WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-linear optical effects

  1. GaN/AlGaN microcavities for enhancement of non linear optical effects

    CERN Document Server

    Tasco, V; Campa, A; Massaro, A; Stomeo, T; Epifani, G; Passaseo, A; Braccini, M; Larciprete, M C; Sibilia, C; Bovino, F A

    2011-01-01

    We present a study on the design, growth and optical characterization of a GaN/AlGaN microcavity for the enhancement of second order non linear effects. The proposed system exploits the high second order nonlinear optical response of GaN due to the non centrosymmetric crystalline structure of this material. It consists of a GaN cavity embedded between two GaN/AlGaN Distributed Bragg Reflectors designed for a reference mode coincident with a second harmonic field generated in the near UV region (~ 400 nm). Critical issues for this target are the crystalline quality of the material, together with sharp and abrupt interfaces among the multi-stacked layers. A detailed investigation on the growth evolution of GaN and AlGaN epilayers in such a configuration is reported, with the aim to obtain high quality factor in the desiderated spectral range. Non linear second harmonic generation experiments have been performed and the results were compared with bulk GaN sample, highlighting the effect of the microcavity on the...

  2. Effect of higher order non-linearity in frequency variation of self-phase modulation in optical fiber communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abhijit Sinha; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2004-01-01

    In optical soliton propagation through a single mode optical fiber,it is established that self-phase mod ulation is maintained by the third order non-linearity of the silica-based glass material of the fiber.In this paper we show that the fifth order non-linearity has also some contribution in frequency variation of self-phase modulation.

  3. Effect of Sb addition on linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Ge-Se-Sn thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Navjeet; Sharma, Surbhi; Sarin, Amit; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Optical characterization of amorphous thin films of Ge20Sn10Se70-xSbx (x = 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15) has been carried out. Thin films were deposited onto pre cleaned glass substrates using thermal evaporation technique. Transmission spectra of the films were recorded, for normal incidence, in range 400-2400 nm. Refractive index of the films was calculated using the envelope method by Swanepoel. Dispersion analysis has been carried out using single effective oscillator model. Other optical constants such as absorption coefficients, extinction coefficients have also been evaluated. Tauc plots were used to evaluate the optical band gap. The refractive index has been found to be increasing while the band gap decreases with increasing Sb concentration. The observed optical behavior of the films has been explained using chemical bond approach. Cohesive energy is found to be decreasing in the present work, which reflects that bond strength decreases with the increasing content of Sb. Non-linear optical parameters (i.e. n2 and χ(3)) have been derived from linear optical parameters (i.e. n, k, Eg). Observed changes in linear and non-linear parameters have been reported in this study.

  4. Study of optical non-linear properties of a constant total effective length multiple quantum wells system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solaimani, M.; Morteza, Izadifard [Faculty of Physics, Shahrood University of technology, Shahrood (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Arabshahi, H., E-mail: arabshahi@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Payame Noor University, P.O. Box 19395-3697, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reza, Sarkardehi Mohammad [Physics Department, Al-Zahra University, Vanak, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, we have studied the effect of the number of the wells, in a multiple quantum wells structure with constant total effective length, on the optical properties of multiple quantum wells like the absorption coefficient and the refractive index by means of compact density matrix approach. GaAs/Al{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}As multiple quantum wells systems was selected as an example. Besides, the effect of varying number of wells on the subband energies, wave functions, number of bound states, and the Fermi energy have been also investigated. Our calculation revealed that the number of wells in a multiple quantum well is a criterion with which we can control the amount of nonlinearity. This study showed that for the third order refractive index change there is two regimes of variations and the critical well number was six. In our calculations, we have used the same wells and barrier thicknesses to construct the multiple quantum wells system. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OptiOptical Non-Linear. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Total Effective Length. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple Quantum Wells System - genetic algorithm Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Schroedinger equation solution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanostructure.

  5. Effect of -OH functionalization, C2 methylation, and high radiation fields on the non-linear optical response of imidazolium ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vinu V.; Guleria, Apurav; Singh, Ajay K.

    2017-04-01

    Considering the impending applications of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) in various areas involving high optical and radiation fields, it is pertinent to probe the structure-property correlation of these solvents exposed to such conditions. Herein, femtosecond Z-scan technique (at high pulse repetition rate, 80 MHz) was employed to investigate the non-linear optical response of imidazolium RTILs in 3 scenarios: (1) -OH functionalization, (2) C2 methylation, and (3) influence of high radiation fields. Large negative non-linear refractive values ( n 2) were observed in all the RTIL samples and have been attributed predominantly due to the thermal effects. In order to isolate and determine the contribution of electronic Kerr effect, the Z-scan experiments were also carried out at low pulse repetition rate (i.e. 500 Hz) by means of a mechanical chopper. The closed aperture transmittance profile showed the valley-peak pattern, which signifies positive non-linearity. Nonetheless, the variation in the n2 values of the RTILs follows the same trend in low pulse repetition rate as was observed in case of high pulse repetition rate. The trend in the n 2 values clearly showed the decrease in the non-linearity in the first two cases and has been attributed to the weakening of the ion-pair formation, which adversely affects the charge transfer between the ionic moieties via C2 position. However, an increase in the n 2 values was observed in case of ILs irradiated to high radiation doses. This enhancement in the non-linearity has been assigned to the formation of double bond order radiolytic products. These results clearly indicate a strong correlation between the non-linearity and the strength of cation-anion interaction amongst them. Therefore, such information about these solvents may significantly contribute to the fundamental understanding of their structure-property relationships.

  6. Structure/property relationships in non-linear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J.M. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)]|[Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); Howard, J.A.K. [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom); McIntyre, G.J. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    The application of neutrons to the study of structure/property relationships in organic non-linear optical materials (NLOs) is described. In particular, charge-transfer effects and intermolecular interactions are investigated. Charge-transfer effects are studied by charge-density analysis and an example of one such investigation is given. The study of intermolecular interactions concentrates on the effects of hydrogen-bonding and an example is given of two structurally similar molecules with very disparate NLO properties, as a result of different types of hydrogen-bonding. (author). 3 refs.

  7. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F.; Stanculescu, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  8. Polycarbonate-Based Blends for Optical Non-linear Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanculescu, F; Stanculescu, A

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents some investigations on the optical and morphological properties of the polymer (matrix):monomer (inclusion) composite materials obtained from blends of bisphenol A polycarbonate and amidic monomers. For the preparation of the composite films, we have selected monomers characterised by a maleamic acid structure and synthesised them starting from maleic anhydride and aniline derivatives with -COOH, -NO2, -N(C2H5)2 functional groups attached to the benzene ring. The composite films have been deposited by spin coating using a mixture of two solutions, one containing the matrix and the other the inclusion, both components of the composite system being dissolved in the same solvent. The optical transmission and photoluminescence properties of the composite films have been investigated in correlation with the morphology of the films. The scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have revealed a non-uniform morphology characterised by the development of two distinct phases. We have also investigated the generation of some optical non-linear (ONL) phenomena in these composite systems. The composite films containing as inclusions monomers characterised by the presence of one -COOH or two -NO2 substituent groups to the aromatic nucleus have shown the most intense second-harmonic generation (SHG). The second-order optical non-linear coefficients have been evaluated for these films, and the effect of the laser power on the ONL behaviour of these materials has also been emphasised.

  9. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puķīte, Jānis; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer-Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, for scenarios with strong absorptions non-linear effects cannot always be neglected. This is especially the case for observation geometries, for which the light contributing to the measurement is crossing the atmosphere under spatially well-separated paths differing strongly in length and location, like in limb geometry. In these cases, often full retrieval algorithms are applied to address the non-linearities, requiring iterative forward modelling of absorption spectra involving time-consuming wavelength-by-wavelength radiative transfer modelling. In this study, we propose to describe the non-linear effects by additional sensitivity parameters that can be used e.g. to build up a lookup table. Together with widely used box air mass factors (effective light paths) describing the linear response to the increase in the trace gas amount, the higher-order sensitivity parameters eliminate the need for repeating the radiative transfer modelling when modifying the absorption scenario even in the presence of a strong absorption background. While the higher-order absorption structures can be described as separate fit parameters in the spectral analysis (so-called DOAS fit), in practice their quantitative evaluation requires good measurement quality (typically better than that available from current measurements). Therefore, we introduce an iterative retrieval algorithm correcting for the higher-order absorption structures not yet considered in the DOAS fit as well as the absorption dependence on

  10. Controlling ultrafast currents by the non-linear photogalvanic effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the effect of broken inversion symmetry on the generation and control of ultrafast currents in a transparent dielectric (SiO2) by strong femto-second optical laser pulses. Ab-initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory predict ultrafast DC currents that can be viewed as a non-linear photogalvanic effect. Most surprisingly, the direction of the current undergoes a sudden reversal above a critical threshold value of laser intensity I_c ~ 3.8*10^13 W/cm2. We trace this switching to the transition from non-linear polarization currents to the tunneling excitation regime. We demonstrate control of the ultrafast currents by the time delay between two laser pulses. We find the ultrafast current control by the non-linear photogalvanic effect to be remarkably robust and insensitive to laser-pulse shape and carrier-envelope phase.

  11. Organic non-linear optics and opto-electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, J. L.; Ramos-Ortíz, G.; Rodríguez, M.; Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Barbosa-García, O.; Santillán, R.; Farfán, N.

    2010-12-01

    π-conjugated organic molecules and polymers are of great importance in physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. It is expected that, in the near future, organic materials will find widespread use in many technological applications. In the case of organic opto-electronic systems, the list of devices includes light emitting diodes (OLEDs), photovoltaic cells (OPVs), field-effect transistors (OFET), photorefractive materials for light manipulation, among others. These materials are also used for photonic applications: all-optical switching, modulators, optical correlators, plastic waveguides, all polymeric integrated circuits, solid-state lasers, and for biophotonic applications as in the case of the development of organic labels for multiphoton microscopy and photodynamic therapy. The advances in the developing of organic compounds with better mechanical, electrical, and optical (linear and non-linear) characteristics are of a great importance for this field. Here, we present the research on this area carried out at the Centro de Investigaciones en Óp-tica (CIO), in collaboration with Chemistry Departments of different institutions. This work focuses on the optical characterization of materials through several techniques such as TOF, FWM, TBC, THG Maker Fringes, HRS, Z-scan, and TPEF. Additionally, some applications, such as dynamic holography by using photorefractive polymers, and OPVs cells will be discussed.

  12. Effect of VO2+ ions on the EPR and optical absorption investigations of lithium sulphate monohydrate single crystals for non linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Radha Krishnan, S.; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies of VO2+ ions in Lithium Sulphate Monohydrate (LSMH) single crystal are carried out at room temperature. Single crystal rotations in each of the three mutually orthogonal crystalline planes, ac, ab, cb indicate three different vanadyl complexes. Three VO2+ ions of EPR spectra indicate among them, that two of them have (the intense two) entered the lattice substitutionally and the third one occupies the interstitial position. From the angular variation, the spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated. From the optical absorption spectrum containing four selected bands and EPR data, various bonding parameters are determined and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. Also Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) studies are carried out to confirm the Non Linear Optical (NLO) properties of the given material.

  13. Parametric Analysis of Fiber Non-Linearity in Optical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Anand

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of technology Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM is always an area of interest in the field of optical communication. When combined with Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA, it provides high data transmission rate and low attenuation. But due to fiber non-linearity such as Self Phase Modulation (SPM and Cross Phase Modulation (XPM the system performance has degraded. This non-linearity depends on different parameters of an optical system such as channel spacing, power of the channel and length of the fiber section. The degradation can be seen in terms of phase deviation and Bit Error Rate (BER performance. Even after dispersion compensation at the fiber end, residual pulse broadening still exists due to cross talk penalty.

  14. Quantification and parametrization of non-linearity effects by higher-order sensitivity terms in scattered light differential optical absorption spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    J. Puķīte; T. Wagner

    2016-01-01

    We address the application of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) of scattered light observations in the presence of strong absorbers (in particular ozone), for which the absorption optical depth is a non-linear function of the trace gas concentration. This is the case because Beer–Lambert law generally does not hold for scattered light measurements due to many light paths contributing to the measurement. While in many cases linear approximation can be made, ...

  15. Non-linear optical titanyl arsenates: Crystal growth and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordborg, Jenni Eva Louise

    Crystals are appreciated not only for their appearance, but also for their unique physical properties which are utilized by the photonic industry in appliances that we come across every day. An important part of enabling the technical use of optical devices is the manufacture of crystals. This dissertation deals with a specific group of materials called the potassium titanyl phosphate (KIP) family, known for their non-linear optical and ferroelectric properties. The isomorphs vary in their linear optical and dielectric properties, which can be tuned to optimize device performance by forming solid solutions of the different materials. Titanyl arsenates have a wide range of near-infrared transmission which makes them useful for tunable infrared lasers. The isomorphs examined in the present work were primarily RbTiOASO4 (RTA) and CsTiOAsO4 (CTA) together with the mixtures RbxCs 1-xTiOAsO4 (RCTA). Large-scale crystals were grown by top seeding solution growth utilizing a three-zone furnace with excellent temperature control. Sufficiently slow cooling and constant upward lifting produced crystals with large volumes useable for technical applications. Optical quality RTA crystals up to 10 x 12 x 20 mm were grown. The greater difficulty in obtaining good crystals of CTA led to the use of mixed RCTA materials. The mixing of rubidium and cesium in RCTA is more favorable to crystal growth than the single components in pure RTA and CTA. Mixed crystals are rubidium-enriched and contain only 20-30% of the cesium concentration in the flux. The cesium atoms show a preference for the larger cation site. The network structure is very little affected by the cation substitution; consequently, the non-linear optical properties of the Rb-rich isomorphic mixtures of RTA and CTA can be expected to remain intact. Crystallographic methods utilizing conventional X-ray tubes, synchrotron radiation and neutron diffraction have been employed to investigate the properties of the atomic

  16. Effect of antimony (Sb) addition on the linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Ge-Te-Sb thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Kaur, J.; Tripathi, S. K.; Sharma, I.

    2017-06-01

    Non-crystalline thin films of Ge20Te80-xSbx (x = 0, 2, 4, 6, 10) systems were deposited on glass substrate using thermal evaporation technique. The optical coefficients were accurately determined by transmission spectra using Swanepoel envelope method in the spectral region of 400-1600 nm. The refractive index was found to increase from 2.38 to 2.62 with the corresponding increase in Sb content over the entire spectral range. The dispersion of refractive index was discussed in terms of the single oscillator Wemple-DiDomenico model. Tauc relation for the allowed indirect transition showed decrease in optical band gap. To explore non-linearity, the spectral dependence of third order susceptibility of a-Ge-Te-Sb thin films was evaluated from change of index of refraction using Miller's rule. Susceptibility values were found to enhance rapidly from 10-13 to 10-12 (esu), with the red shift in the absorption edge. Non-linear refractive index was calculated by Fourier and Snitzer formula. The values were of the order of 10-12 esu. At telecommunication wavelength, these non-linear refractive index values showed three orders higher than that of silica glass. Dielectric constant and optical conductivity were also reported. The prepared Sb doped thin films on glass substrate with observed improved functional properties have a noble prospect in the application of nonlinear optical devices and might be used for a high speed communication fiber. Non-linear parameters showed good agreement with the values given in the literature.

  17. NonLinear Effects in Photorefractive Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Counterpropagating beams impinging on a crystal exhibiting optical activity was studied by Kukhtarev, Dov- galenko and Starkov [741. Diffraction...Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov . Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals. Applied Physics A, 33:227-230, 1984

  18. Effect of nano particle sizes on the third-order optical non-linearities and nanostructure of copolymer P3HT:PCBM thin film for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badran, Hussain Ali, E-mail: badran_hussein@yahoo.com [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Ajeel, Khalid I. [Basrah University, Education College for Pure Sciences, Physics Department, Basrah (Iraq); Lazim, Haidar Gazy [Misan University, Basic Education College, Science Department, Misan (Iraq)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Active layer (P3HT:PCBM) has been deposited on substrate type by spin coating at 1000 rpm. • The device was completed by evaporating a 60 nm thick, circular gold electrodes onto the P3HT:PCBM. • Nonlinear refractive indices of the three particle sizes are found to be of the order of 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/W - Abstract: Organic solar cells are based on (3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid with methyl ester Bulk Heterojunction. An inverted structure has been fabricated using nano-anatase crystalline titanium dioxide, as the electron transport layer, which was prepared on either the Indium Tin Oxide coated glass (ITO—glass), or Silicon wafer, as well as on glass substrates by the sol–gel method, at different spin speed, using the spin-coating system. The effect of thickness on the surface morphology and on the optical properties of TiO{sub 2} layer, was investigated using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction, and UV–visible spectrophotometer. The samples were examined to feature currents and voltages, in the darkness and light extraction efficiency of the solar cell. The highest open-circuit voltage, V{sub oc}, and power conversion efficiency were 0.66% and 0.39%, fabricated with 90 nm, respectively. The non-linear optical properties of nano-anatase TiO{sub 2} sol–gel, were investigated at different particle sizes, using the z-scan technique.

  19. Effects of Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+} doping on structural and non-linear optical properties of LiNaSO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmero, I.C. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Gonzalez-Silgo, C. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Torres, M.E. [Departamento de Fisica Basica, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Marrero-Lopez, D. [Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Rivera-Lopez, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)], E-mail: frivera@ull.es; Haro-Gonzalez, P. [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental y Experimental, Electronica y Sistemas, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38200, San Cristobal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Solans, X. [Departament de Cristallografia, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    We have characterized LiNaSO{sub 4} crystals doped with rare earth (RE) (Er{sup 3+} and Yb{sup 3+}) to give new insights about their structural properties relations. The samples were analyzed by X-ray single crystal diffraction and differential thermal analysis. The non-centrosymmetry was confirmed second-harmonic generation. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and emission experiments confirmed the nominal concentrations of the REs. Crystallographic data and two empirical models were employed to understand the structural modifications by substitution of the Na site which reduces, monotonically, the non-linear optical coefficients and the temperature of the phase transition in these crystals.

  20. Non-linear optical microscopy sheds light on cardiovascular disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Caorsi

    Full Text Available Many cardiac diseases have been associated with increased fibrosis and changes in the organization of fibrillar collagen. The degree of fibrosis is routinely analyzed with invasive histological and immunohistochemical methods, giving a limited and qualitative understanding of the tissue's morphological adaptation to disease. Our aim is to quantitatively evaluate the increase in fibrosis by three-dimensional imaging of the collagen network in the myocardium using the non-linear optical microscopy techniques Two-Photon Excitation microscopy (TPE and Second Harmonic signal Generation (SHG. No sample staining is needed because numerous endogenous fluorophores are excited by a two-photon mechanism and highly non-centrosymmetric structures such as collagen generate strong second harmonic signals. We propose for the first time a 3D quantitative analysis to carefully evaluate the increased fibrosis in tissue from a rat model of heart failure post myocardial infarction. We show how to measure changes in fibrosis from the backward SHG (B(SHG alone, as only backward-propagating SHG is accessible for true in vivo applications. A 5-fold increase in collagen I fibrosis is detected in the remote surviving myocardium measured 20 weeks after infarction. The spatial distribution is also shown to change markedly, providing insight into the morphology of disease progression.

  1. Non-Linear Optical Microscopy Sheds Light on Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caorsi, Valentina; Toepfer, Christopher; Sikkel, Markus B.; Lyon, Alexander R.; MacLeod, Ken; Ferenczi, Mike A.

    2013-01-01

    Many cardiac diseases have been associated with increased fibrosis and changes in the organization of fibrillar collagen. The degree of fibrosis is routinely analyzed with invasive histological and immunohistochemical methods, giving a limited and qualitative understanding of the tissue's morphological adaptation to disease. Our aim is to quantitatively evaluate the increase in fibrosis by three-dimensional imaging of the collagen network in the myocardium using the non-linear optical microscopy techniques Two-Photon Excitation microscopy (TPE) and Second Harmonic signal Generation (SHG). No sample staining is needed because numerous endogenous fluorophores are excited by a two-photon mechanism and highly non-centrosymmetric structures such as collagen generate strong second harmonic signals. We propose for the first time a 3D quantitative analysis to carefully evaluate the increased fibrosis in tissue from a rat model of heart failure post myocardial infarction. We show how to measure changes in fibrosis from the backward SHG (BSHG) alone, as only backward-propagating SHG is accessible for true in vivo applications. A 5-fold increase in collagen I fibrosis is detected in the remote surviving myocardium measured 20 weeks after infarction. The spatial distribution is also shown to change markedly, providing insight into the morphology of disease progression. PMID:23409139

  2. Metal-organic frameworks as competitive materials for non-linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingabudinova, L R; Vinogradov, V V; Milichko, V A; Hey-Hawkins, E; Vinogradov, A V

    2016-09-26

    The last five years have witnessed a huge breakthrough in the creation and the study of the properties of a new class of compounds - metamaterials. The next stage of this technological revolution will be the development of active, controllable, and non-linear metamaterials, surpassing natural media as platforms for optical data processing and quantum information applications. However, scientists are constantly faced with the need to find new methods that can ensure the formation of quantum and non-linear metamaterials with higher resolution. One such method of producing metamaterials in the future, which will provide scalability and availability, is chemical synthesis. Meanwhile, the chemical synthesis of organized 3D structures with a period of a few nanometers and a size of up to a few millimeters is not an easy task and is yet to be resolved. The most promising avenue seems to be the use of highly porous structures based on metal-organic frameworks that have demonstrated their unique properties in the field of non-linear optics (NLO) over the past three years. Thus, the aim of this review is to examine current progress and the possibilities of using metal-organic frameworks in the field of non-linear optics as chemically obtained metamaterials of the future. The review begins by presenting the theoretical principles of physical phenomena represented by mathematical descriptions for clarity. Major attention is paid to the second harmonic generation (SHG) effect. In this section we compare inorganic single crystals, which are most commonly used to study the effect in question, to organic materials, which also possess the required properties. Based on these data, we present a rationale for the possibility of studying the non-linear optical properties of metal-organic structures as well as describing the use of synthetic approaches and the difficulties associated with them. The second part of the review explicitly acquaints the reader with a new class of materials

  3. Non-linear effects in bunch compressor of TARLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Hüseyin; Aksoy, Avni; Arikan, Pervin

    2016-03-01

    Transport of a beam through an accelerator beamline is affected by high order and non-linear effects such as space charge, coherent synchrotron radiation, wakefield, etc. These effects damage form of the beam, and they lead particle loss, emittance growth, bunch length variation, beam halo formation, etc. One of the known non-linear effects on low energy machine is space charge effect. In this study we focus on space charge effect for Turkish Accelerator and Radiation Laboratory in Ankara (TARLA) machine which is designed to drive InfraRed Free Electron Laser covering the range of 3-250 µm. Moreover, we discuss second order effects on bunch compressor of TARLA.

  4. The preparation and optical characterisation of novel organic crystals with applications in non linear devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkie, S

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, novel non-linear organic materials have generated great interest in the development of all-optical non-linear devices. Such materials have been optically characterised, mainly for the purposes of second harmonic generation and electro-optic modulation, within the Chemistry department of Strathclyde University since the mid-1980's. This thesis documents the continued development and enhancement of this core research speciality in the growth, preparation and optical characterisation of two such novel organic non-linear materials, namely NMU and MBANP. A literature search that reviewed the linear and non-linear optical properties of a select number of novel organic non-linear materials was conducted. All too often sample crystal quality was not detailed and hence the quality of crystals upon which the material characterisation was based remained unknown. Surprisingly, the availability of reliable, accurate data was found to be scarce. The optical investigation of NMU represented the first ever e...

  5. Synthesis, characterization and calculated non-linear optical properties of two new chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashok Kumar; Saxena, Gunjan; Prasad, Rajendra; Kumar, Abhinav

    2012-06-01

    Two new chalcones viz 3-(4-(benzyloxy)phenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (1) and 3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (2) have been prepared and characterized by micro analyses, 1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray. The first static hyperpolarizability (β) for both the compounds has been investigated by density functional theory (DFT). Also, the solvent-induced effects on the non-linear optical properties (NLO) were studied by using self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method. As the solvent polarity increases, the β value increases monotonically. The electronic absorption bands of both 1 and 2 have been assigned by time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Both the compounds displayed better non-linear optical (NLO) responses than the standard p-nitroaniline (pNA).

  6. Measuring the Non-Linear Effects of Monetary Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Matthes; Regis Barnichon

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to identify the non-linear effects of structural shocks by using Gaussian basis functions to parametrize impulse response functions. We apply our approach to monetary policy and find that the effect of a monetary intervention depends strongly on (i) the sign of the intervention, (ii) the size of the intervention, and (iii) the state of the business cycle at the time of the intervention. A contractionary policy has a strong adverse effect on output, much stronger t...

  7. Non-linear effects for cylindrical gravitational two-soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Tomizawa, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Using a cylindrical soliton solution to the four-dimensional vacuum Einstein equation, we study non-linear effects of gravitational waves such as Faraday rotation and time shift phenomenon. In the previous work, we analyzed the single-soliton solution constructed by the Pomeransky's improved inverse scattering method. In this work, we construct a new two-soliton solution with complex conjugate poles, by which we can avoid light-cone singularities unavoidable in a single soliton case. In particular, we compute amplitudes of such non-linear gravitational waves and time-dependence of the polarizations. Furthermore, we consider the time shift phenomenon for soliton waves, which means that a wave packet can propagate at slower velocity than light.

  8. Extreme non-linear elasticity and transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gersborg, Allan Roulund; Sigmund, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Transformation optics is a powerful concept for designing novel optical components such as high transmission waveguides and cloaking devices. The selection of specific transformations is a non-unique problem. Here we reveal that transformations which allow for all dielectric and broadband optical...... realizations correspond to minimizers of elastic energy potentials for extreme values of the mechanical Poisson's ratio ν . For TE (Hz) polarized light an incompressible transformation ν = 1/2 is ideal and for TM (E z) polarized light one should use a compressible transformation with negative Poissons's ratio...... ν = -1. For the TM polarization the mechanical analogy corresponds to a modified Liao functional known from the transformation optics literature. Finally, the analogy between ideal transformations and solid mechanical material models automates and broadens the concept of transformation optics...

  9. Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-15

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TR-2016-0055 TR-2016-0055 NON-LINEAR OPTICAL STUDIES OF IR MATERIALS WITH INFRARED FEMTOSECOND LASER Enam...ANDREAS SCHMITT-SODY, DR-III ERIN PETTYJOHN, DR-III Program Manager Deputy Chief, High Power Electromagnetics Division This...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Non-Linear Optical Studies of IR Materials with Infrared Femtosecond Laser 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9451-14-1

  10. Characterization of optical third-order non-linearities by prism coupling and pulse shape analysis on a ps timescale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offrein, B.J.; Offrein, B.J.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; van Schoot, J.B.P.; Driessen, A.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Popma, T.J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Materials with an intensity dependent index of refraction and absorption coefficient¿third-order optical non-linear (ONL) effects¿offer the possibility of all-optical signal processing. Prism coupling is a well-known tool to investigate the intensity dependent refractive index, however, such experim

  11. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  12. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  13. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  14. Effect of betanin natural dye extracted from red beet root on the non linear optical properties ZnO nanoplates embedded in polymeric matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thankappan, Aparna; Thomas, Sheenu; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2012-12-01

    In this article, we have investigated the effect of betanin natural dye extracted from red beetroot on nonlinear optical properties of ZnO nanoplates embedded in polymeric matrices through the Z-scan technique using an Nd: YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). We observed reverse saturable absorption (RSA) at 532 nm for dye and ZnO nanoplates. A strong influence on RSA behavior of nanoplates-PVA matrix was observed by adding betanin natural dye. The influence of betanin on the nonlinear character of ZnO-PVA system leads to saturable absorption and again to RSA on increasing input fluence. Such a change over in the sign of the nonlinearity is due to the interplay of the exciton bleaching and optical limiting mechanisms, and probably due the presence of sucrose. Theoretical analysis has been performed using a model based on nonlinear absorption coefficient and saturation intensity. The result of present study gives an additional mechanism for the gain enhancement in dye doped ZnO matrix.

  15. New composite glass materials for non linear optical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menke, Y.; Ferraris, M.; Corbari, C.

    2004-01-01

    Metal nanocluster composite glasses were prepared via evaporation of a thin gold layer followed by diffusion. The effect of the deposition conditions, resulting in different evaporated gold thicknesses, and the influence of diffusion temperature and time have been studied. Resonance enhancement o...

  16. Acetylenic dithiafulvene derived donor-pi-acceptor dyads: synthesis, electrochemistry and non-linear optical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brønsted; Petersen, Jan Conrad; Thorup, Niels

    2005-01-01

    A selection of donor-acceptor chromophores containing the redox-active dithiafulvene unit about acetylenic and aryl scaffolds has been synthesized. The molecules were studied for their optical, redox and structural properties. Moreover, third-order non-linear optical properties were investigated ...

  17. 640 Gbit/s optical time-division add-drop multiplexing in a non-linear optical loop mirror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2009-01-01

    Error-free 640 Gbit/s all-optical time-division add-drop multiplexing is demonstrated using a non-linear optical loop mirror. Both the add- and drop operations are achieved simultaneously by switching.......Error-free 640 Gbit/s all-optical time-division add-drop multiplexing is demonstrated using a non-linear optical loop mirror. Both the add- and drop operations are achieved simultaneously by switching....

  18. Study of the Performance of an All-Optical Half-Adder Based on Three-Core Non-Linear Directional Fiber Coupler Under Delayed and Instantaneous Non-Linear Kerr Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, J. W. M.; Fraga, W. B.; Lima, F. T.; Guimarães, G. F.; Ferreira, A. C.; Lyra, M. L.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2011-06-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the influence of the relaxation process of the non-linear response, because the usual assumption of instantaneous non-linear response fails for ultra-short pulses, and additional contributions coming from non-linear dispersion and delayed non-linearity have to be taken into account. This article presents a numerical analysis of the symmetric planar and asymmetric planar three-core non-linear directional fiber couplers operating with a soliton pulse, where effects of both delayed and instantaneous non-linear Kerr responses are analyzed for implementation of an all-optical half-adder. To implement this all-optical half-adder, eight configurations were analyzed for the non-linear directional fiber coupler, with two symmetric and six asymmetric configurations. The half-adder is the key building block for many digital processing functions, such as shift register, binary counter, and serial parallel data converters. The optical coupler is an important component for applications in optical-fiber telecommunication systems and all integrated optical circuit because of its very high switching speeds. In this numerical simulation, the symmetric/asymmetric planar presents a structure with three cores in a parallel equidistant arrangement, three logical inputs, and two output energy. To prove the effectiveness of the theoretical model for generation of the all-optical half-adder, the best phase to be applied to the control pulse was sought, and a study was done of the extinction ratio level as a function of the Δ > parameter, the normalized time duration, and the Sum and Carry outputs of the (symmetric planar/asymmetric planar) non-linear directional fiber coupler. In this article, the interest is in transmission characteristics, extinction ratio level, normalized time duration, and pulse evolution along the non-linear directional fiber coupler. To compare the performance of the all-optical half-adders, the figure of merit of the

  19. An all-optical matrix multiplication scheme with non-linear material based switching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archan Kumar Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a potential candidate in information, data, and image processing. In all-optical data and information processing, optics has been used as information carrying signal because of its inherent advantages of parallelism. Several optical methods are proposed in support of the above processing. In many algebraic,arithmetic, and image processing schemes fundamental logic and memory operations are conducted exploring all-optical devices. In this communication we report an all-optical matrix multiplication operation with non-linear material based switching circuit.

  20. Optical Sampling at 80 Gbit/s Using a Highly Non-Linear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Tersigni; Vanessa Calle; Anders Clausen; Palle Jeppesen; Kim P. Hansen; Jacob R. Folkenberg

    2003-01-01

    Optical sampling using four-wave mixing in 50m of newly developed highly non-linear photo niccrystal fiber has been achieved at 80 Gbit/s with an Extinction Ratio of 12 dB. A basic characterization is also included.

  1. Expanded porphyrins as third order non-linear optical materials: Some structure-function correlations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sabapathi Gokulnath; Tavarekere K Chandrashekar

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear optical properties of representative core-modified expanded porphyrins have been investigated with an emphasis on the structure-property relationship between the aromaticity and conformational behaviour. It has been shown that the measured two-photon absorption cross section (2) values depend on the structure of macrocycle, its aromaticity and the number of -electrons in conjugation.

  2. Non-Linear Noise Contributions in Highly Dispersive Optical Transmission Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an analytical investigation, confirmed by numerical simulations, about the non-linear noise contribution in single-channel systems adopting generic modulation-detection formats in long links with both managed and unmanaged dispersion compensation and its impact in system performance. This noise contribution is expressed in terms of a pulse non-linear interaction length and permits a simple calculation of the Q-factor. Results point out the dependence of this non-linear noise on the number of amplifiers spans, N, according to the adopted chromatic dispersion compensation scheme, the modulation-detection format, and the signal baud rate. It is also shown how the effects of polarization multiplexing can be taken into account and how this single-channel non-linear noise contribution can be used in a wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment.

  3. Non-linear optics of nano-scale pentacene thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Alfaify, S.; Jilani, Asim; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; Abutalib, M. M.; Al-Bassam, A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    We have found the new ways to investigate the linear/non-linear optical properties of nanostructure pentacene thin film deposited by thermal evaporation technique. Pentacene is the key material in organic semiconductor technology. The existence of nano-structured thin film was confirmed by atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wavelength-dependent transmittance and reflectance were calculated to observe the optical behavior of the pentacene thin film. It has been observed the anomalous dispersion at wavelength λ 800. The non-linear refractive index of the deposited films was investigated. The linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film was calculated, and we observed the non-linear optical susceptibility of pentacene thin film at about 6 × 10-13 esu. The advantage of this work is to use of spectroscopic method to calculate the liner and non-liner optical response of pentacene thin films rather than expensive Z-scan. The calculated optical behavior of the pentacene thin films could be used in the organic thin films base advanced optoelectronic devices such as telecommunications devices.

  4. A high repetition rate experimental setup for quantum non-linear optics with cold Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busche, Hannes; Ball, Simon W.; Huillery, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Using electromagnetically induced transparency and photon storage, the strong dipolar interactions between Rydberg atoms and the resulting dipole blockade can be mapped onto light fields to realise optical non-linearities and interactions at the single photon level. We report on the realisation of an experimental apparatus designed to study interactions between single photons stored as Rydberg excitations in optically trapped microscopic ensembles of ultracold 87Rb atoms. A pair of in-vacuum high numerical aperture lenses focus excitation and trapping beams down to 1 μm, well below the Rydberg blockade. Thanks to efficient magneto-optical trap (MOT) loading from an atomic beam generated by a 2D MOT and the ability to recycle the microscopic ensembles more than 20000 times without significant atom loss, we achieve effective repetition rates exceeding 110 kHz to obtain good photon counting statistics on reasonable time scales. To demonstrate the functionality of the setup, we present evidence of strong photon interactions including saturation of photon storage and the retrieval of non-classical light. Using in-vacuum antennae operating at up to 40 GHz, we perform microwave spectroscopy on photons stored as Rydberg excitations and observe an interaction induced change in lineshape depending on the number of stored photons.

  5. Nanofiber Fabry-Perot microresonator for non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Wuttke, C; Brückner, S; Rothhardt, M; Rauschenbeutel, A

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally realize a Fabry-Perot-type optical microresonator near the cesium D2 line wavelength based on a tapered optical fiber, equipped with two fiber Bragg gratings which enclose a sub-wavelength diameter waist. Owing to the very low taper losses, the finesse of the resonator reaches F = 86 while the on-resonance transmission is T = 11 %. The characteristics of our resonator fulfill the requirements of non-linear optics and cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime. In combination with its demonstrated ease of use and its advantageous mode geometry, it thus opens a realm of applications.

  6. Weak non-linear surface charging effects in electrolytic films

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, D. S.; Horgan, R. R.

    2002-01-01

    A simple model of soap films with nonionic surfactants stabilized by added electrolyte is studied. The model exhibits charge regularization due to the incorporation of a physical mechanism responsible for the formation of a surface charge. We use a Gaussian field theory in the film but the full non-linear surface terms which are then treated at a one-loop level by calculating the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann solution and then the fluctuations about this solution. We carefully analyze the reno...

  7. Non-linear mixed-effects pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling in NLME using differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Madsen, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The standard software for non-linear mixed-effect analysis of pharmacokinetic/phar-macodynamic (PK/PD) data is NONMEM while the non-linear mixed-effects package NLME is an alternative as tong as the models are fairly simple. We present the nlmeODE package which combines the ordinary differential...... equation (ODE) solver package odesolve and the non-Linear mixed effects package NLME thereby enabling the analysis of complicated systems of ODEs by non-linear mixed-effects modelling. The pharmacokinetics of the anti-asthmatic drug theophylline is used to illustrate the applicability of the nlme...

  8. Study of Linear and Non-Linear Optical Parameters of Zinc Selenide Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. N. Desai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin film of Zinc Selenide (ZnSe was deposited onto transparent glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. ZnSe thin film was characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer within the wavelength range of 310 nm-1080 nm. The Linear optical parameters (linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient, refractive index and complex dielectric constant of ZnSe thin film were analyzed from absorption spectra. The optical band gap and Urbach energy were obtained by Tauc’s equation. The volume and surface energy loss function of ZnSe thin film were obtained by complex dielectric constant. The Dispersion parameters (dispersion energy, oscillation energy, moment of optical dispersion spectra, static dielectric constant and static refractive index were calculated using theoretical Wemple-DiDomenico model. The oscillation strength, oscillator wavelength, high frequency dielectric constant and high frequency refractive index were calculated by single Sellmeier oscillator model. Also, Lattice dielectric constant, N/m* and plasma resonance frequency were obtained. The electronic polarizibility of ZnSe thin film was estimated by Clausius-Mossotti local field polarizibility. The nonlinear optical parameters (non-linear susceptibility and non-linear refractive index were estimated.

  9. Compressive sensing with dispersion compensation on non-linear wavenumber sampled spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel compressive sensing (CS) method on spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT). By replacing the widely used uniform discrete Fourier transform (UDFT) matrix with a new sensing matrix which is a modification of the non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (NUDFT) matrix, it is shown that undersampled non-linear wavenumber spectral data can be used directly in the CS reconstruction. Thus k-space grid filling and k-linear mask calibration which were proposed to obtain linear wavenumber sampling from the non-linear wavenumber interferometric spectra in previous studies of CS in SDOCT (CS-SDOCT) are no longer needed. The NUDFT matrix is modified to promote the sparsity of reconstructed A-scans by making them symmetric while preserving the value of the desired half. In addition, we show that dispersion compensation can be implemented by multiplying the frequency-dependent correcting phase directly to the real spectra, eliminating the need for constructing complex component of the real spectra. This enables the incorporation of dispersion compensation into the CS reconstruction by adding the correcting term to the modified NUDFT matrix. With this new sensing matrix, A-scan with dispersion compensation can be reconstructed from undersampled non-linear wavenumber spectral data by CS reconstruction. Experimental results show that proposed method can achieve high quality imaging with dispersion compensation.

  10. Observation and measurement of "giant" dispersive optical non-linearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Parigi, Valentina; Stanojevic, Jovica; Hilliard, Andrew J; Nogrette, Florence; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Grangier, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    We observe and measure dispersive optical non-linearities in an ensemble of cold Rydberg atoms placed inside an optical cavity. The experimental results are in agreement with a simple model where the optical non-linearities are due to the progressive appearance of a Rydberg blockaded volume within the medium. The measurements allow a direct estimation of the "blockaded fraction" of atoms within the atomic ensemble.

  11. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions.

  12. Non-Linear Optical Flow Cytometry Using a Scanned, Bessel Beam Light-Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Bradley B.; Awasthi, Samir; Lieu, Deborah K.; Chan, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Modern flow cytometry instruments have become vital tools for high-throughput analysis of single cells. However, as issues with the cellular labeling techniques often used in flow cytometry have become more of a concern, the development of label-free modalities for cellular analysis is increasingly desired. Non-linear optical phenomena (NLO) are of growing interest for label-free analysis because of the ability to measure the intrinsic optical response of biomolecules found in cells. We demonstrate that a light-sheet consisting of a scanned Bessel beam is an optimal excitation geometry for efficiently generating NLO signals in a microfluidic environment. The balance of photon density and cross-sectional area provided by the light-sheet allowed significantly larger two-photon fluorescence intensities to be measured in a model polystyrene microparticle system compared to measurements made using other excitation focal geometries, including a relaxed Gaussian excitation beam often used in conventional flow cytometers. PMID:26021750

  13. Non-linear optical properties of molecules in heterogeneous environments: a quadratic density functional/molecular mechanics response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkevicius, Zilvinas; Li, Xin; Sandberg, Jaime A R; Ågren, Hans

    2014-05-21

    We generalize a density functional theory/molecular mechanics approach for heterogeneous environments with an implementation of quadratic response theory. The updated methodology allows us to address a variety of non-linear optical, magnetic and mixed properties of molecular species in complex environments, such as combined metallic, solvent and confined organic environments. Illustrating calculations of para-nitroaniline on gold surfaces and in solution reveals a number of aspects that come into play when analyzing second harmonic generation of such systems--such as surface charge flow, coupled surface-solvent dynamics and induced geometric and electronic structure effects of the adsorbate. Some ramifications of the methodology for applied studies are discussed.

  14. Non-linear Spectroscopy of Sr Atoms in an Optical Cavity for Laser Stabilization

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Bjarke T R; Schäffer, Stefan A; Westergaard, Philip G; Ye, Jun; Holland, Murray; Thomsen, Jan W

    2015-01-01

    We study the non-linear interaction of a cold sample of strontium-88 atoms coupled to a single mode of a low finesse optical cavity in the so-called bad cavity limit and investigate the implications for applications to laser stabilization. The atoms are probed on the weak inter-combination line $\\lvert 5s^{2} \\, ^1 \\textrm{S}_0 \\rangle \\,-\\, \\lvert 5s5p \\, ^3 \\textrm{P}_1 \\rangle$ at 689 nm in a strongly saturated regime. Our measured observables include the atomic induced phase shift and absorption of the light field transmitted through the cavity represented by the complex cavity transmission coefficient. We demonstrate high signal-to-noise-ratio measurements of both quadratures - the cavity transmitted phase and absorption - by employing FM spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS). We also show that when FM spectroscopy is employed in connection with a cavity locked to the probe light, observables are substantially modified compared to the free space situation where no cavity is present. Furthermore, the non-linear dynami...

  15. Systematic treatment of non-linear effects in Baryon Acoustic Oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, Mikhail M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we will discuss the non-linear effects in the baryon acoustic oscillations and present a systematic and controllable way to account for them within time-sliced perturbation theory.

  16. Synthesis, crystal growth and studies on non-linear optical property of new chalcones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarojini, B. K.; Narayana, B.; Ashalatha, B. V.; Indira, J.; Lobo, K. G.

    2006-09-01

    The synthesis, crystal growth and non-linear optical (NLO) property of new chalcone derivatives are reported. 4-Propyloxy and 4-butoxy benzaldehydes were made to under go Claisen-Schmidt condensation with 4-methoxy, 4-nitro and 4-phenoxy acetophenones to form corresponding chalcones. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral data. The Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of these compounds was measured by powder technique using Nd:YAG laser. Among tested compounds three chalcones showed NLO property. The chalcone 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-propyloxy phenyl)-2-propen-1-one exhibited SHG conversion efficiency 2.7 times that of urea. The bulk crystal of 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-(4-butoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one (crystal size 65×28×15 mm 3) was grown by slow-evaporation technique from acetone. Microhardness of the crystal was tested by Vicker's microhardness method.

  17. Non-linear optical functions of crystalline-Si resulting from nanoscale layered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznicki, Z.T. [Laboratoire PHASE, CNRS UPR 292, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: kuznicki@phase.c-strasbourg.fr; Ley, M. [Laboratoire PHASE, CNRS UPR 292, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg cedex 2 (France); Lezec, H.J. [ISIS, ULP, 8 allee Gaspard Monge, F-67083 Strasbourg cedex (France); Sarrabayrouse, G. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rousset, B. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Rossel, F. [LAAS-CNRS, 7 av. du colonel Roche, 31077 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Migeon, H. [LAM, Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 162a, av. de la Faiaencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Wirtz, T. [LAM, Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann, 162a, av. de la Faiaencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg)

    2006-07-15

    New non-linear optoelectronic and photovoltaic behavior of crystalline silicon (c-Si) has been obtained with a strained nanoscale Si-layered system. We have found c-Si absorptances that even exceed values of amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin films. The present investigation exploits charge carrier and photon flux transformations at the so-called carrier collection limit. A correlation between free carrier density and the absorption coefficient could be established by combining reflectivity and transmissivity measurements on samples having different surface free carrier reservoirs. In summary, Si modifications implemented on the nanoscale lead to new effects that can widen applications of conventional Si devices.

  18. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y; Boughzala, H; Minot, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm(-1)]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole mu, the polarizability alpha and the hyperpolarizability beta were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero beta value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Minot, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm -1]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior.

  20. Electronic states and the resonant optical non-linearity of exciton in a narrow band InSb quantum dot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narayanan, M. [Department of Physics, Yadava College Govindarajan Campus, Thiruppalai, Madurai-625 014 (India); John Peter, A., E-mail: a.john.peter@gmail.com [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chang Kyoo [Center for Environmental Studies/Green Energy Center, Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seocheon-dong 1, Giheung-gu, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-01

    Binding energy, interband emission energy and the non-linear optical properties of exciton in an InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} quantum dot are computed as functions of dot radius and the Ga content. Optical properties are obtained using the compact density matrix approach. The dependence of non-linear optical processes on the dot sizes is investigated for different Ga concentrations. The linear, third order non-linear optical absorption coefficients, susceptibility values and the refractive index changes of the exciton are calculated for different concentrations of gallium content. It is found that gallium concentration has great influence on the optical properties of InSb/InGa{sub x}Sb{sub 1-x} dots.

  1. Polarization effects in the non-linear Compton scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Y; Serbo, V G

    2005-01-01

    We consider emission of a photon by an electron in the field of a strong laser wave. A probability of this process for circularly or linearly polarized laser photons and for arbitrary polarization of all other particles is calculated. We obtain the complete set of functions which describe such a probability in a compact invariant form. Besides, we discuss in some detail the polarization effects in the kinematics relevant to the problem of electron to photon conversion at photon-photon and electron-photon colliders.

  2. Non-linear optical processes involving excited subbands in laser-dressed quantum wires with triangular cross-section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, A.; Duque, C. A.

    2015-08-01

    The conduction subband structure of a triangular cross-section GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well wire under intense laser field is theoretically investigated by taking into account a finite confining potential. The calculation of the subband energy levels is based on a two-dimensional finite element method within the effective mass approximation. It is shown that a transversally polarized laser field non-uniformly shifts the subband energy levels and could be used for tuning the intersubband transitions and altering the related optical susceptibilities. We found that the non-resonant laser field allows the magnification and the red- or blueshift of the third-order non-linear susceptibility peaks for particular polarizations of the pump light and proper laser parameter values. The effects of the laser dressing field on the intersubband third harmonic generation and quadratic electro-optical process are discussed.

  3. Crystal growth of an organic non-linear optical material from the vapour phase

    CERN Document Server

    Hou, W

    1999-01-01

    Due to the potential applications of organic non-linear optical materials in the areas of optical processing and communication, the investigation of the crystal growth of new organic NLO materials has been an active field for the last 20 years. For such uses it is necessary to produce single crystals of high quality and perfection, free of strain and defects. When crystals are grown from the solution and the melt, solvent and the decomposition component in the melt can introduce impurities and imperfection to the as-grown crystals. For crystals grown from vapour phase, in the absence of the solvent, this cannot occur and the method promises to yield single crystals of higher quality. Despite this attraction, little attention has been paid to the vapour phase growth of organic NLO crystals. It was with this in mind that the following investigation was carried out. Using Methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (p-MHB), a potential organic NLO material, a comparison investigation was made of its crystal growth from both the va...

  4. Vibrational spectra and non linear optical proprieties of L-histidine oxalate: DFT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Elleuch, N.; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Minot, C.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a nonlinear optical material L-histidine oxalate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric structure in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine oxalate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of orthorhombic system. The FT-IR and Raman spectra of L-histidine oxalate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wave numbers were examined theoretical with the aid of Gaussian98 package of programs using the DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The data obtained from vibrational wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in IR and Raman spectroscopy of the studied compound. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the values of similar structures. To investigate microscopic second order non-linear optical NLO behaviour of the examined complex, the electric dipole μtot, the polarizability αtot and the hyperpolarizability βtot were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculation, the title compound exhibits non-zero βtot value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour.

  5. Surface and Atmospheric Parameter Retrieval From AVIRIS Data: The Importance of Non-Linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Robert O.; Moreno, Jose F.

