicular and extraneural stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltink, Petrus H.; van Alste, Jan A.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between nerve stimulation, pulse amplitude and isometric muscle force was measured to investigate recruitment of motor units. Force addition experiments were performed to obtain insight in the intersection of motor unit groups recruited by different electrodes. Intrafascicular and

  12. Noninvasive Stimulation of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Rothwell, John; Capogna, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation methods, such as transcranial electric stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation are widely used tools for both basic research and clinical applications. However, the cortical circuits underlying their effects are poorly defined. Here we review the current...

  13. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity

  14. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  15. Optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Murray, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Since the beginning of the 1990s the exploration of optically stimulated luminescence in retrospective accident dosimetry has driven an intensive investigation and development programme at Ris deg. into measurement facilities and techniques. This paper reviews some of the outcomes of this programme, including the evaluation of the single-aliquot regenerative-dose measurement protocol with brick quartz and the determination of dose-depth profiles in building materials as a guide to determining the mean energy of the incident radiation. Investigations into heated materials are most advanced, and a lower detection limit for quartz extracted from Chernobyl bricks was determined to be <10 mGy. The first results from the measurement of doses in unheated building materials such as mortar and concrete are also discussed. Both small-aliquot and single-grain techniques have been used to assess accident doses in these cement based building materials more commonly found in workplaces. Finally some results of a preliminary investigation of the OSL properties of household chemicals are discussed with reference to their potential as accident dosemeters. (author)

  16. Biomarkers and Stimulation Algorithms for Adaptive Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly B. Hoang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this review is to describe in what ways feedback or adaptive stimulation may be delivered and adjusted based on relevant biomarkers. Specific treatment mechanisms underlying therapeutic brain stimulation remain unclear, in spite of the demonstrated efficacy in a number of nervous system diseases. Brain stimulation appears to exert widespread influence over specific neural networks that are relevant to specific disease entities. In awake patients, activation or suppression of these neural networks can be assessed by either symptom alleviation (i.e., tremor, rigidity, seizures or physiological criteria, which may be predictive of expected symptomatic treatment. Secondary verification of network activation through specific biomarkers that are linked to symptomatic disease improvement may be useful for several reasons. For example, these biomarkers could aid optimal intraoperative localization, possibly improve efficacy or efficiency (i.e., reduced power needs, and provide long-term adaptive automatic adjustment of stimulation parameters. Possible biomarkers for use in portable or implanted devices span from ongoing physiological brain activity, evoked local field potentials (LFPs, and intermittent pathological activity, to wearable devices, biochemical, blood flow, optical, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI changes, temperature changes, or optogenetic signals. First, however, potential biomarkers must be correlated directly with symptom or disease treatment and network activation. Although numerous biomarkers are under consideration for a variety of stimulation indications the feasibility of these approaches has yet to be fully determined. Particularly, there are critical questions whether the use of adaptive systems can improve efficacy over continuous stimulation, facilitate adjustment of stimulation interventions and improve our understanding of the role of abnormal network function in disease mechanisms.

  17. Pickering safeguards: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, J.L.; Hodgkinson, J.G.

    1977-05-01

    A summary is presented of thoughts relative to a systems approach for implementing international safeguards. Included is a preliminary analysis of the Pickering Generating Station followed by a suggested safeguards system for the facility

  18. Cell emulation and preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    This report details preliminary results of the testing plan implemented by the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute to evaluate Electric Vehicle (EV) battery durability and reliability under electric utility grid operations. Commercial EV battery cells ar...

  19. Perceiving differences in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch: A pilot study with German congenital amusics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Pfeifer, J.; Krause-Burmester, M.; Cambouropoulos, F.; Tsougras, C.; Mavromatis, P.; Pastiadis, K.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the perception of pitch differences by seven German congenital amusics in speech and two types of non-speech material (sinusoidal waves and pulse trains). Congenital amusia is defined by a deficit in musical pitch perception, and recent studies indicate that at least a

  20. Prediction-based Audiovisual Fusion for Classification of Non-Linguistic Vocalisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    Prediction plays a key role in recent computational models of the brain and it has been suggested that the brain constantly makes multisensory spatiotemporal predictions. Inspired by these findings we tackle the problem of audiovisual fusion from a new perspective based on prediction. We train

  1. Congenital Amusia in linguistic and non-linguistic pitch perception - What behavior and reaction times reveal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfeifer, J.; Hamann, S.; Exter, M.; Campbell, N.; Gibbon, D.; Hirst, D.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Amusia is a developmental disorder that has a negative influence on pitch perception. While it used to be described as a disorder of musical pitch perception, recent studies indicate that congenital amusics also show deficits in linguistic pitch perception. This study investigates the

  2. Implicit Learning of Non-Linguistic and Linguistic Regularities in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Luciana; Jiménez-Fernández, Gracia; Simpson, Ian C.; Defior, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    One of the hallmarks of dyslexia is the failure to automatise written patterns despite repeated exposure to print. Although many explanations have been proposed to explain this problem, researchers have recently begun to explore the possibility that an underlying implicit learning deficit may play a role in dyslexia. This hypothesis has been…

  3. Priorities of Dialogic Speech Teaching Methodology at Higher Non-Linguistic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Asanavičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a number of relevant methodological issues. First of all, the author analyses psychological peculiarities of dialogic speech and states that the dialogue is the product of at least two persons. Therefore, in this view, dialogic speech, unlike monologic speech, happens impromptu and is not prepared in advance. Dialogic speech is mainly of situational character. The linguistic nature of dialogic speech, in the author’s opinion, lies in the process of exchanging replications, which are coherent in structural and functional character. The author classifies dialogue groups by the number of replications and communicative parameters. The basic goal of dialogic speech teaching is developing the abilities and skills which enable to exchange replications. The author distinguishes two basic stages of dialogic speech teaching: 1. Training of abilities to exchange replications during communicative exercises. 2. Development of skills by training the capability to perform exercises of creative nature during a group dialogue, conversation or debate.

  4. On the Temporal Delay Assumption and the Impact of Non-Linguistic Context Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brysbaert, Marc; van Wijnendaele, Ilse; Duyck, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    It is not easy to comment on Dijkstra and Van Heuven's model because there are many more aspects we agree with than aspects we feel uncomfortable about. Indeed, the BIA model has played an enormous role in showing us how bilingual visual word recognition can be achieved without recurrence to the intuitively appealing--but wrong--ideas of separate,…

  5. Human Non-linguistic Vocal Repertoire: Call Types and Their Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, Andrey; Bååth, Rasmus; Persson, Tomas

    2018-01-01

    Recent research on human nonverbal vocalizations has led to considerable progress in our understanding of vocal communication of emotion. However, in contrast to studies of animal vocalizations, this research has focused mainly on the emotional interpretation of such signals. The repertoire of human nonverbal vocalizations as acoustic types, and the mapping between acoustic and emotional categories, thus remain underexplored. In a cross-linguistic naming task (Experiment 1), verbal categorization of 132 authentic (non-acted) human vocalizations by English-, Swedish- and Russian-speaking participants revealed the same major acoustic types: laugh, cry, scream, moan, and possibly roar and sigh. The association between call type and perceived emotion was systematic but non-redundant: listeners associated every call type with a limited, but in some cases relatively wide, range of emotions. The speed and consistency of naming the call type predicted the speed and consistency of inferring the caller's emotion, suggesting that acoustic and emotional categorizations are closely related. However, participants preferred to name the call type before naming the emotion. Furthermore, nonverbal categorization of the same stimuli in a triad classification task (Experiment 2) was more compatible with classification by call type than by emotion, indicating the former's greater perceptual salience. These results suggest that acoustic categorization may precede attribution of emotion, highlighting the need to distinguish between the overt form of nonverbal signals and their interpretation by the perceiver. Both within- and between-call acoustic variation can then be modeled explicitly, bringing research on human nonverbal vocalizations more in line with the work on animal communication.

  6. MUSIC IN E-LEARNING COURSES OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT NON-LINGUISTIC UNIVERSITIES

    OpenAIRE

    M. V. ARHIPOVA

    2015-01-01

    The article is written within the framework of the extended scientific research devoted to the music-semeiotic concept of developing students’ creative learning of foreign languages. The concept implies experimental study of psychological impact of music on the efficiency of the learning processes, on the development of general and specific abilities of students, in particular creative abilities to learn foreign languages. Solution of this task is based on the hypothesis of psychological inte...

  7. Electrical stimulation and motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Wise

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several investigators have successfully regenerated axons in animal spinal cords without locomotor recovery. One explanation is that the animals were not trained to use the regenerated connections. Intensive locomotor training improves walking recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) in people, and >90% of people with incomplete SCI recover walking with training. Although the optimal timing, duration, intensity, and type of locomotor training are still controversial, many investigators have reported beneficial effects of training on locomotor function. The mechanisms by which training improves recovery are not clear, but an attractive theory is available. In 1949, Donald Hebb proposed a famous rule that has been paraphrased as "neurons that fire together, wire together." This rule provided a theoretical basis for a widely accepted theory that homosynaptic and heterosynaptic activity facilitate synaptic formation and consolidation. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord has a locomotor center, called the central pattern generator (CPG), which can be activated nonspecifically with electrical stimulation or neurotransmitters to produce walking. The CPG is an obvious target to reconnect after SCI. Stimulating motor cortex, spinal cord, or peripheral nerves can modulate lumbar spinal cord excitability. Motor cortex stimulation causes long-term changes in spinal reflexes and synapses, increases sprouting of the corticospinal tract, and restores skilled forelimb function in rats. Long used to treat chronic pain, motor cortex stimuli modify lumbar spinal network excitability and improve lower extremity motor scores in humans. Similarly, epidural spinal cord stimulation has long been used to treat pain and spasticity. Subthreshold epidural stimulation reduces the threshold for locomotor activity. In 2011, Harkema et al. reported lumbosacral epidural stimulation restores motor control in chronic motor complete patients. Peripheral nerve or functional electrical

  8. Transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord direct current stimulation as innovative tools for neuroscientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priori, Alberto; Ciocca, Matteo; Parazzini, Marta; Vergari, Maurizio; Ferrucci, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Two neuromodulatory techniques based on applying direct current (DC) non-invasively through the skin, transcranial cerebellar direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcutaneous spinal DCS, can induce prolonged functional changes consistent with a direct influence on the human cerebellum and spinal cord. In this article we review the major experimental works on cerebellar tDCS and on spinal tDCS, and their preliminary clinical applications. Cerebellar tDCS modulates cerebellar motor cortical inhibition, gait adaptation, motor behaviour, and cognition (learning, language, memory, attention). Spinal tDCS influences the ascending and descending spinal pathways, and spinal reflex excitability. In the anaesthetised mouse, DC stimulation applied under the skin along the entire spinal cord may affect GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. Preliminary clinical studies in patients with cerebellar disorders, and in animals and patients with spinal cord injuries, have reported beneficial effects. Overall the available data show that cerebellar tDCS and spinal tDCS are two novel approaches for inducing prolonged functional changes and neuroplasticity in the human cerebellum and spinal cord, and both are new tools for experimental and clinical neuroscientists. PMID:24907311

  9. Acute and chronic changes in brain activity with deep brain stimulation for refractory depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conen, Silke; Matthews, Julian C; Patel, Nikunj K; Anton-Rodriguez, José; Talbot, Peter S

    2018-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation is a potential option for patients with treatment-refractory depression. Deep brain stimulation benefits have been reported when targeting either the subgenual cingulate or ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens. However, not all patients respond and optimum stimulation-site is uncertain. We compared deep brain stimulation of the subgenual cingulate and ventral anterior capsule/nucleus accumbens separately and combined in the same seven treatment-refractory depression patients, and investigated regional cerebral blood flow changes associated with acute and chronic deep brain stimulation. Deep brain stimulation-response was defined as reduction in Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score from baseline of ≥50%, and remission as a Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score ≤8. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were assessed using [ 15 O]water positron emission tomography. Remitters had higher relative regional cerebral blood flow in the prefrontal cortex at baseline and all subsequent time-points compared to non-remitters and non-responders, with prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow generally increasing with chronic deep brain stimulation. These effects were consistent regardless of stimulation-site. Overall, no significant regional cerebral blood flow changes were apparent when deep brain stimulation was acutely interrupted. Deep brain stimulation improved treatment-refractory depression severity in the majority of patients, with consistent changes in local and distant brain regions regardless of target stimulation. Remission of depression was reached in patients with higher baseline prefrontal regional cerebral blood flow. Because of the small sample size these results are preliminary and further evaluation is necessary to determine whether prefrontal cortex regional cerebral blood flow could be a predictive biomarker of treatment response.

  10. Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Hayashibe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Time-variant muscle responses under electrical stimulation (ES are often problematic for all the applications of neuroprosthetic muscle control. This situation limits the range of ES usage in relevant areas, mainly due to muscle fatigue and also to changes in stimulation electrode contact conditions, especially in transcutaneous ES. Surface electrodes are still the most widely used in noninvasive applications.Electrical field variations caused by changes in the stimulation contact condition markedly affect the resulting total muscle activation levels. Fatigue phenomena under functional electrical stimulation (FES are also well known source of time-varying characteristics coming from muscle response under ES. Therefore it is essential to monitor the actual muscle state and assess the expected muscle response by ES so as to improve the current ES system in favour of adaptive muscle-response-aware FES control. To deal with this issue, we have been studying a novel control technique using evoked electromyography (eEMG signals to compensate for these muscle time-variances under ES for stable neuroprosthetic muscle control. In this perspective article, I overview the background of this topic and highlight important points to be aware of when using ES to induce the desired muscle activation regardless of the time-variance. I also demonstrate how to deal with the common critical problem of ES to move toward robust neuroprosthetic muscle control with the Evoked Electromyographically Controlled Electrical Stimulation paradigm.

  11. Stimulation of DNA synthesis by 340nm/ 351nm UV laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, R.A.; Wharton, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    During preliminary experiments designed to test the feasibility of using a 'caged' DNA break trapping agent, the authors observed a stimulation of incorporation of 3 H-thymidine into DNA when cells were irradiated with low doses (100-1000J/m 2 ) of 351nm UV laser irradiation. This wavelength is used to photolyse 'caged' dideoxynucleotides in our fast time course measurements of DNA repair in mammalian cells. The dose at which this stimulation was observed is well below that at which measurable damage is detected. (author)

  12. Motor Skills of Children Newly Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Prior to and Following Treatment with Stimulant Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard-Racine, Marie; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie; Belanger, Stacey Ageranioti; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Motor difficulties are common in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Although preliminary evidence has suggested that methylphenidate can improve the motor skills in children with ADHD and Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD), the effect of stimulant medication on motor performance in children newly diagnosed with…

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the laccase from Ganoderma lucidum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyashenko, Andrey V.; Belova, Oksana; Gabdulkhakov, Azat G.; Lashkov, Alexander A.; Lisov, Alexandr V.; Leontievsky, Alexey A.; Mikhailov, Al’bert M.

    2011-01-01

    The purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray structure analysis of the laccase from G. lucidum are reported. The ligninolytic enzymes of the basidiomycetes play a key role in the global carbon cycle. A characteristic property of these enzymes is their broad substrate specificity, which has led to their use in various biotechnologies, thus stimulating research into the three-dimensional structures of ligninolytic enzymes. This paper presents the purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the laccase from the ligninolytic basidiomycete Ganoderma lucidum

  14. Análise invasiva e não invasiva do fuso meiótico de oócitos humanos obtidos de ciclos estimulados: dados preliminares Invasive and noninvasive analysis of the meiotic spindle of human oocytes obtained from stimulate cycles: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Azôr Dib

    2012-11-01

    preditivo de normalidade meiótica oocitária.PURPOSE: To evaluate the concordance between polarization microscopy and confocal microscopy techniques in the evaluation of the meiotic spindle of human oocytes matured in vivo. METHODS: Prospective study that evaluated oocytes with the first polar extruded body obtained from infertile women who had undergone ovarian stimulation for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The oocytes with the first polar extruded body were evaluated by polarization microscopy and were then immediately fixed and stained for microtubule and chromatin evaluation by high-performance confocal microscopy. We determined the correlation of polarization microscopy with confocal microscopy in the detection of meiotic oocyte anomalies, and we also evaluated the percentage of oocytes with a visible and non-visible cell spindle by polarization microscopy and with meiotic normality and abnormalities by confocal microscopy. Confidence intervals, Kappa's index and concordance between the methodologies were calculated, considering immunofluorescence microscopy analysis as the golden-standard for evaluating normal spindle and oocyte chromosome distribution. RESULTS: We observed that 72.7% of metaphase II oocytes with a nonvisible meiotic spindle by polarization microscopy showed no meiotic abnormalities by confocal analysis and 55.6% of metaphase II oocytes with a visible meiotic spindle by polarization microscopy were found to be abnormal oocytes by the confocal analysis. Only 44.4% of oocytes with a visible meiotic spindle by polarization microscopy were found to be normal by confocal analysis. Concordance between the methods was 51.1% (Kappa: 0.11; 95%CI -0.0958 - 0.319. CONCLUSIONS: The low correlation between polarization microscopy and confocal microscopy in the assessment of oocyte meiotic spindle suggests that visualization of the meiotic spindle of human oocytes at metaphase II by polarization microscopy is not a good indicator of oocyte meiotic normality.

  15. Calmodulin stimulation of calcium transport in carrot microsomal vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.S.; Sze, H.

    1987-01-01

    ATP-dependent 45 Ca 2+ uptake into microsomal vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers) was stimulated 2-3 fold by 5 ug/ml calmodulin (CaM). Microsomal vesicles separated with a linear sucrose gradient showed two peaks with CaM-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake activities. One peak (at 1.12 g/cc) comigrated with the activity of the antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. This transport activity was enhanced 10-20 fold by 10 mM oxalate and appeared to be associates with vesicles derived primarily from the ER. The other peak of CaM-stimulated Ca 2+ uptake (at 1.17 g/cc) was not affected by oxalate. These vesicles are probably derived from the plasma membrane. Preliminary experiments with the low-density vesicles (ER) vesicles, indicate that inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate caused a transient reduction in intravesicular Ca 2+ . These results are consistent with the ER being an important site of intracellular Ca 2+ regulation

  16. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain activation in response to mechanical nociceptive stimulation targeting muscle and bone were measured by fMRI and analyzed. Painful mechanical stimulation targeting muscle and bone activated the common areas including bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), inferior parietal lobe, and basal ganglia. The contralateral S2 was more activated by strong stimulation than by weak stimulation. Some areas in the basal ganglia (bilateral putamen and caudate nucleus) were more activated by muscle stimulation than by bone stimulation. The putamen and caudate nucleus may have a more significant role in brain processing of muscle pain compared with bone pain.

  17. Noninvasive Transcranial Brain Stimulation and Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen, Allyson C.; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the tre...

  18. Preliminary design county plan Zeeland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The preliminary design 'Streekplan Zeeland' (Country plan Zeeland, with regard to the location of additional nuclear power plants in Zeeland, the Netherlands) has passed through a consultation and participation round. Thereupon 132 reactions have been received. These have been incorporated and answered in two notes. This proposal deals with the principal points of the preliminary design and treats also the remarks of the committees Environmental (town and country) Planning (RO), Provincial (town and country) Planning Committee (PPC) and Association of Communities of Zeeland (VZG), on the reply notes. The preliminary design with the modifications, collected in appendix 3, is proposed to be the starting point in the drawing-up of the design-country-plan. This design subsequently will pass the formal country-plan procedure. (author). 1 fig

  19. Stimulated Raman scattering and ion dynamics: the role of Langmuir wave non-linearities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaud, G.; Pesme, D.

    1988-02-01

    The non-linear evolution of stimulated Raman scattering by coupling of the SRS-driven Langmuir waves to ion acoustic waves is studied numerically, in a homogeneous density laser-irradiated plasma. The coupled wave amplitude behaviour is represented either by envelope equations or by complete wave-like equations. The various physical phenomena which are involved are described. This preliminary work has been presented at the 17th Anomalous Absorption Conference, held in last May, in Lake Tahoe City (USA) [fr

  20. A high sensitivity optically stimulated luminescence scanning system for measurement of single sand-sized grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Kohsiek, P.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument has been designed for the routine analysis of the optically stimulated luminescence signal from single grains of sand. The system is capable of analysing over 3000 individual grains in a single measurement sequence, and the OSL signal from each grain can be read in less than 3 s....... The design principles are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities....

  1. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain ac...

  2. Container Verification Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, Jennifer E.; Miller, Steven D.; Conrady, Matthew M.; Simmons, Kevin L.; Tinker, Michael R.

    2008-01-01

    Containment verification is a high priority for safeguards containment and surveillance. Nuclear material containers, safeguards equipment cabinets, camera housings, and detector cable conduit are all vulnerable to tampering. Even with a high security seal on a lid or door, custom-built hinges and interfaces, and special colors and types of finishes, the surfaces of enclosures can be tampered with and any penetrations repaired and covered over. With today's technology, these repairs would not be detected during a simple visual inspection. Several suggested solutions have been to develop complicated networks of wires, fiber-optic cables, lasers or other sensors that line the inside of a container and alarm when the network is disturbed. This results in an active system with real time evidence of tampering but is probably not practical for most safeguards applications. A more practical solution would be to use a passive approach where an additional security feature was added to surfaces which would consist of a special coating or paint applied to the container or enclosure. One type of coating would incorporate optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) material. OSL materials are phosphors that luminesce in proportion to the ionizing radiation dose when stimulated with the appropriate optical wavelengths. The OSL fluoresces at a very specific wavelength when illuminated at another, very specific wavelength. The presence of the pre-irradiated OSL material in the coating is confirmed using a device that interrogates the surface of the enclosure using the appropriate optical wavelength and then reads the resulting luminescence. The presence of the OSL indicates that the integrity of the surface is intact. The coating itself could be transparent which would allow the appearance of the container to remain unchanged or the OSL material could be incorporated into certain paints or epoxies used on various types of containers. The coating could be applied during manufacturing

  3. Space reactor preliminary mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis was performed on the SABRE reactor space power system to determine the effect of the number and size of heat pipes on the design parameters of the nuclear subsystem. Small numbers of thin walled heat pipes were found to give a lower subsystem mass, but excessive fuel swelling resulted. The SP-100 preliminary design uses 120 heat pipes because of acceptable fuel swelling and a minimum nuclear subsystem mass of 1875 kg. Salient features of the reactor preliminary design are: individual fuel modules, ZrO 2 block core mounts, bolted collar fuel module restraints, and a BeO central plug

  4. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  5. Stimulating effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, Z.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of low doses on human organism is not definite known up to now. The worldwide discussion on this topic has been presented. A lot of analysed statistical data proved that the stimulating effect of low doses of ionizing radiation really exists and can have a beneficial influence on human health. 43 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  6. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  7. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Rashid; Thind, Dilraj; Kocmur, Marga

    2008-11-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive and painless way of stimulating the neural tissue (cerebral cortex, spinal roots, and cranial and peripheral nerves). The first attempts at stimulating the neural tissue date back to 1896 by d'Arsonval; however, it was successfully carried out by Barker and colleagues in Sheffield, UK, in 1985. It soon became a useful tool in neuroscience for neurophysiologists and neurologists and psychiatrists. The original single-pulse TMS, largely used as an investigative tool, was further refined and developed in the early 1990s into what is known as repetitive TMS (rTMS), having a frequency range of 1-60 Hz. The stimulation by both TMS and rTMS of various cortical regions displayed alteration of movement, mood, and behavior, leading researchers to investigate a number of psychiatric and neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to explore its therapeutic potential. There is now a large amount of literature on the use of TMS/rTMS in depression; however, its use in schizophrenia, both as an investigative and certainly as a therapeutic tool is relatively recent with a limited but increasing number of publications. In this article, we will outline the principles of TMS/rTMS and critically review their use in schizophrenia both as investigative and potential therapeutic tools.

  9. Aversive Stimulation -- Criteria for Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Patrick A.; Ohlson, Glenn A.

    Criteria for applying aversive stimulation with severely handicapped children are examined, and practical and ethical issues are considered. Factors seen to influence punishment outcomes include timing, intensity, and schedule of reinforcement. Suggested is the need for further research on the comparative effectiveness of positive and negative…

  10. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  11. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki; Fahey, Jed W.; Bryan, Kelley E.; Healy, Zachary R.; Talalay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. → This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. → Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-μm diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2 -/- mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  12. Stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suganuma, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hsuganu1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Fahey, Jed W., E-mail: jfahey@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Bryan, Kelley E., E-mail: kbryanm1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Healy, Zachary R., E-mail: zhealy1@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Talalay, Paul, E-mail: ptalalay@jhmi.edu [Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 725 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Sulforaphane stimulates the phagocytosis of RAW 264.7 macrophages under conditions of serum deprivation. {yields} This effect does not require Nrf2-dependent induction of phase 2 genes. {yields} Inactivation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) by sulforaphane may be involved in stimulation of phagocytosis by sulforaphane. -- Abstract: Sulforaphane, a major isothiocyanate derived from cruciferous vegetables, protects living systems against electrophile toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and radiation. A major protective mechanism is the induction of a network of endogenous cytoprotective (phase 2) genes that are regulated by transcription factor Nrf2. To obtain a more detailed understanding of the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of sulforaphane, we evaluated its effect on the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage-like cells by measuring the uptake of 2-{mu}m diameter polystyrene beads. Sulforaphane raised the phagocytosis activity of RAW 264.7 cells but only in the absence or presence of low concentrations (1%) of fetal bovine serum. Higher serum concentrations depressed phagocytosis and abolished its stimulation by sulforaphane. This stimulation did not depend on the induction of Nrf2-regulated genes since it occurred in peritoneal macrophages of nrf2{sup -/-} mice. Moreover, a potent triterpenoid inducer of Nrf2-dependent genes did not stimulate phagocytosis, whereas sulforaphane and another isothiocyanate (benzyl isothiocyanate) had comparable inducer potencies. It has been shown recently that sulforaphane is a potent and direct inactivator of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), an inflammatory cytokine. Moreover, the addition of recombinant MIF to RAW 264.7 cells attenuated phagocytosis, but sulforaphane-inactivated MIF did not affect phagocytosis. The inactivation of MIF may therefore be involved in the phagocytosis-enhancing activity of sulforaphane.

  13. Preliminary HECTOR analysis by Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presser, W; Woloch, F

    1972-06-02

    From the different cores measured in HECTOR, only ACH 4/B-B was selected for the Dragon analysis, since it presented the largest amount of uniform fuel loading in the central test region and is therefore nearest to an infinite lattice. Preliminary results are discussed.

  14. BIPS-FS preliminary design, miscellaneous notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A compendium of flight system preliminary design internal memos and progress report extracts for the Brayton Isotope Power System Preliminary Design Review to be held July 20, 21, and 22, 1975 is presented. The purpose is to bring together those published items which relate only to the preliminary design of the Flight System, Task 2 of Phase I. This preliminary design effort was required to ensure that the Ground Demonstration System will represent the Flight System as closely as possible

  15. 45 CFR 150.217 - Preliminary determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preliminary determination. 150.217 Section 150.217... Are Failing To Substantially Enforce HIPAA Requirements § 150.217 Preliminary determination. If, at... designees). (b) Notifies the State of CMS's preliminary determination that the State has failed to...

  16. Somato stimulation and acupuncture therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing-Jun; Rong, Pei-Jing; Shi, Li; Ben, Hui; Zhu, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Acupuncture is an oldest somato stimulus medical technique. As the most representative peripheral nerve stimulation therapy, it has a complete system of theory and application and is applicable to a large population. This paper expounds the bionic origins of acupuncture and analyzes the physiological mechanism by which acupuncture works. For living creatures, functionally sound viscera and effective endurance of pain are essential for survival. This paper discusses the way in which acupuncture increases the pain threshold of living creatures and the underlying mechanism from the perspective of bionics. Acupuncture can also help to adjust visceral functions and works most effectively in facilitating the process of digestion and restraining visceral pain. This paper makes an in-depth overview of peripheral nerve stimulation therapy represented by acupuncture. We look forward to the revival of acupuncture, a long-standing somato stimulus medicine, in the modern medical systems.

  17. Femtosecond Broadband Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soo-Y; Yoon, Sagwoon; Mathies, Richard A

    2006-01-01

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique where a narrow bandwidth picosecond Raman pump pulse and a red-shifted broadband femtosecond Stokes probe pulse (with or without time delay between the pulses) act on a sample to produce a high resolution Raman gain spectrum with high efficiency and speed, free from fluorescence background interference. It can reveal vibrational structural information and dynamics of stationary or transient states. Here, the quantum picture for femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is used to develop the semiclassical coupled wave theory of the phenomenon and to derive an expression for the measurable Raman gain in FSRS. The semiclassical theory is applied to study the dependence of lineshapes in FSRS on the pump-probe time delay and to deduce vibrational dephasing times in cyclohexane in the ground state

  18. Vagal stimulation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ferrari, Gaetano M

    2014-04-01

    Heart failure (HF) is accompanied by an autonomic imbalance that is almost always characterized by both increased sympathetic activity and withdrawal of vagal activity. Experimentally, vagal stimulation has been shown to exert profound antiarrhythmic activity and to improve cardiac function and survival in HF models. A open-label pilot clinical study in 32 patients with chronic HF has shown safety and tolerability of chronic vagal stimulation associated with subjective (improved quality of life and 6-min walk test) and objective improvements (reduced left ventricular systolic volumes and improved left ventricular ejection fraction). Three larger clinical studies, including a phase III trial are currently ongoing and will evaluate the clinical role of this new approach.

  19. SPANISH MULTICENTRIC STUDY ABOUT NUTRITION-INFLAMATIONhn WITH MID DILUTION (ENIMID STUDY: PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barril G

    2012-06-01

    CONCLUSIONS: 1-The preliminary results show that MidDilution provides a good removal of small and middle molecules, increases appetite by providing a proper balance of cytokines through stimulation of antiinflamatory ones and neuropeptide Y. 2-It provides an improvement of body composition. Finally MidDilution improves nutritional parameters which leads to a better quality of life, as well as physical and mental status.

  20. Tactile Stimulation and Consumer Response.

    OpenAIRE

    Hornik, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Tactile behavior is a basic communication form as well as an expression of interpersonal involvement. This article presents three studies offering evidence for the positive role of casual interpersonal touch on consumer behavior. More specifically, it provides initial support for the view that tactile stimulation in various consumer behavior situations enhances the positive feeling for and evaluation of both the external stimuli and the touching source. Further, customers touched by a request...

  1. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, A; Chesnoy, J

    1988-03-15

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution.

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Garvey, Marjorie A.; Mall, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding ef...