    1996-01-01

    AVIRIS data represent a new and important approach for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface parameters from optical remote sensing data. Not only as a test for future space systems, but also as an operational airborne remote sensing system, the development of algorithms to retrieve information from AVIRIS data is an important step to these new approaches and capabilities. Many things have been learned since AVIRIS became operational, and the successive technical improvements in the hardware and the more sophisticated calibration techniques employed have increased the quality of the data to the point of almost meeting optimum user requirements. However, the potential capabilities of imaging spectrometry over the standard multispectral techniques have still not been fully demonstrated. Reasons for this are the technical difficulties in handling the data, the critical aspect of calibration for advanced retrieval methods, and the lack of proper models with which to invert the measured AVIRIS radiances in all the spectral channels. To achieve the potential of imaging spectrometry, these issues must be addressed. In this paper, an algorithm to retrieve information about both atmospheric and surface parameters from AVIRIS data, by using model inversion techniques, is described. Emphasis is put on the derivation of the model itself as well as proper inversion techniques, robust to noise in the data and an inadequate ability of the model to describe natural variability in the data. The problem of non-linear effects is addressed, as it has been demonstrated to be a major source of error in the numerical values retrieved by more simple, linear-based approaches. Non-linear effects are especially critical for the retrieval of surface parameters where both scattering and absorption effects are coupled, as well as in the cases of significant multiple-scattering contributions. However, sophisticated modeling approaches can handle such non-linear effects, which are especially

  6. Non-linear effects of soda taxes on consumption and weight outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Frisvold, David E; Tefft, Nathan

    2015-05-01

    The potential health impacts of imposing large taxes on soda to improve population health have been of interest for over a decade. As estimates of the effects of existing soda taxes with low rates suggest little health improvements, recent proposals suggest that large taxes may be effective in reducing weight because of non-linear consumption responses or threshold effects. This paper tests this hypothesis in two ways. First, we estimate non-linear effects of taxes using the range of current rates. Second, we leverage the sudden, relatively large soda tax increase in two states during the early 1990s combined with new synthetic control methods useful for comparative case studies. Our findings suggest virtually no evidence of non-linear or threshold effects.

  7. Rigid Coumarins: a Complete DFT, TD-DFT and Non Linear Optical Property Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanke, Sandip K; Sekar, Nagaiyan

    2015-09-01

    The electronic structures and photophysical properties of rigid coumarin dyes have been studied by using quantum chemical methods. The ground-state geometries of these dyes were optimized using the Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods. The lowest singlet excited state was optimized using Time -Dependent Density Functional Theory [TD-B3LYP/6-31G(d)]. On the basis of ground- and excited-state geometries, the absorption and emission spectra have been calculated using the DFT and TD-DFT method. All the calculations were carried out in gas phase and in acetonitrile medium. The results show that the absorption maxima and fluorescence emission maxima calculated using the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory is in good agreement with the available experimental results. To understand the Non- Linear Optical properties of coumarin dyes we computed dipole moment (μ), electronic polarizability (α), mean first hyperpolarizability (βo) and second hyperpolarizability (γ) using B3LYP density functional theory method in conjunction with 6-31G(d) basis set.

  8. Physical origin of third order non-linear optical response of porphyrin nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongwaketsi, N., E-mail: nanky@tlabs.ac.za [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); CSIR Biosciences, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Khamlich, S. [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pranaitis, M. [LUNAM Universite, Universite d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 ANGERS cedex (France); Sahraoui, B., E-mail: bouchta.sahraoui@univ-angers.fr [LUNAM Universite, Universite d' Angers, CNRS UMR 6200, Laboratoire MOLTECH-Anjou, 2 bd Lavoisier, 49045 ANGERS cedex (France); Khammar, F. [Universite Cherif Messadia, BP: 1553, Souk-Ahras 41000 (Algeria); Garab, G. [Institute of Plant Biology, Biological Research Centre, P.O. Box 521, Szeged H-6701 (Hungary); Sparrow, R. [CSIR Biosciences, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Maaza, M. [NANOAFNET, MRD- iThemba LABS, 1 Old Faure Road, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa)

    2012-06-15

    The non-linear optical properties of porphyrin nanorods were studied using Z-scan, Second and Third harmonic generation techniques. We investigated in details the heteroaggregate behaviour formation of [H{sub 4}TPPS{sub 4}]{sup 2-} and [SnTPyP]{sup 2+} mixture by means of the UV-VIS spectroscopy and aggregates structure and morphology by transmission electron microscopy. The porphyrin nanorods under investigation were synthesized by self assembly and molecular recognition method. They have been optimized in view of future application in the construction of the light harvesting system. The focus of this study was geared towards understanding the influence of the type of solvent used on these porphyrins nanorods using spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We synthesized porphyrin nanorods by self assembly and molecular recognition method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TEM images confirmed solid cylindrical shapes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-VIS spectroscopy showed the decrease in the absorbance peaks of the precursors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The enhanced third-order nonlinearities were observed.

  9. Crystal growth and characterisation of mixed niobates for non-linear optical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Q

    1999-01-01

    Temperature tuned NCPM has been realised by using both wavelengths. The measured phase matching temperatures increase with increasing spontaneous polarisation. KLN also has large non-linear optical coefficient (d sub 3 sub 1 =2.14 d sub 3 sub 1 sup l sup i sup N sup b sup O sup 3), a reasonably high damage threshold (1.75 times that of LiNbO sub 3), wide temperature acceptance (approx 5 deg C) and angular acceptance (approx 8 deg). Potassium sodium niobate (K sub x Na sub 1 sub - sub x NbO sub 3 , KNN) crystals have been grown and they are confirmed to be ferroelectric. However, they are unstable and break up into small pieces after a short period of time. By employing ferroelectric phenomenological theory, it is revealed that the birefringence of a ferroelectric crystal consists of two parts: one relating to a ferroelectric free of any electrical displacement and the other depending on the spontaneous polarisation. The theoretical outcomes provide a brief explanation of the experimental results in modifying ...

  10. Non-linear effects in transition edge sensors for X-ray detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: sbandler@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov; Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Murphy, K.D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    In a microcalorimeter that uses a transition-edge sensor to detect energy depositions, the small signal energy resolution improves with decreasing heat capacity. This improvement remains true up to the point where non-linear and saturation effects become significant. This happens when the energy deposition causes a significant change in the sensor resistance. Not only does the signal size become a non-linear function of the energy deposited, but also the noise becomes non-stationary over the duration of the pulse. Algorithms have been developed that can calculate the optimal performance given this non-linear behavior that typically requires significant processing and calibration work-both of which are impractical for space missions. We have investigated the relative importance of the various non-linear effects, with the hope that a computationally simple transformation can overcome the largest of the non-linear and non-stationary effects, producing a highly linear 'gain' for pulse-height versus energy, and close to the best energy resolution at all energies when using a Wiener filter.

  11. Correction of non-linearity effects in detectors for electron spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mannella, N; Kay, A W; Nambu, A; Gresch, T; Yang, S H; Mun, B S; Bussat, J M; Rosenhahn, A; Fadley, C S

    2004-01-01

    Using photoemission intensities and a detection system employed by many groups in the electron spectroscopy community as an example, we have quantitatively characterized and corrected detector non-linearity effects over the full dynamic range of the system. Non-linearity effects are found to be important whenever measuring relative peak intensities accurately is important, even in the low-countrate regime. This includes, for example, performing quantitative analyses for surface contaminants or sample bulk stoichiometries, where the peak intensities involved can differ by one or two orders of magnitude, and thus could occupy a significant portion of the detector dynamic range. Two successful procedures for correcting non-linearity effects are presented. The first one yields directly the detector efficiency by measuring a flat-background reference intensity as a function of incident x-ray flux, while the second one determines the detector response from a least-squares analysis of broad-scan survey spectra at di...

  12. Vibrational spectra and non linear optical proprieties of L-histidine oxalate: DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Elleuch, N; Feki, H; Abid, Y; Minot, C

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a nonlinear optical material L-histidine oxalate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric structure in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine oxalate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro symmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) of orthorhombic system. The FT-IR and Raman spectra of L-histidine oxalate were recorded and analyzed. The vibrational wave numbers were examined theoretical with the aid of Gaussian98 package of programs using the DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory. The data obtained from vibrational wave number calculations are used to assign vibrational bands obtained in IR and Raman spectroscopy of the studied compound. The geometrical parameters of the title compound are in agreement with the values of similar structures. To investigate microscopic second order non-linear optical NLO behaviour of the examined complex, the electric dipole μ(tot), the polarizability α(tot) and the hyperpolarizability β(tot) were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. According to our calculation, the title compound exhibits non-zero β(tot) value revealing microscopic second order NLO behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular free length

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjan Dey; Arvind K Singh; N K Soni; B S Bisht; J D Pandey

    2006-08-01

    Computation of non-linearity parameter (/), molecular radius (rm) and intermolecular free length (f) for H2O, C6H6, C6H12, CH3OH, C2H5OH and their deuterium-substituted compounds have been carried out at four different temperatures, viz., 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K. The aim of the investigation is an attempt to study the isotopic effects on the non-linearity parameter and the physicochemical properties of the liquids, which in turn has been used to study their effect on the intermolecular interactions produced thereof.

  14. Mixed mono- and multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s with non-linear optically active side chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, M.N.; Hagting, J.G.; Oostergetel, G.T.; Schouten, A.J.; Devillers, M.A.C.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    1994-01-01

    The properties and structure of Langmuir-Blodgett mono- and multilayers of several poly(isocyanide)s with non-linear optically active side-chains were studied. These polymers formed very rigid layers or layers which appeared to be unstable. To circumvent this problem they were mixed with other poly(

  15. Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical Properties of Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-25

    t ,, A FILE C’D AD-A2 23 855 Sixth Quarterly Technical Report Analysis and Evaluation of Technical Data on the Photochromic and Non-Linear Optical...the back surface of a transparent support and place an absorbing beam dump behind and at an angle to that of the reflective coating . In this

  16. Polarised Raman and infrared spectral analysis of L-alanine oxalate (C5H9NO6)--a non-linear optical single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V; Nagalakshmi, R

    2006-06-01

    L-alanine oxalate (C5H9NO6), a promising material for effective frequency conversion, was grown by standard slow evaporation technique. Solubility studies were carried out at different temperatures. Unambiguous assignments of fundamental modes of various molecular groups were made from the recorded infrared and polarised Raman spectra. The non-linear optical property has been confirmed from the optical transmission and fluorescence spectra.

  17. Non-linear simulations of ELMs in ASDEX Upgrade including diamagnetic drift effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lessig, Alexander; Hoelzl, Matthias; Krebs, Isabel; Franck, Emmanuel; Guenter, Sibylle [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Orain, Francois; Morales, Jorge; Becoulet, Marina [CEA-IRFM, Cadarache, 13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Huysmans, Guido [ITER Organization, 13067 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2015-05-01

    Large edge localized modes (ELMs) are a severe concern for ITER due to high transient heat loads on divertor targets and wall structures. Using the non-linear MHD code JOREK, we have performed ELM simulations for ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) including diamagnetic drift effects. The influence of diamagnetic terms onto the evolution of the toroidal mode spectrum for different AUG equilibria and the non-linear interaction of the toroidal harmonics are investigated. In particular, we confirm the diamagnetic stabilization of high mode numbers and present new features of a previously introduced quadratic mode coupling model for the early non-linear evolution of the mode structure. Preliminary comparisons of full ELM crashes with experimental observations are shown aiming at code validation and the understanding of different ELM types. Work is ongoing to include toroidal and neoclassical poloidal rotation in our simulations.

  18. Slow relaxation of the magnetization in non-linear optical active layered mixed metal oxalate chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariati, Elena; Ugo, Renato; Santoro, Giuseppe; Tordin, Elisa; Sorace, Lorenzo; Caneschi, Andrea; Sironi, Angelo; Macchi, Piero; Casati, Nicola

    2010-12-06

    New Co(II) members of the family of multifunctional materials of general formula [DAMS](4)[M(2)Co(C(2)O(4))(6)]·2DAMBA·2H(2)O (M(III) = Rh, Fe, Cr; DAMBA = para-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and [DAMS(+)] = trans-4-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-1-methylpyridinium) have been isolated and characterized. Such new hybrid mixed metal oxalates are isostructural with the previously investigated containing Zn(II), Mn(II), and Ni(II). This allows to preserve the exceptional second harmonic generation (SHG) activity, due to both the large molecular quadratic hyperpolarizability of [DAMS(+)] and the efficiency of the crystalline network which organizes [DAMS(+)] into head-to-tail arranged J-type aggregates, and to further tune the magnetic properties. In particular, the magnetic data of the Rh(III) derivative demonstrate that high spin octacoordinated Co(II) centers behave very similarly to the hexacoordinated Co(II) ones, being dominated by a large orbital contribution. The Cr(III) derivative is characterized by ferromagnetic Cr(III)-Co(II) interactions. Most relevantly, the Fe(III) compound is characterized by a moderate antiferromagnetic interaction between Fe(III) and Co(II), resulting in a ferrimagnetic like structure. Its low temperature dynamic magnetic properties were found to follow a thermally activated behavior (τ(0) = 8.6 × 10(-11) s and ΔE = 21.4 K) and make this a candidate for the second oxalate-based single chain magnet (SCM) reported up to date, a property which in this case is coupled to the second order non linear optical (NLO) ones.

  19. Hybrid microscopy of human carotid atheroma by means of optical-resolution optoacoustic and non-linear optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Markus; Karlas, Angelos; Soliman, Dominik; Pelisek, Jaroslav; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2017-03-01

    Carotid atheromatosis is causally related to stroke, a leading cause of disability and death. We present the analysis of a human carotid atheroma using a novel hybrid microscopy system that combines optical-resolution optoacoustic (photoacoustic) microscopy and several non-linear optical microscopy modalities (second and third harmonic generation, as well as, two-photon excitation fluorescence) to achieve a multimodal examination of the extracted tissue within the same imaging framework. Our system enables the label-free investigation of atheromatous human carotid tissue with a resolution of about 1 μm and allows for the congruent interrogation of plaque morphology and clinically relevant constituents such as red blood cells, collagen, and elastin. Our data reveal mutual interactions between blood embeddings and connective tissue within the atheroma, offering comprehensive insights into its stage of evolution and severity, and potentially facilitating the further development of diagnostic tools, as well as treatment strategies.

  20. Gravitational-wave tail effects to quartic non-linear order

    CERN Document Server

    Marchand, Tanguy; Faye, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational-wave tails are due to the backscattering of linear waves onto the space-time curvature generated by the total mass of the matter source. The dominant tails correspond to quadratic non-linear interactions and arise at the one-and-a-half post-Newtonian (1.5PN) order in the gravitational waveform. Also known are the "tails-of-tails", which are cubically non-linear effects appearing at the 3PN order in the waveform. Here we derive still higher non-linear tail effects, namely those associated with quartic non-linear interactions or "tails-of-tails-of-tails", which are shown to arise at the 4.5PN order. As an application we obtain at that order the complete coefficient in the total gravitational-wave energy flux of compact binary systems moving on circular orbits. Our result perfectly agrees with black-hole perturbation calculations in the limit of extreme mass ratio of the two compact objects.

  1. Study of Rydberg blockade mediated optical non-linearity in thermal vapor using optical heterodyne detection technique

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmick, Arup; Mohapatra, Ashok K

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the phenomenon of blockade in two-photon excitations to the Rydberg state in thermal vapor. A technique based on optical heterodyne is used to measure the dispersion of a probe beam far off resonant to the D2 line of rubidium in the presence of a strong laser beam that couples to the Rydberg state via two-photon resonance. Density dependent suppression of the dispersion peak is observed while coupling to the Rydberg state with principal quantum number, n = 60. The experimental observation is explained using the phenomenon of Rydberg blockade. The blockade radius is measured to be about 2.2 {\\mu}m which is consistent with the scaling due to the Doppler width of 2-photon resonance in thermal vapor. Our result promises the realization of single photon source and strong single photon non-linearity based on Rydberg blockade in thermal vapor.

  2. Non-linear direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate of terrestrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dan; Du, Enzai; Sun, Zhengzhong; Zeng, Xuetong; de Vries, Wim

    2017-09-12

    Anthropogenic emissions of acid precursors have enhanced global occurrence of acid rain, especially in East Asia. Acid rain directly suppresses leaf function by eroding surface waxes and cuticle and leaching base cations from mesophyll cells, while the simultaneous foliar uptake of nitrates in rainwater may directly benefit leaf photosynthesis and plant growth, suggesting a non-linear direct effect of acid rain. By synthesizing data from literature on acid rain exposure experiments, we assessed the direct effects of acid rain on leaf photosynthesis across 49 terrestrial plants in China. Our results show a non-linear direct effect of acid rain on leaf photosynthetic rate, including a neutral to positive effect above pH 5.0 and a negative effect below that pH level. The acid rain sensitivity of leaf photosynthesis showed no significant difference between herbs and woody species below pH 5.0, but the impacts above that pH level were strongly different, resulting in a significant increase in leaf photosynthetic rate of woody species and an insignificant effect on herbs. Our analysis also indicates a positive effect of the molar ratio of nitric versus sulfuric acid in the acid solution on leaf photosynthetic rate. These findings imply that rainwater acidity and the composition of acids both affect the response of leaf photosynthesis and therefore result in a non-linear direct effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Application of BP neural networks in non-linearity correction of optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziqiang WANG; Yinmei LI; Liren LOU; Henghua WEI; Zhong WANG

    2008-01-01

    The back-propagation (BP) neural network is proposed to correct nonlinearity and optimize the force measurement and calibration of an optical tweezer sys-tem. Considering the low convergence rate of the BP algo-rithm, the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm is used to improve the BP network. The proposed method is experimentally studied for force calibration in a typical optical tweezer system using hydromechanics. The result shows that with the nonlinear correction using BP net-works, the range of force measurement of an optical tweezer system is enlarged by 30% and the precision is also improved compared with the polynomial fitting method. It is demonstrated that nonlinear correction by the neural network method effectively improves the per-formance of optical tweezers without adding or changing the measuring system.

  4. Non-linear effects on solute transfer between flowing water and a sediment bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Makoto; Stefan, Heinz G

    2011-11-15

    A previously developed model of periodic pore water flow in space and time, and associated solute transport in a stream bed of fine sand is extended to coarse sand and fine gravel. The pore water flow immediately below the sediment/water interface becomes intermittently a non-Darcy flow. The periodic pressure and velocity fluctuations considered are induced by near-bed coherent turbulent motions in the stream flow; they penetrate from the sediment/water interface into the sediment pore system and are described by a wave number (χ) and a period (T) that are given as functions of the shear velocity (U(∗)) between the flowing water and the sediment bed. The stream bed has a flat surface without bed forms. The flow field in the sediment pore system is described by the continuity equation and a resistance law that includes both viscous (Darcy) and non-linear (inertial) effects. Simulation results show that non-linear (inertial) effects near the sediment/water interface increase flow resistance and reduce mean flow velocities. Compared to pure Darcy flow, non-linear (inertial) effects reduce solute exchange rates between overlying water and the sediment bed but only by a moderate amount (less than 50%). Turbulent coherent flow structures in the stream flow enhance solute transfer in the pore system of a stream bed compared to pure molecular diffusion, but by much less than standing surface waves or bed forms.

  5. Non linear field correction effects on the dynamic aperture of the FCC-hh

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00361058; Seryi, Andrei; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Martin, Roman; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio

    2017-01-01

    The Future Circular Collider (FCC) design study aims to develop the designs of possible circular colliders in the post LHC era. In particular the FCC-hh will aim to produce proton-proton collisions at a center of mass energy of 100 TeV. Given the large beta functions and integrated length of the quadrupoles of the final focus triplet the effect of systematic and random non linear errors in the magnets are expected to have a severe impact on the stability of the beam. Following the experience on the HL-LHC this work explores the implementation of non-linear correctors to minimize the resonance driving terms arising from the errors of the triplet. Dynamic aperture studies are then performed to study the impact of this correction.

  6. Non-linear dynamics of Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetized jets three-dimensional effects

    CERN Document Server

    Keppens, R

    1999-01-01

    A numerical study of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in compressible magnetohydrodynamics is presented. The three-dimensional simulations consider shear flow in a cylindrical jet configuration, embedded in a uniform magnetic field directed along the jet axis. The growth of linear perturbations at specified poloidal and axial mode numbers demonstrate intricate non-linear coupling effects. The physical mechanims leading to induced secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at higher mode numbers are identified. The initially weak magnetic field becomes locally dominant in the non-linear dynamics before and during saturation. Thereby, it controls the jet deformation and eventual breakup. The results are obtained using the Versatile Advection Code [G. Toth, Astrophys. Lett. Comm. 34, 245 (1996)], a software package designed to solve general systems of conservation laws. An independent calculation of the same Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable jet configuration using a three-dimensional pseudo-spectral code gives important ...

  7. Importance of the alignment of polar π conjugated molecules inside carbon nanotubes in determining second-order non-linear optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Wataru

    2017-09-20

    We employed density functional theory (DFT) calculations with dispersion corrections to investigate energetically preferred alignments of certain p,p'-dimethylaminonitrostilbene (DANS) molecules inside an armchair (m,m) carbon nanotube (n × DANS@(m,m)), where the number of inner molecules (n) is no greater than 3. Here, three types of alignments of DANS are considered: a linear alignment in a parallel fashion and stacking alignments in parallel and antiparallel fashions. According to DFT calculations, a threshold tube diameter for containing DANS molecules in linear or stacking alignments was found to be approximately 1.0 nm. Nanotubes with diameters smaller than 1.0 nm result in the selective formation of linearly aligned DANS molecules due to strong confinement effects within the nanotubes. By contrast, larger diameter nanotubes allow DANS molecules to align in a stacking and linear fashion. The type of alignment adopted by the DANS molecules inside a nanotube is responsible for their second-order non-linear optical properties represented by their static hyperpolarizability (β0 values). In fact, we computed β0 values of DANS assemblies taken from optimized n × DANS@(m,m) structures, and their values were compared with those of a single DANS molecule. DFT calculations showed that β0 values of DANS molecules depend on their alignment, which decrease in the following order: linear alignment > parallel stacking alignment > antiparallel stacking alignment. In particular, a linear alignment has a β0 value more significant than that of the same number of isolated molecules. Therefore, the linear alignment of DANS molecules, which is only allowed inside smaller diameter nanotubes, can strongly enhance their second-order non-linear optical properties. Since the nanotube confinement determines the alignment of DANS molecules, a restricted nanospace can be utilized to control their second-order non-linear optical properties. These DFT findings can assist in the design

  8. Non-linear magnetization effects within the Kosterlitz-Thouless theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfatto, Lara; Castellani, Claudio; Giamarchi, Thierry

    2008-03-01

    Recent experiments in cuprate superconductors have attracted the attention on the role of vortex fluctuations. Measurements of the field-induced magnetization showed that the correlation length diverge exponentially, as predicted within the Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) theory. However, it is somehow puzzling thepersistence of strong non-linear magnetization effects at low field. Here we address this issue by means of a new theoretical approach to the KT transition at finite magnetic field, based on the sine-Gordon model. This approach is particularly useful in two respects. First, it leads to a straightforward definition of the field-induced magnetization as a function of the external magnetic field H instead of the magnetic induction B, which is crucial to get a consistent description of the Meissner phase. Second, it allows us to identify the cross-over field Hcr from linear to non-linear magnetization both below and above the transition. Above TKT Hcr turns out to scale as the inverse correlation length, so that it decreases as the transition is approached. As a consequence, the fact that only the non-linear regime is accessible experimentally should be interpreted as a typical signature of the fast divergence of the correlation length within the KT theory. L.Benfatto, C.Castellani and T.Giamarchi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 207002 (2007)

  9. Soil non-linearity and its effect on the dynamic behaviour of offshore platform foundations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madshus, Christian

    1997-07-01

    in the laboratory tests. It was also found that models where the hysteretic non-linearity is approximated by any type of viscous or complex stiffness effect will severely overpredict the soil damping of the superimposed load component. The resonant response of dynamic systems with cyclically time-varying stiffness has been studied through numerical simulations and analytical derivations. The responses of these systems have been compared to numerically simulated responses of systems with real hysteretic non-linearity and comparable loading. It has been concluded that the time-varying systems reasonably well reproduce the resonant response of the non-linear systems for most situations. The time-varying system approach is proposed as a candidate method for linearization of dynamic platform foundation response analyses. The thesis recommends investigations for further validation of the findings made in the thesis before the approach may be utilized in platform design. Recommendations are also given on improved methods for platform foundation monitoring systems and for improving elasto-plastic constitutive soil models.

  10. Using high-frequency vibrations and non-linear inclusions to create metamaterials with adjustable effective properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2009-01-01

    We investigate how high-frequency (HF) excitation combined with strongly non-linear elasticity may influence the effective properties for low-frequency wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated for linear spring-mass chains with embedded non-linear parts. The investigated mechanical syste...

  11. Current distribution effects in patterned non-linear magnetoresistive tunnel junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Montaigne, F; Schuhl, A

    2000-01-01

    To be used in submicronic devices like magnetic memories, magnetic tunnel junctions require low resistances. Four-probe measurements of such resistances are often altered by non-uniformity of the current distribution in the junction. The measured resistance is decreased by localised preferential conduction and increased by voltage drop in the measure electrode. Competition between these two effects is investigated as a function of the geometry. The non-linear conduction of tunnel junctions amplifies dramatically these phenomena and can modify by more than 50% the measured resistance.

  12. High-frequency effects in 1D spring-mass systems with strongly non-linear inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Snaeland, S.O.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2010-01-01

    -like systems with embedded non-linear parts, where the masses interact with a limited set of neighbour masses. The presented analytical and numerical results show that the effective properties for LF wave propagation can be altered by establishing HF standing waves in the non-linear regions of the chain......This work generalises the possibilities to change the effective material or structural properties for low frequency (LF) wave propagation, by using high-frequency (HF) external excitation combined with strong non-linear and non-local material behaviour. The effects are demonstrated on 1D chain....... The changes affect the effective stiffness and damping of the system....

  13. An effective description of dark matter and dark energy in the mildly non-linear regime

    CERN Document Server

    Lewandowski, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    In the next few years, we are going to probe the low-redshift universe with unprecedented accuracy. Among the various fruits that this will bear, it will greatly improve our knowledge of the dynamics of dark energy, though for this there is a strong theoretical preference for a cosmological constant. We assume that dark energy is described by the so-called Effective Field Theory of Dark Energy, which assumes that dark energy is the Goldstone boson of time translations. Such a formalism makes it easy to ensure that our signatures are consistent with well-established principles of physics. Since most of the information resides at high wavenumbers, it is important to be able to make predictions at the highest wavenumber that is possible. The Effective Field Theory of Large-Scale Structure (EFTofLSS) is a theoretical framework that has allowed us to make accurate predictions in the mildly non-linear regime. In this paper, we derive the non-linear equations that extend the EFTofLSS to include the effect of dark en...

  14. Study of Linear and Non-Linear Optical Parameters of Zinc Selenide Thin Film

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, H. N.; J. M. Dhimmar

    2015-01-01

    Thin film of Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) was deposited onto transparent glass substrate by thermal evaporation technique. ZnSe thin film was characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer within the wavelength range of 310 nm-1080 nm. The Linear optical parameters (linear optical absorption, extinction coefficient, refractive index and complex dielectric constant) of ZnSe thin film were analyzed from absorption spectra. The optical band gap and Urbach energy were obtained by Tauc’s equati...

  15. Synthesis and Non-linear Optical(NLO) Properties of a Series of Alkoxysilane Derivative Chromophores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Zuo-sen; ZHANG Xiao-long; WANG Shi-wei; ZHAO Li-sha; CUI Zhan-chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Nonlinear optical materials(NLO) have drawn a great intrest of some scholars and scientists in the last dacades because of their tremendous potential application in optoelectronic~[1]. The fabrication of efficient optoelectron devices is a challenging task because such systems need to meet the stringentable requirements for high optical quality and large and sustainable electro-optical(EO) response[2]. In pursuit of NLO materials with excellent optoelectronic property, a number of organic and inorganic materials have been investigated. Among them, organic-inorganic hybrid materials have drawn a great interest due to their good thermal stabilities, low optical loss and convenience in fabricating their thin films[3-6].

  16. The Non-Linear Effect of Corporate Taxes on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huňady Ján

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of taxation and its potential impact on economic growth and presents some new empirical insights into this topic. The main aim of the paper is to verify an assumed nonlinear impact of corporate tax rates on economic growth. Based on the theory of public finance and taxation, we hypothesize that at relatively low tax rates it is possible that the impact of taxation on economic growth become slightly positive. On the other hand when the tax rates are higher a negative impact of taxation on economic growth could be expected. Despite the fact that the most of the existing studies find a negative linear relationship between these variables, we can also find strong support for a non-linear relationship from several theoretical models as well as some empirical studies. Based on panel data fixed-effects econometric models, we, as well, find empirical evidence for a non-linear relationship between nominal and effective corporate tax rates and economic growth. Our data consists of annual observations for the period 1999 to 2011 for EU Member States. Based on the results, we also estimated the optimal level of the corporate tax rate in terms of maximizing economic growth in the average of the EU countries.

  17. Visualization of mouse neuronal ganglia infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1 using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Alexandre Rochette

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1 is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry, which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives.

  18. Synthesis and non linear optical properties of new inorganic-organic hybrid material: 4-Benzylpiperidinium sulfate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, Yassmin; Ahmed, Ali Ben; Al-Juaid, Salih S.; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The synthesized compound was characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible and photoluminescence studies. The title compound crystallises at room temperature in the non centrosymmetric space group P212121.The recorded UV-visible spectrum show good transparency in the visible region and indicates a non-zero value of the first Hyperpolarizability. Photoluminescence spectrum shows a broad and intense band at 440 nm and indicates that the crystal emits blue fluorescence. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), Polarizability (α), the static first Hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound was theoretically investigated by GAUSSIAN 03 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 6.4022 × 10-31 esu. The results show that 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate crystal might have important non linear optical behavior and can be a potential non linear optical material of interest.

  19. Visualization of mouse neuronal ganglia infected by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) using multimodal non-linear optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochette, Pierre-Alexandre; Laliberté, Mathieu; Bertrand-Grenier, Antony; Houle, Marie-Andrée; Blache, Marie-Claire; Légaré, François; Pearson, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus that causes skin lesions and goes on to enter a latent state in neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. Following stress, the virus may reactivate from latency leading to recurrent lesions. The in situ study of neuronal infections by HSV-1 is critical to understanding the mechanisms involved in the biology of this virus and how it causes disease; however, this normally requires fixation and sectioning of the target tissues followed by treatment with contrast agents to visualize key structures, which can lead to artifacts. To further our ability to study HSV-1 neuropathogenesis, we have generated a recombinant virus expressing a second generation red fluorescent protein (mCherry), which behaves like the parental virus in vivo. By optimizing the application of a multimodal non-linear optical microscopy platform, we have successfully visualized in unsectioned trigeminal ganglia of mice both infected cells by two-photon fluorescence microscopy, and myelinated axons of uninfected surrounding cells by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. These results represent the first report of CARS microscopy being combined with 2-photon fluorescence microscopy to visualize virus-infected cells deep within unsectioned explanted tissue, and demonstrate the application of multimodal non-linear optical microscopy for high spatial resolution biological imaging of tissues without the use of stains or fixatives.

  20. Strong Glacial Cooling In The Middle Tropical Troposphere Due To Non-linear Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, S. J.; Lohmann, G.

    Numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model for glacial and interglacial climates have been performed. Our model experiments reveal that slightly cooler tropical sea surface temperatures (SST) relative to the ones previously recon- structed by the CLIMAP project (1981) are sufficient to exhibit a strong glacial cool- ing reconstructed by tropical snow lines. The increased cooling in our experiments can be attributed to two non-linear effects: Firstly, there is an increased environmental lapse rate in the free atmosphere. Slightly cooler glacial SSTs provide for less abso- lute moisture content and the Clausius-Clapeyron equation of moisture is accountable for an increased lapse rate. In our LGM simulation we find an additional two degrees cooling in the tropical middle troposphere. Secondly, the surface air temperature near tropical glaciers is further cooled by a longer duration of snow cover. Our model result provides a consistent view of the last glacial maximum climate with much colder tem- peratures than today in the tropical mountains in concordance with moderate lowering of tropical SSTs. We propose that these non-linearities in the climate system are also important when detecting global warming from tropical snow lines.

  1. Fitness Effects of Network Non-Linearity Induced by Gene Expression Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Christian; Cooper, Tim; Balazsi, Gabor

    2012-02-01

    In the non-equilibrium dynamics of growing microbial cells, metabolic enzymes can create non-linearities in metabolite concentration because of non-linear degradation (utilization): an enzyme can saturate in the process of metabolite utilization. Increasing metabolite production past the saturation point then results in an ultrasensitive metabolite response. If the production rate of a metabolite depends on a second enzyme or other protein-mediated process, uncorrelated gene expression noise can thus cause transient metabolite concentration bursts. Such bursts are physiologically unnecessary and may represent a source of selection against the ultrasensitive switch, especially if the fluctuating metabolic intermediate is toxic. Selection may therefore favor correlated gene expression fluctuations for enzymes in the same pathway, such as by same-operon membership in bacteria. Using a modified experimental lac operon system, we are undertaking a combined theoretical-experimental approach to demonstrate that (i) the lac operon has an implicit ultrasensitive switch that we predict is avoided by gene expression correlations induced by same-operon membership; (ii) bacterial growth rates are sensitive to crossing the ultrasensitive threshold. Our results suggest that correlations in intrinsic gene expression noise are exploited by evolution to ameliorate the detrimental effects of nonlinearities in metabolite concentrations.

  2. Theoretical study of second-order non-linear optical properties of pyrromethene dyes for photonic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acebal, P; Blaya, S; Carretero, L [Departamento de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales, Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Avenida Ferrocarril s/n, Apartado 032002, Edificio Torrevaillo, Elx (Alicante) (Spain)

    2003-06-28

    Second-order non-linear optical properties and the ground state dipole moment of 2-, 6-, and 8-substituted dipyrromethene-BF{sub 2} complexes were evaluated using ab initio quantum mechanical methods and compared with those of a standard push-pull chromophore. The theoretical values obtained are discussed in terms of the different contributions of each spatial region using the electron density derivatives with respect to an applied electric field. As results, an origin for the second hyperpolarizability and a methodology for improving the performance of these compounds are proposed. The two-level model has been use to study the electro-optic properties of the substituted dipyrromethene-BF{sub 2} complexes, and the applicability of this method has been discussed in terms of the electron density derivatives.

  3. Experimental validation of an optimized signal processing method to handle non-linearity in swept-source optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnole, Sébastien; Lévesque, Daniel; Lamouche, Guy

    2010-05-10

    We evaluate various signal processing methods to handle the non-linearity in wavenumber space exhibited by most laser sources for swept-source optical coherence tomography. The following methods are compared for the same set of experimental data: non-uniform discrete Fourier transforms with Vandermonde matrix or with Lomb periodogram, resampling with linear interpolation or spline interpolation prior to fast-Fourier transform (FFT), and resampling with convolution prior to FFT. By selecting an optimized Kaiser-Bessel window to perform the convolution, we show that convolution followed by FFT is the most efficient method. It allows small fractional oversampling factor between 1 and 2, thus a minimal computational time, while retaining an excellent image quality. (c) 2010 Optical Society of America.

  4. Electronic Structures of Asymmetrically Substituted Phthalocyanines and Their Second Non-linear Optical Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天莉; 严继民

    2001-01-01

    Quantum-chemical AM1 calculations were performed to study the geometries,the electronic structures and the second nonlinear optical properties of phthalocyanine and some asymmetrically substituted phthalocyanines,which include tert-butyl,amino,dimethylamino,nitro,fluoro,chloro,bromo iodo and nitrile substituents. The relationships of the second nonlinear optical coefficients β with dipole moment μ, and β with the energy-gap differences of frontier orbitals ΔEDA were discussed. Two relationships are regular and all ΔEDA-μ show very good linear relationship.

  5. Vibrational spectroscopic and non-linear optical activity studies on nicotinanilide : A DFT approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premkumar, S.; Mathavan, T.; Dhas, M. Kumara; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: miltonfranklin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, N.M.S.S.V.N. College, Madurai-625 019, Tamil Nadu (India); Jawahar, A. [Department of Chemistry, N.M.S.S.V.N. College, Madurai-625 019, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    The molecular structure of nicotinanilide was optimized by the DFT/B3LYP method with cc-pVTZ basis set using Gaussian 09 program. The first order hyperpolarizability of the molecule was calculated, which exhibits the higher nonlinear optical activity. The natural bond orbital analysis confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer and the hydrogen bonding interaction, which leads to the higher nonlinear optical activity of the molecule. The Frontier molecular orbitals analysis of the molecule shows that the delocalization of electron density occurs within the molecule. The lower energy gap indicates that the hydrogen bond formation between the charged species. The vibrational frequencies were calculated and assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program and the corresponding vibrational spectra were simulated. Hence, the nicotinanilide molecule can be a good candidate for second-order NLO material.

  6. Non-linear non-local molecular electrodynamics with nano-optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyak, Vladimir Y; Saurabh, Prasoon; Mukamel, Shaul

    2015-10-28

    The interaction of optical fields sculpted on the nano-scale with matter may not be described by the dipole approximation since the fields may vary appreciably across the molecular length scale. Rather than incrementally adding higher multipoles, it is advantageous and more physically transparent to describe the optical process using non-local response functions that intrinsically include all multipoles. We present a semi-classical approach for calculating non-local response functions based on the minimal coupling Hamiltonian. The first, second, and third order response functions are expressed in terms of correlation functions of the charge and the current densities. This approach is based on the gauge invariant current rather than the polarization, and on the vector potential rather than the electric and magnetic fields.

  7. Analysis of structural seismic behaviour: from non stationary to non linear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Monaco, Lisa

    2014-05-01

    The change in fundamental frequency of a building is considered the simplest way to detect the onset of damage. Several authors in the past proposed that the difference in periods that can be observed among ambient noise, earthquake weak-motion measurements can be attributed to transient non-linearity due to reversible modification of the building characteristic (e.g. the degree of coupling between frame and infill in reinforced concrete buildings). The necessity of effective and efficient seismic protection of vast and aging structures and infrastructure has increased markedly the interest in the development of structural monitoring techniques. Damage to any structure alters its dynamic properties and for that dynamic monitoring techniques enable the identification of damage by comparing pre and post seismic excitation characteristic. The principle parameters usually monitored are: fundamental period, damping factors and modal shapes. Several damage identification and localization techniques are based on variations in these parameters (see, e.g Ponzo et al. 2010 and reference therein). Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods can be rank on four different levels with the higher levels requiring increased quality and quantity of available information. The most common methods are therefore related to Level 1, due to their simplified and economic implementation. These methods are based mainly upon the variation of vibration frequencies and/or variations in Equivalent Viscous Damping associated with these vibration modes. It is important to underline however that although the presence of damage will lead to alterations in vibration modes the opposite does not necessarily hold true. Two types of frequency variation can be distinguished; long time period variations (due to variations in temperature, foundation soil moisture content etc.) and short period variations (for example due to a seismic event). For short period variations, changes in frequency can be attributed

  8. Higher order effects in non-linear evolution from a veto in rapidities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chachamis, G.; Lublinsky, M.; Sabio Vera, A.

    2005-02-01

    Higher order corrections to the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation have been estimated by introducing a rapidity veto which forbids subsequent emissions to be very close in rapidity and is known to mimic higher order corrections to the linear BFKL equation. The rapidity veto constraint has been first introduced using analytical arguments obtaining a power growth with energy, Q(Y)˜e, of the saturation scale of λ˜0.45. Then a numerical analysis for the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation has been carried out for phenomenological rapidities: when a veto of about two units of rapidity is introduced for a fixed value of the coupling constant of α=0.2 the saturation scale λ decreases from ˜0.6 to ˜0.3, and when running coupling effects are taken into account it decreases from ˜0.4 to ˜0.3.

  9. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    CERN Document Server

    Umeh, Obinna

    2016-01-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We consider how non-linear effects associated with the HI bias and redshift space distortions contribute to the clustering of cosmic neutral Hydrogen on large scales. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result to show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortions leads to about 10\\% modulation of the HI power spectrum on large scales.

  10. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants I: the effect of neutrals

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, Lara; Marcowith, Alexandre; Morlino, Giovanni; Ptuskin, Vladimir S

    2016-01-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic Cosmic Rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disk volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterised by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that stream...

  11. Non-linear plasma effects on laser-induced terahertz emission from the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J.-H.; Zhidkov, A.; Jin, Z.; Hosokai, T.; Kodama, R.

    2012-02-01

    Power, spectral characteristics, and angle distribution of terahertz (THz) radiation from air irradiated by a single (ω) or coupled (ω, 2ω) femtosecond laser pulses are analyzed for higher intensities, for which non-linear plasma effects on the pulse propagation become essential, by means of multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations exploiting the self-consistent plasma kinetics. THz radiation is shown to be a result of beat waves generated at ionization front with fundamental and second harmonic waves. At lower intensities, the THz power growth is far faster than the linear; at pulse intensities over I > 1015 W/cm2, the power increases slower than the linear. Along with the forward emission, strong power in around 30o angles occurs at high intensities. Ionization of air results in poor focusing of laser pulses and, therefore, lower efficiency of THz emission.

  12. Computational Study of Chalcopyrite Semiconductors and Their Non-Linear Optical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-12

    SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM Air Force Office of AFOSR Scientific Research Donald J. Silversmith 4015 Wilson Blvd Room 713 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT...34First-principles Calculations Based Desing of Chalcopyrite Semicon- ductors for Nonlinear Optical frequency Conversion," Walter R. L. Lambrecht...in ZnGeP 2 ," X. Jiang, M. S. Miao and W. R. L. Lambrecht, Research Showcase 2004, at Case Western Reserve University, April 2, 2004, 5. "Does the

  13. Coumarin-Containing Polymers for High Density Non-Linear Optical Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Gindre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical data storage was performed with various thin polymer films containing coumarin-based derivatives and by using femtosecond laser pulses as well as two-photon absorption processes. Exploring the photodimerization attribute of coumarin derivatives and using appropriate irradiation wavelengths, recording/erasing processes could be carried out in the same area. Second harmonic generation microscopy was used to read the stored information.

  14. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A.; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B.; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A.; Timoshenko, Victor Yu.; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10–40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours. PMID:27626408

  15. Linear and Non-Linear Optical Imaging of Cancer Cells with Silicon Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstik, Elen; Osminkina, Liubov A; Akimov, Denis; Gongalsky, Maksim B; Kudryavtsev, Andrew A; Timoshenko, Victor Yu; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sivakov, Vladimir; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-09-12

    New approaches for visualisation of silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) in cancer cells are realised by means of the linear and nonlinear optics in vitro. Aqueous colloidal solutions of SiNPs with sizes of about 10-40 nm obtained by ultrasound grinding of silicon nanowires were introduced into breast cancer cells (MCF-7 cell line). Further, the time-varying nanoparticles enclosed in cell structures were visualised by high-resolution structured illumination microscopy (HR-SIM) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, the nonlinear optical methods of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) with infrared laser excitation were applied to study the localisation of SiNPs in cells. Advantages of the nonlinear methods, such as rapid imaging, which prevents cells from overheating and larger penetration depth compared to the single-photon excited HR-SIM, are discussed. The obtained results reveal new perspectives of the multimodal visualisation and precise detection of the uptake of biodegradable non-toxic SiNPs by cancer cells and they are discussed in view of future applications for the optical diagnostics of cancer tumours.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and non-linear optical response of organophilic carbon dots

    KAUST Repository

    Bourlinos, Athanasios B.

    2013-09-01

    For the first time ever we report the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of carbon dots (C-dots). The C-dots for these experiments were synthesized by mild pyrolysis of lauryl gallate. The resulting C-dots bear lauryl chains and, hence, are highly dispersible in polar organic solvents, like chloroform. Dispersions in CHCl3 show significant NLO response. Specifically, the C-dots show negative nonlinear absorption coefficient and negative nonlinear refraction. Using suspensions with different concentrations these parameters are quantified and compared to those of fullerene a well-known carbon molecule with proven NLO response. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous dispersion and non-linearity compensation with mid-span optical phase conjugation and distributed Raman amplifier for a sub-carrier multiplexed optical transmission link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Vardhanan, A. Vishnu; Gangopadhyay, R.

    2007-11-01

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) and distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) combination (OPC-DRA) is demonstrated as a potential enabling solution for simultaneous reduction of fiber non-linearities and dispersion compensation of a sub-carrier multiplexed (SCM) optical transmission link. The present work is focused on the use of OPC-DRA combination for system performance improvement in terms of composite second order distortion (CSO) and carrier to noise ratio (CNR) of the SCM link. The analysis further shows that, introduction of DRA with proper pumping scheme significantly reduce fiber non-linearity resulting in improvement of the system performance in terms of CNR, compared to the situation where only mid-way optical phase conjugation is used.

  18. Thin films of arylenevinylene oligomers prepared by MAPLE for applications in non-linear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanculescu, A., E-mail: sanca@infim.ro [National Institute of Materials Physics, Optics and Spectroscopy Laboratory, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Vacareanu, L.; Grigoras, M. [P. Poni' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, 41 A Gr. Ghica Voda Alley, 700487 Iasi (Romania); Socol, M. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Optics and Spectroscopy Laboratory, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Socol, G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Str. Atomistilor, Nr. 409, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania); Stanculescu, F. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Preda, N.; Matei, E. [National Institute of Materials Physics, Optics and Spectroscopy Laboratory, 105 bis Atomistilor Street, P.O. Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Ionita, I. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest, Str. Atomistilor nr.405, P.O. Box MG-11, Bucharest-Magurele 077125 (Romania); Girtan, M. [Laboratoire de Photonique d' Angers, Universite d' Angers, 2, Bd. Lavoisier, 49045 Angers (France); Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Str. Atomistilor, Nr. 409, P.O. Box MG-36, Magurele, Bucharest 077125 (Romania)

    2011-04-01

    This paper discusses two arylenevinylene oligomers with optical nonlinear properties. Their trans molecular structure was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Second Harmonic Generation and two-photon fluorescence have been observed on Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation-deposited thin films. We have seen two local maxima in UV-Vis spectra and a red shift of the photoluminescence peak for carbazole-based oligomer, which can be correlated with a higher conformational flexibility and with strong polarization interactions in the solid state. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy images have revealed a grainy morphology of the film deposited on titanium and a higher roughness for carbazole-based oligomer. Second harmonic measurements have shown nearly equal values of the second-order nonlinear optical coefficient for the triphenylamine and carbazole-based oligomers for P{sub laser} < 100 mW. z-Scan and x-scan representations of the carbazole-based oligomer film have shown strong two-photon fluorescence intensity inside the sample confirming a volume process, and a strong second harmonic at the surface of the sample determined by the surface morphology.

  19. Performance analysis of an all-optical OFDM system in presence of non-linear phase noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmood, Jassim K; Harun, Sulaiman W; Emami, Siamak D; Khodaei, Amin; Noordin, Kamarul A; Ahmad, Harith; Shalaby, Hossam M H

    2015-02-23

    The potential for higher spectral efficiency has increased the interest in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. However, the sensitivity of all-optical OFDM to fiber non-linearity, which causes nonlinear phase noise, is still a major concern. In this paper, an analytical model for estimating the phase noise due to self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in an all-optical OFDM system is presented. The phase noise versus power, distance, and number of subcarriers is evaluated by implementing the mathematical model using Matlab. In order to verify the results, an all-optical OFDM system, that uses coupler-based inverse fast Fourier transform/fast Fourier transform without any nonlinear compensation, is demonstrated by numerical simulation. The system employs 29 subcarriers; each subcarrier is modulated by a 4-QAM or 16-QAM format with a symbol rate of 25 Gsymbol/s. The results indicate that the phase variance due to FWM is dominant over those induced by either SPM or XPM. It is also shown that the minimum phase noise occurs at -3 dBm and -1 dBm for 4-QAM and 16-QAM, respectively. Finally, the error vector magnitude (EVM) versus subcarrier power and symbol rate is quantified using both simulation and the analytical model. It turns out that both EVM results are in good agreement with each other.

  20. Two-temperature synthesis of non-linear optical compound CdGeAs2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chongqiang; Verozubova, G. A.; Mironov, Yuri P.; Lei, Zuotao; Song, Liangcheng; Ma, Tianhui; Okunev, A. O.; Yang, Chunhui

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report on a new approach to synthesize large-scale nonlinear optical chalcopyrite compound CdGeAs2 (cadmium germanium arsenide), in which the arsenic (As) precursor and the mixture of the cadmium (Cd) and the germanium (Ge) were separated in two distinct temperature-defined zones of a furnace. Through probing the intermediate product prepared at pre-set temperature points of hot-zone area, it was revealed that the ternary compound CdGeAs2 was formed through chemical reactions among Cd3As2, CdAs2, GeAs, GeAs2 and Ge. A new intermediate crystalline compound, with determined crystal parameter c=0.9139 nm and unknown a parameter, was identified when the temperature of the mixture of Cd and Ge was set to 680 °C, which, however, disappeared when the temperature was set to 770 °C, yielding pure CdGeAs2 product. Most likely, the identified new intermediate compound has layered graphite-like structure. Moreover, we show that the described two-temperature synthesis method allows us to produce near 250 g CdGeAs2 product during one run in a horizontal furnace and 500 g in a tilted horizontal furnace with rotated reactor.

  1. The Dynamics Of Non-Linear Effects In Optical Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Amujuri, M S

    1998-01-01

    A universal theory of chaos is presented which postulates the self-organized ordered growth of self-similar, scale invariant, eddy energy structures by space-time integration of inherent microscale energy generation mechanisms in the medium of propagation. Such a self consistent mechanism is shown to generate as a natural consequence, a scale invariant, hierarchical eddy continuum energy structure with dominant eddies at successive decadic scale ranges, with inherent quantum mechanical laws for energy manifestation, with fractal geometry and is similar to a 10 dimensional super symmetric, super gravity model for a Theory of Everything (TOE). The apparent wave-particle duality of quantum mechanical phenomena is attributed to the inherent bidirectional eddy energy flow structure with associated bimodal (formation and dissipation respectively) phenomenological form of energy display.

  2. Day of the week effect on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange: A non-linear GARCH analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batsirai Winmore Mazviona

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed the day of the week effect on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange (ZSE by taking into account volatility of returns. The purpose of the study was to establish whether daily mean returns across a trading week differ from each other. We employ a non-linear approach in modelling the day of the week effects. In particular, we used the Generalised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH and the Exponential GARCH (EGARCH models. We used industrial and mining daily closing indices data from 19 February 2009 to 31 December 2013. The data was retrieved from the ZSE website. EViews 7 software was utilised for data analysis. In order to test the null hypothesis of equality of daily mean returns, a Wald test was carried out. The Wald F-statistic rejected the null hypothesis of equality of mean returns for the industrial index. We found the traditional negative Monday and positive Friday effect for the industrial index in GARCH (1,1 and EGARCH (1,1 models. The GARCH (1,1 detected a negative Friday effect and the EGARCH (1,1 detected negative Wednesday effect for the mining index. We found evidence of model dependency for the mining index results.

  3. Structural and optical characterization of Ag photo-doped thin As40S60 - xSex films for non-linear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasseva, J.; Todorov, R.; Babeva, Tz; Petkov, K.

    2010-06-01

    This paper deals with the structure and the optical properties of thin As40S60 - xSex films doped with silver. The refractive index n and the optical band gap Egopt were calculated from the transmittance and reflectance spectra. The results showed that the photo-doping leads to increase in the refractive index by about 0.25-0.27. An effect of thickness expansion was observed in the photo-doped layers. The non-linear refractive index, γ, and the two-photon absorption coefficient, β, were evaluated by applying a formula developed by Sheik-Bahae. Each of the films studied exhibits a highly non-linear refractive index at the telecommunication wavelength, 70-850 times higher than that measured for fused silica. From the Raman spectra of thin As40S30Se30 it might be concluded that under dissolution, the silver interacts with both sulfur and selenium. The surface of the thin films was investigated by using a white light interferometric profiler. It was found that the increase in the thickness of the silver layer results in roughening of the surface of the photo-doped films.

  4. Non-linear hydrodynamics of axion dark matter: relative velocity effects and "quantum forces"

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, David J E

    2015-01-01

    The non-linear hydrodynamic equations for axion/scalar field dark matter (DM) in the non-relativistic Madelung-Shcr\\"{o}dinger form are derived in a simple manner, including the effects of universal expansion and Hubble drag. The hydrodynamic equations are used to investigate the relative velocity between axion DM and baryons, and the moving-background perturbation theory (MBPT) derived. Axions massive enough to be all of the DM do not affect the coherence length of the relative velocity, but the MBPT equations are modified by the inclusion of the axion effective sound speed. These MBPT equations are necessary for accurately modelling the effects of axion DM on the formation of the first cosmic structures, and suggest that the 21cm power spectrum could improve constraints on axion mass by up to four orders of magnitude with respect to the current best constraints. A further application of these results uses the "quantum force" analogy to model scalar field gradient energy in a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics ...

  5. A non-linear induced polarization effect on transient electromagnetic soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallbauer-Zadorozhnaya, Valeriya Yu.; Santarato, Giovanni; Abu Zeid, Nasser; Bignardi, Samuel

    2016-10-01

    In a TEM survey conducted for characterizing the subsurface for geothermal purposes, a strong induced polarization effect was recorded in all collected data. Surprisingly, anomalous decay curves were obtained in part of the sites, whose shape depended on the repetition frequency of the exciting square waveform, i.e. on current pulse length. The Cole-Cole model, besides being not directly related to physical parameters of rocks, was found inappropriate to model the observed distortion, due to induced polarization, because this model is linear, i.e. it cannot fit any dependence on current pulse. This phenomenon was investigated and explained as due to the presence of membrane polarization linked to constrictivity of (fresh) water-saturated pores. An algorithm for mathematical modeling of TEM data was then developed to fit this behavior. The case history is then discussed: 1D inversion, which accommodates non-linear effects, produced models that agree quite satisfactorily with resistivity and chargeability models obtained by an electrical resistivity tomography carried out for comparison.

  6. Measuring safety treatment effects using full Bayes non-linear safety performance intervention functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Basyouny, Karim; Sayed, Tarek

    2012-03-01

    Full Bayes linear intervention models have been recently proposed to conduct before-after safety studies. These models assume linear slopes to represent the time and treatment effects across the treated and comparison sites. However, the linear slope assumption can only furnish some restricted treatment profiles. To overcome this problem, a first-order autoregressive (AR1) safety performance function (SPF) that has a dynamic regression equation (known as the Koyck model) is proposed. The non-linear 'Koyck' model is compared to the linear intervention model in terms of inference, goodness-of-fit, and application. Both models were used in association with the Poisson-lognormal (PLN) hierarchy to evaluate the safety performance of a sample of intersections that have been improved in the Greater Vancouver area. The two models were extended by incorporating random parameters to account for the correlation between sites within comparison-treatment pairs. Another objective of the paper is to compute basic components related to the novelty effects, direct treatment effects, and indirect treatment effects and to provide simple expressions for the computation of these components in terms of the model parameters. The Koyck model is shown to furnish a wider variety of treatment profiles than those of the linear intervention model. The analysis revealed that incorporating random parameters among matched comparison-treatment pairs in the specification of SPFs can significantly improve the fit, while reducing the estimates of the extra-Poisson variation. Also, the proposed PLN Koyck model fitted the data much better than the Poisson-lognormal linear intervention (PLNI) model. The novelty effects were short lived, the indirect (through traffic volumes) treatment effects were approximately within ±10%, whereas the direct treatment effects indicated a non-significant 6.5% reduction during the after period under PLNI compared to a significant 12.3% reduction in predicted collision

  7. Non-linear optics and local-field factors in liquid chloroform: A time-dependent density-functional theory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, David A.; Andrade, Xavier; Rubio, Angel; Louie, Steven G.

    2010-03-01

    Chloroform is often used as a solvent when measuring non-linear optical properties of organic molecules. We assess the influence of the solution environment on the molecular properties by calculating directly the non-linear susceptibilities of liquid chloroform at optical frequencies. We use the Sternheimer equation in time-dependent density-functional theory [J. Chem. Phys. 126, 184106 (2007)], on snapshots from ab initio molecular dynamics. We compare the results to those in the gas and solid phases, and to experimental values. We also calculate ab initio local-field factors, used to analyze electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISH) and hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) experiments.

  8. Experimental constraints on non-linearities induced by two-photon effects in elastic and inelastic Rosenbluth separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladas Tvaskis; John Arrington; Michael Christy; Rolf Ent; Cynthia Keppel; Yongguang Liang; Grahame Vittorini

    2006-01-26

    The effects of two-photon exchange corrections, suggested to explain the difference between measurements of the proton elastic electromagnetic form factors using the polarization transfer and Rosenbluth techniques, have been studied in elastic and inelastic scattering data. Such corrections could introduce epsilon-dependent non-linearities in inelastic Rosenbluth separations, where epsilon is the virtual photon polarization parameter. It is concluded that such non-linear effects are consistent with zero for elastic, resonance, and deep-inelastic scattering for all Q{sup 2} and W{sup 2} values measured.

  9. The Non-Linear Effect of Chinese Financial Developments on Energy Supply Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, oversupply coal and coal-based power in China poses a great challenge to energy structure optimization and emissions reduction. The energy industry, however, is closely linked to the financial sector. In view of this, using a non-linear Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR model, this paper examines the threshold effects of financial developments on energy supply structures for 17 energy supply provinces in China observed over 2000–2014. The main results are: (1 The ratio of coal supply (LCSR specification is seen to be a four-regime PSTR model with added value in the financial industry/GDP (LFIR as the threshold variable. The LFIR and LCSR show a positive correlation, and the elastic coefficients change between 0.02 and ~0.085; the impact of financial institutions’ loan balance/GDP (LLAN on LCSR takes on an inverse U-shaped curve: first positive, then negative, and again positive with the financial crisis in 2008 as the turning point; (2 The ratio of thermal power generation (LTPG specification is seen to be a two-regime PSTR model with investment in the coal industry/GDP (LCIR as the threshold variable. Results show that LFIR has a negative effect on LTPG, and the coefficients in the low regime tend to be 0.344%, then gradually decrease to 0.051% in the high regime. The influence of LLAN on the LTPG is positive before and negative after the financial crisis. The influence of the foreign direct investment GDP proportion (LFDI, the degree of financial openness on the LCSR and LTPG both remain negative. Therefore, in the process of formulating energy conservation policies and adjusting energy-intensive industrial structures, the government should fully consider the effect of financial developments.

  10. Estimation of saturation and coherence effects in the KGBJS equation - a non-linear CCFM equation

    CERN Document Server

    Deak, Michal

    2012-01-01

    We solve the modified non-linear extension of the CCFM equation - KGBJS equation - numerically for certain initial conditions and compare the resulting gluon Green functions with those obtained from solving the original CCFM equation and the BFKL and BK equations for the same initial conditions. We improve the low transversal momentum behaviour of the KGBJS equation by a small modification.

  11. Non-linear uptake and hormesis effects of selenium in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Lee E

    2008-01-25

    Effects of selenium on reproductive success were assessed in red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus). Mean egg selenium (MES) ranged from 2.96 to 21.7 mg/kg dry weight with individual eggs up to 40 mg/kg. Uptake was non-linear: increments in MES declined as aqueous selenium increased; the asymptote was approximately 23 mg/kg. Eggs were heavier and more were laid in 2004 compared to 2005, a year of record rainfall and below-normal temperatures. Mortality of embryos that were incubated to full term was low (2.6% in 2004 and 3.2% in 2005), as was the prevalence of embryonic defects (2.7% in 2004 and 5.1% in 2005). Abnormalities in nestlings were also rare. Egg mortality was caused by predation, weather, and parental abandonment. Nestlings died from predation, starvation, and hypothermia associated with rain and cold, drowning, and bacterial infections. Nestling liver concentrations reached 81 mg/kg dry wt. selenium and were highest at the most highly selenium-exposed sites. Blood glutathione peroxidase (a selenium-dependent enzyme indicative of selenium exposure) was unrelated to liver selenium concentrations, egg selenium, or ambient selenium exposure. The selenium concentration in prey that parents fed to nestlings was higher at the selenium-exposed sites (up to 37 mg/kg dry wt. Se) compared to reference sites. Aqueous selenate:selenite ratios were related to redox differences and were much higher at the site with the highest MES, liver selenium, and prey item selenium concentrations. Hatchability showed U-shaped, or hormesis, relationships with MES: productivity increased with selenium concentrations at low exposures and decreased at high exposures. The effects threshold was approximately 22 mg/kg dry wt. MES.

  12. In Vivo Non Linear Optical (NLO) Imaging in Live Rabbit Eyes Using the Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ming; Flynn, Kevin; Nien-Shy, Chyong; Jester, Bryan E.; Winkler, Moritz; Brown, Donald J.; La Schiazza, Olivier; Bille, Josef; Jester, James V.

    2010-01-01

    Imaging of non-linear optical (NLO) signals generated from the eye using ultrafast pulsed lasers has been limited to the study of ex vivo tissues because of the use of conventional microscopes with slow scan speeds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel, high scan rate ophthalmoscope to generate NLO signals using an attached femtosecond laser. NLO signals were generated and imaged in live, anesthetized albino rabbits using a newly designed Heidelberg Two-Photon Laser Ophthalmoscope with attached 25 mW femtosecond laser having a central wavelength of 780 nm, pulsewidth of 75 fs, and a repetition rate of 50 MHz. To assess two-photon excited fluorescent (TPEF) signal generation, cultured rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RCF) were first labeled by Blue-green fluorescent FluoSpheres (1 μm diameter) and then cells were micro-injected into the central cornea. Clumps of RCF cells could be detected by both reflectance and TPEF imaging at 6 hours after injection. By 6 days, RCF containing fluorescent microspheres confirmed by TPEF showed a more spread morphology and had migrated from the original injection site. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of using NLO microscopy to sequentially detect TPEF signals from live, intact corneas. We conclude that further refinement of the Two-photon laser Ophthalmoscope should lead to the development of an important, new clinical instrument capable of detecting NLO signals from patient corneas. PMID:20558159

  13. Synthesis of electrospun ZnO/CuO nanocomposite fibers and their dielectric and non-linear optic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, G. Nixon Samuel [Department of Physics, R.M.K. Engineering College, R.S.M. Nagar, Kavaraipettai 601206 (India); Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai 600066, TN (India); Devashankar, S.; Rathnakumari, M. [Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Velammal Engineering College, Chennai 600066, TN (India); Sureshkumar, P., E-mail: suresrath@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Saveetha School of Engineering, Saveetha University, Thandalam, Chennai 602105 (India)

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} The PVA/Zn acetate/Cu acetate nanocomposite fibers were synthesized for the first time by using the sol-gel and electro spinning techniques. {yields} The nanocomposite was characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and scanning electron microscopy. {yields} The band gap energy of the nanocomposite was calculated from UV spectroscopy. {yields} The dielectric and non-linear optical properties of the nanocomposite were studied for the first time. - Abstract: The blend of sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique, yields composite nanofibers of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/zinc acetate/copper acetate. Calcining these fibers resulted in nanocomposite fibers of ZnO/CuO with diameters of 50-100 nm which was revealed by the scanning electron microscope images. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) confirmed the presence of the ZnO/CuO composite. The synthesized materials have been also characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). From the UV spectra, the band gap of the nanocomposite was calculated to be 3.1 eV. Dielectric properties of these samples at different temperatures were studied with respect to frequency. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the material was found to be 11.1 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (KDP).

  14. Non-linear diffusion of cosmic rays escaping from supernova remnants - I. The effect of neutrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, L.; Gabici, S.; Marcowith, A.; Morlino, G.; Ptuskin, V. S.

    2016-10-01

    Supernova remnants are believed to be the main sources of galactic cosmic rays (CR). Within this framework, particles are accelerated at supernova remnant shocks and then released in the interstellar medium. The mechanism through which CRs are released and the way in which they propagate still remain open issues. The main difficulty is the high non-linearity of the problem: CRs themselves excite the magnetic turbulence that confines them close to their sources. We solve numerically the coupled differential equations describing the evolution in space and time of the escaping particles and of the waves generated through the CR streaming instability. The warm ionized and warm neutral phases of the interstellar medium are considered. These phases occupy the largest fraction of the disc volume, where most supernovae explode, and are characterized by the significant presence of neutral particles. The friction between those neutrals and ions results in a very effective wave damping mechanism. It is found that streaming instability affects the propagation of CRs even in the presence of ion-neutral friction. The diffusion coefficient can be suppressed by more than a factor of ˜2 over a region of few tens of pc around the remnant. The suppression increases for smaller distances. The propagation of ≈10 GeV particles is affected for several tens of kiloyears after escape, while ≈1 TeV particles are affected for few kiloyears. This might have a great impact on the interpretation of gamma-ray observations of molecular clouds located in the vicinity of supernova remnants.

  15. Impact of non-linear smoking effects on the identification of gene-by-smoking interactions in COPD genetics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldi, P J; Demeo, D L; Hersh, C P;

    2010-01-01

    with COPD. Using data from the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Genetic Modifiers Study, the accuracy and power of two different approaches to model smoking were compared by performing a simulation study of a genetic variant with a range of gene-by-smoking interaction effects. Results Non-linear relationships between...

  16. Non-linear effects in electron cyclotron current drive applied for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayten, B.; Westerhof, E.; ASDEX Upgrade team,

    2014-01-01

    Due to the smallness of the volumes associated with the flux surfaces around the O-point of a magnetic island, the electron cyclotron power density applied inside the island for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can exceed the threshold for non-linear effects as derived

  17. Linear Text vs. Non-Linear Hypertext in Handheld Computers: Effects on Declarative and Structural Knowledge, and Learner Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Chanhee; Park, Sanghoon; Kim, Minjeong

    2011-01-01

    This study compared linear text-based and non-linear hypertext-based instruction in a handheld computer regarding effects on two different levels of knowledge (declarative and structural knowledge) and learner motivation. Forty four participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: linear text, hierarchical hypertext,…

  18. Effects of non-linear rheology on the electrospinning process: a model study

    CERN Document Server

    Pontrelli, Giuseppe; Coluzza, Ivan; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2014-01-01

    We develop an analytical bead-spring model to investigate the role of non-linear rheology on the dynamics of electrified jets in the early stage of the electrospinning process. Qualitative arguments, parameter studies as well as numerical simulations, show that the elongation of the charged jet filament is significantly reduced in the presence of a non-zero yield stress. This may have beneficial implications for the optimal design of future electrospinning experiments.

  19. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Malaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramon G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (J. of Theor. Biol. 188(2) 1997) and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs) of the new model are presented, showing that the chemotactic term enhance...

  20. Seismic response of structures: from non-stationary to non-linear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Mucciarelli, Marco; Smith, Tobias

    2013-04-01

    cases it is possible to confuse apparent frequencies variations with real ones (related to nonlinear phenomena) which could lead to an incorrect assessment of the structural safety. In this paper a new theoretical approach is proposed to discriminate non-stationary from non-linear effects, it was tested on both numerical and experimental accelerometric recordings respectively retrieved from one degree of freedom oscillator and one timber framed structure monitored during the 2011 Canterbury Seismic Sequence.

  1. Microscopic Optical Characterization of ZnO Bulk Crystals, Free Standing III-Nitride Substrates and III-V Structures for Non-Linear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    for non-linear optics By J.Jiménez, Co-workers : J. Mass, M. Avella, A.Martín, O. Martínez Física de la Materia Condensada, ETSII...incorporate the impurity responsible for this band with higher efficiency than hydrogen, which balances the NBE luminescence emission towards the 3.33 eV...300K. The spectra obtained in such temperature range are shown in Fig.8, where one observes a very interesting balance between the two bands, One

  2. Non-centrosymmetric crystals of new N-benzylideneaniline derivatives as potential materials for non-linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Talita Evelyn; Rosa, Iara Maria Landre; Legendre, Alexandre Oliveira; Paschoal, Diego; Maia, Lauro J Q; Dos Santos, Hélio F; Matins, Felipe Terra; Doriguetto, Antonio Carlos

    2015-08-01

    Three new N-benzylideneaniline derivatives [p-nitrobenzylidene-p-phenylamineaniline (I), 2,4-dinitrobenzylidene-p-phenylamineaniline (II) and p-dinitrobenzylidene-p-diethylamineaniline (III)] containing electron-push-pull groups have been prepared. They present a planar N-benzylideneaniline core and neighbouring functional atoms, which are related through an efficient intramolecular charge transfer (CT). Two of the derivatives crystallize in non-centrosymmetric space groups, a necessary condition for non-linear optical (NLO) responses. The NLO properties were calculated for the molecular conformations determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction as well as for the four molecules packed into each corresponding unit cell, using a quantum-chemical method at the cam-B3LYP/NLO-V level of theory. As expected from antiparallel face-to-face stacking through centrosymmetry, the main NLO descriptors - namely, the first hyperpolarizability (βtot) and its projection on the dipole moment direction (βvec) - are almost zero for the tetramer of derivative III. Interestingly, the calculated first hyperpolarizability decreases in the non-centrosymmetric unit-cell content of derivative II when compared to its single molecule, which may be related to its molecular pillaring, similar to that observed in derivative III. On the other hand, a desirable magnification of the NLO properties was found for packed units of derivative I, which may be a consequence of its parallel face-to-tail stacking with the CT vectors of all molecules pointing in the same direction. Moreover, the CT vector of compound I makes an angle of θ = 33.6° with its crystal polar axis, resulting in a higher-order parameter (cos(3)θ = 0.6) compared with the other derivatives. This is in line with the higher macroscopic second-order NLO response predicted for derivative I, βtot = 120.4 × 10(-30) e.s.u.

  3. BAND GAP EFFECTS IN PERIODIC CHAIN WITH LOCAL LINEAR OR NON-LINEAR OSCILLATORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2007-01-01

    attached linear oscillators. The stop band is located around the resonant frequency of the local oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In this paper, wave propagation in one-dimensional infinite periodic chains with attached linear and non-linear local oscillators...... within bands of frequencies called stop bands. Stop bands in structures with periodic or random inclusions are located mainly in the high frequency range, as the wave length has to be comparable with the distance between the alternating parts. Wave attenuation is also possible in structures with locally...

  4. Scaling effects in a non-linear electromagnetic energy harvester for wearable sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, M.; Boisseau, S.; Perez, M.; Ait-Ali, I.; Perraud, S.

    2016-11-01

    In the field of inertial energy harvesters targeting human mechanical energy, the ergonomics of the solutions impose to find the best compromise between dimensions reduction and electrical performance. In this paper, we study the properties of a non-linear electromagnetic generator at different scales, by performing simulations based on an experimentally validated model and real human acceleration recordings. The results display that the output power of the structure is roughly proportional to its scaling factor raised to the power of five, which indicates that this system is more relevant at lengths over a few centimetres.

  5. Benefits of Non-Linear Mixed Effect Modeling and Optimal Design : Pre-Clinical and Clinical Study Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ernest II, Charles Steven

    2013-01-01

    Despite the growing promise of pharmaceutical research, inferior experimentation or interpretation of data can inhibit breakthrough molecules from finding their way out of research institutions and reaching patients. This thesis provides evidence that better characterization of pre-clinical and clinical data can be accomplished using non-linear mixed effect modeling (NLMEM) and more effective experiments can be conducted using optimal design (OD).  To demonstrate applicability of NLMEM and OD...

  6. A kinetic formulation of piezoresistance in N-type silicon: Application to non-linear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnieras, A. R.; Tellier, C. R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper is devoted to the theoretical study of the influence of the temperature and of the doping on the piezoresistance of N-type silicon. In the first step the fractional change in the resistivity caused by stresses is calculated in the framework of a multivalley model using a kinetic transport formulation based on the Boltzmann transport equation. In the second step shifts in the minima of the conduction band and the resulting shift of the Fermi level are expressed in terms of deformation potentials and of stresses. General expressions for the fundamental linear, π_{11} and π_{12}, and non-linear, π_{111}, π_{112}, π_{122} and π_{123}, piezoresistance coefficients are then derived. Plots of the non-linear piezoresistance coefficients against the reduced shift of the Fermi level or against temperature allow us to characterize the influence of doping and temperature. Finally some attempts are made to estimate the non-linearity for heavily doped semiconductor gauges. Cette publication est consacrée à l'étude théorique de l'influence de la température et du dopage sur la piezorésistivité du silicium type N. Dans une première étape nous adoptons le modèle de vallées et nous utilisons une formulation cinétique du transport électronique faisant appel à l'équation de transport de Boltzmann pour calculer la variation de la résistivité du semiconducteur sous contrainte. Dans la deuxième étape nous exprimons les déplacements des minima de la bande de conduction et du niveau de Fermi en termes de potentiels de déformation et de contraintes. Nous proposons ensuite des expressions générales pour les coefficients piezorésistifs fondamentaux linéaires, π_{11} et π_{12}, et non-linéaires, π_{111}, π_{112}, π_{122} et π_{123}. Des représentations graphiques des variations des coefficients non-linéaires permettent de caractériser l'influence du dopage et de la température. Enfin nous fournissons une première pré-estimation des effets

  7. The effects of nutrient chemotaxis on bacterial aggregation patterns with non-linear degenerate cross diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva, J. Francisco; Málaga, Carlos; Plaza, Ramón G.

    2013-11-01

    This paper studies a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for bacterial aggregation patterns on the surface of thin agar plates. It is based on the non-linear degenerate cross diffusion model proposed by Kawasaki et al. (1997) [5] and it includes a suitable nutrient chemotactic term compatible with such type of diffusion, as suggested by Ben-Jacob et al. (2000) [20]. An asymptotic estimation predicts the growth velocity of the colony envelope as a function of both the nutrient concentration and the chemotactic sensitivity. It is shown that the growth velocity is an increasing function of the chemotactic sensitivity. High resolution numerical simulations using Graphic Processing Units (GPUs), which include noise in the diffusion coefficient for the bacteria, are presented. The numerical results verify that the chemotactic term enhances the velocity of propagation of the colony envelope. In addition, the chemotaxis seems to stabilize the formation of branches in the soft-agar, low-nutrient regime.

  8. Non-linear effects in electron cyclotron current drive applied for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ayten, B

    2013-01-01

    Due to the smallness of the volumes associated with the flux surfaces around the O-point of a magnetic island, the electron cyclotron power density applied inside the island for the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) can exceed the threshold for non-linear effects as derived previously by Harvey et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62 (1989) 426. We study the non-linear electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency through bounce-averaged, quasi-linear Fokker-Planck calculations in the magnetic geometry as created by the islands. The calculations are performed for the parameters of a typical NTM stabilization experiment on ASDEX Upgrade. A particular feature of these experiments is that the rays of the EC wave beam propagate tangential to the flux surfaces in the power deposition region. The calculations show significant non-linear effects on the ECCD efficiency, when the ECCD power is increased from its experimental value of 1 MW to a larger value of 4 MW. The nonlinear effects are largest in case of...

  9. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XX. Third harmonic experiments of non-linear dielectric effects versus a phenomenological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyeongeun; Young-Gonzales, Amanda R.; Richert, Ranko

    2016-08-01

    We have re-measured the third harmonic non-linear dielectric response of supercooled glycerol using zero-bias sinusoidal electric fields, with the aim of comparing the resulting susceptibilities with a phenomenological model of non-linear dielectric responses. In the absence of known chemical effects in this liquid, the present model accounts for three sources of non-linear behavior: dielectric saturation, field induced entropy reduction, and energy absorption from the time dependent field. Using parameters obtained from static high field results, the present model reproduces the characteristic features observed in the third harmonic susceptibility spectra: a low frequency plateau originating from dielectric saturation and a peak positioned below the loss peak frequency whose amplitude increases with decreasing temperature. Semi-quantitative agreement is achieved between experiment and the present model, which does not involve spatial scales or dynamical correlations explicitly. By calculating the three contributions separately, the model reveals that the entropy effect is the main source of the "hump" feature of this third harmonic response.

  10. Structural, optical and non-linear investigation of Eu3+: Al(NO$_3)_3$–SiO2 sol–gel glass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Hazarika; S Rai

    2004-06-01

    Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of Eu3+ ions in Al(NO$_3)_3$–SiO2 sol–gel glass have been investigated using the Judd–Ofelt theory. JO intensity parameters () and subsequent radiative properties for ${}^{5}D_{0} \\rightarrow {}^{7}F_{1,2,4,6}$ transitions are determined. The lifetime (r) of ${}^{5}D_{0}$ state is computed and along with JO parameters are compared with their corresponding values in other glasses prepared by conventional technique. A structural analysis, using IR and XRD spectra and non-linear parametrization of the silica gel glass is carried out. The study reveals the glass to be a very good third order non-linear amorphous optical material.

  11. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. Methods A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between daily mean temperature and mortality from 2003 to 2007 in Guangzhou. The case-only approach was used to determine whether the effect of temperature was modified by individual characteristics, including sex, age, educational attainment and occupation class. Results Hot effect was immediate and limited to the first 5 days, with an overall increase of 15.46% (95% confidence interval: 10.05% to 20.87% in mortality risk comparing the 99th and the 90th percentile temperature. Cold effect persisted for approximately 12 days, with a 20.39% (11.78% to 29.01% increase in risk comparing the first and the 10th percentile temperature. The effects were especially remarkable for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of both hot and cold temperatures were greater among the elderly. Females suffered more from hot-associated mortality than males. We also found significant effect modification by educational attainment and occupation class. Conclusions There are significant mortality effects of hot and cold temperatures in Guangzhou. The elderly, females and subjects with low socioeconomic status have been identified as especially vulnerable to the effect of ambient temperatures.

  12. Daily temperature and mortality: a study of distributed lag non-linear effect and effect modification in Guangzhou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Ou, Chun-Quan; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Ying-Xue; Chen, Ping-Yan

    2012-09-14

    Although many studies have documented health effects of ambient temperature, little evidence is available in subtropical or tropical regions, and effect modifiers remain uncertain. We examined the effects of daily mean temperature on mortality and effect modification in the subtropical city of Guangzhou, China. A Poisson regression model combined with distributed lag non-linear model was applied to assess the non-linear and lag patterns of the association between daily mean temperature and mortality from 2003 to 2007 in Guangzhou. The case-only approach was used to determine whether the effect of temperature was modified by individual characteristics, including sex, age, educational attainment and occupation class. Hot effect was immediate and limited to the first 5 days, with an overall increase of 15.46% (95% confidence interval: 10.05% to 20.87%) in mortality risk comparing the 99th and the 90th percentile temperature. Cold effect persisted for approximately 12 days, with a 20.39% (11.78% to 29.01%) increase in risk comparing the first and the 10th percentile temperature. The effects were especially remarkable for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. The effects of both hot and cold temperatures were greater among the elderly. Females suffered more from hot-associated mortality than males. We also found significant effect modification by educational attainment and occupation class. There are significant mortality effects of hot and cold temperatures in Guangzhou. The elderly, females and subjects with low socioeconomic status have been identified as especially vulnerable to the effect of ambient temperatures.

  13. Non-linear propagation of laser beam and focusing due to self-action in optical fiber: Non-paraxial approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Khanna; R C Chouhan

    2003-10-01

    A somewhat more general analysis for solving spatial propagation characteristics of intense Gaussian beam is presented and applied to the laser beam propagation in step-index profile as well as parabolic profile dielectric fibers with Kerr non-linearity. Considering self-action due to saturating and non-saturating non-linearity in the refractive index, a general theory has been developed without any kind of power series expansion for the dielectric constant as is usually done in other theories that make use of paraxial approximation. Result of the steady state self-focusing analysis indicates that the Kerr non-linearity acts as a perturbation on the radial inhomogeneity due to fiber geometry. Analysis indicates that the paraxial rays and peripheral rays focus at different points, indicating aberration effect. Calculated critical power matches with the experimentally reported result.

  14. Non-linear effects in the post-Newtonian approximation of a spherically symmetric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambi, J.M.; Zamorano, P. [Madrid Univ. Carlos 3, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Matematicas; Romero, P.; Garcia del Pino, M.L. [Madrid Univ. Complutense, Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Astronomia y Geodesia

    2000-02-01

    Conditions for the compatibility of the exterior metric of a spherically symmetric object with the field equations for the empty space and equations of motion and of trajectories for test particles, written in polar Gaussian and Fermi coordinates, are obtained to show that, although their explicit exact solutions cannot be derived in these coordinates, the post-Newtonian limits of these solutions can, nevertheless, be obtained. With these limits, it is next shown that the cited post-Newtonian equations do not fit into the standard post-Newtonian approximation either. It is then shown that these coordinates can, nevertheless, be included in a more general formalism together with the usual post-Newtonian (standard, harmonic, Painleve and isotropic) coordinates so that their respective equations of motion may be compared to each other and, finally, it is demonstrated that the only non-linear term taken in the Christoffel symbols with these usual coordinates in the standard post-Newtonian equations of motion to explain some known perturbations is not needed when polar Gaussian or Fermi coordinates are used to explain also those perturbations. In fact, it is demonstrated that these are the only coordinates for which that term becomes zero.

  15. Simulating the Effect of Non-Linear Mode-Coupling in Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Kiessling, A; Heavens, A F

    2011-01-01

    Fisher Information Matrix methods are commonly used in cosmology to estimate the accuracy that cosmological parameters can be measured with a given experiment, and to optimise the design of experiments. However, the standard approach usually assumes both data and parameter estimates are Gaussian-distributed. Further, for survey forecasts and optimisation it is usually assumed the power-spectra covariance matrix is diagonal in Fourier-space. But in the low-redshift Universe, non-linear mode-coupling will tend to correlate small-scale power, moving information from lower to higher-order moments of the field. This movement of information will change the predictions of cosmological parameter accuracy. In this paper we quantify this loss of information by comparing naive Gaussian Fisher matrix forecasts with a Maximum Likelihood parameter estimation analysis of a suite of mock weak lensing catalogues derived from N-body simulations, based on the SUNGLASS pipeline, for a 2-D and tomographic shear analysis of a Eucl...

  16. Non-linear optical response of an impurity in a cylindrical quantum dot under the action of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portacio, Alfonso A.; Rodríguez, Boris A.; Villamil, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear optical response in a cylindrical quantum dot (CQD) of GaAs / Ga0.6Al0.4 As with a donor impurity in a uniform magnetic field applied in the axial direction of the cylinder is studied theoretically. The calculations were carried out in approximations of effective mass and two-level quantum systems. Using the variational method, the binding energies and the wave functions of the 1s-like y 2pz-like states for different positions of the impurity inside the CQD were found. It was found that the binding energy is greatest in the center of the CQD and diminishes as the impurity moves radially and/or axially. The optical rectification, the change in the refractive index, and the optical absorption were studied as functions of the energy of a photon incident on the CQD and different intensities of the magnetic field, with an impurity located at various positions. It was found that in a CDQ with an impurity inside, the effect of the variation of the intensity of the magnetic field on the optical response is much less than the effect produced by the variation of the position of the impurity. The physical reason for this behavior is that in nanostructures with impurities the Coulomb confinement is stronger than the magnetic confinement. It was also found that when the impurity is in the center of the quantum dot, the optical rectification coefficient is zero, due to the symmetry that the wave function of the impurity exhibits at this geometric point. When the impurity moves in the axial direction, the symmetry is broken and the optical rectification coefficient is different from zero, and its value increases as the impurity moves away from the center of the CQD.

  17. Theoretical prediction of electrocaloric effect based on non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrocaloric (EC effect has been paid great attentions recently for applications on cooling or electricity generation. However, the directly commercial measurement equipment for the effect is still unavailable. Here we report a novel method to predict EC effect by non-linear behaviors of dielectric permittivity under temperature and electric fields. According to the method, the analytical equations of EC temperature change ΔT are directly given for normal ferroelectrics and relaxor. The calculations have been performed on several materials and it is shown that the method is suitable for both inorganic and organic ferroelectrics, and relaxor.

  18. Linear and non-linear optics of nano-scale 2‧,7‧dichloro-fluorescein/FTO optical system: Bandgap and dielectric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Yahia, I. S.; Zahran, H. Y.; AlFaify, S.; AlBassam, A. M.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    2‧,7‧ dichloro-Fluorescein (DCF) is a promising organic semiconductor material in different technological aspects such as solar cell, photodiode, Schottky diode. DCF thin film/conductive glass (FTO glass) was prepared by a low-cost spin coating technique. The spectrophotometric data such as the absorbance, reflectance and transmittance were cogitated in the 350-2500 nm wavelength range, at the normal incidence. The absorption (n) and linear refractive indices (k) were computed using the Fresnel's equations. The optical band gap was evaluated and it was found that there is two band gap described as follows: (1) It is related to the band gap of FTO/glass which is equal 3.4 eV and (2) the second one is related to the absorption edge of DCF equals 2.25 eV. The non-linear parameters such as the refractive index (n2) and optical susceptibility χ(3) were evaluated by the spectroscopic method based on the refractive index. Both (n2) and χ(3) increased rapidly on increasing the wavelength with redshift absorption. Our work represents a new idea about using FTO glass for a new generation of the optical device and technology.

  19. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  20. A displacement-based approach for determining non-linear effects on pre-tensioned-cable cross-braced structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccu, Gian Felice; Caracoglia, Luca

    2017-04-01

    Pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems are widely employed in structural engineering to limit lateral deflections and stabilize structures. A suitable configuration of the pre-tensioned-cable bracing systems in a structure is an important issue since the internal force distribution, emerging from the interaction with the existing structure, significantly affects the structural dynamic behavior. The design, however, is often based on the intuition and the previous experience of the engineer. In recent years, the authors have been investigating the non-linear dynamic response of cable systems, installed on cable-stayed bridges, and in particular the so-called ;cable-cross-tie systems; forming a cable network. The bracing cables (cross-ties) can exhibit slackening or snapping. Therefore, a non-linear unilateral model, combined with the taut-cable theory, is required to simulate the incipient slackening conditions in the stays. Capitalizing from this work on non-linear cable dynamics, this paper proposes a new approach to analyze, in laterally- braced truss structures, the unilateral effects and dynamic response accounting for the loss in the pre-tensioning force imparted to the bracing cables. This effect leads to non-linear vibration of the structure. In this preliminary study, the free vibrations of the structure are investigated by using the ;Equivalent Linearization Method;. A performance coefficient, a real positive number between 0.5 and 1.0, is defined and employed to monitor the relative reduction in the apparent stiffness of the braces during structural vibration, ;mode by mode;. It is shown that the system can exhibit alternate unilateral behavior of the cross-braces. A reduction of the performance coefficient close to fifty percent is observed in the braces when the initial pre-tensioning force is small. On the other hand the performance coefficient tends to one in the case of a high level of pre-stress. It is concluded that the performance coefficient may

  1. Synthesis, Structure and Third-order Non-linear Optical Properties of Tungsten Dioxo Complex with 8-Hydroxyquinoline Ligand WO2(C9H6NO)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; LU Jing; XU Ji-qing; CUI Xiao-bing; SUN Ying-hua; LI Ke-chang; YANG Qing-xin; PAN Ling-yun; BIE Hai-ying

    2004-01-01

    Tungsten dioxo complex WO2(C9H6NO)2 was obtained via the low temperature solid-state reaction of(NH4)2WS4, 8-hydroxyquinoline(8-hq) and(CH3)4NI, and it was characterized by means of elemental analyses, IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystal of the title compound belongs to monoclinic, space group C2/c, with the crystal cell parameters: a=1.3316(3) nm, b=0.94444(19) nm, c=1.3485(3) nm, β=109.66(3)°, V=1.5970(6) nm3, Z=6. The title compound possesses a supramolecular structure formed through hydrogen bonds and π-π stacking interactions. The third-order non-linear optical(NLO) properties of the title compound were also investigated. The third-order non-linear absorption coefficient α2 and refractive index n2 are 0.85×10-11 m/W-1 and -1.5×10-19 m2/W, respectively. The third-order non-linear susceptibility χ(3) is 3.03×10-13 esu for 3.8×10-5 mol/L sample concentration.

  2. Semiconductor-metal nanoparticle molecules: hybrid excitons and non-linear Fano effect

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Govorov, Alexander O.; Bryant, Garnett W.

    2006-01-01

    Modern nanotechnology opens the possibility of combining nanocrystals of various materials with very different characteristics in one superstructure. The resultant superstructure may provide new physical properties not encountered in homogeneous systems. Here we study theoretically the optical properties of hybrid molecules composed of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles. Excitons and plasmons in such a hybrid molecule become strongly coupled and demonstrate novel properties. At low inciden...

  3. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagarello, F.; Haven, E.

    2016-02-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the interest of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call the decision functions is deduced by introducing a suitable Hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their environments, which are generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear idea for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The Hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same Hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  4. First results on applying a non-linear effect formalism to alliances between political parties and buy and sell dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bagarello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a non linear extension of a model of alliances in politics, recently proposed by one of us. The model is constructed in terms of operators, describing the \\emph{interest} of three parties to form, or not, some political alliance with the other parties. The time evolution of what we call \\emph{the decision functions} is deduced by introducing a suitable hamiltonian, which describes the main effects of the interactions of the parties amongst themselves and with their \\emph{environments}, {which are }generated by their electors and by people who still have no clear {idea }for which party to vote (or even if to vote). The hamiltonian contains some non-linear effects, which takes into account the role of a party in the decision process of the other two parties. Moreover, we show how the same hamiltonian can also be used to construct a formal structure which can describe the dynamics of buying and selling financial assets (without however implying a specific price setting mechanism).

  5. Non-linear elasticity of core/shell spun PGS/PLLA fibres and their effect on cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Rollo, Ben; Stamp, Lincon A; Zhang, Dongcheng; Fang, Xiya; Newgreen, Donald F; Chen, Qizhi

    2013-09-01

    An efficient delivery system is critical for the success of cell therapy. To deliver cells to a dynamic organ, the biomaterial vehicle should mechanically match with the non-linearly elastic host tissue. In this study, non-linearly elastic biomaterials have been fabricated from a chemically crosslinked elastomeric poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and thermoplastic poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) using the core/shell electrospinning technique. The spun fibrous materials containing a PGS core and PLLA shell demonstrate J-shaped stress-strain curves, having ultimate tensile strength (UTS), rupture elongation and stiffness constants of 1 ± 0.2 MPa, 25 ± 3% and 12 ± 2, respectively, which are comparable to skin tissue properties reported previously. Our ex vivo and in vivo trials have shown that the elastomeric mesh supports and fosters the growth of enteric neural crest (ENC) progenitor cells, and that the cell-seeded elastomeric fibrous sheet physically remains in intimate contact with guts after grafting, providing the effective delivery of the progenitor cells to an embryonic and post-natal gut environment.

  6. Double lens device for tunable harmonic generation of laser beams in KBBF/RBBF crystals or other non-linear optic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Adam

    2017-08-22

    A method and apparatus to generate harmonically related laser wavelengths includes a pair of lenses at opposing faces of a non-linear optical material. The lenses are configured to promote incoming and outgoing beams to be normal to each outer lens surface over a range of acceptance angles of the incoming laser beam. This reduces reflection loss for higher efficiency operation. Additionally, the lenses allow a wider range of wavelengths for lasers for more universal application. Examples of the lenses include plano-cylindrical and plano-spherical form factors.

  7. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption.......Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...

  8. The parametric spring-mass system, its connection with non-linear optics, and an approach for undergraduate students

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, Ilario; Stellato, Marco; Vercellati, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The spring-mass system studied in undergraduate physics laboratories may exhibit complex dynamics due to the simultaneous action of gravitational and elastic forces in addition to air friction. In the first part of this paper, we describe a laboratory experiment aimed at beginner students which also gives those with a more advanced background an opportunity to explore more complex aspects of the motions involved. If students are not given predefined apparatus but are allowed instead to design their own set-up for the experiment, they may also learn something about the thought processes and experimental procedures used in physics. In the second part of this paper, we present a systematic study of the parametric behavior of the system because teachers have to master its dynamics. The non-linear interaction between the vertical and the pendular oscillations in a vertical spring-mass system depends on the ratio between the frequencies of the two motions and on the motion's excitation. Systematic experimental inve...

  9. Non-linear effects in hopping conduction of single-crystal La2CuO4 + δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belevtsev, B. I.; Dalakova, N. V.; Panfilov, A. S.

    1998-11-01

    The unusual non-linear effects in hopping conduction of single-crystal La2CuO4+δ with excess oxygen has been observed. The resistance is measured as a function of the applied voltage U (voltage controlled regime) in the temperature range 5 K⩽T⩽300 K and voltage range 10-3-25 V. At relatively high voltage (approximately at U>0.1 V) the conduction of sample investigated corresponds well to variable-range hopping (VRH). That is, in the range 0.1 Vconductivity does not depend on U (Ohmic behavior) and the temperature dependence of resistance R(T) follows closely Mott's law of VRH [R∝exp(T0/T)1/4]. In the range of highest applied voltage the conduction has been non-Ohmic: the resistance decreases with increasing U. This non-linear effect is quite expected in the frame of VRH mechanism, since the applied electric field increases the hopping probability. A completely different and unusual conduction behavior is found, however, in the low voltage range (approximately below 0.1 V), where the influence of electric field and (or) electron heating effect on VRH ought to be neglected. Here we have observed strong increase in resistance at increasing U at T⩽20 K, whereas at T>20 K the resistance decreases with increasing U. The magnetoresistance of the sample below 20 K has been positive at low voltage and negative at high voltage. The observed unusual non-Ohmic behavior at low voltage range is attributable to inhomogeneity of the sample, namely, to the enrichment of sample surface with oxygen during the course of the heat treatment of the sample in helium and air atmosphere before measurements. At low enough temperature (below ≈20 K) the surface layer with increased oxygen concentration is presumed to consist of disconnected superconducting regions in a poorly conducting (dielectric) matrix. This allows us to explain the observed unusual non-linear effects in the conduction of sample studied. The results obtained demonstrate that in some cases the measured transport

  10. Affective Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior: Linear and Non-linear Moderating Effects of Organizational Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a meta-analytical approach for testing moderating effects, the current study investigated organizational tenure as a moderator in the relation between affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We observed that, across 40 studies (N = 11,416 respondents), the effect size for the relation between…

  11. Non-linear effects of drought under shade: reconciling physiological and ecological models in plant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holmgren, M.; Gomez-Aparicio, L.; Quero, J.L.; Valladares, F.

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of shade and drought on plant performance and the implications for species interactions are highly debated in plant ecology. Empirical evidence for positive and negative effects of shade on the performance of plants under dry conditions supports two contrasting theoretical model

  12. Affective Organizational Commitment and Citizenship Behavior: Linear and Non-linear Moderating Effects of Organizational Tenure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing a meta-analytical approach for testing moderating effects, the current study investigated organizational tenure as a moderator in the relation between affective organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). We observed that, across 40 studies (N = 11,416 respondents), the effect size for the relation between…

  13. Electronic structure, stability and non-linear optical properties of aza-fullerenes C60-2nN2n(n=1–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Srinivasu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Through ab initio based density functional theory calculations, we have investigated the electronic structure, stability and non-linear optical properties of a series of nitrogen substituted fullerenes (azafullerenes with the general formula C60-2nN2n (n=1–12. For each system, we have considered different possible isomers and the minimum energy isomer is subjected to further detailed investigations. We have calculated different properties such as HOMO-LUMO gaps, vertical ionization potentials, vertical electron affinities, etc. to verify the stability of the considered fullerenes. From the Hessian calculations, it is observed that all the fullerenes are not only associated with real vibrational frequencies, but the minimum frequencies are also found to be considerably large which further confirms the stability of the considered fullerenes. We find that the presence of unperturbed C6 rings enhances the stability of the fullerene whereas, the -N-C-N- fragments are found to destabilize the structure. At lower doping concentration, the stabilization due to C6 is more predominant and as the doping concentration is increased, the destabilization due to nitrogen-nitrogen repulsion plays a more important role. Our calculated polarizability and hyperpolarizability parameters of C60 are found to be in good agreement with the earlier reported results. On nitrogen doping, considerable variation is observed in the non-linear optical coefficients, which can be helpful in designing new photonic devices.

  14. Imprint of non-linear effects on HI intensity mapping on large scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeh, Obinna

    2017-06-01

    Intensity mapping of the HI brightness temperature provides a unique way of tracing large-scale structures of the Universe up to the largest possible scales. This is achieved by using a low angular resolution radio telescopes to detect emission line from cosmic neutral Hydrogen in the post-reionization Universe. We use general relativistic perturbation theory techniques to derive for the first time the full expression for the HI brightness temperature up to third order in perturbation theory without making any plane-parallel approximation. We use this result and the renormalization prescription for biased tracers to study the impact of nonlinear effects on the power spectrum of HI brightness temperature both in real and redshift space. We show how mode coupling at nonlinear order due to nonlinear bias parameters and redshift space distortion terms modulate the power spectrum on large scales. The large scale modulation may be understood to be due to the effective bias parameter and effective shot noise.

  15. Impact of non-linear smoking effects on the identification of gene-by-smoking interactions in COPD genetics studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaldi, P J; Demeo, D L; Hersh, C P

    2010-01-01

    Background The identification of gene-by-environment interactions is important for understanding the genetic basis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Many COPD genetic association analyses assume a linear relationship between pack-years of smoking exposure and forced expiratory volume...... in 1 s (FEV(1)); however, this assumption has not been evaluated empirically in cohorts with a wide spectrum of COPD severity. Methods The relationship between FEV(1) and pack-years of smoking exposure was examined in four large cohorts assembled for the purpose of identifying genetic associations...... with COPD. Using data from the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Genetic Modifiers Study, the accuracy and power of two different approaches to model smoking were compared by performing a simulation study of a genetic variant with a range of gene-by-smoking interaction effects. Results Non-linear relationships between...

  16. Solution of Excited Non-Linear Oscillators under Damping Effects Using the Modified Differential Transform Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Abdelhafez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The modified differential transform method (MDTM, Laplace transform and Padé approximants are used to investigate a semi-analytic form of solutions of nonlinear oscillators in a large time domain. Forced Duffing and forced van der Pol oscillators under damping effect are studied to investigate semi-analytic forms of solutions. Moreover, solutions of the suggested nonlinear oscillators are obtained using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical solution method. A comparison of the result by the numerical Runge-Kutta fourth-order accuracy method is compared with the result by the MDTM and plotted in a long time domain.