  3. Resonant Impulsive Stimulated Raman Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, A.; Chesnoy, J.

    1988-01-01

    Using a femtosecond dye laser, we observe in real-time vibrational oscillations excited by impulsive stimulated Raman scattering (ISRS) close to an electronic resonance. We perform single-beam Raman excitation and probe the driven coherence by a polarization-sensitive detection. We demonstrate for the first time impulsively Raman-induced dichroism, birefringence as well as frequency and time delay shifts. We analyse the characteristics of resonant ISRS on a vibrational mode of a dye molecule (malachite green) in solution

  4. Optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Since the pioneering work by Huntley et al. (1985), optical dating is being increasingly recognised as an important technique for establishing a time frame of deposition of sediments (Aitken, 1998). Optical dating differs from thermoluminescence (TL) dating in that visible/infrared light from lasers or LEDs (light-emitting-diodes) is used as a means of stimulation, in contrast to thermal stimulation. It has several advantages over TL dating: (i) the resetting of the OSL (optically stimulated luminescence) clock is more effective than that of TL clock; for sediments transported under water or in other situations where the sediment grains have undergone inhomogeneous bleaching, this property ensures that ages based on optical dating are generally more reliable than TL ages, (ii) the optical dating technique is non-destructive, and multiple readouts of the optical signal is possible; this feature has resulted in the development of single-aliquot and single-grain protocols (Murray and Wintle, 1999; Banerjee et al. 1999), (iii) the sample is not heated as in TL; thus, spurious luminescence is avoided and there is a significant reduction in blackbody radiation. Dating of materials which change phase on heating is also practical, and finally, (iv) thermal quenching of luminescence is negligible, allowing accurate estimation of kinetic parameters using standard techniques and providing access to deep OSL traps. This characteristic may be helpful in extending the limits of optical dating beyond the last 150 ka from a global point of view

  5. Performance Enhancement by Brain Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Gazerani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Number of substances and strategies are available to increase performance in sport (Catlin and Murray, 1996. Since 2004, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA posts an updated list of substances and methods prohibited to athletes. Drugs (e.g., steroids, stimulants are a major part of this list; however, technologies and methods (e.g., gene doping are increasingly being identified and added (WADA, 2017. Among technologies and methods that might exert a potential effect on athletic performance, brain stimulation has recently been subjected to extensive discussion. Neuro-enhancement for doping purposes has been termed “neurodoping” in the literature (Davis, 2013; however, this concept needs further documentation before the term “neurodoping” can be used properly. Two major non-invasive techniques of brain stimulations are transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS (Hallett, 2007; Rossi et al., 2009, and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS (Stagg and Nitsche, 2011. In TMS, an electric coil held over the head applies magnetic pulses to create currents in the brain. In tDCS, a low, continuous electrical current is delivered to the brain by using surface electrodes attached on the scalp. TMS and tDCS have been used in both research and clinic (Shin and Pelled, 2017 for example to examine alterations in cognitive function or motor skills or to assist in recovering motor function after a stroke (Gomez Palacio Schjetnan et al., 2013 or reducing fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis (Saiote et al., 2014. In an opinion paper, it was proposed that use of emerging brain stimulation techniques might also enhance physical and mental performance in sports (Davis, 2013. The assumption was based on several reports. For example some studies have shown that TMS could shorten reaction times to visual, auditory and touch stimuli, reduce tremor, and enhance the acquisition of complex motor skills. Based on the current evidence, a recent review (Colzato

  6. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2015v28n2p1 This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  7. Cortical stimulation and neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Cagnoni Ramos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of physiological and behavioral data on motor cortex stimulation (MCS and its role in persistent neuropathic pain. MCS has been widely used in clinical medicine as a tool for the management of pain that does not respond satisfactorily to any kind of conventional analgesia. Some important mechanisms involved in nociceptive modulation still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the mechanisms involved in neuropathic pain and introduce the effectiveness of electrical stimulation of the motor cortex used in the treatment of this disease. The ascending pain pathways are activated by peripheral receptors, in which there is the transduction of a chemical, physical or mechanical stimulus as a nerve impulse, where this impulse is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which connects with second-order neurons and ascends to different locations in the central nervous system where the stimulus is perceived as pain. Because MCS has been proved to modulate this pathway in the motor cortex, it has been studied to mimic its effects in clinical practice and improve the treatments used for chronic pain. MCS has gained much attention in recent years due to its action in reversing chronic neuropathic pain, this being more effective than electrical stimulation at different locations and related pain nuclei.

  8. Metabolic inhibitors as stimulating factors for citric acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adham, N.Z.; Ahmed, E.M.; Refai, H.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of some metabolic inhibitors on citric acid (CA) production by Aspergillus niger in cane molasses medium was investigated. Addition of 0.01-0.1 mM iodoacetic acid and sodium arsenate, 0.05-1.0 mM sodium malonate, 0.01 mM sodium azide, 0.01-0.05 mM sodium fluoride, 0.1-1.0 mM EDTA stimulated CA production (5-49%). Higher concentrations (10 mM) of iodoacetic acid, sodium malonate and 0.5 mM sodium azide caused a complete inhibition of fungal growth, Iodoacetic acid, sodium arsenate and sodium fluoride (0.2 mM) caused a remarkable inhibition of CA production. The implications of those preliminary functions was discussed. (author)

  9. Development of photo stimulated luminescence technique for detecting irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ros Anita Ahmad Ramli; Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Wan Saffiey Wan Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    The exposure of food to ionizing radiation is being progressively used in many countries to inactivate food pathogens, to eradicate pests and to extend shelf-life of food. To ensure free consumer choice, irradiated food will be labeled. The availability of a reliable method to detect irradiated food is important to enforce legal controls on labeling requirements, ensure proper distribution and increase consumer confidence. This paper reports on the preliminary application of photo stimulated luminescence technique (PSL) as a potential method to detect irradiated food and perhaps be used for monitoring irradiated food on sale locally in the near future. Thus this study will be beneficial and relevant for application of food irradiation towards improving food safety and security in Malaysia. (author)

  10. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/article/003710.htm Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) blood test measures the level of FSH in blood. FSH ...

  11. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and their FAMILIES VAGUS NERVE STIMULATION FOR TREATING EPILEPSY This information sheet is provided to help you ... how vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the ...

  12. A microcontroller system for investigating the catch effect: functional electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, D J; Taylor, P N; Chappell, P H; Wood, D E

    2006-06-01

    Correction of drop foot in hemiplegic gait is achieved by electrical stimulation of the common peroneal nerve with a series of pulses at a fixed frequency. However, during normal gait, the electromyographic signals from the tibialis anterior muscle indicate that muscle force is not constant but varies during the swing phase. The application of double pulses for the correction of drop foot may enhance the gait by generating greater torque at the ankle and thereby increase the efficiency of the stimulation with reduced fatigue. A flexible controller has been designed around the Odstock Drop Foot Stimulator to deliver different profiles of pulses implementing doublets and optimum series. A peripheral interface controller (PIC) microcontroller with some external circuits has been designed and tested to accommodate six profiles. Preliminary results of the measurements from a normal subject seated in a multi-moment chair (an isometric torque measurement device) indicate that profiles containing doublets and optimum spaced pulses look favourable for clinical use.

  13. Blue light emitting diodes for optical stimulation of quartz in retrospective dosimetry and dating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.; Murray, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LE......, preliminary results from ramping the blue light power output with time are demonstrated. It is shown that this technique enables the separation of OSL components with differing stimulation rates.......Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LEDs...... (470 nm) gives order of magnitude greater rate of stimulation in quartz than that from conventional blue-green light filtered from a halogen lamp. A practical blue LED OSL configuration is described. From comparisons of OSL decay curves produced by green and blue light sources, and by examination...

  14. Blue Light Emitting Diodes for Optical Stimulation of Quartz in Retrospective Dosimetry and Dating (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botter-Jensen, L.; Duller, G.A.T.; Murray, A.S.; Banerjee, D.

    1999-01-01

    Recently developed blue light emitting diodes (LEDs) for the optical stimulation of quartz for use in routine optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating and retrospective dosimetry have been tested. For similar power densities, it was found that the higher energy light provided by the blue LEDs (470 nm) gives order of magnitude greater rate of stimulation in quartz than that from conventional blue-green light filtered from a halogen lamp. A practical blue LED OSL configuration is described. From comparisons of OSL decay curves produced by green and blue light sources, and by examination of the dependence of the blue LED OSL on preheat temperature, it is deduced that there is no evidence that the blue LEDs stimulate deep traps in a different manner from broadband filtered light. It is concluded that blue LEDs offer a practical alternative to existing stimulation sources. They have the significant advantages that the life-time is indefinite, and the output can be controlled electronically; this allows the power to be readily controlled by software. Unlike a filtered light source, there are no electromechanical parts, and the switch on/off times are about 10 times faster than a shutter. Finally, preliminary results from ramping the blue light power output with time are demonstrated. It is shown that this technique enables the separation of OSL components with differing stimulation rates. (author)

  15. A Chip for an Implantable Neural Stimulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation (FES). The purpose of FES is to restore muscular control in disabled patients. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and digital data...

  16. Frequency shifts in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinth, W.; Kaiser, W.

    1980-01-01

    The nonresonant contributions to the nonlinear susceptibility chisup(()3) produce a frequency chirp during stimulated Raman scattering. In the case of transient stimulated Raman scattering, the spectrum of the generated Stokes pulse is found at higher frequencies than expected from spontaneous Raman data. The frequency difference can be calculated from the theory of stimulated Raman scattering. (orig.)

  17. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    Each of the following types of well stimulation techniques are summarized and explained: hydraulic fracturing; thermal; mechanical, jetting, and drainhole drilling; explosive and implosive; and injection methods. Current stimulation techniques, stimulation techniques for geothermal wells, areas of needed investigation, and engineering calculations for various techniques. (MHR)

  18. Optical stimulator for vision-based sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rössler, Dirk; Pedersen, David Arge Klevang; Benn, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an optical stimulator system for vision-based sensors. The stimulator is an efficient tool for stimulating a camera during on-ground testing with scenes representative of spacecraft flights. Such scenes include starry sky, planetary objects, and other spacecraft. The optical...

  19. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  20. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size

  1. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  2. Using soils for accident dosimetry: a preliminary study using optically stimulated luminescence from quartz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fujita, Hiroki; Jain, Mayank; Murray, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    . The objective was to assess the potential of SAROSL dosimetry using soils for retrospective assessment of a radiation accident. Variation in dose with depth was also measured. The SAR data showed good reproducibility and dose recovery, and there was no evidence of fading of the quartz signal based on “delayed......” dose recovery experiments. The minimum detection limit (MDL) dose was about 0.1Gy. The dose dependence was measured using both the above SAR OSL protocol as well as a SAR thermoluminescence (TL, violet emission) protocol. The background doses were generally in the range of the MDL to several Gy......, and no clear trend in dose depth profile was observed. From these results, we conclude that SAR OSL dosimetry using natural quartz extracted from soil could be used to evaluate the dose of an accident....

  3. Preliminary data on some correlations of Rhizobium and radio-stimulation seed treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soos, T.; Toth, J.; Manninger, E.

    1979-01-01

    The seeds of peas, beans, soy-beans and lucerne were treated with 60 Co-irradiation (4-10 Gray). The size of the roots and the quantity of seed-crop were measured. Irradiation by itself had no significant effect. Treatment with Rhizobium bacteria and with Rhizobium plus irradiation had considerable positive effects. (L.E.)

  4. A preliminary economic evaluation of percutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the treatment of hemiplegic shoulder pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Til, Janine Astrid; Renzenbrink, Gerbert J.; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina Gerarda Maria; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    Objective. The objective of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of various treatment modalities for hemiplegic shoulder pain. Design. A stage II economic evaluation. Main outcome measures. Incremental cost effectiveness ratio of P-NMES, compared to slings and anti-inflammatory

  5. A Preliminary Study of Two Different Clays for Separation of Some Artificial Radionuclides in Stimulated Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasheen, Y.F.; Seliman, A.F.; Shehata, F.A.; Youssef, M.A.; Abo-Aly, M.

    2016-01-01

    The removal of long lived radionuclides, such as 134 Cs(I), 133 Ba(II), 90 Sr(II) and 152 Eu(III) by bentonite (W-Bent) and kaolin (S-Kaol) was studied as a function of different parameters using a batch technique. The results showed that the optimum ph was selected to be 6. Kinetically in case of W-Bent, the adsorption is heterogeneous for 134 Cs, 133 Ba and homogenous for 90 Sr and 152 Eu. The distribution coefficient values follow the order of 1 '5 2 Eu> 134 Cs> 90 Sr> 133 Ba. Langmuir, Freundlish, Dubinin-Raduskevich (D-R) and Temkin isotherm models were applied. According to the D-R model, W-Bent showed a high affinity to 152 Eu with a maximum capacity (q m = 0.43 mol/Kg) in comparison with S-Kaol (q m =0.023 mol/Kg). Also according to D-R model the adsorption energy (E> 8.0 KJ mol -1 ) that means the adsorption reaction is expected to be chemisorption. Finally both clays are cost-effective sorbent materials with an excellent adsorption capacity, but some surface modification for S-Kaol is recommended to be more effective than its natural form

  6. Stimulation of hair cells with ultraviolet light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimzadeh, Julien B.; Fabella, Brian A.; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2018-05-01

    Hair bundles are specialized organelles that transduce mechanical inputs into electrical outputs. To activate hair cells, physiologists have resorted to mechanical methods of hair-bundle stimulation. Here we describe a new method of hair-bundle stimulation, irradiation with ultraviolet light. A hair bundle illuminated by ultraviolet light rapidly moves towards its tall edge, a motion typically associated with excitatory stimulation. The motion disappears upon tip-link rupture and is associated with the opening of mechanotransduction channels. Hair bundles can be induced to move sinusoidally with oscillatory modulation of the stimulation power. We discuss the implications of ultraviolet stimulation as a novel hair-bundle stimulus.

  7. Thermally stimulated scattering in plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    this experiment local heat conduction is of little importance and the dynamic evolution for the electron temperature is dominated by heating and energy exchange with the ion component. These features are incorporated in the analysis. The resulting set of equations gives a growth rate and characteristic scale size......A theory for stimulated scattering of a laser beam is formulated where the dominant nonlinearity is the ohmic heating of the plasma. The analysis is carried out with particular reference to experimental investigations of CO2 laser heating of linear discharge plasma. In the conditions characterizing...

  8. Evaluation of different types of rooting stimulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Salaš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the assessment of selected stimulators, especially from Rhizopon product line, which are used for rooting and root system enhancement in various ornamental woody species. Two available methods of cuttings stimulation were selected from the available range of rooting stimulators: stimulation by long-term immersion in solutions or treatment of cuttings with powder stimulators. The experiment involved stimulators with two active components, currently the most commonly used phytohormones for this purpose – IBA and NAA – that were applied in different concentrations. The experiment took place in three propagation terms with twelve coniferous and deciduous shrub varieties. The results of the experiment show the different reactions of the individual species as well as varieties on the respective term of propagation and used form of stimulator.

  9. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, G; Dias, C S B; Foerster, B; Li, L M; Covolan, R J M

    2012-11-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  10. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B.; Foerster, B.; Li, L.M.; Covolan, R.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate

  11. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, G.; Dias, C.S.B. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Foerster, B. [Philips Medical Systems, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Li, L.M. [Departamento de Neurologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil); Covolan, R.J.M. [Grupo de Neurofísica, Departamento de Raios Cósmicos e Cronologia, Instituto de Física Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Programa de Cooperação Interinstitucional de Apoio à Pesquisa sobre o Cérebro (CInAPCe), SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-17

    N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s), followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s) and another rest period (10 min and 40 s). MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  12. Ultrasonic stimulation of peripheral nervous tissue: an investigation into mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, C J; Saffari, N; Rothwell, J

    2015-01-01

    Neuro-stimulation has wide ranging clinical and research potential but this is currently limited either by low resolution, penetration or by highly invasive procedures. It has been reported in previous studies that ultrasound is able to elicit a neuro-stimulatory effect at a higher resolution than other non-invasive approaches but both the underlying mechanism that makes this possible and the practical details of how it can be implemented are still poorly understood. The current study has identified the main issues that need to be resolved in the field, proposing several different approaches to tackling these areas. An isolated in vitro peripheral nerve bundle was chosen as a simple model to demonstrate and investigate the neuro-stimulatory effect after preliminary results showed successful stimulation in a skin-nerve preparation. Early results from the nerve bundle show successful neurostimulation, indicating that structures in the peripheral nerve axon are sensitive to ultrasound. Further research using this model should reveal more precisely what structures are being affected and how to optimise the effect, helping to inform the design of future procedures and devices used in in vivo applications

  13. Enhanced Working Memory Binding by Direct Electrical Stimulation of the Parietal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Birba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent works evince the critical role of visual short-term memory (STM binding deficits as a clinical and preclinical marker of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. These studies suggest a potential role of posterior brain regions in both the neurocognitive deficits of Alzheimer’s patients and STM binding in general. Thereupon, we surmised that stimulation of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC might be a successful approach to tackle working memory deficits in this condition, especially at early stages. To date, no causal evidence exists of the role of the parietal cortex in STM binding. A unique approach to assess this issue is afforded by single-subject direct intracranial electrical stimulation of specific brain regions during a relevant cognitive task. Electrical stimulation has been used both for clinical purposes and to causally probe brain mechanisms. Previous evidence of electrical currents spreading through white matter along well defined functional circuits indicates that visual working memory mechanisms are subserved by a specific widely distributed network. Here, we stimulated the parietal cortex of a subject with intracranial electrodes as he performed the visual STM task. We compared the ensuing results to those from a non-stimulated condition and to the performance of a matched control group. In brief, direct stimulation of the parietal cortex induced a selective improvement in STM. These results, together with previous studies, provide very preliminary but promising ground to examine behavioral changes upon parietal stimulation in AD. We discuss our results regarding: (a the usefulness of the task to target prodromal stages of AD; (b the role of a posterior network in STM binding and in AD; and (c the potential opportunity to improve STM binding through brain stimulation.

  14. A New Piezoelectric Actuator Induces Bone Formation In Vivo: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Reis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study presents the preliminary results of the use of a novel piezoelectric actuator for orthopedic application. The innovative use of the converse piezoelectric effect to mechanically stimulate bone was achieved with polyvinylidene fluoride actuators implanted in osteotomy cuts in sheep femur and tibia. The biological response around the osteotomies was assessed through histology and histomorphometry in nondecalcified sections and histochemistry and immunohistochemistry in decalcified sections, namely, through Masson's trichrome, and labeling of osteopontin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. After one-month implantation, total bone area and new bone area were significantly higher around actuators when compared to static controls. Bone deposition rate was also significantly higher in the mechanically stimulated areas. In these areas, osteopontin increased expression was observed. The present in vivo study suggests that piezoelectric materials and the converse piezoelectric effect may be used to effectively stimulate bone growth.

  15. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G

    2007-01-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  16. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, A.; Purés, P.; Echenique, A. M.; Ensinck, J. P. Graffigna y. G.

    2007-11-01

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation: language function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, C M

    1998-07-01

    Studies of language using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have focused both on identification of language areas and on elucidation of function. TMS may result in either inhibition or facilitation of language processes and may operate directly at a presumptive site of language cortex or indirectly through intracortical networks. TMS has been used to create reversible "temporary lesions," similar to those produced by Wada tests and direct cortical electrical stimulation, in cerebral cortical areas subserving language function. Rapid-rate TMS over the left inferior frontal region blocks speech output in most subjects. However, the results are not those predicted from classic models of language organization. Speech arrest is obtained most easily over facial motor cortex, and true aphasia is rare, whereas right hemisphere or bilateral lateralization is unexpectedly prominent. A clinical role for these techniques is not yet fully established. Interfering with language comprehension and verbal memory is currently more difficult than blocking speech output, but numerous TMS studies have demonstrated facilitation of language-related tasks, including oral word association, story recall, digit span, and picture naming. Conversely, speech output also facilitates motor responses to TMS in the dominant hemisphere. Such new and often-unexpected findings may provide important insights into the organization of language.

  18. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  19. Fractal Interfaces for Stimulating and Recording Neural Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, William James

    From investigating movement in an insect to deciphering cognition in a human brain to treating Parkinson's disease, hearing loss, or even blindness, electronic implants are an essential tool for understanding the brain and treating neural diseases. Currently, the stimulating and recording resolution of these implants remains low. For instance, they can record all the neuron activity associated with movement in an insect, but are quite far from recording, at an individual neuron resolution, the large volumes of brain tissue associated with cognition. Likewise, there is remarkable success in the cochlear implant restoring hearing due to the relatively simple anatomy of the auditory nerves, but are failing to restore vision to the blind due to poor signal fidelity and transmission in stimulating the more complex anatomy of the visual nerves. The critically important research needed to improve the resolution of these implants is to optimize the neuron-electrode interface. This thesis explores geometrical and material modifications to both stimulating and recording electrodes which can improve the neuron-electrode interface. First, we introduce a fractal electrode geometry which radically improves the restored visual acuity achieved by retinal implants and leads to safe, long-term operation of the implant. Next, we demonstrate excellent neuron survival and neurite outgrowth on carbon nanotube electrodes, thus providing a safe biomaterial which forms a strong connection between the electrode and neurons. Additional preliminary evidence suggests carbon nanotubes patterned into a fractal geometry will provide further benefits in improving the electrode-neuron interface. Finally, we propose a novel implant based off field effect transistor technology which utilizes an interconnecting fractal network of semiconducting carbon nanotubes to record from thousands of neurons simutaneously at an individual neuron resolution. Taken together, these improvements have the potential to

  20. Preliminaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el jardín de Freud

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud se encuentra indexada en el IBN-Publindex (Colciencias, en categoría C, y en Latindex. También se encuentra en las siguientes bases de datos y catálogos: ebsco, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj y e-Revistas.

  1. Preliminary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desde el Jardín de Freud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde el Jardín de Freud is indexed in the IBN-Publindex (Colciencias in category C, and the following databases and catalogs: EBSCO, ProQuest, Google Scholar, CLASE, Latindex, Dialnet, Rebiun, Doaj, e-revistas and Library Luis Angel Arango virtual.

  2. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented

  3. TCA High Lift Preliminary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, G. H.; Polito, R. C.; Yeh, D. T.; Elzey, M. E.; Tran, J. T.; Meredith, Paul T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a TCA (Technology Concept Airplane) High lift Preliminary Assessment. The topics discussed are: 1) Model Description; 2) Data Repeatability; 3) Effect of Inboard L.E. (Leading Edge) Flap Span; 4) Comparison of 14'x22' TCA-1 With NTF (National Transonic Facility) Modified Ref. H; 5) Comparison of 14'x22' and NTF Ref. H Results; 6) Effect of Outboard Sealed Slat on TCA; 7) TCA Full Scale Build-ups; 8) Full Scale L/D Comparisons; 9) TCA Full Scale; and 10) Touchdown Lift Curves. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  4. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  5. Versator divertor experiment: preliminary designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, A.S.; Yang, T.F.

    1984-08-01

    The emergence of magnetic divertors as an impurity control and ash removal mechanism for future tokamak reactors bring on the need for further experimental verification of the divertor merits and their ability to operate at reactor relevant conditions, such as with auxiliary heating. This paper presents preliminary designs of a bundle and a poloidal divertor for Versator II, which can operate in conjunction with the existing 150 kW of LHRF heating or LH current drive. The bundle divertor option also features a new divertor configuration which should improve the engineering and physics results of the DITE experiment. Further design optimization in both physics and engineering designs are currently under way

  6. On Preliminary Test Estimator for Median

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Takeo; 岡崎, 威生

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to discuss about estimation of median with a preliminary test. Two procedures are presented, one uses Median test and the other uses Wilcoxon two-sample test for the preliminary test. Sections 3 and 4 give mathematical formulations of such properties, including mean square errors with one specified case. Section 5 discusses their optimal significance levels of the preliminary test and proposes their numerical values by Monte Carlo method. In addition to mea...

  7. Detection of γ-irradiation of foods. Use of H2O2-stimulated and photostimulated chemiluminescence. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, G.; Popov, I.N.; Schreiber, G.A.; Helle, N.

    1993-01-01

    Beside methods for unequivocal identification of irradiation treatment of food screening methods which do not always give a final answer are needed for an effective control. In this paper preliminary results are presented which were obtained by measurement of the H 2 O 2 -stimulated and photostimulated chemiluminescence of apples treated by ionising radiation. Appels were chosen as a model for fresh fruit and vegetables. It seems that the H 2 O 2 -stimulated chemiluminescence can be used to screen fruit and vegetables to detect irradiation treatment. (orig.) [de

  8. Effects of electrical stimulation on House-Brackmann scores in early Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakram, Prisha; Puckree, Threethambal

    2010-04-22

    ABSTRACT Limited evidence may support the application of electrical stimulation in the subacute and chronic stages of facial palsy, yet some physiotherapists in South Africa have been applying this modality in the acute stage in the absence of published evidence of clinical efficacy. This preliminary study's aim was to determine the safety and potential efficacy of applying electrical stimulation to the facial muscles during the early phase of Bells palsy. A pretest posttest control vs. experimental groups design composed of 16 patients with Bell's palsy of less than 30 days' duration. Adult patients with clinical diagnosis of Bell's palsy were systematically (every second patient) allocated to the control and experimental groups. Each group (n = 8) was pretested and posttested using the House-Brackmann index. Both groups were treated with heat, massage, exercises, and a home program. The experimental group also received electrical stimulation. The House-Brackmann Scale of the control group improved between 17% and 50% with a mean of 30%. The scores of the experimental group ranged between 17% and 75% with a mean of 37%. The difference between the groups was not statistically significant (two-tailed p = 0.36). Electrical stimulation as used in this study during the acute phase of Bell's palsy is safe but may not have added value over spontaneous recovery and multimodal physiotherapy. A larger sample size or longer stimulation time or both should be investigated.

  9. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a neuropsychiatric tool: present status and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, R M; Kimbrell, T A; McCann, U D; Dunn, R T; Osuch, E A; Speer, A M; Weiss, S R

    1999-03-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising therapeutic intervention in the treatment of affective disorders. The differences in the type of electrical stimulation required for therapeutic efficacy by rTMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are discussed. In contrast to ECT, rTMS would not appear to require the generation of a major motor seizure to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Accordingly, it carries the potentially important clinical advantages of not requiring anesthesia and of avoiding side effects such as transient memory loss. Preclinical studies on long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in hippocampal and amygdala slices, as well as clinical data from neuroimaging studies, have provided encouraging clues for potential frequency-dependent effects of rTMS. Preliminary evidence from position emission tomography (PET) scans suggests that higher frequency (20 Hz) stimulation may increase brain glucose metabolism in a transsynaptic fashion, whereas lower frequency (1 Hz) stimulation may decrease it. Therefore, the ability of rTMS to control the frequency as well as the location of stimulation, in addition to its other advantages, has opened up new possibilities for clinical explorations and treatments of neuropsychiatric conditions.

  10. Multisensory stimulation in stroke rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbro Birgitta Johansson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain has a large capacity for automatic simultaneous processing and integration of sensory information. Combining information from different sensory modalities facilitates our ability to detect, discriminate, and recognize sensory stimuli, and learning is often optimal in a multisensory environment. Currently used multisensory stimulation methods in stroke rehabilitation include motor imagery, action observation, training with a mirror or in a virtual environment, or various kinds of music therapy. Several studies have shown positive effects been reported but to give general recommendation more studies are needed. Patient heterogeneity and the interactions of age, gender, genes and environment are discussed. Randomized controlled longitudinal trials starting earlier post stroke are needed. The advance in brain network science and neuroimaging enabling longitudinal studies of structural and functional networks are likely to have an important impact on patient selection for specific interventions in future stroke rehabilitation.

  11. Modification of spasticity by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in individuals with incomplete spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; McKay, William B.; Tansey, Keith E.; Mayr, Winfried; Kern, Helmut; Minassian, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Context/objective To examine the effects of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation (tSCS) on lower-limb spasticity. Design Interventional pilot study to produce preliminary data. Setting Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria. Participants Three subjects with chronic motor-incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI) who could walk ≥10 m. Interventions Two interconnected stimulating skin electrodes (Ø 5 cm) were placed paraspinally at the T11/T12 vertebral levels, and two rectangular electrodes (8 × 13 cm) on the abdomen for the reference. Biphasic 2 ms-width pulses were delivered at 50 Hz for 30 minutes at intensities producing paraesthesias but no motor responses in the lower limbs. Outcome measures The Wartenberg pendulum test and neurological recordings of surface-electromyography (EMG) were used to assess effects on exaggerated reflex excitability. Non-functional co-activation during volitional movement was evaluated. The timed 10-m walk test provided measures of clinical function. Results The index of spasticity derived from the pendulum test changed from 0.8 ± 0.4 pre- to 0.9 ± 0.3 post-stimulation, with an improvement in the subject with the lowest pre-stimulation index. Exaggerated reflex responsiveness was decreased after tSCS across all subjects, with the most profound effect on passive lower-limb movement (pre- to post-tSCS EMG ratio: 0.2 ± 0.1), as was non-functional co-activation during voluntary movement. Gait speed values increased in two subjects by 39%. Conclusion These preliminary results suggest that tSCS, similar to epidurally delivered stimulation, may be used for spasticity control, without negatively impacting residual motor control in incomplete SCI. Further study in a larger population is warranted. PMID:24090290

  12. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  13. Consensus paper: combining transcranial stimulation with neuroimaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebner, Hartwig R; Bergmann, Til O; Bestmann, Sven

    2009-01-01

    neuroimaging (online approach), TMS can be used to test how focal cortex stimulation acutely modifies the activity and connectivity in the stimulated neuronal circuits. TMS and neuroimaging can also be separated in time (offline approach). A conditioning session of repetitive TMS (rTMS) may be used to induce...... information obtained by neuroimaging can be used to define the optimal site and time point of stimulation in a subsequent experiment in which TMS is used to probe the functional contribution of the stimulated area to a specific task. In this review, we first address some general methodologic issues that need......In the last decade, combined transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-neuroimaging studies have greatly stimulated research in the field of TMS and neuroimaging. Here, we review how TMS can be combined with various neuroimaging techniques to investigate human brain function. When applied during...

  14. Bursting behaviours in cascaded stimulated Brillouin scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhan-Jun; He Xian-Tu; Zheng Chun-Yang; Wang Yu-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering is studied by numerically solving the Vlasov—Maxwell system. A cascade of stimulated Brillouin scattering can occur when a linearly polarized laser pulse propagates in a plasma. It is found that a stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can reduce the scattering and increase the transmission of light, as well as introduce a bursting behaviour in the evolution of the laser-plasma interaction. The bursting time in the reflectivity is found to be less than half the ion acoustic period. The ion temperature can affect the stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade, which can repeat several times at low ion temperatures and can be completely eliminated at high ion temperatures. For stimulated Brillouin scattering saturation, higher-harmonic generation and wave—wave interaction of the excited ion acoustic waves can restrict the amplitude of the latter. In addition, stimulated Brillouin scattering cascade can restrict the amplitude of the scattered light. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  15. Mimicking muscle activity with electrical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lise A.; Fuglevand, Andrew J.