  17. Non linear optical studies on semiorganic single crystal: L-arginine 4-nitrophenalate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, M.; Sankar, P. K.; Vinitha, G.; Arivanandhan, M.; Ramachandran, K.; Anandan, P.

    2017-07-01

    L-arginine 4-nitrophenalate 4-nitrophenol dihydrate (LAPP) has been synthesized and grown by solution growth at room temperature using deionized water as a solvent. The various functional groups of the sample were identified by Fourier transform infra-red and Fourier transforms - Raman spectroscopic analyses. The Laser damage threshold of LAPP has been studied. Refractive index of LAPP single crystal was measured using Metricon prism coupler Instrument. The etching studies were carried out to study the quality of the grown crystals. The third order nonlinear optical properties of LAPP sample was analyzed by the Z-scan technique using 532 nm diode pumped CW Nd: YAG laser. The LAPP material exhibits negative optical nonlinearity. The results show that LAPP sample has potential applications in nonlinear optics and it can be exploited for optical limiting or switching.

  18. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Jilani, Asim, E-mail: asim.jilane@gmail.com [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Shkir, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abdel-wahab, M.Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80200, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M. [Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O.Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ{sup (1)}, nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear refractive index (n{sub 2}) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  19. A study on linear and non-linear optical constants of Rhodamine B thin film deposited on FTO glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahia, I. S.; Jilani, Asim; Abutalib, M. M.; AlFaify, S.; Shkir, M.; Abdel-wahab, M. Sh.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A.; El-Naggar, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this research was to fabricate/deposit the good quality thin film of Rhodamine B dye on fluorine doped tin oxide glass substrate by the low cost spin coating technique and study their linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The thickness of the thin film was measured about 300 nm with alpha step system. The transmittance of the fabricated thin film was found to be above 75% corresponding to the fluorine doped tin oxide layer. The structural analysis was performed with X-rays diffraction spectroscopy. Atomic force microscope showed the topographic image of deposited thin film. Linear optical constant like absorption coefficient, band gap, and extinction index was calculated. The dielectric constant was calculated to know the optical response of Rhodamine B dye over fluorine doped tin oxide substrate. The nonlinear optical constant like linear optical susceptibility χ(1), nonlinear optical susceptibility χ(3), nonlinear refractive index (n2) were calculated by spectroscopic method. This method has advantage over the experimental method like Z-Scan for organic dye base semiconductors for future advance optoelectronics applications like dye synthesis solar cell.

  20. Compressibility effects on the non-linear receptivity of boundary layers to dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denison, Marie F. C.

    The reduction of drag and aerodynamic heating caused by boundary layer transition is of central interest for the development of hypersonic vehicles. Receptivity to flow perturbation in the form of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) wave growth often determines the first stage of the transition process, which can be delayed by depositing specific excitations into the boundary layer. Weakly ionized Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) actuators are being investigated as possible sources of such excitations, but little is known today about their interaction with high-speed flows. In this framework, the first part of the thesis is dedicated to a receptivity study of laminar compressible boundary layers over a flat plate by linear stability analysis following an adjoint operator formulation, under DBD representative excitations assumed independent of flow conditions. The second part of the work concentrates on the development of a coupled plasma-Navier and Stokes solver targeted at the study of supersonic flow and compressibility effects on DBD forcing and non-parallel receptivity. The linear receptivity study of quasi-parallel compressible flows reveals several interesting features such as a significant shift of the region of maximum receptivity deeper into the flow at high Mach number and strong wave amplitude reduction compared to incompressible flows. The response to DBD relevant excitation distributions and to variations of the base flow conditions and system length scales follows these trends. Observed absolute amplitude changes and relative sensitivity modifications between source types are related to the evolution of the offset between forcing peak profile and relevant adjoint mode maximum. The analysis highlights the crucial importance of designing and placing the actuator in a way that matches its force field to the position of maximum boundary layer receptivity for the specific flow conditions of interest. In order to address the broad time and length scale spectrum

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-15

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  2. Linear and non-linear effects of gradient artifact filtering methods in simultaneous EEG-FMRI - biomed 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusenza, Monica; Accardo, Agostino; Monti, Fabrizio; Bramanti, Placido

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a powerful emerging tool in functional neuroimaging that exploits the relationship between neuronal electrophysiological activity and its hemodynamic response. It has found application in the study of both spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Combining the complementary advantages of the two techniques it provides a measurement with high temporal and spatial resolution, allowing a reliable localization of event generators. However, EEG data recorded inside MRI scanner are heavily corrupted by different types of artifacts due to the interactions between the patient, EEG electrodes wires and the magnetic fields inside the scanner. In particular, gradient switching and RF pulses, necessary to acquire fMRI data, generate large artifacts that can completely obscure EEG signals. Many methods have been proposed to eliminate or at least reduce gradient artifact. In this paper both a qualitative and a quantitative evaluation of two different algorithms used for gradient artifact removal are presented. Linear and non-linear characteristics of EEG, such as power spectra, fractal dimension and beta scaling exponent, are evaluated for EEGs recorded outside and inside the scanner, in MR static and dynamic conditions. The study highlights how residual artifacts after correction and artifacts induced by correction itself could still considerably affect EEG signals. The results suggest that the quality of both these gradient artifact filtering methods is not yet sufficient to preserve EEG characteristics and thus it must be further improved. The aim of this study is to make neurophysiologists aware of the filtering effects that can compromise linear and non-linear analysis of EEG recorded during functional MRI.

  3. Effect of chamber enclosure time on soil respiration flux: A comparison of linear and non-linear flux calculation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Tanka P.; Lærke, Poul Erik; Elsgaard, Lars

    2016-09-01

    One of the shortcomings of closed chamber methods for soil respiration (SR) measurements is the decreased CO2 diffusion rate from soil to chamber headspace that may occur due to increased chamber CO2 concentrations. This feedback on diffusion rate may lead to underestimation of pre-deployment fluxes by linear regression techniques. Thus, usually the cumulative flux curve becomes downward concave due to the decreased gas diffusion rate. Non-linear models based on biophysical theory usually fit to such curvatures and may reduce the underestimation of fluxes. In this study, we examined the effect of increasing chamber enclosure time on SR flux rates calculated using a linear, an exponential and a revised Hutchinson and Mosier model (HMR). Soil respiration rates were measured with a closed chamber in combination with an infrared gas analyzer. During SR flux measurements the chamber was placed on fixed collars, and CO2 concentration in the chamber headspace were recorded at 1-s intervals for 45 min. Fluxes were measured in different soil types (sandy, sandy loam and organic soils), and for various manipulations (tillage, rain and drought) and soil conditions (temperature and moisture) to obtain a range of fluxes with different shapes of flux curves. The linear method provided more stable flux results during short enclosure times (few min) but underestimated initial fluxes by 15-300% after 45 min deployment time. Non-linear models reduced the underestimation as average underestimation was only about 10% after 45 min for regular flux curves. For irregular flux curves with a rapid increase in CO2 concentration immediately after chamber deployment it was shown that short enclosure times were prone to overestimation of pre-deployment fluxes, but this was mitigated by longer enclosure times (>10-15 min).

  4. Projection-reduction method applied to deriving non-linear optical conductivity for an electron-impurity system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Lyong Kang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The projection-reduction method introduced by the present authors is known to give a validated theory for optical transitions in the systems of electrons interacting with phonons. In this work, using this method, we derive the linear and first order nonlinear optical conductivites for an electron-impurity system and examine whether the expressions faithfully satisfy the quantum mechanical philosophy, in the same way as for the electron-phonon systems. The result shows that the Fermi distribution function for electrons, energy denominators, and electron-impurity coupling factors are contained properly in organized manners along with absorption of photons for each electron transition process in the final expressions. Furthermore, the result is shown to be represented properly by schematic diagrams, as in the formulation of electron-phonon interaction. Therefore, in conclusion, we claim that this method can be applied in modeling optical transitions of electrons interacting with both impurities and phonons.

  5. Twisted intra-molecular charge transfer investigations of semiorganic triglycine phosphate single crystal for non linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meera, M. R.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Rayar, S. L.; Bena Jothy, V.

    2017-09-01

    NLO materials are gaining importance in technologies such as optical communication, optical computing and dynamic image processing. Many NLO crystals grown by mixing amino acids with various organic and inorganic acids have been reported in the literature. Hence, glycine mixed semi-organic material will be of special interest as a fundamental building block to develop many complex crystals with improved NLO properties. A semi organic Single crystal of Triglycine Phosphate (TGP) which was grown and spectral analysis have been using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. Natural Bond Orbital Analysis and the atomic natural charges are also predicted. HOMO LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule.

  6. Towards a unifying theory for the first-, second-, and third-order molecular (non)linear optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2010-05-01

    We present a procedure for the modeling of the dispersion of the nonlinear optical response of complex molecular structures that is based strictly on the results from experimental characterization. We show how under some general conditions, the use of the Thomas-Kuhn sum-rules leads to a successful modeling of the nonlinear response of complex molecular structures.

  7. Measurements of non-linear optical constants of chalcogenide glasses using Z-scan and the degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zakery

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chalcogenide glasses such as arseic sulfide(As2 S3 have attracted attention for applications such as all-optical switching in high speed communication. This is due to their high non-linear refractive-index. Z-scan and the Degenerate four wave mixing (DFWM techniques can be used to measure the non-linear refractive index n 2 and the two photon absorption coefficient β . A simaltanous closed-aperture and open-aperture Z-scan experimental set up was used to obtain the experimental results. The results were then fitted into a theoretical formula. Values of n2=3×10-17m2/W and β= 0.29 cm/GW have been obtained. DFWM measurements were made on arsenic sulfide films. A Box-cars forward geometry was used in these measurements. Experimental results based on non-phase matched signals were again fitted into a theoretical formula and a value of n2 =3.9×10-17 m2 /W was obtained .

  8. Non-Linear Optical Phenomena in Detecting Materials as a Possibility for Fast Timing in Detectors of Ionizing Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Korjik, M. V.; Buganov, O.; Fedorov, A. A.; Emelianchik, I.; Griesmayer, E.; Mechinsky, V.; Nargelas, S.; Sidletskiy, O.; Tamulaitis, G.; Tikhomirov, S. N.; Vaitkevicius, A.

    2016-01-01

    The time resolution of the detectors currently in use is limited by 50-70 ps due to the spontaneous processes involved in the development of the response signal, which forms after the relaxation of carriers generated during the interaction. In this study, we investigate the feasibility of exploiting sub-picosecond phenomena occurring after the interaction of scintillator material with ionizing radiation by probing the material with ultra-short laser pulses. One of the phenomena is the elastic polarization due to the local lattice distortion caused by the displacement of electrons and holes generated by ionization. The key feature of the elastic polarization is its short response time, which makes it prospective for using as an optically detectable time mark. The nonlinear optical absorption of femtosecond light pulses of appropriate wavelength is demonstrated to be a prospective tool to form the mark. This study was aimed at searching for inorganic crystalline media combining scintillation properties and non-...

  9. RETRACTED: Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: A non-linear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimekalai, R.; Antony Joseph, A.; Ramachandra Raja, C.

    2014-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of authors. According to the author we have reported Aloevera Amino Acid added Lithium sulphate monohydrate [AALSMH] crystal is a new nonlinear optical crystal. From the recorded high performance liquid chromatography spectrum, by matching the retention times with the known compounds, the amino acids present in our extract are identified as homocystine, isoleucine, serine, leucine and tyrosine. From the thin layer chromatography and colorimetric estimation techniques, presence of isoleucine was identified and it was also confirmed by NMR spectrum. From the above studies, we came to conclude that AALSMH is new nonlinear optical crystal. After further investigation, lattice parameter values of AALSMH are coinciding with lithium sulphate. Therefore we have decided to withdraw our paper. Sorry for the inconvenience and time spent.

  10. A model of estrogen-related gene expression reveals non-linear effects in transcriptional response to tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebedeva Galina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen receptors alpha (ER are implicated in many types of female cancers, and are the common target for anti-cancer therapy using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, such as tamoxifen. However, cell-type specific and patient-to-patient variability in response to SERMs (from suppression to stimulation of cancer growth, as well as frequent emergence of drug resistance, represents a serious problem. The molecular processes behind mixed effects of SERMs remain poorly understood, and this strongly motivates application of systems approaches. In this work, we aimed to establish a mathematical model of ER-dependent gene expression to explore potential mechanisms underlying the variable actions of SERMs. Results We developed an equilibrium model of ER binding with 17β-estradiol, tamoxifen and DNA, and linked it to a simple ODE model of ER-induced gene expression. The model was parameterised on the broad range of literature available experimental data, and provided a plausible mechanistic explanation for the dual agonism/antagonism action of tamoxifen in the reference cell line used for model calibration. To extend our conclusions to other cell types we ran global sensitivity analysis and explored model behaviour in the wide range of biologically plausible parameter values, including those found in cancer cells. Our findings suggest that transcriptional response to tamoxifen is controlled in a complex non-linear way by several key parameters, including ER expression level, hormone concentration, amount of ER-responsive genes and the capacity of ER-tamoxifen complexes to stimulate transcription (e.g. by recruiting co-regulators of transcription. The model revealed non-monotonic dependence of ER-induced transcriptional response on the expression level of ER, that was confirmed experimentally in four variants of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Conclusions We established a minimal mechanistic model of ER-dependent gene

  11. K[AsW2O9], the first member of the arsenate-tungsten bronze family: Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and non-linear optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Evgeny V.; Felbinger, Olivier; Wu, Shijun; Malcherek, Thomas; Depmeier, Wulf; Modolo, Giuseppe; Gesing, Thorsten M.; Krivovichev, Sergey V.; Suleimanov, Evgeny V.; Gavrilova, Tatiana A.; Pokrovsky, Lev D.; Pugachev, Alexey M.; Surovtsev, Nikolay V.; Atuchin, Victor V.

    2013-08-01

    K[AsW2O9], prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction, is the first member of the arsenate-tungsten bronze family. The structure of K[AsW2O9] is based on a 3-dimensional (3D) oxotungstate-arsenate framework with the non-centrosymmetric P212121 space group, a=4.9747(3) Å, b=9.1780(8) Å, c=16.681(2) Å. The material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques. The results of DSC demonstrate that this phase is stable up to 1076 K. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements performed on a powder sample demonstrate noticeable (0.1 of LiIO3) non-linear optical (NLO) activity.

  12. Comparative population pharmacokinetics of fentanyl using non-linear mixed effect modeling: burns vs. non-burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Kotaro; Han, Tae-Hyung

    2009-09-01

    Fentanyl is a commonly used analgesic and sedative for the burned in the operating theater as well as the burn care units. The aim of this study was to characterize fentanyl population pharmacokinetics in burns and to identify clinically significant covariates. Twenty adults, aged 37+/-3 years, with 49+/-4% (mean+/-S.E.) total body surface area burn, were enrolled at 17+/-3 days after the injury. Twenty non-burn adults served as controls. After an intravenous bolus of 200 mcg fentanyl, the plasma concentrations were sequentially determined up to 4.5 h. Concentration-time profiles were subjected to non-linear mixed effect modeling. Cardiac indices were estimated with esophageal Doppler monitor. Burned patients have higher cardiac index than the non-burned. Three-compartment model was the best fit. The volumes of distribution were considerably expanded in all three compartments (27.9 L vs. 63.4 L, 64.7 L vs. 92.9 L, 153 L vs. 301 L, respectively) compared to the non-burned. BURN was the single most important covariate significantly improving the model. The primary effect of burn trauma on fentanyl pharmacokinetics is substantially expanded volumes of distribution, i.e., dilutional. Difference in simulation, however, was insufficient to explain the augmented resistance to fentanyl, implying the importance of titrating analgesics to the clinical effect.

  13. Non-linear interactions between {CO}_2 radiative and physiological effects on Amazonian evapotranspiration in an Earth system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, Kate; Good, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of mechanisms underlying the evapotranspiration response to increased {CO}_2 in HadGEM2-ES, focussed on western Amazonia. We use three simulations from CMIP5 in which atmospheric {CO}_2 increases at 1% per year reaching approximately four times pre-industrial levels after 140 years. Using 3-hourly data, we found that evapotranspiration (ET) change was dominated by decreased stomatal conductance (g_s ), and to a lesser extent by decreased canopy water and increased moisture gradient (specific humidity difference between surface and near-surface). There were large, non-linear decreases in ET in the simulation in which radiative and physiological forcings could interact. This non-linearity arises from non-linearity in the conductance term (includes aerodynamic and stomatal resistance and partitioning between the two, which is determined by canopy water availability), the moisture gradient, and negative correlation between these two terms. The conductance term is non-linear because GPP responds non-linearly to temperature and GPP is the dominant control on g_s in HadGEM2-ES. In addition, canopy water declines, mainly due to increases in potential evaporation, which further decrease the conductance term. The moisture gradient responds non-linearly owing to the non-linear response of temperature to {CO}_2 increases, which increases the Bowen ratio. Moisture gradient increases resulting from ET decline increase ET and thus constitute a negative feedback. This analysis highlights the importance of the g_s parametrisation in determining the ET response and the potential differences between offline and online simulations owing to feedbacks on ET via the atmosphere, some of which would not occur in an offline simulation.

  14. Variational Principles, Lie Point Symmetries, and Similarity Solutions of the Vector Maxwell Equations in Non-linear Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Garry; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Brio, Moysey

    2004-01-01

    The vector Maxwell equations of nonlinear optics coupled to a single Lorentz oscillator and with instantaneous Kerr nonlinearity are investigated by using Lie symmetry group methods. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations of the equations are obtained. The aim of the analysis is to explore......-second pulse propagation in which the NLS approximation is expected to break down. The canonical Hamiltonian description of the equations involves the solution of a polynomial equation for the electric field $E$, in terms of the the canonical variables, with possible multiple real roots for $E$. In order...... to circumvent this problem, non-canonical Poisson bracket formulations of the equations are obtained in which the electric field is one of the non-canonical variables. Noether's theorem, and the Lie point symmetries admitted by the equations are used to obtain four conservation laws, including...

  15. Ultra-fast 3D scanning and holographic illumination in non-linear microscopy using acousto-optic deflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Ventalon, Cathie; Léger, Jean-François; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Blochet, Baptiste; Gigan, Sylvain; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    Decoding of information in the brain requires the imaging of large neuronal networks using e.g. two-photon microscopy (TPM). Fast control of the focus in 3D can be achieved with phase shaping of the light beam using acoustooptic deflectors (AODs). However, beam shaping using AODs is not straightforward because of non-stationary of acousto-optic diffraction. Here, we demonstrated a new stable AOD-based phase modulator, which operates at a rate of up to about hundred kHz. It provides opportunity for 3D scanning in TPM with the possibility to correct aberrations independently for every focus position or to achieve refocusing of scattered photons in rapidly decorrelating tissues.

  16. Non-linear photoelectron effect contributes to the formation of negative matrix ions in UV-MALDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E; Zenobi, R

    2016-07-20

    The mechanism of negative ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is less well understood than that of positive ions: electron capture, disproportionation, and liberation of negatively charged sample molecules or clusters have been proposed to produce the initial anions in MALDI. Here, we propose that the non-linear photoelectric effect can explain the emission of electrons from the metallic target material. Moreover, electrons with sufficient kinetic energy (0-10 eV) could be responsible for the formation of initial negative ions. Gas-phase electron capture by neutral 2,5-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHB) to yield M(-) is investigated on the basis of a coupled physical and chemical dynamics (CPCD) theory from the literature. A three-layer energy mass balance model is utilized to calculate the surface temperature of the matrix, which is used to determine the translational temperature, the number of desorbed matrix molecules per unit area, and the ion velocity. Calculations of dissociative attachment and autoionization rates of DHB are presented. It was found that both processes contribute significantly to the formation of [M - H](-) and [M - H2](-), although the predicted yield in the fluence range of 5-100 mJ cm(-2) is low, certainly less than that for positive ions M(+). This work represents the first proposal for a comprehensive theoretical description of negative ion formation in UV-MALDI.

  17. Effect of cellulosic fiber scale on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of starch-based composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Samaneh; Abdulkhani, Ali; Tahir, Paridah Md; Dufresne, Alain

    2016-10-01

    Cellulosic nanofibers (NFs) from kenaf bast were used to reinforce glycerol plasticized thermoplastic starch (TPS) matrices with varying contents (0-10wt%). The composites were prepared by casting/evaporation method. Raw fibers (RFs) reinforced TPS films were prepared with the same contents and conditions. The aim of study was to investigate the effects of filler dimension and loading on linear and non-linear mechanical performance of fabricated materials. Obtained results clearly demonstrated that the NF-reinforced composites had significantly greater mechanical performance than the RF-reinforced counterparts. This was attributed to the high aspect ratio and nano dimension of the reinforcing agents, as well as their compatibility with the TPS matrix, resulting in strong fiber/matrix interaction. Tensile strength and Young's modulus increased by 313% and 343%, respectively, with increasing NF content from 0 to 10wt%. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) revealed an elevational trend in the glass transition temperature of amylopectin-rich domains in composites. The most eminent record was +18.5°C shift in temperature position of the film reinforced with 8% NF. This finding implied efficient dispersion of nanofibers in the matrix and their ability to form a network and restrict mobility of the system.

  18. Non-linear finite element model to assess the effect of tendon forces on the foot-ankle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Orcajo, Enrique; Souza, Thales R; Bayod, Javier; Barbosa de Las Casas, Estevam

    2017-08-11

    A three-dimensional foot finite element model with actual geometry and non-linear behavior of tendons is presented. The model is intended for analysis of the lower limb tendon forces effect in the inner foot structure. The geometry of the model was obtained from computational tomographies and magnetic resonance images. Tendon tissue was characterized with the first order Ogden material model based on experimental data from human foot tendons. Kinetic data was employed to set the load conditions. After model validation, a force sensitivity study of the five major foot extrinsic tendons was conducted to evaluate the function of each tendon. A synergic work of the inversion-eversion tendons was predicted. Pulling from a peroneus or tibialis tendon stressed the antagonist tendons while reducing the stress in the agonist. Similar paired action was predicted for the Achilles tendon with the tibialis anterior. This behavior explains the complex control motion performed by the foot. Furthermore, the stress state at the plantar fascia, the talocrural joint cartilage, the plantar soft tissue and the tendons were estimated in the early and late midstance phase of walking. These estimations will help in the understanding of the functional role of the extrinsic muscle-tendon-units in foot pronation-supination. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Linear and non-linear optical properties of amorphous Se and M5Se95 (M $=$ Ge, Ga and Zn) films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GH ABBADY; K A ALY; Y SADDEEK; N AFIFIY

    2016-12-01

    The variations in structure and optical properties of amorphous a-Se and a-M$_5$Se$_{95}$ (M = Ge, Ga and Zn) films have been studied based on FTIR and optical measurements. FTIR transmittance spectra for a-Se and a-M$_5$Se$_{95}$ (M $=$ Ge, Ga and Zn) glasses were measured as a function of wavenumber. The addition of Ge, Ga and Zn increases the vibrational frequency of the a-Se main band. The absorption edge of Ge$_5$Se$_{95}$ shifted towards long side of the wavelength in comparison with that of a-Se film. This shift increases gradually in the case of Ga$_5$Se$_{95}$ and Zn$_5$Se$_95$ films. So, the optical bandgap ofM5Se95 films was decreased, but the index of refraction was increased. The first and third order of electric susceptibility ($\\chi_{(1)}$ and $\\chi_{(3)}$) and non-linear index of refraction ($n_2$) were increased by adding Ge, Ga and Zn into a-Se.

  20. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    -induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach....... The stochastic properties of this non-linear response are calculated through a monotonic Hermite transformation. In addition, the impulse loading due to e.g. bottom slamming or a rapid change in bow flare is included using a modal expansion in the two lowest vertical vibration modes. These whipping vibrations...

  1. Model for flow of Casson nanofluid past a non-linearly stretching sheet considering magnetic field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, M.; Khan, Junaid Ahmad

    2015-07-01

    Present work deals with the magneto-hydro-dynamic flow and heat transfer of Casson nanofluid over a non-linearly stretching sheet. Non-linear temperature distribution across the sheet is considered. More physically acceptable model of passively controlled wall nanoparticle volume fraction is accounted. The arising mathematical problem is governed by interesting parameters which include Casson fluid parameter, magnetic field parameter, power-law index, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter, Prandtl number and Schmidt number. Numerical solutions are computed through fourth-fifth-order-Runge-Kutta integration approach combined with the shooting technique. Both temperature and nanoparticle volume fraction are increasing functions of Casson fluid parameter.

  2. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth from surface solar radiation measurements using machine learning algorithms, non-linear regression and a radiative transfer-based look-up table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttunen, Jani; Kokkola, Harri; Mielonen, Tero; Esa Juhani Mononen, Mika; Lipponen, Antti; Reunanen, Juha; Vilhelm Lindfors, Anders; Mikkonen, Santtu; Erkki Juhani Lehtinen, Kari; Kouremeti, Natalia; Bais, Alkiviadis; Niska, Harri; Arola, Antti

    2016-07-01

    In order to have a good estimate of the current forcing by anthropogenic aerosols, knowledge on past aerosol levels is needed. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a good measure for aerosol loading. However, dedicated measurements of AOD are only available from the 1990s onward. One option to lengthen the AOD time series beyond the 1990s is to retrieve AOD from surface solar radiation (SSR) measurements taken with pyranometers. In this work, we have evaluated several inversion methods designed for this task. We compared a look-up table method based on radiative transfer modelling, a non-linear regression method and four machine learning methods (Gaussian process, neural network, random forest and support vector machine) with AOD observations carried out with a sun photometer at an Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) site in Thessaloniki, Greece. Our results show that most of the machine learning methods produce AOD estimates comparable to the look-up table and non-linear regression methods. All of the applied methods produced AOD values that corresponded well to the AERONET observations with the lowest correlation coefficient value being 0.87 for the random forest method. While many of the methods tended to slightly overestimate low AODs and underestimate high AODs, neural network and support vector machine showed overall better correspondence for the whole AOD range. The differences in producing both ends of the AOD range seem to be caused by differences in the aerosol composition. High AODs were in most cases those with high water vapour content which might affect the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) through uptake of water into aerosols. Our study indicates that machine learning methods benefit from the fact that they do not constrain the aerosol SSA in the retrieval, whereas the LUT method assumes a constant value for it. This would also mean that machine learning methods could have potential in reproducing AOD from SSR even though SSA would have changed during

  3. High-pressure crystal structure of the non-linear optical compound BiB(3)O(6) from two-dimensional powder diffraction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinnebier, R E; Hinrichsen, B; Lennie, A; Jansen, M

    2009-02-01

    Our recently proposed method for automatic detection, calibration and evaluation of Debye-Scherrer ellipses using pattern-recognition techniques and advanced signal filtering was applied to the two-dimensional powder diffraction data of the non-ferroelectric, non-centrosymmetric non-linear optical (NLO) compound alpha-BiB(3)O(6) as a function of pressure. At ambient conditions, alpha-BiB(3)O(6) crystallizes in the space group C2 (phase I). In the pressure range between P = 6.09 and 6.86 GPa, it exhibits a first-order phase transition into a structure with the space group C1 (P1) [phase II at P = 8.34 GPa: a = 7.4781 (6), b = 3.9340 (4), c = 6.2321 (6) A, alpha = 93.73 (1), beta = 102.93 (1), gamma = 90.76 (1) degrees , and V = 178.24 (3) A(3)]. Non-linear compression behaviour over the entire pressure range is observed, which can be described by two Vinet relations in the ranges from P = 0.0 to 6.09 GPa, and from P = 6.86 to 11.6 GPa. The extrapolated bulk moduli of the high-pressure phases were determined to be K(0) = 38 (1) GPa for phase I, and K(0) = 114 (10) GPa for phase II. The crystal structures of both phases were refined against X-ray powder diffraction data measured at several pressures between 0.0 and 11.6 GPa. The structural phase transition of alpha-BiB(3)O(6) is mainly characterized by a reorientation of the [BO(3)](3-) triangles, the [BO(4)](5-) tetrahedra and the lone electron pair which is localized at Bi(3+), in order to optimize crystal packing.

  4. Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Organic Non-linear Optical Chromophores with Configurationally and Conformationally Locked Polyene Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    A modular, synthetic scheme was developed for versatile variation of donors, acceptors and polyene bridge length of NLO-chromophores. Configurational...and conformational rigidity of the polyene bridges were realized by making each set of adjacent double and single bond pair part of a fused...cylohexene ring. Substituent effects on the reactions leading to the establishment of the donor, elongation of the fused polyene bridge and the final

  5. A high-energy, high-flux source of gamma-rays from all-optical non-linear Thomson scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvan, D. J.; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.

    2016-09-01

    γ-Ray sources are among the most fundamental experimental tools currently available to modern physics. As well as the obvious benefits to fundamental research, an ultra-bright source of γ-rays could form the foundation of scanning of shipping containers for special nuclear materials and provide the bases for new types of cancer therapy. However, for these applications to prove viable, γ-ray sources must become compact and relatively cheap to manufacture. In recent years, advances in laser technology have formed the cornerstone of optical sources of high energy electrons which already have been used to generate synchrotron radiation on a compact scale. Exploiting the scattering induced by a second laser, one can further enhance the energy and number of photons produced provided the problems of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection are solved. Here, we report on the work that has been done in developing an all-optical and hence, compact non-linear Thomson scattering source, including the new methods of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection. We present evidence of the generation of multi-MeV (maximum 16-18 MeV) and ultra-high brilliance (exceeding 1020 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 0.1% BW at 15 MeV) γ-ray beams. These characteristics are appealing for the paramount practical applications mentioned above.

  6. The effect of non-linear capacitances in the localization properties of aperiodic dual electric transmission lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazo, Edmundo; Garrido, Alejandro; Neira, Félix

    2016-11-01

    This study investigates the localization properties of dual electric transmission lines with non-linear capacitances. The VC,n voltage across each capacitor is selected as a non-linear function of the electric charge qn, i.e., VC,n = qn(1/Cn -ɛn|qn|2) where Cn is the linear part of the capacitance and ɛn the amplitude of the non-linear term. We follow a binary distribution of values of ɛn, according to the Thue-Morse m-tupling sequence. The localization behavior of this non-linear case indicates that the case m = 2 does not belong to the m ≥ 3, family because when m changes from m = 2 to m = 3, the number of extended states diminishes dramatically. This proves the topological difference of the m = 2 and m = 3 families. However, by increasing m values, localization behavior of the m-tupling family resembles that of the m = 2, case because the system begins to regain its extended states. The exact same result was obtained recently in the study of linear direct transmission lines with m-tupling distribution of inductances. Consequently, we state that the localization behavior of the m-tupling family as a function of the m value is independent of both the linear and the non-linear system under study, but independent of the kind of transmission line (dual or direct). This is curious behavior of the m-tupling family and thus deserves more scholarly attention.

  7. Testing for non-linear causal effects using a binary genotype in a Mendelian randomization study: application to alcohol and cardiovascular traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverwood, Richard J; Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John C; Smith, George Davey; Leon, David A; Palmer, Tom; Keating, Brendan J; Zuccolo, Luisa; Casas, Juan P; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Mendelian randomization studies have so far restricted attention to linear associations relating the genetic instrument to the exposure, and the exposure to the outcome. In some cases, however, observational data suggest a non-linear association between exposure and outcome. For example, alcohol consumption is consistently reported as having a U-shaped association with cardiovascular events. In principle, Mendelian randomization could address concerns that the apparent protective effect of light-to-moderate drinking might reflect 'sick-quitters' and confounding. The Alcohol-ADH1B Consortium was established to study the causal effects of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular events and biomarkers, using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs1229984 in ADH1B as a genetic instrument. To assess non-linear causal effects in this study, we propose a novel method based on estimating local average treatment effects for discrete levels of the exposure range, then testing for a linear trend in those effects. Our method requires an assumption that the instrument has the same effect on exposure in all individuals. We conduct simulations examining the robustness of the method to violations of this assumption, and apply the method to the Alcohol-ADH1B Consortium data. Our method gave a conservative test for non-linearity under realistic violations of the key assumption. We found evidence for a non-linear causal effect of alcohol intake on several cardiovascular traits. We believe our method is useful for inferring departure from linearity when only a binary instrument is available. We estimated non-linear causal effects of alcohol intake which could not have been estimated through standard instrumental variable approaches. © The Author 2014; Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  8. A high-energy, high-flux source of gamma-rays from all-optical non-linear Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvan, D.J., E-mail: dcorvan01@qub.ac.uk; Zepf, M.; Sarri, G.

    2016-09-01

    γ-Ray sources are among the most fundamental experimental tools currently available to modern physics. As well as the obvious benefits to fundamental research, an ultra-bright source of γ-rays could form the foundation of scanning of shipping containers for special nuclear materials and provide the bases for new types of cancer therapy. However, for these applications to prove viable, γ-ray sources must become compact and relatively cheap to manufacture. In recent years, advances in laser technology have formed the cornerstone of optical sources of high energy electrons which already have been used to generate synchrotron radiation on a compact scale. Exploiting the scattering induced by a second laser, one can further enhance the energy and number of photons produced provided the problems of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection are solved. Here, we report on the work that has been done in developing an all-optical and hence, compact non-linear Thomson scattering source, including the new methods of synchronisation and compact γ-ray detection. We present evidence of the generation of multi-MeV (maximum 16–18 MeV) and ultra-high brilliance (exceeding 10{sup 20} photons s{sup −1}mm{sup −2}mrad{sup −2} 0.1% BW at 15 MeV) γ-ray beams. These characteristics are appealing for the paramount practical applications mentioned above. - Highlights: • How synchrotron radiation can be produced in an all optical setting using laser-plasmas. • Generating high-energy, high-flux gamma ray beams. • Presenting results from a recent NLTS experimental campaign. • Reveal insight into the experimental techniques employed.

  9. HIGH-PRESSURE RAMAN STUDY OF NON-LINEAR OPTICAL CRYSTALS%非线性光学晶体的高压拉曼散射研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申泽骧

    2000-01-01

    报道了高压下非线性光学晶体KNbO3(KN),KIO3(KI)和KTiOAsO4(KTA)的Raman散射研究结果,压力引起的Raman光谱非常丰富,在所有的样品中都观察到了压致相变.另外,在KN晶体中发现了非常强的压致振动耦合现象及高压非晶相.对于KTA,建立了Raman光谱变化与其倍频效率随压力提高之间的可能联系.在22GPa以上,KI晶体的基本组成集团可能由IO3变为IO6.%In this presentation,we report on the high-pressure Raman spectroscopic studies of some non-linear optical crystals,e.g.KNbO3(KN),KIO3(KI) and KTiOAsO4(KTA),which are important for both their practical applications and theoretical values.The effect of pressure on KN is extremely large and there exist a rich variety of pressure-induced changes.Mode softening is found for some of the characteristic Raman bands.Intensity transfer and frequency repelling have been observed in the 200cm-1 region as a result of strong coupling between two B1(TO)modes,whose frequencies have been brought closer under pressure.There are three new crystalline and an amorphous phases,and two of the phase transitions are of displacive type.Three first-order pressure-induced phase transitions are inferred for KTA.The first takes place at 3.2GPa,indicated by drastic spectral changes related to TiO6 octahedra.The second occurs at 7.5GPa involving both TiO6 and AsO4 groups.Several modes belonging to TiO6 also soften between 0~7.5GPa.The third phase transition occurs near 10GPa and the high-pressure phase should be of higher symmetry.Drastic spectral changes and phase transitions are observed for KI up to 32GPa.The first transition occurs at 5.0GPa characterised by major spectral changes of the ν1,ν2,and ν4 modes.The other transitions are found at 8.7,15 and 22GPa.The phase that is stable between 15~22GPa has a higher symmetry than the phases in the lower pressures.The IO3 pyramidal ions may have lost their identity and changed to IO6 octahedra above 22GPa.

  10. Non-linear Simulations of MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks Including Eddy Current Effects and Perspectives for the Extension to Halo Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelzl, M.; Huijsmans, G. T. A.; Merkel, P.; Atanasiu, C.; Lackner, K.; Nardon, E.; Aleynikova, K.; Liu, F.; Strumberger, E.; McAdams, R.; Chapman, I.; Fil, A.

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can be strongly influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realistic toroidal X-point geometry consistently coupled with a model for the vacuum region and the resistive conducting structures. With this in mind, the non-linear finite element MHD code JOREK [1, 2] has been coupled [3] with the resistive wall code STARWALL [4], which allows us to include the effects of eddy currents in 3D conducting structures in non-linear MHD simulations. This article summarizes the capabilities of the coupled JOREK-STARWALL system and presents benchmark results as well as first applications to non-linear simulations of RWMs, VDEs, disruptions triggered by massive gas injection, and Quiescent H-Mode. As an outlook, the perspectives for extending the model to halo currents are described.

  11. Characterization and correction of non-linearity effect on oxygen spectra of TANSO-FTS onboard GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, H.; Frankenberg, C.; Crisp, D.; kuze, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Thermal and Near Infrared Sensor for carbon Observations Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) onboard the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) collects high spectral resolution spectra of reflected sunlight in the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band near 760 nm, the carbon dioxide (CO2) bands near 1600 and 2060 nm, and the methane (CH4) band near 1660 nm. The O2 measurements are used to estimate the surface pressure and the dry air column, which are used to define the column-averaged CO2 and CH4 dry air mole fractions, XCO2 and XCH4. O2 measurements are ideal for this application because the O2 dry air mole fraction is almost constant and well known. However, systematic errors in the O2 measurements can introduce biases in the XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals from TANSO-FTS. For example, 1% overestimate of the O2 column retrievals introduced a 10 hPa high bias in surface pressure and a 4 hPa low bias in XCO2 in early retrievals. This near-global bias has been traced to uncertainties in the O2 A-band absorption cross sections. Other spatially-varying O2 errors have been traced to uncertainties in the calibration of the TANSO-FTS A-band channel. For example, non-linearity in the A-band channel response introduces errors in the depths of both O2 lines and solar Fraunhofer lines. There are three possible sources of non-linearity: detector, analogue circuit (amplifier and electric filters), and analogue to digital converter (ADC). Observations acquired with the flight instrument and laboratory experiments with TANSO-FTS engineering model (EM) is being used to discriminate and correct these errors. The EM tests have largely vindicated the silicon photo-diode detector, but show that the non-linearity of the analogue circuit and ADC is almost identical to that seen in data acquired by the on-orbit flight model. We have developed and applied a correction to the measured interferograms from the flight instrument and confirmed it validity by showing that the Fraunhofer

  12. Automated classification of single airborne particles from two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns by non-linear filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni Franco; Pan, Yong-Le; Aptowicz, Kevin B.; Casati, Caterina; Pinnick, Ronald G.; Chang, Richard K.; Videen, Gorden W.

    2013-12-01

    Measurement of two-dimensional angle-resolved optical scattering (TAOS) patterns is an attractive technique for detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles. In general, the interpretation of these patterns and the retrieval of the particle refractive index, shape or size alone, are difficult problems. By reformulating the problem in statistical learning terms, a solution is proposed herewith: rather than identifying airborne particles from their scattering patterns, TAOS patterns themselves are classified through a learning machine, where feature extraction interacts with multivariate statistical analysis. Feature extraction relies on spectrum enhancement, which includes the discrete cosine FOURIER transform and non-linear operations. Multivariate statistical analysis includes computation of the principal components and supervised training, based on the maximization of a suitable figure of merit. All algorithms have been combined together to analyze TAOS patterns, organize feature vectors, design classification experiments, carry out supervised training, assign unknown patterns to classes, and fuse information from different training and recognition experiments. The algorithms have been tested on a data set with more than 3000 TAOS patterns. The parameters that control the algorithms at different stages have been allowed to vary within suitable bounds and are optimized to some extent. Classification has been targeted at discriminating aerosolized Bacillus subtilis particles, a simulant of anthrax, from atmospheric aerosol particles and interfering particles, like diesel soot. By assuming that all training and recognition patterns come from the respective reference materials only, the most satisfactory classification result corresponds to 20% false negatives from B. subtilis particles and classification method may be adapted into a real-time operation technique, capable of detecting and characterizing micron-sized airborne particles.

  13. Effect of Enhanced Air Temperature (extreme heat, and Load of Non-Linear Against the Use of Electric Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Wijaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Usage Electric power is very easy to do, because the infrastructure for connecting  already available and widely sold. Consumption electric power is not accompanied by the ability to recognize electric power. The average increase of electricity power in Bali in extreme weather reaches 10% in years 2014, so that Bali suffered power shortages and PLN as the manager of electric power to perform scheduling on of electric power usage. Scheduling is done because many people use electric power as the load  of fan and Air Conditioner exceeding the previous time. Load of fan, air conditioning, and computers including non-linear loads which can add heat on the conductor of electricity. Non-linear load and hot weather can lead to heat on conductor so  insulation damaged  and cause electrical short circuit. Data of electric power obtained through questionnaires, surveys, measurement and retrieve data from various parties. Fires that occurred in 2014, namely 109 events, 44 is  event caused by an electric short circuit (approximately 40%. Decrease power factors can cause losses of electricity and hot. Heat can cause and adds heat on the  conductor electric. The analysis showed  understanding electric power of the average  is 27,700 with value between 20 to 40. So an understanding of the electrical power away from the understand so that many errors because of the act own. Installation tool ELCB very necessary but very necessary provide counseling   of electricity to the community.

  14. The effect of high pass filtering and non-linear normalization on the EMG-force relationship during sub-maximal finger exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Alison C; Sanei, Kia; Keir, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    Muscle force estimates are important for full understanding of the musculoskeletal system and EMG is a modeling method used to estimate muscle force. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of high pass filtering and non-linear normalization on the EMG-force relationship of sub-maximal finger exertions. Sub-maximal isometric ramp exertions were performed under three conditions (i) extension with restraint at the mid-proximal phalanx, (ii) flexion at the proximal phalanx and (iii) flexion at the distal phalanx. Thirty high pass filter designs were compared to a standardized processing procedure and an exponential fit equation was used for non-linear normalization. High pass filtering significantly reduced the %RMS error and increased the peak cross correlation between EMG and force in the distal flexion condition and in the other two conditions there was a trend towards improving force predictions with high pass filtering. The degree of linearity differed between the three contraction conditions and high pass filtering improved the linearity in all conditions. Non-linear normalization had greater impact on the EMG-force relationship than high pass filtering. The difference in optimal processing parameters suggests that high pass filtering and linearity are dependent on contraction mode as well as the muscle analyzed.

  15. All-optical and digital non-linear compensation algorithms in flex-coherent grouped and un-grouped contiguous spectrum based networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez

    2016-01-01

    We have evaluated that in-line non-linear compensation schemes decrease the complexity of digital backward propagation and enhance the transmission performance of 40/112/224 Gbit/s mixed line rate network. Multiple bit rates, i.e. 40/112/224 Gbit/s and modulation formats (i.e. DP-QPSK and DP-16QA...

  16. Effect of linear and non-linear blade modelling techniques on simulated fatigue and extreme loads using Bladed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsell, Alec; Collier, William; Han, Tao

    2016-09-01

    There is a trend in the wind industry towards ever larger and more flexible turbine blades. Blade tip deflections in modern blades now commonly exceed 10% of blade length. Historically, the dynamic response of wind turbine blades has been analysed using linear models of blade deflection which include the assumption of small deflections. For modern flexible blades, this assumption is becoming less valid. In order to continue to simulate dynamic turbine performance accurately, routine use of non-linear models of blade deflection may be required. This can be achieved by representing the blade as a connected series of individual flexible linear bodies - referred to in this paper as the multi-part approach. In this paper, Bladed is used to compare load predictions using single-part and multi-part blade models for several turbines. The study examines the impact on fatigue and extreme loads and blade deflection through reduced sets of load calculations based on IEC 61400-1 ed. 3. Damage equivalent load changes of up to 16% and extreme load changes of up to 29% are observed at some turbine load locations. It is found that there is no general pattern in the loading differences observed between single-part and multi-part blade models. Rather, changes in fatigue and extreme loads with a multi-part blade model depend on the characteristics of the individual turbine and blade. Key underlying causes of damage equivalent load change are identified as differences in edgewise- torsional coupling between the multi-part and single-part models, and increased edgewise rotor mode damping in the multi-part model. Similarly, a causal link is identified between torsional blade dynamics and changes in ultimate load results.

  17. Third order optical non-linear (Z-scan), birefringence, photoluminescence, mechanical and etching studies on melaminium levulinate monohydrate (MLM) single crystal for optical device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, N.; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-10-01

    Z-scan studies on the grown crystal was investigated by diode-pumped Nd; YAG laser. Nonlinear refractive index (n2) and third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility (χ3) values of MLM were found to be -1.0 × 10-8 cm2/W and 1.36 × 10-6 esu respectively. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis depicted that the crystal belongs to monoclinic system with space group P21/c. Birefringence study revealed the optical dispersion behavior of MLM crystal. Linear refractive index on (10-1) plane was measured by prism coupling technique and was estimated to be 1.4705. Hardness study was carried out along three different planes which exhibit hardness anisotropy of 41.11%. Meyer's index values of the grown crystal for the (10-1), (010) and (111) planes were found to be 2.39, 2.61 and 2.04 respectively. Etching studies on the prominent (10-1) growth plane was explained by two dimensional layer growth mechanisms. Photoluminescence study was performed on MLM crystal to explore its efficacy towards optical device fabrications.

  18. NICMOS non-linearity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Roelof

    2005-07-01

    This program incorporates a number of tests to analyse the count rate dependent non-linearity seen in NICMOS spectro-photometric observations. In visit 1 we will observe a few fields with stars of a range in luminosity in NGC1850 with NICMOS in NIC1 in F090M, F110W and F160W and NIC2 F110W, F160W, and F180W. We will repeat the observations with flatfield lamp on, creating artificially high count-rates, allowing tests of NICMOS linearity as function of count rate. To access the effect of charge trapping and persistence, we first take darks {so there is not too much charge already trapped}, than take exposures with the lamp off, exposures with the lamp on, and repeat at the end with lamp off. Finally, we continue with taking darks during occultation. In visit 2 we will observe spectro-photometric standard P041C using the G096 and G141 grisms in NIC3, and repeat the lamp off/on/off test to artificially create a high background. In visits 3&4 we repeat photometry measurements of faint standard stars SNAP-2 and WD1657+343, on which the NICMOS non-linearity was originally discovered using grism observations. These measurements are repeated, because previous photometry was obtained with too short exposure times, hence substantially affected by charge trapping non-linearity. Measurements will be made with NIC1: Visit 5 forms the persistence test of the program. The bright star GL-390 {used in a previous persistence test} will iluminate the 3 NICMOS detectors in turn for a fixed time, saturating the center many times, after which a series of darks will be taken to measure the persistence {i.e. trapped electrons and the decay time of the traps}. To determine the wavelength dependence of the trap chance, exposures of the bright star in different filters will be taken, as well as one in the G096 grism with NIC3. Most exposures will be 128s long, but two exposures in the 3rd orbit will be 3x longer, to seperate the effects of count rate versus total counts of the trap

  19. Synthesis, growth, optical and DFT calculation of 2-naphthol derived Mannich base organic non linear optical single crystal for frequency conversion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A. Dennis; Jeeva, M.; Shankar, M.; Purusothaman, R.; Prabhu, G. Venkatesa; Potheher, I. Vetha

    2016-11-01

    2-naphthol derived Mannich base 1-((4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) (phenyl) methyl) naphthalen-2-ol (MPN) - a nonlinear optical single crystal was synthesized and successfully grown by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. The molecular structure was confirmed by single crystal XRD, FT-IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. The single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21. The chemical shift of 5.34 ppm (singlet methine CH proton) in 1H NMR and signal for the CH carbon around δ70.169 ppm in 13C NMR confirms the formation of the title compound. The crystal growth pattern and dislocations of crystal are analyzed using chemical etching technique. UV cut off wavelength of the material was found to be 212 nm. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of MPN was determined from Kurtz Perry powder technique and the efficiency is almost equal to that of standard KDP crystal. The laser damage threshold was measured by passing Nd: YAG laser beam through the sample and it was found to be 1.1974 GW/cm2. The material was thermally stable up to 142 °C. The relationship between the molecular structure and the optical properties was also studied from quantum chemical calculations using Density Functional Theory (DFT) and reported for the first time.

  20. Non-linear (loop) quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bojowald, Martin; Dantas, Christine C; Jaffe, Matthew; Simpson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inhomogeneous quantum cosmology is modeled as a dynamical system of discrete patches, whose interacting many-body equations can be mapped to a non-linear minisuperspace equation by methods analogous to Bose-Einstein condensation. Complicated gravitational dynamics can therefore be described by more-manageable equations for finitely many degrees of freedom, for which powerful solution procedures are available, including effective equations. The specific form of non-linear and non-local equations suggests new questions for mathematical and computational investigations, and general properties of non-linear wave equations lead to several new options for physical effects and tests of the consistency of loop quantum gravity. In particular, our quantum cosmological methods show how sizeable quantum corrections in a low-curvature universe can arise from tiny local contributions adding up coherently in large regions.

  1. Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Modelling of GnRH Antagonist Degarelix: A Comparison of the Non-linear Mixed-Effects Programs NONMEM and NLME

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Agersø, Henrik; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the two non-linear mixed-effects programs NONMEM and NLME were compared for their use in population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling. We have described the first-order conditional estimation (FOCE) method as implemented in NONMEM and the alternating algorithm in NLME...... proposed by Lindstrom and Bates. The two programs were tested using clinical PK/PD data of a new gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist degarelix currently being developed for prostate cancer treatment. The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered degarelix was analysed using a three...

  2. Non-linear Young's double-slit experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Roman, Julio; Ruiz, Camilo; Perez, Jose Antonio; Delgado, Diego; Mendez, Cruz; Plaja, Luis; Roso, Luis

    2006-04-01

    The Young's double slit experiment is recreated using intense and short laser pulses. Our experiment evidences the role of the non-linear Kerr effect in the formation of interference patterns. In particular, our results evidence a mixed mechanism in which the zeroth diffraction order of each slit are mainly affected by self-focusing and self-phase modulation, while the higher orders propagate linearly. Despite of the complexity of the general problem of non-linear propagation, we demonstrate that this experiment retains its simplicity and allows for a geometrical interpretation in terms of simple optical paths. In consequence, our results may provide key ideas on experiments on the formation of interference patterns with intense laser fields in Kerr media.

  3. Non-linear canonical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan

    1983-01-01

    Non-linear canonical correlation analysis is a method for canonical correlation analysis with optimal scaling features. The method fits many kinds of discrete data. The different parameters are solved for in an alternating least squares way and the corresponding program is called CANALS. An

  4. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa

    2012-01-01

    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discountin...

  5. Non-Linearity of dose-effect relationship on the example of cytogenetic effects in plant cells at low level exposure to ionising radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudalova, Alla; Geras' kin, Stanislav; Dikarev, Vladimir; Dikareva, Nina; Chernonog, Elena [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, RIARAE, 249032 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Copplestone, David [Environment Agency, Millbank Tower, 25th. Floor, 21/24 Millbank, London, SW1P 4XL (United Kingdom); Evseeva, Tatyana [Institute of Biology, Kommunisticheskaya st., 28 Syktyvkar 167610, Komi Republic (Russian Federation)

    2006-07-01

    Over several decades, modelling the effects of ionizing radiation on biological system has relied on the target principle [Timofeeff-Ressovsky et al., 1935], which assumes that cell damage or modification to genes appear as a direct consequence of the exposure of biological macromolecules to charged particles. Furthermore, it is assumed that there is no threshold for the induction of biological damage and that the effects observed are proportional to the energy absorbed. Following this principle, the average number of hits per target should increase linearly with dose, and the yield of mutations per unit of dose is assumed to be the same at both low and high doses (linearity of response). This principle has served as the scientific background for the linear no-threshold (LNT) concept that forms the basis for the radiological protection for the public and the environment [ICRP, 1990]. It follows from the LNT that there is an additional risk for human health from exposure to any radiation level, even below natural background. Since the mid 50's, however, the scientific basis for the LNT concept has been challenged as experimental data have shown that, at low doses, there was a non linear relationship in the dose response. Luchnik and Timofeeff-Ressovsky were the first who showed a non-linear response to a low dose exposure [Luchnik, 1957; Timofeeff-Ressovsky and Luchnik, 1960]. Since then, many data have been accumulated which contradict the LNT model at low doses and dose rates. However, the hit-effect paradigm has become such a strong and indissoluble fact that it has persisted even under the growing pressure of scientific evidence for phenomena at low dose exposure that can not be successfully accounted for by the LNT concept. In recent years, additional information on non-targeted effects of radiation has been accumulated following the first reports of an adaptive response in human lymphocytes [Olivieri et al., 1984] as well as bystander mutagenic effect of

  6. Non-linear, non-monotonic effect of nano-scale roughness on particle deposition in absence of an energy barrier: Experiments and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chao; Glawdel, Tomasz; Ren, Carolyn L.; Emelko, Monica B.

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of colloidal- and nano-scale particles on surfaces is critical to numerous natural and engineered environmental, health, and industrial applications ranging from drinking water treatment to semi-conductor manufacturing. Nano-scale surface roughness-induced hydrodynamic impacts on particle deposition were evaluated in the absence of an energy barrier to deposition in a parallel plate system. A non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between deposition surface roughness and particle deposition flux was observed and a critical roughness size associated with minimum deposition flux or “sag effect” was identified. This effect was more significant for nanoparticles (surface roughness on particle deposition by unifying hydrodynamic forces (using the most current approaches for describing flow field profiles and hydrodynamic retardation effects) with appropriately modified expressions for DLVO interaction energies, and gravity forces in one model and 2) a foundation for further describing the impacts of more complicated scales of deposition surface roughness on particle deposition.

  7. Analysis of second order harmonic distortion due to transmitter non-linearity and chromatic and modal dispersion of optical OFDM SSB modulated signals in SMF-MMF fiber links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dhananjay; Singh, Vinay Kumar; Dalal, U. D.

    2017-01-01

    Single mode fibers (SMF) are typically used in Wide Area Networks (WAN), Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN) and also find applications in Radio over Fiber (RoF) architectures supporting data transmission in Fiber to the Home (FTTH), Remote Antenna Units (RAUs), in-building networks etc. Multi-mode fibers (MMFs) with low cost, ease of installation and low maintenance are predominantly (85-90%) deployed in-building networks providing data access in local area networks (LANs). The transmission of millimeter wave signals through the SMF in WAN and MAN, along with the reuse of MMF in-building networks will not levy fiber reinstallation cost. The transmission of the millimeter waves experiences signal impairments due to the transmitter non-linearity and modal dispersion of the MMF. The MMF exhibiting large modal dispersion limits the bandwidth-length product of the fiber. The second and higher-order harmonics present in the optical signal fall within the system bandwidth. This causes degradation in the received signal and an unwanted radiation of power at the RAU. The power of these harmonics is proportional to the non-linearity of the transmitter and the modal dispersion of the MMF and should be maintained below the standard values as per the international norms. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed for Second-order Harmonic Distortion (HD2) generated due to non-linearity of the transmitter and chromatic-modal dispersion of the SMF-MMF optic link. This is also verified using a software simulation. The model consists of a Mach Zehnder Modulator (MZM) that generates two m-QAM OFDM Single Sideband (SSB) signals based on phase shift of the hybrid coupler (90° and 120°). Our results show that the SSB signal with 120° hybrid coupler has suppresses the higher-order harmonics and makes the system more robust against the HD2 in the SMF-MMF optic link.

  8. NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF EFFECT OF CONFINEMENT REGIONS ON MOMENT CURVATURE BEHAVIOR OF SHEAR WALL (THEORETICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şevket Murat ŞENEL

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Computer program which investigates the effectiveness of confinement regions of shear walls was developed.Specimens which have unique web reinforcement and different confinement regions were analyzed by using this computer program. Data needed for theoratical computations were obtained by tensile testing of steel rods and by concrete specimen tests. Mander Method was applied to reflect confined concrete behavior. Strain hardening behavior of steel was included in computations. Effect of stirrup spacing and hook reinforcement was introduced together and seperately to understand the moment-curvature response of specimens.

  9. The application of a non-linear analysis technique to the monitoring of anesthetic effects in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, P.L.C. van den; Egmond, J. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Dirksen, R.; Coenen, A.M.L.; Booij, L.H.D.J.

    2000-01-01

    To find a new measure from the EEG that quantifies the effects of anesthetics during surgery, the correlation dimension (CD) of the EEG of eight rats was estimated. To get informed about the anesthetic state, the noxious induced withdrawal reflex (NIWR) was measured, i.e. the force elicited by trans

  10. Non-linear Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang

    without iteration steps. The ASA is implemented in combination with Field II and extended to simulate the pulsed ultrasound fields. The simulated results from a linear array transducer are made by the ASA based on Field II, and by a released non-linear simulation program- Abersim, respectively....... The calculation speed of the ASA is increased approximately by a factor of 140. For the second harmonic point spread function the error of the full width is 1.5% at -6 dB and 6.4% at -12 dB compared to Abersim. To further investigate the linear and non-linear ultrasound fields, hydrophone measurements.......3% relative to the measurement from a 1 inch diameter transducer. A preliminary study for harmonic imaging using synthetic aperture sequential beamforming (SASB) has been demonstrated. A wire phantom underwater measurement is made by an experimental synthetic aperture real-time ultrasound scanner (SARUS...

  11. Non-linear effects of initial melt temperatures on microstructures and mechanical properties during quenching process of liquid Cu46Zr54 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yun-Fei; Liu, Rang-Su; Tian, Ze-An; Liang, Yong-Chao; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Hou, Zhao-Yang; Liu, Hai-Rong; Zhang, Ai-long; Zhou, Li-Li; Peng, Ping; Xie, Zhong

    2015-05-01

    A MD simulation of liquid Cu46Zr54 alloys has been performed for understanding the effects of initial melt temperatures on the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties during quenching process. By using several microstructural analyzing methods, it is found that the icosahedral and defective icosahedral clusters play a key role in the microstructure transition. All the final solidification structures obtained at different initial melt temperatures are of amorphous structures, and their structural and mechanical properties are non-linearly related to the initial melt temperatures, and fluctuated in a certain range. Especially, there exists a best initial melt temperature, from which the glass configuration possesses the highest packing density, the optimal elastic constants, and the smaller extent of structural softening under deforming.

  12. On Unsteady Three-Dimensional Axisymmetric MHD Nanofluid Flow with Entropy Generation and Thermo-Diffusion Effects on a Non-Linear Stretching Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Almakki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The entropy generation in unsteady three-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD nanofluid flow over a non-linearly stretching sheet is investigated. The flow is subject to thermal radiation and a chemical reaction. The conservation equations are solved using the spectral quasi-linearization method. The novelty of the work is in the study of entropy generation in three-dimensional axisymmetric MHD nanofluid and the choice of the spectral quasi-linearization method as the solution method. The effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are also taken into account. The nanofluid particle volume fraction on the boundary is passively controlled. The results show that as the Hartmann number increases, both the Nusselt number and the Sherwood number decrease, whereas the skin friction increases. It is further shown that an increase in the thermal radiation parameter corresponds to a decrease in the Nusselt number. Moreover, entropy generation increases with respect to some physical parameters.

  13. Partially non-linear stimulation intensity-dependent effects of direct current stimulation on motor cortex excitability in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsikadze, G; Moliadze, V; Paulus, W; Kuo, M-F; Nitsche, M A

    2013-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the human motor cortex at an intensity of 1 mA with an electrode size of 35 cm(2) has been shown to induce shifts of cortical excitability during and after stimulation. These shifts are polarity-specific with cathodal tDCS resulting in a decrease and anodal stimulation in an increase of cortical excitability. In clinical and cognitive studies, stronger stimulation intensities are used frequently, but their physiological effects on cortical excitability have not yet been explored. Therefore, here we aimed to explore the effects of 2 mA tDCS on cortical excitability. We applied 2 mA anodal or cathodal tDCS for 20 min on the left primary motor cortex of 14 healthy subjects. Cathodal tDCS at 1 mA and sham tDCS for 20 min was administered as control session in nine and eight healthy subjects, respectively. Motor cortical excitability was monitored by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-elicited motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous muscle. Global corticospinal excitability was explored via single TMS pulse-elicited MEP amplitudes, and motor thresholds. Intracortical effects of stimulation were obtained by cortical silent period (CSP), short latency intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), and I wave facilitation. The above-mentioned protocols were recorded both before and immediately after tDCS in randomized order. Additionally, single-pulse MEPs, motor thresholds, SICI and ICF were recorded every 30 min up to 2 h after stimulation end, evening of the same day, next morning, next noon and next evening. Anodal as well as cathodal tDCS at 2 mA resulted in a significant increase of MEP amplitudes, whereas 1 mA cathodal tDCS decreased corticospinal excitability. A significant shift of SICI and ICF towards excitability enhancement after both 2 mA cathodal and anodal tDCS was observed. At 1 mA, cathodal tDCS reduced single-pulse TMS-elicited MEP amplitudes and shifted SICI

  14. Non-linear Realizations of Conformal Symmetry and Effective Field Theory for the Pseudo-Conformal Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The pseudo-conformal scenario is an alternative to inflation in which the early universe is described by an approximate conformal field theory on flat, Minkowski space. Some fields acquire a time-dependent expectation value, which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal algebra to its so(4,1) de Sitter subalgebra. As a result, weight-0 fields acquire a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. The scenario is very general, and its essential features are determined by the symmetry breaking pattern, irrespective of the details of the underlying microphysics. In this paper, we apply the well-known coset technique to derive the most general effective lagrangian describing the Goldstone field and matter fields, consistent with the assumed symmetries. The resulting action captures the low energy dynamics of any pseudo-conformal realization, including the U(1)-invariant quartic model and the Galilean Genesis scenario. We also derive this lagrangian using an alternative method of curvature invariants, consisting of ...

  15. Characteristic Scales of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from Perturbation Theory: Non-linearity and Redshift-Space Distortion Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Nishimichi, Takahiro; Nakamichi, Masashi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro; Shirata, Akihito; Saito, Shun; Nomura, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Suto, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic oscillation of the primeval photon-baryon fluid around the decoupling time imprints a characteristic scale in the galaxy distribution today, known as the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) scale. Several on-going and/or future galaxy surveys aim at detecting and precisely determining the BAO scale so as to trace the expansion history of the universe. We consider nonlinear and redshift-space distortion effects on the shifts of the BAO scale in $k$-space using perturbation theory. The resulting shifts are indeed sensitive to different choices of the definition of the BAO scale, which needs to be kept in mind in the data analysis. We present a toy model to explain the physical behavior of the shifts. We find that the BAO scale defined as in Percival et al. (2007) indeed shows very small shifts ($\\lesssim$ 1%) relative to the prediction in {\\it linear theory} in real space. The shifts can be predicted accurately for scales where the perturbation theory is reliable.

  16. Non-linear Isotope Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johan Albrecht

    The isotopic fractionation associated with photodissociation of N2O, OCS and CO2, at different altitudes in Earth’s atmosphere, is investigated theoretically using constructed quantum mechanical models of the dissociation processes (i.e. potential energy surfaces and relevant coupling elements...... or moderate, and overall sulfur fractionation in the stratosphere is very weak which does not exclude OCS from being an acceptable background the Stratospheric Sulfate Aerosol layer. (iii) CO2 photolysis in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere is highly fractionating in both isotopes, enriching...

  17. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.

    2013-03-01

    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Modelling Loudspeaker Non-Linearities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates different techniques for modelling the non-linear parameters of the electrodynamic loudspeaker. The methods are tested not only for their accuracy within the range of original data, but also for the ability to work reasonable outside that range, and it is demonstrated...... that polynomial expansions are rather poor at this, whereas an inverse polynomial expansion or localized fitting functions such as the gaussian are better suited for modelling the Bl-factor and compliance. For the inductance the sigmoid function is shown to give very good results. Finally the time varying...

  19. Third-order non-linear optical susceptibilities in diffusion modified AlxGa1-xN/GaN single quantum well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, T.; Panda, M.; Panda, S.; Panda, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, the variation of optical properties in the AlGaN/GaN quantum well after thermal annealing is studied. The potential profile change of the quantum well resulting from the interdiffusion of Ga and Al atoms across the interface of the well and the barrier during the thermal treatments is assumed to follow Fick's law. The results show that the thermal annealing can induce an increase of the optical susceptibilities in the AlGaN/GaN quantum well. However the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities are red shifted with increasing in diffusion lengths.

  20. Quantitative methods for stochastic high frequency spatio-temporal and non-linear analysis: Assessing health effects of exposure to extreme ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liss, Alexander

    Extreme weather events, such as heat waves and cold spells, cause substantial excess mortality and morbidity in the vulnerable elderly population, and cost billions of dollars. The accurate and reliable assessment of adverse effects of extreme weather events on human health is crucial for environmental scientists, economists, and public health officials to ensure proper protection of vulnerable populations and efficient allocation of scarce resources. However, the methodology for the analysis of large national databases is yet to be developed. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to examine the effect of extreme weather on the elderly population of the Conterminous US (ConUS) with respect to seasonality in temperature in different climatic regions by utilizing heterogeneous high frequency and spatio-temporal resolution data. To achieve these goals the author: 1) incorporated dissimilar stochastic high frequency big data streams and distinct data types into the integrated data base for use in analytical and decision support frameworks; 2) created an automated climate regionalization system based on remote sensing and machine learning to define climate regions for the Conterminous US; 3) systematically surveyed the current state of the art and identified existing gaps in the scientific knowledge; 4) assessed the dose-response relationship of exposure to temperature extremes on human health in relatively homogeneous climate regions using different statistical models, such as parametric and non-parametric, contemporaneous and asynchronous, applied to the same data; 5) assessed seasonal peak timing and synchronization delay of the exposure and the disease within the framework of contemporaneous high frequency harmonic time series analysis and modification of the effect by the regional climate; 6) modeled using hyperbolic functional form non-linear properties of the effect of exposure to extreme temperature on human health. The proposed climate

  1. High-optical-quality blends of anionic polymethine salts and polycarbonate with enhanced third-order non-linearities for silicon-organic hybrid devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong'an; Liu, Yang; Kim, Hyeongeu; Hales, Joel M; Jang, Sei-Hum; Luo, Jingdong; Baehr-Jones, Tom; Hochberg, Michael; Marder, Seth R; Perry, Joseph W; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2012-11-20

    A series of anionic polymethine dyes with different aromatic counterions are prepared to improve their compatibility as guests in an amorphous polycarbonate host. When they are used as the cladding material for silicon hybrid slot waveguides, four-wave mixing wavelength conversion and two-photon absorption-based optical-power modulation are observed. Such guest-host materials may be attractive candidates for all-optical signal-processing applications.

  2. Electronic, bonding, linear and non-linear optical properties of novel Li{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Wilayat, E-mail: wkhan@ntc.zcu.cz [New Technologies – Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, Pilsen 306 14 (Czech Republic); Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar, KPK (Pakistan); Ouahrani, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, B.P. 230, Université de Tlemcen, Tlemcen 13000 (Algeria); École Préparatoire en Sciences et Techniques, BP 165 R.P., 13000 Tlemcen (Algeria); Mahmood, Asif [College of Engineering, Chemical Engineering Department, King Saud University Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Khenata, R.; El Amine Monir, Mohammed; Baltache, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique, de la Matière et de la Modélisation Mathématique (LPQ3M), Université de Mascara, Mascara 29000 (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Recently a new sulphide compound Li{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6} was synthesized. It has attracted great attention due to its nonlinear optical properties. Quite surprisingly no theoretical study yet been reported on the physical properties of this important material. We have paid attention to study the electronic and optical properties of Li{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6} using first principles techniques of density functional theory. Different exchange-correlation techniques have been applied to study these properties. From local density and generalized gradient approximations the compound is predicted to be direct bandgap. However the band gap is indirect when calculated through the Engle–Vosko and modified Becke–Johnson potentials. Therefore the bandgap of the compound is pseudo direct (direct and indirect band gaps are very close). In optical properties dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and absorption coefficient were studied. Furthermore, the second harmonic generation properties of the compound are predicted. - Highlights: • Li{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}GeS{sub 6} studied for the first time using first principles calculations. • Different exchange correlation potentials have been adopted for the calculations. • Bandgap of the compound is pseudo direct. • Optical structures are prominent in the low frequency ultraviolet region. • The lone pair basins seem to have a non-negligible role in the optical properties.

  3. Graphical and Analytical Analysis of the Non-Linear PLL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Bjorn; Radovanovic, S.; Annema, Anne J.; Nauta, Bram

    The fixed width control pulses from the Bang-Bang Phase Detector in non-linear PLLs allow for operation at higher data rates than the linear PLL. The high non-linearity of the Bang- Bang Phase Detector gives rise to unwanted effects, such as limit-cycles, not yet fully described. This paper

  4. Finite size effects in the presence of a chemical potential: A study in the classical non-linear O(2) sigma-model

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Debasish

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of a chemical potential, the physics of level crossings leads to singularities at zero temperature, even when the spatial volume is finite. These singularities are smoothed out at a finite temperature but leave behind non-trivial finite size effects which must be understood in order to extract thermodynamic quantities using Monte Carlo methods, particularly close to critical points. We illustrate some of these issues using the classical non-linear O(2) sigma model with a coupling $\\beta$ and chemical potential $\\mu$ on a 2+1 dimensional Euclidean lattice. In the conventional formulation this model suffers from a sign problem at non-zero chemical potential and hence cannot be studied with the Wolff cluster algorithm. However, when formulated in terms of world-line of particles, the sign problem is absent and the model can be studied efficiently with the "worm algorithm". Using this method we study the finite size effects that arise due to the chemical potential and develop an effective quantum ...

  5. Investigations of a compartmental model for leucine kinetics using non-linear mixed effects models with ordinary and stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Martin; Sunnåker, Mikael; Adiels, Martin; Jirstrand, Mats; Wennberg, Bernt

    2012-12-01

    Non-linear mixed effects (NLME) models represent a powerful tool to simultaneously analyse data from several individuals. In this study, a compartmental model of leucine kinetics is examined and extended with a stochastic differential equation to model non-steady-state concentrations of free leucine in the plasma. Data obtained from tracer/tracee experiments for a group of healthy control individuals and a group of individuals suffering from diabetes mellitus type 2 are analysed. We find that the interindividual variation of the model parameters is much smaller for the NLME models, compared to traditional estimates obtained from each individual separately. Using the mixed effects approach, the population parameters are estimated well also when only half of the data are used for each individual. For a typical individual, the amount of free leucine is predicted to vary with a standard deviation of 8.9% around a mean value during the experiment. Moreover, leucine degradation and protein uptake of leucine is smaller, proteolysis larger and the amount of free leucine in the body is much larger for the diabetic individuals than the control individuals. In conclusion, NLME models offers improved estimates for model parameters in complex models based on tracer/tracee data and may be a suitable tool to reduce data sampling in clinical studies.

  6. On the Systematic Errors of Cosmological-Scale Gravity Tests using Redshift Space Distortion: Non-linear Effects and the Halo Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Naoki; Tonegawa, Motonari

    2013-01-01

    Redshift space distortion (RSD) observed in galaxy redshift surveys is a powerful tool to test gravity theories on cosmological scales, but the systematic uncertainties must carefully be examined for future surveys with large statistics. Here we employ various analytic models of RSD and estimate the systematic errors on measurements of the structure growth-rate parameter, f\\sigma_8, induced by non-linear effects and the halo bias with respect to the dark matter distribution, by using halo catalogues from 40 realisations of 3.4 \\times 10^8 comoving h^{-3}Mpc^3 cosmological N-body simulations. We consider hypothetical redshift surveys at redshifts z=0.5, 1.35 and 2, and different minimum halo mass thresholds in the range of 5.0 \\times 10^{11} -- 2.0 \\times 10^{13} h^{-1} M_\\odot. We find that the systematic error of f\\sigma_8 is greatly reduced to ~4 per cent level, when a recently proposed analytical formula of RSD that takes into account the higher-order coupling between the density and velocity fields is ado...

  7. On the systematic errors of cosmological-scale gravity tests using redshift-space distortion: non-linear effects and the halo bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Takashi; Totani, Tomonori; Nishimichi, Takahiro; Takahashi, Ryuichi; Yoshida, Naoki; Tonegawa, Motonari

    2014-10-01

    Redshift-space distortion (RSD) observed in galaxy redshift surveys is a powerful tool to test gravity theories on cosmological scales, but the systematic uncertainties must carefully be examined for future surveys with large statistics. Here we employ various analytic models of RSD and estimate the systematic errors on measurements of the structure growth-rate parameter, fσ8, induced by non-linear effects and the halo bias with respect to the dark matter distribution, by using halo catalogues from 40 realizations of 3.4 × 108 comoving h-3 Mpc3 cosmological N-body simulations. We consider hypothetical redshift surveys at redshifts z = 0.5, 1.35 and 2, and different minimum halo mass thresholds in the range of 5.0 × 1011-2.0 × 1013 h-1 M⊙. We find that the systematic error of fσ8 is greatly reduced to ˜5 per cent level, when a recently proposed analytical formula of RSD that takes into account the higher order coupling between the density and velocity fields is adopted, with a scale-dependent parametric bias model. Dependence of the systematic error on the halo mass, the redshift and the maximum wavenumber used in the analysis is discussed. We also find that the Wilson-Hilferty transformation is useful to improve the accuracy of likelihood analysis when only a small number of modes are available in power spectrum measurements.

  8. Comment on the paper: "Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: a non-linear optical crystal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2015-01-05

    The title paper (Manimekalai et al., 2014) reports a slow evaporation solution growth of a so called 'Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate' (AALSMH) crystal. In this communication, many points of criticism, concerning the crystal growth, NMR spectrum and X-ray powder pattern of this so called AALSMH nonlinear optical crystal are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation on linear and non-linear optical constants of nano-spherical CuPc thin films for optoelectronic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yahia, I.S. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Ganesh, V. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Shkir, M., E-mail: shkirphysics@gmail.com [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); AlFaify, S. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Zahran, H.Y. [Nano-Science & Semiconductor Labs, Metallurgical Lab., Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Algarni, H. [Advanced Functional Materials & Optoelectronic Laboratory (AFMOL), Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha (Saudi Arabia); Abutalib, M.M.; Al-Ghamdi, Attieh A. [Centre of Nanotechnology, Physics Department-Faculty of Science-AL Faisaliah Campus, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); El-Naggar, A.M.; AlBassam, A.M. [Research Chair of Exploitation of Renewable Energy Applications in Saudi Arabia, Physics & Astronomy Dept., College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-09-01

    In the current work, the authors present the systematic study on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Copper-phathalocyanine thin film deposited by thermal evaporation system for the first time. The thickness of the prepared thin film was measured and found to be ~300 nm. X-ray diffraction and AFM study confirms that the prepared thin film possess good quality. The orientation of the grown thin film is found to be along (100). UV–vis-NIR study shows that the deposited thin film is highly transparent (>80%) in the wavelength range of 700–2500 nm. Further, the recorded optical data was used to determine the various linear and nonlinear optical parameters. The calculated value of refractive index is found to be in the range of 0.4–1.0. The direct and indirect band gap value is found to be 2.9 and 3.25 eV, respectively. The value of linear and nonlinear susceptibilities is found to be in order of 10{sup −12}. The higher value of linear and nonlinear parameters makes it suitable for optoelectronic applications.

  10. A multilevel excess hazard model to estimate net survival on hierarchical data allowing for non-linear and non-proportional effects of covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Hadrien; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine; Roche, Laurent; Dejardin, Olivier; Rachet, Bernard; Launoy, Guy; Belot, Aurélien

    2016-08-15

    The excess hazard regression model is an approach developed for the analysis of cancer registry data to estimate net survival, that is, the survival of cancer patients that would be observed if cancer was the only cause of death. Cancer registry data typically possess a hierarchical structure: individuals from the same geographical unit share common characteristics such as proximity to a large hospital that may influence access to and quality of health care, so that their survival times might be correlated. As a consequence, correct statistical inference regarding the estimation of net survival and the effect of covariates should take this hierarchical structure into account. It becomes particularly important as many studies in cancer epidemiology aim at studying the effect on the excess mortality hazard of variables, such as deprivation indexes, often available only at the ecological level rather than at the individual level. We developed here an approach to fit a flexible excess hazard model including a random effect to describe the unobserved heterogeneity existing between different clusters of individuals, and with the possibility to estimate non-linear and time-dependent effects of covariates. We demonstrated the overall good performance of the proposed approach in a simulation study that assessed the impact on parameter estimates of the number of clusters, their size and their level of unbalance. We then used this multilevel model to describe the effect of a deprivation index defined at the geographical level on the excess mortality hazard of patients diagnosed with cancer of the oral cavity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Chemical synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, non-linear optical properties and DFT calculation of bis (2,6-diaminopyridinium) sulfate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen, Chaouki; Dammak, Thameur; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Mhiri, Tahar; Boujelbene, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of a new organic inorganic hybrid compound "bis (2,6-diaminopyridinium) sulfate monohydrate [C5H8N3]2SO4·H2O ([2,6-HDAP]2SO4·H2O)" was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculation. The new hybrid compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with the non-centro symmetric space group Pna21 and the following parameters a = 14.759(2) Å, b = 7.076 (2) Å and c = 28.159 (2) Å. The atomic arrangement can be described as inorganic chains following the b axis connected with the organic groups by means of Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form 3D network. Antiparallelly π-π stacked 2,6-HDAP cations form molecular columns in the spaces between the chains. The optimized molecular structure, vibrational spectra and the optical properties were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function with the LanL2DV basis set. The wavenumber calculated are in good agreement with the observed frequency values. The calculated hyperpolarizability βtot is about 4.5 times more than that of the reference crystal KDP. Hence, the large β value shows that the title compound is an attractive object for future studies of nonlinear optical properties.

  12. Synthesis, X-ray crystal structure and highly non-linear optical properties of inorganic-organic hybrid compound: 1,4-Diazbicyclo-octane oxonium tri- nitrates single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchiri, Rokaya; Ennaceur, Nasreddine; Cordier, Marie; Ledoux-Rak, Isabelle; Elaloui, Elimame

    2017-07-01

    A new nonlinear optical hybrid crystal 1,4-Diazbicyclo[222]octane oxonium tri-nitrates (DOTN), of the dimension 4×12×1 mm3. The crystal was grown using water as solvent at room temperature and crystal structure was determined by X-Ray diffraction respectively, this title compound was shown to crystallize in non-centrosymmetric trigonal system with space group P31c. The recorded FTIR spectrum has proven the presence of various functional groups in the grown crystal as well as the formation of DOTN. Besides, the thermal stability and melting temperature of the DOTN crystal were identified from the TG/DSC analysis. The suitability of this material for optical application was studied by non-linear optical (NLO) and UV-visible absorption techniques. Furthermore, the nonlinear optical property was analyzed by Kurtz-Perry powder technique and was 3.4 times than that of KDP (potassium dihydrogen phosphate) single crystals. The first hyperpolarizability of nitrate was determined by Second Harmonic light Scattering.

  13. Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Hong-Ling, Cui; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2015-02-01

    The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.

  14. Theoretical investigation on the non-linear optical properties, vibrational spectroscopy and frontier molecular orbital of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Hong, Li; Hong-Ling, Cui; Rui-Zhou, Zhang; Xian-Zhou, Zhang

    2015-02-25

    The vibrational frequencies of (E)-2-cyano-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)acrylamide (HB-CA) in the ground state have been calculated using density functional method (B3LYP) with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The analysis of natural bond orbital was also performed. The IR spectra were obtained and interpreted by means of potential energies distributions (PEDs) using MOLVIB program. In addition, the results show that there exists C-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the title compound, which is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis. The predicted NLO properties show that the title compound is a good candidate as nonlinear optical material. The analysis of frontier molecular orbitals shows that HB-CA has high excitation energies, good stability and high chemical hardness. The analysis of MEP map shows the negative and the positive potential sites.

  15. Study of vibrational spectroscopy, linear and non-linear optical properties of Sm3+ ions doped BaO-ZnO-B2O3 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Kirti; Kundu, R. S.; Sharma, Sarita; Mohan, Devendra; Punia, R.; Kishore, N.

    2015-07-01

    Samarium oxide doped Barium-Zinc-Borate glasses with compositions xSm2O3-(100-x)[0.1BaO-0.4ZnO-0.5B2O3]; x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 have been prepared by melt quench technique. The amorphous nature of as-prepared glasses has been ascertained by X-ray diffraction patterns. The observed values of density and molar volume of the glass samples are found to increase with the increase in concentration of Sm2O3. Fourier Transform Infrared spectra of the prepared glasses indicate that Sm2O3 acts as glass modifier. With the increase in Sm2O3 content, BO4 structural units start converting into BO3 structural units. The values of optical energy band gap (Eg), estimated from Tauc's plots, are observed to decrease with the increase in Sm2O3 content. The nonlinear optical properties of glass samples have been investigated by Z-scan method with nanosecond pulsed laser at ˜532 nm in both open and close aperture geometries. The values of two photon absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refractive index (n2) have been estimated by fitting of experimentally observed data with theoretical models and both are found to increase with the increase in Sm3+ ions concentration in the glass matrix. The total third order nonlinear susceptibility (χ(3)) have been calculated and observed to increase with the increase in Sm3+ ions concentration.

  16. Molecular structure, experimental and theoretical spectroscopic characterization and non-linear optical properties studies of a new non-centrosymmetric hybrid material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihaoui, Nejla; Hamdi, Besma; Dammak, Thameur; Zouari, Ridha

    2016-11-01

    This paper gathers the synthesis and study of a novel nonlinear organic-inorganic (1,2-diammoniumcyclohexane tetrabromozincate (II) monohydrate; [C6H10(NH3)2]ZnBr4·H2O) hybrid. The newly developed hybrid was characterized by XRD and spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV-Visible and CP/MAS-NMR) studies. All theoretical calculations and structural optimization parameters were conducted by using DFT approach with B3LYP/6-31G(d) basis set and the vibrational wavenumbers were evaluated for the affectation of [C6H10(NH3)2]ZnBr4·H2O compound by using transferable scale factor. The inspection of intermolecular links in the studied framework has been executed by the Hirshfeld surface analysis. The nonlinear optical characteristics of this compound were theoretically explored also the molecular orbitals (HOMO) and (LUMO) properties are performed to describe the charge transfer within the crystal.

  17. Non-linear Simulations of MHD Instabilities in Tokamaks Including Eddy Current Effects and Perspectives for the Extension to Halo Currents

    CERN Document Server

    Hoelzl, M; Merkel, P; Atanasiu, C; Lackner, K; Nardon, E; Aleynikova, K; Liu, F; Strumberger, E; McAdams, R; Chapman, I; Fil, A

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of large scale plasma instabilities can strongly be influenced by the mutual interaction with currents flowing in conducting vessel structures. Especially eddy currents caused by time-varying magnetic perturbations and halo currents flowing directly from the plasma into the walls are important. The relevance of a resistive wall model is directly evident for Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs) or Vertical Displacement Events (VDEs). However, also the linear and non-linear properties of most other large-scale instabilities may be influenced significantly by the interaction with currents in conducting structures near the plasma. The understanding of halo currents arising during disruptions and VDEs, which are a serious concern for ITER as they may lead to strong asymmetric forces on vessel structures, could also benefit strongly from these non-linear modeling capabilities. Modeling the plasma dynamics and its interaction with wall currents requires solving the magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equations in realist...

  18. Growth and characterization of binary and pseudo-binary 3-5 compounds exhibiting non-linear optical behavior. Undergraduate research opportunities in microgravity science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, August F.

    1992-01-01

    In line with the specified objectives, a Bridgman-type growth configuration in which unavoidable end effects - conventionally leading to growth interface relocation - are compensated by commensurate input-power changes is developed; the growth rate on a microscale is predictable and unaffected by changes in heat transfer conditions. To permit quantitative characterization of the growth furnace cavity (hot-zone), a 3-D thermal field mapping technique, based on the thermal image, is being tested for temperatures up to 1100 C. Computational NIR absorption analysis was modified to now permit characterization of semi-insulating single crystals. Work on growth and characterization of bismuth-silicate was initiated. Growth of BSO (B12SiO20) for seed material by the Czochralski technique is currently in progress. Undergraduate research currently in progress includes: ground based measurements of the wetting behavior (contact angles) of semiconductor melts on substrates consisting of potential confinement materials for solidification experiments in a reduced gravity environment. Hardware modifications required for execution of the wetting experiments in a KC-135 facility are developed.

  19. Spectroscopic, DNA binding ability, biological activity, DFT calculations and non linear optical properties (NLO) of novel Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) complexes with ONS Schiff base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Aziz, Ayman A.; Elantabli, Fatma M.; Moustafa, H.; El-Medani, Samir M.

    2017-08-01

    The reaction of Co(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) with the synthesized N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylidene)-2-aminothiophenol Schiff base ligand (H2L) at room temperature resulted in the formation of the five complexes; [Co(HL)2]H2O, 1; [M(HL)2] (M = Cu, Zn and Cd), (2-4) and [Hg(HL)Cl], 5. The ligand and its complexes were characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, magnetic measurement, molar conductance, and thermal analysis. Coats and Redfern method was used to compute the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. Antimicrobial activities of H2L and its complexes have been studied. The binding of Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes to calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated using UV-Vis and fluorescence absorption spectra. The results indicated that the ligand and its complexes may bind to DNA by intercalation modes, with a much higher binding affinity of the complexes than that of the ligand. The equilibrium geometries of the studied complexes are investigated theoretically at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory, and it was found that these geometries are non-linear. The calculated EHOMO and ELUMO energies of the studied complexes can be used to calculate the global properties. The calculated nonlinear optical parameters (NLO); first order hyperpolarizibility (β) of the studied complexes show promising optical properties.

  20. Simulation of non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Fox, Paul D.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach for simulating non-linear ultrasound imaging using Field II has been implemented using the operator splitting approach, where diffraction, attenuation, and non-linear propagation can be handled individually. The method uses the Earnshaw/Poisson solution to Burgcrs' equation for the non......-linear ultrasound imaging in 3D using filters or pulse inversion for any kind of transducer, focusing, apodization, pulse emission and scattering phantom. This is done by first simulating the non-linear emitted field and assuming that the scattered field is weak and linear. The received signal is then the spatial...

  1. Processing Approach of Non-linear Adjustment Models in the Space of Non-linear Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chaokui; ZHU Qing; SONG Chengfang

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the mathematic features of non-linear models and discusses the processing way of non-linear factors which contributes to the non-linearity of a nonlinear model. On the basis of the error definition, this paper puts forward a new adjustment criterion, SGPE.Last, this paper investigates the solution of a non-linear regression model in the non-linear model space and makes the comparison between the estimated values in non-linear model space and those in linear model space.

  2. Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-06-23

    We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.

  3. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...... on the governing equations and methods of implementing....

  4. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  5. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  6. K[AsW{sub 2}O{sub 9}], the first member of the arsenate–tungsten bronze family: Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and non-linear optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.alekseev@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen, Jägerstraße 17–19 D-52066 Aachen (Germany); Felbinger, Olivier [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Wu, Shijun [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Malcherek, Thomas [Mineralogisch-Petrographisches Institut, Universität Hamburg, Grindelallee 48, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Depmeier, Wulf [Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Kiel, Ludewig-Meyn-Str. 10, D-24118 Kiel (Germany); Modolo, Giuseppe [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52428 Jülich (Germany); Gesing, Thorsten M. [Solid State Chemical Crystallography, Institute for Inorganic Chemistry, University Bremen, Leobener Straße/NW2, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Krivovichev, Sergey V. [Department of Crystallography, Saint Petersburg State University, per. Dekabristov 16, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Suleimanov, Evgeny V. [Faculty of Chemistry, Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Gagarin Av. 23b, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); and others

    2013-08-15

    K[AsW{sub 2}O{sub 9}], prepared by high-temperature solid-state reaction, is the first member of the arsenate–tungsten bronze family. The structure of K[AsW{sub 2}O{sub 9}] is based on a 3-dimensional (3D) oxotungstate–arsenate framework with the non-centrosymmetric P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} space group, a=4.9747(3) Å, b=9.1780(8) Å, c=16.681(2) Å. The material was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques. The results of DSC demonstrate that this phase is stable up to 1076 K. Second harmonic generation (SHG) measurements performed on a powder sample demonstrate noticeable (0.1 of LiIO{sub 3}) non-linear optical (NLO) activity. - Graphical abstract: K[AsW{sub 2}O{sub 9}], the first member of arsenate–tungsten bronze family exhibit new three dimensional structure type, significant thermal stability and NLO properties. Highlights: • K[AsW{sub 2}O{sub 9}], the first member of the arsenate–tungsten bronze family was synthesized with solid state reaction technique. • Structure of this phase was investigated with X-ray diffraction, IR and Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. • Thermal stability of the phase was determinate with DSC techniques. • NLO properties were investigated.

  7. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  8. Steady induction effects in geomagnetism. Part 1B: Geomagnetic estimation of steady surficial core motions: A non-linear inverse problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhies, Coerte V.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of estimating a steady fluid velocity field near the top of Earth's core which induces the secular variation (SV) indicated by models of the observed geomagnetic field is examined in the source-free mantle/frozen-flux core (SFI/VFFC) approximation. This inverse problem is non-linear because solutions of the forward problem are deterministically chaotic. The SFM/FFC approximation is inexact, and neither the models nor the observations they represent are either complete or perfect. A method is developed for solving the non-linear inverse motional induction problem posed by the hypothesis of (piecewise, statistically) steady core surface flow and the supposition of a complete initial geomagnetic condition. The method features iterative solution of the weighted, linearized least-squares problem and admits optional biases favoring surficially geostrophic flow and/or spatially simple flow. Two types of weights are advanced radial field weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the radial field component near Earth's surface implied by the models, and generalized weights for fitting the evolution of the broad-scale portion of the scalar potential specified by the models.

  9. Effects of temperature dependent conductivity and absorptive/generative heat transfer on MHD three dimensional flow of Williamson fluid due to bidirectional non-linear stretching surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, S.; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Malik, M. Y.; Hussain, Arif; Khan, Mair

    Present work is communicated to identify characteristics of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional boundary layer flow of Williamson fluid confined by a bidirectional stretched surface. Conductivity of working fluid is assumed to be temperature dependent. Generative/absorptive heat transfer is also taken into account. Mathematical model is formulated in the form of partial expressions and then transmuted into ordinary differential equations with the help of newfangled set of similarity transformations. The resulting non-linear differential system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Runge-Kutta algorithm supported by shooting method. Flow features are exemplified quantitatively through graphs. Scintillating results for friction factor and convective heat transfer are computed and scrutinized tabularly. Furthermore, the accuracy of present results is tested with existing literature and we found an excellent agreement. It is inferred that velocity along x-direction mounts whereas along y-direction depreciates for incrementing values of stretching ratio parameter. Moreover, it is also elucidated that non-linearity index tends to decrement the velocity and thermal distributions of fluid flow.

  10. Risks of non-linear climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ham, J.; Van Beers, R.J.; Builtjes, P.J.H.; Koennen, G.P.; Oerlemans, J.; Roemer, M.G.M. [TNO-SCMO, Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Climate forcing as a result of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases has been primarily addressed as a problem of a possibly warmer climate. So far, such change has been obscured in observations, possibly as a result of natural climate variability and masking by aerosols. Consequently, projections of the effect of climate forcing have to be based on modelling, more specifically by applying Global Circulation Models GCMs. These GCMs do not cover all possible feedbacks; neither do they address all specific possible effects of climate forcing. The investigation reviews possible non-linear climate change which does not fall within the coverage of present GCMs. The review includes the potential relevance of changes in biogeochemical cycles, aerosol and cloud feedback, albedo instability, ice-flow instability, changes in the thermohaline circulation and changes resulting from stratospheric cooling. It is noted that these changes may have different time horizons. Three from the investigated issues provide indications for a possible non-linear change. On the decadal scale stratospheric cooling, which is the result of the enhanced greenhouse effect, in combination with a depleted ozone layer, could provide a positive feedback to further ozone depletion, in particular in the Arctic. Decreasing albedo on the Greenland ice sheet may enhance the runoff from this ice sheet significantly in case of warming on a timescale of a few centuries. Changes in ocean circulation in the North Atlantic could seasonally more than compensate a global warming of 3C in North-West Europe on a timescale of centuries to a millennium. 263 refs.

  11. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn's rings are so active and dynamic. Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit, with relative velocity ranging from nearly zero to a multiple of the orbit average: 2-10x is possible. Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like 'straw' that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: Cyclic velocity changes cause perturbed regions to reach higher collision speeds at some orbital phases, which preferentially removes small regolith particles; Surrounding particles diffuse back too slowly to erase the effect: this gives the halo morphology; This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km); We propose 'straw', as observed ny Cassini cameras. Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing. Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn's rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. This confirms the triple architecture of ring particles: a broad size distribution of particles; these aggregate into temporary rubble piles; coated by a regolith of dust. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from

  12. DFT(B3LYP/LanL2DZ), non-linear optical and electrical studies of a new hybrid compound: [C6H10(NH3)2]CoCl4·H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Amal; Hamdi, Besma; Zouari, Ridha; Ben Salah, Abdelhamid

    2016-10-01

    A new organic-inorganic material [C6H10(NH3)2]CoCl4·H2O was reported. The title compound was synthesized at room temperature by slow evaporation and then characterized by a single X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic measurements, thermal analysis and dielectric technique. It crystallizes in the non-centrosymmetric space group Pna21 with the following unit cell parameters: a=12.5328(1) Å, b=9.0908(1) Å, c=11.7440(1) and α=β=γ=90°. The structure can be described by the alternation of two different cationic-anionic layers. It consists of isolated H2O, isolated [CoCl4]2- tetrahedral anions and diammoniumcyclohexane [C6H10(NH3)2]2+ cations, which are connected via N-H…Cl, N-H…O and O-H…N hydrogen bonds. The Hirshfeld surface analysis was conducted to investigate intermolecular interactions and associated 2D fingerprint plots, revealing the relative contribution of these interactions in the crystal structure quantitatively. Theoretical calculations were performed using DFT/B3LYP/LanL2DZ method for studying the molecular structure and vibrational spectra and especially to examine the non-linear optical behavior of the compound. Solid state 13C NMR spectrum shows three signals correspond to three different carbon environments. Thermal analysis discloses a phase transition at the temperature 315 K and the evaporation of water molecule at 327 K. A detailed dielectric study was reported and shows a good agreement with thermal measurements.

  13. Effect of non-linearity of a predictor on the shape and magnitude of its receiver-operating-characteristic curve in predicting a binary outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M

    2017-08-31

    Area under a receiver-operating-characteristic (AUROC) curve is widely used in medicine to summarize the ability of a continuous predictive marker to predict a binary outcome. This study illustrated how a U-shaped or inverted U-shaped continuous predictor would affect the shape and magnitude of its AUROC curve in predicting a binary outcome by comparing the ROC curves of the worst first 24-hour arterial pH values of 9549 consecutive critically ill patients in predicting hospital mortality before and after centering the predictor by its mean or median. A simulation dataset with an inverted U-shaped predictor was used to assess how this would affect the shape and magnitude of the AUROC curve. An asymmetrical U-shaped relationship between pH and hospital mortality, resulting in an inverse-sigmoidal ROC curve, was observed. The AUROC substantially increased after centering the predictor by its mean (0.611 vs 0.722, difference = 0.111, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.087-0.135), and was further improved after centering by its median (0.611 vs 0.745, difference = 0.133, 95%CI 0.110-0.157). A sigmoidal-shaped ROC curve was observed for an inverted U-shaped predictor. In summary, a non-linear predictor can result in a biphasic-shaped ROC curve; and centering the predictor can reduce its bias towards null predictive ability.

  14. Non-linear Growth Models in Mplus and SAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J; Ram, Nilam

    2009-10-01

    Non-linear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified non-linear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this paper we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the Mplus structural modeling program and the non-linear mixed-effects modeling procedure NLMIXED in SAS. Using longitudinal achievement data collected as part of a study examining the effects of preschool instruction on academic gain we illustrate the procedures for fitting growth models of logistic, Gompertz, and Richards functions. Brief notes regarding the practical benefits, limitations, and choices faced in the fitting and estimation of such models are included.

  15. Massive Neutrinos and the Non-linear Matter Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Simeon; Haehnelt, Martin G

    2011-01-01

    We perform an extensive suite of N-body simulations of the matter power spectrum, incorporating massive neutrinos in the range M = 0.15-0.6 eV, probing the non-linear regime at scales k < 10 hMpc-1 at z < 3. We extend the widely used HALOFIT approximation (Smith et al. 2003) to account for the effect of massive neutrinos on the power spectrum. In the strongly non-linear regime HALOFIT systematically over-predicts the suppression due to the free-streaming of the neutrinos. The maximal discrepancy occurs at k \\sim 1hMpc-1, and is at the level of 10% of the total suppression. Most published constraints on neutrino masses based on HALOFIT are not affected, as they rely on data probing the matter power spectrum in the linear or mildly non-linear regime. However, predictions for future galaxy, Lyman-alpha forest and weak lensing surveys extending to more non-linear scales will benefit from the improved approximation to the non-linear matter power spectrum we provide. Our approximation reproduces the induced n...