    2011-02-01

    Functional electrical stimulation is a rehabilitation technology that can restore some degree of motor function in individuals who have sustained a spinal cord injury or stroke. One way to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of muscle stimulation needed to elicit complex upper limb movements is to use electromyographic (EMG) activity recorded from able-bodied subjects as a template for electrical stimulation. However, this requires a transfer function to convert the recorded (or predicted) EMG signals into an appropriate pattern of electrical stimulation. Here we develop a generalized transfer function that maps EMG activity into a stimulation pattern that modulates muscle output by varying both the pulse frequency and the pulse amplitude. We show that the stimulation patterns produced by this transfer function mimic the active state measured by EMG insofar as they reproduce with good fidelity the complex patterns of joint torque and joint displacement.

  16. Noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson C; Ramkumar, Mukund; Nguyen, Tam; Hoeft, Fumiko

    2009-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are two noninvasive brain stimulation techniques that can modulate activity in specific regions of the cortex. At this point, their use in brain stimulation is primarily investigational; however, there is clear evidence that these tools can reduce pain and modify neurophysiologic correlates of the pain experience. TMS has also been used to predict response to surgically implanted stimulation for the treatment of chronic pain. Furthermore, TMS and tDCS can be applied with other techniques, such as event-related potentials and pharmacologic manipulation, to illuminate the underlying physiologic mechanisms of normal and pathological pain. This review presents a description and overview of the uses of two major brain stimulation techniques and a listing of useful references for further study.

  17. Transcranial electrical stimulation accelerates human sleep homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Reato

    Full Text Available The sleeping brain exhibits characteristic slow-wave activity which decays over the course of the night. This decay is thought to result from homeostatic synaptic downscaling. Transcranial electrical stimulation can entrain slow-wave oscillations (SWO in the human electro-encephalogram (EEG. A computational model of the underlying mechanism predicts that firing rates are predominantly increased during stimulation. Assuming that synaptic homeostasis is driven by average firing rates, we expected an acceleration of synaptic downscaling during stimulation, which is compensated by a reduced drive after stimulation. We show that 25 minutes of transcranial electrical stimulation, as predicted, reduced the decay of SWO in the remainder of the night. Anatomically accurate simulations of the field intensities on human cortex precisely matched the effect size in different EEG electrodes. Together these results suggest a mechanistic link between electrical stimulation and accelerated synaptic homeostasis in human sleep.

  18. Particle trapping in stimulated scattering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karttunen, S.J.; Heikkinen, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    Particle trapping effects on stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering are investigated. A time and space dependent model assumes a Maxwellian plasma which is taken to be homogeneous in the interaction region. Ion trapping has a rather weak effect on stimulated Brillouin scattering and large reflectivities are obtained even in strong trapping regime. Stimulated Raman scattering is considerably reduced by electron trapping. Typically 15-20 times larger laser intensities are required to obtain same reflectivity levels than without trapping. (author)

  19. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  20. Analysis of Facial Expression by Taste Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobitani, Kensuke; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko

    In this study, we focused on the basic taste stimulation for the analysis of real facial expressions. We considered that the expressions caused by taste stimulation were unaffected by individuality or emotion, that is, such expressions were involuntary. We analyzed the movement of facial muscles by taste stimulation and compared real expressions with artificial expressions. From the result, we identified an obvious difference between real and artificial expressions. Thus, our method would be a new approach for facial expression recognition.

  1. Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program: technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    A literature search on reservoir and/or well stimulation techniques suitable for application in geothermal fields is presented. The literature on stimulation techniques in oil and gas field applications was also searched and evaluated as to its relevancy to geothermal operations. The equivalent low-temperature work documented in the open literature is cited, and an attempt is made to evaluate the relevance of this information as far as high-temperature stimulation work is concerned. Clays play an important role in any stimulation work. Therefore, special emphasis has been placed on clay behavior anticipated in geothermal operations. (MHR)

  2. Studies in dosimetry using stimulated exoelectron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petel, Maurice.

    1976-06-01

    Some applications of the stimulated exoelectron emission in radiation dosimetry are discussed. The principles which govern the phenomenon are presented. The apparatus, in particular the counter, used to monitor the emission is discussed with reference to both optical and thermal stimulation. The correlation existing between thermoluminescence and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission were studied in both lithium fluoride and aluminium oxide. Furthermore, aluminium oxides from different sources were examined, and one of these, chosen to investigate the dosimetric properties of this material using both methods of stimulation [fr

  3. Optical stimulation of peripheral nerves in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jonathon D.

    This dissertation documents the emergence and validation of a new clinical tool that bridges the fields of biomedical optics and neuroscience. The research herein describes an innovative method for direct neurostimulation with pulsed infrared laser light. Safety and effectiveness of this technique are first demonstrated through functional stimulation of the rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The Holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 mum) is shown to operate at an optimal wavelength for peripheral nerve stimulation with advantages over standard electrical neural stimulation; including contact-free stimulation, high spatial selectivity, and lack of a stimulation artifact. The underlying biophysical mechanism responsible for transient optical nerve stimulation appears to be a small, absorption driven thermal gradient sustained at the axonal layer of nerve. Results explicitly prove that low frequency optical stimulation can reliably stimulate without resulting in tissue thermal damage. Based on the positive results from animal studies, these optimal laser parameters were utilized to move this research into the clinic with a combined safety and efficacy study in human subjects undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy. The clinical Holmium:YAG laser was used to effectively stimulate human dorsal spinal roots and elicit functional muscle responses recorded during surgery without evidence of nerve damage. Overall these results predict that this technology can be a valuable clinical tool in various neurosurgical applications.

  4. Cognitive stimulation in healthy older adults: a cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities compared to a conventional cognitive stimulation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Élisabeth; Taconnat, Laurence; Clarys, David

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two methods of cognitive stimulation for the cognitive functions. The first method used an usual approach, the second used leisure activities in order to assess their benefits on cognitive functions (speed of processing; working memory capacity and executive functions) and psychoaffective measures (memory span and self esteem). 67 participants over 60 years old took part in the experiment. They were divided into three groups: 1 group followed a program of conventional cognitive stimulation, 1 group a program of cognitive stimulation using leisure activities and 1 control group. The different measures have been evaluated before and after the training program. Results show that the cognitive stimulation program using leisure activities is as effective on memory span, updating and memory self-perception as the program using conventional cognitive stimulation, and more effective on self-esteem than the conventional program. There is no difference between the two stimulated groups and the control group on speed of processing. Neither of the two cognitive stimulation programs provides a benefit over shifting and inhibition. These results indicate that it seems to be possible to enhance working memory and to observe far transfer benefits over self-perception (self-esteem and memory self-perception) when using leisure activities as a tool for cognitive stimulation.

  5. Patient Satisfaction of Using the ActiGait® Drop Foot Stimulator System and Effect of Treatment on Walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Kåre Eg; Grey, Kurt; Juhl, Anne

    2014-01-01

    In this case-control study of ten chronic stroke patients with drop foot we report preliminary data on patient satisfaction, self- assessed changes in walking performance, effect on walking speed as well as adverse effects after surgical implantation of the ActiGait® drop foot stimulator in a cli...... with great care due to the small population size, the case control design and the limitations of the ten meter walk test in describing walking quality and safety....

  6. Modern management of epilepsy: Vagus nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Menachem, E

    1996-12-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) was first tried as a treatment for seizure patients in 1988. The idea to stimulate the vagus nerve and disrupt or prevent seizures was proposed by Jacob Zabarra. He observed a consistent finding among several animal studies which indicated that stimulation of the vagus nerve could alter the brain wave patterns of the animals under study. His hypothesis formed the basis for the development of the vagus nerve stimulator, an implantable device similar to a pacemaker, which is implanted in the left chest and attached to the left vagus nerve via a stimulating lead. Once implanted, the stimulator is programmed by a physician to deliver regular stimulation 24 hours a day regardless of seizure activity. Patients can also activate extra 'on-demand' stimulation with a handheld magnet. Clinical studies have demonstrated VNS therapy to be a safe and effective mode of treatment when added to the existing regimen of severe, refractory patients with epilepsy. Efficacy ranges from seizure free to no response with the majority of patients (> 50%) reporting at least a 50% improvement in number of seizures after 1.5 years of treatment. The side-effect profile is unique and mostly includes stimulation-related sensations in the neck and throat. The mechanism of action for VNS is not clearly understood although two theories have emerged. First, the direct connection theory hypothesizes that the anticonvulsant action of VNS is caused by a threshold raising effect of the connections to the nucleus of the solitary tract and on to other structures. The second is the concept that chronic stimulation of the vagus nerve increases the amount of inhibitory neurotransmitters and decreases the amount of excitatory neurotransmitters. Additional research into the optimal use of VNS is ongoing. Animal and clinical research have produced some interesting new data suggesting there are numerous ways to improve the clinical performance of vagus nerve stimulation as a

  7. Preliminary Context Analysis of Community Informatics Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary context analysis is always part of the feasibility study phase in the development of information system for Community Development (CD) purposes. In this paper, a context model and a preliminary context analysis are presented for Social Network Web Application (SNWA) for CD in the Niger Delta region of ...

  8. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a) As...

  9. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  10. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report.

  11. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  12. KALIMER preliminary conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, Do Hee; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, Y. G. and others

    2000-08-01

    This report, which summarizes the result of preliminary conceptual design activities during Phase 1, follows the format of safety analysis report. The purpose of publishing this report is to gather all of the design information developed so far in a systematic way so that KALIMER designers have a common source of the consistent design information necessary for their future design activities. This report will be revised and updated as design changes occur and more detailed design specification is developed during Phase 2. Chapter 1 describes the KALIMER Project. Chapter 2 includes the top level design requirements of KALIMER and general plant description. Chapter 3 summarizes the design of structures, components, equipment and systems. Specific systems and safety analysis results are described in the remaining chapters. Appendix on the HCDA evaluation is attached at the end of this report

  13. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Marjorie A; Mall, Volker

    2008-05-01

    Developmental disabilities (e.g. attention deficit disorder; cerebral palsy) are frequently associated with deviations of the typical pattern of motor skill maturation. Neurophysiologic tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), which probe motor cortex function, can potentially provide insights into both typical neuromotor maturation and the mechanisms underlying the motor skill deficits in children with developmental disabilities. These insights may set the stage for finding effective interventions for these disorders. We review the literature pertaining to the use of TMS in pediatrics. Most TMS-evoked parameters show age-related changes in typically developing children and some of these are abnormal in a number of childhood-onset neurological disorders. Although no TMS-evoked parameters are diagnostic for any disorder, changes in certain parameters appear to reflect disease burden or may provide a measure of treatment-related improvement. Furthermore, TMS may be especially useful when combined with other neurophysiologic modalities (e.g. fMRI). However, much work remains to be done to determine if TMS-evoked parameters can be used as valid and reliable biomarkers for disease burden, the natural history of neurological injury and repair, and the efficacy of pharmacological and rehabilitation interventions.

  15. Transdermal optogenetic peripheral nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimon, Benjamin E.; Zorzos, Anthony N.; Bendell, Rhys; Harding, Alexander; Fahmi, Mina; Srinivasan, Shriya; Calvaresi, Peter; Herr, Hugh M.

    2017-06-01

    Objective: A fundamental limitation in both the scientific utility and clinical translation of peripheral nerve optogenetic technologies is the optical inaccessibility of the target nerve due to the significant scattering and absorption of light in biological tissues. To date, illuminating deep nerve targets has required implantable optical sources, including fiber-optic and LED-based systems, both of which have significant drawbacks. Approach: Here we report an alternative approach involving transdermal illumination. Utilizing an intramuscular injection of ultra-high concentration AAV6-hSyn-ChR2-EYFP in rats. Main results: We demonstrate transdermal stimulation of motor nerves at 4.4 mm and 1.9 mm depth with an incident laser power of 160 mW and 10 mW, respectively. Furthermore, we employ this technique to accurately control ankle position by modulating laser power or position on the skin surface. Significance: These results have the potential to enable future scientific optogenetic studies of pathologies implicated in the peripheral nervous system for awake, freely-moving animals, as well as a basis for future clinical studies.

  16. Electrocutaneous stimulation system for Braille reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echenique, Ana Maria; Graffigna, Juan Pablo; Mut, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    This work is an assistive technology for people with visual disabilities and aims to facilitate access to written information in order to achieve better social inclusion and integration into work and educational activities. Two methods of electrical stimulation (by current and voltage) of the mechanoreceptors was tested to obtain tactile sensations on the fingertip. Current and voltage stimulation were tested in a Braille cell and line prototype, respectively. These prototypes are evaluated in 33 blind and visually impaired subjects. The result of experimentation with both methods showed that electrical stimulation causes sensations of touch defined in the fingertip. Better results in the Braille characters reading were obtained with current stimulation (85% accuracy). However this form of stimulation causes uncomfortable sensations. The latter feeling was minimized with the method of voltage stimulation, but with low efficiency (50% accuracy) in terms of identification of the characters. We concluded that electrical stimulation is a promising method for the development of a simple and unexpensive Braille reading system for blind people. We observed that voltage stimulation is preferred by the users. However, more experimental tests must be carry out in order to find the optimum values of the stimulus parameters and increase the accuracy the Braille characters reading.

  17. Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Chan, Yuen; Chong, Hsu Pheen; Farah, Jibril Osman

    2016-01-01

    The aims are to present a case series of Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulators with analysis of the possible mechanism of this syndrome and discuss how this phenomenon can be prevented. Data were collected retrospectively between 2007 and 2013 for all patients presenting with failure of spinal cord stimulators. The diagnostic criterion for Twiddler's syndrome is radiological evidence of twisting of wires in the presence of failure of spinal cord stimulation. Our unit implants on average 110 spinal cord stimulators a year. Over the 5-year study period, all consecutive cases of spinal cord stimulation failure were studied. Three patients with Twiddler's syndrome were identified. Presentation ranged from 4 to 228 weeks after implantation. Imaging revealed repeated rotations and twisting of the wires of the spinal cord stimulators leading to hardware failure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported series of Twiddler's syndrome with implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for spinal cord stimulation. Hardware failure is not uncommon in spinal cord stimulation. Awareness and identification of Twiddler's syndrome may help prevent its occurrence and further revisions. This may be achieved by implanting the IPG in the lumbar region subcutaneously above the belt line. Psychological intervention may have a preventative role for those who are deemed at high risk of Twiddler's syndrome from initial psychological screening.

  18. Stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, Helen

    1976-05-01

    The first section of the bibliography lists materials on the stimulation of seeds by low dose irradiation, with particular reference to stimulation of germination and yield. The second section contains a small number of selected references on seed irradiation facilities. (author)

  19. Motor cortex stimulation: role of computer modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, L.; Holsheimer, J.; Sakas, D.E.; Simpson, B.A

    Motor cortex stimulation (MCS) is a promising clinical technique used to treat chronic, otherwise intractable pain. However, the mechanisms by which the neural elements that are stimulated during MCS induce pain relief are not understood. Neither is it known which neural elements (fibers (parallel

  20. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  1. Effects of polycationic compounds on mitogen stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heron, I; Larsen, B; Hokland, M

    1981-01-01

    The effects of polycations added to phytomitogen stimulated human lymphocyte cultures have been studied. Within certain dose ranges all polycations tested gave rise to augmented thymidine uptake in mitogen stimulated cultures. The optimum enhancing concentrations of polycations was depending on t...

  2. Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, E.G.H.M. van den; Muys, T.; Dokkum, W. van; Schaafsma, G.

    1999-01-01

    Background: In rats, nondigestible oligosaccharides stimulate calcium absorption. Recently, this effect was also found in human subjects. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether consumption of 15 g oligofructose/d stimulates calcium absorption in male adolescents. Design:

  3. Swelling of rat hepatocytes stimulates glycogen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baquet, A.; Hue, L.; Meijer, A. J.; van Woerkom, G. M.; Plomp, P. J.

    1990-01-01

    In hepatocytes from fasted rats, several amino acids are known to stimulate glycogen synthesis via activation of glycogen synthase. The hypothesis that an increase in cell volume resulting from amino acid uptake may be involved in the stimulation of glycogen synthesis is supported by the following

  4. Kinetics of infrared stimulated luminescence from feldspars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank; Sohbati, Reza; Guralnik, Benny

    2015-01-01

    thermal and optical, of the infrared stimulated luminescence signal from feldspar. Based on the application of this model, it is concluded that different infra-red stimulated luminescence emissions (UV, blue, yellow and far-red) follow the same kinetics, and, therefore, involve participation of the same...

  5. Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures

  6. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility's construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment

  7. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P. [Science Applications International Corp., Pleasanton, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  8. Project Rulison: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, M Jr; Bray, B G; Mann, R L

    1970-01-01

    Project Rulison was designed to use underground nuclear technology to determine the potential of this technique for commercial development of the deep, thick, lenticular, low permeability, Mesaverde Formation of the Tuli Rulison field in Garfield County, Colorado. A feasibility study completed in July 1966 indicated that nuclear explosives were a potentially economic method of stimulating recovery of natural gas from the reservoir. The gas-in-place, estimated to be between 90 to 125 billion cu ft per 640 acres from earlier wells, was confirmed from information obtained on 2 conventional wells completed in 1966. The Project Rulison exploratory well, R-EX, was completed in May 1968. Detailed testing of this well provided data on geology, hydrology and reservoir characteristics. The data obtained from the testing have been used to determine the flow capacity of the Mesaverde reservoir. The reservoir characteristics were then used as input data to make predictions of post-shot reservoir performance in the nuclear stimulated well, using a radial, unsteady state gas-flow computer model. (20 refs.)

  9. Addictive drugs and brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R A

    1996-01-01

    Direct electrical or chemical stimulation of specific brain regions can establish response habits similar to those established by natural rewards such as food or sexual contact. Cocaine, mu and delta opiates, nicotine, phencyclidine, and cannabis each have actions that summate with rewarding electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The reward-potentiating effects of amphetamine and opiates are associated with central sites of action where these drugs also have their direct rewarding effects, suggesting common mechanisms for drug reward per se and for drug potentiation of brain stimulation reward. The central sites at which these and perhaps other drugs of abuse potentiate brain stimulation reward and are rewarding in their own right are consistent with the hypothesis that the laboratory reward of brain stimulation and the pharmacological rewards of addictive drugs are habit forming because they act in the brain circuits that subserve more natural and biologically significant rewards.

  10. Neurologic Complications of Psychomotor Stimulant Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ramos, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Psychomotor stimulants are drugs that act on the central nervous system (CNS) to increase alertness, elevate mood, and produce a sense of well-being. These drugs also decrease appetite and the need for sleep. Stimulants can enhance stamina and improve performance in tasks that have been impaired by fatigue or boredom. Approved therapeutic applications of stimulants include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity. These agents also possess potent reinforcing properties that can result in excessive self-administration and abuse. Chronic use is associated with adverse effects including psychosis, seizures, and cerebrovascular accidents, though these complications usually occur in individuals with preexisting risk factors. This chapter reviews the adverse neurologic consequences of chronic psychomotor stimulant use and abuse, with a focus on two prototypical stimulants methamphetamine and cocaine. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Electrical acupoint stimulation increases athletes' rapid strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua-yuan; Liu, Tang-yi; Kuai, Le; Gao, Ming

    2006-05-01

    To search for a stimulation method for increasing athletes' performance. One hundred and fifty athletes were randomly divided into a trial group and a control group, 75 athletes in each group. Acupoints were stimulated with audio frequency pulse modulated wave and multi-blind method were used to investigate effects of the electric stimulation of acupoints on 30-meter running, standing long jumping and Cybex isokinetic testing index. The acupoint electric stimulation method could significantly increase athlete's performance (P < 0.05), and the biomechanical indexes, maximal peak moment of force (P < 0.05), force moment accelerating energy (P < 0.05) and average power (P < 0.05). Electrical acupoint stimulation can enhance athlete's rapid strength.

  12. A trial of scheduled deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: moving away from continuous deep brain stimulation paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Michael S; Foote, Kelly D; Wu, Samuel S; Ward, Herbert E; Bowers, Dawn; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Malaty, Irene A; Goodman, Wayne K; Gilbert, Donald M; Walker, Harrison C; Mink, Jonathan W; Merritt, Stacy; Morishita, Takashi; Sanchez, Justin C

    2013-01-01

    To collect the information necessary to design the methods and outcome variables for a larger trial of scheduled deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Tourette syndrome. We performed a small National Institutes of Health-sponsored clinical trials planning study of the safety and preliminary efficacy of implanted DBS in the bilateral centromedian thalamic region. The study used a cranially contained constant-current device and a scheduled, rather than the classic continuous, DBS paradigm. Baseline vs 6-month outcomes were collected and analyzed. In addition, we compared acute scheduled vs acute continuous vs off DBS. A university movement disorders center. Five patients with implanted DBS. A 50% improvement in the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) total score. RESULTS Participating subjects had a mean age of 34.4 (range, 28-39) years and a mean disease duration of 28.8 years. No significant adverse events or hardware-related issues occurred. Baseline vs 6-month data revealed that reductions in the YGTSS total score did not achieve the prestudy criterion of a 50% improvement in the YGTSS total score on scheduled stimulation settings. However, statistically significant improvements were observed in the YGTSS total score (mean [SD] change, -17.8 [9.4]; P=.01), impairment score (-11.3 [5.0]; P=.007), and motor score (-2.8 [2.2]; P=.045); the Modified Rush Tic Rating Scale Score total score (-5.8 [2.9]; P=.01); and the phonic tic severity score (-2.2 [2.6]; P=.04). Continuous, off, and scheduled stimulation conditions were assessed blindly in an acute experiment at 6 months after implantation. The scores in all 3 conditions showed a trend for improvement. Trends for improvement also occurred with continuous and scheduled conditions performing better than the off condition. Tic suppression was commonly seen at ventral (deep) contacts, and programming settings resulting in tic suppression were commonly associated with a subjective feeling of calmness. This study provides

  13. Determination of optimal electrode positions for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Hui-Hun; Choi, Jung-Do; Lee, Soo Yeol; Jung, Ki-Young

    2008-01-01

    The present study introduces a new approach to determining optimal electrode positions in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Electric field and 3D conduction current density were analyzed using 3D finite element method (FEM) formulated for a dc conduction problem. The electrode positions for minimal current injection were optimized by changing the Cartesian coordinate system into the spherical coordinate system and applying the (2+6) evolution strategy (ES) algorithm. Preliminary simulation studies applied to a standard three-layer head model demonstrated that the proposed approach is promising in enhancing the performance of tDCS. (note)

  14. Determination of optimal electrode positions for transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Chang-Hwan; Jung, Hui-Hun; Choi, Jung-Do [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yonsei University, Wonju, 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Soo Yeol [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ki-Young [Korea University Medical Center, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: ich@yonsei.ac.kr

    2008-06-07

    The present study introduces a new approach to determining optimal electrode positions in transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Electric field and 3D conduction current density were analyzed using 3D finite element method (FEM) formulated for a dc conduction problem. The electrode positions for minimal current injection were optimized by changing the Cartesian coordinate system into the spherical coordinate system and applying the (2+6) evolution strategy (ES) algorithm. Preliminary simulation studies applied to a standard three-layer head model demonstrated that the proposed approach is promising in enhancing the performance of tDCS. (note)

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): A Promising Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennabi, Djamila; Haffen, Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) opens new perspectives in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), because of its ability to modulate cortical excitability and induce long-lasting effects. The aim of this review is to summarize the current status of knowledge regarding tDCS application in MDD. Methods: In this review, we searched for articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE from the earliest available date to February 2018 that explored clinical and cognitive effects of tDCS in MDD. Results: Despite differences in design and stimulation parameters, the examined studies indicated beneficial effects of tDCS for MDD. These preliminary results, the non-invasiveness of tDCS, and its good tolerability support the need for further research on this technique. Conclusions: tDCS constitutes a promising therapeutic alternative for patients with MDD, but its place in the therapeutic armamentarium remains to be determined. PMID:29734768

  16. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A. E-mail: anna.galli@mater.unimib.it; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E

    2004-12-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C.

  17. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence of early medieval blue-green glass mosaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, A.; Martini, M.; Montanari, C.; Sibilia, E.

    2004-01-01

    The preliminary results of a study related to luminescent mechanisms in glass mosaic tesserae are presented. The samples came from a medieval glass deposit found during archaeological excavations in the S. Lorenzo Church in Milan. Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence (EDXRF) measurements were performed to obtain information on the elemental composition of the materials. Thermally Stimulated Luminescence (TSL, both conventional and wavelength resolved) and Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) analyses allowed to get information about traps and luminescence centres. The observed luminescence characteristics were close to that of quartz, showing the presence of an easy to bleach trap (300 deg. C, 1.95 eV) and of a hard to bleach trap (350 deg. C, 2.20 eV); charge transfer phenomena, involving the low-temperature peaks have been observed. There is a strong indication that the easy to bleach traps are responsible for both OSL and TSL emission at 300 deg. C

  18. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes.

  19. Stimulating the Comfort of Textile Electrodes in Wearable Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Lu, Yi; Chen, Wanzhen; Wu, Zhen; Zou, Haiqing; Krundel, Ludovic; Li, Guanglin

    2015-01-01

    Textile electrodes are becoming an attractive means in the facilitation of surface electrical stimulation. However, the stimulation comfort of textile electrodes and the mechanism behind stimulation discomfort is still unknown. In this study, a textile stimulation electrode was developed using conductive fabrics and then its impedance spectroscopy, stimulation thresholds, and stimulation comfort were quantitatively assessed and compared with those of a wet textile electrode and a hydrogel electrode on healthy subjects. The equivalent circuit models and the finite element models of different types of electrode were built based on the measured impedance data of the electrodes to reveal the possible mechanism of electrical stimulation pain. Our results showed that the wet textile electrode could achieve similar stimulation performance as the hydrogel electrode in motor threshold and stimulation comfort. However, the dry textile electrode was found to have very low pain threshold and induced obvious cutaneous painful sensations during stimulation, in comparison to the wet and hydrogel electrodes. Indeed, the finite element modeling results showed that the activation function along the z direction at the depth of dermis epidermis junction of the dry textile electrode was significantly larger than that of the wet and hydrogel electrodes, thus resulting in stronger activation of pain sensing fibers. Future work will be done to make textile electrodes have similar stimulation performance and comfort as hydrogel electrodes. PMID:26193273

  20. Assessment of anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on MMN-indexed auditory sensory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; de la Salle, Sara; Knott, Verner

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive form of brain stimulation which uses a very weak constant current to temporarily excite (anodal stimulation) or inhibit (cathodal stimulation) activity in the brain area of interest via small electrodes placed on the scalp. Currently, tDCS of the frontal cortex is being used as a tool to investigate cognition in healthy controls and to improve symptoms in neurological and psychiatric patients. tDCS has been found to facilitate cognitive performance on measures of attention, memory, and frontal-executive functions. Recently, a short session of anodal tDCS over the temporal lobe has been shown to increase auditory sensory processing as indexed by the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP). This preliminary pilot study examined the separate and interacting effects of both anodal and cathodal tDCS on MMN-indexed auditory pitch discrimination. In a randomized, double blind design, the MMN was assessed before (baseline) and after tDCS (2mA, 20min) in 2 separate sessions, one involving 'sham' stimulation (the device is turned off), followed by anodal stimulation (to temporarily excite cortical activity locally), and one involving cathodal stimulation (to temporarily decrease cortical activity locally), followed by anodal stimulation. Results demonstrated that anodal tDCS over the temporal cortex increased MMN-indexed auditory detection of pitch deviance, and while cathodal tDCS decreased auditory discrimination in baseline-stratified groups, subsequent anodal stimulation did not significantly alter MMN amplitudes. These findings strengthen the position that tDCS effects on cognition extend to the neural processing of sensory input and raise the possibility that this neuromodulatory technique may be useful for investigating sensory processing deficits in clinical populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of subthalamic stimulation on voice and speech in Parkinson´s disease: for the better or worse ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eSkodda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, although highly effective for the treatment of motor impairment in Parkinson´s disease, can induce speech deterioration in a subgroup of patients. The aim of the current study was to survey 1 if there are distinctive stimulation effects on the different parameters of voice and speech and 2 if there is a special pattern of preexisting speech abnormalities indicating a risk for further worsening under stimulation. Methods: N = 38 patients with Parkinson´s disease had to perform a speech test without medication with stimulation ON and OFF. Speech samples were analysed: 1 according to a four-dimensional perceptual speech score and 2 by acoustic analysis to obtain quantifiable measures of distinctive speech parameters.Results: Quality of voice was ameliorated with stimulation ON, and there were trends to increased loudness and better pitch variability. N = 8 patients featured a deterioration of speech with stimulation ON, caused by worsening of articulation or/and fluency. These patients had more severe overall speech impairment with characteristic features of articulatory slurring and articulatory acceleration already under StimOFF condition.Conclusion: The influence of subthalamic stimulation on Parkinsonian speech differs considerably between individual patients, however, there is a trend to amelioration of voice quality and prosody. Patients with stimulation-associated speech deterioration featured higher overall speech impairment and showed a distinctive pattern of articulatory abnormalities at baseline. Further investigations to confirm these preliminary findings are necessary to allow neurologists to pre-surgically estimate the individual risk of deterioration of speech under stimulation.

  2. Uncommon Applications of Deep Brain Stimulation in Hyperkinetic Movement Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara M. Smith

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: In addition to the established indications of tremor and dystonia, deep brain stimulation (DBS has been utilized less commonly for several hyperkinetic movement disorders, including medication-refractory myoclonus, ballism, chorea, and Gilles de la Tourette (GTS and tardive syndromes. Given the lack of adequate controlled trials, it is difficult to translate published reports into clinical use. We summarize the literature, draw conclusions regarding efficacy when possible, and highlight concerns and areas for future study.Methods: A Pubmed search was performed for English-language articles between January 1980 and June 2014. Studies were selected if they focused primarily on DBS to treat the conditions of focus. Results: We identified 49 cases of DBS for myoclonus-dystonia, 21 for Huntington's disease, 15 for choreacanthocytosis, 129 for GTS, and 73 for tardive syndromes. Bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi DBS was the most frequently utilized procedure for all conditions except GTS, in which medial thalamic DBS was more common. While the majority of cases demonstrate some improvement, there are also reports of no improvement or even worsening of symptoms in each condition. The few studies including functional or quality of life outcomes suggest benefit. A limited number of studies included blinded on/off testing. There have been two double-blind controlled trials performed in GTS and a single prospective double-blind, uncontrolled trial in tardive syndromes. Patient characteristics, surgical target, stimulation parameters, and duration of follow-up varied among studies.Discussion: Despite these extensive limitations, the literature overall supports the efficacy of DBS in these conditions, in particular GTS and tardive syndromes. For other conditions, the preliminary evidence from small studies is promising and encourages further study.