  16. Implementation of a Newton-Krylov iterative method to address strong non-linear feedback effects in FORMOSA-B BWR core simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastanya, Doddy Febrian

    A Newton-BICGSTAB solver has been developed to reduce the CPU execution time of the FORMOSA-B boiling water reactor (BWR) core simulator. The new solver treats the strong non-linearities in the problem explicitly using the Newton's method, replacing the traditionally used nested iterative approach. Taking advantage of the higher convergence rate provided by the Newton's method, assuming that a good initial estimate of the unknowns is provided, and utilizing an efficient preconditioned BICGSTAB solver, we have developed a computationally efficient Newton-BICGSTAB solver to evaluate the three-dimensional, two-group neutron diffusion equations coupled with a two-phase flow model within a BWR core simulator. The robustness of the solver has been tested against numerous BWR core configurations and consistent results have been observed each time. The best exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver performance provides an overall speedup of 2.07 to the core simulator, with reference to the traditional approach, i.e. outer (fission-source)-inner (red/black line SOR). When solving the same problem using the traditional approach but with the BICGSTAB solver as the inner iteration solver [traditional (BICGSTAB)], we observed a speedup of 1.85. This means that the Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an additional 12% increase in the overall speedup over the traditional (BICGSTAB) solver. However, one needs to note that, on average, the exact Newton-BICGSTAB solver provides an overall speedup of around 1.70; whereas, on average, the traditional (BICGSTAB) provides an overall speedup of around 1.60. An investigation on the feasibility of implementing an inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver indicates that further reduction in the execution time can likely be obtained through this approach. This study shows that the inexact Newton-BICGSTAB solver can provide speedups of 1.73 to 2.10 with respect to the traditional solver.

  17. Non-Linear Electrohydrodynamics in Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zeng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of microfluidics, the electric force has been exploited as one of the leading mechanisms for driving and controlling the movement of the operating fluid and the charged suspensions. Electric force has an intrinsic advantage in miniaturized devices. Because the electrodes are placed over a small distance, from sub-millimeter to a few microns, a very high electric field is easy to obtain. The electric force can be highly localized as its strength rapidly decays away from the peak. This makes the electric force an ideal candidate for precise spatial control. The geometry and placement of the electrodes can be used to design electric fields of varying distributions, which can be readily realized by Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS fabrication methods. In this paper, we examine several electrically driven liquid handling operations. The emphasis is given to non-linear electrohydrodynamic effects. We discuss the theoretical treatment and related numerical methods. Modeling and simulations are used to unveil the associated electrohydrodynamic phenomena. The modeling based investigation is interwoven with examples of microfluidic devices to illustrate the applications.

  18. Non-Linear Relativity in Position Space

    CERN Document Server

    Kimberly, D; Medeiros-Neto, J F; Kimberly, Dagny; Magueijo, João; Medeiros, João

    2003-01-01

    We propose two methods for obtaining the dual of non-linear relativity as previously formulated in momentum space. In the first we allow for the (dual) position space to acquire a non-linear representation of the Lorentz group independently of the chosen representation in momentum space. This requires a non-linear definition for the invariant contraction between momentum and position spaces. The second approach, instead, respects the linearity of the invariant contraction. This fully fixes the dual of momentum space and dictates a set of energy-dependent space-time Lorentz transformations. We discuss a variety of physical implications that would distinguish these two strategies. We also show how they point to two rather distinct formulations of theories of gravity with an invariant energy and/or length scale.

  19. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  20. Exposures involving perturbations of the EM field have non-linear effects on radiation response and can alter the expression of radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Our recent data suggest there is a physical component to the bystander signal induced by radiation exposure and that alternative medicine techniques such as Reiki and acupuncture or exposures to weak EM fields alter the response of cells to direct irradiation and either altered bystander signal production or altered the response of cells receiving bystander signals. Our proposed mechanism to explain these findings is that perturbation of electromagnetic (EM) fields is central to the induction of low radiation dose responses especially non-targeted bystander effects. In this presentation we review the alternative medicine data and other data sets from our laboratory which test our hypothesis that perturbation of bio-fields will modulate radiation response in the low dose region. The other data sets include exposure to MRI, shielding using lead and or Faraday cages, the use of physical barriers to bystander signal transmission and the use of membrane channel blockers. The data taken together strongly suggest that EM field perturbation can modulate low dose response and that in fact the EM field rather than the targeted deposition of ionizing energy in the DNA may be the key determinant of dose response in a cell or organism The results also lead us to suspect that at least when chemical transmission is blocked, bystander signals can be transmitted by other means. Our recent experiments suggest light signals and volatiles are not likely. We conclude that alternative medicine and other techniques involving electromagnetic perturbations can modify the response of cells to low doses of ionizing radiation and can induce bystander effects similar to those seen in medium transfer experiments. In addition to the obvious implications for mechanistic studies of low dose effects, this could perhaps provide a novel target to exploit in space radiation protection and in optimizing therapeutic gain during radiotherapy.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Non-Linear Wave Propagation in Waters of Mildly Varying Topography with Complicated Boundary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪生; 洪广文; 丁平兴; 曹振轶

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of different forms of mild slope equations for non-linear wave are analyzed, and new non-linear theoretic models for wave propagation are presented, with non-linear terms added to the mild slope equations for non-stationary linear waves and dissipative effects considered. Numerical simulation models are developed of non-linear wave propagation for waters of mildly varying topography with complicated boundary, and the effects are studied of different non-linear corrections on calculation results of extended mild slope equations. Systematical numerical simulation tests show that the present models can effectively reflect non-linear effects.

  2. Range non-linearities correction in FMCW SAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    The limiting factor to the use of Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) technology with Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) techniques to produce lightweight, cost effective, low power consuming imaging sensors with high resolution, is the well known presence of non-linearities in the transmitted si

  3. 非线性光学显微成像技术诊断移植肾纤维化的临床研究%Diagnosis of interstitial fibrosis of renal allograft by non-linear optical imaging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丁; 陈传宝; 刘永光; 郭颖; 陈桦; 范礼佩; 李民; 岳良升; 赵明

    2014-01-01

    目的 探索使用非线性光学显微成像技术对移植肾问质纤维化进行成像及定量分析的效果.方法 分析2005年1月至2013年3月间40例肾移植受者的移植肾组织样本,其中轻度纤维化22例,中重度纤维化18例,分别行双光子激发荧光(TPEF)和二次谐波(SHG)成像以及Masson染色成像,通过肉眼观察和Image-Pro-Plus软件初步分析比较两种方法对同一区域纤维化的显像情况.结果 对于轻度纤维化组肾组织样本,SHG和TPEF图像可以清晰地显示在肾小球、肾小血管、肾小管周围及肾问质内有少量散在绿色信号的胶原纤维沉积,而Masson染色则显示基本正常,未能发现早期轻度的纤维化表现.对于中重度纤维化组肾组织样本,SHG和TPEF成像则能清晰显示正常胶原的轮廓和结构,并通过计算机程序对其进行较准确的定量分析.40例SHG和TPEF图像的纤维化指数为(27.4±15.8)%,Masson染色图像纤维化指数为(26.8±16.0)%,二者间的差异无统计学意义(Z=-0.72,P=0.94).结论 与Masson染色相比较,SHG和TPEF技术对胶原纤维成像更敏感、清晰,能够更直观、早期的发现移植肾间质纤维化,是一种有研究潜力的新型诊断方法.%Objective To figure out the image quality of renal allograft interstitial fibrosis by non linear optical imaging technology and compare with the traditional pathological staining method to confirm its advantages.Method Forty cases of paraffin embedded renal allograft biopsy specimens who were diagnosed as mild (n =22) to moderate-severe (n =18) renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF) were obtained from Jan.2005 to Mar.2013,and subjected to second harmonic generation and two-photon fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) imaging and Masson staining.The findings of the fibrosis at the same region by the above methods were compared and analyzed by the naked eyes and Image-Pro-Plus software.Result SHG/TPEF images could clearly display the construction of renal

  4. Non-linear absorption for concentrated solar energy transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, O. A; Del Rio, J.A; Huelsz, G [Centro de Investigacion de Energia, UNAM, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In order to determine the maximum solar energy that can be transported using SiO{sub 2} optical fibers, analysis of non-linear absorption is required. In this work, we model the interaction between solar radiation and the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber core to determine the dependence of the absorption of the radioactive intensity. Using Maxwell's equations we obtain the relation between the refractive index and the electric susceptibility up to second order in terms of the electric field intensity. This is not enough to obtain an explicit expression for the non-linear absorption. Thus, to obtain the non-linear optical response, we develop a microscopic model of an harmonic driven oscillators with damp ing, based on the Drude-Lorentz theory. We solve this model using experimental information for the SiO{sub 2} optical fiber, and we determine the frequency-dependence of the non-linear absorption and the non-linear extinction of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers. Our results estimate that the average value over the solar spectrum for the non-linear extinction coefficient for SiO{sub 2} is k{sub 2}=10{sup -}29m{sup 2}V{sup -}2. With this result we conclude that the non-linear part of the absorption coefficient of SiO{sub 2} optical fibers during the transport of concentrated solar energy achieved by a circular concentrator is negligible, and therefore the use of optical fibers for solar applications is an actual option. [Spanish] Con el objeto de determinar la maxima energia solar que puede transportarse usando fibras opticas de SiO{sub 2} se requiere el analisis de absorcion no linear. En este trabajo modelamos la interaccion entre la radiacion solar y el nucleo de la fibra optica de SiO{sub 2} para determinar la dependencia de la absorcion de la intensidad radioactiva. Mediante el uso de las ecuaciones de Maxwell obtenemos la relacion entre el indice de refraccion y la susceptibilidad electrica hasta el segundo orden en terminos de intensidad del campo electrico. Esto no es

  5. Non-Linear Logging Parameters Inversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear logging parameters inversion is based on the field theory, information optimization and predication theory. It uses seismic charaoters,geological model and logging data as a restriction to inverse 2D, 3D logging parameters data volume. Using this method,

  6. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  7. Oscillatons formed by non linear gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Obregón, O; Schunck, F E; Obregon, Octavio; Schunck, Franz E.

    2004-01-01

    Oscillatons are solutions of the coupled Einstein-Klein-Gordon (EKG) equations that are globally regular and asymptotically flat. By means of a Legendre transformation we are able to visualize the behaviour of the corresponding objects in non-linear gravity where the scalar field has been absorbed by means of the conformal mapping.

  8. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations betwee...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models.......Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations between...... the dependent variable of the latent variable model and its predictor variables. We show how this correlation can be derived from the parameters of non-linear probability models, develop tests for the statistical significance of the derived correlation, and illustrate its usefulness in two applications. Under...

  9. Controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.; Verhaegen, M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting m

  10. Non-linear dendrites can tune neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Daniel Cazé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A signature of visual, auditory, and motor cortices is the presence of neurons tuned to distinct features of the environment. While neuronal tuning can be observed in most brain areas, its origin remains enigmatic, and new calcium imaging data complicate this problem. Dendritic calcium signals, in a L2/3 neuron from the mouse visual cortex, display a wide range of tunings that could be different from the neuronal tuning (Jia et al 2010. To elucidate this observation we use multi-compartmental models of increasing complexity, from a binary to a realistic biophysical model of L2/3 neuron. These models possess non-linear dendritic subunits inside which the result of multiple excitatory inputs is smaller than their arithmetic sum. While dendritic non-linear subunits are ad-hoc in the binary model, non-linearities in the realistic model come from the passive saturation of synaptic currents. Because of these non-linearities our neuron models are scatter sensitive: the somatic membrane voltage is higher when presynaptic inputs target different dendrites than when they target a single dendrite. This spatial bias in synaptic integration is, in our models, the origin of neuronal tuning. Indeed, assemblies of presynaptic inputs encode the stimulus property through an increase in correlation or activity, and only the assembly that encodes the preferred stimulus targets different dendrites. Assemblies coding for the non-preferred stimuli target single dendrites, explaining the wide range of observed tunings and the possible difference between dendritic and somatic tuning. We thus propose, in accordance with the latest experimental observations, that non-linear integration in dendrites can generate neuronal tuning independently of the coding regime.

  11. Stability analysis and non-linear behaviour of structural systems using the complex non-linear modal analysis (CNLMA)

    OpenAIRE

    Sinou, Jean-Jacques; Thouverez, Fabrice; Jezequel, Louis

    2006-01-01

    International audience; Herein, a novel non-linear procedure for producing non-linear behaviour and stable limit cycle amplitudes of non-linear systems subjected to super-critical Hopf bifurcation point is presented. This approach, called Complex Non-Linear Modal Analysis (CNLMA), makes use of the non-linear unstable mode which governs the non-linear dynamic of structural systems in unstable areas. In this study, the computational methodology of CNLMA is presented for the systematic estimatio...

  12. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  13. Fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic microporous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Pradeep Ramiah; Sharifi, Payam; Wolff, Justin; Kohli, Punit

    2015-01-01

    Large scale fabrication of non-linear microporous membranes is of technological importance in many applications ranging from separation to microfluidics. However, their fabrication using traditional techniques is limited in scope. We report on fabrication and characterization of non-linear parabolic micropores (PMS) in polymer membranes by utilizing flow properties of fluids. The shape of the fabricated PMS corroborated well with simplified Navier-Stokes equation describing parabolic relationship of the form L - t(1/2). Here, L is a measure of the diameter of the fabricated micropores during flow time (t). The surface of PMS is smooth due to fluid surface tension at fluid-air interface. We demonstrate fabrication of PMS using curable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The parabolic shape of micropores was a result of interplay between horizontal and vertical fluid movements due to capillary, viscoelastic, and gravitational forces. We also demonstrate fabrication of asymmetric "off-centered PMS" and an array of PMS membranes using this simple fabrication technique. PMS containing membranes with nanoscale dimensions are also possible by controlling the experimental conditions. The present method provides a simple, easy to adopt, and energy efficient way for fabricating non-linear parabolic shape pores at microscale. The prepared parabolic membranes may find applications in many areas including separation, parabolic optics, micro-nozzles / -valves / -pumps, and microfluidic and microelectronic delivery systems.

  14. Non-linear estimation is easy

    OpenAIRE

    Fliess, Michel; Join, Cédric; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Non-linear state estimation and some related topics, like parametric estimation, fault diagnosis, and perturbation attenuation, are tackled here via a new methodology in numerical differentiation. The corresponding basic system theoretic definitions and properties are presented within the framework of differential algebra, which permits to handle system variables and their derivatives of any order. Several academic examples and their computer simulations, with on-line ...

  15. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of three...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  16. Non-linear estimation is easy

    CERN Document Server

    Fliess, Michel; Sira-Ramirez, Hebertt

    2007-01-01

    Non-linear state estimation and some related topics, like parametric estimation, fault diagnosis, and perturbation attenuation, are tackled here via a new methodology in numerical differentiation. The corresponding basic system theoretic definitions and properties are presented within the framework of differential algebra, which permits to handle system variables and their derivatives of any order. Several academic examples and their computer simulations, with on-line estimations, are illustrating our viewpoint.

  17. Non-linearity parameter / of binary liquid mixtures at elevated pressures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J D Pandey; J Chhabra; R Dey; V Sanguri; R Verma

    2000-09-01

    When sound waves of high amplitude propagate, several non-linear effects occur. Ultrasonic studies in liquid mixtures provide valuable information about structure and interaction in such systems. The present investigation comprises of theoretical evaluation of the acoustic non-linearity parameter / of four binary liquid mixtures using Tong and Dong equation at high pressures and = 303.15 K. Thermodynamic method has also been used to calculate the non-linearity parameter after making certain approximations.

  18. Predicting the nonlinear optical response in the resonant region from the linear characterization: a self-consistent theory for the first-, second-, and third-order (non)linear optical response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Javier; Clays, Koen; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a self-consistent theory for the description of the optical linear and nonlinear response of molecules that is based strictly on the results of the experimental characterization. We show how the Thomas-Kuhn sum-rules can be used to eliminate the dependence of the nonlinear response on parameters that are not directly measurable. Our approach leads to the successful modeling of the dispersion of the nonlinear response of complex molecular structures with different geometries (dipolar and octupolar), and can be used as a guide towards the modeling in terms of fundamental physical parameters.

  19. The linear-non-linear frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela, M B; Machado, P A N; Saa, S

    2016-01-01

    The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic compl...

  20. NON-LINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF DEEP DRAWING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan YILDIZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Deep drawing process is one of the main procedures used in different branches of industry. Finding numerical solutions for determination of the mechanical behaviour of this process will save time and money. In die surfaces, which have complex geometries, it is hard to determine the effects of parameters of sheet metal forming. Some of these parameters are wrinkling, tearing, and determination of the flow of the thin sheet metal in the die and thickness change. However, the most difficult one is determination of material properties during plastic deformation. In this study, the effects of all these parameters are analyzed before producing the dies. The explicit non-linear finite element method is chosen to be used in the analysis. The numerical results obtained for non-linear material and contact models are also compared with the experiments. A good agreement between the numerical and the experimental results is obtained. The results obtained for the models are given in detail.

  1. Non Linear Behaviour in Learning Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredi, Paolo; Manfredi, Vicenzo Rosario

    2003-01-01

    This article is mainly based on R. E. Kahn's contribution to the book Non Linear Dynamics in Human Behavior. As stressed by Bronowski, both in art and in science, a person becomes creative by finding "a new unity" that is a link between things which were not thought alike before. Indeed the creative mind is a mind that looks for unexpected likeness finding a more profound unity, a pattern behind chaotic phenomena. In the context of scientific discovery, it can also be argued that creativi...

  2. BRST structure of non-linear superalgebras

    CERN Document Server

    Asorey, M; Radchenko, O V; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the structure of the BRST structure of nonlinear superalgebras. We consider quadratic non-linear superalgebras where a commutator (in terms of (super) Poisson brackets) of the generators is a quadratic polynomial of the generators. We find the explicit form of the BRST charge up to cubic order in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields for arbitrary quadratic nonlinear superalgebras. We point out the existence of constraints on structure constants of the superalgebra when the nilpotent BRST charge is quadratic in Faddeev-Popov ghost fields. The general results are illustrated by simple examples of superalgebras.

  3. Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fouché, M; Rizzo, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.

  4. Adaptive spectral identification techniques in presence of undetected non linearities

    CERN Document Server

    Cella, G; Guidi, G M

    2002-01-01

    The standard procedure for detection of gravitational wave coalescing binaries signals is based on Wiener filtering with an appropriate bank of template filters. This is the optimal procedure in the hypothesis of addictive Gaussian and stationary noise. We study the possibility of improving the detection efficiency with a class of adaptive spectral identification techniques, analyzing their effect in presence of non stationarities and undetected non linearities in the noise

  5. Non-linear Higgs portal to Dark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bajo, Rocío del Rey

    2016-01-01

    The Higgs portal to scalar Dark Matter is considered in the context of non-linearly realised electroweak symmetry breaking. We determine the interactions of gauge bosons and the physical Higgs particle $h$ to a scalar singlet Dark Matter candidate $S$ in an effective description. The main phenomenological differences with respect to the standard scenario can be seen in the Dark Matter relic abundance, in direct/indirect searches and in signals at colliders.

  6. Non-linear excitation of quantum emitters in two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride

    CERN Document Server

    Schell, Andreas W; Takashima, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Aharonovich, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Two-photon absorption is an important non-linear process employed for high resolution bio-imaging and non-linear optics. In this work we realize two-photon excitation of a quantum emitter embedded in a two-dimensional material. We examine defects in hexagonal boron nitride and show that the emitters exhibit similar spectral and quantum properties under one-photon and two-photon excitation. Furthermore, our findings are important to deploy two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride for quantum non-linear photonic applications.

  7. Studies on synthesis, structural, luminescent and thermal properties of a new non-linear optical crystal: 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M.

    2017-03-01

    A new organic proton transfer complex having NLO activity, 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (ATHTP), was crystallized to investigate the factors which stabilize the structure of the crystal. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P-1. Elemental analysis, thermal analysis, UV-Vis-NIR, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses were carried out to characterize the crystal. Optical, spectral and thermal properties of the title crystal were analyzed to recommend the material for optical applications. Z-scan was used to measure the effective third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index. The crystal structure was determined using single crystal XRD method and the structure was optimized using Gaussian 09 program at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. This hydrogen bond interactions led to the increase in first-order hyperpolarizability of ATHTP and was 30 times greater than that of urea. Hirshfeld analyses surface analysis was carried out to explore intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state.

  8. The Effect of Non-Linear Active Disturbance Rejection Control in Suppressing Accidental Measuring Errors%非线性自抗扰控制对偶然测量误差的抑制作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时从波

    2012-01-01

    Diamond ultra-precision turning is suitable for machining micro-structure surfaces.A fast tool servo is crucial for machining micro-structure surfaces and one of its key properties is the controller's performances.This paper creates the simplified transfer function model and introduces active disturbance rejection controller and the corresponding parameter setting for the electromagnetic fast tool servo.At last,the design of a precision non -linear active disturbance rejection controller is adopted,The effects of linear ADRC and non-linear ADRC in suppressing accidental measuring errors are both simulated using MATLAB. The conclusion is that NLADRC can suppress the accidental measuring errors better.%金刚石超精密切削是加工微结构表面的有效方法,其关键技术是快速刀具伺服系统(FTS),控制器性能是FTS的一个重要生能指标.针对电磁驱动原理的快速刀具伺服系统,建立执行机构简化的传递函数模型,引入自抗扰控制器作为快速刀具伺服系统的控制器并介绍自抗扰控制器参数的整定.最后采用非线性自抗扰控制技术,并利用MATLAB仿真非线性自抗扰控制(NLADRC)和线性自抗扰控制(LADRC)对偶然测量误差的抑制作用,得出结论为非线性自抗扰控制相比线性自抗扰控制可以更好的抑制偶然测量误差造成的不利影响.

  9. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas, E-mail: diego.blas@cern.ch, E-mail: mathias.garny@desy.de, E-mail: Thomas.Konstandin@desy.de [DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections at any order in perturbation theory. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  10. On the non-linear scale of cosmological perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blas, Diego [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Garny, Mathias; Konstandin, Thomas [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    We discuss the convergence of cosmological perturbation theory. We prove that the polynomial enhancement of the non-linear corrections expected from the effects of soft modes is absent in equal-time correlators like the power or bispectrum. We first show this at leading order by resumming the most important corrections of soft modes to an arbitrary skeleton of hard fluctuations. We derive the same result in the eikonal approximation, which also allows us to show the absence of enhancement at any order. We complement the proof by an explicit calculation of the power spectrum at two-loop order, and by further numerical checks at higher orders. Using these insights, we argue that the modification of the power spectrum from soft modes corresponds at most to logarithmic corrections. Finally, we discuss the asymptotic behavior in the large and small momentum regimes and identify the expansion parameter pertinent to non-linear corrections.

  11. Non-linear aeroelastic prediction for aircraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    de C. Henshaw, M. J.; Badcock, K. J.; Vio, G. A.; Allen, C. B.; Chamberlain, J.; Kaynes, I.; Dimitriadis, G.; Cooper, J. E.; Woodgate, M. A.; Rampurawala, A. M.; Jones, D.; Fenwick, C.; Gaitonde, A. L.; Taylor, N. V.; Amor, D. S.; Eccles, T. A.; Denley, C. J.

    2007-05-01

    Current industrial practice for the prediction and analysis of flutter relies heavily on linear methods and this has led to overly conservative design and envelope restrictions for aircraft. Although the methods have served the industry well, it is clear that for a number of reasons the inclusion of non-linearity in the mathematical and computational aeroelastic prediction tools is highly desirable. The increase in available and affordable computational resources, together with major advances in algorithms, mean that non-linear aeroelastic tools are now viable within the aircraft design and qualification environment. The Partnership for Unsteady Methods in Aerodynamics (PUMA) Defence and Aerospace Research Partnership (DARP) was sponsored in 2002 to conduct research into non-linear aeroelastic prediction methods and an academic, industry, and government consortium collaborated to address the following objectives: To develop useable methodologies to model and predict non-linear aeroelastic behaviour of complete aircraft. To evaluate the methodologies on real aircraft problems. To investigate the effect of non-linearities on aeroelastic behaviour and to determine which have the greatest effect on the flutter qualification process. These aims have been very effectively met during the course of the programme and the research outputs include: New methods available to industry for use in the flutter prediction process, together with the appropriate coaching of industry engineers. Interesting results in both linear and non-linear aeroelastics, with comprehensive comparison of methods and approaches for challenging problems. Additional embryonic techniques that, with further research, will further improve aeroelastics capability. This paper describes the methods that have been developed and how they are deployable within the industrial environment. We present a thorough review of the PUMA aeroelastics programme together with a comprehensive review of the relevant research

  12. Studies on synthesis, structural, luminescent and thermal properties of a new non-linear optical crystal: 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhamodharan, P.; Sathya, K.; Dhandapani, M., E-mail: chemistrydhandapani@gmail.com

    2017-03-01

    A new organic proton transfer complex having NLO activity, 4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ium-3-hydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrophenolate (ATHTP), was crystallized to investigate the factors which stabilize the structure of the crystal. The compound crystallizes in triclinic system with space group P-1. Elemental analysis, thermal analysis, UV–Vis–NIR, FT-IR and NMR spectral analyses were carried out to characterize the crystal. Optical, spectral and thermal properties of the title crystal were analyzed to recommend the material for optical applications. Z-scan was used to measure the effective third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index. The crystal structure was determined using single crystal XRD method and the structure was optimized using Gaussian 09 program at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of basis set. This hydrogen bond interactions led to the increase in first-order hyperpolarizability of ATHTP and was 30 times greater than that of urea. Hirshfeld analyses surface analysis was carried out to explore intermolecular interactions in the crystalline state. - Highlights: • Single crystals were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. • N-H…O, O-H…O and C-H…O type of interactions lead to stable network. • The thermal stability of the compound was investigated by TG/DTA analyses. • The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility is found to be 2.1×10{sup −7} esu. • Hirshfeld analyses explore covalent and non covalent interactions.

  13. Non-linear polaronic conduction in magnetite nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pooja, E-mail: pooja7503@gmail.com [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rout, P.K., E-mail: pkrout.phy@gmail.com [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Husale, Sudhir; Gupta, Anurag [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Manju [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Rakshit, R.K. [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Dogra, Anjana, E-mail: anjanad@nplindia.org [Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), CSIR-NPL Campus, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-12-01

    We report the temperature dependent current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanowires with varying width (w) of 132, 358, and 709 nm. While the widest nanowire (w=709 nm) shows ohmic I (V) curves for all temperatures, those for w=132 and 358 nm show nonlinearity, which can be expressed by a combination of linear (V) and cubic (V{sup 3}) terms. The behaviour of conductance (linear bias component of current) and non-linearity in these nanowires is related to small polaron hopping related conduction. Moreover, we observed an anomalously large hopping lengths, which may be related to the size of percolation cluster and/or antiphase domain. Our study presents first experimental evidence for such non-linear polaronic conduction in magnetite nanowires. - Highlights: • Temperature dependent I–V measurements of FIB fabricated magnetite nanowires. • Small polaron based conduction in non-linear I–V curves. • Anomalously large hopping lengths due to percolation effect and/or antiphase domains.

  14. Fitting and forecasting non-linear coupled dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Casas, Santiago; Baldi, Marco; Pettorino, Valeria; Vollmer, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    We consider cosmological models in which dark matter feels a fifth force mediated by the dark energy scalar field, also known as coupled dark energy. Our interest resides in estimating forecasts for future surveys like Euclid when we take into account non-linear effects, relying on new fitting functions that reproduce the non-linear matter power spectrum obtained from N-body simulations. We obtain fitting functions for models in which the dark matter-dark energy coupling is constant. Their validity is demonstrated for all available simulations in the redshift range $z=0-1.6$ and wave modes below $k=10 \\text{h/Mpc}$. These fitting formulas can be used to test the predictions of the model in the non-linear regime without the need for additional computing-intensive N-body simulations. We then use these fitting functions to perform forecasts on the constraining power that future galaxy-redshift surveys like Euclid will have on the coupling parameter, using the Fisher matrix method for galaxy clustering (GC) and w...

  15. Optimal non-linear health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A

    1997-06-01

    Most theoretical and empirical work on efficient health insurance has been based on models with linear insurance schedules (a constant co-insurance parameter). In this paper, dynamic optimization techniques are used to analyse the properties of optimal non-linear insurance schedules in a model similar to one originally considered by Spence and Zeckhauser (American Economic Review, 1971, 61, 380-387) and reminiscent of those that have been used in the literature on optimal income taxation. The results of a preliminary numerical example suggest that the welfare losses from the implicit subsidy to employer-financed health insurance under US tax law may be a good deal smaller than previously estimated using linear models.

  16. Chaotic Discrimination and Non-Linear Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Gangopadhyay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a particular form of price discrimination, known as chaotic discrimination, which has the following features: sellers quote a common price but, in reality, they engage in secret and apparently unsystematic price discounts. It is widely held that such forms of price discrimination are seriously inconsistent with profit maximization by sellers.. However, there is no theoretical salience to support this kind of price discrimination. By straining the logic of non-linear dynamics this study explains why such secret discounts are chaotic in the sense that sellers fail to adopt profit-maximising price discounts. A model is developed to argue that such forms of discrimination may derive from the regions of instability of a dynamic model of price discounts.

  17. Symmetries in Non-Linear Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Aldaya, Victor; López-Ruiz, Francisco F; Cossío, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we exploit the use of symmetries of a physical system so as to characterize the corresponding solution manifold by means of Noether invariants. This constitutes a necessary preliminary step towards the correct quantisation in non-linear cases, where the success of Canonical Quantisation is not guaranteed in general. To achieve this task "point symmetries" of the Lagrangian are generally not enough, and the notion of contact transformations is in order. The use of the Poincar\\'e-Cartan form permits finding both the symplectic structure on the solution manifold, through the Hamilton-Jacobi transformation, and the required symmetries, realized as Hamiltonian vector fields, associated with functions on the solution manifold (thus constituting an inverse of the Noether Theorem), lifted back to the evolution space through the inverse of this Hamilton-Jacobi mapping. In this framework, solutions and symmetries are somehow identified and this correspondence is also kept at a perturbative level. We prese...

  18. Non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and collective atomic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosez, Philippe

    2006-03-01

    The non-linear response of infinite periodic solids to homogenous electric fields and cooperative atomic displacements will be discussed in the framework of density functional perturbation theory. The approach is based on the “2n + 1” theorem applied to an electric field dependent energy functional. We will focus on the non-linear optical susceptibilities, Raman scattering efficiencies and electrooptic coefficients. Different formulations of third-order energy derivatives will be examined and their convergence with respect to the k-point sampling will be discussed. The method will be applied to conventional semiconductors and to ferroelectric oxides. In the latter case, we will also describe how the first- principles results can be combined to an effective Hamiltonian approach in order to provide access to the temperature dependence of the optical properties. This work was done in collabration with M. Veithen and X. Gonze and was supported by the VolkwagenStiftung, FNRS-Belgium and the FAME-NoE.

  19. A COMPUTER PROGRAMME FOR THE NON-LINEAR ANALYSIS OF COMPLETE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay ÇOŞGUN

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The progress made on the analysis of the structures by using non-linear theory and the significant findings on both theorical and empirical works, enable better understanding of the behaviours of structures under external loads. Determination of the failure load and designing the structures accordingly requires developments of analysis methods, which take both the non-linear behaviour of structural elements and the non-linear effects of geometric changes into consideration. Therefore, in this study, a FORTRAN code, which analyses structures and calculates the failure loads by considering the non-linear behaviour of materials under increasing loads (due to the non-linear relationship of stress-strain and moment-curvature and second-order theory of structural systems is developed.

  20. Non-Linear Sigma Model on Conifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Parthasarathy, R

    2002-01-01

    Explicit solutions to the conifold equations with complex dimension $n=3,4$ in terms of {\\it{complex coordinates (fields)}} are employed to construct the Ricci-flat K\\"{a}hler metrics on these manifolds. The K\\"{a}hler 2-forms are found to be closed. The complex realization of these conifold metrics are used in the construction of 2-dimensional non-linear sigma model with the conifolds as target spaces. The action for the sigma model is shown to be bounded from below. By a suitable choice of the 'integration constants', arising in the solution of Ricci flatness requirement, the metric and the equations of motion are found to be {\\it{non-singular}}. As the target space is Ricci flat, the perturbative 1-loop counter terms being absent, the model becomes topological. The inherent U(1) fibre over the base of the conifolds is shown to correspond to a gauge connection in the sigma model. The same procedure is employed to construct the metric for the resolved conifold, in terms of complex coordinates and the action ...

  1. Hierarchical Non-linear Image Registration Integrating Deformable Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAN Xin; QI Fei-hu

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical non-linear method for image registration was presented, which integrates image segmentation and registration under a variational framework. An improved deformable model is used to simultaneously segment and register feature from multiple images. The objects in the image pair are segmented by evolving a single contour and meanwhile the parameters of affine registration transformation are found out. After that, a contour-constrained elastic registration is applied to register the images correctly. The experimental results indicate that the proposed approach is effective to segment and register medical images.

  2. Numerical Simulation of Seabed Response and Liquefaction due to Non-linear Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-feng; ZHANG Qing-he; HAN Tao; QIN Chong-ren

    2005-01-01

    Based on Biot's consolidation theory, a two-dimensional model for computation of the seabed response to waves is presented with the finite element method. Numerical results for different wave conditions are obtained, and the effects of wave non-linearity on the wave-induced seabed response are examined. Moreover, the wave-induced momentary liquefaction in uniform and inhomogeneous seabeds is investigated. It is shown that the wave non-linearity affects the distribution of the wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses, while the influence of wave non-linearity on the seabed liquefaction potential is not so significant.

  3. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vanita; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm2), high nonlinearity (36.34 W-1km-1) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  4. Left-Right Non-Linear Dynamical Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jing; Yepes, Juan

    2016-12-01

    All the possible CP-conserving non-linear operators up to the p4-order in the Lagrangian expansion are analysed here for the left-right symmetric model in the non-linear electroweak chiral context coupled to a light dynamical Higgs. The low energy effects will be triggered by an emerging new physics field content in the nature, more specifically, from spin-1 resonances sourced by the straightforward extension of the SM local gauge symmetry to the larger local group SU(2)L × SU(2)R × U(1)B-L. Low energy phenomenology will be altered by integrating out the resonances from the physical spectrum, being manifested through induced corrections onto the left handed operators. Such modifications are weighted by powers of the scales ratio implied by the symmetries of the model and will determine the size of the effective operator basis to be used. The recently observed diboson excess around the invariant mass 1.8 TeV-2 TeV entails a scale suppression that suggests to encode the low energy effects via a much smaller set of effective operators. J. Y. also acknowledges KITPC financial support during the completion of this work

  5. The Linear-Non-Linear Frontier for the Goldstone Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavela, M. B. [Madrid, IFT; Kanshin, K. [Padua U.; Machado, P. A.N. [Madrid, IFT; Saa, S. [Madrid, IFT

    2016-10-25

    The minimal $SO(5)/SO(4)$ sigma model is used as a template for the ultraviolet completion of scenarios in which the Higgs particle is a low-energy remnant of some high-energy dynamics, enjoying a (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone boson ancestry. Varying the $\\sigma$ mass allows to sweep from the perturbative regime to the customary non-linear implementations. The low-energy benchmark effective non-linear Lagrangian for bosons and fermions is obtained, determining as well the operator coefficients including linear corrections. At first order in the latter, three effective bosonic operators emerge which are independent of the explicit soft breaking assumed. The Higgs couplings to vector bosons and fermions turn out to be quite universal: the linear corrections are proportional to the explicit symmetry breaking parameters. Furthermore, we define an effective Yukawa operator which allows a simple parametrization and comparison of different heavy fermion ultraviolet completions. In addition, one particular fermionic completion is explored in detail, obtaining the corresponding leading low-energy fermionic operators.

  6. SOME PROBLEMS CONCERNING FREE NON-LINEAR VIBRATIONS OF BEAM STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bosakov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes an influence of physical non-linearity material account on vibrations of single beams with various support fixing. The authors also analyze power criteria for existing stable periodic vibrations and dependence of vibration period on initial power is determined in the paper. Accurate values of an amplitude and non-linear bending vibration period of beams have been also determined as a conservative system with due account of initial conditions. A number of examples are given that clearly illustrate the obtained solutions and show an influence rate of the mentioned effects on amplitude-frequency characteristics of non-linear systems. 

  7. Optimization of Passive and Active Non-Linear Vibration Mounting Systems Based on Vibratory Power Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royston, T. J.; Singh, R.

    1996-07-01

    While significant non-linear behavior has been observed in many vibration mounting applications, most design studies are typically based on the concept of linear system theory in terms of force or motion transmissibility. In this paper, an improved analytical strategy is presented for the design optimization of complex, active of passive, non-linear mounting systems. This strategy is built upon the computational Galerkin method of weighted residuals, and incorporates order reduction and numerical continuation in an iterative optimization scheme. The overall dynamic characteristics of the mounting system are considered and vibratory power transmission is minimized via adjustment of mount parameters by using both passive and active means. The method is first applied through a computational example case to the optimization of basic passive and active, non-linear isolation configurations. It is found that either active control or intentionally introduced non-linearity can improve the mount's performance; but a combination of both produces the greatest benefit. Next, a novel experimental, active, non-linear isolation system is studied. The effect of non-linearity on vibratory power transmission and active control are assessed via experimental measurements and the enhanced Galerkin method. Results show how harmonic excitation can result in multiharmonic vibratory power transmission. The proposed optimization strategy offers designers some flexibility in utilizing both passive and active means in combination with linear and non-linear components for improved vibration mounts.

  8. Experimental and theoretical (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis, NMR) spectroscopic analysis and first order hyperpolarizability studies of non-linear optical material: (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one using density functional theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Deval, Vipin; Tandon, Poonam; Gupta, Archana; Deepak D'silva, E

    2014-09-15

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation on FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV-vis spectra of a chalcone derivative (2E)-3-[4-(methylsulfanyl) phenyl]-1-(4-nitrophenyl) prop-2-en-1-one (4N4MSP) has been reported. 4N4MSP has two planar rings connected through conjugated double bond and it provides a necessary configuration to show non-linear optical (NLO) response. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set combination. The analysis of the fundamental modes was made with the help of potential energy distribution (PED). Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surface was plotted over the geometry primarily for predicting sites and relative reactivities towards electrophilic and nucleophilic attack. The delocalization of electron density of various constituents of the molecule has been discussed with the aid of NBO analysis. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) and the results complement the experimental findings. The recorded and calculated 1H chemical shifts in gas phase and MeOD solution are gathered for reliable calculations of magnetic properties. Thermodynamic properties like heat capacity (C°p,m), entropy (S°m), enthalpy (H°m) have been calculated for the molecule at the different temperatures. Based on the finite-field approach, the non-linear optical (NLO) parameters such as dipole moment, mean polarizability, anisotropy of polarizability and first order hyperpolarizability of 4N4MSP molecule are calculated. The predicted first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule has a reasonably good nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior.

  9. Non-Linear Unit Root Properties of Crude Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Maslyuk; Russell Smyth

    2007-01-01

    While there is good reason to expect crude oil production to be non-linear, previous studies that have examined the stochastic properties of crude oil production have assumed that crude oil production follows a linear process. If crude oil production is a non-linear process, conventional unit root tests, which assume linear and systematic adjustment, could interpret departure from linearity as permanent stochastic disturbances. The objective of this paper is to test for non-linearities and un...

  10. Non Linear Analysis of MPPT for Power Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sankar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study the conventional inverter interfacing renewable energy sources with the grid, without any additional hardware cost. Here, the main idea is the maximum utilization of inverter rating which is most of the time underutilized due to intermittent nature of RES. Based on the non-linear characteristics of PV, these thesis designs a VSS controller to realize the maximum power output of PV arrays. The output power from renewable energy sources fluctuates because of weather variations. This study proposes an effective power quality control strategy of renewable energy sources connected to power system using Photovoltaic (PV array. If the main controller used is a PR controller, any dc offset in a control loop will propagate through the system and the inverter terminal voltage will have a nonzero average value. In this strategy both load and inverter current sensing is required to compensate the load current harmonics. The non-linear load current harmonics may result in voltage harmonics and can create a serious PQ problem in the power system network.

  11. An Adaptive Non-Linear Map and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xuefeng

    2006-01-01

    A novel adaptive non-linear mapping (ANLM),integrating an adaptive mapping error (AME) with a chaosgenetic algorithm (CGA) including chaotic variable, was proposed to overcome the deficiencies of non-linear mapping (NLM). The value of AME weight factor is determined according to the relative deviation square of distance between the two mapping points and the corresponding original objects distance. The larger the relative deviation square between two distances is, the larger the value of the corresponding weight factor is. Due to chaotic mapping operator, the evolutional process of CGA makes the individuals of subgenerations distributed ergodically in the defined space and circumvents the premature of the individuals of subgenerations. The comparison results demonstrated that the whole performance of CGA is better than that of traditional genetic algorithm. Furthermore, a typical example of mapping eight-dimensional olive oil samples onto two-dimensional plane was employed to verify the effectiveness of ANLM. The results showed that the topology-preserving map obtained by ANLM can well represent the classification of original objects and is much better than that obtained by NLM.

  12. Non-linear finite element analysis in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rust, Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    This monograph describes the numerical analysis of non-linearities in structural mechanics, i.e. large rotations, large strain (geometric non-linearities), non-linear material behaviour, in particular elasto-plasticity as well as time-dependent behaviour, and contact. Based on that, the book treats stability problems and limit-load analyses, as well as non-linear equations of a large number of variables. Moreover, the author presents a wide range of problem sets and their solutions. The target audience primarily comprises advanced undergraduate and graduate students of mechanical and civil engineering, but the book may also be beneficial for practising engineers in industry.

  13. A Non-Hermitian Approach to Non-Linear Switching Dynamics in Coupled Cavity-Waveguide Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations.......We present a non-Hermitian perturbation theory employing quasi-normal modes to investigate non-linear all-optical switching dynamics in a photonic crystal coupled cavity-waveguide system and compare with finite-difference-time-domain simulations....

  14. Non-linear Kalman filters for calibration in radio interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tasse, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    We present a new calibration scheme based on a non-linear version of Kalman filter that aims at estimating the physical terms appearing in the Radio Interferometry Measurement Equation (RIME). We enrich the filter's structure with a tunable data representation model, together with an augmented measurement model for regularization. We show using simulations that it can properly estimate the physical effects appearing in the RIME. We found that this approach is particularly useful in the most extreme cases such as when ionospheric and clock effects are simultaneously present. Combined with the ability to provide prior knowledge on the expected structure of the physical instrumental effects (expected physical state and dynamics), we obtain a fairly cheap algorithm that we believe to be robust, especially in low signal-to-noise regime. Potentially the use of filters and other similar methods can represent an improvement for calibration in radio interferometry, under the condition that the effects corrupting visib...

  15. Non linear prompt neutron kinetics in multigroup diffusion theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghatak, Ajoy Kumar

    1963-06-15

    It is shown that in the usual point kinetics formulation of the Fuch's model the assumption that the basic quantity is the ratio of prompt negative temperature coefficient to prompt neutron lifetime is correct in the limit that the higher mode effects can be neglected. The criticality calculation needed to calculate this coefficient is defined. The effect on the Fuch's model when the heat capacity and temperature coefficient vary linearly with temperature and delayed neutrons are taken into account is considered. The higher mode contributions in the presence of temperature feed-back effects are estimated. A method for calculating the space-dependent effects in non-linear kinetics is outlined. An analysis of the transient behavior of the TREAT reactor is also given. (C.E.S.)

  16. A new approach of binary addition and subtraction by non-linear material based switching technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archan Kumar Das; Partha Partima Das; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2005-02-01

    Here, we refer a new proposal of binary addition as well as subtraction in all-optical domain by exploitation of proper non-linear material-based switching technique. In this communication, the authors extend this technique for both adder and subtractor accommodating the spatial input encoding system.

  17. Few-photon Non-linearities in Nanophotonic Devices for Quantum Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders

    In this thesis we investigate few-photon non-linearities in all-optical, on-chip circuits, and we discuss their possible applications in devices of interest for quantum information technology, such as conditional two-photon gates and single-photon sources. In order to propose efficient devices...

  18. Optics effects of splitting dipole magnets into several thin lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Leunissen, L H A

    1998-01-01

    The evaluation of the dynamic aperture and the calculation of non linear optics parameters have been made so far with the simplest model of dipole, i.e. a single thin lens positioned at the centre of each thick dipole. It was shown recently that the non-linear chromaticity decreases significantly when the thick lens is represented by two thin lenses or more instead of one. In this note the study is extended to amplitude detuning and dynamic aperture. Unlike the observation reported on non-linear chromatic detuning we find no significant changes for the dynamic aperture and amplitude d etuning when the dipole magnets are split in more than one thin lens. Furthermore, non-uniform azimuthal distribution of the multipoles inside the dipole is shown not to change the above-mentio ned results. In both cases, the influence of the beta-funtions is expected to give large effect for a given dipole. However, integrated over one cell this effect is shown to compensate to a large extent. erture reported on non-linear chro...

  19. Finite-time H∞ filtering for non-linear stochastic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Mingzhe; Deng, Zongquan; Duan, Guangren

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the robust H∞ filtering analysis and the synthesis of general non-linear stochastic systems with finite settling time. We assume that the system dynamic is modelled by Itô-type stochastic differential equations of which the state and the measurement are corrupted by state-dependent noises and exogenous disturbances. A sufficient condition for non-linear stochastic systems to have the finite-time H∞ performance with gain less than or equal to a prescribed positive number is established in terms of a certain Hamilton-Jacobi inequality. Based on this result, the existence of a finite-time H∞ filter is given for the general non-linear stochastic system by a second-order non-linear partial differential inequality, and the filter can be obtained by solving this inequality. The effectiveness of the obtained result is illustrated by a numerical example.

  20. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  1. Non-linear PIC simulation in a penning trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delzanno, G. L. (Gian L.); Lapenta, G. M. (Giovanni M.); Finn, J. M. (John M.)

    2001-01-01

    We study the non-linear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column. A new cylindrical PIC code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as it is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a reference Eulerian fluid code. We compare the dynamics of three different models: a model with compression effects, the standard Euler model and a geophysical fluid dynamics model. The results of our investigation prove that Penning traps can really be used to simulate geophysical fluids.

  2. Non-linear scalable TFETI domain decomposition based contact algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobiáš, J.; Pták, S.; Dostál, Z.; Vondrák, V.; Kozubek, T.

    2010-06-01

    The paper is concerned with the application of our original variant of the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) domain decomposition method, called the Total FETI (TFETI), to solve solid mechanics problems exhibiting geometric, material, and contact non-linearities. The TFETI enforces the prescribed displacements by the Lagrange multipliers, so that all the subdomains are 'floating', the kernels of their stiffness matrices are known a priori, and the projector to the natural coarse grid is more effective. The basic theory and relationships of both FETI and TFETI are briefly reviewed and a new version of solution algorithm is presented. It is shown that application of TFETI methodology to the contact problems converts the original problem to the strictly convex quadratic programming problem with bound and equality constraints, so that the effective, in a sense optimal algorithms is to be applied. Numerical experiments show that the method exhibits both numerical and parallel scalabilities.

  3. Non-linear stochastic response of a shallow cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper considers the stochastic response of geometrical non-linear shallow cables. Large rain-wind induced cable oscillations with non-linear interactions have been observed in many large cable stayed bridges during the last decades. The response of the cable is investigated for a reduced two-degrees-of-freedom...

  4. Non-linear Frequency Scaling Algorithm for FMCW SAR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meta, A.; Hoogeboom, P.; Ligthart, L.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for processing data acquired with Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) dechirp-on-receive systems by using a non-linear frequency scaling algorithm. The range frequency non-linearity correction, the Doppler shift induced by the continuous motion and the ran

  5. Non Linear Gauge Fixing for FeynArts

    CERN Document Server

    Gajdosik, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    We review the non-linear gauge-fixing for the Standard Model, proposed by F. Boudjema and E. Chopin, and present our implementation of this non-linear gauge-fixing to the Standard Model and to the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model in FeynArts.

  6. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    1995-01-01

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  7. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  8. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    1995-01-01

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  9. Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Banerji

    2001-02-01

    We have compared the non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states of various symmetry groups and found that certain generic features of non-linear evolution are present in each case. Thus the initial coherent structures are quickly destroyed but are followed by Schrödinger cat formation and revival. We also report important differences in their evolution.

  10. Non-linear dynamics of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    2006-01-01

    by the rotation of the aerodynamic load and the curvature, as well as inertial induced non-linearities caused by the support point motion. The non-linear partial differential equations of motion in the moving frame of reference have been discretized, using the fixed base eigenmodes as a functional basis......The paper deals with the formulation of non-linear vibrations of a wind turbine wing described in a wing fixed moving coordinate system. The considered structural model is a Bernoulli-Euler beam with due consideration to axial twist. The theory includes geometrical non-linearities induced....... Important non-linear couplings between the fundamental blade mode and edgewise modes have been identified based on a resonance excitation of the wing, caused by a harmonically varying support point motion with the circular frequency omega. Assuming that the fundamental blade and edgewise eigenfrequencies...

  11. Employment of CB models for non-linear dynamic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, M. R. M.; Deloo, P.; Fournier-Sicre, A.

    1990-01-01

    The non-linear dynamic analysis of large structures is always very time, effort and CPU consuming. Whenever possible the reduction of the size of the mathematical model involved is of main importance to speed up the computational procedures. Such reduction can be performed for the part of the structure which perform linearly. Most of the time, the classical Guyan reduction process is used. For non-linear dynamic process where the non-linearity is present at interfaces between different structures, Craig-Bampton models can provide a very rich information, and allow easy selection of the relevant modes with respect to the phenomenon driving the non-linearity. The paper presents the employment of Craig-Bampton models combined with Newmark direct integration for solving non-linear friction problems appearing at the interface between the Hubble Space Telescope and its solar arrays during in-orbit maneuvers. Theory, implementation in the FEM code ASKA, and practical results are shown.