  3. NAA and NAAG variation in neuronal activation during visual stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Castellano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG and its hydrolysis product N-acetyl-L-aspartate (NAA are among the most important brain metabolites. NAA is a marker of neuron integrity and viability, while NAAG modulates glutamate release and may have a role in neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. Investigating on a quantitative basis the role of these metabolites in brain metabolism in vivo by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS is a major challenge since the main signals of NAA and NAAG largely overlap. This is a preliminary study in which we evaluated NAA and NAAG changes during a visual stimulation experiment using functional MRS. The paradigm used consisted of a rest period (5 min and 20 s, followed by a stimulation period (10 min and 40 s and another rest period (10 min and 40 s. MRS from 17 healthy subjects were acquired at 3T with TR/TE = 2000/288 ms. Spectra were averaged over subjects and quantified with LCModel. The main outcomes were that NAA concentration decreased by about 20% with the stimulus, while the concentration of NAAG concomitantly increased by about 200%. Such variations fall into models for the energy metabolism underlying neuronal activation that point to NAAG as being responsible for the hyperemic vascular response that causes the BOLD signal. They also agree with the fact that NAAG and NAA are present in the brain at a ratio of about 1:10, and with the fact that the only known metabolic pathway for NAAG synthesis is from NAA and glutamate.

  4. A wireless wearable surface functional electrical stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Peng; Guo, Ai-Wen; Zhou, Yu-Xuan; Xia, Yang; Huang, Jia; Xu, Chong-Yao; Huang, Zong-Hao; Lü, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Zhi-Gong

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a wireless wearable functional electrical stimulator controlled by Android phone with real-time-varying stimulation parameters for multichannel surface functional electrical stimulation application has been developed. It can help post-stroke patients using more conveniently. This study focuses on the prototype design, including the specific wristband concept, circuits and stimulation pulse-generation algorithm. A novel stimulator circuit with a driving stage using a complementary current source technique is proposed to achieve a high-voltage compliance, a large output impedance and an accurate linear voltage-to-current conversion. The size of the prototype has been significantly decreased to 17 × 7.5 × 1 cm3. The performance of the prototype has been tested with a loaded resistor and wrist extension/flexion movement of three hemiplegic patients. According to the experiments, the stimulator can generate four-channel charge-balanced biphasic stimulation with a voltage amplitude up to 60 V, and the pulse frequency and width can be adjusted in real time with a range of 100-600 μs and 20-80 Hz, respectively.

  5. Computational modeling of epidural cortical stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.

    2008-12-01

    Epidural cortical stimulation (ECS) is a developing therapy to treat neurological disorders. However, it is not clear how the cortical anatomy or the polarity and position of the electrode affects current flow and neural activation in the cortex. We developed a 3D computational model simulating ECS over the precentral gyrus. With the electrode placed directly above the gyrus, about half of the stimulus current flowed through the crown of the gyrus while current density was low along the banks deep in the sulci. Beneath the electrode, neurons oriented perpendicular to the cortical surface were depolarized by anodic stimulation, and neurons oriented parallel to the boundary were depolarized by cathodic stimulation. Activation was localized to the crown of the gyrus, and neurons on the banks deep in the sulci were not polarized. During regulated voltage stimulation, the magnitude of the activating function was inversely proportional to the thickness of the CSF and dura. During regulated current stimulation, the activating function was not sensitive to the thickness of the dura but was slightly more sensitive than during regulated voltage stimulation to the thickness of the CSF. Varying the width of the gyrus and the position of the electrode altered the distribution of the activating function due to changes in the orientation of the neurons beneath the electrode. Bipolar stimulation, although often used in clinical practice, reduced spatial selectivity as well as selectivity for neuron orientation.

  6. Numerical dosimetry of transcranial magnetic stimulation coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique capable of stimulating neurons by means of electromagnetic induction. TMS can be used to map brain function and shows promise for the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Calculation of fields induced in the brain are necessary to accurately identify stimulated neural tissue during TMS. This allows the development of novel TMS coil designs capable of stimulating deeper brain regions and increasing the localization of stimulation that can be achieved. We have performed numerical calculations of magnetic and electric field with high-resolution anatomically realistic human head models to find these stimulated brain regions for a variety of proposed TMS coil designs. The realistic head models contain heterogeneous tissue structures and electrical conductivities, yielding superior results to those obtained from the simplified homogeneous head models that are commonly employed. The attenuation of electric field as a function of depth in the brain and the localization of stimulating field have been methodically investigated. In addition to providing a quantitative comparison of different TMS coil designs the variation of induced field between subjects has been investigated. We also show the differences in induced fields between adult, adolescent and child head models to preemptively identify potential safety issues in the application of pediatric TMS.

  7. A fully implantable rodent neural stimulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, D. W. J.; Grayden, D. B.; Shepherd, R. K.; Fallon, J. B.

    2012-02-01

    The ability to electrically stimulate neural and other excitable tissues in behaving experimental animals is invaluable for both the development of neural prostheses and basic neurological research. We developed a fully implantable neural stimulator that is able to deliver two channels of intra-cochlear electrical stimulation in the rat. It is powered via a novel omni-directional inductive link and includes an on-board microcontroller with integrated radio link, programmable current sources and switching circuitry to generate charge-balanced biphasic stimulation. We tested the implant in vivo and were able to elicit both neural and behavioural responses. The implants continued to function for up to five months in vivo. While targeted to cochlear stimulation, with appropriate electrode arrays the stimulator is well suited to stimulating other neurons within the peripheral or central nervous systems. Moreover, it includes significant on-board data acquisition and processing capabilities, which could potentially make it a useful platform for telemetry applications, where there is a need to chronically monitor physiological variables in unrestrained animals.

  8. Prefrontal cortex stimulation does not affect emotional bias, but may slow emotion identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nord, Camilla L; Forster, Sophie; Halahakoon, D Chamith; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Munafò, Marcus R; Roiser, Jonathan P

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has recently garnered attention as a putative depression treatment. However, the cognitive mechanisms by which it exerts an antidepressant effect are unclear: tDCS may directly alter 'hot' emotional processing biases, or alleviate depression through changes in 'cold' (non-emotional) cognitive function. Here, 75 healthy participants performed a facial emotion identification task during 20 minutes of anodal or sham tDCS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in a double-blind, within-subject crossover design. A subset of 31 participants additionally completed a task measuring attentional distraction during stimulation. Compared to sham stimulation, anodal tDCS of the left DLPFC resulted in an increase in response latency across all emotional conditions. Bayesian analysis showed definitively that tDCS exerted no emotion-dependent effect on behaviour. Thus, we demonstrate that anodal tDCS produces a general, rather than an emotion-specific, effect. We also report a preliminary finding in the subset of participants who completed the distractibility task: increased distractibility during active stimulation correlated significantly with the degree to which tDCS slowed emotion identification. Our results provide insight into the possible mechanisms by which DLPFC tDCS may treat symptoms of depression, suggesting that it may not alter emotional biases, but instead may affect 'cold' cognitive processes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Efficacy of brain-computer interface-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation for chronic paresis after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaino, Masahiko; Ono, Takashi; Shindo, Keiichiro; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Ota, Tetsuo; Kimura, Akio; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2014-04-01

    Brain computer interface technology is of great interest to researchers as a potential therapeutic measure for people with severe neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of brain computer interface, by comparing conventional neuromuscular electrical stimulation and brain computer interface-driven neuromuscular electrical stimulation, using an A-B-A-B withdrawal single-subject design. A 38-year-old male with severe hemiplegia due to a putaminal haemorrhage participated in this study. The design involved 2 epochs. In epoch A, the patient attempted to open his fingers during the application of neuromuscular electrical stimulation, irrespective of his actual brain activity. In epoch B, neuromuscular electrical stimulation was applied only when a significant motor-related cortical potential was observed in the electroencephalogram. The subject initially showed diffuse functional magnetic resonance imaging activation and small electro-encephalogram responses while attempting finger movement. Epoch A was associated with few neurological or clinical signs of improvement. Epoch B, with a brain computer interface, was associated with marked lateralization of electroencephalogram (EEG) and blood oxygenation level dependent responses. Voluntary electromyogram (EMG) activity, with significant EEG-EMG coherence, was also prompted. Clinical improvement in upper-extremity function and muscle tone was observed. These results indicate that self-directed training with a brain computer interface may induce activity- dependent cortical plasticity and promote functional recovery. This preliminary clinical investigation encourages further research using a controlled design.

  10. Non-invasive brain stimulation to assess and modulate neuroplasticity in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggio, Paulo Sérgio; Valasek, Claudia Aparecida; Campanhã, Camila; Giglio, Ana Carolina Alem; Baptista, Nathalia Ishikawa; Lapenta, Olivia Morgan; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative and progressive disease related to a gradual decline in cognitive functions such as memory, attention, perceptual-spatial abilities, language, and executive functions. Recent evidence has suggested that interventions promoting neural plasticity can induce significant cognitive gains especially in subjects at risk of or with mild AD. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive techniques that can induce significant and long-lasting changes in focal and non-focal neuroplasticity. In this review, we present initial preliminary evidence that TMS and tDCS can enhance performance in cognitive functions typically impaired in AD. Also, we reviewed the initial six studies on AD that presented early findings showing cognitive gains such as in recognition memory and language associated with TMS and tDCS treatment. In addition, we showed that TMS has also been used to assess neuroplasticity changes in AD supporting the notion that cortical excitability is changed in AD due to the neurodegenerative process. Due to the safe profile, cost of these tools, and initial clinical trials results, further studies are warranted in order to replicate and extend the initial findings of rTMS and tDCS as cognitive enhancers in AD. Further trials should explore different targets of stimulation along with different paradigms of stimulation including combination with behavioural interventions.

  11. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex reduces cocaine use: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terraneo, Alberto; Leggio, Lorenzo; Saladini, Marina; Ermani, Mario; Bonci, Antonello; Gallimberti, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Recent animal studies demonstrate that compulsive cocaine seeking strongly reduces prelimbic frontal cortex activity, while optogenetic stimulation of this brain area significantly inhibits compulsive cocaine seeking, providing a strong rationale for applying brain stimulation to reduce cocaine consumption. Thus, we employed repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), to test if dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation might prevent cocaine use in humans. Thirty-two cocaine-addicted patients were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (rTMS) on the left DLPFC, or to a control group (pharmacological agents) during a 29-day study (Stage 1). This was followed by a 63-day follow-up (Stage 2), during which all participants were offered rTMS treatment. Amongst the patients who completed Stage 1, 16 were in the rTMS group (100%) and 13 in the control group (81%). No significant adverse events were noted. During Stage 1, there were a significantly higher number of cocaine-free urine drug tests in the rTMS group compared to control (p=0.004). Craving for cocaine was also significantly lower in the rTMS group compared to the controls (p=0.038). Out of 13 patients who completed Stage 1 in the control group, 10 patients received rTMS treatment during Stage 2 and showed significant improvement with favorable outcomes becoming comparable to those of the rTMS group. The present preliminary findings support the safety of rTMS in cocaine-addicted patients, and suggest its potential therapeutic role for rTMS-driven PFC stimulation in reducing cocaine use, providing a strong rationale for developing larger placebo-controlled studies. Trial name: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in cocaine abusers, URL:〈http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN15823943?q=&filters=&sort=&offset=8&totalResults=13530&page=1&pageSize=10&searchType=basic-search〉, ISRCTN15823943. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Adrenaline stimulates the proliferation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells towards the LPS-induced lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Wang, Zhiming; Qian, Mengjia; Wang, Lingyan; Bai, Chunxue; Wang, Xiangdong

    2014-08-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) could modulate inflammation in experimental lung injury. On the other hand, adrenergic receptor agonists could increase DNA synthesis of stem cells. Therefore, we investigated the therapeutic role of adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lung injury. BMSCs were cultured with adrenergic receptor agonists or antagonists. Suspensions of lung cells or sliced lung tissue from animals with or without LPS-induced injury were co-cultured with BMSCs. LPS-stimulated alveolar macrophages were co-cultured with BMSCs (with adrenaline stimulation or not) in Transwell for 6 hrs. A preliminary animal experiment was conducted to validate the findings in ex vivo study. We found that adrenaline at 10 μM enhanced proliferation of BMSCs through both α- and β-adrenergic receptors. Adrenaline promoted the migration of BMSCs towards LPS-injured lung cells or lung tissue. Adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs decreased the inflammation of LPS-stimulated macrophages, probably through the expression and secretion of several paracrine factors. Adrenaline reduced the extent of injury in LPS-injured rats. Our data indicate that adrenaline-stimulated BMSCs might contribute to the prevention from acute lung injury through the activation of adrenergic receptors, promotion of proliferation and migration towards injured lung, and modulation of inflammation. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. Optimal stimulation as theoretical basis of hyperactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zentall, Sydney

    1975-07-01

    Current theory and practice in the clinical and educational management of hyperactive children recommend reduction of environmental stimulation, assuming hyperactive and distractable behaviors to be due to overstimulation. This paper reviews research suggesting that hyperactive behavior may result from a homeostatic mechanism that functions to increase stimulation for a child experienceing insufficient sensory stimulation. It is suggested that the effectiveness of drug and behavior therapies, as well as evidence from the field of sensory deprivation, further support the theory of a homeostatic mechanism that attempts to optimize sensory input.

  14. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakemore, J.I.; Lewin, N.; Burgett, M.W.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a method for the radioimmunoassay of thyroid-stimulating hormone which utilizes a rapid and convenient version of a double antibody procedure. Highly purified second antibody is bound, by means of covalent bonds, to hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles to produce a two-phase system. The solid phase comprises immobilized second antibody bound to the reaction product of labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone with the first antibody (first antibody-antigen complex) and the liquid phase comprises free (unbound) labeled and unlabeled thyroid-stimulating hormone. The two phases are separated and the radioactivity of either phase is measured

  15. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2005-06-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies conducted a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project was to review U.S. deep well drilling and stimulation activity, review rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep, high-pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. This report documents results from this project.

  16. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  17. Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation Attenuates Neuronal Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Kohitij; Duijnhouwer, Jacob; Krekelberg, Bart

    2017-03-01

    We previously showed that brief application of 2 mA (peak-to-peak) transcranial currents alternating at 10 Hz significantly reduces motion adaptation in humans. This is but one of many behavioral studies showing that weak currents applied to the scalp modulate neural processing. Transcranial stimulation has been shown to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Few studies, however, have measured the neural consequences of transcranial current stimulation. We capitalized on the strong link between motion perception and neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area of the macaque monkey to study the neural mechanisms that underlie the behavioral consequences of transcranial alternating current stimulation. First, we observed that 2 mA currents generated substantial intracranial fields, which were much stronger in the stimulated hemisphere (0.12 V/m) than on the opposite side of the brain (0.03 V/m). Second, we found that brief application of transcranial alternating current stimulation at 10 Hz reduced spike-frequency adaptation of MT neurons and led to a broadband increase in the power spectrum of local field potentials. Together, these findings provide a direct demonstration that weak electric fields applied to the scalp significantly affect neural processing in the primate brain and that this includes a hitherto unknown mechanism that attenuates sensory adaptation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Transcranial stimulation has been claimed to improve perception, learning, and a range of clinical symptoms. Little is known, however, how transcranial current stimulation generates such effects, and the search for better stimulation protocols proceeds largely by trial and error. We investigated, for the first time, the neural consequences of stimulation in the monkey brain. We found that even brief application of alternating current stimulation reduced the effects of adaptation on single-neuron firing rates and local field potentials; this mechanistic

  18. Effects of Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Stimulation (tVNS on the P300 and Alpha-Amylase Level: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ventura-Bort

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that the P3b may be closely related to the activation of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE system. To further study the potential association, we applied a novel technique, the non-invasive transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS, which is speculated to increase noradrenaline levels. Using a within-subject cross-over design, 20 healthy participants received continuous tVNS and sham stimulation on two consecutive days (stimulation counterbalanced across participants while performing a visual oddball task. During stimulation, oval non-targets (standard, normal-head (easy and rotated-head (difficult targets, as well as novel stimuli (scenes were presented. As an indirect marker of noradrenergic activation we also collected salivary alpha-amylase (sAA before and after stimulation. Results showed larger P3b amplitudes for target, relative to standard stimuli, irrespective of stimulation condition. Exploratory post hoc analyses, however, revealed that, in comparison to standard stimuli, easy (but not difficult targets produced larger P3b (but not P3a amplitudes during active tVNS, compared to sham stimulation. For sAA levels, although main analyses did not show differential effects of stimulation, direct testing revealed that tVNS (but not sham stimulation increased sAA levels after stimulation. Additionally, larger differences between tVNS and sham stimulation in P3b magnitudes for easy targets were associated with larger increase in sAA levels after tVNS, but not after sham stimulation. Despite preliminary evidence for a modulatory influence of tVNS on the P3b, which may be partly mediated by activation of the noradrenergic system, additional research in this field is clearly warranted. Future studies need to clarify whether tVNS also facilitates other processes, such as learning and memory, and whether tVNS can be used as therapeutic tool.

  19. Preliminary nuclear decommissioning cost study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sissingh, R.A.P.

    1981-04-01

    The decommissioning of a nuclear power plant may involve one or more of three possible options: storage with surveillance (SWS), restricted site release (RSR), and unrestricted site use(USU). This preliminary study concentrates on the logistical, technical and cost aspects of decommissioning a multi-unit CANDU generating station using Pickering GS as the reference design. The procedure chosen for evaluation is: i) removal of the fuel and heavy water followed by decontamination prior to placing the station in SWS for thiry years; ii) complete dismantlement to achieve a USU state. The combination of SWS and USU with an interim period of surveillance allows for radioactive decay and hence less occupational exposure in achieving USU. The study excludes the conventional side of the station, assumes waste disposal repositories are available 1600 km away from the station, and uses only presently available technologies. The dismantlement of all systems except the reactor core can be accomplished using Ontario Hydro's current operating, maintenance and construction procedures. The total decommissioning period is spread out over approximately 40 years, with major activities concentrated in the first and last five years. The estimated dose would be approximately 1800 rem. Overall Pickering GS A costs would be $162,000,000 (1980 Canadian dollars)

  20. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  1. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  2. Preliminary design of smart fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Ha, D.; Park, S.; Nahm, K.; Lee, K.; Kim, J.

    2007-01-01

    SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is a novel light water rector with a modular, integral primary system configuration. This concept has been developing a 660 MWt by Korean Nuclear Power Industry Group with KAERI. SMART is being developed for use as an energy source for small-scale power generation and seawater desalination. Although the design of SMART is based on the current pressurized water reactor technology, new technologies such as enhanced safety, and passive safety have been applied, and system simplification and modularization, innovations in manufacturing and installation technologies have been implemented culminating in a design that has enhanced safety and economy, and is environment -friendly. In this paper described the preliminary design of the nuclear Fuel for this SMART, the design concept and the characteristics of SMART Fuel. In specially this paper describe the optimization of grid span adjustment to improve the thermal performance of the SMART Fuel as well as to improve the seismic resistance performance of the SMART Fuel, it is not easy to improve the both performance simultaneously because of design parameter of each performance inversely proportional. SMART Fuel enable to extra-long extended fuel cycle length and resistance of proliferation, enhanced safety, improved economics and reduced nuclear waste

  3. Towards a Switched-Capacitor Based Stimulator for Efficient Deep-Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a novel 4-channel prototype stimulation circuit for implantable neurological stimulators (INS). This Switched-Capacitor based Stimulator (SCS) aims to utilize charge storage and charge injection techniques to take advantage of both the efficiency of conventional voltage-controlled stimulators (VCS) and the safety and controllability of current-controlled stimulators (CCS). The discrete SCS prototype offers fine control over stimulation parameters such as voltage, current, pulse width, frequency, and active electrode channel via a LabVIEW graphical user interface (GUI) when connected to a PC through USB. Furthermore, the prototype utilizes a floating current sensor to provide charge-balanced biphasic stimulation and ensure safety. The stimulator was analyzed using an electrode-electrolyte interface (EEI) model as well as with a pair of pacing electrodes in saline. The primary motivation of this research is to test the feasibility and functionality of a safe, effective, and power-efficient switched-capacitor based stimulator for use in Deep Brain Stimulation. PMID:21095987

  4. Computational analysis of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the presence of deep brain stimulation probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, F.; Holloway, K.; El-Gendy, A. A.; Hadimani, R. L.

    2017-05-01

    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is an emerging non-invasive treatment for depression, Parkinson's disease, and a variety of other neurological disorders. Many Parkinson's patients receive the treatment known as Deep Brain Stimulation, but often require additional therapy for speech and swallowing impairment. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation has been explored as a possible treatment by stimulating the mouth motor area of the brain. We have calculated induced electric field, magnetic field, and temperature distributions in the brain using finite element analysis and anatomically realistic heterogeneous head models fitted with Deep Brain Stimulation leads. A Figure of 8 coil, current of 5000 A, and frequency of 2.5 kHz are used as simulation parameters. Results suggest that Deep Brain Stimulation leads cause surrounding tissues to experience slightly increased E-field (Δ Emax =30 V/m), but not exceeding the nominal values induced in brain tissue by Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation without leads (215 V/m). The maximum temperature in the brain tissues surrounding leads did not change significantly from the normal human body temperature of 37 °C. Therefore, we ascertain that Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in the mouth motor area may stimulate brain tissue surrounding Deep Brain Stimulation leads, but will not cause tissue damage.

  5. Authentication by Keystroke Timing: Some Preliminary Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gaines, R. S; Lisowski, William; Press, S. J; Shapiro, Norman

    1980-01-01

    ... of an individual seeking access to the computer. This report summarizes preliminary efforts to establish whether an individual can be identified by the statistical characteristics of his or her typing...

  6. Preliminary Phytochemical and Physicochemical Characterization of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out phytochemical and physicochemical studies on the leaves of Gynura segetum. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical and physicochemical studies using chromatographic techniques,were carried out, Parameters evaluated include ash value, loss on drying and extractive value, amongst others.

  7. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF THE SEEDS OF GLYPHAEA BREVIS. (SPRENG) MONACHINO FOR ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL PRINCIPLES. Michael Lahai1, Tiwalade Adewale Olugbade2. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Medicine ...

  8. Preliminary engineering cost trends for highway projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    Preliminary engineering (PE) for a highway project encompasses two efforts: planning to minimize the physical, social, and human environmental impacts of projects and engineering design to deliver the best alternative. PE efforts begin years in advan...

  9. Preliminary Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Waffle Walls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shugar, Theodore

    1997-01-01

    A preliminary analytical method based upon modified plate bending theory is offered for structural analysis of a promising new construction method for walls of small buildings and residential housing...

  10. Preliminary design data package. Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-25

    The design requirements, design philosophy, method and assumptions, and preliminary computer-aided design of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle including its electric and heat power units, control equipment, transmission system, body, and overall vehicle characteristics are presented. (LCL)

  11. Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariwite, Roderick [Fallon Paiute Shoshone Tribe, NV (United States)

    2015-07-31

    This "Renewable Energy Park - Preliminary Feasibility & Engineering Report" seeks to provide an overall assessment and review of renewable energy development opportunities on the Fallon Indian Reservation and Colony Lands.

  12. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  13. Anal sphincter responses after perianal electrical stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ejnar; Klemar, B; Schrøder, H D

    1982-01-01

    By perianal electrical stimulation and EMG recording from the external anal sphincter three responses were found with latencies of 2-8, 13-18 and 30-60 ms, respectively. The two first responses were recorded in most cases. They were characterised by constant latency and uniform pattern, were...... not fatigued by repeated stimulation, were most dependent on placement of stimulating and recording electrodes, and always had a higher threshold than the third response. The third response was constantly present in normal subjects. It had the longest EMG response and the latency decreased with increasing...... stimulation to a minimum of 30-60 ms. This response represented the clinical observable spinal reflex, "the classical anal reflex". The latencies of the two first responses were so short that they probably do not represent spinal reflexes. This was further supported by the effect of epidural anaesthesia which...

  14. Stimulation Technologies for Deep Well Completions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-09-30

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring the Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a study to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. An assessment of historical deep gas well drilling activity and forecast of future trends was completed during the first six months of the project; this segment of the project was covered in Technical Project Report No. 1. The second progress report covers the next six months of the project during which efforts were primarily split between summarizing rock mechanics and fracture growth in deep reservoirs and contacting operators about case studies of deep gas well stimulation.

  15. TSH (Thyroid-stimulating hormone) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Serum; p. 484. ...

  16. On elementary act of stimulated emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzek, V.; Grigorijev, V.I.

    1984-11-01

    A microscopical description of stimulated emission in the framework of the modified Lee model is given. Besides this, the exact solutions in all sectors (n photons + atom) are obtained in the proposed model. (author)

  17. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  18. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, Evangelos G; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2011-01-01

    are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears...... to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing...... to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels....

  19. [Functional electric stimulation (FES) in cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, M H; Lourenção, M I; Ribeiro Sobrinho, J B; Battistella, L R

    1992-01-01

    Our study concerns a patient with cerebral palsy, submitted to conventional occupational therapy and functional electrical stimulation. The results as to manual ability, spasticity, sensibility and synkinesis were satisfactory.

  20. Thermally stimulated exoelectron emission from solid Xe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khyzhniy, I.V.; Grigorashchenko, O.N.; Savchenko, E.V.; Ponomarev, A.N.; Bondybey, V.E.

    2007-01-01

    Thermally-stimulated emission of exoelectrons and photons from solid Xe pre-irradiated by low-energy electrons were studied. A high sensitivity of thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and thermally-stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) to sample prehistory was demonstrated. It was shown that electron traps in unannealed samples are characterized by much broader distribution of trap levels in comparison with annealed samples and their concentration exceeds in number that in annealed samples. Both phenomena, TSL and TSEE, were found to be triggered by release of electrons from the same kind of traps. The data obtained suggest a competition between two relaxation channels: charge recombination and electron transport terminated by TSL and TSEE. It was found that TSEE predominates at low temperatures while at higher temperatures TSL prevails. An additional relaxation channel, a photon-stimulated exoelectron emission pre-irradiated solid Xe, was revealed

  1. Stimulated Raman scattering: old physics, new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V; Petrov, Georgi I; Zhang, Hao F; Noojin, Gary D; Denton, Michael L; Thomas, Robert J; Scully, Marlan O

    2009-10-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering as a promising way of expanding the tunability of ultrafast lasers and as an exciting new biomedical imaging modality capable of selective excitation and chemically-specific diagnostics of molecular species.

  2. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eAntal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS seems likely to open a new era of the field of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the human brain by directly interfering with cortical rhythms. It is expected to synchronize (by one single resonance frequency or desynchronize (e.g. by the application of several frequencies cortical oscillations. If applied long enough it may cause neuroplastic effects. In the theta range it may improve cognition when applied in phase. Alpha rhythms could improve motor performance, whereas beta intrusion may deteriorate them. TACS with both alpha and beta frequencies has a high likelihood to induce retinal phosphenes. Gamma intrusion can possibly interfere with attention. Stimulation in the ripple range induces intensity dependent inhibition or excitation in the motor cortex most likely by entrainment of neuronal networks, whereas stimulation in the low kHz range induces excitation by neuronal membrane interference. TACS in the 200 kHz range may have a potential in oncology.

  3. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. In children, GH has growth-promoting effects on the body. It stimulates the ...

  4. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...

  5. Comparing the force ripple during asynchronous and conventional stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Ryan J; Tate, Mark; Kawai, Hiroyuki; Dixon, Warren E

    2014-10-01

    Asynchronous stimulation has been shown to reduce fatigue during electrical stimulation; however, it may also exhibit a force ripple. We quantified the ripple during asynchronous and conventional single-channel transcutaneous stimulation across a range of stimulation frequencies. The ripple was measured during 5 asynchronous stimulation protocols, 2 conventional stimulation protocols, and 3 volitional contractions in 12 healthy individuals. Conventional 40 Hz and asynchronous 16 Hz stimulation were found to induce contractions that were as smooth as volitional contractions. Asynchronous 8, 10, and 12 Hz stimulation induced contractions with significant ripple. Lower stimulation frequencies can reduce fatigue; however, they may also lead to increased ripple. Future efforts should study the relationship between force ripple and the smoothness of the evoked movements in addition to the relationship between stimulation frequency and NMES-induced fatigue to elucidate an optimal stimulation frequency for asynchronous stimulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Development of Functional Electrical Stimulation Rowing: The Rowstim Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Brian; Gibbons, Robin; Wheeler, Garry

    2017-11-01

    Potentially, functional electrical stimulation (FES)-assisted exercise may have an important therapeutic role in reducing comorbidities associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Here, we present an overview of these secondary life-threatening conditions, discuss the rationale behind the development of a hybrid exercise called FES rowing, and describe our experience in developing FES rowing technology. FES rowing and sculling are unique forms of adaptive rowing for those with SCI. The paralyzed leg musculature is activated by multiple channels of electrical pulses delivered via self-adhesive electrodes attached to the skin. The stimulated muscle contractions are synchronized with voluntary rowing movements of the upper limbs. A range of steady-state FES rowing exercise intensities have been demonstrated from 15.2 ± 1.8 mL/kg/min in tetraplegia to 22.9 ±7.1 mL/kg/min in paraplegia. We expect that such high levels may help some to achieve significant reductions in the risks to their health, particularly where a dose-response relationship exists as is the case for cardiovascular disease and Type II diabetes. Furthermore, preliminary results suggest that cyclical forces more than 1.5 times body weight are imposed on the leg long bones which may help to reduce the risk of fragility fractures. We have demonstrated the feasibility of FES rowing on land and water using adapted rowing technology that includes; a fixed stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2, Model E), a floating stretcher indoor ergometer (adapted Concept 2 Dynamic), a turbine powered water rowing tank, a custom hydraulic sculling simulator and a single scull (adapted Alden 16). This has involved volunteers with paraplegia and tetraplegia with SCI ranging from C4 to T12 AIS A using at least 4-channels of surface electrical stimulation. FES rowers, with SCI, have competed alongside non-SCI rowers over the Olympic distance of 2000 m at the British Indoor Rowing Championships in 2004, 2005, and 2006

  7. Use of basal stimulation at anesthesiology department

    OpenAIRE

    MARKOVÁ, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The theme ?The Use of Basal Stimulation at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department? was chosen in order to map out the use of this nursing method by the nurses and the staff who I cooperate with. The theoretical part deals with the environment at the Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation Department where the basal stimulation is used and also with special characteristics of the nursing care. Further, it deals with monitoring patients, causes of consciousness defects occurrence and kinds ...

  8. Closing the loop of deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Romain; Chaillet, Antoine; Filipchuk, Anton; Pasillas-Lépine, William; Hammond, Constance

    2013-12-20

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation is used to treat a wide range of brain disorders, like Parkinson's disease. The stimulated networks usually share common electrophysiological signatures, including hyperactivity and/or dysrhythmia. From a clinical perspective, HFS is expected to alleviate clinical signs without generating adverse effects. Here, we consider whether the classical open-loop HFS fulfills these criteria and outline current experimental or theoretical research on the different types of closed-loop DBS that could provide better clinical outcomes. In the first part of the review, the two routes followed by HFS-evoked axonal spikes are explored. In one direction, orthodromic spikes functionally de-afferent the stimulated nucleus from its downstream target networks. In the opposite direction, antidromic spikes prevent this nucleus from being influenced by its afferent networks. As a result, the pathological synchronized activity no longer propagates from the cortical networks to the stimulated nucleus. The overall result can be described as a reversible functional de-afferentation of the stimulated nucleus from its upstream and downstream nuclei. In the second part of the review, the latest advances in closed-loop DBS are considered. Some of the proposed approaches are based on mathematical models, which emphasize different aspects of the parkinsonian basal ganglia: excessive synchronization, abnormal firing-rate rhythms, and a deficient thalamo-cortical relay. The stimulation strategies are classified depending on the control-theory techniques on which they are based: adaptive and on-demand stimulation schemes, delayed and multi-site approaches, stimulations based on proportional and/or derivative control actions, optimal control strategies. Some of these strategies have been validated experimentally, but there is still a large reservoir of theoretical work that may point to ways of improving practical treatment.

  9. Closing the loop of deep brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eCARRON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency deep brain stimulation is used to treat a wide range of brain disorders, like Parkinson's disease. The stimulated networks usually share common electrophysiological signatures, including hyperactivity and/or dysrhythmia. From a clinical perspective, HFS is expected to alleviate clinical signs without generating adverse effects. Here, we consider whether the classical open-loop HFS fulfils these criteria and outline current experimental or theoretical research on the different types of closed-loop DBS that could provide better clinical outcomes. In the first part of the review, the two routes followed by HFS-evoked axonal spikes are explored. In one direction, orthodromic spikes functionally de-afferent the stimulated nucleus from its downstream target networks. In the opposite direction, antidromic spikes prevent this nucleus from being influenced by its afferent networks. As a result, the pathological synchronized activity no longer propagates from the cortical networks to the stimulated nucleus. The overall result can be described as a reversible functional de-afferentation of the stimulated nucleus from its upstream and downstream nuclei. In the second part of the review, the latest advances in closed-loop DBS are considered. Some of the proposed approaches are based on mathematical models, which emphasize different aspects of the parkinsonian basal ganglia: excessive synchronization, abnormal firing-rate rhythms, and a deficient thalamo-cortical relay. The stimulation strategies are classified depending on the control-theory techniques on which they are based: adaptive and on-demand stimulation schemes, delayed and multi-site approaches, stimulations based on proportional and/or derivative control actions, optimal control strategies. Some of these strategies have been validated experimentally, but there is still a large reservoir of theoretical work that may point to ways of improving practical treatment.

  10. Closing the loop of deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carron, Romain; Chaillet, Antoine; Filipchuk, Anton; Pasillas-Lépine, William; Hammond, Constance

    2013-01-01

    High-frequency deep brain stimulation is used to treat a wide range of brain disorders, like Parkinson's disease. The stimulated networks usually share common electrophysiological signatures, including hyperactivity and/or dysrhythmia. From a clinical perspective, HFS is expected to alleviate clinical signs without generating adverse effects. Here, we consider whether the classical open-loop HFS fulfills these criteria and outline current experimental or theoretical research on the different types of closed-loop DBS that could provide better clinical outcomes. In the first part of the review, the two routes followed by HFS-evoked axonal spikes are explored. In one direction, orthodromic spikes functionally de-afferent the stimulated nucleus from its downstream target networks. In the opposite direction, antidromic spikes prevent this nucleus from being influenced by its afferent networks. As a result, the pathological synchronized activity no longer propagates from the cortical networks to the stimulated nucleus. The overall result can be described as a reversible functional de-afferentation of the stimulated nucleus from its upstream and downstream nuclei. In the second part of the review, the latest advances in closed-loop DBS are considered. Some of the proposed approaches are based on mathematical models, which emphasize different aspects of the parkinsonian basal ganglia: excessive synchronization, abnormal firing-rate rhythms, and a deficient thalamo-cortical relay. The stimulation strategies are classified depending on the control-theory techniques on which they are based: adaptive and on-demand stimulation schemes, delayed and multi-site approaches, stimulations based on proportional and/or derivative control actions, optimal control strategies. Some of these strategies have been validated experimentally, but there is still a large reservoir of theoretical work that may point to ways of improving practical treatment. PMID:24391555

  11. Stimulants for the Control of Hedonic Appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Poulton, Alison S.; Hibbert, Emily J.; Champion, Bernard L.; Nanan, Ralph K. H.

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for th...

  12. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Mark

    2000-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is rapidly developing as a powerful, non-invasive tool for studying the human brain. A pulsed magnetic field creates current flow in the brain and can temporarily excite or inhibit specific areas. TMS of motor cortex can produce a muscle twitch or block movement; TMS of occipital cortex can produce visual phosphenes or scotomas. TMS can also alter the functioning of the brain beyond the time of stimulation, offering potential for therapy.

  13. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Colon electrical stimulation: potential use for treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hanaa S; Chen, Jiande D Z

    2011-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent health problems in the United States. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity are unsatisfactory. We hypothesized the use of colon electrical stimulation (CES) to treat obesity by inhibiting upper gastrointestinal motility. In this preliminary study, we aimed at studying the effects of CES on gastric emptying of solid, intestinal motility, and food intake in dogs. Six dogs, equipped with serosal colon electrodes and a jejunal cannula, were randomly assigned to receive sham-CES or CES during the assessment of: (i) gastric emptying of solids, (ii) postprandial intestinal motility, (iii) autonomic functions, and (iv) food intake. We found that (i) CES delayed gastric emptying of solids by 77%. Guanethidine partially blocked the inhibitory effect of CES on solid gastric emptying; (ii) CES significantly reduced intestinal contractility and the effect lasted throughout the recovery period; (iii) CES decreased vagal activity in both fasting and fed states, increased the sympathovagal balance and marginally increased sympathetic activity in the fasting state; (iv) CES resulted in a reduction of 61% in food intake. CES reduces food intake in healthy dogs and the anorexigenic effect may be attributed to its inhibitory effects on gastric emptying and intestinal motility, mediated via the autonomic mechanisms. Further studies are warranted to investigate the therapeutic potential of CES for obesity.

  16. Brain sites mediating corticosteroid feedback inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, L.

    1989-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that the brain mediates stress-induced and circadian increases in ACTH secretion and that corticosteroid concentrations which normalize basal plasma ACTH are insufficient to normalize ACTH responses to circadian or stressful stimuli in adrenalectomized rats. To identify brain sites mediating corticosteroid inhibition of stimulated ACTH secretion, two approaches were used. The first compared brain [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake in rats with differential ACTH responses to stress. Relative to sham-adrenalectomized (SHAM) rats, adrenalectomized rats replaced with low, constant corticosterone levels via a subcutaneous corticosterone pellet (B-PELLET) exhibited elevated and prolonged ACTH responses to a variety of stimuli. Adrenalectomized rate given a circadian corticosterone rhythm via corticosterone in their drinking water exhibited elevated ACTH levels immediately after stress, but unlike B-PELLET rats, terminated stress induced ACTH secretion normally relative to SHAMS. Therefore, the abnormal ACTH responses to stress in B-PELLET rats were due to the lack of both circadian variations and stress-induced increases in corticosterone. Hypoxia was selected as a standardized stimulus for correlating brain [ 14 C]-2-deoxyglucose uptake with ACTH secretion. In intact rats, increases in plasma ACTH and decreases in arterial PO 2 correlated with the severity of hypoxia at arterial PCO 2 below 60 mm Hg. Hypoxia PELLET vs. SHAM rats. However, in preliminary experiments, although hypoxia increased brain 2-deoxyglucose uptake in most brain regions, plasma ACTH correlated poorly with 2-deoxyglucose uptake at 12% and 10% O 2

  17. Systematic development of new thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihara, E.G., E-mail: eduardo.yukihara@okstate.edu [Physics Department, 145 Physical Sciences II, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Milliken, E.D.; Oliveira, L.C. [Physics Department, 145 Physical Sciences II, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Orante-Barron, V.R. [Departamento de Investigacion en Polimeros y Materiales, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000, Mexico (Mexico); Jacobsohn, L.G. [Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies (COMSET), and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Blair, M.W. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents an overview of a systematic study to develop new thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) materials using solution combustion synthesis (SCS) for applications such as personal OSL dosimetry, 2D dose mapping, and temperature sensing. A discussion on the material requirements for these applications is included. We present X-ray diffraction (XRD) data on single phase materials obtained with SCS, as well as radioluminescence (RL), TL and OSL data of lanthanide-doped materials. The results demonstrate the possibility of producing TL and OSL materials with sensitivity similar to or approaching those of commercial TL and OSL materials used in dosimetry (e.g., LiF:Mg,Ti and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C) using SCS. The results also show that the luminescence properties can be improved by Li co-doping and annealing. The presence of an atypical TL background and anomalous fading are discussed and deserve attention in future investigations. We hope that these preliminary results on the use of SCS for production of TL and OSL materials are helpful to guide future efforts towards the development of new luminescence materials for different applications. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TL and OSL material produced with sensitivity similar to commercial materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Luminescence properties improved by Li co-doping and annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of atypical TL background and anomalous fading observed.

  18. Dissociation - a preliminary contextual model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Krüger

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM system has certain limitations when applied to two South African examples of dissociation, because it is descriptive (non-explanatory and focuses on intrapsychic (non-communal processes. Even the existing Western explanatory models of dissociation fail to accommodate fully the communal aspects of dissociation in our South African context. Objectives and methods. The aim was to explore an expanded perspective on dissociation that does not limit it to an intrapsychic phenomenon, but that accounts for the interrelatedness of individuals within their social context. Auto-ethnography was used. In this article a collective, socially orientated, contextual hermeneutic was applied to two local examples of dissociation. Three existing Western models were expanded along multicontextual, collective lines, for them to be more useful in the pluralistic South African context. Results. This preliminary contextual model of dissociation includes a person’s interpersonal, socio-cultural, and spiritual contexts, in addition to the intrapsychic context. Dissociation is considered to be a normal information-processing tool that maintains balanced, coherent selves-in-society, i.e. individuals connected to each other. In the South African context dissociation appears mostly as a normal phenomenon and seldom as a sign of mental illness. Dissociation is pivotal for the normal construction of individual and communal identities in the face of conflicting sets of information from various contexts. Dissociation may help individuals or communities to survive in a world of conflicting messages, where conflict is often interpersonal/cultural/societal in nature, rather than primarily intrapsychic. Conclusions. This model should be developed and evaluated further. Such evaluation would require suitable new local terminology.

  19. Surface EEG-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) Closed-Loop System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Carvalho, Sandra; Thibaut, Aurore; Doruk, Deniz; Chen, Chiun-Fan; Schachter, Steven C; Rotenberg, Alexander; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-09-01

    Conventional transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) protocols rely on applying electrical current at a fixed intensity and duration without using surrogate markers to direct the interventions. This has led to some mixed results; especially because tDCS induced effects may vary depending on the ongoing level of brain activity. Therefore, the objective of this preliminary study was to assess the feasibility of an EEG-triggered tDCS system based on EEG online analysis of its frequency bands. Six healthy volunteers were randomized to participate in a double-blind sham-controlled crossover design to receive a single session of 10[Formula: see text]min 2[Formula: see text]mA cathodal and sham tDCS. tDCS trigger controller was based upon an algorithm designed to detect an increase in the relative beta power of more than 200%, accompanied by a decrease of 50% or more in the relative alpha power, based on baseline EEG recordings. EEG-tDCS closed-loop-system was able to detect the predefined EEG magnitude deviation and successfully triggered the stimulation in all participants. This preliminary study represents a proof-of-concept for the development of an EEG-tDCS closed-loop system in humans. We discuss and review here different methods of closed loop system that can be considered and potential clinical applications of such system.

  20. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  1. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    Danner, Simon M.; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and more recently by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. ...

  2. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossöhmichen, Martin; Salcher, Rolf; Kreipe, Hans-Heinrich; Lenarz, Thomas; Maier, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia) in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW). Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP) fenestration (N = 10) as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH) with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9), SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8) and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10) were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs). Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL) using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL), being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL) and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL). Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  3. The Codacs™ direct acoustic cochlear implant actuator: exploring alternative stimulation sites and their stimulation efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Grossöhmichen

    Full Text Available This work assesses the efficiency of the Codacs system actuator (Cochlear Ltd., Sydney Australia in different inner ear stimulation modalities. Originally the actuator was intended for direct perilymph stimulation after stapedotomy using a piston prosthesis. A possible alternative application is the stimulation of middle ear structures or the round window (RW. Here the perilymph stimulation with a K-piston through a stapes footplate (SFP fenestration (N = 10 as well as stimulation of the stapes head (SH with a Bell prosthesis (N = 9, SFP stimulation with an Omega/Aerial prosthesis (N = 8 and reverse RW stimulation (N = 10 were performed in cadaveric human temporal bones (TBs. Codacs actuator output is expressed as equivalent sound pressure level (eq. SPL using RW and SFP displacement responses, measured by Laser Doppler velocimetry as reference. The axial actuator coupling force in stimulation of stapes and RW was adjusted to ~5 mN. The Bell prosthesis and Omega/Aerial prosthesis stimulation generated similar mean eq. SPLs (Bell: 127.5-141.8 eq. dB SPL; Omega/Aerial: 123.6-143.9 eq. dB SPL, being significantly more efficient than K-piston perilymph stimulation (108.6-131.6 eq. dB SPL and RW stimulation (108.3-128.2 eq. dB SPL. Our results demonstrate that SH, SFP and RW are adequate alternative stimulation sites for the Codacs actuator using coupling prostheses and an axial coupling force of ~5 mN. Based on the eq. SPLs, all investigated methods were adequate for in vivo hearing aid applications, provided that experimental conditions including constant coupling force will be implemented.

  4. Brain stimulation in posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Novakovic

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is a complex, heterogeneous disorder that develops following trauma and often includes perceptual, cognitive, affective, physiological, and psychological features. PTSD is characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive thoughts, exaggerated startle response, flashbacks, nightmares, sleep disturbances, emotional numbness, and persistent avoidance of trauma-associated stimuli. The efficacy of available treatments for PTSD may result in part from relief of associated depressive and anxiety-related symptoms in addition to treatment of core symptoms that derive from reexperiencing, numbing, and hyperarousal. Diverse, heterogeneous mechanisms of action and the ability to act broadly or very locally may enable brain stimulation devices to address PTSD core symptoms in more targeted ways. To achieve this goal, specific theoretical bases derived from novel, well-designed research protocols will be necessary. Brain stimulation devices include both long-used and new electrical and magnetic devices. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT and Cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES have both been in use for decades; transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, magnetic seizure therapy (MST, deep brain stimulation (DBS, transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS, and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS have been developed recently, over approximately the past twenty years. The efficacy of brain stimulation has been demonstrated as a treatment for psychiatric and neurological disorders such as anxiety (CES, depression (ECT, CES, rTMS, VNS, DBS, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD (DBS, essential tremor, dystonia (DBS, epilepsy (DBS, VNS, Parkinson Disease (DBS, pain (CES, and insomnia (CES. To date, limited data on brain stimulation for PTSD offer only modest guidance. ECT has shown some efficacy in reducing comorbid depression in PTSD patients but has not been demonstrated to improve most core PTSD symptoms. CES and VNS have shown some efficacy in

  5. Development of Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy: Stimulated Raman Gain via Elimination of Cross Phase Modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seung Min; Lee, Young Jong; Yu, Jong Wan; Kim, Seong Keun

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a new femtosecond probe technique by using stimulated Raman spectroscopy. The cross phase modulation in femtosecond time scale associated with off-resonant interaction was shown to be eliminated by integrating the transient gain/loss signal over the time delay between the Raman pump pulse and the continuum pulse. The stimulated Raman gain of neat cyclohexane was obtained to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Spectral and temporal widths of stimulated Raman spectra were controlled by using a narrow band pass filter. Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy was proposed as a highly useful probe in time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy

  6. Stimulating at the right time: phase-specific deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnan, Hayriye; Pedrosa, David; Little, Simon; Pogosyan, Alek; Cheeran, Binith; Aziz, Tipu; Green, Alexander; Fitzgerald, James; Foltynie, Thomas; Limousin, Patricia; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Friston, Karl J; Denison, Timothy; Brown, Peter

    2017-01-01

    SEE MOLL AND ENGEL DOI101093/AWW308 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Brain regions dynamically engage and disengage with one another to execute everyday actions from movement to decision making. Pathologies such as Parkinson's disease and tremor emerge when brain regions controlling movement cannot readily decouple, compromising motor function. Here, we propose a novel stimulation strategy that selectively regulates neural synchrony through phase-specific stimulation. We demonstrate for the first time the therapeutic potential of such a stimulation strategy for the treatment of patients with pathological tremor. Symptom suppression is achieved by delivering stimulation to the ventrolateral thalamus, timed according to the patient's tremor rhythm. Sustained locking of deep brain stimulation to a particular phase of tremor afforded clinically significant tremor relief (up to 87% tremor suppression) in selected patients with essential tremor despite delivering less than half the energy of conventional high frequency stimulation. Phase-specific stimulation efficacy depended on the resonant characteristics of the underlying tremor network. Selective regulation of neural synchrony through phase-locked stimulation has the potential to both increase the efficiency of therapy and to minimize stimulation-induced side effects. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  7. Stimulation of protein synthesis by internalized insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.S.; Sykes, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies showed that microinjected insulin stimulates transcription and translation in Stage 4 Xenopus oocytes by acting at nuclear and cytoplasmic sites. The present report is concerned with the question of whether hormone, internalized from an external medium, can act on those sites to alter cell function. Both intracellular accumulation of undegraded 125I-insulin and insulin-stimulated 35S-methionine incorporation into oocyte protein were measured. Anti-insulin antiserum and purified anti-insulin antibody were microinjected into the cytoplasm of insulin-exposed cells to determine if insulin derived from the medium acted through internal sites. In cells exposed for 2 h to 7 or 70 nM external insulin, methionine incorporation was stimulated, but intracellular hormone accumulation was minimal and microinjected antibody was without effect. In cells exposed for 24 h, methionine incorporation again increased, but now accumulation of undegraded, intracellular hormone was substantial (2.6 and 25.3 fmol with 7 and 70 nM, respectively), and microinjected anti-insulin antibody significantly reduced the insulin-stimulated component of incorporation; basal incorporation was not affected. For cells exposed to 70 nM insulin for 24 h, inhibition of the insulin-stimulated component was maximal at 39%. Thus under those conditions, about 40% of insulin's effects were mediated by the internal sites. Together, the data show that inhibition of insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by microinjected antibody was associated with the intracellular accumulation of insulin. They indicate that when oocytes are exposed to external insulin, hormone eventually gains access to intracellular sites of action and through these stimulates translation. Control of translation appears to be shared between the internal sites and the surface receptor

  8. The influence of non-linguistic factors on the usage of the pre-prefix in Bantu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühl, Karoline; Petzell, Malin

    2017-01-01

    and social factors, taking into account the situation of intense language contact between Luguru and the dominating language Swahili, where the pre-prefix is non-existent. Not much has been published on Luguru overall, and this is the first study of the pre-prefix. Moreover, it is, to our knowledge...

  9. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features: implications for mapping language recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  11. In vitro magnetic stimulation: a simple stimulation device to deliver defined low intensity electromagnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Grehl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive electromagnetic field brain stimulation (NIBS appears to benefit human neurological and psychiatric conditions, although the optimal stimulation parameters and underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Although in vitro studies have begun to elucidate cellular mechanisms, stimulation is delivered by a range of coils (from commercially available human stimulation coils to laboratory-built circuits so that the electromagnetic fields induced within the tissue to produce the reported effects are ill-defined.Here we develop a simple in vitro stimulation device with plug-and-play features that allow delivery of a range of stimulation parameters. We chose to test low intensity repetitive magnetic stimulation (LI-rMS delivered at 3 frequencies to hindbrain explant cultures containing the olivocerebellar pathway. We used computational modelling to define the parameters of a stimulation circuit and coil that deliver a unidirectional homogeneous magnetic field of known intensity and direction, and therefore a predictable electric field, to the target. We built the coil to be compatible with culture requirements: stimulation within an incubator; a flat surface allowing consistent position and magnetic field direction; location outside the culture plate to maintain sterility and no heating or vibration. Measurements at the explant confirmed the induced magnetic field was homogenous and matched the simulation results. To validate our system we investigated biological effects following LI-rMS at 1 Hz, 10 Hz and biomimetic high frequency (BHFS, which we have previously shown induces neural circuit reorganisation. We found that gene expression was modified by LI-rMS in a frequency-related manner. Four hours after a single 10-minute stimulation session, the number of c-fos positive cells increased, indicating that our stimulation activated the tissue. Also, after 14 days of LI-rMS, the expression of genes normally present in the tissue was differentially

  12. Births: preliminary data for 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Brady E; Martin, Joyce A; Ventura, Stephanie J

    2006-12-28

    This report presents preliminary data for 2005 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, live-birth order, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, cesarean delivery, preterm births, and low birthweight (LBW) are also presented. Data in this report are based on 99.2 percent of births for 2005. The records are weighted to independent control counts of all births received in state vital statistics offices in 2005. Comparisons are made with 2004 data. The crude birth rate in 2005 was 14.0 births per 1,000 total population, unchanged from 2004. The general fertility rate, however, rose to 66.7 births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years in 2005, the highest level since 1993. The birth rate for teenagers declined by 2 percent in 2005, falling to 40.4 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, the lowest ever recorded in the 65 years for which a consistent series of rates are available. The rate declined for teenagers 15-17 years to 21.4 births per 1,000, but was essentially stable for older teenagers 18-19 years. The birth rate for women aged 20-24 years rose in 2005, whereas the rate for women aged 25-29 years was essentially unchanged. The birth rates for women aged 30 years and over rose to levels not seen in almost 40 years. Childbearing by unmarried women increased to record levels for the Nation in 2005. The birth rate rose 3 percent to 47.6 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years; the proportion of all births to unmarried women increased to 36.8 percent. The cesarean delivery rate rose by 4 percent in 2005 to 30.2 percent of all births, another record high for the Nation. The preterm birth rate continued to rise (to 12.7 percent in 2005) as did the rate for LBW births (8.2 percent).

  13. Births: preliminary data for 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J A; Hamilton, B E; Ventura, S J

    2001-07-24

    This report presents preliminary data for 2000 on births in the United States. U.S. data on births are shown by age, race, and Hispanic origin of mother. Data on marital status, prenatal care, cesarean delivery, and low birthweight are also presented. Data in this report are based on more than 96 percent of births for 2000. The records are weighted to independent control counts of births received in State vital statistics offices in 2000. Comparisons are made with 1999 final data. The number of births rose 3 percent between 1999 and 2000. The crude birth rate increased to 14.8 per 1,000 population in 2000, 2 percent higher than the 1999 rate. The fertility rate rose 3 percent to 67.6 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years between 1999 and 2000. The birth rate for teenagers, which has been falling since 1991, declined 2 percent in 2000 to 48.7 births per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years, another historic low. The rate for teenagers 15-17 years fell 4 percent, and the rate for 18-19 year olds was down 1 percent. Since 1991, rates have fallen 29 percent for teenagers 15-17 years and 16 percent for teenagers 18-19 years. Birth rates for all of the older age groups increased for 1999-2000: 1 percent among women aged 20-24 years, 3 percent for women aged 25-29 years, and 5 percent for women in their thirties. Rates for women aged 40-54 years were also up for 2000. The birth rate for unmarried women increased 2 percent to 45.2 births per 1,000 unmarried women aged 15-44 years in 2000, but was still lower than the peak reached in 1994. The number of births to unmarried women was up 3 percent, the highest number ever reported in the United States. However, the number of births to unmarried teenagers declined. The proportion of women who began prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy (83.2 percent) did not improve for 2000, nor did the rate of low birthweight (7.6 percent). The total cesarean rate rose for the fourth consecutive year to 22.9 percent, the result of both a

  14. Appetite stimulants for people with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinuck, Ruth; Dewar, Jane; Baldwin, David R; Hendron, Elizabeth

    2014-07-27

    Chronic loss of appetite in cystic fibrosis concerns both individuals and families. Appetite stimulants have been used to help cystic fibrosis patients with chronic anorexia attain optimal body mass index and nutritional status. However, these may have adverse effects on clinical status. The aim of this review is to systematically search for and evaluate evidence on the beneficial effects of appetite stimulants in the management of CF-related anorexia and synthesize reports of any side-effects. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, handsearching reference lists and contacting local and international experts.Last search of online databases: 01 April 2014.Last search of the Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 08 April 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of appetite stimulants, compared to placebo or no treatment for at least one month in adults and children with cystic fibrosis. Authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias within eligible trials. Meta-analyses were performed. Three trials (total of 47 recruited patients) comparing appetite stimulants (cyproheptadine hydrochloride and megesterol acetate) to placebo were included; the numbers of adults or children within each trial were not always reported. The risk of bias of the included trials was graded as moderate.A meta-analysis of all three trials showed appetite stimulants produced a larger increase in weight z score at three months compared to placebo, mean difference 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.93) (P children, appetite stimulants improved only two of the outcomes in this review - weight (or weight z score) and appetite; and side effects were insufficiently reported to determine the full extent of their impact. Whilst the data may suggest the potential use of appetite stimulants in treating anorexia in adults and children with cystic fibrosis

  15. Stimulants for the control of hedonic appetite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sally Poulton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is treatment of obesity in relation to the management of hedonic appetite. Obesity is a complex condition which may be potentiated by excessive reward seeking in combination with executive functioning deficits that impair cognitive control of behaviour. Stimulant medications address both reward deficiency and enhance motivation, as well as suppressing appetite. They have long been recognised to be effective for treating obesity. However, stimulants can be abused for their euphoric effect. They induce euphoria via the same neural pathway that underlies their therapeutic effect in obesity. For this reason they have generally not been endorsed for use in obesity. Among the stimulants, only phentermine (either alone or in combination with topiramate and bupropion (which has stimulant-like properties and is used in combination with naltrexone, are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA for obesity, although dexamphetamine and methylpenidate are approved and widely used for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in adults and children. Experience gained over many years in the treatment of ADHD demonstrates that with careful dose titration, stimulants can be used safely. In obesity, improvement in mood and executive functioning could assist with the lifestyle changes necessary for weight control, acting synergistically with appetite suppression. The obesity crisis has reached the stage that strong consideration should be given to adequate utilisation of this effective and inexpensive class of drug.

  16. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Technological Advances in Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ughratdar, Ismail; Samuel, Michael; Ashkan, Keyoumars

    2015-01-01

    Functional and stereotactic neurosurgery has always been regarded as a subspecialty based on and driven by technological advances. However until recently, the fundamentals of deep brain stimulation (DBS) hardware and software design had largely remained stagnant since its inception almost three decades ago. Recent improved understanding of disease processes in movement disorders as well clinician and patient demands has resulted in new avenues of development for DBS technology. This review describes new advances both related to hardware and software for neuromodulation. New electrode designs with segmented contacts now enable sophisticated shaping and sculpting of the field of stimulation, potentially allowing multi-target stimulation and avoidance of side effects. To avoid lengthy programming sessions utilising multiple lead contacts, new user-friendly software allows for computational modelling and individualised directed programming. Therapy delivery is being improved with the next generation of smaller profile, longer-lasting, re-chargeable implantable pulse generators (IPGs). These include IPGs capable of delivering constant current stimulation or personalised closed-loop adaptive stimulation. Post-implantation Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has long been an issue which has been partially overcome with 'MRI conditional devices' and has enabled verification of DBS lead location. Surgical technique is considering a shift from frame-based to frameless stereotaxy or greater role for robot assisted implantation. The challenge for these contemporary techniques however, will be in demonstrating equivalent safety and accuracy to conventional methods. We also discuss potential future direction utilising wireless technology allowing for miniaturisation of hardware.

  18. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of

  19. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Kees J.; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J.; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H.

    2017-01-01

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study

  20. Trimodal nanoelectrode array for precise deep brain stimulation: prospects of a new technology based on carbon nanofiber arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Andrews, R J

    2007-01-01

    Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has recently been shown to be effective for neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease, there are many limitations of the current technology: the large size of current microelectrodes (approximately 1 mm diameter); the lack of monitoring of local brain electrical activity and neurotransmitters (e.g. dopamine in Parkinson's disease); the open-loop nature of the stimulation (i.e. not guided by brain electrochemical activity). Reducing the size of the monitoring and stimulating electrodes by orders of magnitude (to the size of neural elements) allows remarkable improvements in both monitoring (spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and sensitivity) and stimulation. Carbon nanofiber nanoelectrode technology offers the possibility of trimodal arrays (monitoring electrical activity, monitoring neurotransmitter levels, precise stimulation). DBS can then be guided by changes in brain electrical activity and/or neurotransmitter levels (i.e. closed-loop DBS). Here, we describe the basic manufacture and electrical characteristics of a prototype nanoelectrode array for DBS, as well as preliminary studies with electroconductive polymers necessary to optimize DBS in vivo. An approach such as the nanoelectrode array described here may offer a generic electrical-neural interface for use in various neural prostheses.

  1. Magnetic fields in noninvasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Dourado, Marcos; Conforto, Adriana Bastos; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Scaff, Milberto; Guilhoto, Laura Maria de Figueiredo Ferreira; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    The idea that magnetic fields could be used therapeutically arose 2000 years ago. These therapeutic possibilities were expanded after the discovery of electromagnetic induction by the Englishman Michael Faraday and the American Joseph Henry. In 1896, Arsène d'Arsonval reported his experience with noninvasive brain magnetic stimulation to the scientific French community. In the second half of the 20th century, changing magnetic fields emerged as a noninvasive tool to study the nervous system and to modulate neural function. In 1985, Barker, Jalinous, and Freeston presented transcranial magnetic stimulation, a relatively focal and painless technique. Transcranial magnetic stimulation has been proposed as a clinical neurophysiology tool and as a potential adjuvant treatment for psychiatric and neurologic conditions. This article aims to contextualize the progress of use of magnetic fields in the history of neuroscience and medical sciences, until 1985.