  12. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treo, E F; Felice, C J [Departamento de BioingenierIa, Universidad Nacional de Tucuman and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas. CC327, CP4000, San Miguel de Tucuman (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response.

  13. Computational models of signalling networks for non-linear control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuente, Luis A; Lones, Michael A; Turner, Alexander P; Stepney, Susan; Caves, Leo S; Tyrrell, Andy M

    2013-05-01

    Artificial signalling networks (ASNs) are a computational approach inspired by the signalling processes inside cells that decode outside environmental information. Using evolutionary algorithms to induce complex behaviours, we show how chaotic dynamics in a conservative dynamical system can be controlled. Such dynamics are of particular interest as they mimic the inherent complexity of non-linear physical systems in the real world. Considering the main biological interpretations of cellular signalling, in which complex behaviours and robust cellular responses emerge from the interaction of multiple pathways, we introduce two ASN representations: a stand-alone ASN and a coupled ASN. In particular we note how sophisticated cellular communication mechanisms can lead to effective controllers, where complicated problems can be divided into smaller and independent tasks.

  14. Robust C subroutines for non-linear optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Pernille; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    2004-01-01

    This report presents a package of robust and easy-to-use C subroutines for solving unconstrained and constrained non-linear optimization problems. The intention is that the routines should use the currently best algorithms available. All routines have standardized calls, and the user does not have...... by changing 1 to 0. The present report is a new and updated version of a previous report NI-91-03 with the same title, [16]. Both the previous and the present report describe a collection of subroutines, which have been translated from Fortran to C. The reason for writing the present report is that some...... of the C subroutines have been replaced by more effective and robust versions translated from the original Fortran subroutines to C by the Bandler Group, see [1]. Also the test examples have been modi ed to some extent. For a description of the original Fortran subroutines see the report [17]. The software...

  15. Non Linear Lorentz Transformation and Doubly Special Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Atehortua, A N; Mira, J M; Vanegas, N

    2012-01-01

    We generate non-linear representations of the Lorentz Group by unitary transformation over the Lorentz generators. To do that we use deformed scale transformations by introducing momentum-depending parameters. The momentum operator transformation is found to be equivalent to a particle momentum transformation. The configuration space transformation is found to depend on the old momentum operator and we show that this transformation generates models with two scales, one for the velocity ($c$) and another one for the energy. A Lagrangian formalism is proposed for these models and an effective metric for the deformed Minkowski space is found. We show that the Smolin model is one in a family of doubly special relativity. Finally we construct an ansatz for the quantization of such theories.

  16. Estudo teórico de propriedades ópticas não-lineares de nanotubos de carbono de parede única quimicamente modificados Theoretical analysis of non-linear optical properties for chemically modified single wall carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio M. Da Silva Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure and first hyperpolarizability for a series of armchair a(5,5 chemically modified carbon nanotubes (CNT were calculated at semiempirical and density functional levels of theory. The 4,4´-substituted stilbenes were selected as chromophore with substituents at position 4´ set to X=NO2, H, Cl, OH and NH2. The calculated values for static first hyperpolarizability (β were almost linearly dependent on the electronic effect of the group X, increasing from NO2 to NH2. At DFT level the effect of inserting the chromophore in the CNT surface was to enhance the β value up to 70% relative to the free 4,4´-substituted stilbene.

  17. Studies on L-citrulline doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate- A non linear crystal with significant nonlinear properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevalsa, V. G.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2014-01-01

    Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) single crystal is considered as one of the best representative of nonlinear optical crystals. Recently, amino acids having excellent nonlinear optical characteristics are being investigated as prospective dopants to improve the non linear optical characteristics of KDP. The present work is an attempt in this direction and L citrulline, one of the non essential amino acids showing good non linear optical characteristics is used as the dopant for KDP. Good quality crystals of L-citrulline doped KDP crystals were grown by slow evaporation technique. From the powder X-ray diffraction studies of doped KDP crystal, the structure of the doped crystals was determined by direct method and refined by Pawley method employing Topaz version program using the single crystal X-ray data for pure KDP. The lattice parameters for L citrulline doped KDP are a=7.467A0, b=7.467 A0, c=6.977 A0. The crystal falls into the tetragonal crystal system with space group I42 d. The presence of carbon and oxygen, which are primary components of amino acids, in the EDAX spectrum confirms the effectiveness of doping. The absorption spectra of the doped samples show that the crystals are transparent in the entire visible region. The second harmonic generation efficiency of the doped samples was determined by Kurtz powder technique using the Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam and is found to be 2.2 times that of KDP. The nonlinear optical properties can be well studied by the open aperture Z scan technique. The open aperture curve exhibits a normalized transmittance valley. The nonlinear absorption coefficient β is obtained by theoretical fitting for two photon absorption. It is inferred that doping KDP with L citrulline has enhanced the nonlinearity considerably. This obviously suggests the potentiality of the crystal as an optical power limiter and also for various optical device applications.

  18. Reproducing Kernel Particle Method for Non-Linear Fracture Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhongqing; Zhou Benkuan; Chen Dapeng

    2006-01-01

    To study the non-linear fracture, a non-linear constitutive model for piezoelectric ceramics was proposed, in which the polarization switching and saturation were taken into account. Based on the model, the non-linear fracture analysis was implemented using reproducing kernel particle method (RKPM). Using local J-integral as a fracture criterion, a relation curve of fracture loads against electric fields was obtained. Qualitatively, the curve is in agreement with the experimental observations reported in literature. The reproducing equation, the shape function of RKPM, and the transformation method to impose essential boundary conditions for meshless methods were also introduced. The computation was implemented using object-oriented programming method.

  19. Non-linear dynamics in photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimienta, V.; Lévy, G.; Lavabre, D.; Laplante, J. P.; Micheau, J. C.

    1992-09-01

    The rate law of an elementary photochemical reaction: A → B ( hv), contains 4 independent factors: the quantum yield, the photon flux, the concentration of the photosensitive substrate and the photokinetic factor. This type of reaction will always slow down. However, by increasing one of these 4 factors artificially, the reaction can be made to speed up. Using kinetic models comprising one or more photochemical reactions, we show that appropriate coupling between two or more elementary processes gives rise to a cooperative effect. This effect increases one or more of these 4 factors, and makes the coupled photochemical model bistable in a CSTR. The values of the parameters for which one observes bistability are experimentally realistic. One of these models provides a simplified simulation of the stages underlying the bistable photochemical behavior of the TPID/CHCl 3, system.

  20. Asymptotic Stability of Interconnected Passive Non-Linear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidori, A.; Joshi, S. M.; Kelkar, A. G.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of stabilization of a class of internally passive non-linear time-invariant dynamic systems. A class of non-linear marginally strictly passive (MSP) systems is defined, which is less restrictive than input-strictly passive systems. It is shown that the interconnection of a non-linear passive system and a non-linear MSP system is globally asymptotically stable. The result generalizes and weakens the conditions of the passivity theorem, which requires one of the systems to be input-strictly passive. In the case of linear time-invariant systems, it is shown that the MSP property is equivalent to the marginally strictly positive real (MSPR) property, which is much simpler to check.

  1. NON-LINEAR FORCED VIBRATION OF AXIALLY MOVING VISCOELASTIC BEAMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiaodong; Chen Li-Qun

    2006-01-01

    The non-linear forced vibration of axially moving viscoelastic beams excited by the vibration of the supporting foundation is investigated. A non-linear partial-differential equation governing the transverse motion is derived from the dynamical, constitutive equations and geometrical relations. By referring to the quasi-static stretch assumption, the partial-differential non-linearity is reduced to an integro-partial-differential one. The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations with the two types of non-linearity, respectively. The amplitude of near- and exact-resonant steady state is analyzed by use of the solvability condition of eliminating secular terms. Numerical results are presented to show the contributions of foundation vibration amplitude, viscoelastic damping, and nonlinearity to the response amplitude for the first and the second mode.

  2. Preparation of Stable Photopatternable Polymeric Materials for Non- linear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    of limited versatility and is incompatible with the azobenzene and stilbene based chromo- phores.6’ 7 In addition it has proven extremely difficult...could not be achieved using dibutyltin dilaurate as a catalyst due to the occurrence of a trou- blesome transesterification side reaction of the...methacrylate moiety. Therefore, diazab- icyclo[2.2.2]-octane was used to catalyze the polymerization of monomer Q with iso- phorone diisocyanate. After

  3. Quad-copter UAV BLDC Motor Control: Linear v/s non-linear control maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Parikh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some investigations and comparison of using linear versus non-linear static motor-control maps for the speed control of a BLDC (Brush Less Direct Current motors used in quad-copter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. The motor-control map considered here is the inverse of the static map relating motor-speed output to motor-voltage input for a typical out-runner type Brushless DC Motors (BLDCM.  Traditionally, quad-copter BLDC motor speed control uses simple linear motor-control map defined by the motor-constant specification. However, practical BLDC motors show non-linear characteristic, particularly when operated across wide operating speed-range as is commonly required in quad-copter UAV flight operations. In this paper, our investigations to compare performance of linear versus non-linear motor-control maps are presented. The investigations cover simulation-based and experimental study of BLDC motor speed control systems for  quad-copter vehicle available. First the non-linear map relating rotor RPM to motor voltage for quad-copter BLDC motor is obtained experimentally using an optical speed encoder. The performance of the linear versus non-linear motor-control-maps for the speed control are studied. The investigations also cover study of time-responses for various standard test input-signals e.g. step, ramp and pulse inputs, applied as the reference speed-commands. Also, simple 2-degree of freedom test-bed is developed in our laboratory to help test the open-loop and closed-loop experimental investigations. The non-linear motor-control map is found to perform better in BLDC motor speed tracking control performance and thereby helping achieve better quad-copter roll-angle attitude control.

  4. Non-linear cosmological collapse of quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Rekier, Jeremy; Cordero-Carrion, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the fully relativistic spherical collapse in presence of quintessence using on Numerical Relativity, following the method proposed by the authors in a previous article [arXiv:1409.3476]. We ascertain the validity of the method by studying the evolution of a spherically symmetric quintessence inhomogeneity on a de Sitter background and we find that it has an impact on the local expansion around the centre of coordinates. We then proceed to compare the results of our method to those of the more largely adopted top-hat model. We find that quintessence inhomogeneities do build up under the effect that matter inhomogeneities have on the local space-time yet remain very small due to the presence of momentum transfer from the over-dense to the background regions. We expect that these might have an even more important role in modified theories of gravitation.

  5. Non-linear conductivity in Coulomb glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voje, A.; Bergli, J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P. O. Box 1048 Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Ortuno, M.; Somoza, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica - CIOyN, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30.071 (Spain); Caravaca, M.

    2009-12-15

    We have studied the nonlinear conductivity of two-dimensional Coulomb glasses. We have used a Monte Carlo algorithm to simulate the dynamic of the system under an applied electric field E. We have compared results for two different models: a regular square lattice with only diagonal disorder and a random array of sites with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. We have found that for moderate fields the logarithm of the conductivity is proportional to {radical}(E)/T{sup 2}, reproducing experimental results. We have also found that in the nonlinear regime the site occupancy in the Coulomb gap follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature T{sub eff} higher than the phonon bath temperature T. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. 输送机非线性动力学的研究及其对动态性能的影响%Study on conveyor non-linear dynamics and its effect on dynamic behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李光布

    2004-01-01

    A conveyor linear system assumption is based on an approximate description of belt mechanics behavior and constant elastic module. It produces analysis errors and improper dynamics simulation in large conveyors. The belt non-linear characteristics based on sag are described and the belt equivalent elastic module expression is deduced. The relationship between belt-equivalent elastic module and elastic module is studied, and their ratio varies from 0. 1 to 1. 0. The non-linear motion equation with a lumped element model is put forward. Its increment equation and numerical solution are built. A dynamics simulation on a conveyor is carried out, mainly to calculate and compare belt speed, acceleration, tension, displacement of gravity take-up and wave period with linear and non-linear models. It shows that the simulation errors between two models vary from 6% to 50%.%输送机线性系统的假设是在胶带力学特性和弹性模量不变的情况下近似提出的. 这种假设会使大型输送机产生理论误差和不正确的动力学仿真结果. 本文分析了基于胶带悬垂度的非线性特性, 推导了等效弹性模量的表达式, 研究了胶带等效弹性模量和弹性模量之间的关系, 并发现两者的比值在0. 1~1. 0之间变化. 提出了输送机有限单元模型的非线性运动方程及其增量方程和数值解法. 通过对一输送机动态特性的仿真分析, 发现用线性和非线性2种模型, 它们动态参数(如带速, 胶带加速度, 张力以及重锤位移和张力波速)的计算误差介于6%~50% 之间.

  7. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynhetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozturk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, Christian

    2011-01-01

    conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 µmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...... described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...

  8. Non-linear mixed-effects modeling for photosynthetic response of Rosa hybrida L. under elevated CO2 in greenhouses - Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Öztürk, I.; Ottosen, C.O.; Ritz, C.

    2011-01-01

    conditions. Leaf gas exchanges were measured at 11 light intensities from 0 to 1,400 μmol/m2s, at 800 ppm CO2, 25°C, and 65 ± 5% relative humidity. In order to describe the data corresponding to diff erent measurement dates, the non-linear mixed-eff ects regression analysis was used. Th e model successfully...... described the photosynthetic responses. Th e analysis indicated signifi cant diff erences in light saturated photosynthetic rates and in light compensation points. Th e cultivar with the lower light compensation points (Escimo) maintained a higher carbon gain despite its lower (but not-signifi cant) quantum...... effi ciency. Th e results suggested acclimation response, as carbon assimilation rates and stomatal conductance at each measurement date were higher for Escimo than Mercedes. Diff erences in photosynthesis rates were attributed to the adaptive capacity of the cultivars to light conditions at a specifi...

  9. Basic non-linear effects in silicon radiation detector in detection of highly ionizing particles: registration of ultra rare events of superheavy nuclei in the long-term experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Tsyganov, Y S

    2015-01-01

    Sources of non-linear response of PIPS detector, when detecting highly ionizing particles like recoils (EVR), fission fragments and heavy ions, including formation of large pulse-height defect (PHD) are considered. An analytical formula to calculate the recombination component of EVR PHD is proposed on the base of surface recombination model with some empirical correction. PC-based simulation code for generating the spectrum of the measured recoil signal amplitudes of the heavy implanted nuclei is presented. The simulated spectra are compared with the experimental ones for the different facilities: the Dubna Gas Filled Recoil Separator (DGFRS), SHIP and RIKEN gas-filled separator. After the short reviewing of the detection system of the DGFRS, is considered the real-time matrix algorithm application aimed to the radical background suppression in the complete-fusion heavy-ion induced nuclear reactions. Typical examples of application in the long term experiments aimed to the synthesis of superheavy elements Z=...

  10. Effects of slurry pre-treatment and application technique on short-term N2O emmissions as determind by a new non-linear approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid K; Pedersen, Asger R; Nyord, Tavs

    2010-01-01

    method, and N2O emissions from untreated, digested and separated slurry were similar, although higher N2O emissions from treated slurry were indicated. A conceptual model to explain the observed patterns of N2O is discussed. Accounting for the indirect emissions of N2O associated with NH3 volatilization...... or straight tines. In 2008, three slurry types (digested, separated or untreated) were applied by straight tine injection. In both years band spreading of the slurries by trail-hose application was included as reference. Nitrous oxide emissions were quantified using static chambers for up to 44 days after...... slurry application. A new flux calculation method (HMR) was applied. With HMR, flux estimation is based on non-linear regression using a single-parameter criterion. In connection with gas samplings, soil cores were collected to 20-cm depth within and between bands for analysis of mineral N. Short...

  11. A Method on Non-Linear Correction of Broadband LFMCW Signal Utilizing Its Relative Sweep Non-Linear Error

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a method on non-linear correction of broadband LFMCW signal utilizing its relativenonlinear error. The deriving procedure and the results simulated by a computer and tested by a practical system arealso introduced. The method has two obvious advantages compared with the previous methods: (1) Correction has norelation with delay time td and sweep bandwidth B; (2) The inherent non-linear error of VCO has no influence on thecorrection and its last results.

  12. Distributed adaptive output consensus control of second-order systems containing unknown non-linear control gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Chaoli; Du, Qinghui; Cai, Xuan

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we address the output consensus problem of tracking a desired trajectory for a group of second-order agents on a directed graph with a fixed topology. Each agent is modelled by a second-order non-linear system with unknown non-linear dynamics and unknown non-linear control gains. Only a subset of the agents is given access to the desired trajectory information directly. A distributed adaptive consensus protocol driving all agents to track the desired trajectory is presented using the backstepping technique and approximation technique of Fourier series (FSs). The FS structure is taken not only for tracking the non-linear dynamics but also the unknown portion in the controller design procedure, which can avoid virtual controllers containing the uncertain terms. Stability analysis and parameter convergence of the proposed algorithm are conducted based on the Lyapunov theory and the algebraic graph theory. It is also demonstrated that arbitrary small tracking errors can be achieved by appropriately choosing design parameters. Though the proposed work is applicable for second-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains, the proposed controller design can be easily extended to higher-order non-linear systems containing unknown non-linear control gains. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  13. Non-linear BFKL dynamics: color screening vs. gluon fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, R; Zoller, V R

    2012-01-01

    A feasible mechanism of unitarization of amplitudes of deep inelastic scattering at small values of Bjorken $x$ is the gluon fusion. However, its efficiency depends crucially on the vacuum color screening effect which accompanies the multiplication and the diffusion of BFKL gluons from small to large distances. From the fits to lattice data on field strength correlators the propagation length of perturbative gluons is $R_c\\simeq 0.2-0.3$ fermi. The probability to find a perturbative gluon with short propagation length at large distances is suppressed exponentially. It changes the pattern of (dif)fusion dramatically. The magnitude of the fusion effect appears to be controlled by the new dimensionless parameter $\\sim R_c^2/8B$, with the diffraction cone slope $B$ standing for the characteristic size of the interaction region. It should slowly $\\propto 1/\\ln Q^2$ decrease at large $Q^2$. Smallness of the ratio $R_c^2/8B$ makes the non-linear effects rather weak even at lowest Bjorken $x$ available at HERA. We re...

  14. Filtering Non-Linear Transfer Functions on Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, Eric; Nowrouzezahrai, Derek; Poulin, Pierre; Neyret, Fabrice

    2014-07-01

    Applying non-linear transfer functions and look-up tables to procedural functions (such as noise), surface attributes, or even surface geometry are common strategies used to enhance visual detail. Their simplicity and ability to mimic a wide range of realistic appearances have led to their adoption in many rendering problems. As with any textured or geometric detail, proper filtering is needed to reduce aliasing when viewed across a range of distances, but accurate and efficient transfer function filtering remains an open problem for several reasons: transfer functions are complex and non-linear, especially when mapped through procedural noise and/or geometry-dependent functions, and the effects of perspective and masking further complicate the filtering over a pixel's footprint. We accurately solve this problem by computing and sampling from specialized filtering distributions on the fly, yielding very fast performance. We investigate the case where the transfer function to filter is a color map applied to (macroscale) surface textures (like noise), as well as color maps applied according to (microscale) geometric details. We introduce a novel representation of a (potentially modulated) color map's distribution over pixel footprints using Gaussian statistics and, in the more complex case of high-resolution color mapped microsurface details, our filtering is view- and light-dependent, and capable of correctly handling masking and occlusion effects. Our approach can be generalized to filter other physical-based rendering quantities. We propose an application to shading with irradiance environment maps over large terrains. Our framework is also compatible with the case of transfer functions used to warp surface geometry, as long as the transformations can be represented with Gaussian statistics, leading to proper view- and light-dependent filtering results. Our results match ground truth and our solution is well suited to real-time applications, requires only a few

  15. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  16. Non-linear and transient absorption spectroscopy of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, H.; Volkmer, A.; Rückmann, I.; Zeug, A.; Ehrenberg, B.; Röder, B.

    1998-10-01

    The excited state properties of magnesium(II)-tetrabenzoporphyrin (Mg-TBP) were studied by using intensity dependent transmission (non-linear absorption), ps-transient absorption and time resolved luminescence spectroscopy. It was found that there is a strong excited absorption in the region around 500 nm. Because there is no or little ground state absorption in this region the dye is suitable as an optical limiter.

  17. Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. Grupo de Fisica e Matematica

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)

  18. The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2007-01-01

    Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...

  19. Role of anharmonicities and non-linearities in heavy ion collisions a microscopic approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, E G; Catara, F; Chomaz, P; Volpe, C; Chomaz, Ph.

    1996-01-01

    Using a microscopic approach beyond RPA to treat anharmonicities, we mix two-phonon states among themselves and with one-phonon states. We also introduce non-linear terms in the external field. These non-linear terms and the anharmonicities are not taken into account in the "standard" multiphonon picture. Within this framework we calculate Coulomb excitation of 208Pb and 40Ca by a 208Pb nucleus at 641 and 1000MeV/A. We show with different examples the importance of the non-linearities and anharmonicities for the excitation cross section. We find an increase of 10 % for 208Pb and 20 % for 40Ca of the excitation cross section corresponding to the energy region of the double giant dipole resonance with respect to the "standard" calculation. We also find important effects in the low energy region. The predicted cross section in the DGDR region is found to be rather close to the experimental observation.

  20. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    , for mechanical system, is of the second order. The governing equations are coupled via linear and weakly non-linear terms. A classical perturbation method, a method of multiple scales, is used to find a steadystate response of the electro-mechanical system exposed to a harmonic close-resonance mechanical......Electro-mechanical devices are an example of coupled multi-disciplinary weakly non-linear systems. Dynamics of such systems is described in this paper by means of two mutually coupled differential equations. The first one, describing an electrical system, is of the first order and the second one...... excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  1. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  2. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey. III. A Statistical Study of Non-Linearity in the Leavitt Laws

    CERN Document Server

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Macri, Lucas M; Singh, Harinder P; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ishida, Emille E O

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of possible non-linearities in the Period-Luminosity (P-L), Period-Wesenheit (P-W) and Period-Color (P-C) relations for Cepheid variables in the LMC at optical ($VI$) and near-infrared ($JHK_{s}$) wavelengths. We test for the presence of possible non-linearities and determine their statistical significance by applying a variety of robust statistical tests ($F$-test, Random-Walk, Testimator and the Davies test) to optical data from OGLE III and near-infrared data from LMCNISS. For fundamental-mode Cepheids, we find that the optical P-L, P-W and P-C relations are non-linear at 10 days. The near-infrared P-L and the $W^H_{V,I}$ relations are non-linear around 18 days; this break is attributed to a distinct variation in mean Fourier amplitude parameters near this period for longer wavelengths as compared to optical bands. The near-infrared P-W relations are also non-linear except for the $W_{H,K_s}$ relation. For first-overtone mode Cepheids, a significant change in the ...

  3. NLHB : A Non-Linear Hopper Blum Protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Madhavan, Mukundan; Sankarasubramaniam, Yogesh; Viswanathan, Kapali

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a light-weight provably-secure authentication protocol called the NLHB protocol, which is a variant of the HB protocol. The HB protocol uses the complexity of decoding linear codes for security against passive attacks. In contrast, security for the NLHB protocol is proved by reducing passive attacks to the problem of decoding a class of non-linear codes\\footnote that are provably hard. We demonstrate that the existing passive attacks on the HB protocol family, which have contributed to considerable reduction in its effective key-size, are ineffective against the NLHB protocol. From the evidence, we conclude that smaller-key sizes are sufficient for the NLHB protocol to achieve the same level of passive attack security as the HB Protocol. Further, for this choice of parameters, we provide an implementation instance for the NLHB protocol for which the Prover/Verifier complexity is lower than the HB protocol, enabling authentication on very low-cost devices like RFID tags. Finally, in t...

  4. Are oil markets chaotic? A non-linear dynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panas, E.; Ninni, V. [Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens (Greece)

    2000-10-01

    The analysis of products' price behaviour continues to be an important empirical issue. This study contributes to the current literature on price dynamics of products by examining for the presence of chaos and non-linear dynamics in daily oil products for the Rotterdam and Mediterranean petroleum markets. Previous studies using only one invariant, such as the correlation dimension may not effectively determine the chaotic structure of the underlying time series. To obtain better information on the time series structure, a framework is developed, where both invariant and non-invariant quantities were also examined. In this paper various invariants for detecting a chaotic time series were analysed along with the associated Brock's theorem and Eckman-Ruelle condition, to return series for the prices of oil products. An additional non-invariant quantity, the BDS statistic, was also examined. The correlation dimension, entropies and Lyapunov exponents show strong evidence of chaos in a number of oil products considered. 30 refs.

  5. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  6. Non-linear Langevin model for the early-stage dynamics of electrospinning jets

    CERN Document Server

    Lauricella, Marco; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We present a non-linear Langevin model to investigate the early-stage dynamics of electrified polymer jets in electrospinning experiments. In particular, we study the effects of air drag force on the uniaxial elongation of the charged jet, right after ejection from the nozzle. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the jet filament close to the injection point is significantly affected by the non-linear drag exerted by the surrounding air. These result provide useful insights for the optimal design of current and future electrospinning experiments.

  7. An axisymmetrical non-linear finite element model for induction heating in injection molding tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrier, Patrick; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Menotti, Stefano;

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the heating and cooling phase of an induction heated injection molding tool accurately, the temperature dependent magnetic properties, namely the non-linear B-H curves, need to be accounted for in an induction heating simulation. Hence, a finite element model has been developed...... in to the injection molding tool. The model shows very good agreement with the experimental temperature measurements. It is also shown that the non-linearity can be used without the temperature dependency in some cases, and a proposed method is presented of how to estimate an effective linear permeability to use...

  8. Free Convective Nonaligned Non-Newtonian Flow with Non-linear Thermal Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, S.; Mehmood, R.; Narayana, PV S.; Akbar, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    The present study explores the free convective oblique Casson fluid over a stretching surface with non-linear thermal radiation effects. The governing physical problem is modelled and transformed into a set of coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations by suitable similarity transformation, which are solved numerically with the help of shooting method keeping the convergence control of 10-5 in computations. Influence of pertinent physical parameters on normal, tangential velocity profiles and temperature are expressed through graphs. Physical quantities of interest such as skin friction coefficients and local heat flux are investigated numerically.

  9. Excitation Forces on Point Absorbers Exposed to High Order Non-linear Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, Thomas Hansen; Andersen, Morten Thøtt; Kramer, Morten

    2013-01-01

    of proper methods to calculate design pressure distributions has led to structural failures such as buckling in the shells in wave energy prototypes. As a step towards understanding the complex loading from high order non-linear waves, this paper presents a practical approach to estimate wave excitation...... forces accounting for both non-linearity and diffraction effects. The method is validated by laboratory experiments using a hemispherical point absorber with a 6-axis force transducer, but the technique is believed to be applicable for most types of submerged or semi-submerged floating devices...

  10. Differential transform method for solving linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi Kanth, A.S.V. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail: asvravikanth@yahoo.com; Aruna, K. [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Science and Humanities, V.I.T. University, Vellore-632 014, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2008-11-17

    In this Letter, we propose a reliable algorithm to develop exact and approximate solutions for the linear and non-linear systems of partial differential equations. The approach rest mainly on two-dimensional differential transform method which is one of the approximate methods. The method can easily be applied to many linear and non-linear problems and is capable of reducing the size of computational work. Exact solutions can also be achieved by the known forms of the series solutions. Several illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method.

  11. Compensation techniques for non-linearities in H-bridge inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Zammit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents compensation techniques for component non-linearities in H-bridge inverters as those used in grid-connected photovoltaic (PV inverters. Novel compensation techniques depending on the switching device current were formulated to compensate for the non-linearities in inverter circuits caused by the voltage drops on the switching devices. Both simulation and experimental results will be presented. Testing was carried out on a PV inverter which was designed and constructed for this research. Very satisfactory results were obtained from all the compensation techniques presented, however the exact compensation method was the most effective, providing the highest reduction in harmonics.

  12. [Non-linear rectification of sensor based on immune genetic Algorithm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Lirong; Zhou, Jinyang; Niu, Xiaodong

    2014-08-01

    A non-linear rectification based on immune genetic algorithm (IGA) is proposed in this paper, for the shortcoming of the non-linearity rectification. This algorithm introducing the biologic immune mechanism into the genetic algorithm can restrain the disadvantages that the poor precision, slow convergence speed and early maturity of the genetic algorithm. Computer simulations indicated that the algorithm not only keeps population diversity, but also increases the convergent speed, precision and the stability greatly. The results have shown the correctness and effectiveness of the method.

  13. Global search of non-linear systems periodic solutions: A rotordynamics application

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrouy, Emmanuelle; Thouverez, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Introducing non-linearities into models contributes towards a better reality description but leads to systems having multiple solutions. It is then legitimate to look for all the solutions of such systems, that is to have a global analysis approach. However no effective method can be found in literature for systems described by more than two or three degrees of freedom. We propose in this paper a way to find all T-periodic solutions--where T is known--of a non-linear d...

  14. Generalized non-linear strength theory and transformed stress space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yangping; LU Dechun; ZHOU Annan; ZOU Bo

    2004-01-01

    Based on the test data of frictional materials and previous research achievements in this field, a generalized non-linear strength theory (GNST) is proposed. It describes non-linear strength properties on the π-plane and the meridian plane using a unified formula, and it includes almost all the present non-linear strength theories, which can be used in just one material. The shape of failure function of the GNST is a smooth curve between the SMP criterion and the Mises criterion on the π-plane, and an exponential curve on the meridian plane. Through the transformed stress space based on the GNST, the combination of the GNST and various constitutive models using p and q as stress parameters can be realized simply and rationally in three-dimensional stress state.

  15. An algorithm for earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ren-chao; LIU Jin-fei

    2008-01-01

    For solving the optimization model of earthwork allocation considering non-linear factors, a hybrid al-gorithm combined with the ant algorithm (AA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) is proposed in this pa-per. Then the proposed method and the LP method are used respectively in solving a linear allocation model of a high rockfill dam project. Results obtained by these two methods are compared each other. It can be conclu-ded that the solution got by the proposed method is extremely approximate to the analytic solution of LP method. The superiority of the proposed method over the LP method in solving a non-linear allocation model is illustrated by a non-linear case. Moreover, further researches on improvement of the algorithm and the allocation model are addressed.

  16. Non-linear behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M; Morgado, R E

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of photodiodes used as photosensors requires a determination of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by scintillation light. One method involves comparing signals produced by X-ray absorptions occurring directly in the avalanche photodiode with the light signals. When the light is derived from light-emitting diodes in the 400-600 nm range, significant non-linear behaviour is reported. In the present work, we extend the study of the linear behaviour to large-area avalanche photodiodes, of Advanced Photonix, used as photosensors of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced by argon (128 nm) and xenon (173 nm). We observed greater non-linearities in the avalanche photodiodes for the VUV scintillation light than reported previously for visible light, but considerably less than the non-linearities observed in other commercially available avalanche photodiodes.

  17. Non-linear system identification in flow-induced vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanos, P.D.; Zeldin, B.A. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Lu, R. [Hudson Engineering Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The paper introduces a method of identification of non-linear systems encountered in marine engineering applications. The non-linearity is accounted for by a combination of linear subsystems and known zero-memory non-linear transformations; an equivalent linear multi-input-single-output (MISO) system is developed for the identification problem. The unknown transfer functions of the MISO system are identified by assembling a system of linear equations in the frequency domain. This system is solved by performing the Cholesky decomposition of a related matrix. It is shown that the proposed identification method can be interpreted as a {open_quotes}Gram-Schmidt{close_quotes} type of orthogonal decomposition of the input-output quantities of the equivalent MISO system. A numerical example involving the identification of unknown parameters of flow (ocean wave) induced forces on offshore structures elucidates the applicability of the proposed method.

  18. Change-Of-Bases Abstractions for Non-Linear Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sankaranarayanan, Sriram

    2012-01-01

    We present abstraction techniques that transform a given non-linear dynamical system into a linear system or an algebraic system described by polynomials of bounded degree, such that, invariant properties of the resulting abstraction can be used to infer invariants for the original system. The abstraction techniques rely on a change-of-basis transformation that associates each state variable of the abstract system with a function involving the state variables of the original system. We present conditions under which a given change of basis transformation for a non-linear system can define an abstraction. Furthermore, the techniques developed here apply to continuous systems defined by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs), discrete systems defined by transition systems and hybrid systems that combine continuous as well as discrete subsystems. The techniques presented here allow us to discover, given a non-linear system, if a change of bases transformation involving degree-bounded polynomials yielding an alge...

  19. Magnetic field cycling effect on the non-linear current-voltage characteristics and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance in α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3 oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Bhowmik

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied current-voltage (I-V characteristics of α-Fe1.64Ga0.36O3, a typical canted ferromagnetic semiconductor. The sample showed a transformation of the I-V curves from linear to non-linear character with the increase of bias voltage. The I-V curves showed irreversible features with hysteresis loop and bi-stable electronic states for up and down modes of voltage sweep. We report positive magnetoresistance and magnetic field induced negative differential resistance as the first time observed phenomena in metal doped hematite system. The magnitudes of critical voltage at which I-V curve showed peak and corresponding peak current are affected by magnetic field cycling. The shift of the peak voltage with magnetic field showed a step-wise jump between two discrete voltage levels with least gap (ΔVP 0.345(± 0.001 V. The magnetic spin dependent electronic charge transport in this new class of magnetic semiconductor opens a wide scope for tuning large electroresistance (∼500-700%, magnetoresistance (70-135 % and charge-spin dependent conductivity under suitable control of electric and magnetic fields. The electric and magnetic field controlled charge-spin transport is interesting for applications of the magnetic materials in spintronics, e.g., magnetic sensor, memory devices and digital switching.

  20. Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey - III. A statistical study of non-linearity in the Leavitt Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anupam; Kanbur, Shashi M.; Macri, Lucas M.; Singh, Harinder P.; Ngeow, Chow-Choong; Ishida, Emille E. O.

    2016-04-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of possible non-linearities in the period-luminosity (PL), period-Wesenheit (PW) and period-colour (PC) relations for Cepheid variables in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) at optical (VI) and near-infrared (JHKs) wavelengths. We test for the presence of possible non-linearities and determine their statistical significance by applying a variety of robust statistical tests (F-test, random-walk, testimator and the Davies test) to optical data from third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment and near-infrared data from Large Magellanic Cloud Near-Infrared Synoptic Survey. For fundamental-mode Cepheids, we find that the optical PL, PW and PC relations are non-linear at 10 d. The near-infrared PL and the W^H_{V,I} relations are non-linear around 18 d; this break is attributed to a distinct variation in mean Fourier amplitude parameters near this period for longer wavelengths as compared to optical bands. The near-infrared PW relations are also non-linear except for the W_{H,K_s} relation. For first-overtone mode Cepheids, a significant change in the slope of PL, PW and PC relations is found around 2.5 d only at optical wavelengths. We determine a global slope of -3.212 ± 0.013 for the W^H_{V,I} relation by combining our LMC data with observations of Cepheids in Supernovae host galaxies. We find this slope to be consistent with the corresponding LMC relation at short periods, and significantly different to the long-period value. We do not find any significant difference in the slope of the global-fit solution using a linear or non-linear LMC PL relation as calibrator, but the linear version provides a two times better constraint on the slope and metallicity coefficient.

  1. Non-linear growth and condensation in multiplex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Different types of interactions coexist and coevolve to shape the structure and function of a multiplex network. We propose here a general class of growth models in which the various layers of a multiplex network coevolve through a set of non-linear preferential attachment rules. We show, both numerically and analytically, that by tuning the level of non-linearity these models allow to reproduce either homogeneous or heterogeneous degree distributions, together with positive or negative degree correlations across layers. In particular, we derive the condition for the appearance of a condensed state in which a single node connects to nearly all other nodes of a layer.

  2. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Dehdashti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2 and su(1, 1 coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  3. Comparison of Simulated and Measured Non-linear Ultrasound Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Yigang; Jensen, Henrik; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2011-01-01

    In this paper results from a non-linear AS (angular spectrum) based ultrasound simulation program are compared to water-tank measurements. A circular concave transducer with a diameter of 1 inch (25.4 mm) is used as the emitting source. The measured pulses are rst compared with the linear...... simulation program Field II, which will be used to generate the source for the AS simulation. The generated non-linear ultrasound eld is measured by a hydrophone in the focal plane. The second harmonic component from the measurement is compared with the AS simulation, which is used to calculate both...

  4. Foundations of the non-linear mechanics of continua

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, L I

    1966-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Foundations of the Non-Linear Mechanics of Continua deals with the theoretical apparatus, principal concepts, and principles used in the construction of models of material bodies that fill space continuously. This book consists of three chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to the theory of tensors and kinematic applications, focusing on the little-known theory of non-linear tensor functions. The laws of dynamics and thermodynamics are covered in Chapter 3.This volume is suitable

  5. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, Shahram, E-mail: shdehdashti@zju.edu.cn; Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng, E-mail: hansomchen@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentations, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Electromagnetics Academy at Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jiarui, E-mail: jrliu@zju.edu.cn; Yu, Faxin [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  6. Non-linear dynamics of a geared rotor-bearing system with multiple clearances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, A.; Singh, R.

    1991-02-01

    Non-linear frequency response characteristics of a geared rotor-bearing system are examined in this paper. A three-degree-of-freedom dynamic model is developed which includes non-linearities associated with radial clearances in the radial rolling element bearings and backlash between a spur gear pair; linear time-invariant gear meshing stiffness is assumed. The corresponding linear system problem is also solved, and predicted natural frequencies and modes match with finite element method results. The bearing non-linear stiffness function is approximated for the sake of convenience by a simple model which is identical to that used for the gear mesh. This approximate bearing model has been verified by comparing steady state frequency spectra. Applicability of both analytical and numerical solution techniques to the multi-degree-of-freedom non-linear problem is investigated. Satisfactory agreement has been found between our theory and available experimental data. Several key issues such as non-linear modal interactions and differences between internal static transmission error excitation and external torque excitation are discussed. Additionally, parametric studies are performed to understand the effect of system parameters such as bearing stiffness to gear mesh stiffness ratio, alternating to mean force ratio and radial bearing preload to mean force ratio on the non-linear dynamic behavior. A criterion used to classify the steady state solutions is presented, and the conditions for chaotic, quasi-periodic and subharmonic steady state solutions are determined. Two typical routes to chaos observed in this geared system are also identified.

  7. Highly non-linear solid core photonic crystal fiber with one nano hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwar, Rahul Kumar, E-mail: rahul0889@gmail.com; Bhardwaj, Vanita, E-mail: bhardwajphy12@gmail.com; Singh, Vinod Kumar, E-mail: singh.vk.ap@ismdhanbad.co.in [Department of Applied Physics, Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, Jharkhand (India)

    2015-08-28

    The numerical study of newly designed solid core photonic crystal fiber (SCPCF) having three hexagonal air hole rings in cladding region and one small nano hole at the center are presented. By using full vectorial finite element method (FV-FEM), we analyses the optical properties like effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss of the proposed PCF. Results show that the change in core diameter controls the effective area, nonlinearity and confinement loss. A low effective area (3.34 µm{sup 2}), high nonlinearity (36.34 W{sup −1}km{sup −1}) and low confinement loss (0.00106 dB/km) are achieved at the communication wavelength 1.55 µm for the SCPCF having core air hole diameter 0.10 µm, cladding air holes diameter 1.00 µm and pitch 2.50 µm. This type of PCF is very useful in non-linear applications such as supercontinuum generation, four wave mixing, second harmonic generation etc.

  8. Non-Linear Wave Loads and Ship responses by a time-domain Strip Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu; Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    1998-01-01

    A non-linear time-domain strip theory for vertical wave loads and ship responses is presented. The theory is generalized from a rigorous linear time-domain strip theory representaton. The hydrodynamic memory effect due to the free surface is approximated by a higher order differential equation...

  9. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  10. On Landau damping of dipole modes by non-linear space charge and octupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Möhl, D

    1995-01-01

    The joint effect of space-charge non-linearities and octupole lenses is important for Landau damping of coherent instabilities. The octupole strength required for stabilisation can depend strongly on the sign of the excitation current of the lenses. This note tries to extend results, previously obtained for coasting beams and rigid bunches, to more general head--tail modes.

  11. On non-linear dynamics of a coupled electro-mechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darula, Radoslav; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    excitation. The results are verified using a numerical model created in MATLAB Simulink environment. Effect of non-linear terms on dynamical response of the coupled system is investigated; the backbone and envelope curves are analyzed. The two phenomena, which exist in the electro-mechanical system: (a...

  12. Individualized Learning Through Non-Linear use of Learning Objects: With Examples From Math and Stat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rootzén, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Our aim is to ensure individualized learning that is fun, inspiring and innovative. We believe that when you enjoy, your brain will open up and learning will be easier and more effective. The methods use a non-linear learning environment based on self-contained learning objects which are pieced t...

  13. Numerical simulation of non-linear phenomena in geotechnical engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Smed

    Geotechnical problems are often characterized by the non-linear behavior of soils and rock which are strongly linked to the inherent properties of the porous structure of the material as well as the presence and possible flow of any surrounding fluids. Dynamic problems involving such soil-fluid i...

  14. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  15. Algorithms for non-linear M-estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Edlund, O; Ekblom, H

    1997-01-01

    a sequence of estimation problems for linearized models is solved. In the testing we apply four estimators to ten non-linear data fitting problems. The test problems are also solved by the Generalized Levenberg-Marquardt method and standard optimization BFGS method. It turns out that the new method...

  16. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found...

  17. Non-Linear Langmuir Wave Modulation in Collisionless Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Pécseli, Hans

    1977-01-01

    A non-linear Schrodinger equation for Langmuir waves is presented. The equation is derived by using a fluid model for the electrons, while both a fluid and a Vlasov formulation are considered for the ion dynamics. The two formulations lead to significant differences in the final results, especially...

  18. Non-Linear Interactive Stories in Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsø, Olav; Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Kocka, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    The paper introduces non-linear interactive stories (NOLIST) as a means to generate varied and interesting stories for computer games automatically. We give a compact representation of a NOLIST based on the specification of atomic stories, and show how to build an object-oriented Bayesian network...

  19. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter is gra...

  20. Note About Hamiltonian Structure of Non-Linear Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Kluson, J

    2011-01-01

    We perform the Hamiltonian analysis of non-linear massive gravity action studied recently in arXiv:1106.3344 [hep-th]. We show that the Hamiltonian constraint is the second class constraint. As a result the theory possesses an odd number of the second class constraints and hence all non physical degrees of freedom cannot be eliminated.

  1. Locally supersymmetric D=3 non-linear sigma models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, B. de; Tollsten, A. K.; Nicolai, H.

    1992-01-01

    We study non-linear sigma models with N local supersymmetries in three space-time dimensions. For N=1 and 2 the target space of these models is Riemannian or Kahler, respectively. All N>2 theories are associated with Einstein spaces. For N=3 the target space is quaternionic, while for N=4 it general

  2. Non-linear magnetorheological behaviour of an inverse ferrofluid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gans, B.J.; Hoekstra, Hans; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    The non-linear magnetorheological behaviour is studied of a model system consisting of monodisperse silica particles suspended in a ferrofluid. The stress/strain curve as well as the flow curve was measured as a function of volume fraction silica particles and field strength, using a home-made

  3. On the non-linearity of the subsidiary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, H

    2005-01-01

    In hyperbolic reductions of the Einstein equations the evolution of gauge conditions or constraint quantities is controlled by subsidiary systems. We point out a class of non-linearities in these systems which may have the potential of generating catastrophic growth of gauge resp. constraint violations in numerical calculations.

  4. Development and Control of a Non Linear Magnetic Levitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sanjeevi Gandhi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, studies to develop and control non linear systems is of great significance. Magnetic Levitation System has gained considerable interests due to its great practical importance in different engineering fields In this paper an electromagnetic levitation system was developed and mathematical model for the system was derived. The developed system was controlled manually.

  5. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.;

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...... is studied. Both the Lebesgue and Hausdorff measures of this set are obtained....

  6. S-AMP for non-linear observation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole; Fleury, Bernard H.

    2015-01-01

    Recently we presented the S-AMP approach, an extension of approximate message passing (AMP), to be able to handle general invariant matrix ensembles. In this contribution we extend S-AMP to non-linear observation models. We obtain generalized AMP (GAMP) as the special case when the measurement...

  7. Applications of non-linear methods in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this review I discuss catastrophes, bifurcations and strange attractors in a non-mathematical manner by giving very simple examples that st ill contain the essence of the phenomenon. The salientresults of the applications of these non-linear methods in astrophysics are reviewed and include such d

  8. Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    qualities. The controller is a non-linear version of the well-known generalized predictive controller developed in linear control theory. It involves minimization of a cost function which in the present case has to be done numerically. Therefore, we develop the numerical algorithms necessary in substantial...

  9. Non-linear states of a positive or negative refraction index material in a cavity with feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.

    2010-06-01

    We study a system composed by a cavity with plane mirrors containing a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. The aim of the work is to present a general picture of possible non-linear states in terms of the relevant parameters of the system. The parameters are the ones that appear in a reduced description that has the form of the Lugiato-Lefever equation. This equation is obtained from two coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations for the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.

  10. Note: An in situ method for measuring the non-linear response of a Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenhao; Liu, Mengke; Xie, Dizhou; Yan, Bo

    2016-09-01

    The transfer cavity is a very important frequency reference for laser stabilization and is widely used for applications such as precision measurements and laser cooling of ions or molecules. But the non-linear response of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) in the Fabry-Perot cavity limits the performance of the laser stabilization. Thus, measuring and controlling such non-linearity is essential. Here we report an in situ, optical method to characterize this non-linearity by measuring the resonant signals of a dual-frequency laser. The differential measurement makes it insensitive to the laser and cavity drifts, while maintaining a very high sensitivity. It can be applied for various applications with PZTs, especially in an optical lab.

  11. An in-situ method for measuring the non-linear response of a Fabry-Perot cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Bu, Wenhao; Xie, Dizhou; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    High finesse Fabry-Perot(FP) cavity is a very important frequency reference for laser stabiliza- tion, and is widely used for applications such as precision measurement, laser cooling of ions or molecules. But the non-linear response of the piezoelectric ceramic transducer (PZT) in the FP cav- ity limits the performance of the laser stabilization. Measuring and controlling such non-linearity are important. Here we report an in-situ, optical method to characterize this non-linearity by measuring the resonance signals of a dual-frequency laser. The di?erential measurement makes it insensitive to laser and cavity drifting, and has a very high sensitivity. It can be applied for various applications with PZT, especially in an optical lab.

  12. Phase Structure of the Non-Linear σ-MODEL with Oscillator Representation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy; Ji, Chueng-R.

    2004-03-01

    Non-Linear σ-model plays an important role in many areas of theoretical physics. Been initially uintended as a simple model for chiral symmetry breaking, this model exhibits such nontrivial effects as spontaneous symmetry breaking, asymptotic freedom and sometimes is considered as an effective field theory for QCD. Besides, non-linear σ-model can be related to the strong-coupling limit of O(N) ϕ4-theory, continuous limit of N-dim. system of quantum spins, fermion gas and many others and takes important place in undertanding of how symmetries are realized in quantum field theories. Because of this variety of connections, theoretical study of the critical properties of σ-model is interesting and important. Oscillator representation method is a theoretical tool for studying the phase structure of simple QFT models. It is formulated in the framework of the canonical quantization and is based on the view of the unitary non-equivalent representations as possible phases of a QFT model. Successfull application of the ORM to ϕ4 and ϕ6 theories in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions motivates its study in more complicated models such as non-linear σ-model. In our talk we introduce ORM, establish its connections with variational approach in QFT. We then present results of ORM in non-linear σ-model and try to interprete them from the variational point of view. Finally, we point out possible directions for further research in this area.

  13. Using the group of non-linear cells design metamaterial bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwei; Song, Xin; Hu, Xiaolei; Gu, Jinliang

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents the wave propagation in one-dimensional metamaterial bar with attached group of non-linear local oscillators by using analytical and numerical models. The focus is on the influence of group of non-linear cells on the filtering properties of the bar in the 1000Hz to 2000Hz range. Group of Periodic cells with alternating properties exhibit interesting dynamic characteristics that enable them to act as filters. Waves can propagate along bars within specific bands of frequencies called pass bands, and attenuate within bands of frequencies called gaps. Gaps in structures with group of periodic cells are located according on the frequency of cells. From the cell, we can yield the effect negative stiffness and effect negative mass. We can also design the gaps from attached oscillators or cells. In the uniform case the gap is located around the resonant frequency of the oscillators, and thus a stop band can be created in the lower frequency range. In the case with group of non-linear cells the results show that the position of the gap can be designed, and the design depends on the amplitude and the degree of non-linear cells.