  2. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  3. Pathways of translation: deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Michael R; Greenberg, Alexandra J; Wahegaonkar, Abhijeet L; Lee, Kendall H

    2013-12-01

    Electrical stimulation of the brain has a 2000 year history. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), one form of neurostimulation, is a functional neurosurgical approach in which a high-frequency electrical current stimulates targeted brain structures for therapeutic benefit. It is an effective treatment for certain neuropathologic movement disorders and an emerging therapy for psychiatric conditions and epilepsy. Its translational journey did not follow the typical bench-to-bedside path, but rather reversed the process. The shift from ancient and medieval folkloric remedy to accepted medical practice began with independent discoveries about electricity during the 19th century and was fostered by technological advances of the 20th. In this paper, we review that journey and discuss how the quest to expand its applications and improve outcomes is taking DBS from the bedside back to the bench. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Stimulation of Managers in Regional Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Nikiforovich Belkin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the principles related to top managers work incentives were inherited from the planned economy that produces demotivation and opportunistic behaviour. Remuneration is a commercial secret and shall not be disclosed. The system of top managers’ stimulation is unbalanced and does not motivate them to achieve medium- and long-term goals of the company. The study pays great attention to the development of managers’ stimulation policies, the transparency of remuneration, correlation between pay and performance. We provide practical examples of foreign and national experience, showing the ability to ensure the transparency of remuneration of managers, and the relation between compensation and performance. These examples show that managers’ remuneration amount does not always correspond to the efficiency of enterprises and return on capital. To solve these problems, we offer to develop philosophy and policy for the stimulation of managers in enterprises. It will allow to find a balance between the interests of shareholders and managers. Furthermore, this philosophy will have a positive impact on the competitiveness of enterprises in a region. The policy of stimulating managers should include certain key areas. Firstly, it should ensure the competitiveness of managers’ remuneration. Secondly, it implies studying the motives of managers’ work and the integration of these motives in the development of incentive system for the managers. Thirdly, it should include an optimal combination of elements to stimulate labour: base salary, material and social remuneration, short and long-term remuneration, etc. And last, it should consider the indicators and norms of enterprise’s effectiveness as well as the assessment of working results of managers. The results of this research can be used for further study of the stimulation of managers’ work in Russian companies. They can also be used in practice for the analysis of labour incentives of

  5. Stimulating thought: a functional MRI study of transcranial direct current stimulation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Natasza D; O'Daly, Owen; Tracy, Derek K; Daniju, Yusuf; Hodsoll, John; Valdearenas, Lorena; Rothwell, John; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2017-09-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia typically suffer a range of cognitive deficits, including prominent deficits in working memory and executive function. These difficulties are strongly predictive of functional outcomes, but there is a paucity of effective therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. Transcranial direct current stimulation is a novel neuromodulatory technique with emerging evidence of potential pro-cognitive effects; however, there is limited understanding of its mechanism. This was a double-blind randomized sham controlled pilot study of transcranial direct current stimulation on a working memory (n-back) and executive function (Stroop) task in 28 individuals with schizophrenia using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Study participants received 30 min of real or sham transcranial direct current stimulation applied to the left frontal cortex. The 'real' and 'sham' groups did not differ in online working memory task performance, but the transcranial direct current stimulation group demonstrated significant improvement in performance at 24 h post-transcranial direct current stimulation. Transcranial direct current stimulation was associated with increased activation in the medial frontal cortex beneath the anode; showing a positive correlation with consolidated working memory performance 24 h post-stimulation. There was reduced activation in the left cerebellum in the transcranial direct current stimulation group, with no change in the middle frontal gyrus or parietal cortices. Improved performance on the executive function task was associated with reduced activity in the anterior cingulate cortex. Transcranial direct current stimulation modulated functional activation in local task-related regions, and in more distal nodes in the network. Transcranial direct current stimulation offers a potential novel approach to altering frontal cortical activity and exerting pro-cognitive effects in schizophrenia. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford

  6. Pudendal nerve stimulation and block by a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangning; Wang, Jicheng; Shen, Bing; Roppolo, James R; de Groat, William C; Tai, Changfeng

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to determine the functionality of a wireless-controlled implantable stimulator designed for stimulation and block of the pudendal nerve. In five cats under α-chloralose anesthesia, the stimulator was implanted underneath the skin on the left side in the lower back along the sacral spine. Two tripolar cuff electrodes were implanted bilaterally on the pudendal nerves in addition to one bipolar cuff electrode that was implanted on the left side central to the tripolar cuff electrode. The stimulator provided high-frequency (5-20 kHz) biphasic stimulation waveforms to the two tripolar electrodes and low-frequency (1-100 Hz) rectangular pulses to the bipolar electrode. Bladder and urethral pressures were measured to determine the effects of pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) or block. The maximal (70-100 cmH2O) urethral pressure generated by 20-Hz PNS applied via the bipolar electrode was completely eliminated by the pudendal nerve block induced by the high-frequency stimulation (6-15 kHz, 6-10 V) applied via the two tripolar electrodes. In a partially filled bladder, 20-30 Hz PNS (2-8 V, 0.2 ms) but not 5 Hz stimulation applied via the bipolar electrode elicited a large sustained bladder contraction (45.9 ± 13.4 to 52.0 ± 22 cmH2O). During cystometry, the 5 Hz PNS significantly (p < 0.05) increased bladder capacity to 176.5 ± 27.1% of control capacity. The wireless-controlled implantable stimulator successfully generated the required waveforms for stimulation and block of pudendal nerve, which will be useful for restoring bladder functions after spinal cord injury. © 2013 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. Neural dynamics during repetitive visual stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoneva, Tsvetomira; Garcia-Molina, Gary; Desain, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs), the brain responses to repetitive visual stimulation (RVS), are widely utilized in neuroscience. Their high signal-to-noise ratio and ability to entrain oscillatory brain activity are beneficial for their applications in brain-computer interfaces, investigation of neural processes underlying brain rhythmic activity (steady-state topography) and probing the causal role of brain rhythms in cognition and emotion. This paper aims at analyzing the space and time EEG dynamics in response to RVS at the frequency of stimulation and ongoing rhythms in the delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma bands. Approach.We used electroencephalography (EEG) to study the oscillatory brain dynamics during RVS at 10 frequencies in the gamma band (40-60 Hz). We collected an extensive EEG data set from 32 participants and analyzed the RVS evoked and induced responses in the time-frequency domain. Main results. Stable SSVEP over parieto-occipital sites was observed at each of the fundamental frequencies and their harmonics and sub-harmonics. Both the strength and the spatial propagation of the SSVEP response seem sensitive to stimulus frequency. The SSVEP was more localized around the parieto-occipital sites for higher frequencies (>54 Hz) and spread to fronto-central locations for lower frequencies. We observed a strong negative correlation between stimulation frequency and relative power change at that frequency, the first harmonic and the sub-harmonic components over occipital sites. Interestingly, over parietal sites for sub-harmonics a positive correlation of relative power change and stimulation frequency was found. A number of distinct patterns in delta (1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz) and beta (15-30 Hz) bands were also observed. The transient response, from 0 to about 300 ms after stimulation onset, was accompanied by increase in delta and theta power over fronto-central and occipital sites, which returned to baseline

  8. Low dose stimulation in foeniculum vulgare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahagirdar, H.A.; Khalatkar, A.W.; Dnyansagar, V.R.

    1974-01-01

    Genetically pure seeds with a moisture content of 12.5% were irradiated in a 60 Co γ-source at a dose rate of 1.1 KR/min, the radiation dose varying between 2 and 14 KR. Four days after irradiation the seeds were sown into the open field. Stimulation was determined on the basis of a lot of parameters e.g. height. The results indicated a significant stimulation after 10 KR as far as seed yield is concerned. (MG) [de

  9. Gender and injuries predict stimulant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Søren; Leckman, James F.; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article was to examine whether injuries in early childhood and gender predict prescriptions of stimulant medication in three groups of children: With attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and other psychiatric disorders (OPD...... follow-up of all cases. We found that the number of injuries prior to diagnosis was associated with initiation of stimulant treatment in all three groups of patients. In addition, male gender predicted treatment with ADHD medications. Our results suggest that the number of injuries early in life prior...

  10. A novel dual-wavelength laser stimulator to elicit transient and tonic nociceptive stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoxi; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Han; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Zhuying; Hu, Yong; Li, Yingxin

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a new laser stimulator to elicit both transient and sustained heat stimulation with a dual-wavelength laser system as a tool for the investigation of both transient and tonic experimental models of pain. The laser stimulator used a 980-nm pulsed laser to generate transient heat stimulation and a 1940-nm continuous-wave (CW) laser to provide sustained heat stimulation. The laser with 980-nm wavelength can elicit transient pain with less thermal injury, while the 1940-nm CW laser can effectively stimulate both superficial and deep nociceptors to elicit tonic pain. A proportional integral-derivative (PID) temperature feedback control system was implemented to ensure constancy of temperature during heat stimulation. The performance of this stimulator was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo animal experiments. In vitro experiments on totally 120 specimens fresh pig skin included transient heat stimulation by 980-nm laser (1.5 J, 10 ms), sustained heat stimulation by 1940-nm laser (50-55 °C temperature control mode or 1.5 W, 5 min continuous power supply), and the combination of transient/sustained heat stimulation by dual lasers (1.5 J, 10 ms, 980-nm pulse laser, and 1940-nm laser with 50-55 °C temperature control mode). Hemoglobin brushing and wind-cooling methods were tested to find better stimulation model. A classic tail-flick latency (TFL) experiment with 20 Wistar rats was used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of transient and tonic pain stimulation with 15 J, 100 ms 980-nm single laser pulse, and 1.5 W constant 1940-nm laser power. Ideal stimulation parameters to generate transient pain were found to be a 26.6 °C peak temperature rise and 0.67 s pain duration. In our model of tonic pain, 5 min of tonic stimulation produced a temperature change of 53.7 ± 1.3 °C with 1.6 ± 0.2% variation. When the transient and tonic stimulation protocols were combined, no significant difference was observed depending on the order

  11. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco LH

    2015-03-01

    plasticity. We also developed a finite element method (FEM model to predict current flow in the spinal cord when using different electrode montages. We identified gaps in our knowledge of noninvasive electrical stimulation in the modulation of spinal neuronal networks in patients with SCI. tsDCS, TENS, and NMES have a positive influence on the promotion of plasticity in SCI. Although there are no randomized controlled studies of tsDCS in SCI, preliminary evidence is encouraging. FEMs predict that tsDCS electrode montage can be used to shape which spinal segments are modulated and what detailed areas of spinal anatomy can concentrate current density (eg, spinal roots. tsDCS is a technique that can influence conduction along ascending tracts in the spinal cord, so could modulate supraspinal activity. It may also be a promising new approach for a number of neuropsychiatric conditions.Keywords: spinal cord injury, transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation, transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, motor, spasticity, pain

  12. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Treatment in Enduring Anorexia Nervosa: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Campbell, Iain C; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-03-01

    This case series examined the therapeutic potential of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in five women with enduring anorexia nervosa. Participants received ~20 sessions of neuronavigated high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Body mass index, eating disorder (ED) symptoms and mood were assessed pre-treatment and post-treatment, at 6-month and 12-month follow-up (FU). Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was obtained from participants and carers. From pre-treatment to post-treatment, ED and affective symptoms improved significantly, and body mass index remained stable. Further improvements in ED symptoms/mood were seen at 6-month FU with 3/5 and 2/5 participants deemed 'recovered' on the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, respectively. However, most participants had lost some weight, and therapeutic effects on psychopathology had waned by 12-month FU. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was encouraging. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation was well tolerated, and preliminary evidence is provided for its therapeutic potential in anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  13. Upper limb stroke rehabilitation: the effectiveness of Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning (SAIL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadmore, Katie L; Cai, Zhonglun; Tong, Daisy; Hughes, Ann-Marie; Freeman, Chris T; Rogers, Eric; Burridge, Jane H

    2011-01-01

    A novel system has been developed which combines robotic therapy with electrical stimulation (ES) for upper limb stroke rehabilitation. This technology, termed SAIL: Stimulation Assistance through Iterative Learning, employs advanced model-based iterative learning control (ILC) algorithms to precisely assist participant's completion of 3D tracking tasks with their impaired arm. Data is reported from a preliminary study with unimpaired participants, and also from a single hemiparetic stroke participant with reduced upper limb function who has used the system in a clinical trial. All participants completed tasks which involved moving their (impaired) arm to follow an image of a slowing moving sphere along a trajectory. The participants' arm was supported by a robot and ES was applied to the triceps brachii and anterior deltoid muscles. During each task, the same tracking trajectory was repeated 6 times and ILC was used to compute the stimulation signals to be applied on the next iteration. Unimpaired participants took part in a single, one hour training session and the stroke participant undertook 18, 1 hour treatment sessions composed of tracking tasks varying in length, orientation and speed. The results reported describe changes in tracking ability and demonstrate feasibility of the SAIL system for upper limb rehabilitation. © 2011 IEEE

  14. Slow oscillating transcranial direct current stimulation during sleep has a sleep-stabilizing effect in chronic insomnia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saebipour, Mohammad R; Joghataei, Mohammad T; Yoonessi, Ali; Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Khalighinejad, Nima; Khademi, Soroush

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lack of slow-wave activity may play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of insomnia. Pharmacological approaches and brain stimulation techniques have recently offered solutions for increasing slow-wave activity during sleep. We used slow (0.75 Hz) oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation during stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleeping insomnia patients for resonating their brain waves to the frequency of sleep slow-wave. Six patients diagnosed with either sleep maintenance or non-restorative sleep insomnia entered the study. After 1 night of adaptation and 1 night of baseline polysomnography, patients randomly received sham or real stimulation on the third and fourth night of the experiment. Our preliminary results show that after termination of stimulations (sham or real), slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation increased the duration of stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 33 ± 26 min (P = 0.026), and decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep duration by 22 ± 17.7 min (P = 0.028), compared with sham. Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased stage 1 of non-rapid eye movement sleep and wake time after sleep-onset durations, together, by 55.4 ± 51 min (P = 0.045). Slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation also increased sleep efficiency by 9 ± 7% (P = 0.026), and probability of transition from stage 2 to stage 3 of non-rapid eye movement sleep by 20 ± 17.8% (P = 0.04). Meanwhile, slow oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation decreased transitions from stage 2 of non-rapid eye movement sleep to wake by 12 ± 6.7% (P = 0.007). Our preliminary results suggest a sleep-stabilizing role for the intervention, which may mimic the effect of sleep slow-wave-enhancing drugs. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  15. Modulating Hippocampal Plasticity with In Vivo Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    wires were left unhooked from stimulation device. Following stimulation , the animals were returned to their homecage until time of euthanasia and...current stimulation (tDCS) to enhance cognitive training: effect of timing of stimulation . Exp Brain Res 232:3345-3351. 15 DISTRIBUTION...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2016-0082 MODULATING HIPPOCAMPAL PLASTICITY WITH IN-VIVO BRAIN STIMULATION Joyce G. Rohan Oakridge Institute

  16. An Implantable Mixed Analog/Digital Neural Stimulator Circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudnason, Gunnar; Bruun, Erik; Haugland, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a chip for a multichannel neural stimulator for functional electrical stimulation. The chip performs all the signal processing required in an implanted neural stimulator. The power and signal transmission to the stimulator is carried out via an inductive link. From the signals...... electrical stimulation is to restore various bodily functions (e.g. motor functions) in patients who have lost them due to injury or disease....

  17. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  18. Preliminary I&C Design for LORELEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkin, S.; Kaufman, Y.; Guttmann, E. B.; Levy, S.; Amidan, D.; Gdalyho, B.; Cahana, T.; Ellenbogen, A.; Arad, M.; Weiss, Y.; Sasson, A.; Ferry, L.; Bourrelly, F.; Cohen, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary I&C design for LORELEI experiment The preliminary design deals with considerations regarding appropriate safety and service instrumentation. The determined closed loop control rules for temperature and position will be implemented in the detailed design. The Computer Aided Operator Decisions System (CAODS) will be used for prediction of hot spot temperature and thickness of oxidation layer using Baker-Just correlation. The proposed hybrid simulation system comprising of both virtual and real hardware will be in-cooperated for LORELEI verification. It will perform both integration cold tests for a partial hardware loop and virtual tests for the final I&C design

  19. Optimal number of stimulation contacts for coordinated reset neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysyansky, Borys; Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this computational study we investigate coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation designed for an effective control of synchronization by multi-site stimulation of neuronal target populations. This method was suggested to effectively counteract pathological neuronal synchrony characteristic for several neurological disorders. We study how many stimulation sites are required for optimal CR-induced desynchronization. We found that a moderate increase of the number of stimulation sites may significantly prolong the post-stimulation desynchronized transient after the stimulation is completely switched off. This can, in turn, reduce the amount of the administered stimulation current for the intermittent ON–OFF CR stimulation protocol, where time intervals with stimulation ON are recurrently followed by time intervals with stimulation OFF. In addition, we found that the optimal number of stimulation sites essentially depends on how strongly the administered current decays within the neuronal tissue with increasing distance from the stimulation site. In particular, for a broad spatial stimulation profile, i.e., for a weak spatial decay rate of the stimulation current, CR stimulation can optimally be delivered via a small number of stimulation sites. Our findings may contribute to an optimization of therapeutic applications of CR neuromodulation. PMID:23885239

  20. Effects of stimulation parameters and electrode location on thresholds for epidural stimulation of cat motor cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsarnpigoon, Amorn; Grill, Warren M.

    2011-12-01

    Epidural electrical stimulation (ECS) of the motor cortex is a developing therapy for neurological disorders. Both placement and programming of ECS systems may affect the therapeutic outcome, but the treatment parameters that will maximize therapeutic outcomes and minimize side effects are not known. We delivered ECS to the motor cortex of anesthetized cats and investigated the effects of electrode placement and stimulation parameters on thresholds for evoking motor responses in the contralateral forelimb. Thresholds were inversely related to stimulation frequency and the number of pulses per stimulus train. Thresholds were lower over the forelimb representation in motor cortex (primary site) than surrounding sites (secondary sites), and thresholds at sites 4 mm away. Electrode location and montage influenced the effects of polarity on thresholds: monopolar anodic and cathodic thresholds were not significantly different over the primary site, cathodic thresholds were significantly lower than anodic thresholds over secondary sites and bipolar thresholds were significantly lower with the anode over the primary site than with the cathode over the primary site. A majority of bipolar thresholds were either between or equal to the respective monopolar thresholds, but several bipolar thresholds were greater than or less than the monopolar thresholds of both the anode and cathode. During bipolar stimulation, thresholds were influenced by both electric field superposition and indirect, synaptically mediated interactions. These results demonstrate the influence of stimulation parameters and electrode location during cortical stimulation, and these effects should be considered during the programming of systems for therapeutic cortical stimulation.

  1. Higher-order power harmonics of pulsed electrical stimulation modulates corticospinal contribution of peripheral nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiun-Fan; Bikson, Marom; Chou, Li-Wei; Shan, Chunlei; Khadka, Niranjan; Chen, Wen-Shiang; Fregni, Felipe

    2017-03-03

    It is well established that electrical-stimulation frequency is crucial to determining the scale of induced neuromodulation, particularly when attempting to modulate corticospinal excitability. However, the modulatory effects of stimulation frequency are not only determined by its absolute value but also by other parameters such as power at harmonics. The stimulus pulse shape further influences parameters such as excitation threshold and fiber selectivity. The explicit role of the power in these harmonics in determining the outcome of stimulation has not previously been analyzed. In this study, we adopted an animal model of peripheral electrical stimulation that includes an amplitude-adapted pulse train which induces force enhancements with a corticospinal contribution. We report that the electrical-stimulation-induced force enhancements were correlated with the amplitude of stimulation power harmonics during the amplitude-adapted pulse train. In an exploratory analysis, different levels of correlation were observed between force enhancement and power harmonics of 20-80 Hz (r = 0.4247, p = 0.0243), 100-180 Hz (r = 0.5894, p = 0.0001), 200-280 Hz (r = 0.7002, p harmonics. This is a pilot, but important first demonstration that power at high order harmonics in the frequency spectrum of electrical stimulation pulses may contribute to neuromodulation, thus warrant explicit attention in therapy design and analysis.

  2. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractStrategically aligned behaviour (SAB), i.e., employee action that is consistent with the company’s strategy, is of vital importance to companies. This study provides insights into the way managers can promote such behaviour among employees by stimulating employee motivation and by

  3. Stimulated Deep Neural Network for Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-08

    similarities. As illustrated in Figure 1(b), the network grid behaves as a smooth surface on each layer of a stimulated DNN. The nearby nodes in the...for HTK version 3.5),” 2015. [19] S. Tranter, M. Gales, R. Sinha, S. Umesh, and P. Woodland, “The development of the Cambridge University RT-04

  4. Aromatase inhibitors in stimulated IVF cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tournaye Herman

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aromatase inhibitors have been introduced as a new treatment modality that could challenge clomiphene citrate as an ovulation induction regiment in patients with PCOS. Although several randomized trials have been conducted regarding their use as ovulation induction agents, only few trials are available regarding their efficacy in IVF stimulated cycles. Current available evidence support that letrozole may have a promising role in stimulated IVF cycles, either when administered during the follicular phase for ovarian stimulation. Especially for women with poor ovarian response, letrozole appears to have the potential to increase clinical pregnancy rates when combined with gonadotropins, whereas at the same time reduces the total gonadotropin dose required for ovarian stimulation. However, given that in all of the trials letrozole has been administered in GnRH antagonist cycles, it is intriguing to test in the future how it may perform when used in GnRH agonist cycles. Finally administration of letrozole during luteal phase in IVF cycles offers another treatment modality for patients at high risk for OHSS taking into account that it drastically reduces estradiol levels

  5. STIMULATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR DEEP WELL COMPLETIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Wolhart

    2003-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring a Deep Trek Program targeted at improving the economics of drilling and completing deep gas wells. Under the DOE program, Pinnacle Technologies is conducting a project to evaluate the stimulation of deep wells. The objective of the project is to assess U.S. deep well drilling & stimulation activity, review rock mechanics & fracture growth in deep, high pressure/temperature wells and evaluate stimulation technology in several key deep plays. Phase 1 was recently completed and consisted of assessing deep gas well drilling activity (1995-2007) and an industry survey on deep gas well stimulation practices by region. Of the 29,000 oil, gas and dry holes drilled in 2002, about 300 were drilled in the deep well; 25% were dry, 50% were high temperature/high pressure completions and 25% were simply deep completions. South Texas has about 30% of these wells, Oklahoma 20%, Gulf of Mexico Shelf 15% and the Gulf Coast about 15%. The Rockies represent only 2% of deep drilling. Of the 60 operators who drill deep and HTHP wells, the top 20 drill almost 80% of the wells. Six operators drill half the U.S. deep wells. Deep drilling peaked at 425 wells in 1998 and fell to 250 in 1999. Drilling is expected to rise through 2004 after which drilling should cycle down as overall drilling declines.

  6. Computer Games Functioning as Motivation Stimulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin; Tsai, Tony Kung Wan; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have recommended computer games can function as influential motivation stimulants of English learning, showing benefits as learning tools (Clarke and Dede, 2007; Dede, 2009; Klopfer and Squire, 2009; Liu and Chu, 2010; Mitchell, Dede & Dunleavy, 2009). This study aimed to further test and verify the above suggestion,…

  7. Ipsilateral masking between acoustic and electric stimulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Payton; Turner, Christopher W; Gantz, Bruce J; Djalilian, Hamid R; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2011-08-01

    Residual acoustic hearing can be preserved in the same ear following cochlear implantation with minimally traumatic surgical techniques and short-electrode arrays. The combined electric-acoustic stimulation significantly improves cochlear implant performance, particularly speech recognition in noise. The present study measures simultaneous masking by electric pulses on acoustic pure tones, or vice versa, to investigate electric-acoustic interactions and their underlying psychophysical mechanisms. Six subjects, with acoustic hearing preserved at low frequencies in their implanted ear, participated in the study. One subject had a fully inserted 24 mm Nucleus Freedom array and five subjects had Iowa/Nucleus hybrid implants that were only 10 mm in length. Electric masking data of the long-electrode subject showed that stimulation from the most apical electrodes produced threshold elevations over 10 dB for 500, 625, and 750 Hz probe tones, but no elevation for 125 and 250 Hz tones. On the contrary, electric stimulation did not produce any electric masking in the short-electrode subjects. In the acoustic masking experiment, 125-750 Hz pure tones were used to acoustically mask electric stimulation. The acoustic masking results showed that, independent of pure tone frequency, both long- and short-electrode subjects showed threshold elevations at apical and basal electrodes. The present results can be interpreted in terms of underlying physiological mechanisms related to either place-dependent peripheral masking or place-independent central masking.

  8. Stimulating Strategically Aligned Behaviour Among Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B.M. van Riel (Cees); G.A.J.M. Berens (Guido); M. Dijkstra (Majorie)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn recent years it has become increasingly important for companies to ensure strategically aligned behaviour, i.e., employee actions that are consistent with the company’s strategy. This study provides insights into the way companies can stimulate such behaviour through motivating and

  9. Causal Measurement Models: Can Criticism Stimulate Clarification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    In their 2016 work, Aguirre-Urreta et al. provided a contribution to the literature on causal measurement models that enhances clarity and stimulates further thinking. Aguirre-Urreta et al. presented a form of statistical identity involving mapping onto the portion of the parameter space involving the nomological net, relationships between the…

  10. Stimulated secondary emission from semiconductor microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, John Erland; Mizeikis, V.; Langbein, Wolfgang Werner

    2001-01-01

    We find strong influence of final-state stimulation on the time-resolved light emission dynamics from semiconductor microcavities after pulsed excitation allowing angle-resonant polariton-polariton scattering on the lower-polariton branch. The polariton dynamics can be controlled by injection...

  11. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... g., to help study or boost grades in school; see box). Stimulant ADHD Medications • January 2014 • Page 1 Because they may ... taken by people who do not actually have ADHD. Also, research has shown that ... have lower GPAs in high school and college than those who don’t. How ...

  12. Novel transcranial magnetic stimulation coil for mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Stephen; Stark, Spencer; Crowther, Lawrence; Hadimani, Ravi; Jiles, David

    2014-03-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) shows potential for non-invasive treatment of various neurological disorders. Significant work has been performed on the design of coils used for TMS on human subjects but few reports have been made on the design of coils for use on the brains of animals such as mice. This work is needed as TMS studies utilizing mice can allow rapid preclinical development of TMS for human disorders but the coil designs developed for use on humans are inadequate for optimal stimulation of the much smaller mouse brain. A novel TMS coil has been developed with the goal of inducing strong and focused electric fields for the stimulation of small animals such as mice. Calculations of induced electric fields were performed utilizing an MRI derived inhomogeneous model of an adult male mouse. Mechanical and thermal analysis of this new TMS helmet-coil design have also been performed at anticipated TMS operating conditions to ensure mechanical stability of the new coil and establish expected linear attraction and rotational force values. Calculated temperature increases for typical stimulation periods indicate the helmet-coil system is capable of operating within established medical standards. A prototype of the coil has been fabricated and characterization results are presented.

  13. Galvanic vestibular stimulation speeds visual memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David; Nicholls, Sophie; Pattenden, Charlotte; Kilduff, Patrick; Milberg, William

    2008-08-01

    The experiments of Alessandro Volta were amongst the first to indicate that visuo-spatial function can be altered by stimulating the vestibular nerves with galvanic current. Until recently, the beneficial effects of the procedure were masked by the high levels of electrical current applied, which induced nystagmus-related gaze deviation and spatial disorientation. However, several neuropsychological studies have shown that much weaker, imperceptible currents that do not elicit unpleasant side-effects can help overcome visual loss after stroke. Here, we show that visual processing in neurologically healthy individuals can also benefit from galvanic vestibular stimulation. Participants first learnt the names of eight unfamiliar faces and then after a short delay, answered questions from memory about how pairs of these faces differed. Mean correct reaction times were significantly shorter when sub-sensory, noise-enhanced anodal stimulation was administered to the left mastoid, compared to when no stimulation was administered at all. This advantage occurred with no loss in response accuracy, and raises the possibility that the procedure may constitute a more general form of cognitive enhancement.

  14. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  15. Targeted transtracheal stimulation for vocal fold closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Thompson, Paul; Kolb, Ilya; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2014-06-01

    Paralysis of the structures in the head and neck due to stroke or other neurological disorder often causes dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing). Patients with dysphagia have a significantly higher incidence of aspiration pneumonia and death. The recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN), which innervates the intrinsic laryngeal muscles that control the vocal folds, travels superiorly in parallel to the trachea in the tracheoesophageal groove. This study tests the hypothesis that functional electrical stimulation (FES) applied via transtracheal electrodes can produce controlled vocal fold adduction. Bipolar electrodes were placed at 15° intervals around the interior mucosal surface of the canine trachea, and current was applied to the tissue while electromyography (EMG) from the intrinsic laryngeal muscles and vocal fold movement visualization via laryngoscopy were recorded. The lowest EMG thresholds were found at an average location of 100° to the left of the ventral midsagittal line and 128° to the right. A rotatable pair of bipolar electrodes spaced 230° apart were able to stimulate bilaterally both RLNs in every subject. Laryngoscopy showed complete glottal closure with transtracheal stimulation in six of the eight subjects, and this closure was maintained under simultaneous FES-induced laryngeal elevation. Transtracheal stimulation is an effective tool for minimally invasive application of FES to induce vocal fold adduction, providing an alternative mechanism to study airway protection.

  16. Human transient response under local thermal stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body can operate physiological thermoregulation system when it is exposed to cold or hot environment. Whether it can do the same work when a local part of body is stimulated by different temperatures? The objective of this paper is to prove it. Twelve subjects are recruited to participate in this experiment. After stabilizing in a comfort environment, their palms are stimulated by a pouch of 39, 36, 33, 30, and 27°C. Subject’s skin temperature, heart rate, heat flux of skin, and thermal sensation are recorded. The results indicate that when local part is suffering from harsh temperature, the whole body is doing physiological thermoregulation. Besides, when the local part is stimulated by high temperature and its thermal sensation is warm, the thermal sensation of whole body can be neutral. What is more, human body is more sensitive to cool stimulation than to warm one. The conclusions are significant to reveal and make full use of physiological thermoregulation.

  17. Effects of Vibrotactile Stimulation During Virtual Sandboarding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Stine; Thomsen, Lui; Egebjerg, Mie

    2016-01-01

    This poster details a within-subjects study (n=17) investigating the effects of vibrotactile stimulation on illusory self-motion, presence and perceived realism during an interactive sandboarding simulation. Vibrotactile feedback was delivered using a low frequency audio transducer mounted undern...

  18. A level stimulator programmed for audiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard

    1976-02-01

    This stimulator has been designed for automated audiometric experiments on lemurians. The variations of the transmission level are programmed on punched tape whose reading is controlled by an audiofrequency attenuator. The positive answers of the animal are stored in a seven-counter memory and the results are read by display [fr

  19. Metallic taste from electrical and chemical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, Harry T; Stevens, David A; Chapman, Kathryn W; Kurtz, Anne

    2005-03-01

    A series of three experiments investigated the nature of metallic taste reports after stimulation with solutions of metal salts and after stimulation with metals and electric currents. To stimulate with electricity, a device was fabricated consisting of a small battery affixed to a plastic handle with the anode side exposed for placement on the tongue or oral tissues. Intensity of taste from metals and batteries was dependent upon the voltage and was more robust in areas dense in fungiform papillae. Metallic taste was reported from stimulation with ferrous sulfate solutions, from metals and from electric stimuli. However, reports of metallic taste were more frequent when the word 'metallic' was presented embedded in a list of choices, as opposed to simple free-choice labeling. Intensity decreased for ferrous sulfate when the nose was occluded, consistent with a decrease in retronasal smell, as previously reported. Intensity of taste evoked by copper metal, bimetallic stimuli (zinc/copper) or small batteries (1.5-3 V) was not affected by nasal occlusion. This difference suggests two distinct mechanisms for evocation of metallic taste reports, one dependent upon retronasal smell and a second mediated by oral chemoreceptors.

  20. Stimulating the senses with multi-media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, H.; Majohr, N.; Staude, F.; Haferburg, M.; Foerster, K.

    1995-01-01

    Difficult subjects have always been better taught by example, demonstration and repetition than simply through book learning. Multi-media computer systems deliver these through learning programs which combine text, video, animation, graphics and sound to stimulate and motivate students. (author)

  1. Investigating Tactile Stimulation in Symbiotic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orso, Valeria; Mazza, Renato; Gamberini, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    The core characteristics of tactile stimuli, i.e., recognition reliability and tolerance to ambient interference, make them an ideal candidate to be integrated into a symbiotic system. The selection of the appropriate stimulation is indeed important in order not to hinder the interaction from...

  2. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Bone Mineral Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nicolien A; Noordam, Raymond; van Klinken, Jan B

    2018-01-01

    With population aging, prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) and associated fracture risk are increased. To determine whether low circulating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels within the normal range are causally related to BMD, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR...

  3. Stimulating Cultural Appetites: An Experiential Gourmet Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Carolyn I.; Hu Poirier, Vickie

    2007-01-01

    This article is an extension of a presentation that won "Best Exercise" at the Eastern Academy of Management, 1998. The authors introduce an experiential gourmet approach using "food stories" to stimulate an aura of acceptance and appreciation for human commonalities before delving into human differences. The authors use a semester long…

  4. Ultrasound stimulation of mandibular bone defect healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, Jurjen

    2004-01-01

    The conclusions of the experimental work presented in this thesis are: 1. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound is not effective in stimulating bone growth into a rat mandibular defect, either with or without the use of osteoconductive membranes. 2. Low intensity pulsed ultrasound does not seem to have an

  5. Evaluation of intradural stimulation efficiency and selectivity in a computational model of spinal cord stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Howell

    Full Text Available Spinal cord stimulation (SCS is an alternative or adjunct therapy to treat chronic pain, a prevalent and clinically challenging condition. Although SCS has substantial clinical success, the therapy is still prone to failures, including lead breakage, lead migration, and poor pain relief. The goal of this study was to develop a computational model of SCS and use the model to compare activation of neural elements during intradural and extradural electrode placement. We constructed five patient-specific models of SCS. Stimulation thresholds predicted by the model were compared to stimulation thresholds measured intraoperatively, and we used these models to quantify the efficiency and selectivity of intradural and extradural SCS. Intradural placement dramatically increased stimulation efficiency and reduced the power required to stimulate the dorsal columns by more than 90%. Intradural placement also increased selectivity, allowing activation of a greater proportion of dorsal column fibers before spread of activation to dorsal root fibers, as well as more selective activation of individual dermatomes at different lateral deviations from the midline. Further, the results suggest that current electrode designs used for extradural SCS are not optimal for intradural SCS, and a novel azimuthal tripolar design increased stimulation selectivity, even beyond that achieved with an intradural paddle array. Increased stimulation efficiency is expected to increase the battery life of implantable pulse generators, increase the recharge interval of rechargeable implantable pulse generators, and potentially reduce stimulator volume. The greater selectivity of intradural stimulation may improve the success rate of SCS by mitigating the sensitivity of pain relief to malpositioning of the electrode. The outcome of this effort is a better quantitative understanding of how intradural electrode placement can potentially increase the selectivity and efficiency of SCS

  6. Mechanism of orientation of stimulating currents in magnetic brain stimulation (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, S.; Matsuda, T.

    1991-04-01

    We made a functional map of the human motor cortex related to the hand and foot areas by stimulating the human brain with a focused magnetic pulse. We observed that each functional area in the cortex has an optimum direction for which stimulating currents can produce neural excitation. The present report focuses on the mechanism which is responsible for producing this anisotropic response to brain stimulation. We first obtained a functional map of the brain related to the left ADM (abductor digiti minimi muscles). When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the left to the right hemisphere, clear EMG (electromyographic) responses were obtained only from the left ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. When the stimulating currents were aligned in the direction from the right to the left hemisphere, clear EMG signals were obtained only from the right ADM to magnetic stimulation of both hemisphere. The functional maps of the brain were sensitive to changes in the direction of the stimulating currents. To explain the phenomena obtained in the experiments, we developed a model of neural excitation elicited by magnetic stimulation. When eddy currents which are induced by pulsed magnetic fields flow in the direction from soma to the distal part of neural fiber, depolarized area in the distal part are excited, and the membrane excitation propagates along the nerve fiber. In contrast, when the induced currents flow in the direction from the distal part to soma, hyperpolarized parts block or inhibit neural excitation even if the depolarized parts near the soma can be excited. The model explains our observation that the orientation of the induced current vectors reflect both the functional and anatomical organization of the neural fibers in the brain.

  7. Well screening for matrix stimulation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, N; Solano, R; Gidley, J; Reyes, C.A; Rodriguez; Kondo, F; Hernandez, J

    1998-01-01

    Matrix acidizing is a stimulation technique only applicable to wells with surrounding damage. It is therefore very important to differentiate the real formation damage from the damage caused by flow Ni dynamic effects. The mechanical damage corresponds to flow restrictions caused by partial penetration, poor perforation as well as to reduce diameters of the production tubing. The dynamic effects are generated by inertia caused by high flow rates and high-pressure differentials. A common practice in our oil fields is to use a general formulation as acid treatment, most of the times without previous lab studies that guarantee the applicability of the treatment in the formation. Additionally, stimulation is randomly applied even treating undamaged wells with negative results and in the best of the cases, loss of the treatment. The selection of the well for matrix stimulation is an essential factor for the success of the treatment. Selection is done through the evaluation of the skin factor (S) and of the economic benefits of reducing the skin in comparison to the cost of the work. The most appropriate tool for skin evaluation is a good pressure test where the radial flow period can be identified. Nevertheless, we normally find-outdated tests most of the times taken with inaccurate tools. The interpretation problem is worsened by completions in which there is simultaneous production from several sand packages and it is difficult to individually differentiate damage factors. This works states a procedure for the selection of wells appropriate for stimulation; it also proposes a method to evaluate the skin factor when there are no accurate interpretations of the pressure tests. A new and increasingly applied methodology to treat wells with high water cuts, which are usually discarded due to the risk of stimulating water zones, is also mentioned

  8. Proinflammatory mediators stimulate neutrophil-directed angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCourt, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF; vascular permeability factor) is one of the most potent proangiogenic cytokines, and it plays a central role in mediating the process of angiogenesis or new blood vessel formation. Neutrophils (PMNs) recently have been shown to produce VEGF. HYPOTHESIS: The acute inflammatory response is a potent stimulus for PMN-directed angiogenesis. METHODS: Neutrophils were isolated from healthy volunteers and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and anti-human Fas monoclonal antibody. Culture supernatants were assayed for VEGF using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs were then added to human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvessel endothelial cells and assessed for endothelial cell proliferation using 5-bromodeoxyuridine labeling. Tubule formation was also assessed on MATRIGEL basement membrane matrix. Neutrophils were lysed to measure total VEGF release, and VEGF expression was detected using Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-alpha stimulation resulted in significantly increased release of PMN VEGF (532+\\/-49 and 484+\\/-80 pg\\/mL, respectively; for all, presented as mean +\\/- SEM) compared with control experiments (32+\\/-4 pg\\/mL). Interleukin 6 and Fas had no effect. Culture supernatants from LPS- and TNF-alpha-stimulated PMNs also resulted in significant increases (P<.005) in macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cell proliferation and tubule formation. Adding anti-human VEGF-neutralizing polyclonal antibody to stimulated PMN supernatant inhibited these effects. Total VEGF release following cell lysis and Western blot analysis suggests that the VEGF is released from an intracellular store. CONCLUSION: Activated human PMNs are directly angiogenic by releasing VEGF, and this has important implications for inflammation, capillary leak syndrome

  9. Preliminary Validation of Composite Material Constitutive Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    John G. Michopoulos; Athanasios lliopoulos; John C. Hermanson; Adrian C. Orifici; Rodney S. Thomson

    2012-01-01

    This paper is describing the preliminary results of an effort to validate a methodology developed for composite material constitutive characterization. This methodology involves using massive amounts of data produced from multiaxially tested coupons via a 6-DoF robotic system called NRL66.3 developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. The testing is followed by...

  10. Phytochemical Screening and Preliminary Evaluation of Analgesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the methanolic root extract of Cissus polyantha was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening, analgesic and anti-inflammatory studies. Phytochemical studies was carried out using standard phytochemical protocol while the analgesic studies was carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing tests in ...

  11. French 900 MWe PWR PSA preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanore, J.M.; Brisbois, J.

    1988-10-01

    A PSA is performed by the Safety Assessment Department of CEA for a 900 MWe standardized plant. The paper presents the objectives, the scope of the study and the relative preliminary results. Some general insights are drawn, especially the benefit related to the implementation of emergency procedures

  12. Original Article PRELIMINARY BIOAUTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sierra Leone 2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, ... the seeds are used in the treatment of skin infections. ... Screening with DPPH showed prominent antioxidant spots on silica at Rf 0.8, 0.5, 0.4 .... underpins conditions like rheumatoid arthritis, ..... As a follow-up to the preliminary TLC studies.

  13. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    Preliminary radiation shielding specifications are presented here for the 3 GeV BOOMERANG Australian synchrotron light source project. At this time the bulk shield walls for the storage ring and injection system (100 MeV Linac and 3 GeV Booster) are considered for siting purposes

  14. Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Resumption Of Sexual Relationship After Childbirth: Preliminary Observations On Husband\\'s Attitude. ... An open-ended questionnaire developed by the authors was used to elicit information on relevant aspects of husbands' reproductive behaviour. We found that husbands' preferred time of resumption of sexual ...

  15. Preliminary failure mode and effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, J.V.

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) was made on the overall 5 Kwe system. A general discussion of the system and failure effect is given in addition to the tabulated FMEA and a primary block diagram of the system. (U.S.)

  16. The Adaptation Gap Report - a Preliminary Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alverson, Keith; Olhoff, Anne; Noble, Ian

    This first Adaptation Gap report provides an equally sobering assessment of the gap between adaptation needs and reality, based on preliminary thinking on how baselines, future goals or targets, and gaps between them might be defined for climate change adaptation. The report focuses on gaps...... in developing countries in three important areas: finance, technology and knowledge....

  17. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  18. Preliminary safety analysis report for the TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, K.E.; Levine, J.D.; Howe, H.J.

    A Preliminary Safety Analysis Report has been prepared for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. No accident scenarios have been identified which would result in exposures to on-site personnel or the general public in excess of the guidelines defined for the project by DOE

  19. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  20. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  1. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  2. Preliminary bathymetry; approaches to Unakwik Inlet, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Austin

    1980-01-01

    A map, scale 1:20,000, shows water depths, rocks, and hazards to navigation. These data are noted on track lines run by the Research Vessel Growler in Alaskan waters, where data on navigation shown on published charts are nonexistant, preliminary, or out dated. (USGS)

  3. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  4. Theory of multichannel magnetic stimulation: toward functional neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, J; Ravazzani, P; Grandori, F; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1999-06-01

    Human excitable cells can be stimulated noninvasively with externally applied time-varying electromagnetic fields. The stimulation can be achieved either by directly driving current into the tissue (electrical stimulation) or by means of electro-magnetic induction (magnetic stimulation). While the electrical stimulation of the peripheral neuromuscular system has many beneficial applications, peripheral magnetic stimulation has so far only a few. This paper analyzes theoretically the use of multiple magnetic stimulation coils to better control the excitation and also to eventually mimic electrical stimulation. Multiple coils allow electronic spatial adjustment of the shape and location of the stimulus without moving the coils. The new properties may enable unforeseen uses for peripheral magnetic stimulation, e.g., in rehabilitation of patients with neuromuscular impairment.

  5. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  6. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    peroneal stimulation has only acute effects on suppressing extensor tone and aiding flexion. This preliminary data indicates that such supplemental stimulation may be used to improve the quality of movement provided by exoskeletons for persons with severe extensor spasticity in the lower limb.

  7. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelem, Andrew; Goldfarb, Michael

    2018-01-01

    peroneal stimulation has only acute effects on suppressing extensor tone and aiding flexion. This preliminary data indicates that such supplemental stimulation may be used to improve the quality of movement provided by exoskeletons for persons with severe extensor spasticity in the lower limb.

  8. Supplemental Stimulation Improves Swing Phase Kinematics During Exoskeleton Assisted Gait of SCI Subjects With Severe Muscle Spasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Ekelem

    2018-06-01

    common peroneal stimulation has only acute effects on suppressing extensor tone and aiding flexion. This preliminary data indicates that such supplemental stimulation may be used to improve the quality of movement provided by exoskeletons for persons with severe extensor spasticity in the lower limb.

  9. Interaction of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electrical transmastoid stimulation in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Janet L; Petersen, Nicolas Caesar; Butler, Jane E

    2002-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation activates corticospinal neurones directly and transsynaptically and hence, activates motoneurones and results in a response in the muscle. Transmastoid stimulation results in a similar muscle response through activation of axons in the spinal cord. This study...... was designed to determine whether the two stimuli activate the same descending axons. Responses to transcranial magnetic stimuli paired with electrical transmastoid stimuli were examined in biceps brachii in human subjects. Twelve interstimulus intervals (ISIs) from -6 ms (magnet before transmastoid) to 5 ms......-wave, facilitation still occurred at ISIs of -6 and -5 ms and depression of the paired response at ISIs of 0, 1, 4 and 5 ms. The interaction of the response to transmastoid stimulation with the multiple descending volleys elicited by magnetic stimulation of the cortex is complex. However, depression of the response...

  10. A new brain stimulation method: Noninvasive transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yi; Chen Yu-Dong; Li Xiao-Li

    2016-01-01

    We investigate transcranial magneto–acoustical stimulation (TMAS) for noninvasive brain neuromodulation in vivo. TMAS as a novel technique uses an ultrasound wave to induce an electric current in the brain tissue in the static magnetic field. It has the advantage of high spatial resolution and penetration depth. The mechanism of TMAS onto a neuron is analyzed by combining the TMAS principle and Hodgkin–Huxley neuron model. The anesthetized rats are stimulated by TMAS, resulting in the local field potentials which are recorded and analyzed. The simulation results show that TMAS can induce neuronal action potential. The experimental results indicate that TMAS can not only increase the amplitude of local field potentials but also enhance the effect of focused ultrasound stimulation on the neuromodulation. In summary, TMAS can accomplish brain neuromodulation, suggesting a potentially powerful noninvasive stimulation method to interfere with brain rhythms for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. (paper)

  11. The safety of transcranial magnetic stimulation with deep brain stimulation instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Shimojima, Yoshio; Morita, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Noriko; Kodaira, Minori; Hashimoto, Takao; Ikeda, Shu-ichi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been employed in patients with an implanted deep brain Stimulation (DBS) device. We investigated the safety of TMS using Simulation models with an implanted DBS device. Methods: The DBS lead was inserted into plastic phantoms filled with dilute gelatin showing impedance similar to that of human brain. TMS was performed with three different types of magnetic coil. During TMS (I) electrode movement, (2) temperature change around the lead, ...

  12. Multifocal visual evoked responses to dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles: Multifocal VER to dichoptic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvind, Hemamalini; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L; Grigg, John R

    2006-05-01

    Multifocal visual evoked potentials (mfVEPs) have demonstrated good diagnostic capabilities in glaucoma and optic neuritis. This study aimed at evaluating the possibility of simultaneously recording mfVEP for both eyes with dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles and also to determine the stimulus characteristics that yield maximum amplitude. ten healthy volunteers were recruited and temporally sparse pattern pulse stimuli were presented dichoptically using virtual reality goggles. Experiment 1 involved recording responses to dichoptically presented checkerboard stimuli and also confirming true topographic representation by switching off specific segments. Experiment 2 involved monocular stimulation and comparison of amplitude with Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, orthogonally oriented gratings were dichoptically presented. Experiment 4 involved dichoptic presentation of checkerboard stimuli at different levels of sparseness (5.0 times/s, 2.5 times/s, 1.66 times/s and 1.25 times/s), where stimulation of corresponding segments of two eyes were separated by 16.7, 66.7,116.7 & 166.7 ms respectively. Experiment 1 demonstrated good traces in all regions and confirmed topographic representation. However, there was suppression of amplitude of responses to dichoptic stimulation by 17.9+/-5.4% compared to monocular stimulation. Experiment 3 demonstrated similar suppression between orthogonal and checkerboard stimuli (p = 0.08). Experiment 4 demonstrated maximum amplitude and least suppression (4.8%) with stimulation at 1.25 times/s with 166.7 ms separation between eyes. It is possible to record mfVEP for both eyes during dichoptic stimulation using virtual reality goggles, which present binocular simultaneous patterns driven by independent sequences. Interocular suppression can be almost eliminated by using a temporally sparse stimulus of 1.25 times/s with a separation of 166.7 ms between stimulation of corresponding segments of the two eyes.

  13. Avoiding Internal Capsule Stimulation With a New Eight-Channel Steering Deep Brain Stimulation Lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Kees J; Verhagen, Rens; Bour, Lo J; Heida, Ciska; Veltink, Peter H

    2017-10-15

    Novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) lead designs are currently entering the market, which are hypothesized to provide a way to steer the stimulation field away from neural populations responsible for side effects and towards populations responsible for beneficial effects. The objective of this study is to assess the performances of a new eight channel steering-DBS lead and compare this with a conventional cylindrical contact (CC) lead. The two leads were evaluated in a finite element electric field model combined with multicompartment neuron and axon models, representing the internal capsule (IC) fibers and subthalamic nucleus (STN) cells. We defined the optimal stimulation setting as the configuration that activated the highest percentage of STN cells, without activating any IC fibers. With this criterion, we compared monopolar stimulation using a single contact of the steering-DBS lead and CC lead, on three locations and four orientations of the lead. In addition, we performed a current steering test case by dividing the current over two contacts with the steering-DBS lead in its worst-case orientation. In most cases, the steering-DBS lead is able to stimulate a significantly higher percentage of STN cells compared to the CC lead using single contact stimulation or using a two contact current steering protocol when there is approximately a 1 mm displacement of the CC lead. The results also show that correct placement and orientation of the lead in the target remains an important aspect in achieving the optimal stimulation outcome. Currently, clinical trials are set up in Europe with a similar design as the steering-DBS lead. Our results illustrate the importance of the orientation of the new steering-DBS lead in avoiding side effects induced by stimulation of IC fibers. Therefore, in clinical trials sufficient attention should be paid to implanting the steering DBS-lead in the most effective orientation. © 2017 International Neuromodulation Society.

  14. Salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responsiveness following electrical stimulation stress in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Kawano, Aimi; Ando, Tomoko; Okamoto, Shizuko; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Kodama, Kensuke; Isogawa, Koichi; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-03-30

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by chronic stress. In comparison, psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary α-amylase (sAA) functions as a marker of sympathoadrenal medullary system (SAM) activity. However, in contrast to salivary cortisol, sAA has been less extensively studied in MDD patients. The present study measured sAA and salivary cortisol levels in patients with MDD. The authors determined Profile of Mood State (POMS) and State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI) scores, Heart Rate Variability (HRV), and sAA and salivary cortisol levels in 88 patients with MDD and 41 healthy volunteers following the application of electrical stimulation stress. Patients with major depressive disorder were 8 points or more on Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) scores. Tension-Anxiety, Depression-Dejection, Anger-Hostility, Fatigue, and Confusion scores in patients with major depressive disorder were significantly increased compared to healthy controls. In contrast, Vigor scores in patients with MDD were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls. There was no difference in heart rate variability measures between MDD patients and healthy controls. The threshold of electrical stimulation applied in MDD patients was lower than that in healthy controls. SAA levels in female MDD patients were significantly elevated relative to controls both before and after electrical stimulation. Finally, there were no differences in salivary cortisol levels between major depressive patients and controls. In the present study only three time points were explored. Furthermore, the increased secretion of sAA before and after stimulation could allude to an increased responsiveness of novel and uncontrollable situations in patients with MDD. These preliminary results suggest that sAA might be a useful biological marker of MDD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of parietal cortex enhances action naming in Corticobasal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa eManenti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS is a neurodegenerative disorder that overlaps both clinically and neuropathologically with Frontotemporal dementia and is characterized by apraxia, alien limb phenomena, cortical sensory loss, cognitive impairment, behavioural changes and aphasia. It has been recently demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS improves naming in healthy subjects and in subjects with language deficits.Objective: The aim of the present study was to explore the extent to which anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal tDCS over the parietal cortex (PARC could facilitate naming performance in CBS subjects. Methods: Anodal tDCS was applied to the left and right PARC during object and action naming in seventeen patients with a diagnosis of possible CBS. Participants underwent two sessions of anodal tDCS (left and right and one session of placebo tDCS. Vocal responses were recorded and analyzed for accuracy and vocal Reaction Times (vRTs. Results: A shortening of naming latency for actions was observed only after active anodal stimulation over the left PARC, as compared to placebo and right stimulations. No effects have been reported for accuracy.Conclusions: Our preliminary finding demonstrated that tDCS decreased vocal reaction time during action naming in a sample of patients with CBS. A possible explanation of our results is that anodal tDCS over the left PARC effects the brain network implicated in action observation and representation. Further studies, based on larger patient samples, should be conducted to investigate the usefulness of tDCS as an additional treatment of linguistic deficits in CBS patients.

  16. Is the human mirror neuron system plastic? Evidence from a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Urvakhsh Meherwan; Waghmare, Avinash V; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-10-01

    Virtual lesions in the mirror neuron network using inhibitory low-frequency (1Hz) transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been employed to understand its spatio-functional properties. However, no studies have examined the influence of neuro-enhancement by using excitatory high-frequency (20Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) on these networks. We used three forms of TMS stimulation (HF-rTMS, single and paired pulse) to investigate whether the mirror neuron system facilitates the motor system during goal-directed action observation relative to inanimate motion (motor resonance), a marker of putative mirror neuron activity. 31 healthy individuals were randomized to receive single-sessions of true or sham HF-rTMS delivered to the left inferior frontal gyrus - a component of the human mirror system. Motor resonance was assessed before and after HF-rTMS using three TMS cortical reactivity paradigms: (a) 120% of resting motor threshold (RMT), (b) stimulus intensity set to evoke motor evoked potential of 1-millivolt amplitude (SI1mV) and (c) a short latency paired pulse paradigm. Two-way RMANOVA showed a significant group (true versus sham) X occasion (pre- and post-HF-rTMS motor resonance) interaction effect for SI1mV [F(df)=6.26 (1, 29), p=0.018] and 120% RMT stimuli [F(df)=7.01 (1, 29), p=0.013] indicating greater enhancement of motor resonance in the true HF-rTMS group than the sham-group. This suggests that HF-rTMS could adaptively modulate properties of the mirror neuron system. This neuro-enhancement effect is a preliminary step that can open translational avenues for novel brain stimulation therapeutics targeting social-cognition deficits in schizophrenia and autism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Computational electromagnetic methods for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Luis J.

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive technique used both as a research tool for cognitive neuroscience and as a FDA approved treatment for depression. During TMS, coils positioned near the scalp generate electric fields and activate targeted brain regions. In this thesis, several computational electromagnetics methods that improve the analysis, design, and uncertainty quantification of TMS systems were developed. Analysis: A new fast direct technique for solving the large and sparse linear system of equations (LSEs) arising from the finite difference (FD) discretization of Maxwell's quasi-static equations was developed. Following a factorization step, the solver permits computation of TMS fields inside realistic brain models in seconds, allowing for patient-specific real-time usage during TMS. The solver is an alternative to iterative methods for solving FD LSEs, often requiring run-times of minutes. A new integral equation (IE) method for analyzing TMS fields was developed. The human head is highly-heterogeneous and characterized by high-relative permittivities (107). IE techniques for analyzing electromagnetic interactions with such media suffer from high-contrast and low-frequency breakdowns. The novel high-permittivity and low-frequency stable internally combined volume-surface IE method developed. The method not only applies to the analysis of high-permittivity objects, but it is also the first IE tool that is stable when analyzing highly-inhomogeneous negative permittivity plasmas. Design: TMS applications call for electric fields to be sharply focused on regions that lie deep inside the brain. Unfortunately, fields generated by present-day Figure-8 coils stimulate relatively large regions near the brain surface. An optimization method for designing single feed TMS coil-arrays capable of producing more localized and deeper stimulation was developed. Results show that the coil-arrays stimulate 2.4 cm into the head while stimulating 3

  18. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action taken...

  19. 28 CFR 2.48 - Revocation: Preliminary interview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Revocation: Preliminary interview. 2.48....48 Revocation: Preliminary interview. (a) Interviewing officer. A parolee who is retaken on a warrant issued by a Commissioner shall be given a preliminary interview by an official designated by the Regional...

  20. Can the human lumbar posterior columns be stimulated by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation? A modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danner, Simon M; Hofstoetter, Ursula S; Ladenbauer, Josef; Rattay, Frank; Minassian, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Stimulation of different spinal cord segments in humans is a widely developed clinical practice for modification of pain, altered sensation, and movement. The human lumbar cord has become a target for modification of motor control by epidural and, more recently, by transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation. Posterior columns of the lumbar spinal cord represent a vertical system of axons and when activated can add other inputs to the motor control of the spinal cord than stimulated posterior roots. We used a detailed three-dimensional volume conductor model of the torso and the McIntyre-Richard-Grill axon model to calculate the thresholds of axons within the posterior columns in response to transcutaneous lumbar spinal cord stimulation. Superficially located large-diameter posterior column fibers with multiple collaterals have a threshold of 45.4 V, three times higher than posterior root fibers (14.1 V). With the stimulation strength needed to activate posterior column axons, posterior root fibers of large and small diameters as well as anterior root fibers are coactivated. The reported results inform on these threshold differences, when stimulation is applied to the posterior structures of the lumbar cord at intensities above the threshold of large-diameter posterior root fibers. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Artificial Organs © 2011, International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Reducing interaction in simultaneous paired stimulation with CI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Vellinga

    Full Text Available In this study simultaneous paired stimulation of electrodes in cochlear implants is investigated by psychophysical experiments in 8 post-lingually deaf subjects (and one extra subject who only participated in part of the experiments. Simultaneous and sequential monopolar stimulation modes are used as references and are compared to channel interaction compensation, partial tripolar stimulation and a novel sequential stimulation strategy named phased array compensation. Psychophysical experiments are performed to investigate both the loudness integration during paired stimulation at the main electrodes as well as the interaction with the electrode contact located halfway between the stimulating pair. The study shows that simultaneous monopolar stimulation has more loudness integration on the main electrodes and more interaction in between the electrodes than sequential stimulation. Channel interaction compensation works to reduce the loudness integration at the main electrodes, but does not reduce the interaction in between the electrodes caused by paired stimulation. Partial tripolar stimulation uses much more current to reach the needed loudness, but shows the same interaction in between the electrodes as sequential monopolar stimulation. In phased array compensation we have used the individual impedance matrix of each subject to calculate the current needed on each electrode to exactly match the stimulation voltage along the array to that of sequential stimulation. The results show that the interaction in between the electrodes is the same as monopolar stimulation. The strategy uses less current than partial tripolar stimulation, but more than monopolar stimulation. In conclusion, the paper shows that paired stimulation is possible if the interaction is compensated.

  2. Prescription stimulant use is associated with earlier onset of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lauren V; Masters, Grace A; Pingali, Samira; Cohen, Bruce M; Liebson, Elizabeth; Rajarethinam, R P; Ongur, Dost

    2015-12-01

    A childhood history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in psychotic disorders, yet prescription stimulants may interact adversely with the physiology of these disorders. Specifically, exposure to stimulants leads to long-term increases in dopamine release. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with psychotic disorders previously exposed to prescription stimulants will have an earlier onset of psychosis. Age of onset of psychosis (AOP) was compared in individuals with and without prior exposure to prescription stimulants while controlling for potential confounding factors. In a sample of 205 patients recruited from an inpatient psychiatric unit, 40% (n = 82) reported use of stimulants prior to the onset of psychosis. Most participants were prescribed stimulants during childhood or adolescence for a diagnosis of ADHD. AOP was significantly earlier in those exposed to stimulants (20.5 vs. 24.6 years stimulants vs. no stimulants, p drugs of abuse, and family history of a first-degree relative with psychosis, the association between stimulant exposure and earlier AOP remained significant. There was a significant gender × stimulant interaction with a greater reduction in AOP for females, whereas the smaller effect of stimulant use on AOP in males did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, individuals with psychotic disorders exposed to prescription stimulants had an earlier onset of psychosis, and this relationship did not appear to be mediated by IQ or cannabis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Neutron dosimetry using optically stimulated luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.D.; Eschbach, P.A.