  14. Modelling female fertility traits in beef cattle using linear and non-linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naya, H; Peñagaricano, F; Urioste, J I

    2017-06-01

    Female fertility traits are key components of the profitability of beef cattle production. However, these traits are difficult and expensive to measure, particularly under extensive pastoral conditions, and consequently, fertility records are in general scarce and somehow incomplete. Moreover, fertility traits are usually dominated by the effects of herd-year environment, and it is generally assumed that relatively small margins are kept for genetic improvement. New ways of modelling genetic variation in these traits are needed. Inspired in the methodological developments made by Prof. Daniel Gianola and co-workers, we assayed linear (Gaussian), Poisson, probit (threshold), censored Poisson and censored Gaussian models to three different kinds of endpoints, namely calving success (CS), number of days from first calving (CD) and number of failed oestrus (FE). For models involving FE and CS, non-linear models overperformed their linear counterparts. For models derived from CD, linear versions displayed better adjustment than the non-linear counterparts. Non-linear models showed consistently higher estimates of heritability and repeatability in all cases (h(2 )  0.23 and r > 0.24, for non-linear models). While additive and permanent environment effects showed highly favourable correlations between all models (>0.789), consistency in selecting the 10% best sires showed important differences, mainly amongst the considered endpoints (FE, CS and CD). In consequence, endpoints should be considered as modelling different underlying genetic effects, with linear models more appropriate to describe CD and non-linear models better for FE and CS. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Towards a non-linear theory for induced seismicity in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salusti, Ettore; Droghei, Riccardo

    2014-05-01

    We here analyze the pore transmission of fluid pressure pand solute density ρ in porous rocks, within the framework of the Biot theory of poroelasticity extended to include physico-chemical interactions. In more details we here analyze the effect of a strong external stress on the non-linear evolution of p and ρ in a porous rock. We here focus on the consequent deformation of the rock pores, relative to a non-linear Hooke equation among strain, linear/quadratic pressure and osmosis in 1-D. We in particular analyze cases with a large pressure, but minor than the 'rupture point'. All this gives relations similar to those discussed by Shapiro et al. (2013), which assume a pressure dependent permeability. Thus we analyze the external stress necessary to originate quick non-linear transients of combined fluid pressure and solute density in a porous matrix, which perturb in a mild (i.e. a linear diffusive phenomenon) or a more dramatic non-linear way (Burgers solitons) the rock structure. All this gives a novel, more realistic insight about the rock evolution, fracturing and micro-earthquakes under a large external stress.

  16. Performance analysis of damaged buildings applying scenario of related non-linear analyses and damage coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćosić Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with methodology developed and presented for analyzing the damage on structures exposed to accidental and seismic actions. The procedure is based on non-linear numerical analysis, taking into account the principles of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD. The stiffness matrix of the effects of vertical action is used as the initial stiffness matrix in non-linear analysis which simulates the collapse of individual ground-floor columns, forming thereby a number of possible scenarios. By the end of the analysis that simulates the collapse of individual columns, the stiffness matrix is used as the initial stiffness matrix for Non-linear Static Pushover Analysis (NSPA of bi-directional seismic action (X and Y directions. Target displacement analyses were conducted using the Capacity Spectrum Method (CSM. The structure's conditions/state was assessed based on the calculated global and inter-storey drifts and the damage coefficient developed. The damage level to the building was established using an integrated approach based on global and inter-storey drifts, so that, depending on the level of displacements for which the drifts are identified, a more reliable answer can be obtained. Applying the damage coefficient, a prompt, reliable and accurate indication can be obtained on the damage level to the entire structure in the capacitive domain, from elastic and non-linear to collapse state.

  17. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part i: Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    1999-08-01

    The study presented is an investigation of the non-linear dynamics and stability of simply supported, circular cylindrical shells containing inviscid incompressible fluid flow. Non-linearities due to large-amplitude shell motion are considered by using the non-linear Donnell's shallow shell theory, with account taken of the effect of viscous structural damping. Linear potential flow theory is applied to describe the fluid-structure interaction. The system is discretiszd by Galerkin's method, and is investigated by using a model involving seven degrees of freedom, allowing for travelling wave response of the shell and shell axisymmetric contraction. Two different boundary conditions are applied to the fluid flow beyond the shell, corresponding to: (i) infinite baffles (rigid extensions of the shell), and (ii) connection with a flexible wall of infinite extent in the longitudinal direction, permitting solution by separation of variables; they give two different kinds of dynamical behaviour of the system, as a consequence of the fact that axisymmetric contraction, responsible for the softening non-linear dynamical behaviour of shells, is not allowed if the fluid flow beyond the shell is constrained by rigid baffles. Results show that the system loses stability by divergence.

  18. Validity of purchasing power parity for selected Latin American countries: Linear and non-linear unit root tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Fóffano Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine empirically the validity of PPP in the context of unit root tests based on linear and non-linear models of the real effective exchange rate of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. For this purpose, we apply the Harvey et al. (2008 linearity test and the non-linear unit root test (Kruse, 2011. The results show that the series with linear characteristics are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Peru and those with non-linear characteristics are Mexico and Venezuela. The linear unit root tests indicate that the real effective exchange rate is stationary for Chile and Peru, and the non-linear unit root tests evidence that Mexico is stationary. In the period analyzed, the results show support for the validity of PPP in only three of the seven countries.

  19. A new method of binary addition scheme with massive use of non-linear material based system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuladeep Roy Chowdhury; Sourangshu Mukhopadhyay

    2003-01-01

    The limitations in electronics in arithmetic, algebraic & logic processing are well known. Very high speedperformance (above GHz) are not expected at all in conventional electronic mechanism. To achieve highspeed performance we may think on the introduction of optics instead of electronics for information pro-cessing and computing. Non-linear optical material is a successful candidate in this regard to play a majorrole in the optically controlled switching systems and therefore in all-optical parallel computation thesematerials can show a very good potential aspect. In this paper, we have proposed a new method of anoptical half adder as well as full adder circuit for binary addition using non-linear and linear optical ma-terials.

  20. Assessment of the non-linear behaviour of plastic ankle foot orthoses by the finite element method

    OpenAIRE

    Syngellakis, S.; Arnold, M. A.; Rassoulian, H.

    2000-01-01

    The stiffness characteristics of plastic ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are studied through finite element modelling and stress analysis. Particular attention is given to the modelling and prediction of non-linear AFO behaviour, which has been frequently observed in previous experimental studies but not fully addressed analytically. Both large deformation effects and material non-linearity are included in the formulation and their individual influence on results assessed. The finite element progr...

  1. Non-linear Elasticity and Monitoring of Stress in the Focus of an Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakulin, V.; Bakulin, A.

    2001-05-01

    Non-linear elasticity proved to give comprehensive framework for relating seismic velocities in rocks to stress. This powerful theory allows attacking the problem of estimating stress state at the focus of earthquakes. Such idea has been proposed long time ago [Kostrov and Nikitin, 1968] however its implementation requires a-priori knowledge of non-linear rock properties. Three non-linear constants needed to describe variation of any velocity with stress are typically estimated from core measurements [Bakulin et al., 2000]. More reliable estimates can be obtained from multi-mode inversions of borehole acoustic data [Sinha, 1996]. Nevertheless database of non-linear formation constants is still very limited. More measurements are required to estimate non-linear rock properties on larger scale and with independent stress constraints. Such measurements can be done in mines [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999] or in hydrocarbon reservoirs where time-dependent pressure measurements are available. Without knowledge of non-linear rock properties seismic waves can still bring information about directions of tectonic stresses. In particular, shear wave polarizations can deliver directions of principal stresses in the focus of an earthquake, provided the overburden effects were removed. If rock non-linear properties are independently derived then estimation of stress magnitudes becomes feasible. Such techniques were applied in mining environment [Bakulin and Bakulin, 1999]. They may become routine for monitoring stress state in the focus of earthquakes and therefore can be used for forecasting the seismic activity. Bakulin, A. V., Troyan, V. N., and Bakulin, V. N., 2000, Acoustoelasticity of rocks, St. Petersburg (in Russian). Bakulin, V. and Bakulin, A., 1999, Acoustopolarizational method of measuring stress in rock mass and determination of Murnaghan constants: 69th Annual Internat. Mtg., Soc. Expl. Geophys., 1971-1974. Kostrov, B.V., and Nikitin, L.V., 1968, Influence of initial

  2. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Aert, S; Chen, J H; Van Dyck, D

    2010-10-01

    different effects on the transfer of the linear and non-linear terms, such that the non-linear imaging contributions are damped less than the linear imaging contributions at high spatial frequencies. This will be important when coherent aberrations such as spherical aberration and defocus are reduced.

  3. Non-linear irreversible thermodynamics of single-molecule experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Santamaria-Holek, I; Hidalgo-Soria, M; Perez-Madrid, A

    2015-01-01

    Irreversible thermodynamics of single-molecule experiments subject to external constraining forces of a mechanical nature is presented. Extending Onsager's formalism to the non-linear case of systems under non-equilibrium external constraints, we are able to calculate the entropy production and the general non-linear kinetic equations for the variables involved. In particular, we analyze the case of RNA stretching protocols obtaining critical oscillations between di?erent con?gurational states when forced by external means to remain in the unstable region of its free-energy landscape, as observed in experiments. We also calculate the entropy produced during these hopping events, and show how resonant phenomena in stretching experiments of single RNA macromolecules may arise. We also calculate the hopping rates using Kramer's approach obtaining a good comparison with experiments.

  4. SSNN toolbox for non-linear system identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzar, Marcel; Czajkowski, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop and design a State Space Neural Network toolbox for a non-linear system identification with an artificial state-space neural networks, which can be used in a model-based robust fault diagnosis and control. Such toolbox is implemented in the MATLAB environment and it uses some of its predefined functions. It is designed in the way that any non-linear multi-input multi-output system is identified and represented in the classical state-space form. The novelty of the proposed approach is that the final result of the identification process is the state, input and output matrices, not only the neural network parameters. Moreover, the toolbox is equipped with the graphical user interface, which makes it useful for the users not familiar with the neural networks theory.

  5. A non-linear model of economic production processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzi, A.; Yasutomi, A.; Kaneko, K.

    2003-06-01

    We present a new two phase model of economic production processes which is a non-linear dynamical version of von Neumann's neoclassical model of production, including a market price-setting phase as well as a production phase. The rate of an economic production process is observed, for the first time, to depend on the minimum of its input supplies. This creates highly non-linear supply and demand dynamics. By numerical simulation, production networks are shown to become unstable when the ratio of different products to total processes increases. This provides some insight into observed stability of competitive capitalist economies in comparison to monopolistic economies. Capitalist economies are also shown to have low unemployment.

  6. Integration of non-linear cellular mechanisms regulating microvascular perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, T M; Edwards, D H

    1999-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly evident that interactions between the different cell types present in the vessel wall and the physical forces that result from blood flow are highly complex. This short article will review evidence that irregular fluctuations in vascular resistance are generated by non-linearity in the control mechanisms intrinsic to the smooth muscle cell and can be classified as chaotic. Non-linear systems theory has provided insights into the mechanisms involved at the cellular level by allowing the identification of dominant control variables and the construction of one-dimensional iterative maps to model vascular dynamics. Experiments with novel peptide inhibitors of gap junctions have shown that the coordination of aggregate responses depends on direct intercellular communication. The sensitivity of chaotic trajectories to perturbation may nevertheless generate a high degree of variability in the response to pharmacological interventions and altered perfusion conditions.

  7. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.;

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure load...... and results are compared to test data. A novel test arrangement utilizing a water filled cushion to create the uniform pressure load on curved panel specimen is used to obtain the experimental data. The panel is modeled with three different commercial finite element codes. Two implicit and one explicit code...... are used with various element types, modeling approaches and material models. The results show that the theoretical and experimental methods generally show fair agreement in panel non-linear behavior before collapse. It is also shown that special attention to detail has to be taken, because the predicted...

  8. Non-Linear Aeroelastic Stability of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zili; Sichani, Mahdi Teimouri; Li, Jie;

    2013-01-01

    As wind turbines increase in magnitude without a proportional increase in stiffness, the risk of dynamic instability is believed to increase. Wind turbines are time dependent systems due to the coupling between degrees of freedom defined in the fixed and moving frames of reference, which may...... trigger off internal resonances. Further, the rotational speed of the rotor is not constant due to the stochastic turbulence, which may also influence the stability. In this paper, a robust measure of the dynamic stability of wind turbines is suggested, which takes the collective blade pitch control...... and non-linear aero-elasticity into consideration. The stability of the wind turbine is determined by the maximum Lyapunov exponent of the system, which is operated directly on the non-linear state vector differential equations. Numerical examples show that this approach is promising for stability...

  9. Defects in the discrete non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doikou, Anastasia, E-mail: adoikou@upatras.gr [University of Patras, Department of Engineering Sciences, Physics Division, GR-26500 Patras (Greece)

    2012-01-01

    The discrete non-linear Schroedinger (NLS) model in the presence of an integrable defect is examined. The problem is viewed from a purely algebraic point of view, starting from the fundamental algebraic relations that rule the model. The first charges in involution are explicitly constructed, as well as the corresponding Lax pairs. These lead to sets of difference equations, which include particular terms corresponding to the impurity point. A first glimpse regarding the corresponding continuum limit is also provided.

  10. Neural Generalized Predictive Control of a non-linear Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The use of neural network in non-linear control is made difficult by the fact the stability and robustness is not guaranteed and that the implementation in real time is non-trivial. In this paper we introduce a predictive controller based on a neural network model which has promising stability...... detail and discuss the implementation difficulties. The neural generalized predictive controller is tested on a pneumatic servo sys-tem....

  11. The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Paris (France)

    2015-12-15

    We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R - λ){sup 2} = 0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories. (orig.)

  12. The coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios, E-mail: antoniad@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France); Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlestrasse 5, 3012, Bern (Switzerland); Markou, Chrysoula, E-mail: chrysoula@lpthe.jussieu.fr [LPTHE, UMR CNRS 7589, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 75005, Paris (France)

    2015-12-09

    We study the coupling of non-linear supersymmetry to supergravity. The goldstino nilpotent superfield of global supersymmetry coupled to supergravity is described by a geometric action of the chiral curvature superfield R subject to the constraint (R-λ){sup 2}=0 with an appropriate constant λ. This constraint can be found as the decoupling limit of the scalar partner of the goldstino in a class of f(R) supergravity theories.

  13. Non-linear high-frequency waves in the magnetosphere

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Moolla; R Bharuthram; S V Singh; G S Lakhina

    2003-12-01

    Using fluid theory, a set of equations is derived for non-linear high-frequency waves propagating oblique to an external magnetic field in a three-component plasma consisting of hot electrons, cold electrons and cold ions. For parameters typical of the Earth’s magnetosphere, numerical solutions of the governing equations yield sinusoidal, sawtooth or bipolar wave-forms for the electric field.

  14. Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu,L.; Nash, B.

    2009-05-04

    We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.

  15. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found for no...... for nonlinear problems. Comparison of VIM and PPM with Runge-Kutta 4th leads to highly accurate solutions....

  16. Control of Non-linear Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of designing control laws for a marine cooling system used for cooling the main engine and auxiliary components aboard several classes of container vessels. We focus on achieving simple set point control for the system and do not consider compensation of the non......-linearities, closed circuit flow dynamics or transport delays that are present in the system. Control laws are therefore designed using classical control theory and the performance of the design is illustrated through two simulation examples....

  17. Likelihood inference for discretely observed non-linear diffusions

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the Bayesian estimation of non-linear stochastic differential equations when observations are discretely sampled. The estimation framework relies on the introduction of latent auxiliary data to complete the missing diffusion between each pair of measurements. Tuned Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods based on the Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, in conjunction with the Euler-Maruyama discretization scheme, are used to sample the posterior distribution of the lat...

  18. Non-linear dark matter collapse under diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Velten, Hermano E S

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion is one of the physical processes allowed for describing the large scale dark matter dynamics. At the same time, it can be seen as a possible mechanism behind the interacting cosmologies. We study the non-linear spherical "top-hat" collapse of dark matter which undergoes velocity diffusion into a solvent dark energy field. We show constraints on the maximum magnitude allowed for the dark matter diffusion. Our results reinforce previous analysis concerning the linear perturbation theory.

  19. On the non-linear stability of scalar field cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alho, Artur; Mena, Filipe C [Centro de Matematica, Universidade do Minho, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Kroon, Juan A Valiente, E-mail: aalho@math.uminho.pt, E-mail: fmena@math.uminho.pt, E-mail: jav@maths.qmul.ac.uk [School of Mathematical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-22

    We review recent work on the stability of flat spatially homogeneous and isotropic backgrounds with a self-interacting scalar field. We derive a first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic system for the Einstein-nonlinear-scalar field system. Then, using the linearized system, we show how to obtain necessary and sufficient conditions which ensure the exponential decay to zero of small non-linear perturbations.

  20. Experimental verification of the linear and non-linear versions of a panel code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoropoulos, G. J.; Katsikis, C.; Chalkias, D. S.

    2011-03-01

    In the proposed paper numerical calculations are carried out using two versions of a three-dimensional, timedomain panel method developed by the group of Prof. P. Sclavounos at MIT, i.e. the linear code SWAN2, enabling optionally the use of the instantaneous non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces and the fully non-linear SWAN4. The analytical results are compared with experimental results for three hull forms with increasing geometrical complexity, the Series 60, a reefer vessel with stern bulb and a modern fast ROPAX hull form with hollow bottom in the stern region. The details of the geometrical modeling of the hull forms are discussed. In addition, since SWAN4 does not support transom sterns, only the two versions of SWAN2 were evaluated over experimental results for the parent hull form of the NTUA double-chine, wide-transom, high-speed monohull series. The effect of speed on the numerical predictions was investigated. It is concluded that both versions of SWAN2 the linear and the one with the non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces provide a more robust tool for prediction of the dynamic response of the vessels than the non-linear SWAN4 code. In general, their results are close to what was expected on the basis of experience. Furthermore, the use of the option of non-linear Froude-Krylov and hydrostatic forces is beneficial for the accuracy of the predictions. The content of the paper is based on the Diploma thesis of the second author, supervised by the first one and further refined by the third one.

  1. Non-linear HRV indices under autonomic nervous system blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Juan; Pueyo, Esther; Laguna, Pablo; Bailón, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has been studied as a non-invasive technique to characterize the autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation of the heart. Non-linear methods based on chaos theory have been used during the last decades as markers for risk stratification. However, interpretation of these nonlinear methods in terms of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is not fully established. In this work we study linear and non-linear HRV indices during ANS blockades in order to assess their relation with sympathetic and parasympathetic activities. Power spectral content in low frequency (0.04-0.15 Hz) and high frequency (0.15-0.4 Hz) bands of HRV, as well as correlation dimension, sample and approximate entropies were computed in a database of subjects during single and dual ANS blockade with atropine and/or propranolol. Parasympathetic blockade caused a significant decrease in the low and high frequency power of HRV, as well as in correlation dimension and sample and approximate entropies. Sympathetic blockade caused a significant increase in approximate entropy. Sympathetic activation due to postural change from supine to standing caused a significant decrease in all the investigated non-linear indices and a significant increase in the normalized power in the low frequency band. The other investigated linear indices did not show significant changes. Results suggest that parasympathetic activity has a direct relation with sample and approximate entropies.

  2. Non-linear Q-clouds around Kerr black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Herdeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Q-balls are regular extended ‘objects’ that exist for some non-gravitating, self-interacting, scalar field theories with a global, continuous, internal symmetry, on Minkowski spacetime. Here, analogous objects are also shown to exist around rotating (Kerr black holes, as non-linear bound states of a test scalar field. We dub such configurations Q-clouds. We focus on a complex massive scalar field with quartic plus hexic self-interactions. Without the self-interactions, linear clouds have been shown to exist, in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon, along 1-dimensional subspaces – existence lines – of the Kerr 2-dimensional parameter space. They are zero modes of the superradiant instability. Non-linear Q-clouds, on the other hand, are also in synchronous rotation with the black hole horizon; but they exist on a 2-dimensional subspace, delimited by a minimal horizon angular velocity and by an appropriate existence line, wherein the non-linear terms become irrelevant and the Q-cloud reduces to a linear cloud. Thus, Q-clouds provide an example of scalar bound states around Kerr black holes which, generically, are not zero modes of the superradiant instability. We describe some physical properties of Q-clouds, whose backreaction leads to a new family of hairy black holes, continuously connected to the Kerr family.

  3. Generalized Ghost Dark Energy with Non-Linear Interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, E; Mehrabi, A; Movahed, S M S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate ghost dark energy model in the presence of non-linear interaction between dark energy and dark matter. The functional form of dark energy density in the generalized ghost dark energy (GGDE) model is $\\rho_D\\equiv f(H, H^2)$ with coefficient of $H^2$ represented by $\\zeta$ and the model contains three free parameters as $\\Omega_D, \\zeta$ and $b^2$ (the coupling coefficient of interactions). We propose three kinds of non-linear interaction terms and discuss the behavior of equation of state, deceleration and dark energy density parameters of the model. We also find the squared sound speed and search for signs of stability of the model. To compare the interacting GGDE model with observational data sets, we use more recent observational outcomes, namely SNIa, gamma-ray bursts, baryonic acoustic oscillation and the most relevant CMB parameters including, the position of acoustic peaks, shift parameters and redshift to recombination. For GGDE with the first non-linear interaction, the j...

  4. Testing non-linear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Schellstede, Gerold O; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the theoretical foundations for testing non-linear vacuum electrodynamics with Michelson interferometry. Apart from some non-degeneracy conditions to be imposed, our discussion applies to all non-linear electrodynamical theories of the Pleba\\'nski class, i.e., to all Lagrangians that depend only on the two Lorentz-invariant scalars quadratic in the field strength. The main idea of the experiment proposed here is to use the fact that, according to non-linear electrodynamics, the phase velocity of light should depend on the strength and on the direction of an electromagnetic background field. There are two possible experimental set-ups for testing this prediction with Michelson interferometry. The first possibility is to apply a strong electromagnetic field to the beam in one arm of the interferometer and to compare the situation where the field is switched on with the situation where it is switched off. The second possibility is to place the whole interferometer in a strong electromagnetic field and...

  5. Bifurcation and Resonance of a Mathematical Model for Non-Linear Motion of a Flooded Ship in Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, S.; Aihara, K.; Komuro, M.

    1999-02-01

    A flooded ship can exhibit undesirable non-linear roll motion even in waves of moderate amplitude. In order to understand the mechanism of this non-linear phenomenon, the non-linearly coupled dynamics of a ship and flood water are considered using a mathematical model for the simplified motion of a flooded ship in regular beam waves. This paper describes bifurcation and resonance of this coupled system. A bifurcation diagram shows that large-amplitude subharmonic motion exists in a wide range of parameters, and that the Hopf bifurcation is observed due to the dynamic effects of flood water. Resonance frequencies can be determined by linearization of this model. Comparison between the resonant points and the bifurcation curves suggests that non-linear resonance of this model can bring about large-amplitude subharmonic motion, even if it is in the non-resonate state of the linearized system.

  6. Onset and non-linear regimes of Soret-induced convection in binary mixtures heated from above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubimova, T; Zubova, N; Shevtsova, V

    2017-03-01

    The paper deals with the investigation of the onset and non-linear regimes of convection of liquid binary mixtures with negative Soret effect heated from above. The linear stability of a convectionless state in a horizontal layer is studied by the numerical solution of the linearized problem on the temporal evolution of small perturbations of the unsteady base state. Non-linear regimes of convection are investigated by the numerical solution of the non-linear unsteady equations for a horizontally elongated rectangular cavity. The calculations are performed for water-ethanol and water-isopropanol liquid mixtures and for colloidal suspensions. The dependences of the instability onset time and wave number of the most dangerous perturbations on the solutal Rayleigh number (gravity level) obtained by a linear stability analysis and non-linear calculations are found to be in a very good agreement. A favorable comparison with the existing experimental and numerical data is presented.

  7. Long-term cavity closure in non-linear rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jan; Dabrowski, Marcin; Schmid, Daniel Walter

    2017-08-01

    The time dependent closure of pressurized cavities in viscous rocks due to far-field loads is a problem encountered in many applications like drilling, cavity abandonment and porosity closure. The non-linear nature of the flow of rocks prevents the use of simple solutions for hole closure and calls for the development of appropriate expressions reproducing all the dependencies observed in nature. An approximate solution is presented for the closure velocity of a pressurized cylindrical cavity in a non-linear viscous medium subjected to a combined pressure and shear stress load in the far field. The embedding medium is treated as homogeneous, isotropic, and incompressible and follows a Carreau viscosity model. We derive analytical solutions for the end-member cases of the pressure and shear loads. The exact analytical solution for pressure loads shows that the closure velocity vR is given by the implicit expression {Δ p}/{2{μ _0D_{II}^*}} = - 1/2B( {{v_R^2}/{RD_{II^* + v_R^2}};1/2, - 1/{2n}} ), where Δp is the pressure load, R is the hole radius, B is the incomplete beta function, and μ0, D_{II}^*, n are, respectively, the threshold viscosity, transition rate and stress exponent of the Carreau model. The closure velocity is dominated by the linear mechanism under pressure loads smaller than 1.8{μ _0}D_{II}^* and by the non-linear one under large pressure loads. In the non-linear regime, pressure variations support an increasing part of the load with increasing degree of non-linearity. The decay of the stress perturbation in the non-linear zone varies as r- 2/n where r is the radial distance to the hole. A solution for the maximum closure velocity at the cavity rim vRmax under far-field shear is given: v_{R\\max} = ( 1 + {\\overline {M_s}} ^{-1/2})R\\overline D_{II}, where \\overline {M_s} = (1 + {\\overline {D_{II}} }^2 \\big/ {nD{_{II}^*}^2}) \\big/ ( 1 + {\\overline {D_{II}}^2} \\big/ D{_{II}^*}^2) and \\overline {D_{II}} is the second invariant of the far

  8. The non-linear evolution of edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenninger, Ronald

    2013-01-09

    Edge localized modes (ELMs) are instabilities in the edge of tokamak plasmas in the high confinement regime (H-mode). Without them the edge transport in ordinary H-mode plasmas is too low to establish a stationary situation. However in a future device large unmitigated ELMs are believed to cause divertor power flux densities far in excess of tolerable material limits. Hence the size of energy loss per ELM and the resulting ELM frequency must be controlled. To proceed in understanding how the ELM size is determined and how ELM mitigation methods work it is necessary to characterize the non-linear evolution of pedestal erosion. In order to achieve this experimental data is compared to the results of ELM simulations with the code JOREK (reduced MHD, non-linear) applying a specially developed synthetic magnetic diagnostic. The experimental data are acquired by several fast sampling diagnostics at the experiments ASDEX Upgrade and TCV at a large number of toroidal/poloidal positions. A central element of the presented work is the detailed characterization of dominant magnetic perturbations during ELMs. These footprints of the instability can be observed most intensely in close temporal vicinity to the onset of pedestal erosion. Dominant magnetic perturbations are caused by current perturbations located at or inside the last closed flux surface. In ASDEX Upgrade under certain conditions dominant magnetic perturbations like other H-mode edge instabilities display a similarity to solitons. Furthermore - as expected - they are often observed to be correlated to a perturbation of electron temperature. In TCV it is possible to characterize the evolution of the toroidal structure of dominant magnetic perturbations. Between growing above the level of background fluctuations and the maximum perturbation level for all time instance a similar toroidal structure is observed. This rigid mode-structure is an indication for non-linear coupling. Most frequently the dominant toroidal

  9. Modeling the Non-Linear Behavior of Library Cells for an Accurate Static Noise Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Forzan, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    In signal integrity analysis, the joint effect of propagated noise through library cells, and of the noise injected on a quiet net by neighboring switching nets through coupling capacitances, must be considered in order to accurately estimate the overall noise impact on design functionality and performances. In this work the impact of the cell non-linearity on the noise glitch waveform is analyzed in detail, and a new macromodel that allows to accurately and efficiently modeling the non-linear effects of the victim driver in noise analysis is presented. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, and confirm that existing noise analysis approaches based on linear superposition of the propagated and crosstalk-injected noise can be highly inaccurate, thus impairing the sign-off functional verification phase.

  10. Estimation of non-linear growth models by linearization: a simulation study using a Gompertz function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Kaarina; Strandén, Ismo; Sevón-Aimonen, Marja-Liisa; Mäntysaari, Esa A

    2006-01-01

    A method based on Taylor series expansion for estimation of location parameters and variance components of non-linear mixed effects models was considered. An attractive property of the method is the opportunity for an easily implemented algorithm. Estimation of non-linear mixed effects models can be done by common methods for linear mixed effects models, and thus existing programs can be used after small modifications. The applicability of this algorithm in animal breeding was studied with simulation using a Gompertz function growth model in pigs. Two growth data sets were analyzed: a full set containing observations from the entire growing period, and a truncated time trajectory set containing animals slaughtered prematurely, which is common in pig breeding. The results from the 50 simulation replicates with full data set indicate that the linearization approach was capable of estimating the original parameters satisfactorily. However, estimation of the parameters related to adult weight becomes unstable in the case of a truncated data set.

  11. A three operator split-step method covering a larger set of non-linear partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2017-06-01

    This paper describes an updated exponential Fourier based split-step method that can be applied to a greater class of partial differential equations than previous methods would allow. These equations arise in physics and engineering, a notable example being the generalized derivative non-linear Schrödinger equation that arises in non-linear optics with self-steepening terms. These differential equations feature terms that were previously inaccessible to model accurately with low computational resources. The new method maintains a 3rd order error even with these additional terms and models the equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The class of non-linear differential equations that this method applies to is shown. The method is fully derived and implementation of the method in the split-step architecture is shown. This paper lays the mathematical ground work for an upcoming paper employing this method in white-light generation simulations in bulk material.

  12. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J; Zibar, Darko; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-12

    An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also reported. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Non-linear dual-phase-lag model for analyzing heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Kumar, Dinesh; Rai, K N

    2016-08-01

    In this article, a non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bio-heat transfer model based on temperature dependent metabolic heat generation rate is derived to analyze the heat transfer phenomena in living tissues during thermal ablation treatment. The numerical solution of the present non-linear problem has been done by finite element Runge-Kutta (4,5) method which combines the essence of Runge-Kutta (4,5) method together with finite difference scheme. Our study demonstrates that at the thermal ablation position temperature predicted by non-linear and linear DPL models show significant differences. A comparison has been made among non-linear DPL, thermal wave and Pennes model and it has been found that non-linear DPL and thermal wave bio-heat model show almost same nature whereas non-linear Pennes model shows significantly different temperature profile at the initial stage of thermal ablation treatment. The effect of Fourier number and Vernotte number (relaxation Fourier number) on temperature profile in presence and absence of externally applied heat source has been studied in detail and it has been observed that the presence of externally applied heat source term highly affects the efficiency of thermal treatment method.

  14. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F

    2011-01-01

    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  15. A Detailed Analytical Study of Non-Linear Semiconductor Device Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kumar

    1995-01-01

    junction diode have been developed. The results of computer simulated examples have been presented in each case. The non-linear lumped model for Gunn is a unified model as it describes the diffusion effects as the-domain traves from cathode to anode. An additional feature of this model is that it describes the domain extinction and nucleation phenomena in Gunn dioder with the help of a simple timing circuit. The non-linear lumped model for SCR is general and is valid under any mode of operation in any circuit environment. The memristive circuit model for p-n junction diodes is capable of simulating realistically the diode’s dynamic behavior under reverse, forward and sinusiodal operating modes. The model uses memristor, the charge-controlled resistor to mimic various second-order effects due to conductivity modulation. It is found that both storage time and fall time of the diode can be accurately predicted.

  16. Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Belgroune, Mahdia; Henry Rowland, James; Jones, James; Martin, Ian; Singh, Beni

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.

  17. Model predictive control of non-linear systems over networks with data quantization and packet loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jimin; Nan, Liangsheng; Tang, Xiaoming; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the approach of model predictive control (MPC) for the non-linear systems under networked environment where both data quantization and packet loss may occur. The non-linear controlled plant in the networked control system (NCS) is represented by a Tagaki-Sugeno (T-S) model. The sensed data and control signal are quantized in both links and described as sector bound uncertainties by applying sector bound approach. Then, the quantized data are transmitted in the communication networks and may suffer from the effect of packet losses, which are modeled as Bernoulli process. A fuzzy predictive controller which guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system is obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Simulation of non-linear rf losses derived from characteristic Nb topography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reece, Charles E. [JLAB; Xu, Chen; Kelley, Michael [W& M. JLAB

    2013-09-01

    A simplified model has been developed to simulate non-linear RF losses on Nb surfaces exclusively due to topographical enhancement of surface magnetic fields. If local sharp edges are small enough, at locations where local surface fields exceed Hc, small volumes of material may become normal conducting without thermal leading to quench. These small volumes of normal material yield increases in the effective surface resistance of the Nb. Using topographic data from typical BCP?d and EP?d fine grain niobium surfaces, we have simulated field-dependent losses and found that when extrapolated to resulting cavity performance, these losses correspond well to characteristic BCP/EP high field Q0 performance differences for fine grain Nb. We describe the structure of the model, its limitations, and the effects of this type of non-linear loss contribution on SRF cavities.

  19. Ion temperature profile stiffness: non-linear gyrokinetic simulations and comparison with experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Citrin, J; Haverkort, J W; Hogeweij, G M D; Jenko, F; Mantica, P; Pueschel, M J; Told, D; contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-01-01

    Recent experimental observations at JET show evidence of reduced ion temperature profile stiffness at low magnetic shear (s) in the presence of flow shear. Non-linear gyrokinetic simulations are performed, aiming to investigate the physical mechanism behind the observations. The sensitivity of profile stiffness to the variations of plasma parameters experimentally observed when transitioning to the low-stiffness regime is assessed. It is found that non-linear electromagnetic effects, even at low beta_e, can significantly reduce the profile stiffness, although not by a degree sufficient to explain the experimental observations. The effect of toroidal flow shear itself is not predicted by the simulations to lead to a significant reduction in flux due to significant parallel gradient velocity destabilisation. For the majority of discharges studied, the simulated and experimental ion heat flux values do agree within reasonable variations of input parameters around the experimental uncertainties. However, no such ...

  20. Dynamics of glass-forming liquids. XIX. Rise and decay of field induced anisotropy in the non-linear regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Gonzales, Amanda R; Samanta, Subarna; Richert, Ranko

    2015-09-14

    For glycerol and three monohydroxy alcohols, we have measured the non-linear dielectric effects resulting from the application and removal of a high dc bias electric field. The field effects are detected by virtue of a small amplitude harmonic field, from which time resolved changes in the dielectric loss are derived. The changes in permittivity are dominated by modifications of the time constants (rather than amplitudes) which display two contributions: a heating-like decrease of relaxation times that originates from the time dependent field when the bias is switched on and off and a slowing down of the dynamics resulting from the field induced reduction of configurational entropy. As observed for the electro-optical Kerr effect, the rise of the entropy change is slower than its decay, a feature that we rationalize on the basis of the quadratic dependence of the entropy change on polarization. For glycerol, the observed steady state level of the field induced shift of the glass transition temperature (+84 mK) matches the expectation based on the entropy change and its impact on dynamics via the Adam-Gibbs relation (+88 mK). For the alcohols, these non-linear effects rise and decay on the time scales of the prominent dielectric Debye process, underscoring the relation of these features to polarization anisotropy, opposed to mechanical or enthalpy relaxation which are orders of magnitude faster in these systems. A model is discussed which captures the observed magnitudes as well as time dependences in a near quantitative fashion. It is demonstrated that the high bias field modifies the response of polarization to the ac field, including a temporary change in the low field susceptibility.

  1. A Comparison of PDE-based Non-Linear Anisotropic Diffusion Techniques for Image Denoising

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeratunga, S K; Kamath, C

    2003-01-06

    PDE-based, non-linear diffusion techniques are an effective way to denoise images. In a previous study, we investigated the effects of different parameters in the implementation of isotropic, non-linear diffusion. Using synthetic and real images, we showed that for images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise, such methods are quite effective, leading to lower mean-squared-error values in comparison with spatial filters and wavelet-based approaches. In this paper, we extend this work to include anisotropic diffusion, where the diffusivity is a tensor valued function which can be adapted to local edge orientation. This allows smoothing along the edges, but not perpendicular to it. We consider several anisotropic diffusivity functions as well as approaches for discretizing the diffusion operator that minimize the mesh orientation effects. We investigate how these tensor-valued diffusivity functions compare in image quality, ease of use, and computational costs relative to simple spatial filters, the more complex bilateral filters, wavelet-based methods, and isotropic non-linear diffusion based techniques.

  2. Comparison of PDE-based non-linear anistropic diffusion techniques for image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeratunga, Sisira K.; Kamath, Chandrika

    2003-05-01

    PDE-based, non-linear diffusion techniques are an effective way to denoise images.In a previous study, we investigated the effects of different parameters in the implementation of isotropic, non-linear diffusion. Using synthetic and real images, we showed that for images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise, such methods are quite effective, leading to lower mean-squared-error values in comparison with spatial filters and wavelet-based approaches. In this paper, we extend this work to include anisotropic diffusion, where the diffusivity is a tensor valued function which can be adapted to local edge orientation. This allows smoothing along the edges, but not perpendicular to it. We consider several anisotropic diffusivity functions as well as approaches for discretizing the diffusion operator that minimize the mesh orientation effects. We investigate how these tensor-valued diffusivity functions compare in image quality, ease of use, and computational costs relative to simple spatial filters, the more complex bilateral filters, wavelet-based methods, and isotropic non-linear diffusion based techniques.

  3. Non-linear DSGE Models and The Optimized Particle Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper improves the accuracy and speed of particle filtering for non-linear DSGE models with potentially non-normal shocks. This is done by introducing a new proposal distribution which i) incorporates information from new observables and ii) has a small optimization step that minimizes...... the distance to the optimal proposal distribution. A particle filter with this proposal distribution is shown to deliver a high level of accuracy even with relatively few particles, and this filter is therefore much more efficient than the standard particle filter....

  4. Non-linear feedback neural networks VLSI implementations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ansari, Mohd Samar

    2014-01-01

    This book aims to present a viable alternative to the Hopfield Neural Network (HNN) model for analog computation. It is well known that the standard HNN suffers from problems of convergence to local minima, and requirement of a large number of neurons and synaptic weights. Therefore, improved solutions are needed. The non-linear synapse neural network (NoSyNN) is one such possibility and is discussed in detail in this book. This book also discusses the applications in computationally intensive tasks like graph coloring, ranking, and linear as well as quadratic programming. The material in the book is useful to students, researchers and academician working in the area of analog computation.

  5. Non-linear theory of elasticity and optimal design

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, LW

    2003-01-01

    In order to select an optimal structure among possible similar structures, one needs to compare the elastic behavior of the structures. A new criterion that describes elastic behavior is the rate of change of deformation. Using this criterion, the safe dimensions of a structure that are required by the stress distributed in a structure can be calculated. The new non-linear theory of elasticity allows one to determine the actual individual limit of elasticity/failure of a structure using a simple non-destructive method of measurement of deformation on the model of a structure while presently it

  6. Linear and non-linear perturbations in dark energy models

    CERN Document Server

    Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Fabris, Julio C; Alcaniz, Jailson S

    2016-01-01

    In this work we discuss observational aspects of three time-dependent parameterisations of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$. In order to determine the dynamics associated with these models, we calculate their background evolution and perturbations in a scalar field representation. After performing a complete treatment of linear perturbations, we also show that the non-linear contribution of the selected $w(z)$ parameterisations to the matter power spectra is almost the same for all scales, with no significant difference from the predictions of the standard $\\Lambda$CDM model.

  7. Hans Hinterreiter’s non-linear transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil

    poster illustrates four different cases of this process, starting always with a plane-group pattern and showing both the application of non-linear transformations and coloured symmetry. In his more complex patterns, two of which are shown on the poster, Hinterreiter created domains of affinely...... of plane-group patterns onto curvilinear nets of different kinds, mostly combined with a skilful application of principles of dichroic or polychromatic symmetry. Unlike Escher, Hinterreiter strove to achieve the aesthetic ideal of a pure abstract form [2] with its inherent symmetries. His unique, two...

  8. Studies for an alternative LHC non-linear collimation system

    CERN Document Server

    Lari, L; Boccone, V; Cerutti, F; Versaci, R; Vlachoudis, V; Mereghetti, A; Faus-Golfe, A; Resta-Lopez, J

    2012-01-01

    A LHC non-linear betatron cleaning collimation system would allow larger gap for the mechanical jaws, reducing as a consequence the collimator-induced impedance, which may limit the LHC beam intensity. In this paper, the performance of the proposed system is analyzed in terms of beam losses distribution around the LHC ring and cleaning efficiency in stable physics condition at 7TeV for Beam1. Moreover, the energy deposition distribution on the machine elements is compared to the present LHC Betatron cleaning collimation system in the Point 7 Insertion Region (IR).

  9. Non-linear Calibration Leads to Improved Correspondence between Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    2007-01-01

    an investigation of an uncomplicated expression of the non-linear working curve that is well suited to an assessment of predicted uncertainties. At small concentrations, the working curve reduces to a straight line that corresponds to the conventional calibration line. If no interferences were disturbing...... limit theorem, an excellent correspondence was obtained between predicted uncertainties and measured uncertainties. In order to validate the method, experiments were applied of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for the analysis of Co and Pt, and experiments of electrothermal atomic absorption...

  10. Non-Linear Dynamics of Saturn’s Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Larry W.

    2015-11-01

    Non-linear processes can explain why Saturn’s rings are so active and dynamic. Ring systems differ from simple linear systems in two significant ways: 1. They are systems of granular material: where particle-to-particle collisions dominate; thus a kinetic, not a fluid description needed. We find that stresses are strikingly inhomogeneous and fluctuations are large compared to equilibrium. 2. They are strongly forced by resonances: which drive a non-linear response, pushing the system across thresholds that lead to persistent states.Some of this non-linearity is captured in a simple Predator-Prey Model: Periodic forcing from the moon causes streamline crowding; This damps the relative velocity, and allows aggregates to grow. About a quarter phase later, the aggregates stir the system to higher relative velocity and the limit cycle repeats each orbit.Summary of Halo Results: A predator-prey model for ring dynamics produces transient structures like ‘straw’ that can explain the halo structure and spectroscopy: This requires energetic collisions (v ≈ 10m/sec, with throw distances about 200km, implying objects of scale R ≈ 20km).Transform to Duffing Eqn : With the coordinate transformation, z = M2/3, the Predator-Prey equations can be combined to form a single second-order differential equation with harmonic resonance forcing.Ring dynamics and history implications: Moon-triggered clumping at perturbed regions in Saturn’s rings creates both high velocity dispersion and large aggregates at these distances, explaining both small and large particles observed there. We calculate the stationary size distribution using a cell-to-cell mapping procedure that converts the phase-plane trajectories to a Markov chain. Approximating the Markov chain as an asymmetric random walk with reflecting boundaries allows us to determine the power law index from results of numerical simulations in the tidal environment surrounding Saturn. Aggregates can explain many dynamic aspects

  11. Non-linear dynamics in pulse combustor: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sirshendu Mondal; Achintya Kukhopadhyay; Swarnendu Sen

    2015-03-01

    The state of the art of non-linear dynamics applied to pulse combustor theoretically and experimentally is reviewed. Pulse combustors are a class of air-breathing engines in which pulsations in combustion are utilized to improve the performance. As no analytical solution can be obtained for most of the nonlinear systems, the whole set of solutions can be investigated with the help of dynamical system theory. Many studies have been carried out on pulse combustors whose dynamics include limit cycle behaviour, Hopf bifurcation and period-doubling bifurcation. The dynamic signature has also been used for early prediction of extinction.

  12. A non-linear UAV altitude PSO-PD control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Calogero

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a nonlinear model based approach is presented for the altitude stabilization of a hexarotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The mathematical model and control of the hexacopter airframe is presented. To stabilize the system along the vertical direction, a Proportional Derivative (PD) control is taken into account. A particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is used in this paper to select the optimal parameters of the control algorithm taking into account different objective functions. Simulation sets are performed to carry out the results for the non-linear system to show how the PSO tuned PD controller leads to zero the error of the position along Z earth direction.

  13. Simulation of non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, S.; Matsumoto, H.; Tachi, K.; Takano, S.; Irisawa, J. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    A ferrite sharpener is a non-linear coaxial line using ferrite beads, which produces high-voltage, high-dV/dt pulses. We have been examining the characteristics of ferrite sharpeners experimentally, varying various parameters. Also we have made the simulation of the ferrite sharpener and compared the predictions with the experimental results in detail to analyze the characteristics of the sharpener. In this report, calculating the magnetization M of the ferrite bead, we divide the bead into n sections radially instead of adopting M at the average radius in the previous report. (author)

  14. Non-linear Bayesian update of PCE coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2014-01-06

    Given: a physical system modeled by a PDE or ODE with uncertain coefficient q(?), a measurement operator Y (u(q), q), where u(q, ?) uncertain solution. Aim: to identify q(?). The mapping from parameters to observations is usually not invertible, hence this inverse identification problem is generally ill-posed. To identify q(!) we derived non-linear Bayesian update from the variational problem associated with conditional expectation. To reduce cost of the Bayesian update we offer a unctional approximation, e.g. polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). New: We apply Bayesian update to the PCE coefficients of the random coefficient q(?) (not to the probability density function of q).

  15. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    Class D amplifiers fits the automotive demands quite well. The traditional buck-based amplifier has reduced both the cost and size of amplifiers. However the buck topology is not without its limitations. The maximum peak AC output voltage produced by the power stage is only equal the supply voltage....... The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  16. Non linear analyses of speech and prosody in Asperger's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Bang, Dan; Weed, Ethan

    and explain this oddness of speech pattern. In this project, we quantify how the speech patterns of people with Asperger’s Syndrome (AS) differ from that of matched controls. To do so, we employed both traditional measures (pitch range and standard deviation, pause duration, and so on) and 2) non......-linear techniques measuring the structure (regularity and complexity) of verbal, prosodic and fluency behaviour. Our aims were (1) to achieve a more fine-grained understanding of the speech patterns in AS than has previously been achieved using traditional, linear measures of prosody and fluency, and (2) to employ...

  17. A New UKF Based Fault Detection Method in Non-linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Zhe-xue; YANG Yong-min; HU Zheng

    2006-01-01

    To detect the bias fault in stochastic non-linear dynamic systems, a new Unscented Kalman Filtering(UKF) based real-time recursion detection method is brought forward with the consideration of the flaws of traditional Extended Kalman Filtering(EKF). It uses the UKF as the residual generation method and the Weighted-Sum Squared Residual (WSSR) as the fault detection strategy. The simulation results are provided which demonstrate better effectiveness and a higher detection ratio of the developed methods.

  18. MD1831: Single Bunch Instabilities with Q" and Non-Linear Corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Carver, Lee Robert; De Maria, Riccardo; Li, Kevin Shing Bruce; Amorim, David; Biancacci, Nicolo; Buffat, Xavier; Maclean, Ewen Hamish; Metral, Elias; Lasocha, Kacper; Lefevre, Thibaut; Levens, Tom; Salvant, Benoit; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    During MD1751, it was observed that both a full single beam and 964 non-colliding bunches in Beam 1 (B1) and Beam 2 (B2) were both stable at the End of Squeeze (EOS) for 0A in the Landau Octupoles. At ß* = 40cm there is also a significant Q" arising from the lattice, as well as uncorrected non-linearities in the Insertion Regions (IRs). Each of these effects could be capable of fully stabilising the beam. This MD made first use of a Q" knob through variation of the Main Sextupoles (MS) by stabilising a single bunch at Flat Top, before showing at EOS that the non-linearities were the main contributors to the beam stability.

  19. Approximate solutions of non-linear circular orbit relative motion in curvilinear coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardelli, Claudio; Gonzalo, Juan Luis; Roa, Javier

    2016-07-01

    A compact, time-explicit, approximate solution of the highly non-linear relative motion in curvilinear coordinates is provided under the assumption of circular orbit for the chief spacecraft. The rather compact, three-dimensional solution is obtained by algebraic manipulation of the individual Keplerian motions in curvilinear, rather than Cartesian coordinates, and provides analytical expressions for the secular, constant and periodic terms of each coordinate as a function of the initial relative motion conditions or relative orbital elements. Numerical test cases are conducted to show that the approximate solution can be effectively employed to extend the classical linear Clohessy-Wiltshire solution to include non-linear relative motion without significant loss of accuracy up to a limit of 0.4-0.45 in eccentricity and 40-45° in relative inclination for the follower. A very simple, quadratic extension of the classical Clohessy-Wiltshire solution in curvilinear coordinates is also presented.

  20. Surface Tension of Acid Solutions: Fluctuations beyond the Non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Markovich, Tomer; Podgornik, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    We extend our previous study of surface tension of ionic solutions and apply it to the case of acids (and salts) with strong ion-surface interactions. These ion-surface interactions yield a non-linear boundary condition with an effective surface charge due to adsorption of ions from the bulk onto the interface. The calculation is done using the loop-expansion technique, where the zero-loop (mean field) corresponds of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The surface tension is obtained analytically to one-loop order, where the mean-field contribution is a modification of the Poisson-Boltzmann surface tension, and the one-loop contribution gives a generalization of the Onsager-Samaras result. Our theory fits well a wide range of different acids and salts, and is in accord with the reverse Hofmeister series for acids.