    1991-06-01

    The addition of thermoluminescent (TL) materials within hydrogenous matrices to detect neutron-induced proton recoils for radiation dosimetry is a well-known concept. Previous attempts to implement this technique have met with limited success, primarily due to the high temperatures required for TL readout and the low melting temperatures of hydrogen-rich plastics. Research in recent years at Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) has produced a new Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) technique known as the Cooled Optically Stimulated Luminescence (COSL) that offers, for the first time, the capability of performing extremely sensitive radiation dosimetry at low temperatures. In addition to its extreme sensitivity, the COSL technique offers multiple readout capability, limited fading in a one-year period, and the capability of analyzing single grains within a hydrogenous matrix. 4 refs., 10 figs

  4. Relaxation oscillations in stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kachen, G.I.; Lowdermilk, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Light pulses created by stimulated Raman scattering having been found to exhibit a complex time dependence which resembles relaxation oscillations. A focused laser pulse generated both forward and backward Raman emissions which appeared as a series of pulses with durations much shorter than the incident laser pulse. Time dependence of the Raman emission was observed directly by use of a streak camera. The number of observed pulses increased with the intensity of the incident pulse, while separation of the pulses in time depended on the length of the focal region. Beam focusing was incorporated in the coupled wave equations for stimulated Raman scattering. These rate equations were then solved numerically, and the results are in good qualitative agreement with the experimental observations. The short Raman pulses are created by a process associated with depletion of the incident laser pulse. This process occurs under a broad range of conditions

  5. Radioimmunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An improved double antibody radioimmunoassay method is described for the determination of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in biological and other fluids. Highly purified second antibody is immobilised on to hydrophilic, hydrolyzed polyacrylamide particles of a suspendable size to form a solid phase second antibody reagent. The immobilised second antibody reagent is used to precipitate the reaction product of the first antibody with labelled and unlabelled thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH-anti-TSH-complex) so as to produce a two-phase system which permits rapid and efficient separation of bound TSH in the solid phase from free TSH in the liquid phase. Details of the preparation of this novel second antibody-polyacrylamide reagent and of the assay procedure for human TSH are described. (U.K.)

  6. Deep brain stimulation for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grover, Patrick J; Pereira, Erlick A C; Green, Alexander L

    2009-01-01

    Cluster headache is a severely debilitating disorder that can remain unrelieved by current pharmacotherapy. Alongside ablative neurosurgical procedures, neuromodulatory treatments of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and occipital nerve simulation have emerged in the last few years as effective...... treatments for medically refractory cluster headaches. Pioneers in the field have sought to publish guidelines for neurosurgical treatment; however, only small case series with limited long-term follow-up have been published. Controversy remains over which surgical treatments are best and in which...... circumstances to intervene. Here we review current data on neurosurgical interventions for chronic cluster headache focusing upon DBS and occipital nerve stimulation, and discuss the indications for and putative mechanisms of DBS including translational insights from functional neuroimaging, diffusion weighted...

  7. Plasmonic Nanoprobes for Stimulated Emission Depletion Nanoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Emiliano; Huidobro, Paloma A; Sinclair, Hugo G; Guldbrand, Stina; Peveler, William J; Davies, Timothy; Parrinello, Simona; Görlitz, Frederik; Dunsby, Chris; Neil, Mark A A; Sivan, Yonatan; Parkin, Ivan P; French, Paul M W; Maier, Stefan A

    2016-11-22

    Plasmonic nanoparticles influence the absorption and emission processes of nearby emitters due to local enhancements of the illuminating radiation and the photonic density of states. Here, we use the plasmon resonance of metal nanoparticles in order to enhance the stimulated depletion of excited molecules for super-resolved nanoscopy. We demonstrate stimulated emission depletion (STED) nanoscopy with gold nanorods with a long axis of only 26 nm and a width of 8 nm. These particles provide an enhancement of up to 50% of the resolution compared to fluorescent-only probes without plasmonic components irradiated with the same depletion power. The nanoparticle-assisted STED probes reported here represent a ∼2 × 10 3 reduction in probe volume compared to previously used nanoparticles. Finally, we demonstrate their application toward plasmon-assisted STED cellular imaging at low-depletion powers, and we also discuss their current limitations.

  8. Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography: Background corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyd, Carey E.; Sharma, Amy C.; Bender, Janelle E.; Kapadia, Anuj J.; Xia, Jessie Q.; Harrawood, Brian P.; Tourassi, Georgia D.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Kiser, Matthew R.; Crowell, Alexander S.; Pedroni, Ronald S.; Macri, Robert A.; Tajima, Shigeyuki; Howell, Calvin R.

    2007-01-01

    Neutron stimulated emission computed tomography (NSECT) is an imaging technique that provides an in-vivo tomographic spectroscopic image of the distribution of elements in a body. To achieve this, a neutron beam illuminates the body. Nuclei in the body along the path of the beam are stimulated by inelastic scattering of the neutrons in the beam and emit characteristic gamma photons whose unique energy identifies the element. The emitted gammas are collected in a spectrometer and form a projection intensity for each spectral line at the projection orientation of the neutron beam. Rotating and translating either the body or the beam will allow a tomographic projection set to be acquired. Images are reconstructed to represent the spatial distribution of elements in the body. Critical to this process is the appropriate removal of background gamma events from the spectrum. Here we demonstrate the equivalence of two background correction techniques and discuss the appropriate application of each

  9. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  10. Stimulated Brillouin processes in crystals and glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, G.W.; Hickman, A.P.

    1992-02-01

    The basic physics and material properties needed to describe and predict the Brillouin gain for a variety of materials have been investigated. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has identified transverse stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) as an important limiting mechanism in high power laser fusion systems. At sufficiently high laser intensities, SBS drives acoustic vibrations that can damage optical components. SRI has performed measurements and developed the corresponding theory for stimulated Brillouin gain spectroscopy in anisotropic crystals. Absolute Brillouin steady-state gain coefficients, linewidths, and frequency shifts have been determined at 532 nm for a number of optical materials of interest to LLNL. This knowledge can be used to select optical materials and devise suppression schemes that will allow much higher laser fluences to be used in laser fusion

  11. Electrical stimulation in treatment of pharyngolaryngeal dysfunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Simone; Jungheim, Michael; Kühn, Daniela; Ptok, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been proposed in the treatment of laryngopharyngeal dysfunctions (dysphonia, dyspnoea, dysphagia) for more than 40 years. Several studies have investigated possible therapeutic effects. Some researchers described favourable results, whereas others did not find relevant benefits. This article aims to review available studies to give an overview regarding the current state of knowledge. We conducted a selective literature search using PubMed. In total, 356 papers were identified: 6 case reports, 11 reviews, 43 prospective clinical trials and 3 retrospective trials were found. Due to different stimulation protocols, electrode positioning and various underlying pathological conditions, summarizing the present studies appears to be difficult. However, there is evidence that NMES is a valuable adjunct in patients with dysphagia and in patients with vocal fold paresis. Nevertheless, more empirical data is needed to fully understand the benefits provided by NMES. Further research suggestions are put forward. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. The transition process: Stimulating free entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Božo J.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of two parts. In the first we expound the thesis that transition is actually a process of creation of institutional preconditions for development of private entrepreneurship at a given moment and under the inherited circumstances. To create an environment that stimulates free entrepreneurship and enables a successful transition requires a lot of knowledge, creativity and pragmatism (there is no general model. The rest remains on the entrepreneurs. In the second part we analyse the experience of FRY before and after the change of regime. During the former regime FRY was an example of degenerative connection between politics and economy geared to prevent reforms. The task of the new government is to make a radical break with the earlier practice. If the reform is not radical and not aiming to create an institutional environment that fully stimulates competition and private entrepreneurship (which has not been the case so far, it has no good prospects to succeed.

  13. PRESYNAPTIC DOPAMINE MODULATION BY STIMULANT SELF ADMINISTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Rodrigo A.; Jones, Sara R.

    2013-01-01

    The mesolimbic dopamine system is an essential participant in the initiation and modulation of various forms of goal-directed behavior, including drug reinforcement and addiction processes. Dopamine neurotransmission is increased by acute administration of all drugs of abuse, including the stimulants cocaine and amphetamine. Chronic exposure to these drugs via voluntary self-administration provides a model of stimulant abuse that is useful in evaluating potential behavioral and neurochemical adaptations that occur during addiction. This review describes commonly used methodologies to measure dopamine and baseline parameters of presynaptic dopamine regulation, including exocytotic release and reuptake through the dopamine transporter in the nucleus accumbens core, as well as dramatic adaptations in dopamine neurotransmission and drug sensitivity that occur with acute non-contingent and chronic, contingent self-administration of cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:23277050

  14. Graphene electrodes for stimulation of neuronal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerbitzer, Berit; Nick, Christoph; Thielemann, Christiane; Krauss, Peter; Yadav, Sandeep; Schneider, Joerg J

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has the ability to improve the electrical interface between neuronal cells and electrodes used for recording and stimulation purposes. It provides a biocompatible coating for common electrode materials such as gold and improves the electrode properties. Graphene electrodes are also prepared on SiO 2 substrate to benefit from its optical properties like transparency. We perform electrochemical and Raman characterization of gold electrodes with graphene coating and compare them with graphene on SiO 2 substrate. It was found that the substrate plays an important role in the performance of graphene and show that graphene on SiO 2 substrate is a very promising material combination for stimulation electrodes. (paper)

  15. Deep brain stimulation for phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Richard G; Otero, Sofia; Carter, Helen; Aziz, Tipu Z

    2005-05-01

    Phantom limb pain is an often severe and debilitating phenomenon that has been reported in up to 85% of amputees. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. Peripheral and spinal mechanisms are thought to play a role in pain modulation in affected individuals; however central mechanisms are also likely to be of importance. The neuromatrix theory postulates a genetically determined representation of body image, which is modified by sensory input to create a neurosignature. Persistence of the neurosignature may be responsible for painless phantom limb sensations, whereas phantom limb pain may be due to abnormal reorganisation within the neuromatrix. This study assessed the clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation of the periventricular grey matter and somatosensory thalamus for the relief of chronic neuropathic pain associated with phantom limb in three patients. These patients were assessed preoperatively and at 3 month intervals postoperatively. Self-rated visual analogue scale pain scores assessed pain intensity, and the McGill Pain Questionnaire assessed the quality of the pain. Quality of life was assessed using the EUROQOL EQ-5D scale. Periventricular gray stimulation alone was optimal in two patients, whilst a combination of periventricular gray and thalamic stimulation produced the greatest degree of relief in one patient. At follow-up (mean 13.3 months) the intensity of pain was reduced by 62% (range 55-70%). In all three patients, the burning component of the pain was completely alleviated. Opiate intake was reduced in the two patients requiring morphine sulphate pre-operatively. Quality of life measures indicated a statistically significant improvement. This data supports the role for deep brain stimulation in patients with phantom limb pain. The medical literature relating to the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of this clinical entity is reviewed in detail.

  16. Bubble nonlinear dynamics and stimulated scattering process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Shi; De-Sen, Yang; Sheng-Guo, Shi; Bo, Hu; Hao-Yang, Zhang; Shi-Yong, Hu

    2016-02-01

    A complete understanding of the bubble dynamics is deemed necessary in order to achieve their full potential applications in industry and medicine. For this purpose it is first needed to expand our knowledge of a single bubble behavior under different possible conditions including the frequency and pressure variations of the sound field. In addition, stimulated scattering of sound on a bubble is a special effect in sound field, and its characteristics are associated with bubble oscillation mode. A bubble in liquid can be considered as a representative example of nonlinear dynamical system theory with its resonance, and its dynamics characteristics can be described by the Keller-Miksis equation. The nonlinear dynamics of an acoustically excited gas bubble in water is investigated by using theoretical and numerical analysis methods. Our results show its strongly nonlinear behavior with respect to the pressure amplitude and excitation frequency as the control parameters, and give an intuitive insight into stimulated sound scattering on a bubble. It is seen that the stimulated sound scattering is different from common dynamical behaviors, such as bifurcation and chaos, which is the result of the nonlinear resonance of a bubble under the excitation of a high amplitude acoustic sound wave essentially. The numerical analysis results show that the threshold of stimulated sound scattering is smaller than those of bifurcation and chaos in the common condition. Project supported by the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University, China (Grant No. IRT1228) and the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204050 and 11204049).

  17. Stimulated emission depletion following two photon excitation

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, R. J.; Armoogum, D. A.; Bain, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    The technique of stimulated emission depletion of fluorescence (STED) from a two photon excited molecular population is demonstrated in the S, excited state of fluorescein in ethylene glycol and methanol. Two photon excitation (pump) is achieved using the partial output of a regeneratively amplified Ti:Sapphire laser in conjunction with an optical parametric amplifier whose tuneable output provides a synchronous depletion (dump) pulse. Time resolved fluorescence intensity and anisotropy measu...

  18. Vagus nerve stimulation and stereotactic radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Kensuke

    2005-01-01

    Vagus nerve stimulation and stereotactic radiosurgery represent novel and less invasive therapeutics for medically intractable epilepsy. Chronic stimulation of the left vagus nerve with implanted generator and electrodes inhibits seizure susceptibility of the cerebral cortices. While the underlying mechanisms of the effect remains to be further elucidated, the efficacy and safety of vagus nerve stimulation have been established by randomized clinical trials in the United States and European countries. It has been widely accepted as a treatment option for patients with medically intractable epilepsy and for whom brain surgery is not indicated. The primary indication of vagus nerve stimulation in the clinical trials was localization-related epilepsy in adult patients but efficacy in a wide range of patient groups such as generalized epilepsy and children has been reported. Improvements in daytime alertness, mood, higher cognitive functions and overall quality of life have been reported other than the effect on epileptic seizures. Since the devices are not approved for clinical use in Japan by the Health, Labor and Welfare Ministry, there exist barriers to provide this treatment to patients at present. Stereotactic radiosurgery has been used for temporal lobe epilepsy and hypothalamic hamartoma, but it is still controversial whether the therapy is more effective and less invasive than brain surgery. Promising results of gamma knife radiosurgery for medically intractable temporal lobe epilepsy with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis have been reported essentially from one French center. Results from others were not as favorable. There seems to be an unignorable risk of brain edema and radiation necrosis when the delivered dose over the medial temporal structures is high enough to abolish epileptic seizures. A randomized clinical trial comparing different marginal doses is ongoing in the United States. Clinical trials like this, technical advancement and standardization

  19. Leucine stimulation of skeletal muscle protein synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layman, D.K.; Grogan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    Previous work in this laboratory has demonstrated a stimulatory effect of leucine on skeletal muscle protein synthesis measured in vitro during catabolic conditions. Studies in other laboratories have consistently found this effect in diaphragm muscle, however, studies examining effects on nitrogen balance or with in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscle are equivocal. This experiment was designed to determine the potential of leucine to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 200 g were fasted for 12 hrs, anesthetized, a jugular cannula inserted, and protein synthesis measured using a primed continuous infusion of 14 C-tyrosine. A plateau in specific activity was reached after 30 to 60 min and maintained for 3 hrs. The leucine dose consisted of a 240 umole priming dose followed by a continuous infusion of 160 umoles/hr. Leucine infusion stimulated protein synthesis in the soleus muscle (28%) and in the red (28%) and white portions (12%) of the gastrocnemius muscle compared with controls infused with only tyrosine. The increased rates of protein synthesis were due to increased incorporation of tyrosine into protein and to decreased specific activity of the free tyrosine pool. These data indicate that infusion of leucine has the potential to stimulate in vivo protein synthesis in skeletal muscles

  20. Andrographolide Stimulates Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Varela-Nallar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographolide (ANDRO is a labdane diterpenoid component of Andrographis paniculata widely used for its anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently determined that ANDRO is a competitive inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β, a key enzyme of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade. Since this signaling pathway regulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, we evaluated whether ANDRO stimulates this process. Treatment with ANDRO increased neural progenitor cell proliferation and the number of immature neurons in the hippocampus of 2- and 10-month-old mice compared to age-matched control mice. Moreover, ANDRO stimulated neurogenesis increasing the number of newborn dentate granule neurons. Also, the effect of ANDRO was evaluated in the APPswe/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease. In these mice, ANDRO increased cell proliferation and the density of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus. Concomitantly with the increase in neurogenesis, ANDRO induced the activation of the Wnt signaling pathway in the hippocampus of wild-type and APPswe/PS1ΔE9 mice determined by increased levels of β-catenin, the inactive form of GSK-3β, and NeuroD1, a Wnt target gene involved in neurogenesis. Our findings indicate that ANDRO stimulates neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus suggesting that this drug could be used as a therapy in diseases in which neurogenesis is affected.

  1. Angiogenesis stimulated by novel nanoscale bioactive glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Cong; Chen, Xiaofeng; Miao, Guohou; Lin, Cai

    2015-01-01

    The ability of biomaterials to induce rapid vascular formation is critical in tissue regeneration. Combining recombinant angiogenic growth factors with bioengineered constructs have proven to be difficult due to several issues, including the instability of recombinant proteins, the need for sustained delivery and the dosage of factors. New formulations of bioactive glass, 58S nanosized bioactive glass (58S-NBG), have been reported to enhance wound healing in animal models better than the first generation of 45S5 Bioglass. Therefore, we investigated the effects of extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG on cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell viability was assessed by MTS assay. In vitro angiogenesis was measured using an ECM gel tube formation assay, and levels of mRNAs for five angiogenic related genes were measured by qRT-PCR. Extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG stimulated the proliferation of HUVECs, accelerated cell migration, up-regulated expression of the vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, their receptors, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase, resulting in enhanced tube formation in vitro. The enhanced angiogenic response correlated with increased levels of Ca and Si in the extracts of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG. The ability of 58S-NBG and 80S-NBG to stimulate angiogenesis in vitro provides alternative approaches for stimulating neovascularization of tissue-engineered constructs. (paper)

  2. Fetal stimulation by pulsed diagnostic ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, M; Ogburn, P L; Greenleaf, J F

    2001-08-01

    To show that pulsed ultrasound from a clinical ultrasonic imaging system can stimulate the fetus. Stimulation is defined mainly as increased fetal gross body movements in response to excitation. Fetuses of a group of 9 volunteer women (mean gestational age, 33.37 weeks; range, 25-40 weeks) were evaluated for body movement under 3 different conditions: (1) control, with no ultrasound exposure; (2) ultrasound in continuous wave Doppler mode; and (3) pulsed ultrasound in pulsed Doppler and B modes. A conventional external fetal monitor, with negligible ultrasonic output, was used to monitor fetal gross body motions. After an initial rest period of 3 minutes with 1 or no fetal motion, fetuses were monitored for an additional 3 minutes under the exposure criterion defined for each condition. Resulting fetal motions under the 3 conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The test showed that fetuses moved significantly more frequently under condition 3 (mean +/- SD, 3.43 +/- 1.93 movements per minute) than under condition 1 (0.40 +/- 7.33 movements per minute) or condition 2 (0.63 +/- 7.67 movements per minute); P = .004 and .016, respectively. Fetal movements under conditions 1 and 2 did not differ significantly. Diagnostic ultrasound may stimulate fetal body motion.

  3. Colony stimulating factors and their clinical implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Shigetaka

    1989-01-01

    Granulocytes and macrophage are dependent for their production and/or functional activation in vitro on the presence of a family of glycoproteins. They are generally called colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) because of their capacity to stimulate colony formation in semi-solid cultures, and are currently classified into four distinct subtypes, that is, Multi-CSF, GM-CSF, G-CSF and M-CSF, according to the cell type of colonies formed under their stimulation or their target cell specificity. All of the murine and human CSF subtypes and the genes for them have become available in a purified form and in a large scale, and now allow us to investigate their interactions, the mechanisms for their actions, the cell-cell interactions leading to their production and secretion, and their actions in vivo. Furthermore, the preclinical and/or clinical studies which were carried out using the purified CSFs strongly indicate that human CSFs will be effective strategies for preventing and treating opportunistic bacterial and fungal infection as a major cause of death in granulocytopenic patients. (author)

  4. Luminescence optically stimulated: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera M, T.; Azorin N, J.

    2002-01-01

    The thermally stimulated luminescence (Tl) has occupied an important place in the Solid state physics (FES) by the flexibility of the phenomena, mainly for its applications in the fields of Radiation Physics (FR) and Medical Physics (MF). The reason of this phenomena lies in the fact of the electrons release by the action of heat. Under that same reason, it can be used the action of another stimulant agent for releasing the trapped electrons in the metastable states (EM), this agent is the light which has the same effect that the heat, giving as result the production of light photons at using light in the visible spectra, of different wavelength that the excitation light. This phenomena is called Luminescence optically stimulated (LOE). The LOE has a great impact in the Solid State Physics (FES), dating and now in the use of the phenomena as a dosimetric method, alternate to the Tl, for its use in the ionizing and non-ionizing radiations fields. (Author)

  5. Measured stimulated Raman gain in methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopert, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This report is about the stimulated Raman effect in methane due to the nu 1 vibration. For various gas pressures between 150 torr and 30 atm, the Raman lineshape function was both experimentally measured and synthesized using a computer model. The stimulated Raman gain was measured by sending a pump laser beam provided by an argon-ion laser and a weak probe beam provided by a tunable dye laser through a cell of methane gas. The stimulated Raman effect caused some of the energy from the pump beam to be transferred to the probe beam. The intensity of the pump beam was low so the gain of the probe beam was on the order of parts per million. A two detector arrangement and a differential amplifier system that had a feedback loop to balance the detectors was constructed to measure the small gains. A detailed description of this detection system that was able to measure gains as small as 0.2 parts per million is provided

  6. Who would benefit from memory training? A pilot study examining the ceiling effect of concurrent cognitive stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, Wai Wang Chau1, Kenneth SL Yuen1,3, Anita YM Wong4, Jessie CY Li1, Rebecca YY Shiu4, Florence KY Ho11Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, Hong Kong; 2Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong; 4The Hong Kong Chinese Women's Club Madam Wong Chan Sook Ying Memorial Care and Attention Home for the Aged, Hong KongAbstract: Diverse effects of memory training were observed in the literature. One possible factor is the amount of concurrent cognitive training received during the training program. In this pilot study, we recruited 24 elderly adults with or without concurrent cognitive stimulations to attend a memory-training program. Findings suggested that elderly people without concurrent cognitive stimulation could benefit from a memory-training program in the form of improved initiation and memory functioning. Self-rated quality of life measure also showed improvements alongside the cognitive benefits. Elderly people with regular concurrent cognitive stimulation, on the other hand, seemed to plateau in their level of performance and did not show any significant change. Our preliminary findings suggested nonlinear concurrent cognitive stimulation in the elderly.Keywords: memory training, cognitive training, dementia, Chinese, elderly 

  7. High-frequency stimulation of the globus pallidus interna nucleus modulates GFRα1 gene expression in the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Duncun Xun Kiat; Tan, Yong Chee; Tan, Jiayi; Too, Heng Phon; Ng, Wai Hoe

    2014-04-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established therapy for movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Although the efficacy of DBS is clear, its precise molecular mechanism remains unknown. The glial cell line derived factor (GDNF) family of ligands has been shown to confer neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons, and putaminal infusion of GDNF have been investigated in PD patients with promising results. Despite the potential therapeutic role of GDNF in alleviating motor symptoms, there is no data on the effects of electrical stimulation on GDNF-family receptor (GFR) expression in the basal ganglia structures. Here, we report the effects of electrical stimulation on GFRα1 isoforms, particularly GFRα1a and GFRα1b. Wistar rats underwent 2 hours of high frequency stimulation (HFS) at the globus pallidus interna nucleus. A control group was subjected to a similar procedure but without stimulation. The HFS group, sacrificed 24 hours after treatment, had a threefold decrease in mRNA expression level of GFRα1b (p=0.037), but the expression level reverted to normal 72 hours after stimulation. Our preliminary data reveal the acute effects of HFS on splice isoforms of GFRα1, and suggest that HFS may modulate the splice isoforms of GFRα1a and GFRα1b to varying degrees. Going forward, elucidating the interactions between HFS and GFR may shed new insights into the complexity of GDNF signaling in the nervous system and lead to better design of clinical trials using these signaling pathways to halt disease progression in PD and other neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation is effective in the treatment of relapse of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannon, P N; Schreiber, S; Dolberg, O T; Shemer, L; Grunhaus, L

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary report is to demonstrate the efficacy of rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of relapsed major depressive disorder (MDD) patients. Four patients with major depressive disorder who were successfully treated with rTMS received a second course of rTMS treatment. Patients were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale - 21 items, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Global Depression Scale and the Global Assessment Scale in both trials. The statistical analysis was performed with paired t-tests and chi squares. Clinical ratings demonstrated a significant improvement at the end of both trials. No significant differences were found between the ratings at the end of the treatment courses. rTMS was successfully used in the treatment of relapsed MDD patients who had previously responsed to rTMS. ( Int J Psych Clin Pract 2000; 4: 223 - 226).

  9. Reduction of post-ECT memory complaints through brief, partial restricted environmental stimulation (REST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suedfeld, P; Ramirez, C E; Remick, R A; Fleming, J A

    1989-01-01

    1. A previous paper (Suedfeld, et al. 1987) reported on preliminary results of placing patients into a room with substantially reduced environmental stimulation (REST) immediately after recovery from ECT. 2. Comparing two depressed patients who had undergone this experience with three who had instead returned to their own hospital room (Ward), Suedfeld et al. (1987) found that the former registered much fewer complaints concerning memory loss related to ECT administration than the latter. 3. The current report extends this finding to a total of 19 patients, of whom 13 completed four testing sessions. Once again, objective tests of memory showed no significant change as a function of ECT. Both groups of patients complained of substantial memory disruption after the first ECT. By the one-week follow-up, such complaints were minimal among REST patients but showed only a slight decline among the Ward group. This was the only significant intergroup difference.

  10. Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxton, Adrian W; Lozano, Andres M

    2013-01-01

    To review the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment of dementia. A PubMed literature search was conducted to identify all studies that have investigated the use of DBS for treatment of dementia. Three studies examined the use of DBS for dementia. One study involved fornix DBS for Alzheimer disease (AD), and two studies involved DBS of the nucleus basalis of Meynert, one to treat AD and one to treat Parkinson disease dementia. Evidence for the use of DBS to treat dementia is preliminary and limited. Fornix and nucleus basalis of Meynert DBS can influence activity in the pathologic neural circuits that underlie AD and Parkinson disease dementia. Further investigation into the potential clinical effects of DBS for dementia is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Frequent nonprescription stimulant use and risky behaviors in college students: the role of effortful control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Adam M; Graziano, Paulo A; Balkhi, Amanda M; McNamara, Joseph P H; Cottler, Linda B; Meneses, Evander; Geffken, Gary R

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to (a) investigate the association between nonprescription stimulant use (NPSU) and risky behaviors, including risky sex, driving, financial behaviors, and drug use and (b) collect preliminary evidence on mechanisms that may link NPSU to risky behaviors. A sample of 555 college students was collected between August 2010 and February 2012. Students completed several self-report measures assessing their drug use history, attention-deficit and hyperactivity symptoms, temperament, and risky behaviors beyond drug use. Those who reported more frequent NPSU were more likely to engage in high-risk behavior across all 4 domains studied. Further, effortful control abilities partially mediated the link between NPSU and risky behaviors. These results highlight the associated risks of frequent NPSU for college students as well as provide future directions for examining effortful control as a potentially important mechanism linking NPSU to other risky behaviors.

  12. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  13. Analysis of Postural Control Adaptation During Galvanic and Vibratory Stimulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fransson, P

    2001-01-01

    The objective for this study was to investigate whether the postural control adaptation during galvanic stimulation of the vestibular nerve were similar to that found during vibration stimulation to the calf muscles...

  14. Action-blindsight in healthy subjects after transcranial magnetic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Kristiansen, Lasse; Rowe, James B.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical cases of blindsight have shown that visually guided movements can be accomplished without conscious visual perception. Here, we show that blindsight can be induced in healthy subjects by using transcranial magnetic stimulation over the visual cortex. Transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  15. Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaardt, H. C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical stimulation in dysphagia treatment: a justified controversy? Neuromuscular electrostimulation (LAMES) is a method for stimulating muscles with short electrical pulses. Neuromuscular electrostimulation is frequently used in physiotherapy to strengthen healthy muscles (as in sports

  16. Criminality Among Rural Stimulant Users in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increase in media attention on “meth cooking” in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use, particularly the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N=709). Findings from three logistic regression models indicate that younger stimulant users (x =32.55, SD = 10.35), those with more convictions, and those who used crack frequently were significantly more lik...

  17. Preliminary study of mercury target structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminaga, Masanori; Haga, Katsuhiro; Hino, Ryutaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki; Uchida, Shoji; Nakagawa, Toshi; Mori, Seiji; Nishikawa, Akira

    1997-11-01

    Development of a proton accelerator based neutron source (1.5 GeV, 5.3 mA (for neutron source 3.3 mA), thermal power 8 MW) is currently conducted by the Special Task Force for Neutron Science Initiative, JAERI. Preliminary design studies and related R and D of a solid metal target for the first stage (1.5 GeV, 1 mA) and a liquid metal target for both the first and second stages (1.5 GeV, 3.3 mA) are conducted by the Target Group to develop both solid and liquid metal target systems. A few kinds of target structures have been investigated in FY 1996 and the preliminary results for the target structures are described in this paper. Investigation results of alternative materials for the target container are also described in this paper. (author)

  18. Preliminary results from NOAMP deep drifting floats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollitrault, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper is a very brief and preliminary outline of first results obtained with deep SOFAR floats in the NOAMP area. The work is now going toward more precise statistical estimations of mean and variable currents, together with better tracking to resolve submesoscales and estimate diffusivities due to mesoscale and smaller scale motions. However the preliminary results confirm that the NOAMP region (and surroundings) has a deep mesoscale eddy field that is considerably more energetic that the mean field (r.m.s. velocities are of order 5 cm s -1 ), although both values are diminished compared to the western basin. A data report containing trajectories and statistics is scheduled to be published by IFREMER in the near future. The project main task is to especially study the dispersion of radioactive substances

  19. Preliminary waste acceptance requirements - Konrad repository project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennecke, P.W.; Warnecke, E.H.

    1991-01-01

    In Germany, the planned Konrad repository is proposed for the disposal of all types of radioactive wastes whose thermal influence upon the host rock is negligible. The Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz has established Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements (as of April 1990) for this facility. The respective requirements were developed on the basis of the results of site-specific safety assessments. They include general requirements on the waste packages to be disposed of as well as more specific requirements on the waste forms, the packaging and the radionuclide inventory per waste package. In addition, the delivery of waste packages was regulated. An outline of the structure and the elements of the Preliminary Waste Acceptance Requirements of April 1990 is given including comments on their legal status. (Author)

  20. Licensing Support System: Preliminary data scope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine the content and scope of the Licensing Support System (LSS) data base. Both user needs and currently available data bases that, at least in part, address those needs have been analyzed. This analysis, together with the Preliminary Needs Analysis (DOE, 1988d) is a first effort under the LSS Design and Implementation Contract toward developing a sound requirements foundation for subsequent design work. These reports are preliminary. Further refinements must be made before requirements can be specified in sufficient detail to provide a basis for suitably specific system specifications. This document provides a baseline for what is known at this time. Additional analyses, currently being conducted, will provide more precise information on the content and scope of the LSS data base. 23 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs