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Sample records for non-invasive examinations successfully

  1. Non-invasive examinations successfully select patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy for anterior temporal lobectomy

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    Morioka, Takato; Nishio, Shunji; Kawamura, Tadao; Fukui, Kimiko; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2001-06-01

    We retrospectively analyzed 8 patients with intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) who underwent the anterior temporal lobectomy with hippocampectomy (ATL) without invasive examinations such as chronic subdural electrode recording. Five patients had a history of febrile convulsion. While all 8 patients had oral automatism, automatism of ipsilateral limbs with dystonic posture of contralateral limbs was demonstrated in 2 patients. Bilateral temporal paroxysmal activities on interictal EEG was observed in 4 patients and all patients had clear ictal onset zone on unilateral anterior temporal region. MRI demonstrated unilateral hippocampal sclerosis in 5 cases. Interictal FDG-PET depicted hypometabolism of the unilateral temporal lobe in all cases, however, ECD-SPECT failed to reveal the hypoperfusion of the unilateral temporal lobe in a case. Postoperatively, 7 cases became seizure free, and one had rare seizure. Non-invasive examinations, especially ictal EEG and concordant FDG-PET findings, in patients with oral automatism in seizure semiology, successfully select patients with MTLE for ATL. (author)

  2. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

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    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH intubation was evaluated. Of the 100 patients, 76 (76%) showed improvement in clinical parameters and ABG. There was improvement in HR and RR, pH, and PCO2 within the first hour in the success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  3. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcers are globally of major concern and there is need for research in the pathogenesis for early intervention. Early studies have suggested existence of a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer at the location of pressure ulcers, visualized by ultrasound scans. As a continuation......, we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning...... at all pressure ulcers, but none at the reference points. The skin retraction time was often higher at the location of a pressure ulcer than at the reference location. We found no correlation between the stage of the ulcers and temperature, redness index, subepidermal layer thickness, or retraction time...

  4. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation after the successful weaning: a comparison with the venturi mask

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    Esra Adıyeke

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objectives: This study compared the rates of acute respiratory failure, reintubation, length of intensive care stay and mortality in patients in whom the non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV was applied instead of the routine venturi face mask (VM application after a successful weaning. Methods: Following the approval of the hospital ethics committee, 62 patients who were under mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours were scheduled for this study. 12 patients were excluded because of the weaning failure during T-tube trial. The patients who had optimum weaning criteria after the T-tube trial of 30 minutes were extubated. The patients were kept on VM for 1 hour to observe the hemodynamic and respiratory stability. The group of 50 patients who were successful to wean randomly allocated to have either VM (n = 25, or NIV (n = 25. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP, heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, PaO2, PCO2, and pH values were recorded. Results: The number of patients who developed respiratory failure in the NIV group was significantly less than VM group of patients (3 reintubation vs. 14 NIV + 5 reintubation in the VM group. The length of stay in the ICU was also significantly shorter in NIV group (5.2 ± 4.9 vs. 16.7 ± 7.7 days. Conclusions: The ratio of the respiratory failure and the length of stay in the ICU were lower when non-invasive mechanical ventilation was used after extubation even if the patient is regarded as ‘successfully weaned’. We recommend the use of NIMV in such patients to avoid unexpected ventilator failure.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of in-vitro embryo quality to improve transfer success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbøge, Tina Rødgaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    embryos before the transfer to a recipient still remains challenging. Presently, the predominant non-invasive technique for selecting viable embryos is based on morphology, where parameters such as rates of cleavage and blastocyst formation as well as developmental kinetics are evaluated mostly...... subjectively. The simple morphological approach is, however, inadequate for the prediction of embryo quality, and several studies have focused on developing new non-invasive methods using molecular approaches based particularly on proteomics, metabolomics and most recently small non-coding RNA, including micro......RNA. This review outlines the potential of several non-invasive in-vitro methods based on analysis of spent embryo culture medium....

  6. [Isolated left ventricular muscular diverticulum in an adult. Value of non-invasive examinations].

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    Holeman, A; Bellorini, M; Lefevre, T; Lévy, M; Loiret, J; Huerta, F; Thébault, B; Funck, F

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a case of ventriculum in a 45 year old women investigated for chest pain. This was a congenital muscular left ventricular diverticulum confirmed by a complete imaging series including echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, angio-scintigraphy and conventional angiography. This diverticulum was unusual due to the fact that there was no associated congenital disease and that it was discovered in an adult. The authors review the literature and discuss the value of non-invasive imaging procedures.

  7. Neurosonological examination: A non-invasive approach for the detection of cerebrovascular impairment in AD

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    Barbora eUrbanova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing interest in vascular impairment associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. This interest was stimulated by the findings of higher incidence of vascular risk factors in AD. Signs of vascular impairment were investigated notably in the field of imaging methods. Our aim was to explore ultrasonographic studies of extra- and intracranial vessels in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI and define implications for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the disease. The most frequently studied parameters with extracranial ultrasound are intima-media thickness in common carotid artery, carotid atherosclerosis, and total cerebral blood flow. The transcranial ultrasound concentrates mostly on flow velocities, pulsatility indices, cerebrovascular reserve capacity, cerebral microembolization. Studies suggest there is morphological and functional impairment of cerebral circulation in AD compared to healthy subjects. Ultrasound as a non-invasive method could be potentially useful in identifying individuals in a higher risk of progression of cognitive decline.

  8. Successful Non-Invasive treatment of stricturing fibrosing colonopathy in an adult patient

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    Terheggen G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Fibrosing colonopathy (FC is a rare entity associated with cystic fibrosis (CF. Until now, patients with stricturing FC have usually been treated surgically. In this instance, we aimed at avoiding surgery by applying a new conservative approach. Methods Case report on an adult with CF who developed persistent abdominal pain due to a non-passable stricture in the right transverse colon. Histology confirmed fibrosing colonopathy. Results Initially we treated the patient with prednisolone pulse therapy and additive antibiotic therapy. For maintenance therapy we administered budesonide. The patient underwent clinical, laboratory and endoscopic follow-up over a three-year period. The stricture healed and was easy to pass. A relapse in the cecum at the ileocecal valve again improved under steroid and antibiotic therapy. Conclusions We present a novel therapeutic approach for advanced stricturing FC in an adult patient which successfully avoided surgery (right hemicolectomy over a three year follow up.

  9. Increased DNA amplification success of non-invasive genetic samples by successful removal of inhibitors from faecal samples collected in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Louise; Darden, Safi K.; Pedersen, Bo Vest;

    2011-01-01

    The use of non-invasive genetic sampling (NGS) is becoming increasingly important in the study of wild animal populations. Obtaining DNA from faecal samples is of particular interest because faeces can be collected without deploying sample capture devices. However, PCR amplification of DNA...... extracted from faeces is problematic because of high concentrations of inhibitors. Here we present a method for increasing the successful application of donor DNA extracted from faecal samples through inhibitor reduction. After standard extraction with a DNA stool kit we used a ‘Concentrated Chelex...... Treatment’ (CCT) that increased the amplification success from 31.7 to 61.4% of loci. Our results suggest that darker supernatant and samples with more precipitate contain more inhibitors than lighter samples and samples with little or no precipitate. We expect the use of this technique to have wide...

  10. Non-Invasive Examination of Plant Surfaces by Opto-Electronic Means—Using Russet as a Prime Example

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    Matthias Klemm

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Many disorders and diseases of agricultural produce change the physical features of surfaces of plant organs; in terms of russet, e.g., of apple or pear, affected fruit peel becomes rough and brown in color, which is associated with changes in light reflection; (2 Objective and Methods: The objective of the present project was an interdisciplinary approach between horticultural science and engineering to examine two new innovative technologies as to their suitability for the non-destructive determination of surfaces of plant organs, using russet as an example, and (a an industrial luster sensor (type CZ-H72, Keyence, Japan and (b a new type of a three-dimensional (3D color microscope (VHX 5000; (3 Results: In the case of russet, i.e., suberinization of the fruit peel, peel roughness increased by ca. 2.5-fold from ca. 20 µm to ca. 50 µm on affected fruit sections when viewed at 200× magnification. Russeted peel showed significantly reduced luster, with smaller variation than russet-devoid peel with larger variation; (4 Conclusion: These results indicate that both sensors are suitable for biological material and their use for non-contact, non-invasive detection of surface disorders on agricultural produce such as russet may be a very powerful tool for many applications in agriculture and beyond in the future.

  11. Non-Invasive Examination of Plant Surfaces by Opto-Electronic Means--Using Russet as a Prime Example.

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    Klemm, Matthias; Röttger, Olga; Damerow, Lutz; Blanke, Michael

    2016-03-29

    (1) BACKGROUND: Many disorders and diseases of agricultural produce change the physical features of surfaces of plant organs; in terms of russet, e.g., of apple or pear, affected fruit peel becomes rough and brown in color, which is associated with changes in light reflection; (2) OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: The objective of the present project was an interdisciplinary approach between horticultural science and engineering to examine two new innovative technologies as to their suitability for the non-destructive determination of surfaces of plant organs, using russet as an example, and (a) an industrial luster sensor (type CZ-H72, Keyence, Japan) and (b) a new type of a three-dimensional (3D) color microscope (VHX 5000); (3) RESULTS: In the case of russet, i.e., suberinization of the fruit peel, peel roughness increased by ca. 2.5-fold from ca. 20 µm to ca. 50 µm on affected fruit sections when viewed at 200× magnification. Russeted peel showed significantly reduced luster, with smaller variation than russet-devoid peel with larger variation; (4) CONCLUSION: These results indicate that both sensors are suitable for biological material and their use for non-contact, non-invasive detection of surface disorders on agricultural produce such as russet may be a very powerful tool for many applications in agriculture and beyond in the future.

  12. Non-invasive in situ Examination of Colour Changes of Blue Paints in Danish Golden Age Paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buti, David; Vila, Anna; Filtenborg, Troels Folke

    A non-invasive study of some paintings containing areas of paint with a Prussian blue component has been conducted at the Statens Museum for Kunst. The in situ campaign has been carried out with a range of different spectroscopic portable techniques, provided by the MOLAB transnational access wit...

  13. Terracotta polychrome sculptures examined before and after their conservation work: contributions from non-invasive in situ analytical techniques.

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    Colombo, C; Bevilacqua, F; Brambilla, L; Conti, C; Realini, M; Striova, J; Zerbi, G

    2011-08-01

    The potential of non-invasive in situ analytical techniques such as portable Raman, portable X-ray fluorescence, portable optical microscope and fibre optics reflectance spectroscopy has been shown studying painted layers of Renaissance terracotta polychrome sculptures belonging to the statuary of Santo Sepolcro Church in Milan. The results obtained allowed pointing out the contribution of these techniques to the compositional diagnostic, providing complete information, in some cases, better than micro-destructive techniques, on the kind of pigments used on the external painted layers. Moreover, a comparison with the results obtained before the last conservation work (2009) with micro-destructive techniques allowed ascertaining the removal of the external painted layers during the conservation operations.

  14. Non-Invasive Method for the Rapid Assessment of Central Venous Pressure: Description and Validation by a Single Examiner

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    Zidulka, Arnold

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a means of assessing the external jugular venous pressure (JVP as an indicator of normal or elevated central venous pressure (CVP.Methods: Intensive care unit patients having CVP monitoring were examined. With patients in bed, the external jugular vein (EJV was occluded at the base of the neck and observed to distend. The occlusion was then removed and the vein observed for collapse. Complete collapse was hypothesized to indicate a non-elevated CVP (≤8cm of water. In those patients whose EJV collapsed incompletely, the vein was then occluded with the finger near the angle of the jaw. With the occlusion maintained, the vein was milked downwards with the other hand to cause its emptying and was then observed for filling from below. Filling from below was hypothesized to indicate an elevated CVP (>8cm of water.Results: In 12 of the 40 patients examined, the EJV could not be assessed (EJV not seen at all: 5, and difficult to visualize: 7. For the remaining 28 patients, 11 had a CVP > 8 cm, while 17 had a CVP of < 8. EJV assessment was 100% accurate (95% Confidence Interval 88-100 in predicting whether or not a patient’s CVP was greater or less than 8 cm of water.Conclusion: EJV assessment, when visible, is accurate to clinically assess a patient’s CVP in the hands of the author. Further studies are needed to see if they are reproducible by other observer.[WestJEM. 2008;9:201-205.

  15. Non-invasive neurosensory testing used to diagnose and confirm successful surgical management of lower extremity deep distal posterior compartment syndrome

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    Guyton Gregory P

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is characterized by elevated pressures within a closed space of an extremity muscular compartment, causing pain and/or disability by impairing the neuromuscular function of the involved compartment. The diagnosis of CECS is primarily made on careful history and physical exam. The gold standard test to confirm the diagnosis of CECS is invasive intra-compartmental pressure measurements. Sensory nerve function is often diminished during symptomatic periods of CECS. Sensory nerve function can be documented with the use of non-painful, non-invasive neurosensory testing. Methods Non-painful neurosensory testing of the myelinated large sensory nerve fibers of the lower extremity were obtained with the Pressure Specified Sensory Device™ in a 25 year old male with history and invasive compartment pressures consistent with CECS both before and after running on a tread mill. After the patient's first operation to release the deep distal posterior compartment, the patient failed to improve. Repeat sensory testing revealed continued change in his function with exercise. He was returned to the operating room where a repeat procedure revealed that the deep posterior compartment was not completely released due to an unusual anatomic variant, and therefore complete release was accomplished. Results The patient's symptoms numbness in the plantar foot and pain in the distal calf improved after this procedure and his repeat sensory testing performed before and after running on the treadmill documented this improvement. Conclusion This case report illustrates the principal that non-invasive neurosensory testing can detect reversible changes in sensory nerve function after a provocative test and may be a helpful non-invasive technique to managing difficult cases of persistent lower extremity symptoms after failed decompressive fasciotomies for CECS. It can easily be performed before and after

  16. Non-Invasive and Non-Destructive Examination of Artistic Pigments, Paints, and Paintings by Means of X-Ray Methods.

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    Janssens, Koen; Van der Snickt, Geert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Legrand, Stijn; Nuyts, Gert; Alfeld, Matthias; Monico, Letizia; Anaf, Willemien; De Nolf, Wout; Vermeulen, Marc; Verbeeck, Jo; De Wael, Karolien

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies are concisely reviewed, in which X-ray beams of (sub)micrometre to millimetre dimensions have been used for non-destructive analysis and characterization of pigments, minute paint samples, and/or entire paintings from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century painters. The overview presented encompasses the use of laboratory and synchrotron radiation-based instrumentation and deals with the use of several variants of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) as a method of elemental analysis and imaging, as well as with the combined use of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Microscopic XRF is a variant of the method that is well suited to visualize the elemental distribution of key elements, mostly metals, present in paint multi-layers, on the length scale from 1 to 100 μm inside micro-samples taken from paintings. In the context of the characterization of artists' pigments subjected to natural degradation, the use of methods limited to elemental analysis or imaging usually is not sufficient to elucidate the chemical transformations that have taken place. However, at synchrotron facilities, combinations of μ-XRF with related methods such as μ-XAS and μ-XRD have proven themselves to be very suitable for such studies. Their use is often combined with microscopic Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and/or Raman microscopy since these methods deliver complementary information of high molecular specificity at more or less the same length scale as the X-ray microprobe techniques. Since microscopic investigation of a relatively limited number of minute paint samples, taken from a given work of art, may not yield representative information about the entire artefact, several methods for macroscopic, non-invasive imaging have recently been developed. Those based on XRF scanning and full-field hyperspectral imaging appear very promising; some recent published results are discussed.

  17. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

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    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography: its role in the non-invasive structural examination and conservation of cultural heritage objects—a review

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    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena

    2012-02-01

    A brief introduction to Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is presented, stressing the origin of the tomographic signal and the detection methods defining various modalities of the technique. The parameters of the tomographs, such as axial and lateral resolution, wavelength and intensity of the probing light, imaging range, time of examination, and sensitivity are then defined, and a paradigm for interpreting the OCT tomograms provided. The second part of the article comprises a review of the utilisation of OCT for structural examination of artworks, illustrated with some representative results. Applications to the structural imaging of semi-transparent subsurface layers such as varnishes and glazes, of underdrawings and of reverse painting on glass, are described first, and then applications in the examination of the structure and state of preservation of historic glass, jade, glazed porcelain and faience are discussed. Finally, the use of OCT combined with LIBS analysis and laser ablation of surface layers is presented.

  19. Non-invasive neural stimulation

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    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  20. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  1. Non-invasive light observer

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    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  2. Diagnostic Advances of Non-Invasive Examinations in Patients with Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy%无创检查在心尖肥厚型心肌病诊断中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2012-01-01

    心尖肥厚型心肌病是肥厚型心肌病的一种特殊类型,属非梗阻性.由于该病临床上缺乏特异的症状和体征,心电图常显示胸导联上巨大倒置T波,因此易被误诊为冠心病.临床医生通过合理应用相关辅助检查可以帮助诊断心尖肥厚型心肌病,从而指导治疗改善患者预后.%Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy ( AHCM) is a subgroup of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy characterized with non-obstruction hemodynamics. AHCM is easy to misdiagnose as acute coronary disease because of its electrocardiogram manifestation of giant T-wave inversion. Reasonable application of non-invasive examinations can help diagnose AHCM accurately and improve the prognosis of patients with AHCM.

  3. How Successful is Non-Invasive Ventilation Treatment that is Initiated in the Emergency Department in Cases of COPD Exacerbations with Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure? Can We Predict Treatment Failure?

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    Meltem Çoban Ağca

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to investigate the success rate of non-invasive ventilation (NIV in wards and the predictors of failure in cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD-related acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (AHRF. Methods: The was a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary teaching hospital between May 2011 and 2013. Patients who were admitted to the emergency department (ED because of COPD with AHRF were evaluated; 544 patients who initially received NIV in ED and were transferred to wards were included. Patient characteristics, baseline and follow-up pH values, and partial arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2 values were recorded. Baseline pH values were categorized as severe (pH<7.26, moderate (pH≥7.26–7.30, and mild (pH≥7.30 acidosis. According to the in-hospital outcome, patients were classified in 2 groups: Group 1: home discharge, Group 2: death or intensive care unit transfer. Results: Treatment resulted in success in 477 (88% patients. Albumin levels were significantly low and the mean Charlson index (CI score was significantly high in Group 2. Admission pH and PaCO2 values did not affect the treatment outcome. Patients in Group 2 had higher PaCO2 and lower pH values as well as a lower level of decrease in PaCO2 values within 2 hours of treatment in ED. Similarly, higher PaCO2 and lower pH values at the end of the first day in wards were indicative of NIV failure (p<0.05. Conclusion: The success rate of NIV in wards in cases of AHRF is high. Patients with low albumin levels and higher CI scores have worse response to treatment. pH or PaCO2 values after a few hours of treatment and not the baseline pH or PaCO2 values are better predictors than the baseline pH and PaCO2 values.

  4. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

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    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  5. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

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    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  6. Non-invasive acoustic-based monitoring of uranium in solution and H/D ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantea, Cristian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Beedle, Christopher Craig [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinha, Dipen N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lakis, Rollin Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The primary objective of this project is to adapt existing non-invasive acoustic techniques (Swept-Frequency Acoustic Interferometry and Gaussian-pulse acoustic technique) for the purpose of demonstrating the ability to quantify U or H/D ratios in solution. Furthermore, a successful demonstration will provide an easily implemented, low cost, and non-invasive method for remote and unattended uranium mass measurements for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  7. Insights and Lessons from a Scientific Conference on Non-Invasive Delivery of Macromolecules.

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    Savla, Ronak; Mrsny, Randall J; Park, Kinam; Aubert, Isabelle; Stamoran, Cornell

    2017-06-01

    A growing share of the pharmaceutical development pipeline is occupied by macromolecule drugs, which are primarily administered by injection. Despite decades of attempts, non-invasive delivery of macromolecules has seen only a few success stories. Potential benefits of non-invasive administration include better patient acceptance and adherence and potentially better efficacy and safety. Greater inter-disciplinary dialogue and collaboration are integral to realizing these benefits.

  8. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).

  10. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  11. Non-invasive serial casting to treat idiopathic toe walking in an 18-month old child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistilli, Emidio E; Rice, Tracy; Pergami, Paola; Mandich, Mary Beth

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic toe walking is characterized by persistent toe walking in the absence of clinically diagnosed neuromuscular disease. Treatment options in children diagnosed with idiopathic toe walking include: observation, physical therapy, serial casting, or Achilles tendon (heel cord) lengthening surgery. In this case report, we present a non-invasive serial casting protocol to treat severe and persistent toe walking in an 18-month old child, diagnosed as an idiopathic toe walker following neurological examination. A series of below knee casts was used to provide a consistent stretch to the plantar flexor muscles. Upon removal of each set of casts, passive range of motion at the ankles was measured with a goniometer. Four sets of casts, each lasting approximately one week, increased passive ankle dorsiflexion to 10° of neutral and established a heel-toe walking gait. Improvements in ankle range of motion and gait were maintained upon repeated examinations at 3, 7, and 12 months post-casting. These results demonstrate that non-invasive procedures, such as serial casting, can be successful in very young children diagnosed as idiopathic toe walkers. Early identification and intervention for this diagnosis may eliminate the need for invasive surgeries and associated risks in this population.

  12. (19)F-heptuloses as tools for the non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malaisse, Willy J; Zhang, Ying; Louchami, Karim

    2012-01-01

    Suitable analogs of d-mannoheptulose are currently considered as possible tools for the non-invasive imaging of pancreatic islet insulin-producing cells. Here, we examined whether (19)F-heptuloses could be used for non-invasive imaging of GLUT2-expressing cells. After 20 min incubation, the uptake...

  13. Examining the Planning and Management of Principal Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed; Parylo, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine principal succession planning and management by analyzing current practices of handling school leader succession in four Georgia school systems. Design/methodology/approach: Looking through the lens of organizational leadership succession theory, the practices of school systems as they experienced…

  14. Examining the Planning and Management of Principal Succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Sally J.; Bengtson, Ed; Parylo, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine principal succession planning and management by analyzing current practices of handling school leader succession in four Georgia school systems. Design/methodology/approach: Looking through the lens of organizational leadership succession theory, the practices of school systems as they experienced…

  15. NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  16. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  17. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  18. Non-invasive means of measuring hepatic fat content

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanjeev R Mehta; E Louise Thomas; Jimmy D Bell; Desmond G Johnston; Simon D Taylor-Robinson

    2008-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis affects 20% to 30% of the general adult population in the western world. Currently, the technique of choice for determining hepatic fat deposition and the stage of fibrosis is liver biopsy. However, it is an invasive procedure and its use is limited, particularly in children. It may also be subject to sampling error. Non-invasive techniques such as ultrasound, computerised tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) can detect hepatic steatosis, but currently cannot distinguish between simple steatosis and steatohepatitis, or stage the degree of fibrosis accurately. Ultrasound is widely used to detect hepatic steatosis, but its sensitivity is reduced in the morbidly obese and also in those with small amounts of fatty infiltration. It has been used to grade hepatic fat content, but this is subjective. CT can detect hepatic steatosis, but exposes subjects to ionising radiation, thus limiting its use in longitudinal studies and in children. Recently, magnetic resonance (MR) techniques using chemical shift imaging have provided a quantitative assessment of the degree of hepatic fatty infiltration, which correlates well with liver biopsy results in the same patients. Similarly, in vivo 1H MRS is a fast, safe, non-invasive method for the quantification of intrahepatocellular lipid (IHCL) levels. Both techniques will be useful tools in future longitudinal clinical studies, either in examining the natural history of conditions causing hepatic steatosis(e.g. non-alcoholic fatty liver disease), or in testing new treatments for these conditions.

  19. [Non-invasive brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajo, Gianandrea; Pollak, Pierre; Lüscher, Christian; Benninger, David

    2015-04-29

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a major socio-economic burden increasing with the aging population. In advanced PD, the emergence of symptoms refractory to conventional therapy poses a therapeutic challenge. The success of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of PD have raised interest in non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) as an alternative therapeutic tool. NIBS could offer an alternative approach for patients at risk who are excluded from surgery and/or to treat refractory symptoms. The treatment of the freezing of gait, a major cause of disability and falls in PD patients, could be enhanced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). A therapeutic study is currently performed at the Department of Neurology at the CHUV.

  20. Current Directions in Non-Invasive Low Intensity Electric Brain Stimulation for Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Sack, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human brain to improve depressive symptoms is increasingly finding its way in clinical settings as a viable form of somatic treatment. Following successful modulation of neural excitability with subsequent antidepressant effects, neural polarization by administrating

  1. Current Directions in Non-Invasive Low Intensity Electric Brain Stimulation for Depressive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Sack, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human brain to improve depressive symptoms is increasingly finding its way in clinical settings as a viable form of somatic treatment. Following successful modulation of neural excitability with subsequent antidepressant effects, neural polarization by administrating

  2. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  3. Non-Invasive Mechanic Ventilation Using in Flail Chest, Caused By Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Onat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman admitted our faculty emergency room with shortness of breath, and chest pain after traffic accident’s second hour. She was diagnosed as bilateral multipl rib fractures, left clavicula fracture, and left flail chest by phsical and radiological examinations. She was transfered to Chest Surgery Depatment’s intensive care unit. The patient was undergone non-invasive mask mechanic ventilation support, because of the decreasing of blood oxygen saturation and increasing of arteriel blood partial carbondioxide pressure. The treatment of non-invasive mechanic ventilation was succesfull for ventilation support. With this report, we would like to attentioned that non-invasive mechanic ventilation for blunt chest trauma patients could be used succesfully and could be used instead of endotracheal invasive mechanic ventilation.

  4. Non-invasive Prenatal Testing: Technologies, Clinical Assays and Implementation Strategies for Women's Healthcare Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Amy; Sehnert, Amy J; Bhatt, Sucheta

    2013-06-01

    The field of prenatal genetic testing has exploded with new non-invasive technologies and test options in the past several years. It is challenging for women's healthcare providers to keep up with the multitude of publications and provide patients with the most accurate and up-to-date information possible regarding prenatal testing. In this article, we examine the sequencing technologies that provide the framework for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) and review the major North American NIPT clinical validation studies published in 2011 and 2012. This paper also compares and contrasts the commercially available non-invasive prenatal tests in the United States, discusses clinical implementation recommendations from professional societies and highlights considerations for genetic counseling.

  5. NCLEX-RN Performance: Predicting Success on the Computerized Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Julie Keith; Beeman, Pamela Butler

    2001-01-01

    Discriminant analysis was used to identify variables predictive of success in the computerized National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses with data from 289 nursing graduates. Using seven significant predictors, 94% of passes and 92% of failures were correctly identified. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)

  6. Mucositis and non-invasive markers of small intestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tooley, Katie L; Howarth, Gordon S; Butler, Ross N

    2009-05-01

    Mucositis is a common and debilitating side effect of chemotherapy that manifests due to the inability of chemotherapy agents to discriminate between normal and neoplastic cells. This results in ulcerating lesions lining the gastrointestinal tract. Moreover, the development of efficacious treatments for small intestinal mucositis has been hindered as the pathobiology of mucositis is still not fully understood. The small intestine is an extensive organ which is largely inaccessible by conventional means. Non-invasive biomarkers such as small intestinal permeability, H(2) breath tests, serum citrulline tests and the (13)C-sucrose breath test (SBT) have emerged as potential markers of small intestinal function. The SBT is emerging as the more appropriate biomarker to assess chemotherapy-induced mucositis in cancer patients and animal models, where it measures the decrease in sucrase activity associated with villus blunting and crypt disruption. The SBT has been successfully applied to detect mucositis induced by different classes of chemotherapy agents and has been used successfully to monitor small intestinal function with a range of candidate anti-mucositis treatments. We propose the SBT a superior biomarker of small intestinal function that could be successfully applied in clinical practice for monitoring the development of mucositis in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  7. Quantitative estimates of vascularity in a collagen-based cell scaffold containing basic fibroblast growth factor by non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy for regenerative medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushibiki, Toshihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2008-04-01

    Successful tissue regeneration required both cells with high proliferative and differentiation potential and an environment permissive for regeneration. These conditions can be achieved by providing cell scaffolds and growth factors that induce angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Angiogenenis within cell scaffolds is typically determined by histological examination with immunohistochemical markers for endothelium. Unfortunately, this approach requires removal of tissue and the scaffold. In this study, we examined the hemoglobin content of implanted collagen-based cell scaffolds containing basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in vivo by non-invasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also compared the hemoglobin levels measured by NIRS to the hemoglobin content measured with a conventional biological assay. Non-invasive NIRS recordings were performed with a custom-built near-infrared spectrometer using light guide-coupled reflectance measurements. NIRS recordings revealed that absorbance increased after implantation of collagen scaffolds containing bFGF. This result correlated (R2=0.93) with our subsequent conventional hemoglobin assay. The NIRS technique provides a non-invasive method for measuring the degree of vascularization in cell scaffolds. This technique may be advantageous for monitoring angiogenesis within different cell scaffolds, a prerequisite for effective tissue regeneration.

  8. Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography...

  9. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  10. Novel non-invasive protein and peptide drug delivery approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, L; Kleynhans, E; Toit, T Du; Gouws, C; Steyn, D; Steenekamp, J; Viljoen, J; Hamman, J

    2014-01-01

    Protein and peptide based therapeutics are typically administered by injection due to their poor uptake when administered via enteral routes of drug administration. Unfortunately, chronic administration of these drugs through multiple injections presents certain patient related problems and it is difficult to mimic the normal physiological release patterns via this mode of drug administration. A need therefore exists to non-invasively deliver these drugs by means of alternative ways such as via the oral, pulmonary, nasal, transdermal and buccal administration routes. Although some attempts of needle free peptide and protein drug delivery have progressed to the clinical stage, relatively limited success has been achieved in terms of commercially available products. Despite the low frequency of clinical breakthroughs with noninvasive protein drug delivery this far, it remains an active research area with renewed interest not only due to its improved therapeutic potential, but also due to the attractive commercial outcomes it offers. It is the aim of this review article to reflect on the main strategies investigated to overcome the barriers against effective systemic protein drug delivery in different routes of drug administration. Approaches based on chemical modifications and pharmaceutical technologies are discussed with reference to examples of drugs and devices that have shown potential, while attempts that have failed are also briefly outlined.

  11. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  12. Non-Invasive Ocular Rigidity Measurement: A Differential Tonometry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios T. Detorakis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Taking into account the fact that Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT geometrically deforms the corneal apex and displaces volume from the anterior segment whereas Dynamic Contour Tonometry (DCT does not, we aimed at developing an algorithm for the calculation of ocular rigidity (OR based on the differences in pressure and volume between deformed and non-deformed status according to the general Friedenwald principle of differential tonometry. Methods: To avoid deviations of GAT IOP from true IOP in eyes with corneas different from the “calibration cornea” we applied the previously described Orssengo-Pye algorithm to calculate an error coefficient “C/B”. To test the feasibility of the proposed model, we calculated the OR coefficient (r in 17 cataract surgery candidates (9 males and 8 females. Results: The calculated r according to our model (mean ± SD, range was 0.0174 ± 0.010 (0.0123–0.022 mmHg/μL. A negative statistically significant correlation between axial length and r was detected whereas correlations between r and other biometric parameters examined were statistically not significant. Conclusions: The proposed method may prove a valid non-invasive tool for the measurement method of OR, which could help in introducing OR in the decision-making of the routine clinical practice.

  13. Non-invasive brain stimulation in early rehabilitation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesneag, A V; Popa, L; Stan, A D

    2015-01-01

    The new tendency in rehabilitation involves non-invasive tools that, if applied early after stroke, promote neurorecovery. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation may correct the disruption of cortical excitability and effectively contribute to the restoration of movement and speech. The present paper analyses the results of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) trials, highlighting different aspects related to the repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation frequency, transcranial direct current stimulation polarity, the period and stimulation places in acute and subacute ischemic strokes. The risk of adverse events, the association with motor or language recovery specific training, and the cumulative positive effect evaluation are also discussed.

  14. Non-invasive discrimination between pancreatic islets and exocrine cells using multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Li, Ge; Hao, Mingming; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we propose a non-invasive method to distinguish pancreatic islet cells from exocrine cell clusters using multiphoton (MP) imaging. We demonstrate the principle of distinguishing them based on autofluorescence. The results show that MP imaging has a potential to distinguish pancreatic islets from exocrine cells. This ability to distinguish the two cell types could have many applications, such as the examination of fresh pancreatic biopsies when staining is not possible or desirable.

  15. Pharmacy Student Anxiety and Success With Objective Structured Clinical Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longyhore, Daniel S

    2017-02-25

    Objective. To evaluate whether a relationship exists between the degree of student state-anxiety and pass rates on moderate-to-high stakes objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE). Methods. Third-professional year (P3) students were assessed using the Speilberger State-Trait Anxiety Index (STAI) three weeks prior to their first moderate-to-high stakes OSCEs. Students' OSCE station pass rates, individual station analytical scores, and the overall pass rate for the class were compared with student responses on STAI surveys to measure their association. Results. Seventy-three students (100%) provided consent to participate in the research; 64 (87%) sufficiently completed the STAI survey. Degree of student state-anxiety or train-anxiety was not associated with any of the outcomes assessed in this study. Overall pass rate, individual station pass rates, and station analytical checklist scores were not inversely correlated with state- or trait-anxiety scores. Conclusions. Efforts to assist students in OSCE performance should focus on means other than reducing associated anxiety. Future research in this area should focus on what interventions beyond instruction could be put in place to help students be more successful during OSCEs.

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT ha...

  17. Eyeblink Conditioning: A Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition,…

  18. Non-invasive terahertz field imaging inside parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a non-invasive broadband air photonic method of imaging of the electric field of THz pulses propagating inside a tapered parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We apply...

  19. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  20. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  1. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  2. Non-invasive in vivo measurement of macular carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor); Borchert, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A non-invasive in vivo method for assessing macular carotenoids includes performing Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) on a retina of a subject. A spatial representation of carotenoid levels in the macula based on data from the OCT of the retina can be generated.

  3. Potential diagnostic consequences of applying non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Vogel, I; Ekelund, C

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Targeted non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) tests for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 and sex chromosome aneuploidies and could be an alternative to traditional karyotyping. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of missing other abnormal karyotypes of probable phenotypic...

  4. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  5. Non-invasive imaging of human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-09-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography (PET), and multimodality approaches. Although the focus of this review article is primarily on hESCs, the labeling/tracking strategies described here can be readily applied to other (stem) cell types as well. Non-invasive imaging can provide convenient means to monitor hESC survival, proliferation, function, as well as overgrowth (such as teratoma formation), which could not be readily investigated previously. The requirement for hESC tracking techniques depends on the clinical scenario and each imaging technique will have its own niche in preclinical/clinical research. Continued evolvement of non-invasive imaging techniques will undoubtedly contribute to significant advances in understanding stem cell biology and mechanisms of action.

  6. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  7. New developments in non-invasive coronary imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Riksta

    2008-01-01

    Coronary artery disease, and especially ischemic heart disease, is a major concern in Western society. To reduce mortality and morbidity early detection and treatment is important. Ideally, early detection should be non-invasive, fast and cheap. Coronary angiography (CAG) is a reliable technique to

  8. Measuring and modulating the brain with non-invasive stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munneke, M.A.M

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of the studies in this thesis was the use of non-invasive brain stimulation for measuring and modulating corticospinal excitability and to study the possibility of therapeutic modulation of excitability in some neurological disorders. Brain modulation to reduce the over-excitability

  9. Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, Anne Marijn; Zeeman, Gerda G.; Groen, Henk; Roberts, Claire; Dekker, Gus A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Non-invasive assessment of maternal hemodynamics in early pregnancy may be promising in evaluating maternal hemodynamic (mal)adaptation to pregnancy. We explored usage of applanation tonometry and Doppler ultrasound for assessment of cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR

  10. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, B M; O' Flynn, B; Mathewson, A, E-mail: brian.mccarthy@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, UCC, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  11. Multi-scale simulations predict responses to non-invasive nerve root stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laakso, Ilkka; Matsumoto, Hideyuki; Hirata, Akimasa; Terao, Yasuo; Hanajima, Ritsuko; Ugawa, Yoshikazu

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Established biophysical neurone models have achieved limited success in reproducing electrophysiological responses to non-invasive stimulation of the human nervous system. This is related to our insufficient knowledge of the induced electric currents inside the human body. Despite the numerous research and clinical applications of non-invasive stimulation, it is still unclear which internal sites are actually affected by it. Approach. We performed multi-scale computer simulations that, by making use of advances in computing power and numerical algorithms, combine a microscopic model of electrical excitation of neurones with a macroscopic electromagnetic model of the realistic whole-body anatomy. Main results. The simulations yield responses consistent with those experimentally recorded following magnetic and electrical motor root stimulation in human subjects, and reproduce the observed amplitudes and latencies for a wide variety of stimulation parameters. Significance. Our findings demonstrate that modern computational techniques can produce detailed predictions about which and where neurones are activated, leading to improved understanding of the physics and basic mechanisms of non-invasive stimulation and enabling potential new applications that make use of improved targeting of stimulation.

  12. The role of invasive and non-invasive procedures in diagnosing fever of unknown origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mete, Bilgul; Vanli, Ersin; Yemisen, Mucahit; Balkan, Ilker Inanc; Dagtekin, Hilal; Ozaras, Resat; Saltoglu, Nese; Mert, Ali; Ozturk, Recep; Tabak, Fehmi

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of fever of unknown origin has changed because of the recent advances in and widespread use of invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tools. However, undiagnosed patients still constitute a significant number. To determine the etiological distribution and role of non-invasive and invasive diagnostic tools in the diagnosis of fever of unknown origin. One hundred patients who were hospitalized between June 2001 and 2009 with a fever of unknown origin were included in this study. Clinical and laboratory data were collected from the patients' medical records retrospectively. Fifty three percent of the patients were male, with a mean age of 45 years. The etiology of fever was determined to be infectious diseases in 26, collagen vascular diseases in 38, neoplastic diseases in 14, miscellaneous in 2 and undiagnosed in 20 patients. When the etiologic distribution was analyzed over time, it was noted that the rate of infectious diseases decreased, whereas the rate of rheumatological and undiagnosed diseases relatively increased because of the advances in imaging and microbiological studies. Seventy patients had a definitive diagnosis, whereas 10 patients had a possible diagnosis. The diagnoses were established based on clinical features and non-invasive tests for 61% of the patients and diagnostic benefit was obtained for 49% of the patients undergoing invasive tests. Biopsy procedures contributed a rate of 42% to diagnoses in patients who received biopsies. Clinical features (such as detailed medical history-taking and physical examination) may contribute to diagnoses, particularly in cases of collagen vascular diseases. Imaging studies exhibit certain pathologies that guide invasive studies. Biopsy procedures contribute greatly to diagnoses, particularly for malignancies and infectious diseases that are not diagnosed by non-invasive procedures.

  13. Utility of Transcutaneous Capnography for Optimization of Non-Invasive Ventilation Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajed, Prashant N; Gehrer, Simone; Pandey, Kamlesh V; Vaidya, Preyas J; Leuppi, Joerg D; Tamm, Michael; Strobel, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Nocturnal Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous oxygen saturation measured with a pulse oximeter provides a surrogate measure of arterial oxygen saturation but does not completely reflect ventilation. Currently, Partial Pressure of Arterial (PaCO2) measured by arterial blood analysis is used for estimating the adequacy of ventilatory support and serves as the gold standard. To examine the safety, feasibility and utility of cutaneous capnography to re-titrate the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Twelve patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure prospectively underwent complete polysomnography and cutaneous capnography measurement on the ear lobe. Non-invasive ventilation pressures were adjusted with the aim of normalizing cutaneous carbon dioxide or at least reducing it by 10 to 15 mmHg. Sensor drift for cutaneous carbon dioxide of 0.7 mmHg per hour was integrated in the analysis. Mean baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide was 45.4 ± 6.5 mmHg and drift corrected awake value was 45.1 ± 8.3 mmHg. The correlation of baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide and the corrected awake cutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial blood gas values were 0.91 and 0.85 respectively. Inspiratory positive airway pressures were changed in nine patients (75%) and expiratory positive airway pressures in eight patients (66%). Epworth sleepiness score before and after the study showed no change in five patients, improvement in six patients and deterioration in one patient. Cutaneous capnography is feasible and permits the optimization of non-invasive ventilation pressure settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous cutaneous capnography might serve as an important additional tool to complement diurnal

  14. Prediction of oesophageal varices in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis by non-invasive markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lili; Li, Hanwei; Han, Jun; Zhang, Weihui

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Preliminary data suggested that non-invasive methods could be useful to assess presence of oesophageal varices (OV) in liver cirrhosis. The primary objectives were to investigate non-invasive markers for diagnosing and grading OV in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Material and methods This study included a total of 106 consecutive treatment-naive patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). Results of physical examination, blood tests, and abdominal ultrasound scan (USS) were measured. Performance of non-invasive markers for OV was expressed as sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV), accuracy, and area under the curve (AUC). Results Oesophageal varices were found in 54 (50.9%) and large OV in 28 of the 106 patients. Variables found to differ significantly between patients with any grade or large and without OV included increased spleen length, increased portal vein diameter, low platelet count, and low levels of albumin or low γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (γ-GTP) values. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that spleen length (cutoff = 156.0) had AUC 0.753 (95% CI: 0.657–0.849), and high NPV (82.1%) to exclude any grade OV. Large OV could be excluded with NPV 70.6% by spleen length. Conclusions Predictive risk factors that use readily available laboratory results and ultrasound scan results may reliably identify esophageal varices in patients with PBC. PMID:28261290

  15. Rapid induction of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in immune-competent rats by non-invasive ultrasound-guided cells implantation

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    Pan Huay-Ben

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fact that prognoses remain poor in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma highlights the demand for suitable animal models to facilitate the development of anti-cancer medications. This study employed a relatively non-invasive approach to establish an orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma model in immune-competent rats. This was done by ultrasound-guided implantation of cancer cells and the model was used to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of short-term and low-dose epirubicin chemotherapy. Methods Rat Novikoff hepatoma cells were injected percutaneously into the liver lobes of Sprague-Dawley rats under the guidance of high resolution ultrasound. The implantation rate and the correlation between dissected and ultrasound-measured tumor sizes were evaluated. A similar induction procedure was performed by means of laparotomy in a different group of rats. Pairs of tumor measurement were compared by ultrasound and computerized tomography scan. Rats with a successful establishment of the tumor were divided into the treatment (7-day low-dose epirubicin group and the control group. The tumor sizes were non-invasively monitored by the same ultrasound machine. Blood and tumor tissues from tumor-bearing rats were examined by biochemical and histological analysis respectively. Results Ultrasound-guided implantation of Novikoff hepatoma cells led to the formation of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in 60.4% (55/91 of the Sprague-Dawley rats. Moreover, tumor sizes measured by ultrasound significantly correlated with those measured by calipers after sacrificing the animals (P Conclusions Ultrasound-guided implantation of Novikoff hepatoma cells is an effective means of establishing orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma in Sprague-Dawley rats. Short-term and low-dose epirubicin chemotherapy had perturbed tumor progression by inducing apoptosis and neovascularization blockade.

  16. Skin Rejuvenation with Non-Invasive Pulsed Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Khan, Saiqa; Belov, Vasily; Quinn, Kyle P.; Albadawi, Hassan; Felix Broelsch, G.; Watkins, Michael T.; Georgakoudi, Irene; Papisov, Mikhail; Mihm, Martin C., Jr.; Austen, William G., Jr.; Yarmush, Martin L.

    2015-05-01

    Degenerative skin diseases affect one third of individuals over the age of sixty. Current therapies use various physical and chemical methods to rejuvenate skin; but since the therapies affect many tissue components including cells and extracellular matrix, they may also induce significant side effects, such as scarring. Here we report on a new, non-invasive, non-thermal technique to rejuvenate skin with pulsed electric fields. The fields destroy cells while simultaneously completely preserving the extracellular matrix architecture and releasing multiple growth factors locally that induce new cells and tissue growth. We have identified the specific pulsed electric field parameters in rats that lead to prominent proliferation of the epidermis, formation of microvasculature, and secretion of new collagen at treated areas without scarring. Our results suggest that pulsed electric fields can improve skin function and thus can potentially serve as a novel non-invasive skin therapy for multiple degenerative skin diseases.

  17. Phase contrast X-ray imaging for the non-invasive detection of airway surfaces and lumen characteristics in mouse models of airway disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siu, K.K.W. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Monash Centre for Synchrotron Science, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Karen.Siu@sync.monash.edu.au; Morgan, K.S.; Paganin, D.M. [School of Physics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Boucher, R. [CF Research and Treatment Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (United States); Uesugi, K.; Yagi, N. [SPring-8/JASRI, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Parsons, D.W. [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Women' s and Children' s Hospital, South Australia 5006 (Australia); Department of Paediatrics, University of Adelaide, South Australia, 5006 (Australia); Women' s and Children' s Health Research Institute, South Australia, 5006 (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    We seek to establish non-invasive imaging able to detect and measure aspects of the biology and physiology of surface fluids present on airways, in order to develop novel outcome measures able to validate the success of proposed genetic or pharmaceutical therapies for cystic fibrosis (CF) airway disease. Reduction of the thin airway surface liquid (ASL) is thought to be a central pathophysiological process in CF, causing reduced mucociliary clearance that supports ongoing infection and destruction of lung and airways. Current outcome measures in animal models, or humans, are insensitive to the small changes in ASL depth that ought to accompany successful airway therapies. Using phase contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI), we have directly examined the airway surfaces in the nasal airways and tracheas of anaesthetised mice, currently to a resolution of {approx}2 {mu}m. We have also achieved high resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the small airways in mice using phase-contrast enhanced computed tomography (PC-CT) to elucidate the structure-function relationships produced by airway disease. As the resolution of these techniques improves they may permit non-invasive monitoring of changes in ASL depth with therapeutic intervention, and the use of 3D airway and imaging in monitoring of lung health and disease. Phase contrast imaging of airway surfaces has promise for diagnostic and monitoring options in animal models of CF, and the potential for future human airway imaging methodologies is also apparent.

  18. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia

    2009-02-01

    Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.

  19. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  20. Invasive versus non-invasive diagnosis of renal bone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, A; Oprisiu, R; Said, S; Sechet, A; Ghazali, A; Marié, A; el Esper, I; Brazier, M; Achard, J M; Morinière, P

    1997-07-01

    At present, bone histomorphometry remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of the various types of renal bone disease. In the search for a non-invasive method of diagnosis, biochemical serum markers of bone remodelling, in addition to serum intact parathyroid hormone and aluminium determinations, have been proposed as the most reliable tools and are at present widely used in clinical practice. Their respective diagnostic values, as separate items and in combined analysis, are thoroughly discussed in the present review.

  1. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition.

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    Cedric J Simon

    Full Text Available Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92 abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM and carbon content (AMC correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78, total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87 and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively. Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively, and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively. NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field.

  2. Invasive and non-invasive methods for cardiac output measurement

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    Lavdaniti M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic status monitoring of high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients inIntensive Care Units is one of the main objectives of their therapeutic management. Cardiac output is one of the mostimportant parameters for cardiac function monitoring, providing an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen deliveryand allowing for an understanding of the causes of high blood pressure. The purpose of the present review is thedescription of cardiac output measurement methods as presented in the international literature. The articles documentthat there are many methods of monitoring the hemodynamic status of patients, both invasive and non-invasive, themost popular of which is thermodilution. The invasive methods are the Fick method and thermodilution, whereasthe non-invasive methods are oeshophaegeal Doppler, transoesophageal echocardiography, lithium dilution, pulsecontour, partial CO2 rebreathing and thoracic electrical bioimpedance. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages,but thermodilution is the golden standard for critical patients, although it does entail many risks. The idealsystem for cardiac output monitoring would be non-invasive, easy to use, reliable and compatible in patients. A numberof research studies have been carried out in clinical care settings, by nurses as well as other health professionals, for thepurpose of finding a method of measurement that would have the least disadvantages. Nevertheless, the thermodilutiontechnique remains the most common approach in use today.

  3. Skin autofluorescence, a non-invasive marker for AGE accumulation, is associated with the degree of atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Dekker, Martijn A. M.; Zwiers, Marjan; van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; de Vos, Lisanne C.; Smit, Andries J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Lefrandt, Johan; Mulder, Douwe J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis, beyond diabetes and renal disease. Skin autofluorescence (AF) is a non-invasive marker for AGEs. We examined whether skin AF is increased in (subclinical) atherosclerosis and associated with th

  4. Non-invasive treatment in pain therapy with the iontophoretic technique

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    Paolo Desio

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available From January 2001 to December 2003, 52 patients, 31 females and 21 males, aged between 19 and 78 years, underwent iontophoresis; they all had acute lumbar ischialgia or hiparthrosis; each cycle consisted of 4 consecutive applications in successive days. The 88% of patients (n = 46 had a positive outcome; in 12% (n = 6, pain with characteristics similar to that before treatment arouse again. No patient showed a worsening or side effects on long term. The validity and the advantages of the technique indicate that the iontophoresis is a useful non-invasive and non-traumatic therapeutic presidium, which allows direct drug use in painful area.

  5. Stressing Success: Examining Hmong Student Success in Career and Technical Education

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    Carmen M. Iannarelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the academic performance of Hmong students at Chippewa Valley Technical College in Eau Claire, WI. Factors specifically analyzed for their impact upon student success are socioeconomic status, family support, the use of academic support programs, and the influence of agents of socialization. Through the use of archival institutional data, Hmong students were compared to white students at CVTC in terms of their relative grade point averages, course completion rates, and retention rates. Data revealed significant disparities in grade point average performance between Hmong and white students. The data also showed that eligibility for financial aid was significantly higher among Hmong students, and that this difference was commensurate with educational performance gaps between the two groups. Additionally, online surveys were used to assess family support while attending CVTC, the role of academic support programs, and influential agents of socialization. Gender differences in grade point average performance and socialization also were analyzed. Implications of the study’s findings are discussed and recommendations for improving the performance of Hmong students are provided.

  6. Clinical analysis of non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis in 42 cases%42例非侵袭性真菌性鼻窦炎临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章晓军; 周剑勇; 谭国鹏; 吕洁瑜; 严飞鹏

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨功能性鼻内镜手术治疗非侵袭性鼻窦炎的临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析2009 ~2011年经我院病理确诊的真菌性鼻窦炎患者42例,分析其专科检查、影像学资料、临床表现及鼻内镜手术治疗后的疗效.结果所有患者术后随访1年以上均未见复发,术后病理检查发现真菌及菌丝.结论 通畅鼻腔鼻窦引流,彻底清除窦腔内真菌团块,对真菌性鼻窦炎的治疗有重要的意义.%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of functional endoscopic sinus surgery for non -invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Methods Clinical data of 42 patients suffering from non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis confirmed pathologically from 2009 to 2011 was analyzed retrospectively. The analyzed data included endoscopic examination, sinus CT scan, clinical manifestations, and surgical outcome. Results Postoperative pathological observations displayed fungi and hyphae in all specimens. All the 42 patients were followed up for more than one year postoperatively without recurrence. Conclusions Adequate drainage of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and complete removal of fungal masses from sinus cavity are essential for successful management of non-invasive fungal rhinosinusitis.

  7. Application of non-invasive optical monitoring methodologies to follow and record painting cleaning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, R.; Dal Fovo, A.; Striova, J.; Pezzati, L.; Pampaloni, E.; Raffaelli, M.; Barucci, M.

    2015-11-01

    The cleaning of painted artworks, i.e. the critical operation whereby materials are selectively removed from a painted surface by partial thinning or complete elimination of varnish, is one of the most debated conservation operations, being an irreversible process, which may result in chromatic and morphological variations in the painted surface. Due to ageing, the upper layer is subject to darkening and yellowing because of blanching and fading from ultraviolet exposure, dust deposition, and overpainted layers due, for instance, to restoration interventions. This degradation can either alter the original appearance of painting polychromy or cause mechanical failure of the finishes. To address these adverse conditions, a process of examination and analysis is critical to the definition and interpretation of the varnish layer. When investigating the ageing process of old paintings, it is of great importance to obtain insight into the painting technique as practiced in the past, and the first step in gaining this knowledge is, to a large extent, based on the study of the varnish film. An effective control of the process and objective evaluation of its outcome requires therefore instrumental/analytical support. The present study illustrates the successful application of non-invasive optical techniques—such as colorimetry, multispectral reflectography, laser scanning micro-profilometry, and optical coherence tomography—to the monitoring of an Italian fourteenth-century painting cleaning process. Results presented here confirm that optical techniques play a pivotal role in artwork diagnostics, especially with regard to conservation operations, while also indicating their validity when applied to the monitoring of the cleaning process.

  8. Luminescent Tension-Indicating Orthopedic Strain Gauges for Non-Invasive Measurements Through Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anker, Jeffrey (Inventor); Rogalski, Melissa (Inventor); Anderson, Dakota (Inventor); Heath, Jonathon (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Strain gauges that can provide information with regard to the state of implantable devices are described. The strain gauges can exhibit luminescence that is detectable through living tissue, and the detectable luminescent emission can vary according to the strain applied to the gauge. A change in residual strain of the device can signify a loss of mechanical integrity and/or loosening of the implant, and this can be non-invasively detected either by simple visual detection of the luminescent emission or through examination of the emission with a detector such as a spectrometer or a camera.

  9. An alternative non-invasive treatment for Peyronie's disease

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    Joaquim A. Claro

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Surgical correction of the deformity and plaque caused by Peyronie's disease has some important disadvantages and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT emerged as a new promising therapy. We evaluated prospectively the efficacy and safety of the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT as a non-invasive treatment for the disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients 42 to 68 years old (mean = 54 presenting penile deviation and sexual distress caused by Peyronie's disease were treated in a non-invasive manner. The time of penile deviation ranged from 16 to 52 months (mean = 30. All patients had previous unsuccessful treatment for Peyronie's disease. The angulation's deformity of the penis was assessed by photography at home. The patients received vitamin E (l.200 mg daily during 3 months and underwent 3 to 6 sessions (mean = 3 of ESWT (3,000 to 4,000 shockwaves at a power level of l to 2 at 1-week intervals. RESULTS: From 25 patients treated, 16 (64% reported an improvement in penile angulation, with a mean reduction of 21 degrees (10 to 40. Eight patients reported improvement in their spontaneous erections. Overall, the patients presented only minimal bruising at the site of treatment and skin hematoma. Four patients presented urethral bleeding. The mean angulation after treatment in the control group was 48.67 degrees (30 - 70 and in the study group was 24.42 degrees (0 - 70, statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Considering the common complications and the unsatisfactory outcome of the surgical correction for Peyronie's disease, the association of high dose vitamin E and ESWT represents a good option for a non-invasive, effective and safe treatment of the penile deformity.

  10. Towards a semiquantitative non invasive characterisation of Tyrian purple dye composition: Convergence of UV-Visible reflectance spectroscopy and fast-high temperature-high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Nowik, Witold; Romani, Aldo; Cardon, Dominique; Trojanowicz, Marek; Davantès, Athénaïs; Chaminade, Pierre

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, partial least square (PLS) regression is innovatively applied for a semi-quantitative non invasive study of the most precious dye of Antiquity: Tyrian purple. This original approach for the study of organic dyes in the cultural heritage field, is based on the correlation of spectrophotometric (UV-Visible) and chromatographic (Fast-HT-HPLC-PDA) data from an extensive set of textiles prepared with different snail species according to historical recipes. A cross-validated PLS model, based on the quantity of 6,6'-dibromoindigotin, displays an excellent correlation factor (R(2)Y = 0.987) between values determined by chromatography and those predicted from reflectance spectra. This indicates that the spectral features of Tyrian purple on textile fibre is strictly related to the amount of this indigoid component whose content may be non invasively predicted from reflectance spectrum. The studied correlation also highlights that, independently of the dyeing method and nature of the textile fibre used, the relative content of 6,6'-dibromindigotin may be used as a parameter to distinguish samples prepared with Hexaplex trunculus L. snails from those prepared with further mollusc species. To validate this model, archaeological textile fragments dating from the Roman period were successfully examined. The results achieved open an absolutely new way in Tyrian purple analysis in cultural heritage by non invasive spectroscopic techniques attesting their convergence with HPLC and giving them a semi-quantitative value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-invasive brain-to-brain interface (BBI: establishing functional links between two brains.

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    Seung-Schik Yoo

    Full Text Available Transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS is capable of modulating the neural activity of specific brain regions, with a potential role as a non-invasive computer-to-brain interface (CBI. In conjunction with the use of brain-to-computer interface (BCI techniques that translate brain function to generate computer commands, we investigated the feasibility of using the FUS-based CBI to non-invasively establish a functional link between the brains of different species (i.e. human and Sprague-Dawley rat, thus creating a brain-to-brain interface (BBI. The implementation was aimed to non-invasively translate the human volunteer's intention to stimulate a rat's brain motor area that is responsible for the tail movement. The volunteer initiated the intention by looking at a strobe light flicker on a computer display, and the degree of synchronization in the electroencephalographic steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials (SSVEP with respect to the strobe frequency was analyzed using a computer. Increased signal amplitude in the SSVEP, indicating the volunteer's intention, triggered the delivery of a burst-mode FUS (350 kHz ultrasound frequency, tone burst duration of 0.5 ms, pulse repetition frequency of 1 kHz, given for 300 msec duration to excite the motor area of an anesthetized rat transcranially. The successful excitation subsequently elicited the tail movement, which was detected by a motion sensor. The interface was achieved at 94.0±3.0% accuracy, with a time delay of 1.59±1.07 sec from the thought-initiation to the creation of the tail movement. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of a computer-mediated BBI that links central neural functions between two biological entities, which may confer unexplored opportunities in the study of neuroscience with potential implications for therapeutic applications.

  12. Highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer mutations using single molecule, third generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giancarlo; Patrignani, Andrea; Poveda, Lucy; Hoehn, Frederic; Scholtka, Bettina; Schlapbach, Ralph; Garvin, Alex M

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) represents one of the most prevalent and lethal malignant neoplasms and every individual of age 50 and above should undergo regular CRC screening. Currently, the most effective preventive screening procedure to detect adenomatous polyps, the precursors to CRC, is colonoscopy. Since every colorectal cancer starts as a polyp, detecting all polyps and removing them is crucial. By exactly doing that, colonoscopy reduces CRC incidence by 80%, however it is an invasive procedure that might have unpleasant and, in rare occasions, dangerous side effects. Despite numerous efforts over the past two decades, a non-invasive screening method for the general population with detection rates for adenomas and CRC similar to that of colonoscopy has not yet been established. Recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have yet to be successfully applied to this problem, because the detection of rare mutations has been hindered by the systematic biases due to sequencing context and the base calling quality of NGS. We present the first study that applies the high read accuracy and depth of single molecule, real time, circular consensus sequencing (SMRT-CCS) to the detection of mutations in stool DNA in order to provide a non-invasive, sensitive and accurate test for CRC. In stool DNA isolated from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, we are able to detect mutations at frequencies below 0.5% with no false positives. This approach establishes a foundation for a non-invasive, highly sensitive assay to screen the population for CRC and the early stage adenomas that lead to CRC.

  13. Non-Invasive Prenatal Diagnosis of Lethal Skeletal Dysplasia by Targeted Capture Sequencing of Maternal Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Dan

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of cell-free foetal DNA in the plasma of pregnant women, many non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed. In the area of skeletal dysplasia diagnosis, some PCR-based non-invasive prenatal testing assays have been developed to facilitate the ultrasound diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias that are caused by de novo mutations. However, skeletal dysplasias are a group of heterogeneous genetic diseases, the PCR-based method is hard to detect multiple gene or loci simultaneously, and the diagnosis rate is highly dependent on the accuracy of the ultrasound diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using targeted capture sequencing to detect foetal de novo pathogenic mutations responsible for skeletal dysplasia.Three families whose foetuses were affected by skeletal dysplasia and two control families whose foetuses were affected by other single gene diseases were included in this study. Sixteen genes related to some common lethal skeletal dysplasias were selected for analysis, and probes were designed to capture the coding regions of these genes. Targeted capture sequencing was performed on the maternal plasma DNA, the maternal genomic DNA, and the paternal genomic DNA. The de novo pathogenic variants in the plasma DNA data were identified using a bioinformatical process developed for low frequency mutation detection and a strict variant interpretation strategy. The causal variants could be specifically identified in the plasma, and the results were identical to those obtained by sequencing amniotic fluid samples. Furthermore, a mean of 97% foetal specific alleles, which are alleles that are not shared by maternal genomic DNA and amniotic fluid DNA, were identified successfully in plasma samples.Our study shows that capture sequencing of maternal plasma DNA can be used to non-invasive detection of de novo pathogenic variants. This method has the potential to be used to facilitate the prenatal diagnosis

  14. The immunological response created by interstitial and non-invasive laser immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Feifan; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; West, Connor L.; Nordquist, Robert E.; Hode, Tomas; Liu, Hong; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is an innovative cancer modality that uses laser irradiation and immunological stimulation to treat late-stage, metastatic cancers. LIT can be performed through either interstitial or non-invasive laser irradiation. Although LIT is still in development, recent clinical trials have shown that it can be used to successfully treat patients with late-stage breast cancer and melanoma. The development of LIT has been focused on creating an optimal immune response created by irradiating the tumor. One important factor that could enhance the immune response is the duration of laser irradiation. Irradiating the tumor for a shorter or longer amount of time could weaken the immune response created by LIT. Another factor that could weaken this immune response is the proliferation of regulatory T cells (TRegs) in response to the laser irradiation. However, low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) can help suppress the proliferation of TRegs and help create a more optimal immune response. An additional factor that could weaken the effectiveness of LIT is the selectivity of the laser. If LIT is performed non-invasively, then deeply embedded tumors and highly pigmented skin could cause an uneven temperature distribution inside the tumor. To solve this problem, an immunologically modified carbon nanotube system was created by using an immunoadjuvant known as glycated chitosan (GC) as a surfactant for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to immunologically modify SWNTs. SWNT-GC retains the optical properties of SWNTs and the immunological functions of GC to help increase the selectivity of the laser and create a more optimal immune response. In this preliminary study, tumor-bearing rats were treated with LIT either interstitially by an 805-nm laser with GC and low-dose CY, or non-invasively by a 980-nm laser with SWNT-GC. The goal was to observe the effects of CY on the immune response induced by LIT and to also determine the effect of irradiation duration for

  15. Optical coherence tomography: a non-invasive technique applied to conservation of paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Haida; Gomez Cid, Marta; Cucu, Radu; Dobre, George; Kudimov, Boris; Pedro, Justin; Saunders, David; Cupitt, John; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    It is current practice to take tiny samples from a painting to mount and examine in cross-section under a microscope. However, since conservation practice and ethics limit sampling to a minimum and to areas along cracks and edges of paintings, which are often unrepresentative of the whole painting, results from such analyses cannot be taken as representative of a painting as a whole. Recently in a preliminary study, we have demonstrated that near-infrared Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) can be used directly on paintings to examine the cross-section of paint and varnish layers without contact and the need to take samples. OCT is an optical interferometric technique developed for in vivo imaging of the eye and biological tissues; it is essentially a scanning Michelson's interferometer with a "broad-band" source that has the spatial coherence of a laser. The low temporal coherence and high spatial concentration of the source are the keys to high depth resolution and high sensitivity 3D imaging. The technique is non-invasive and non-contact with a typical working distance of 2 cm. This non-invasive technique enables cross-sections to be examined anywhere on a painting. In this paper, we will report new results on applying near-infrared en-face OCT to paintings conservation and extend the application to the examination of underdrawings, drying processes, and quantitative measurements of optical properties of paint and varnish layers.

  16. Non-invasive pulmonary function test on Morquio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubaski, Francyne; Tomatsu, Shunji; Patel, Pravin; Shimada, Tsutomu; Xie, Li; Yasuda, Eriko; Mason, Robert; Mackenzie, William G; Theroux, Mary; Bober, Michael B; Oldham, Helen M; Orii, Tadao; Shaffer, Thomas H

    2015-08-01

    In clinical practice, respiratory function tests are difficult to perform in Morquio syndrome patients due to their characteristic skeletal dysplasia, small body size and lack of cooperation of young patients, where in some cases, conventional spirometry for pulmonary function is too challenging. To establish feasible clinical pulmonary endpoints and determine whether age impacts lung function in Morquio patients non-invasive pulmonary tests and conventional spirometry were evaluated. The non-invasive pulmonary tests: impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography in conjunction with conventional spirometry were evaluated in twenty-two Morquio patients (18 Morquio A and 4 Morquio B) (7 males), ranging from 3 to 40 years of age. Twenty-two patients were compliant with non-invasive tests (100%) with the exception of IOS (81.8%-18 patients). Seventeen patients (77.3%) were compliant with spirometry testing. All subjects had normal vital signs at rest including >95% oxygen saturation, end tidal CO2 (38-44 mmHg), and age-appropriate heart rate (mean=98.3, standard deviation=19) (two patients were deviated). All patients preserved normal values in the impulse oscillometry system, pneumotachography, and respiratory inductance plethysmography, although predicted forced expiratory total (72.8±6.9 SE%) decreased with age and was below normal; phase angle (35.5±16.5°), %rib cage (41.6±12.7%), resonant frequency, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced expiratory volume total (110.0±3.2 SE%) were normal and not significantly impacted by age. The proposed non-invasive pulmonary function tests are able to cover a greater number of patients (young patients and/or wheel-chair bound), thus providing a new diagnostic approach for the assessment of lung function in Morquio syndrome which in many cases may be difficult to evaluate. Morquio patients studied herein demonstrated no clinical or functional signs of restrictive and

  17. Towards a smart non-invasive fluid loss measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadevara, N K; Mukhopadhyay, S C; Barrack, L

    2015-04-01

    In this article, a smart wireless sensing non-invasive system for estimating the amount of fluid loss, a person experiences while physical activity is presented. The system measures three external body parameters, Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response (GSR, or skin conductance), and Skin Temperature. These three parameters are entered into an empirically derived formula along with the user's body mass index, and estimation for the amount of fluid lost is determined. The core benefit of the developed system is the affluence usage in combining with smart home monitoring systems to care elderly people in ambient assisted living environments as well in automobiles to monitor the body parameters of a motorist.

  18. Cell-baswd non-invasive prenatal testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldbjerg, Niels; Singh, Ripudaman; Christensen, Rikke

    CONTROL ID: 2520273 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: OC06.03 TITLE: Cell based Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Niels Uldbjerg2, Ripudaman Singh4, Rikke Christensen3, Palle Schelde4, Ida Vogel1, Else Marie Vestergaard3, Lotte Hatt4, Steen Kølvrå4 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1....... Department of Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus N, none, Denmark. 2. Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark. 3. Clinical Genetics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark. 4. Arcedi Biotech Aps, Aarhus, Denmark. ABSTRACT BODY: Objectives: NIPT...

  19. PEEP in non invasive ventilatory treatment of worsened BPCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease is usually treated with bilevel pressure non invasive ventilation. An high inspiratory pressure is used to improve tidal volume, a lower expiratory pressure is used to neutralize end expiratory positive pressure of patient (PEEPi caused by flow limitation and airway trapping. When ventilators for bilevel pressure ventilation are not available, is useful to administer to patient an external low (5cmH2O positive pressure with simple CPAP systems (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, such as Venturi like flow generator largely available and well known everywhere.

  20. Biomechanics of subcellular structures by non-invasive Brillouin microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonacci, Giuseppe; Braakman, Sietse

    2016-11-01

    Cellular biomechanics play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of several diseases. Unfortunately, current methods to measure biomechanical properties are invasive and mostly limited to the surface of a cell. As a result, the mechanical behaviour of subcellular structures and organelles remains poorly characterised. Here, we show three-dimensional biomechanical images of single cells obtained with non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin microscopy with an unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results quantify the longitudinal elastic modulus of subcellular structures. In particular, we found the nucleoli to be stiffer than both the nuclear envelope (p biomechanics and its role in pathophysiology.

  1. A study on a robot arm driven by three-dimensional trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Park, Sung Woo; Yeom, Hong Gi; Bang, Moon Suk; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee; Kim, Sungwan

    2015-08-20

    A brain-machine interface (BMI) should be able to help people with disabilities by replacing their lost motor functions. To replace lost functions, robot arms have been developed that are controlled by invasive neural signals. Although invasive neural signals have a high spatial resolution, non-invasive neural signals are valuable because they provide an interface without surgery. Thus, various researchers have developed robot arms driven by non-invasive neural signals. However, robot arm control based on the imagined trajectory of a human hand can be more intuitive for patients. In this study, therefore, an integrated robot arm-gripper system (IRAGS) that is driven by three-dimensional (3D) hand trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals was developed and verified. The IRAGS was developed by integrating a six-degree of freedom robot arm and adaptive robot gripper. The system was used to perform reaching and grasping motions for verification. The non-invasive neural signals, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), were obtained to control the system. The 3D trajectories were predicted by multiple linear regressions. A target sphere was placed at the terminal point of the real trajectories, and the system was commanded to grasp the target at the terminal point of the predicted trajectories. The average correlation coefficient between the predicted and real trajectories in the MEG case was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). In the EEG case, it was [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). The success rates in grasping the target plastic sphere were 18.75 and 7.50 % with MEG and EEG, respectively. The success rates of touching the target were 52.50 and 58.75 % respectively. A robot arm driven by 3D trajectories predicted from non-invasive neural signals was implemented, and reaching and grasping motions were performed. In most cases, the robot closely approached the target, but the success rate was not very high because

  2. Improved Anatomical Specificity of Non-invasive Neuro-stimulation by High Frequency (5 MHz) Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Feng; Zhao, Hui-Xia; Zhou, Hui; Yan, Fei; Wang, Jing-Yao; Xu, Chang-Xi; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Niu, Li-Li; Meng, Long; Wu, Song; Zhang, Huai-Ling; Qiu, Wei-Bao; Zheng, Hai-Rong

    2016-04-01

    Low frequency ultrasound (neuro-stimulation. However, the focal width is limited to be half centimeter scale. Minimizing the stimulation region with higher frequency ultrasound will provide a great opportunity to expand its application. This study first time examines the feasibility of using high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound to achieve neuro-stimulation in brain, and verifies the anatomical specificity of neuro-stimulation in vivo. 1 MHz and 5 MHz ultrasound stimulation were evaluated in the same group of mice. Electromyography (EMG) collected from tail muscles together with the motion response videos were analyzed for evaluating the stimulation effects. Our results indicate that 5 MHz ultrasound can successfully achieve neuro-stimulation. The equivalent diameter (ED) of the stimulation region with 5 MHz ultrasound (0.29 ± 0.08 mm) is significantly smaller than that with 1 MHz (0.83 ± 0.11 mm). The response latency of 5 MHz ultrasound (45 ± 31 ms) is also shorter than that of 1 MHz ultrasound (208 ± 111 ms). Consequently, high frequency (5 MHz) ultrasound can successfully activate the brain circuits in mice. It provides a smaller stimulation region, which offers improved anatomical specificity for neuro-stimulation in a non-invasive manner.

  3. Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modelling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment.

  4. Non-invasive Respiratory Support in Blunt Chest Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Lobus

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To optimize the results of treatment in patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF due to lung contusion, by using the methods of non-invasive mask respiratory support. Materials and methods. The study covered 31 patients with severe blunt chest injury, multiple costal fractures, and hypoxemic ARF. The patients underwent assisted ventilation (AV in the CPAP+PSV mode through a facial or nasal mask. Physiological parameters were recorded during non-invasive mask ventilation (NIMV in the stepwise fashion. A control group comprised 25 patients with the similar severity of injury and ARF who were given conventional AV.Results. In 67.7% of the study group patients, NIMV was effective in improving oxygenation and external respiration, without exerting negative hemodynamic effects. Endotracheal intubation and AV could be avoided in these patients. Comparison of the study and control groups revealed a significant reduction in the incidence of secondary pneumonias in the NIMV group and in the duration of treatment. Mask ventilation could decrease mortality from 44% in the control group to 9.7% in the NIMV group.Conclusion. NIMV applied to patients with hypoxemic ARF in the presence of lung contusion improves pulmonary function and, in the bulk of patients, allows endotracheal intubation and AV and consequently their associated complications. When mask ventilation is employed, management of patients becomes shorter and simpler and mortality rates substantially decrease. 

  5. Sleep-related breathing disorders and non-invasive ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Lax

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NPPV was originally used in patients with acute respiratory impairment or exacerbations of chronic respiratory diseases, as an alternative to the endotracheal tube. Over the last thirty years NPPV has been also used at night in patients with stable chronic lung disease such as obstructive sleep apnea, the overlap syndrome (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea, neuromuscular disorders, obesity-hypoventilation syndrome, and in other conditions such as sleep disorders associated with congestive heart failure (Cheyne-Stokes respiration. In this no-systematic review we discuss the different types of NPPV, the specific conditions in which they can be used and the indications, recommendations and evidence supporting the efficacy of NPPV. Optimizing patient acceptance and adherence to non-invasive ventilation treatment is challenging. The treatment of sleep-related disorders is a life-threatening condition. The optimal level of treatment should be determined in a sleep laboratory. Side effects directly affecting the patient’s adherence to treatment are known. The most common are nasopharyngeal symptoms including increased congestion and rhinorrhea; these effects are related to reduced humidity of inspired gas. Humidification of delivered gas may improve these symptoms.

  6. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier; Paolo; Mainenti; Federica; Romano; Laura; Pizzuti; Sabrina; Segreto; Giovanni; Storto; Lorenzo; Mannelli; Massimo; Imbriaco; Luigi; Camera; Simone; Maurea

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases(CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liverdirected therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  7. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  8. Influence of hemoglobin on non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Gong, Qiliang; Zou, Da; Xu, Kexin

    2012-03-01

    Since the abnormal metabolism of bilirubin could lead to diseases in the human body, especially the jaundice which is harmful to neonates. Traditional invasive measurements are difficult to be accepted by people because of pain and infection. Therefore, the real-time and non-invasive measurement of bilirubin is of great significance. However, the accuracy of currently transcutaneous bilirubinometry(TcB) is generally not high enough, and affected by many factors in the human skin, mostly by hemoglobin. In this talk, absorption spectra of hemoglobin and bilirubin have been collected and analyzed, then the Partial Least Squares (PLS) models have been built. By analyzing and comparing the Correlation and Root Mean Square Error of Prediction(RMSEP), the results show that the Correlation of bilirubin solution model is larger than that of the mixture solution added with hemoglobin, and its RMSEP value is smaller than that of mixture solution. Therefore, hemoglobin has influences on the non-invasive optical bilirubin sensing. In next step, it is necessary to investigate how to eliminate the influence.

  9. Non-invasive measurement of oxygen diffusion in model foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Kanishka; Sablani, Shyam S; Tang, Juming; Rasco, Barbara

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we developed a non-invasive method to determine oxygen diffusivity (DO2) in food gels using an Oxydot luminescence sensor. We designed and fabricated a transparent diffusion cell in order to represent oxygen transfer into foods packaged in an 8-ounce polymeric tray. Oxydots were glued to the sides (side-dot) and bottom (bottom-dot) of the cell and filled with 1, 2, and 3% (w/v) agar gel as a model food. After deoxygenation, local oxygen concentrations in the gels were measured non-invasively at 4, 12 and 22°C. Effective oxygen diffusivities in gels (DO2g) and water (DO2w) were obtained after fitting experimental data to the analytical solution (data from side-dot) and the numerical solution (data from bottom-dot) to Fick's second law. Temperature had significant positive influence (P0.05) was found between the activation energy (Ea) of water and gels (1-3% w/v) for temperatures ranging from 4 to 22°C. We used a combined obstruction and hydrodynamic model to explain why DO2g decreased as gel concentration increased. The method developed in this study can be used to study the oxygen diffusivity in foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Non-invasive diagnostic imaging of colorectal liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Romano, Federica; Pizzuti, Laura; Segreto, Sabrina; Storto, Giovanni; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Imbriaco, Massimo; Camera, Luigi; Maurea, Simone

    2015-07-28

    Colorectal cancer is one of the few malignant tumors in which synchronous or metachronous liver metastases [colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs)] may be treated with surgery. It has been demonstrated that resection of CRLMs improves the long-term prognosis. On the other hand, patients with un-resectable CRLMs may benefit from chemotherapy alone or in addition to liver-directed therapies. The choice of the most appropriate therapeutic management of CRLMs depends mostly on the diagnostic imaging. Nowadays, multiple non-invasive imaging modalities are available and those have a pivotal role in the workup of patients with CRLMs. Although extensive research has been performed with regards to the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography, computed tomography, positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance for the detection of CRLMs, the optimal imaging strategies for staging and follow up are still to be established. This largely due to the progressive technological and pharmacological advances which are constantly improving the accuracy of each imaging modality. This review describes the non-invasive imaging approaches of CRLMs reporting the technical features, the clinical indications, the advantages and the potential limitations of each modality, as well as including some information on the development of new imaging modalities, the role of new contrast media and the feasibility of using parametric image analysis as diagnostic marker of presence of CRLMs.

  11. Modulation of Untruthful Responses with Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Shirley; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    Deceptive abilities have long been studied in relation to personality traits. More recently, studies explored the neural substrates associated with deceptive skills suggesting a critical role of the prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated whether non-invasive brain stimulation over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) could modulate generation of untruthful responses about subject’s personal life across contexts (i.e., deceiving on guilt-free questions on daily activities; generating previously memorized lies about past experience; and producing spontaneous lies about past experience), as well as across modality responses (verbal and motor responses). Results reveal that real, but not sham, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the DLPFC can reduce response latency for untruthful over truthful answers across contexts and modality responses. Also, contexts of lies seem to incur a different hemispheric laterality. These findings add up to previous studies demonstrating that it is possible to modulate some processes involved in generation of untruthful answers by applying non-invasive brain stimulation over the DLPFC and extend these findings by showing a differential hemispheric contribution of DLPFCs according to contexts. PMID:23550273

  12. Non-invasive quantification of brain tumor-induced astrogliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baird Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CNS injury including stroke, infection, and tumor growth lead to astrogliosis, a process that involves upregulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in astrocytes. However, the kinetics of astrogliosis that is related to these insults (i.e. tumor is largely unknown. Results Using transgenic mice expressing firefly luciferase under the regulation of the GFAP promoter (GFAP-luc, we developed a model system to monitor astrogliosis upon tumor growth in a rapid, non-invasive manner. A biphasic induction of astrogliosis was observed in our xenograft model in which an early phase of activation of GFAP was associated with inflammatory response followed by a secondary, long-term upregulation of GFAP. These animals reveal GFAP activation with kinetics that is in parallel with tumor growth. Furthermore, a strong correlation between astrogliosis and tumor size was observed. Conclusions Our results suggest that non-invasive, quantitative bioluminescent imaging using GFAP-luc reporter animal is a useful tool to monitor temporal-spatial kinetics of host-mediated astrogliosis that is associated with glioma and metastatic brain tumor growth.

  13. Clinical role of non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Massimo; Di Pascoli, Marco; Sacerdoti, David

    2017-01-07

    Measurement of portal pressure is pivotal in the evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient represents the reference method by which portal pressure is estimated. However, it is an invasive procedure that requires significant hospital resources, including experienced staff, and is associated with considerable cost. Non-invasive methods that can be reliably used to estimate the presence and the degree of portal hypertension are urgently needed in clinical practice. Biochemical and morphological parameters have been proposed for this purpose, but have shown disappointing results overall. Splanchnic Doppler ultrasonography and the analysis of microbubble contrast agent kinetics with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography have shown better accuracy for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension. A key advancement in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension has been the introduction in clinical practice of methods able to measure stiffness in the liver, as well as stiffness/congestion in the spleen. According to the data published to date, it appears to be possible to rule out clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis (i.e., hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥ 10 mmHg) with a level of clinically-acceptable accuracy by combining measurements of liver stiffness and spleen stiffness along with Doppler ultrasound evaluation. It is probable that the combination of these methods may also allow for the identification of patients with the most serious degree of portal hypertension, and ongoing research is helping to ensure progress in this field.

  14. Using of Telomerase Enzyme in Urine as a Non invasive Marker for Cancer Bladder Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza A Hassan*, Fawzia A . El- Sheshtawey** , Seliem A. Seliem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary bladder cancer is one of the major health problem all over the world. Cystoscopy remains the gold standard for identifying bladder cancer but it is invasive and expensive, therefore, a simple, non invasive test for detecting bladder cancer would be helpful. Several biomarkers for bladder cancer have been used, but no single marker has been accurate and conclusive. Aim: The current study aimed to measure telomerase enzyme in urine as a useful non invasive marker for detection of bladder cancer. Methods : Forty eight patients ( 39 males and 9 females were included, They are complaining of urinary symptoms and undergo cystoscopy with biopsy of bladder lesions and histopathological examination. They were divided into groups: Group I: 16 patients ( 11 males and 5 females have benign urologic conditions. Group II: 32 patients (28 males and 4 females have proven bladder cancer patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor or cystoscopy with biopsy of bladder lesions. Also, 15 apparently healthy volunteers with matched age and sex with patients were served as a control group. All subjects were submitted to laboratory estimation of the following in urine: urinary creatinine, urine cytology, telomerase enzyme in urine by telomerase PCR and complete urine examination. Results : The results of this study revealed that a highly significant increase in the frequency of cytolological positive cases for tumor cells in malignant group than each of benign group and healthy subjects, while no significant difference was detected between benign group and healthy subjects. The frequency of telomerase in urine was significantly higher in malignant group than each of benign group and healthy subjects, while no significant difference was detected between benign group and healthy subjects. The telomerase activity has sensitivity of 90.6% for diagnosis of cancer bladder with 93.7% for specificity and PPV was 96.6%, NPV was 83.3% and

  15. Non-invasive assessment of adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganswindt, Stefanie B; Myburgh, Jan G; Cameron, Elissa Z; Ganswindt, Andre

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of stress-inducing factors in captive crocodilians is a concern, since chronic stress can negatively affect animal health and reproduction, and hence production. Monitoring stress in wild crocodiles could also be beneficial for assessing the state of health in populations which are potentially threatened by environmental pollution. In both cases, a non-invasive approach to assess adrenocortical function as a measure of stress would be preferable, as animals are not disturbed during sample collection, and therefore sampling is feedback-free. So far, however, such a non-invasive method has not been established for any crocodilian species. As an initial step, we therefore examined the suitability of two enzyme-immunoassays, detecting faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs) with a 11β,21-diol-20-one and 5β-3α-ol-11-one structure, respectively, for monitoring stress-related physiological responses in captive Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus). An adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge was performed on 10 sub-adult crocodiles, resulting in an overall increase in serum corticosterone levels of 272% above the pre-injection levels 5h post-injection. Saline-treated control animals (n=8) showed an overall increase of 156% in serum corticosterone levels 5h post-administration. Faecal samples pre- and post-injection could be obtained from three of the six individually housed crocodiles, resulting in FGM concentrations 136-380% above pre-injection levels, always detected in the first sample collected post-treatment (7-15 days post-injection). FGM concentrations seem comparatively stable at ambient temperatures for up to 72 h post-defaecation. In conclusion, non-invasive hormone monitoring can be used for assessing adrenocortical function in captive Nile crocodiles based on FGM analysis.

  16. Invasive clonal plant species have a greater root-foraging plasticity than non-invasive ones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Lidewij H; Dawson, Wayne; Song, Yao-Bin; Yu, Fei-Hai; Fischer, Markus; Dong, Ming; van Kleunen, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Clonality is frequently positively correlated with plant invasiveness, but which aspects of clonality make some clonal species more invasive than others is not known. Due to their spreading growth form, clonal plants are likely to experience spatial heterogeneity in nutrient availability. Plasticity in allocation of biomass to clonal growth organs and roots may allow these plants to forage for high-nutrient patches. We investigated whether this foraging response is stronger in species that have become invasive than in species that have not. We used six confamilial pairs of native European clonal plant species differing in invasion success in the USA. We grew all species in large pots under homogeneous or heterogeneous nutrient conditions in a greenhouse, and compared their nutrient-foraging response and performance. Neither invasive nor non-invasive species showed significant foraging responses to heterogeneity in clonal growth organ biomass or in aboveground biomass of clonal offspring. Invasive species had, however, a greater positive foraging response in terms of root and belowground biomass than non-invasive species. Invasive species also produced more total biomass. Our results suggest that the ability for strong root foraging is among the characteristics promoting invasiveness in clonal plants.

  17. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of myocardial apoptosis and necrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flotats, Albert; Carrio, Ignasi [Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2003-04-01

    Myocardial necrosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders and can result from different myocardial insults. Its non-invasive identification and localisation therefore may help in the diagnosis of these disorders, as well as in prognosis and assessment of treatment response. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is important in the spectrum of myocardial damage since it is gradually becoming more apparent that cell death may begin as apoptosis and not as necrosis. First attempts to directly visualise the area of myocardial necrosis were based on recognition of myocardial infarction with ''hot spot imaging agents'' in patients with chest pain. Since then, the study of myocardial necrosis with gamma imaging agents has gone beyond the detection of myocardial infarction, and attempts have been made to diagnose other cardiovascular disorders associated with cardiac cell death such as heart transplant rejection, myocarditis, cardiotoxicity and cardiomyopathies. Traditionally, two hot spot imaging agents have been used for the detection of myocardial necrosis, {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate and {sup 111}In-antimyosin. In addition, preliminary studies have demonstrated promising results with {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate. Recently, {sup 99m}Tc-annexin V has been successfully used for non-invasive gamma imaging of apoptosis after acute myocardial infarction, acute myocardial ischaemia, acute cardiac allograft rejection and malignant intracardiac tumours. This review article focusses on the characteristics of these different myocardial necrotic and apoptotic markers and compares their role in the assessment of myocardial damage. (orig.)

  18. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaram, Prashanth; Owens, Dawn; Aceros, Juan

    2014-04-21

    Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring.

  19. Injury and repair in perinatal brain injury: Insights from non-invasive MR perfusion imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermark, Pia

    2015-03-01

    Injury to the developing brain remains an important complication in critically ill newborns, placing them at risk for future neurodevelopment impairments. Abnormal brain perfusion is often a key mechanism underlying neonatal brain injury. A better understanding of how alternations in brain perfusion can affect normal brain development will permit the development of therapeutic strategies that prevent and/or minimize brain injury and improve the neurodevelopmental outcome of these high-risk newborns. Recently, non-invasive MR perfusion imaging of the brain has been successfully applied to the neonatal brain, which is known to be smaller and have lower brain perfusion compared to older children and adults. This article will present an overview of the potential role of non-invasive perfusion imaging by MRI to study maturation, injury, and repair in perinatal brain injury and demonstrate why this perfusion sequence is an important addition to current neonatal imaging protocols, which already include different sequences to assess the anatomy and metabolism of the neonatal brain.

  20. Trojan Horse Strategy for Non-invasive Interference of Clock Gene in the Oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Laura; Perrigault, Mickael; Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marcel, Anjara; Massabuau, Jean-Charles; Tran, Damien

    2017-08-01

    RNA interference is a powerful method to inhibit specific gene expression. Recently, silencing target genes by feeding has been successfully carried out in nematodes, insects, and small aquatic organisms. A non-invasive feeding-based RNA interference is reported here for the first time in a mollusk bivalve, the pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. In this Trojan horse strategy, the unicellular alga Heterocapsa triquetra is the food supply used as a vector to feed oysters with Escherichia coli strain HT115 engineered to express the double-stranded RNA targeting gene. To test the efficacy of the method, the Clock gene, a central gene of the circadian clock, was targeted for knockout. Results demonstrated specific and systemic efficiency of the Trojan horse strategy in reducing Clock mRNA abundance. Consequences of Clock disruption were observed in Clock-related genes (Bmal, Tim1, Per, Cry1, Cry2, Rev.-erb, and Ror) and triploid oysters were more sensitive than diploid to the interference. This non-invasive approach shows an involvement of the circadian clock in oyster bioaccumulation of toxins produced by the harmful alga Alexandrium minutum.

  1. Non-invasive prenatal testing using cell-free fetal DNA in maternal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Gary J W; Gronowski, Ann M; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-20

    The identification of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) in maternal circulation has made non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) possible. Maternal plasma cell free DNA is a mixture of maternal and fetal DNA, of which, fetal DNA represents a minor population in maternal plasma. Therefore, methods with high sensitivity and precision are required to detect and differentiate fetal DNA from the large background of maternal DNA. In recent years, technical advances in the molecular analysis of fetal DNA (e.g., digital PCR and massively parallel sequencing (MPS)) has enabled the successful implementation of noninvasive testing into clinical practice, such as fetal sex assessment, RhD genotyping, and fetal chromosomal aneuploidy detection.With the ability to decipher the entire fetal genome from maternal plasma DNA, we foresee that an increased number of non-invasive prenatal tests will be available for detecting many single-gene disorders in the near future. This review briefly summarizes the technical aspects of the NIPT and application of NIPT in clinical practice.

  2. Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Makaram

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring.

  3. Non-invasive, serum DNA pregnancy testing leading to incidental discovery of cancer: a good thing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2015-11-01

    Cell-free DNA for perinatal screening is a growing industry. Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is based on the premise that foetal DNA is able to cross the placental barrier and enter the mother's circulation, where it can be examined for chromosomal abnormalities, such as trisomy 13, 18 or 21. Such tests are expected to be widely used by pregnant women, with the annual market expected to surpass $1 billion. Recently, a number of case reports have emerged in the haematology-oncology literature. The routine use of NIPT has led to the discovery of maternal neoplasms. Most writers have concluded that this is yet another benefit of the test; however, a closer examination of the cases reveals that this incidental detection may not improve patient outcomes. In some cases, early detection provides lead time bias, but does not change the ultimate clinical outcome, and in other cases, detection constitutes earlier knowledge of a cancer whose natural history cannot be altered. Here, we explore in detail cases where cancer was incidentally discovered among women undergoing routine non-invasive pregnancy testing, and investigate whether or not these women were benefitted by the discovery.

  4. In vivo non-invasive multiphoton tomography of human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Karsten; Riemann, Iris; Ehlers, Alexander; Le Harzic, Ronan

    2005-10-01

    High resolution non-invasive 3D imaging devices are required to detect pathogenic microorganisms such as Anthrax spores, bacteria, viruses, fungi and chemical agents entering biological tissues such as the epidermis. Due to the low light penetration depth and the biodamage potential, ultraviolet light sources can not be employed to realize intratissue imaging of bio- and chemohazards. We report on the novel near infrared laser technology multiphoton tomography and the high resolution 4D imaging tool DermaInspect for non-invasive detection of intratissue agents and their influence on cellular metabolism based on multiphoton autofluorescence imaging (MAI) and second harmonic generation (SHG). Femtosecond laser pulses in the spectral range of 750 nm to 850 nm have been used to image in vivo human skin with subcellular spatial and picosecond temporal resolution. The non-linear induced autofluorescence of both, skin tissues and microorganisms, originates mainly from naturally endogenous fluorophores/protein structures like NAD(P)H, flavins, keratin, collagen, elastin, porphyrins and melanin. Bacteria emit in the blue/green spectral range due to NAD(P)H and flavoproteins and, in certain cases, in the red spectral range due to the biosynthesis of Zn-porphyrins, coproporphyrin and protoporphyrin. Collagen and exogenous non-centrosymmetric molecules can be detected by SHG signals. The system DermaInspect consists of a wavelength-tunable compact 80/90 MHz Ti:sapphire laser, a scan module with galvo scan mirrors, piezo-driven objective, fast photon detector and time-resolved single photon counting unit. It can be used to perform optical sectioning and 3D autofluorescence lifetime imaging (τ-mapping) with 1 μm spatial resolution and 270 ps temporal resolution. The parameter fluorescence lifetime depends on the type of fluorophore and its microenvironment and can be used to distinguish bio- and chemohazards from cellular background and to gain information for pathogen

  5. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making.

  6. Non-invasive measurement of pressure gradients using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A non-invasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. The method relies on in-plane vector velocity fields acquired using the Transverse Oscillation method. The pressure gradients are estimated by applying the Navier-Stokes equations...... Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The results are validated through finite element simulations of the carotid flow model where the geometry is determined from MR images. This proof of concept study was conducted at nine ultrasound frames per second. Estimated pressure gradients along...... the longitudinal direction of the constriction varied from 0 kPa/m to 10 kPa/m with a normalized bias of -9.1% for the axial component and -7.9% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator, given in reference to the peak gradient, was 28.4% in the axial direction and 64...

  7. Non-invasive brainstem monitoring: the ocular microtremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, James; Timmons, Shelly

    2007-10-01

    The ocular microtremor (OMT) is mediated by the oculomotor area of the brainstem and is altered in several pathologic states, including traumatic brain injury, general anesthesia, brain death, coma, Parkinsonism and multiple sclerosis. The EYETECT tremor monitor is a non-invasive means of measuring the frequency and amplitude of this microscopic tremor. It has been clinically tested in these clinical scenarios and has been found to be a reliable means of detecting the depth of anesthesia, and has been useful in predicting outcome in coma and traumatic brain injury patients and in confirming brain death. This paper reviews the scientific literature on the EYETECT OMT monitor, describes the underlying physiology and discusses the potential for future works and clinical use of this innovative technology.

  8. Neurophotonics: non-invasive optical techniques for monitoring brain functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Contini, Davide; Mora, Alberto Dalla; Pifferi, Antonio; Re, Rebecca; Zucchelli, Lucia; Caffini, Matteo; Farina, Andrea; Spinelli, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this review is to present the state of the art of neurophotonics, a recently founded discipline lying at the interface between optics and neuroscience. While neurophotonics also includes invasive techniques for animal studies, in this review we focus only on the non-invasive methods that use near infrared light to probe functional activity in the brain, namely the fast optical signal, diffuse correlation spectroscopy, and functional near infrared spectroscopy methods. We also present an overview of the physical principles of light propagation in biological tissues, and of the main physiological sources of signal. Finally, we discuss the open issues in models, instrumentation, data analysis and clinical approaches. PMID:25764252

  9. Non-invasive exploration in an environmentally sensitive world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livo, K.E.; Knepper, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Modern remote sensing provides a means for locating and characterizing exposed mineralized systems in many parts of the world. These capabilities are non-invasive and help target specific areas for more detailed exploration. An example of how remote sensing technology can be used is evident from a study of the Questa Mining District, New Mexico. Analysis of low spectral resolution data from the Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite system clearly shows the regional distribution of two broad mineral groups often associated with mineralized systems: clay-carbonate-sulfate and iron oxides-iron hydroxides. Analysis of high spectral resolution data from the Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging System (AVIRIS) shows the occurrence and distribution of many individual mineral species that characterize the pattern of hydrothermally altered rocks in the district.

  10. Eyeblink conditioning: a non-invasive biomarker for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Fox, Nathan A

    2015-02-01

    Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In the current paper, we review studies that have employed EBC as a biomarker for several neurodevelopmental disorders including fetal alcohol syndrome, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, specific language impairment, and schizophrenia. In addition, we discuss the benefits of using such a tool in individuals with ASD.

  11. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P

    2008-01-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  12. Non-invasive beamforming add-on module

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-02-23

    An embodiment of a non-invasive beamforming add-on apparatus couples to an existing antenna port and rectifies the beam azimuth in the upstream and downstream directions. The apparatus comprises input circuitry that is configured to receive one or more signals from a neighboring node of the linear wireless sensor network; first amplifier circuitry configured to adjust an amplitude of a respective received signal in accordance with a weighting coefficient and invoke a desired phase to a carrier frequency of the received signal thereby forming a first amplified signal; and second amplifier circuitry configured to adjust a gain of the first amplified signal towards upstream and downstream neighbors of the linear wireless sensor in the linear wireless sensor network.

  13. Moral Enhancement Using Non-invasive Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, R. Ryan; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Biomedical enhancement refers to the use of biomedical interventions to improve capacities beyond normal, rather than to treat deficiencies due to diseases. Enhancement can target physical or cognitive capacities, but also complex human behaviors such as morality. However, the complexity of normal moral behavior makes it unlikely that morality is a single capacity that can be deficient or enhanced. Instead, our central hypothesis will be that moral behavior results from multiple, interacting cognitive-affective networks in the brain. First, we will test this hypothesis by reviewing evidence for modulation of moral behavior using non-invasive brain stimulation. Next, we will discuss how this evidence affects ethical issues related to the use of moral enhancement. We end with the conclusion that while brain stimulation has the potential to alter moral behavior, such alteration is unlikely to improve moral behavior in all situations, and may even lead to less morally desirable behavior in some instances. PMID:28275345

  14. Physician liability and non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toews, Maeghan; Caulfield, Timothy

    2014-10-01

    Although non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) marks a notable development in the field of prenatal genetic testing, there are some physician liability considerations raised by this technology. As NIPT is still emerging as the standard of care and is just starting to receive provincial funding, the question arises of whether physicians are obligated to disclose the availability of NIPT to eligible patients as part of the physician-patient discussion about prenatal screening and diagnosis. If NIPT is discussed with patients, it is important to disclose the limitations of this technology with respect to its accuracy and the number of disorders that it can detect when compared with invasive diagnostic options. A failure to sufficiently disclose these limitations could leave patients with false assurances about the health of their fetuses and could raise informed consent and liability issues, particularly if a child is born with a disability as a result.

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethics and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities.

  16. Non-invasive assessment of phonatory and respiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Evaluation of vocal pathology and the accompanying dysphonia should include an assessment of laryngeal structure and mobility as well as respiratory dynamics. Laryngeal structure is best observed through laryngoscopy which provides an accurate assessment of the tissues and their mobility. Respiratory measures of lung volume, air-flow and pressure, and breathing dynamics are typically determined via spirometry and pneumotachography. While the above are traditional invasive procedures which interfere with normal speech production, recent advances in electronic technology have resulted in the development of non-invasive procedures to assess phonatory and respiratory dynamics. These procedures, when used as an adjunct to laryngoscopy, can provide information that is useful in the diagnosis and management of vocal tract dysfunction. The Laryngograph and Computer-Aided Fluency Establishment Trainer, described here, are examples of this new technology.

  17. Non-Invasive in vivo Imaging in Small Animal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Koo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive real time in vivo molecular imaging in small animal models has become the essential bridge between in vitro data and their translation into clinical applications. The tremendous development and technological progress, such as tumour modelling, monitoring of tumour growth and detection of metastasis, has facilitated translational drug development. This has added to our knowledge on carcinogenesis. The modalities that are commonly used include Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, Computed Tomography (CT, Positron Emission Tomography (PET, bioluminescence imaging, fluorescence imaging and multi-modality imaging systems. The ability to obtain multiple images longitudinally provides reliable information whilst reducing animal numbers. As yet there is no one modality that is ideal for all experimental studies. This review outlines the instrumentation available together with corresponding applications reported in the literature with particular emphasis on cancer research. Advantages and limitations to current imaging technology are discussed and the issues concerning small animal care during imaging are highlighted.

  18. Non invasive sensing technologies for cultural heritage management and fruition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The relevance of the information produced by science and technology for the knowledge of the cultural heritage depends on the quality of the feedback and, consequently, on the "cultural" distance between scientists and end-users. In particular, the solution to this problem mainly resides in the capability of end-users' capability to assess and transform the knowledge produced by diagnostics with regard to: information on both cultural objects and sites (decay patterns, vulnerability, presence of buried archaeological remains); decision making (management plan, conservation project, and excavation plan). From our experience in the field of the cultural heritage and namely the conservation, of monuments, there is a significant gap of information between technologists (geophysicists/physicists/engineers) and end-users (conservators/historians/architects). This cultural gap is due to the difficulty to interpret "indirect data" produced by non invasive diagnostics (i.e. radargrams/thermal images/seismic tomography etc..) in order to provide information useful to improve the historical knowledge (e.g. the chronology of the different phases of a building), to characterise the state of conservation (e.g. detection of cracks in the masonry) and to monitor in time cultural heritage artifacts and sites. The possible answer to this difficulty is in the set-up of a knowledge chain regarding the following steps: - Integrated application of novel and robust data processing methods; - Augmented reality as a tool for making easier the interpretation of non invasive - investigations for the analysis of decay pathologies of masonry and architectural surfaces; - The comparison between direct data (carrots, visual inspection) and results from non-invasive tests, including geophysics, aims to improve the interpretation and the rendering of the monuments and even of the archaeological landscapes; - The use of specimens or test beds for the detection of archaeological features and

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: An update.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Martin Müri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living (ADL measures such as the Barthel Index or more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in 3 studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence.The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  20. Non-invasive brain stimulation in neglect rehabilitation: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müri, René Martin; Cazzoli, Dario; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs P; Hopfner, Simone; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Here, we review the effects of non-invasive brain stimulation such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the rehabilitation of neglect. We found 12 studies including 172 patients (10 TMS studies and 2 tDCS studies) fulfilling our search criteria. Activity of daily living measures such as the Barthel Index or, more specifically for neglect, the Catherine Bergego Scale were the outcome measure in three studies. Five studies were randomized controlled trials with a follow-up time after intervention of up to 6 weeks. One TMS study fulfilled criteria for Class I and one for Class III evidence. The studies are heterogeneous concerning their methodology, outcome measures, and stimulation parameters making firm comparisons and conclusions difficult. Overall, there are however promising results for theta-burst stimulation, suggesting that TMS is a powerful add-on therapy in the rehabilitation of neglect patients.

  1. Novel non invasive diagnostic strategies in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truta, Anamaria; Popon, Tudor Adrian Hodor; Saraci, George; Ghervan, Liviu; Pop, Ioan Victor

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD,ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, -145, -222, -210, -10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population.

  2. Non-invasive actionable biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the current clinical setting, many disease management options are available for men diagnosed with prostate cancer. For metastatic prostate cancer, first-line therapies almost always involve agents designed to inhibit androgen receptor (AR signaling. Castration-resistant prostate cancers (CRPCs that arise following first-line androgen deprivation therapies (ADT may continue to respond to additional lines of AR-targeting therapies (abiraterone and enzalutamide, chemotherapies (docetaxel and cabazitaxel, bone-targeting Radium-223 therapy, and immunotherapy sipuleucel-T. The rapidly expanding therapies for CRPC is expected to transform this lethal disease into one that can be managed for prolonged period of time. In the past 3 years, a number of promising biomarkers that may help to guide treatment decisions have been proposed and evaluated, including androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7, a truncated AR lacking the ligand-binding domain (LBD and mediate constitutively-active AR signaling. Putative treatment selection markers such as AR-V7 may further improve survival benefit of existing therapies and help to accelerate development of new agents for metastatic prostate cancer. In the metastatic setting, it is important to consider compatibility between the putative biomarker with non-invasive sampling. In this review, biomarkers relevant to the setting of metastatic prostate cancer are discussed with respect to a number of key attributes critical for clinical development of non-invasive, actionable markers. It is envisioned that biomarkers for metastatic prostate cancer will continue to be discovered, developed, and refined to meet the unmet needs in both standard-of-care and clinical trial settings.

  3. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  4. A novel non-invasive diagnostic sampling technique for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taslimi, Yasaman; Sadeghipour, Pardis; Habibzadeh, Sima; Mashayekhi, Vahid; Mortazavi, Hossien; Müller, Ingrid; Lane, Majella E; Kropf, Pascale; Rafati, Sima

    2017-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is important for chemotherapy and epidemiological studies. Common approaches for Leishmania detection involve the invasive collection of specimens for direct identification of amastigotes by microscopy and the culturing of promastigotes from infected tissues. Although these techniques are highly specific, they require highly skilled health workers and have the inherent risks of all invasive procedures, such as pain and risk of bacterial and fungal super-infection. Therefore, it is essential to reduce discomfort, potential infection and scarring caused by invasive diagnostic approaches especially for children. In this report, we present a novel non-invasive method, that is painless, rapid and user-friendly, using sequential tape strips for sampling and isolation of DNA from the surface of active and healed skin lesions of CL patients. A total of 119 patients suspected of suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis with different clinical manifestations were recruited and samples were collected both from their lesions and from uninfected areas. In addition, 15 fungal-infected lesions and 54 areas of healthy skin were examined. The duration of sampling is short (less than one minute) and species identification by PCR is highly specific and sensitive. The sequential tape stripping sampling method is a sensitive, non-invasive and cost-effective alternative to traditional diagnostic assays and it is suitable for field studies as well as for use in health care centers.

  5. Non-invasive aerosol delivery and transport of gold nanoparticles to the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raliya, Ramesh; Saha, Debajit; Chadha, Tandeep S.; Raman, Baranidharan; Biswas, Pratim

    2017-01-01

    Targeted delivery of nanoscale carriers containing packaged payloads to the central nervous system has potential use in many diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Moreover, understanding of the bio-interactions of the engineered nanoparticles used for tissue-specific delivery by non-invasive delivery approaches are also of paramount interest. Here, we have examined this issue systematically in a relatively simple invertebrate model using insects. We synthesized 5 nm, positively charged gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and targeted their delivery using the electrospray aerosol generator. Our results revealed that after the exposure of synthesized aerosol to the insect antenna, AuNPs reached the brain within an hour. Nanoparticle accumulation in the brain increased linearly with the exposure time. Notably, electrophysiological recordings from neurons in the insect brain several hours after exposure did not show any significant alterations in their spontaneous and odor-evoked spiking properties. Taken together, our findings reveal that aerosolized delivery of nanoparticles can be an effective non-invasive approach for delivering nanoparticles to the brain, and also presents an approach to monitor the short-term nano-biointeractions. PMID:28300204

  6. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  7. Non-Invasive Detection of Anaemia Using Digital Photographs of the Conjunctiva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Shaun; Thompson, Oliver; Hirst, Evan; Goossens, Louise; George, Anup; Weinkove, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Anaemia is a major health burden worldwide. Although the finding of conjunctival pallor on clinical examination is associated with anaemia, inter-observer variability is high, and definitive diagnosis of anaemia requires a blood sample. We aimed to detect anaemia by quantifying conjunctival pallor using digital photographs taken with a consumer camera and a popular smartphone. Our goal was to develop a non-invasive screening test for anaemia. The conjunctivae of haemato-oncology in- and outpatients were photographed in ambient lighting using a digital camera (Panasonic DMC-LX5), and the internal rear-facing camera of a smartphone (Apple iPhone 5S) alongside an in-frame calibration card. Following image calibration, conjunctival erythema index (EI) was calculated and correlated with laboratory-measured haemoglobin concentration. Three clinicians independently evaluated each image for conjunctival pallor. Conjunctival EI was reproducible between images (average coefficient of variation 2.96%). EI of the palpebral conjunctiva correlated more strongly with haemoglobin concentration than that of the forniceal conjunctiva. Using the compact camera, palpebral conjunctival EI had a sensitivity of 93% and 57% and specificity of 78% and 83% for detection of anaemia (haemoglobin anaemia. Erythema index of the palpebral conjunctiva calculated from images taken with a compact camera or mobile phone correlates with haemoglobin and compares favourably to clinician assessment for prediction of anaemia. If confirmed in further series, this technique may be useful for the non-invasive screening for anaemia.

  8. [What non invasive haemodynamic assessment in paediatric intensive care unit in 2009?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, O; Guichoux, J; Villega, F; Orliaguet, G

    2010-03-01

    The haemodynamic assessment of the patients is a daily activity in paediatric intensive care unit. It completes and is guided by the clinical examination. The will to develop the least invasive possible coverage of the patients is a constant concern. The haemodynamic monitoring, all the more if it is invasive, ceaselessly has to put in balance the profit and the risk of beginning this technique at a fragile patient. In the last three decades, numerous non-invasive haemodynamic tools were developed. The ideal one must be reliable, reproducible, with a time of fast, easily useful answer, with a total harmlessness, cheap and allowing a monitoring continues. Among all the existing tools (oesophageal Doppler ultrasound method, transthoracic echocardiography, NICO, thoracic impedancemetry, plethysmography, sublingual capnography), no one allies all these qualities. We can consider that the transthoracic echocardiography gets closer to most of these objectives. We shall blame it for its cost and for the fact that it is an intermittent monitoring but both in the diagnosis and in the survey, it has no equal among the non-invasive tools of haemodynamic assessment from part the quality and the quantity of the obtained information. The learning of the basic functions (contractility evaluation, cardiac output, cardiac and the vascular filling) useful for the start of a treatment is relatively well-to-do. We shall miss the absence of training in this tool in France in its paediatric and neonatal specificity within the university or interuniversity framework.

  9. Impact of Professional Nursing Tutors on National Council Licensure Examination Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondeik, Shelly L.

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study examined the impact of professional nursing tutors on National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX) success. Thirty-eight nursing student success rates from Northcentral Technical College, a two year technical college in Wisconsin, were analyzed by using NCLEX pass rate information, professional tutoring logs, and a…

  10. Examining Success Factors Related to ERP Implementations in Higher Education Shared Services Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanoff, Dawn Galadriel Pfeiffer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations that utilized a shared services model in higher education. The purpose of this research was to examine the critical success factors which were perceived to contribute to project success. This research employed a quantitative non-experimental correlational design and the…

  11. Non-invasive ventilation for sleep-disordered breathing in Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Victoria; Zhao, Sizheng; Angus, Robert

    2016-08-05

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a rare genetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by behavioural disturbances, intellectual disability and early onset obesity. The physical features of this syndrome are well characterised; however, behavioural features, such as sleep disturbance, are less well understood and difficult to manage. Sleep issues in SMS are likely due to a combination of disturbed melatonin cycle, facial anatomy and obesity-related ventilatory problems. Sleep disorders can be very distressing to patients and their families, as exemplified by our patient's experience, and can worsen behavioural issues as well as general health. This case demonstrates the successful use of non-invasive ventilation in treating underlying obesity hypoventilation syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea. As a consequence of addressing abnormalities in sleep patterns, some behavioural problems improved.

  12. Early diagnosis of incipient caries based on non-invasive lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velescu, A.; Todea, C.; Vitez, B.

    2016-03-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to detect incipient caries and enamel demineralization using laser fluorescence.This serves only as an auxilary aid to identify and to monitor the development of these lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 6 patients were involved in this study, three females and three male. Each patient underwent a professional cleaning, visual examination of the oral cavity, and then direct inspection using DiagnoCam and DIAGNOdent. After data recording each patient was submitted to retro-alveolar X-ray on teeth that were detected with enamel lesions. All data was collected and analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Of 36 areas considered in clinically healthy, 24 carious surfaces were found using laser fluorescence, a totally non-invasive method for detecting incipient carious lesions compared with the radiographic examination. CONCLUSIONS: This method has good applicability for patients because it improves treatment plan by early detection of caries and involves less fear for anxious patients and children.

  13. Unilateral pulmonary oedema due to lung re-expansion following pleurocentesis for spontaneous pneumothorax. The role of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Dimitrios K; Gatzioufas, Zisis I; Tzegas, Georgios I; Stergiopoulos, Panagiotis I; Tsokantaridis, Christos G; Chalikias, Georgios K; Tziakas, Dimitrios N

    2007-01-18

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema represents a rare complication of treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax with only a few cases documented in the current literature. We present the case of a 47-year-old male who presented a right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax and developed respiratory failure after chest tube drainage. The diagnosis of re-expansion pulmonary oedema was made and he was successfully treated with non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation. Since pathogenesis of re-expansion unilateral pulmonary oedema differs significantly from that of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, the role of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation is discussed as an additional therapeutic option.

  14. Non-invasive hyperthermia apparatus including coaxial applicator having a non-invasive radiometric receiving antenna incorporated therein and method of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.P.

    1996-08-27

    A coaxial hyperthermia applicator is disclosed for applying non-invasively electromagnetic energy to a body against which it is placed. The coaxial applicator antenna has formed integrally within it a non-invasive radiometric antenna for receiving thermoelectromagnetic emissions. The coaxial-configured applicator produces a bell-shaped radiation pattern symmetric about the axis of symmetry of the coaxial applicator. Integrating the radiometric antenna within the coaxial applicator produces a single device that performs dual functions. The first function is to transmit non-invasively energy for heating a subcutaneous tumor. The second function is to receive non-invasively thermal electromagnetic radiation from the tumor by which temperature is sensed and fed back to control the output of the coaxial applicator. 11 figs.

  15. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  16. Application of optical non-invasive methods in skin physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lademann, J.; Patzelt, A.; Darvin, M.; Richter, H.; Antoniou, C.; Sterry, W.; Koch, S.

    2008-05-01

    In the present paper the application of optical non-invasive methods in dermatology and cosmetology is discussed. Laser scanning microscopy (LSM) and optical coherent tomography (OCT) are the most promising methods for this application. Using these methods, the analysis of different skin parameters like dryness and oiliness of the skin, the barrier function and the structure of furrows and wrinkles are discussed. Additionally the homogeneity of distribution of topically applied creams, as well as their penetration into the skin were investigated. It is shown that these methods are highly valuable in dermatology for diagnostic and therapy control and for basic research, for instance in the field of structure analysis of hair follicles and sweat glands. The vertical images of the tissue produced by OCT can be easily compared with histological sections. Unfortunately, the resolution of the OCT technique is not high enough to carry out measurements on a cellular level, as is possible by LSM. LSM has the advantage that it can be used for the investigation of penetration and storage processes of topically applied substances, if these substances have fluorescent properties or if they are fluorescent-labelled.

  17. Non-invasive imaging of microcirculation: a technology review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sam Eriksson,1,2 Jan Nilsson,1,2 Christian Sturesson1,2 1Department of Surgery, Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, 2Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden Abstract: Microcirculation plays a crucial role in physiological processes of tissue oxygenation and nutritional exchange. Measurement of microcirculation can be applied on many organs in various pathologies. In this paper we aim to review the technique of non-invasive methods for imaging of the microcirculation. Methods covered are: videomicroscopy techniques, laser Doppler perfusion imaging, and laser speckle contrast imaging. Videomicroscopy techniques, such as orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and sidestream dark-field imaging, provide a plentitude of information and offer direct visualization of the microcirculation but have the major drawback that they may give pressure artifacts. Both laser Doppler perfusion imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging allow non-contact measurements but have the disadvantage of their sensitivity to motion artifacts and that they are confined to relative measurement comparisons. Ideal would be a non-contact videomicroscopy method with fully automatic analysis software. Keywords: laser speckle contrast imaging, sidestream dark-field, orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, laser Dopplerimaging

  18. Non-invasive system for monitoring of the manufacturing equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazăre, A. G.; Belu, N.; Ionescu, L. M.; Rachieru, N.; Misztal, A.

    2017-08-01

    The automotive industry is one of the most important industries in the world that concerns the economy and the world culture. High demand has resulted in increasing of the pressure on the production lines. In conclusion, it is required more careful in monitoring of the production equipment not only for maintenance but also for staff safety and to increase the quality of production. In this paper, we propose a solution for non-invasive monitoring of the industrial equipment operation by measuring the current consumption on energy supply lines. Thus, it is determined the utilization schedule of the equipment and operation mode. Based on these measurements, it’s built an activity report for that equipment, available to the quality management and maintenance team. The solution consists of the current measuring equipment, with self-harvesting capabilities and radio transceiver, and an embedded system which run a server. The current measuring equipment will transmit data about consumption of each energy supply network line where is placed the industrial equipment. So, we have an internal measuring radio network. The embedded system will collect data for the equipment and put in a local data base and it will provide via an intranet application. The entire system not requires any supplementary energy supply and interventions in the factory infrastructure. It is experimented in a company from the automotive industries.

  19. Facilitate insight by non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P Chi

    Full Text Available Our experiences can blind us. Once we have learned to solve problems by one method, we often have difficulties in generating solutions involving a different kind of insight. Yet there is evidence that people with brain lesions are sometimes more resistant to this so-called mental set effect. This inspired us to investigate whether the mental set effect can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimulation. 60 healthy right-handed participants were asked to take an insight problem solving task while receiving transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS to the anterior temporal lobes (ATL. Only 20% of participants solved an insight problem with sham stimulation (control, whereas 3 times as many participants did so (p = 0.011 with cathodal stimulation (decreased excitability of the left ATL together with anodal stimulation (increased excitability of the right ATL. We found hemispheric differences in that a stimulation montage involving the opposite polarities did not facilitate performance. Our findings are consistent with the theory that inhibition to the left ATL can lead to a cognitive style that is less influenced by mental templates and that the right ATL may be associated with insight or novel meaning. Further studies including neurophysiological imaging are needed to elucidate the specific mechanisms leading to the enhancement.

  20. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  1. Alteration of political belief by non- invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eChawke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non- invasive brain simulation (tRNS to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant’s initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  2. Alteration of Political Belief by Non-invasive Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawke, Caroline; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People generally have imperfect introspective access to the mechanisms underlying their political beliefs, yet can confidently communicate the reasoning that goes into their decision making process. An innate desire for certainty and security in ones beliefs may play an important and somewhat automatic role in motivating the maintenance or rejection of partisan support. The aim of the current study was to clarify the role of the DLPFC in the alteration of political beliefs. Recent neuroimaging studies have focused on the association between the DLPFC (a region involved in the regulation of cognitive conflict and error feedback processing) and reduced affiliation with opposing political candidates. As such, this study used a method of non-invasive brain simulation (tRNS) to enhance activity of the bilateral DLPFC during the incorporation of political campaign information. These findings indicate a crucial role for this region in political belief formation. However, enhanced activation of DLPFC does not necessarily result in the specific rejection of political beliefs. In contrast to the hypothesis the results appear to indicate a significant increase in conservative values regardless of participant's initial political orientation and the political campaign advertisement they were exposed to.

  3. Photoionization sensors for non-invasive medical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaev, Aleksandr; Rastvorova, Iuliia; Khobnya, Kristina; Podenko, Sofia

    2016-09-01

    The analysis of biomarkers can help to identify the significant number of diseases: lung cancer, tuberculosis, diabetes, high levels of stress, psychosomatic disorders etc. To implement continuous monitoring of the state of human health, compact VUV photoionization detector with current-voltage measurement is designed by Saint-Petersburg Mining University Plasma Research Group. This sensor is based on the patented method of stabilization of electric parameters - CES (Collisional Electron Spectroscopy). During the operation at atmospheric pressure VUV photoionization sensor measures the energy of electrons, produced in the ionization with the resonance photons, whose wavelength situated in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV). A special software was developed to obtain the second-order derivative of the I-U characteristics, taken by the VUV sensor, to construct the energy spectra of the characteristic electrons. VUV photoionization detector has an unique set of parameters: small size (10*10*1 mm), low cost, wide range of recognizable molecules, as well as accuracy, sufficient for using this instrument for the medical purposes. This device can be used for non-invasive medical diagnostics without compromising the quality of life, for control of environment and human life. Work supported by Foundation for Assistance to Small Innovative Enterprises in Science and Technology.

  4. The Effect of Prior Task Success on Older Adults' Memory Performance: Examining the Influence of Different Types of Task Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Lisa; Hughes, Matthew L; Miller, Tyler M; De Forrest, Ross L

    2016-01-01

    Negative aging stereotypes can lead older adults to perform poorly on memory tests. Yet, memory performance can be improved if older adults have a single successful experience on a cognitive test prior to participating in a memory experiment (Geraci & Miller, 2013, Psychology and Aging, 28, 340-345). The current study examined the effects of different types of prior task experience on subsequent memory performance. Before participating in a verbal free recall experiment, older adults in Experiment 1 successfully completed either a verbal or a visual cognitive task or no task. In Experiment 2, they successfully completed either a motor task or no task before participating in the free recall experiment. Results from Experiment 1 showed that relative to control (no prior task), participants who had prior success, either on a verbal or a visual task, had better subsequent recall performance. Experiment 2 showed that prior success on a motor task, however, did not lead to a later memory advantage relative to control. These findings demonstrate that older adults' memory can be improved by a successful prior task experience so long as that experience is in a cognitive domain.

  5. [A case of coexisting borderline phyllodes tumor and non-invasive ductal carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Hojo, Shigeyuki; Yoshioka, Setsuko; Kojima, Fumiyoshi; Matsunaga, Hiroki; Fujie, Yujiro; Fukunaga, Hiroki; Ota, Hirofumi; Endo, Wakio; Maeura, Yoshiichi

    2013-11-01

    A 36-year-old woman with benign phyllodes tumor of the left breast had undergone lumpectomy 1 year ago and was admitted to our hospital because of a left breast mass on the operation scar. Ultrasonography showed a 35 mm low-echoic, elliptical mass with a high depth to width( D/W) ratio in the C area and a 10 mm low-echoic, polygonal mass with a high D/W ratio in the E area. Histological examination of an ultrasonography-guided vacuum-assisted biopsy specimen indicated recurrent phyllodes tumor. Since both tumors were assumed to be recurrent phyllodes tumors, quadrantectomy was performed. Finally, the mass in the C area was diagnosed as a recurrent phyllodes tumor and the mass in the E area was diagnosed as a fibroadenoma. A non-invasive ductal carcinoma was incidentally detected between the 2 tumors, and the surgical margin was negative. Radiotherapy was performed on the remnant breast tissue.

  6. Evaluating the culture of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Griffin, D K; Jestice, K; Hackett, G; Cooper, J; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1998-09-01

    Fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood are important candidate cells for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have cultured erythroblasts from 16 maternal blood samples, both with and without prior enrichment by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), in a semi-solid medium containing growth factors. Individual colonies were examined by PCR with sex chromosome-specific primers and microsatellite marker primers. No conclusive Y-chromosome specific amplification could be demonstrated in any of the 16 cases, even when the mother was confirmed to be carrying a male fetus. All colonies tested by microsatellite marker PCR were of maternal origin. Our results suggest that the probability of obtaining fetal colonies from fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood is very low and that approaches for culturing fetal erythroblasts in vitro cannot yet be used reliably for prenatal diagnosis using current methods for fetal cell enrichment.

  7. [Non-invasive Genetic Prenatal Testing - A Serious Challenge for Society as a Whole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerres, K

    2015-04-01

    Non-invasive genetic prenatal tests nowadays allow a highly reliable identification of pregnancies with foetal aneuploidies. Due to the general availability of these tests for all pregnant women, non-invasive genetic prenatal testing raises many ethical questions whieh can only be answered by a debate focused on society as a whole.

  8. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring in neonates using bioreactance: a comparison with echocardiography.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Weisz, Dany E

    2012-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is a potentially useful clinical tool in the neonatal setting. Our aim was to evaluate a new method of non-invasive continuous cardiac output (CO) measurement (NICOM™) based on the principle of bioreactance in neonates.

  9. Imaging the pancreas: from ex vivo to non-invasive technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmberg, D; Ahlgren, U

    2008-01-01

    While many recently published reviews have covered non-invasive nuclear imaging techniques, the aim of this review is to focus on current developments in optical imaging technologies for investigating the pancreas. Several of these modalities are being developed into non-invasive, real...

  10. Advanced signal processing theory and implementation for sonar, radar, and non-invasive medical diagnostic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Stergiopoulos, Stergios

    2009-01-01

    Integrates topics of signal processing from sonar, radar, and medical system technologies by identifying their concept similarities. This book covers non-invasive medical diagnostic system applications, including intracranial ultrasound, a technology that attempts to address non-invasive detection on brain injuries and stroke.

  11. Non-Invasive Measurement of Adrenocortical Activity in Blue-Fronted Parrots (Amazona aestiva, Linnaeus, 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C P Ferreira

    Full Text Available Parrots kept in zoos and private households often develop psychological and behavioural disorders. Despite knowing that such disorders have a multifactorial aetiology and that chronic stress is involved, little is known about their development mainly due to a poor understanding of the parrots' physiology and the lack of validated methods to measure stress in these species. In birds, blood corticosterone concentrations provide information about adrenocortical activity. However, blood sampling techniques are difficult, highly invasive and inappropriate to investigate stressful situations and welfare conditions. Thus, a non-invasive method to measure steroid hormones is critically needed. Aiming to perform a physiological validation of a cortisone enzyme immunoassay (EIA to measure glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM in droppings of 24 Blue-fronted parrots (Amazona aestiva, two experiments were designed. During the experiments all droppings were collected at 3-h intervals. Initially, birds were sampled for 24 h (experiment 1 and one week later assigned to four different treatments (experiment 2: Control (undisturbed, Saline (0.2 mL of 0.9% NaCl IM, Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg IM and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH; 25 IU IM. Treatments (always one week apart were applied to all animals in a cross-over study design. A daily rhythm pattern in GCM excretion was detected but there were no sex differences (first experiment. Saline and dexamethasone treatments had no effect on GCM (not different from control concentrations. Following ACTH injection, GCM concentration increased about 13.1-fold (median at the peak (after 3-9 h, and then dropped to pre-treatment concentrations. By a successful physiological validation, we demonstrated the suitability of the cortisone EIA to non-invasively monitor increased adrenocortical activity, and thus, stress in the Blue-fronted parrot. This method opens up new perspectives for investigating the connection between behavioural

  12. Optical non-invasive 3D characterization of pottery of pre-colonial Paranaiba valley tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Wagner; Alves, Márcia Angelina; Costa, Manuel F.

    2014-08-01

    Optical non-invasive inspection tools and methods had expensively proven, for several decades now, their invaluable importance in the preservation of cultural heritage and artwork. In this paper we will report on an optical non-invasive microtopographic characterization work on pre-historical and pre-colonial ceramics and pottery of tribes in the Paranaiba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The samples object of this work were collected at the Inhazinha archeological site (19º 10'00" S / 47° 11'00" W) in the vicinity of Perdizes municipality in transition between the West mining area and the "triangle" area in the center of Brazil. It is a hilly region (850m high) traversed by a number of rivers and streams tributary of Araguari river like Quebra Anzol river and Macaúba and Olegário streams. The Inhazinha site' excavations are part of the Project Jigsaw Hook which since 1980 aimed the establishment of a chrono-cultural framework associated with the study of the socio-cultural dynamics corresponding to successive occupations of hunter-recollector-farmer' tribes in prehistoric and pre-colonial times in the Paranaíba valley in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Two groups of indigenous Indian occupations were found. Both of the pre-colonial period dated at 1,095 ± 186 years ago (TL-FATEC/SP for Zone 1) and of the early nineteenth century dated at 212 ± 19 years ago (EMS-CENA-USP/SP) and 190 ± 30 years ago (C14- BETA/USA) in Zone 2 seemingly occupied by southern Kayapós tribes. The pottery found is decorated with incisions with different geometric distributions and levels of complexity.

  13. Non-invasive Quantitative Analysis of Specific Fat Accumulation in Subcutaneous Adipose Tissues using Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meksiarun, Phiranuphon; Andriana, Bibin B; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Sato, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-15

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and fat beneath the dermis layer were investigated using a ball lens top hollow optical fiber Raman probe (BHRP). Hamsters were fed with trilinolein (TL) and tricaprin (TC) for six weeks and measurements were carried out every two weeks. The BHRP with an 800 μm diameter fused-silica ball lens was able to obtain information on the subcutaneous fat in a totally non-invasive manner. Changes in the concentration of TL and TC during the treatment were analyzed, and the relationship between fat accumulation and dietary fat was studied. It was found that SAT had, in general, a higher degree of unsaturation than VAT. The accumulation rate of TC found in SAT and VAT was 0.52 ± 0.38 and 0.58 ± 0.4%, respectively, while the TL accumulation rate was 4.45 ± 1.6 and 4.37 ± 2.4%, respectively. The results suggest different metabolic pathways for TC, a typical medium-chain fatty acid, and TL, a long-chain unsaturated fatty acid. Raman subsurface spectra were successfully obtained and used to analyze the subcutaneous fat layer. The accumulation rates of TL and TC found in skin fat were 5.01 ± 3.53% and 0.45 ± 0.36%, respectively. The results demonstrate the high feasibility of Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive analysis of adipose tissue.

  14. Myocardial bridging detection by non-invasive multislice spiral computed tomography: comparison with intravascular ultrasound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ming-hui; ZHANG Feng; Raimund Erbel; GE Jun-bo; SUN Ai-jun; QIAN Ju-ying; LING Qing-zhi; ZENG Meng-su; GE Lei; WANG Ke-qiang; FAN Bing; YAN Wei

    2008-01-01

    Background Invasive intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) is current dlagnostic Standard for myocardial bridging (MB).Non-invasive multislice computerized tomography coronary angiography (MSCT) technique has provided a good anatomical view of the tunnel arten/ now.Methods A total of 51 consecutive patients with atypical or typical angina scheduled for IVUS were enrolled in this study and MSCT was performed 7 days before IVUS. Coronary imaging was quantified using IVUS and MSCT. Four main vessels (left main artery (LMA), left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), right coronary artery (RCA)) were examined.Results Forty-one out of 51 (80%) patients received metaprolol (25 mg) before the MSCT scan and 25 of them were current beta-blocker users. The mean heart rate was (64±3) beats per minute. A total of 51 patients underwent IVUS examination (30 with MB and 21 without MB) were chosen for this study. Twenty-eight out of 30 MB cases were correctly diagnosed by MSCT and 2 patients with MB were not detected. Comparison with IVUS, the sensitivity of detection by MSCT was 93%, specificity was 100%. The lumen diameter of the tunnel artery derived from MSCT and IVUS significantly decreased from (2.9±0.3) mm to (2.4±0.4) mm (P<0.001) and from (3.3±0.3) mm to (2.6±0.5) mm (P<0.001),respectively. Minimal and maximal diameters of MB derived from MSCT were significantly smaller than those from IVUS ((2.4±0.4) mm vs (2.6±0.5) mm, P<0.05 and (2.9±0.3) mm vs (3.3±0.3) mm, P<0.05), respectively.Conclusions MSCT offers a reliable non-invasive method for MB in LAD and atherosclerosis diagnosis with diagnostic accuracy comparable with invasive IVUS.

  15. Blow collection as a non-invasive method for measuring cortisol in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Thompson

    Full Text Available Non-invasive sampling techniques are increasingly being used to monitor glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, as indicators of stressor load and fitness in zoo and wildlife conservation, research and medicine. For cetaceans, exhaled breath condensate (blow provides a unique sampling matrix for such purposes. The purpose of this work was to develop an appropriate collection methodology and validate the use of a commercially available EIA for measuring cortisol in blow samples collected from belugas (Delphinapterus leucas. Nitex membrane stretched over a petri dish provided the optimal method for collecting blow. A commercially available cortisol EIA for measuring human cortisol (detection limit 35 pg ml-1 was adapted and validated for beluga cortisol using tests of parallelism, accuracy and recovery. Blow samples were collected from aquarium belugas during monthly health checks and during out of water examination, as well as from wild belugas. Two aquarium belugas showed increased blow cortisol between baseline samples and 30 minutes out of water (Baseline, 0.21 and 0.04 µg dl-1; 30 minutes, 0.95 and 0.14 µg dl-1. Six wild belugas also showed increases in blow cortisol between pre and post 1.5 hour examination (Pre 0.03, 0.23, 0.13, 0.19, 0.13, 0.04 µg dl-1, Post 0.60, 0.31, 0.36, 0.24, 0.14, 0.16 µg dl-1. Though this methodology needs further investigation, this study suggests that blow sampling is a good candidate for non-invasive monitoring of cortisol in belugas. It can be collected from both wild and aquarium animals efficiently for the purposes of health monitoring and research, and may ultimately be useful in obtaining data on wild populations, including endangered species, which are difficult to handle directly.

  16. A holistic multimodal approach to the non-invasive analysis of watercolour paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogou, Sotiria; Lucian, Andrei; Bellesia, Sonia; Burgio, Lucia; Bailey, Kate; Brooks, Charlotte; Liang, Haida

    2015-11-01

    A holistic approach using non-invasive multimodal imaging and spectroscopic techniques to study the materials (pigments, drawing materials and paper) and painting techniques of watercolour paintings is presented. The non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques include VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and multispectral imaging, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The three spectroscopic techniques complement each other in pigment identification. Multispectral imaging (near-infrared bands), OCT and micro-Raman complement each other in the visualisation and identification of the drawing material. OCT probes the micro-structure and light scattering properties of the substrate, while XRF detects the elemental composition that indicates the sizing methods and the filler content. The multiple techniques were applied in a study of forty-six nineteenth-century Chinese export watercolours from the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) and the Royal Horticultural Society (RHS) to examine to what extent the non-invasive analysis techniques employed complement each other and how much useful information about the paintings can be extracted to address art conservation and history questions. A micro-destructive technique of micro-fade spectrometry was used to assess the vulnerability of the paintings to light exposure. Most of the paint and paper substrates were found to be more stable than ISO Blue Wool 3. The palette was found to be composed of mostly traditional Chinese pigments. While the synthetic pigment, Prussian blue, made in Europe, was found on some of the paintings, none was found on the RHS paintings accurately recorded as being between 1817 and 1831 even though it is known that Prussian blue was imported to China during this period. The scale insect dyes, lac and cochineal, were detected on nearly every painting including those that fall within the identified date range. Cochineal is known to have

  17. Non-invasive objective devices for monitoring the inflammatory, proliferative and remodelling phases of cutaneous wound healing and skin scarring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Din, Sara; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2016-08-01

    Objective evaluation of cutaneous wounds through the use of non-invasive devices is important for diagnosis, monitoring treatment response and can lead to the development of improved theranostic strategies. The need for objective monitoring of wound healing and scar formation is evident as this enables accurate diagnosis, evaluation and prognosis for clinicians and allows for the standardisation and validation of methodology for researchers. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the current application of non-invasive objective technologies for the assessment of wound healing through the different phases of repair. We propose that cutaneous healing parameters can be split into three core domains: anatomical, mechanical and physiological. These categories can be further subdivided with respect to specific phases of healing. There is no single instrument, which can measure all the parameters of healing simultaneously; thus, it is important to choose the correct device for the particular healing characteristics being monitored. However, multiprobe systems, which include a number of devices connected to one main unit, are useful as they enable multiple measurements of different parameters. Many of the devices have not been validated against histological examination. Additionally, some of the instruments have not been evaluated in all wound or scar types and may not be useful throughout all phases of cutaneous wound healing. In conclusion, non-invasive objective devices are useful in the assessment of cutaneous wound healing, as these tools can link the treatment and diagnosis by evaluating response to treatment and thus could aid as a marker for healing and scar maturation.

  18. A New Quantitative Method for the Non-Invasive Documentation of Morphological Damage in Paintings Using RTI Surface Normals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Manfredi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time.

  19. A new quantitative method for the non-invasive documentation of morphological damage in paintings using RTI surface normals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, Marcello; Bearman, Greg; Williamson, Greg; Kronkright, Dale; Doehne, Eric; Jacobs, Megan; Marengo, Emilio

    2014-07-09

    In this paper we propose a reliable surface imaging method for the non-invasive detection of morphological changes in paintings. Usually, the evaluation and quantification of changes and defects results mostly from an optical and subjective assessment, through the comparison of the previous and subsequent state of conservation and by means of condition reports. Using quantitative Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) we obtain detailed information on the geometry and morphology of the painting surface with a fast, precise and non-invasive method. Accurate and quantitative measurements of deterioration were acquired after the painting experienced artificial damage. Morphological changes were documented using normal vector images while the intensity map succeeded in highlighting, quantifying and describing the physical changes. We estimate that the technique can detect a morphological damage slightly smaller than 0.3 mm, which would be difficult to detect with the eye, considering the painting size. This non-invasive tool could be very useful, for example, to examine paintings and artwork before they travel on loan or during a restoration. The method lends itself to automated analysis of large images and datasets. Quantitative RTI thus eases the transition of extending human vision into the realm of measuring change over time.

  20. Validation of non-invasive haemodynamic methods in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittain, Jane M; Busk, Troels M; Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    , SBP, DBP and HR were measured non-invasively and by femoral artery catheterization. CO was measured non-invasively and by indicator dilution technique. The non-invasive pressure monitoring was considered acceptable with a bias (accuracy) and a SD (precision) not exceeding 5 and 8 mmHg, respectively......Patients with advanced cirrhosis often present a hyperdynamic circulation characterized by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and an increase in heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO). Accurate assessment of the altered circulation can be performed invasively......; however, due to the disadvantages of this approach, non-invasive methods are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare continuous non-invasive measurements of haemodynamic variables by the Finometer and the Task Force Monitor with simultaneous invasive measurements. In 25 patients with cirrhosis...

  1. Examining the Relationship between Social Capital and Career Success among Welfare to Work Participants in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Green, Dionne Marie

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the relationship between social capital and career success among welfare to work participants in a Louisiana program from 2007 to 2009. Based on the high percentage who do not complete the Louisiana STEP program, outcomes from 2007 to 2009 suggest current STEP work activities may not prepare participants for career success and…

  2. Etiske utfordringer med non-invasive prenatale tester (NIPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Hofmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Analyser av cellefritt DNA fra foster i gravide kvinners blod gir nye muligheter innen fosterdiagnostikk: Testene er bedre enn eksisterende tester, de reduserer risikoen og er billigere. Flere land har tatt i bruk disse testene, og Helsedirektoratet i Norge har mottatt søknad om å ta i bruk en test som erstatter tidlig ultralyd og blodprøver. Likevel nøler norske myndigheter. Hvorfor gjør de det? Ett av svarene er at non-invasive prenatale tester fører med seg en rekke faglige og moralske spørsmål og gir flere grunnleggende etiske utfordringer. Denne artikkelen gjennomgår et bredt knippe av de utfordringene som NIPT reiser. Hensikten er å synliggjøre hvorfor NIPT påkaller etisk refleksjon og å bidra til en åpen debatt og en transparent beslutningsprosess. Artikkelen identifiserer fem sentrale og konkrete spørsmål for vurderingen av NIPT.Nøkkelord: non-invasiv prenatal diagnostikk, testing, fravalg, foster, blodprøve, ekspressivisme, statsliberalt dilemma, dilemma, abort, retten til ikke å viteEnglish summary: Ethical challenges with non-invasive prenatal tests (NIPTNon-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT performed with the use of massively parallel sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA testing in maternal plasma gives extended possibilities in prenatal screening. The tests are claimed to be better than existing alternative tests, they reduce the risk, and it is claimed they are cheaper. They have been used in several countries since 2012, and the University Hospital of North Norway has applied to the Directorate of Health to replace first trimester ultrasound and plasma screening with NIPT. The Directorate of Health is reluctant to reply. Why is this? One of the answers may be that NIPT raises a series of professional and moral questions, and poses profound ethical challenges. This article reviews a series of the challenges with NIPT. The aim is to highlight why NIPT calls for ethical reflection and to contribute to an open debate

  3. Non-invasive mechanic ventilation in treating acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Non invasive ventilation (NIV in acute respiratory failure (ARF improve clinical parameters, arterial blood gases, decrease mortality and endo tracheal intubation (ETI rate also outside the intensive care units (ICUs. Objective of this study is to verify applicability of NIV in a general non respiratory medical ward. We enrolled 68 consecutive patients (Pts with Hypoxemic or Hyper capnic ARF: acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE, exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, Pneu - monia, acute lung injury / acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS. NIV treatment was CPAP or PSV + PEEP. 12 Pts (18,5% met primary endpoint (NIV failure: 11 Pts (17% needed ETI (5ALI/ARDS p < 0,0001, 6COPD 16,6%, 1 Patient (1,5% died (Pneumonia. No Pts with ACPE failed (p = 0,0027. Secondary endpoints: significant improvement in Respiratory Rate (RR, Kelly Score, pH, PaCO2, PaO2 vs baseline. Median duration of treatment: 16:06 hours: COPD 18:54, ACPE 4:15. Mean length of hospitalisation: 8.66 days. No patients discontinued NIV, no side effects. Results are consistent with literature. Hypoxemic ARF related to ALI/ARDS and pneumonia show worst outcome: it is not advisable to manage these conditions with NIV outside the ICU. NIV for ARF due to COPD and ACPE is feasible, safe and effective in a general medical ward if selection of Pts, staff’s training and monitoring are appropriate. This should encourage the diffusion of NIV in this specific setting. According to strong evidences in literature, NIV should be considered a first line and standard treatment in these clinical conditions irrespective of the setting.

  4. Non-invasive Brain Stimulation for Essential Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ludy C.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the use of non-invasive brain stimulation to characterize and potentially treat essential tremor (ET). Studies have used a variety of stimulation coils, paradigms, and target locations to make these observations. We reviewed the literature to compare prior studies and to evaluate the rationale and the methods used in these studies. Methods We performed a systematic literature search of the PubMed database using the terms “transcranial,” “noninvasive,” “brain stimulation,” “transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS),” “transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS),” “transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS),” and “essential tremor.” Results Single pulses of TMS to the primary motor cortex have long been known to reset tremor. Although there are relatively few studies showing alterations in motor cortical physiology, such as motor threshold, short and long intracortical inhibition, and cortical silent period, there may be some evidence of altered intracortical facilitation and cerebello-brain inhibition in ET. Repetitive TMS, theta burst stimulation, tDCS, and tACS have been applied to human subjects with tremor with some preliminary signs of tremor reduction, particularly in those studies that employed consecutive daily sessions. Discussion A variety of stimulation paradigms and targets have been explored, with the increasing rationale an interest in targeting the cerebellum. Rigorous assessment of coil geometry, stimulation paradigm, rationale for selection of the specific anatomic target, and careful phenotypic and physiologic characterization of the subjects with ET undergoing these interventions may be critical in extending these preliminary findings into effective stimulation therapies. PMID:28373927

  5. Non-invasive investigation of inflammatory bowel disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JA Tibble; I Bjarnason

    2001-01-01

    The assessment of inflammatory activity in intestinal disease in man can be done using a variety of different techniques. These range from the use of non - invasive acute phase inflammatory markers measured in plasma such as C reactive protein (CRP) and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both of which give an indirect assessment of disease activity) to the direct assessment of disease activity by intestinal biopsy performed during endoscopy in association with endoscopic scoring systems. Both radiology and endoscopy are conventional for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).However these techniques have severe limitations when it comes to assessing functional components of the disease such as activity and prognosis. Here we briefly review the value of two emerging intestinal function tests. Intestinal permeability, although ideally suited for diagnostic screening for small bowel Crohns disease, appears to give reliable predictive data for imminent relapse of small bowel Crohns disease and it can be used to assess responses to treatment. More significantly it is now clear that single stool assay of neutrophil specific proteins (calprotectin, lactoferrin) give the same quantitative data on intestinal inflammation as the 4 - day faecal excretion of 111lndium labelled white cells. Faecal calprotectin is shown to be increased in over 95% of patients with IBD and correlates with clinical disease activity. It reliably differentiates between patients with IBD and irritable bowel syndrome. More importantly, at a given faecal calprotectin concentration in patients with quiescent IBD,the test has a specificity and sensitivity in excess of 85% in predicting clinical relapse of disease. This suggests that relapse of IBD is closely related to the degree of intestinal inflammation and suggests that targeted treatment at an asymptomatic stage of the disease may be indicated.

  6. Non-invasive investigation in patients with inflammatory joint disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elisabetta Dal Pont; Renata DТncá; Antonino Caruso; Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo

    2009-01-01

    Gut inflammation can occur in 30%-60% of patients with spondyloarthropathies. However, the presence of such gut inflammation is underestimated, only 27% of patients with histological evidence of gut inflammation have intestinal symptoms, but subclinical gut inflammation is documented in two-thirds of patients with inflammatory joint disease. There are common genetic and immunological mechanisms behind concomitant inflammation in the joints and intestinal tract. A number of blood tests, e.g. erythrocyte sedimentation rate, orosomucoid, C-reactive protein, and white cell and platelet counts, are probably the most commonly used laboratory markers of inflammatory disease, however, these tests are difficult to interpret in arthropathies associated with gut inflammation, since any increases in their blood levels might be attributable to either the joint disease or to gut inflammation. Consequently, it would be useful to have a marker capable of separately identifying gut inflammation. Fecal proteins, which are indirect markers of neutrophil migration in the gut wall, and intestinal permeability, seem to be ideal for monitoring intestinal inflammation:they are easy to measure non-invasively and are specific for intestinal disease in the absence of gastrointestinal infections.Alongside the traditional markers for characterizing intestinal inflammation, there are also antibodies, in all probability generated by the immune response to microbial antigens and auto-antigens, which have proved useful in establishing the diagnosis and assessing the severity of the condition, as well as the prognosis and the risk of complications. In short, noninvasive investigations on the gut in patients with rheumatic disease may be useful in clinical practice for a preliminary assessment of patients with suspected intestinal disease.

  7. Non-invasive evaluation of facial crestal bone with ultrasonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjab, Khaled; Chung, Ming-Pang; Chiang, Yi-Chen; Wang, Hom-Lay; Giannobile, William V.; Kripfgans, Oliver D.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Facial crestal bone level and dimension determine function and esthetics of dentition and dental implants. We have previously demonstrated that ultrasound can identify bony and soft tissue structures in the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of using ultrasound to measure facial crestal bone level and thickness. Materials and methods A commercially available medical ultrasound scanner, paired with a 14 MHz imaging probe was used to scan dental and periodontal tissues at the mid-facial site of each tooth on 6 fresh cadavers. The alveolar crest level in relation to the cemento-enamel junction and its thickness on ultrasound images were measured and compared to those on cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans and/or direct measurements on a total of 144 teeth. Results The mean crestal bone level measured by means of ultrasound, CBCT and direct measures was 2.66 ± 0.86 mm, 2.51 ± 0.82 mm, and 2.71 ± 1.04 mm, respectively. The mean crestal bone thickness was 0.71 ± 0.44 mm and 0.74 ± 0.34 mm, measured by means of ultrasound and CBCT, respectively. The correlations of the ultrasound readings to the other two methods were between 0.78 and 0.88. The mean absolute differences in crestal bone height and thickness between ultrasound and CBCT were 0.09 mm (-1.20 to 1.00 mm, p = 0.06) and 0.03 mm (-0.48 to 0.54 mm, p = 0.03), respectively. Conclusion Ultrasound was as accurate in determining alveolar bone level and its thickness as CBCT and direct measurements. Clinical trials will be required to further validate this non-ionizing and non-invasive method for determining facial crestal bone position and dimension. PMID:28178323

  8. Rejuvenecimiento periorbitario no invasivo Non-invasive periorbital rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Muñóz del Olmo

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cirujanos plásticos y médicos estéticos se esfuerzan por lograr resultados satisfactorios y estéticos que mejoren o suavicen el paso del tiempo a nivel facial, con un especial interés o énfasis en el área periorbitaria. Un gran número de pacientes consultan para mejorar esta zona, pero por diferentes motivos desean que los procedimientos que se les realicen sean poco invasivos y con resultados rápidos, permitiéndoles así incorporarse lo antes posible a sus actividades cotidianas. Es fundamental el conocimiento de las proporciones faciales y periorbitarias para lograr resultados naturales. El objetivo de la técnica que proponemos es lograr una bioestimulación local de la piel, restaurar los volúmenes y reducir las arrugas de expresión o dinámicas, consiguiendo así una apariencia relajada y juvenil en el paciente.Plastic surgeons and aesthetic doctors are making an effort to reach positive aesthetic results. Their aim is to soften the effects of age on facial features stressing in the periorbital area. Many patients come to improve their facial image on this area, but they are asking for non-invasive and fast procedures to keep on their daily life. It is indispensable the knowledge of facial and periorbital proportions to achieve a more natural effect. The aim of the technique exposed is to achieve a local bioestimulation on skin, to restore volumes and to reduce expression and dynamical wrinkles. The expected result is a relaxing, youthful appearance.

  9. Non-Invasive Biomarkers for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Carrier Detection

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    Mónica Alejandra Anaya-Segura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive biological indicators of the absence/presence or progress of the disease that could be used to support diagnosis and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment are of utmost importance in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. This neuromuscular disorder affects male children, causing weakness and disability, whereas female relatives are at risk of being carriers of the disease. A biomarker with both high sensitivity and specificity for accurate prediction is preferred. Until now creatine kinase (CK levels have been used for DMD diagnosis but these fail to assess disease progression. Herein we examined the potential applicability of serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1, myostatin (GDF-8 and follistatin (FSTN as non-invasive biomarkers to distinguish between DMD steroid naïve patients and healthy controls of similar age and also for carrier detection. Our data suggest that serum levels of MMP-9, GDF-8 and FSTN are useful to discriminate DMD from controls (p < 0.05, to correlate with some neuromuscular assessments for DMD, and also to differentiate between Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD and Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD patients. In DMD individuals under steroid treatment, GDF-8 levels increased as FSTN levels decreased, resembling the proportions of these proteins in healthy controls and also the baseline ratio of patients without steroids. GDF-8 and FSTN serum levels were also useful for carrier detection (p < 0.05. Longitudinal studies with larger cohorts are necessary to confirm that these molecules correlate with disease progression. The biomarkers presented herein could potentially outperform CK levels for carrier detection and also harbor potential for monitoring disease progression.

  10. Zero-Heat-Flux Thermometry for Non-Invasive Measurement of Core Body Temperature in Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Guschlbauer

    Full Text Available Hypothermia is a severe, unpleasant side effect during general anesthesia. Thus, temperature surveillance is a prerequisite in general anesthesia settings during experimental surgeries. The gold standard to measure the core body temperature (Tcore is placement of a Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery, which is a highly invasive procedure. Therefore, Tcore is commonly examined in the urine bladder and rectum. However, these procedures are known for their inaccuracy and delayed record of temperatures. Zero-heat-flux (ZHF thermometry is an alternative, non-invasive method quantifying Tcore in human patients by applying a thermosensoric patch to the lateral forehead. Since the porcine cranial anatomy is different to the human's, the optimal location of the patch remains unclear to date. The aim was to compare three different patch locations of ZHF thermometry in a porcine hypothermia model. Hypothermia (33.0 °C Tcore was conducted in 11 anesthetized female pigs (26-30 kg. Tcore was measured continuously by an invasive Swan-Ganz catheter in the pulmonary artery (Tpulm. A ZHF thermometry device was mounted on three different defined locations. The smallest average difference between Tpulm and TZHF during stable temperatures was 0.21 ± 0.16 °C at location A, where the patch was placed directly behind the eye. Also during rapidly changing temperatures location A showed the smallest bias with 0.48 ± 0.29 °C. Location A provided the most reliable data for Tcore. Therefore, the ZHF thermometry patch should be placed directly behind the left temporal corner of the eye to provide a non-invasive method for accurate measurement of Tcore in pigs.

  11. Predictors of non-invasive ventilation failure in severe respiratory failure due to community acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Antonello; Piroddi, Ines Maria Grazia; Barlascini, Cornelius; Senarega, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation and intensive care admission. Few studies have assessed the usefulness of NIV in patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The use of NIV in severe CAP is controversial because there is a greater variability in success compared to other pulmonary conditions. We retrospectively followed 130 patients with CAP and severe acute respiratory failure (PaO2/FiO2 predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 26 patients (20.0%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, higher heart rate after 1 hour of NIV, and a higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 24 hours of NIV each independently predicted NIV failure. Higher chest X ray score, higher LDH at admission, higher heart rate after 24 hours of NIV and higher A-aDO2 after 24 hours of NIV were directly related to hospital mortality. NIV treatment had high rate of success. Successful treatment is related to less lung involvement and to early good response to NIV and continuous improvement in clinical response.

  12. Transient micro-elastography:A novel non-invasive approach to measure liver stiffness in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cécile Bastard; Matteo R Bosisio; Michèle Chabert; Athina D Kalopissis; Meriem Mahrouf-Yorgov; Hélène Gilgenkrantz; Sebastian Mueller; Laurent Sandrin

    2011-01-01

    AIM:To develop and validate a transient micro-elastography device to measure liver stiffness (LS) in mice. METHODS:A novel transient micro-elastography (TME) device,dedicated to LS measurements in mice with a range of measurement from 1-170 kPa,was developed using an optimized vibration frequency of 300 Hz and a 2 mm piston.The novel probe was validated in a classical fibrosis model (CCl4) and in a transgenic murine model of systemic amyloidosis.RESULTS:TME could be successfully performed in control mice below the xiphoid cartilage,with a mean LS of 4.4 ± 1.3 kPa,a mean success rate of 88%,and an excellent intra-observer agreement (0.98).Treatment with CCl4 over seven weeks drastically increased LS as compared to controls (18.2 ± 3.7 kPa vs 3.6 ± 1.2 kPa).Moreover, fibrosis stage was highly correlated with LS (Spearman coefficient = 0.88,P 150 kPa.LS significantly correlated with the amyloidosis index (0.93,P < 0.0001) and the plasma concentration of mutant hapoA-Ⅱ (0.62,P < 0.005). CONCLUSION:Here,we have established the first non-invasive approach to measure LS in mice,and have successfully validated it in two murine models of high LS.

  13. Predictors of Success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses among Transfer BSN Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortier, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    This quantitative research study (N=175) examined predictors of first time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) among transfer students in a baccalaureate degree program (BSN). The predictors were chosen after an extensive literature review yielded few studies related to this population. Benner's…

  14. A Subgroup Analysis of Predictors to Certification Examination Success in Differing Principal Preparation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmore, Elaine L.

    This study addresses the factors of Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE), race, gender, and undergraduate grade point average (GPA) as predictors of principal certification examination success at a large urban university. The university has three programs that lead to a masters degree and principal certification. The regular program consists…

  15. Non invasive brain stimulation to enhance post-stroke recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Kubis

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity after stroke remains poorly understood. Patients may improve spontaneously within the first 3 months and then more slowly in the coming year. The first days, decreased edema and reperfusion of the ischemic penumbra may possibly account for these phenomena, but the improvement during the next weeks suggests plasticity phenomena and cortical reorganization of the brain ischemic areas and of more remote areas. Indeed, the injured ischemic motor cortex has a reduced cortical excitability at the acute phase and a suspension of the topographic representation of affected muscles, whereas the contralateral motor cortex has an increased excitability and an enlarged somatomotor representation; furthermore, contralateral cortex exerts a transcallosal interhemispheric inhibition on the ischemic cortex. This results from the imbalance of the physiological reciprocal interhemispheric inhibition of each hemisphere on the other, contributing to worsening of neurological deficit. Cortical excitability is measurable through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and prognosis has been established according to the presence of motor evoked potentials (MEP at the acute phase of stroke, which is predictive of better recovery. Conversely, the lack of response to early stimulation is associated with a poor functional outcome. Non-invasive stimulation techniques such as repetitive TMS (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have the potential to modulate brain cortical excitability with long lasting effects. In the setting of cerebrovascular disease, around 1000 stroke subjects have been included in placebo-controlled trials so far, most often with an objective of promoting motor recovery of the upper limb. High frequency repetitive stimulation (> 3 Hz rTMS, aiming to increase excitability of the ischemic cortex, or low frequency repetitive stimulation (≤ 1 Hz, aiming to reduce excitability of the contralateral homonymous cortex, or

  16. In Vivo Non-Invasive Evaluation of Actinic Keratoses Response to Methyl-Aminolevulinate-Photodynamic Therapy (MAL-PDT by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Venturini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy (PDT with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL is an approved non-invasive treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs. In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM is a non-invasive tool for real-time imaging of epidermis and superficial dermis in vivo that has been previously reported to facilitate the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions, including AKs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of in vivo RCM in evaluating AKs response to MAL-PDT. For this reason a total of 10 biopsy-proven AKs were treated by MAL-PDT, according to standard PDT protocol for AKs. RCM investigation was performed before and after PDT and RCM-guided punch biopsies was taken at 3 months in all patients for histopathologic examination. At 3 months follow-up, complete clinical response was observed by clinical examination in 9 out of 10 lesions and a partial clinical response in 1 lesion. In vivo RCM detected two residual AKs in subclinical form, missed by clinical examination. Histological analysis confirmed these results. In vivo RCM may be a new alternative tool for the non-invasive diagnosis of AKs and evaluation of AKs response to non-invasive treatments, as MAL-PDT, improving the ability of dermatologists to diagnose AKs even in subclinical stage.

  17. Development and Experimental Validation of a Dry Non-Invasive Multi-Channel Mouse Scalp EEG Sensor through Visual Evoked Potential Recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyeon; Yeon, Chanmi; Kim, Kiseon

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a dry non-invasive multi-channel sensor for measuring brainwaves on the scalps of mice. The research on laboratory animals provide insights to various practical applications involving human beings and other animals such as working animals, pets, and livestock. An experimental framework targeting the laboratory animals has the potential to lead to successful translational research when it closely resembles the environment of real applications. To serve scalp electroencephalography (EEG) research environments for the laboratory mice, the dry non-invasive scalp EEG sensor with sixteen electrodes is proposed to measure brainwaves over the entire brain area without any surgical procedures. We validated the proposed sensor system with visual evoked potential (VEP) experiments elicited by flash stimulations. The VEP responses obtained from experiments are compared with the existing literature, and analyzed in temporal and spatial perspectives. We further interpret the experimental results using time-frequency distribution (TFD) and distance measurements. The developed sensor guarantees stable operations for in vivo experiments in a non-invasive manner without surgical procedures, therefore exhibiting a high potential to strengthen longitudinal experimental studies and reliable translational research exploiting non-invasive paradigms. PMID:28208777

  18. Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    .... Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend...

  19. Lung protection during non-invasive synchronized assist versus volume control in rabbits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mirabella, Lucia; Grasselli, Giacomo; Haitsma, Jack J; Zhang, Haibo; Slutsky, Arthur S; Sinderby, Christer; Beck, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    .... For this, we used non-invasive Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist (NIV-NAVA), with the hypothesis that liberation of upper airways and the ventilator's integration with lung protective reflexes would be equally lung protective...

  20. Non-Invasive Continuous Respiratory Monitoring on General Hospital Wards : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, Kim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341748501; van Zaane, Bas|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311475361; Bosch, Els J; Kalkman, Cor J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/078251818; Peelen, Linda M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314038426

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Failure to recognize acute deterioration in hospitalized patients may contribute to cardiopulmonary arrest, unscheduled intensive care unit admission and increased mortality. PURPOSE: In this systematic review we aimed to determine whether continuous non-invasive respiratory monitoring i

  1. A feasible method for non-invasive measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Combined use of transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chaowu

    2015-12-01

    Translational perspective: In PAH, the non-invasive measurement of PVR is very important in clinical practice. Up to now, however, the widely accepted non-invasive method is still unavailable. Since TTE can estimate (MPAP–PCWP reliably and CMR is the best image modality for the measurement of CO, the combined use of two modalities has the potential to determine PVR non-invasively. In this research, the integrated non-invasive method showed good diagnostic accuracy and repeatability compared with RHC. Therefore, it might be a feasible method for non-invasive measurement of PVR in patients with PAH.

  2. Combined Neutron and X-ray Imaging for Non-invasive Investigations of Cultural Heritage Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannes, D.; Schmid, F.; Frey, J.; Schmidt-Ott, K.; Lehmann, E.

    The combined utilization of neutron and X-ray imaging for non-invasive investigations of cultural heritage objects is demonstrated on the example of a short sword found a few years ago in lake Zug, Switzerland. After conservation treatments carried out at the Swiss National Museum the sword was examined at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Villigen (CH), by means of neutron and X-ray computer tomography (CT). The two types of radiation show different interaction behavior with matter, which makes the two methods complementary. While X-rays show a strong correlation of the attenuation with the atomic number, neutrons demonstrate a high sensitivity for some light elements, such as Hydrogen and thus organic material, while some heavy elements (such as Lead) show high penetrability. The examined object is a composite of metal and organic material, which makes it an ideal example to show the complementarity of the two methods as it features materials, which are rather transparent for one type of radiation, while yielding at the same time high contrast for the other. Only the combination of the two methods made an exhaustive examination of the object possible and allowed to rebuild an accurate replica of the sword.

  3. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. [Non-invasive mechanical ventilation and epidural anesthesia for an emergency open cholecystectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtlu, Bülent Serhan; Köksal, Bengü; Hancı, Volkan; Turan, Işıl Özkoçak

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation is an accepted treatment modality in both acute exacerbations of respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive lung disease. It is commonly utilized in the intensive care units, or for postoperative respiratory support in post-anesthesia care units. This report describes intraoperative support in non-invasive ventilation to neuroaxial anesthesia for an emergency upper abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. An Examination of Maryland Community College Trustees' Intentions to Promote Succession Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Daphne Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Maryland community college trustees' intentions to promote succession planning. This study focused on community college trustees' understandings of their roles and responsibilities related to sustainability of institutions, their knowledge of the leadership crisis, and their intentions to promote succession…

  6. A Model for Intervention and Predicting Success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heupel, Carol

    1994-01-01

    The relationship of selected academic variables to National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN) performance was studied and a "best set" of indicators predictive of NCLEX-RN success was identified. Results indicated that selected nursing theory courses and the junior year grade point average could be used to…

  7. An Examination of Maryland Community College Trustees' Intentions to Promote Succession Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Daphne Renee

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Maryland community college trustees' intentions to promote succession planning. This study focused on community college trustees' understandings of their roles and responsibilities related to sustainability of institutions, their knowledge of the leadership crisis, and their intentions to promote succession…

  8. Success of Developmental Readers: An Examination of Factors Affecting Attrition and Institutional Practices Which Support Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katherine F.

    2013-01-01

    Students who enter higher education requiring reading remediation have poor institutional persistence. This study examined the course success and first-year institutional persistence of six women enrolled in a developmental reading course at a regional campus of a state university. Data sets were comprised of classroom observation, review of…

  9. Factors Associated with Success in a Calculus Course: An Examination of Personal Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' personal variables (gender, prior achievements, age and academic major) and their success in the first year undergraduate calculus course. The study sample consisted of 59 first year undergraduate students taking Math 154 Calculus II course. A written test about integral, sequence and series…

  10. Success of Developmental Readers: An Examination of Factors Affecting Attrition and Institutional Practices Which Support Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katherine F.

    2013-01-01

    Students who enter higher education requiring reading remediation have poor institutional persistence. This study examined the course success and first-year institutional persistence of six women enrolled in a developmental reading course at a regional campus of a state university. Data sets were comprised of classroom observation, review of…

  11. Examining Career Success of Minority and Women Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs): A LEADS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Eft, Darlene F.; Dickison, Philip D.; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Emergency medical technicians (EMTs) are a critical segment in prehospital medical care. This study examined EMT-paramedic career success focused on minorities and women, as part of the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). The LEADS data come from a representative sampling of EMTs throughout the…

  12. Chemical Analysis of Whale Breath Volatiles: A Case Study for Non-Invasive Field Health Diagnostics of Marine Mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Cumeras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We explored the feasibility of collecting exhaled breath from a moribund gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus for potential non-invasive health monitoring of marine mammals. Biogenic volatile organic compound (VOC profiling is a relatively new field of research, in which the chemical composition of breath is used to non-invasively assess the health and physiological processes on-going within an animal or human. In this study, two telescopic sampling poles were designed and tested with the primary aim of collecting whale breath exhalations (WBEs. Once the WBEs were successfully collected, they were immediately transferred onto a stable matrix sorbent through a custom manifold system. A total of two large volume WBEs were successfully captured and pre-concentrated onto two Tenax®-TA traps (one exhalation per trap. The samples were then returned to the laboratory where they were analyzed using solid phase micro extraction (SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. A total of 70 chemicals were identified (58 positively identified in the whale breath samples. These chemicals were also matched against a database of VOCs found in humans, and 44% of chemicals found in the whale breath are also released by healthy humans. The exhaled gray whale breath showed a rich diversity of chemicals, indicating the analysis of whale breath exhalations is a promising new field of research.

  13. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation in internal medicine departments: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela La Regina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIMV has been shown to be an effective treatment in chronic and acute lung failure. Until a few years ago, all the different forms of mechanical ventilation were managed exclusively in intensive care units (ICU. However, the reduction in the number of ICU beds available and the high costs involved in running such units, together with the aging of the general population and the co-morbidities associated with this have meant that forms of mechanical ventilation are also used outside ICUs. In addition to emergency physicians and pneumologists, also internists have started to use NIMV on their wards in order to start treatment as early as possible and reduce costs. This is a preliminary study to explore the effectiveness, safety and feasibility of NIMV on a medical ward. The overall success rate was 68.8%; the likelihood of success was higher in patients who started NIMV earlier. The success rate was quite high (62% also among do-not-intubate patients, despite their poorer clinical condition. Few complications were reported and there was no increase in staff workload. No significant differences were found in in-hospital mortality between hypercapnic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbation and hypercapnic patients with COPD plus pneumonia (27% vs 25% or between patients with pneumonia and patients with COPD plus pneumonia (26% vs 25%. These results are encouraging for the successful use of NIMV on medical wards. A careful selection of patients, educating and motivating staff in NIMV use, and close collaboration with resuscitators are all essential for this to be achieved.

  14. A review on the non-invasive evaluation of skeletal muscle oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, A. A. A.; Laili, M. H.; Aziz, N. A.; Laili, A. R.; Salikin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct a feasibility study of non-invasive evaluation in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This non-invasive evaluation could extract many information using a safe non-invasive method regarding to the oxygenation and microcirculation status in human blood muscle. This brief review highlights the progress of the application of NIRS to evaluate skeletal muscle oxygenation in various activity of human nature from the historical point of view to the present advancement. Since the discovery of non-invasive optical method during 1992, there are many non-invasive techniques uses optical properties on human subject such as near infrared spectroscopy NIRS, optical topography, functional near infrared spectroscopy fNIRS and imaging fNIRI. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the light absorption potential (LAP) towards chromophores content inside human muscle. Modified beer lambert law was studied in order to build a better understanding toward LAP between chromophores under tissue multilayers in human muscle. This paper will describe the NIRS principle and the basis for its proposed used in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This will cover the advantages and limitation of such application. Thus, these non-invasive techniques could open other possibilities to study muscle performance diagnosis.

  15. Spirometer Non-Invasive dengan Sensor Piezoelektrik untuk Deteksi Kesehatan Paru-Paru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEMALASARI KEMALASARI

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPolusi udara dapat mempengaruhi kesehatan paru-paru. Umumnya pengukuran fungsi paru menggunakan spirometer, dilakukan di rumah sakit dan membutuhkan waktu yang lama untuk mengetahui hasilnya. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini, dirancang Spirometer non-invasive yang portable dengan menggunakan sensor piezoelektrik yang diletakkan di dada. Perubahan tekanan yang diukur oleh sensor piezoelektrik adalah 10 – 80 mV, sehingga diperlukan rangkaian amplifier, filter, clamper, mikrokontroler AVR ATMega 32 sebagai pengolah data I/O dan LCD grafik untuk menampilkan hasil ukur serta SD card untuk menyimpan data. Alat ini mengukur  kapasitas vital paru-paru, respirasi rate, dan jika hasil ukur kapasitas vital paru-paru kurang  dari 80 % dari nilai prediksi kapasitas paru-paru maka kondisi paru-paru dideteksi tidak sehat.  Hasil dari pengujian menunjukkan bahwa persentase nilai keberhasilan alat adalah 95,70 %, hasil pengukuran dan deteksi kondisi paru-paru dapat langsung diketahui dari tampilan di LCD grafik, data hasil pengukuran bisa disimpan dan alat berukuran kecil sehingga portable, mudah digunakan oleh siapapun dan dimanapun dengan nyaman.Kata kunci: Spirometer, Piezoelektrik, Mikrokontroler, Kapasitas Paru-Paru, LCD Grafik.ABSTRACTAir pollution can be affected the health of the lungs. Generally the measurement of lungs function use a spirometry, performed  in the hospital and takes a long time to know the results. To overcome this problem, a portable non-invasive Spirometry is designed using a piezoelectric sensors placed on the chest. The changes of pressure is measured by the piezoelectric sensor are 10 - 80 mV, so it needs a amplifier circuit, filter, clamper, ATMega 32 AVR microcontroller as I/O data processor and LCD graph to display result of measurement and SD card for save the data. This instrument measure lungs vital capacity, respiration rate, and if the measured of lungs vital capacity is less than 80 % of the predicted of lung

  16. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  17. Targeting neural endophenotypes of eating disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine A Dunlop

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The term eating disorders (ED encompasses a wide variety of disordered eating and compensatory behaviors, and so the term is associated with considerable clinical and phenotypic heterogeneity. This heterogeneity makes optimizing treatment techniques difficult. One class of treatments is non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS. NIBS, including repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS are accessible forms of neuromodulation that alter the cortical excitability of a target brain region. It is crucial for NIBS to be successful that the target is well selected for the patient population in question. Targets may best be selected by stepping back from conventional DSM-5 diagnostic criteria to identify neural substrates of more basic phenotypes, including behavior related rewards and punishment cognitive control, and social processes. These phenotypic dimensions have been recently laid out by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC initiative. Consequently, this review is intended to identify potential dimensions as outlined by the RDoC and their underlying behavioral and neurobiological targets associated with ED as potential candidates for NIBS and review the available literature on rTMS and tDCS in ED. This review systematically reviews abnormal neural circuitry in ED within the RDoC framework, and also systematically reviews the available literature investigating NIBS as a treatment for ED.

  18. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  19. Multifunctional single beam acoustic tweezer for non-invasive cell/organism manipulation and tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kwok Ho; Li, Ying; Li, Yang; Lim, Hae Gyun; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, Koping Kirk

    2016-11-01

    Non-contact precise manipulation of single microparticles, cells, and organisms has attracted considerable interest in biophysics and biomedical engineering. Similar to optical tweezers, acoustic tweezers have been proposed to be capable of manipulating microparticles and even cells. Although there have been concerted efforts to develop tools for non-contact manipulation, no alternative to complex, unifunctional tweezer has yet been found. Here we report a simple, low-cost, multifunctional single beam acoustic tweezer (SBAT) that is capable of manipulating an individual micrometer scale non-spherical cell at Rayleigh regime and even a single millimeter scale organism at Mie regime, and imaging tissue as well. We experimentally demonstrate that the SBAT with an ultralow f-number (f# = focal length/aperture size) could manipulate an individual red blood cell and a single 1.6 mm-diameter fertilized Zebrafish egg, respectively. Besides, in vitro rat aorta images were collected successfully at dynamic foci in which the lumen and the outer surface of the aorta could be clearly seen. With the ultralow f-number, the SBAT offers the combination of large acoustic radiation force and narrow beam width, leading to strong trapping and high-resolution imaging capabilities. These attributes enable the feasibility of using a single acoustic device to perform non-invasive multi-functions simultaneously for biomedical and biophysical applications.

  20. 子宫内膜容受性的无创性评价%Non-invasive Assessment of Endometrial Receptivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张平贵; 牛志宏; 冯云

    2013-01-01

    子宫内膜容受性是胚胎着床、成功妊娠的必要条件.对子宫内膜容受性进行评估是辅助生育技术中重要的一环.其评价指标有很多,目前应用较为广泛的包括内膜活检、超声检查、内分泌检查和内膜分泌物分析等.内膜活检法因其创伤性使临床应用受到限制;超声虽能简便有效地预测内膜容受性,但存在很大的争议;激素及分子生物学指标从分子生物学方面阐明了影响内膜容受性的重要因素,具有其独特的临床应用价值:内膜分泌物分析在评价子宫内膜容受性方面,具有无创性、信息量大等优势,近年来正在成为生殖领域研究的热点.%Endometrial receptivity plays a critical role in embryo implantation and achieving a successful early pregnancy, of which the successful evaluation is the key link of assisted reproductive technology (ART). There are many evaluation indexes for endometrial receptivity including various endomeitrial biopsy, ultrasonic parameters, endocrine examination, analysis of uterine secretions which are widely applied nowadays. Endometrial biopsy is invasive, which clinical application is limited. Ultrasound examination can make an easy and efficient forecast of endometrial receptivity, however, with the more controversy. Hormone traits and molecular biological parameters have unique clinical application values with their elucidation of the important factors affecting endometrial receptivity. Analysis of uterine secretions in the evaluation of endometrial receptivity, with the advantages of non-invasive, large-scale of information, becomes a hot spot in reproductive medicine research in recent years.

  1. An expert performance approach to examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandagopal, Kiruthiga

    Successful completion of the introductory course in organic chemistry is a prerequisite for many graduate and professional science programs, yet the failure rate for this course is notoriously high. To date, there have been few studies examining factors contributing to academic success in organic chemistry. This study demonstrates that the online, longitudinal methods used by investigations of expert performance can examine and successfully identify factors contributing to academic success at the college level. Sixty-four students enrolled in introductory organic chemistry during the Fall 2007 and Spring 2008 semesters completed motivation questionnaires, interviews, diaries, and think-aloud reading and problem-solving tasks at three different points across a semester. Measures of spatial ability, general ability, and background preparation were also collected. Each measure was analyzed to determine significant differences between groups differing in grade-point average (GPA) prior to the start of the course and to identify predictors of organic chemistry grade. Variables measuring background preparation, problem-solving strategies and studying strategies were found to be the best predictors of academic success in organic chemistry. Implications for instruction in organic chemistry and effective studying behaviors are discussed.

  2. Non-Invasive MRI and Spectroscopy of mdx Mice Reveal Temporal Changes in Dystrophic Muscle Imaging and in Energy Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, Christopher R.; Guerron, Alfredo D.; Korotcov, Alexandru; Lin, Stephen; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Fricke, Stanley; Sze, Raymond W.; Hoffman, Eric P.; Wang, Paul; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina

    2014-01-01

    In Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a genetic disruption of dystrophin protein expression results in repeated muscle injury and chronic inflammation. Magnetic resonance imaging shows promise as a surrogate outcome measure in both DMD and rehabilitation medicine that is capable of predicting clinical benefit years in advance of functional outcome measures. The mdx mouse reproduces the dystrophin deficiency that causes DMD and is routinely used for preclinical drug testing. There is a need to develop sensitive, non-invasive outcome measures in the mdx model that can be readily translatable to human clinical trials. Here we report the use of magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy techniques for the non-invasive monitoring of muscle damage in mdx mice. Using these techniques, we studied dystrophic mdx muscle in mice from 6 to 12 weeks of age, examining both the peak disease phase and natural recovery phase of the mdx disease course. T2 and fat-suppressed imaging revealed significant levels of tissue with elevated signal intensity in mdx hindlimb muscles at all ages; spectroscopy revealed a significant deficiency of energy metabolites in 6-week-old mdx mice. As the mdx mice progressed from the peak disease stage to the recovery stage of disease, each of these phenotypes was either eliminated or reduced, and the cross-sectional area of the mdx muscle was significantly increased when compared to that of wild-type mice. Histology indicates that hyper-intense MRI foci correspond to areas of dystrophic lesions containing inflammation as well as regenerating, degenerating and hypertrophied myofibers. Statistical sample size calculations provide several robust measures with the ability to detect intervention effects using small numbers of animals. These data establish a framework for further imaging or preclinical studies, and they support the development of MRI as a sensitive, non-invasive outcome measure for muscular dystrophy. PMID:25390038

  3. Correlation Between Esophageal Varices and Lok Score as a Non-invasive Parameter in Liver Cirrhosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Sungkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from gastro-esophageal varices is the most serious and life-threatening complication of cirrhosis. Endoscopic surveillance of esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients is expensive and uncomfortable for the patients. Therefore, there is a particular need for non-invasive predictors for esophageal varices. The aim of the present study was to evaluate association of esophageal varices and Lok Score as non-invasive parameter in liver cirrhosis patients. This is a cross-sectional study of patients admitted at the Adam Malik hospital Medan between September to December 2014 with a diagnosis of cirrhosis based on clinical, biochemical examination, ultrasound, and gastroscopy. Lok Score was calculated for all patients, tabulated and analyzed. Among 76 patients with esophageal varices, 55.3% was due to hepatitis B virus (HBV. The majority of patients were Child C with only 13,2% being Child Pugh class A. Majority of the population had F2 esophageal varices (42.1%, F1 (32.9%, and F3 (25%. There is significance difference between Lok Score and grading of esophageal varices, in which Lok Score is higher in large esophageal varices compared with small esophageal varises (0.92 ± 0.14 vs. 0.70 ± 0.29; p = 0.001. Lok Score with cut-off point of > 0.9141 was highly predictive in the diagnosis large esophageal varices with a sensitivity of 74.5%, specificity of 72%, positive predictive value of 84%, negative predictive value 58%, and accuracy was 73.7%. Lok Score was significantly associated with esophageal varices. Lok Score is a good non-invasive predictor of large esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients.

  4. NON INVASIVE PAIN MANAGEMENT IN POST PARTUM MOTHER WITHEVIDENCE BASED PRACTICE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikmatur Rohmah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pain is a sensation of discomfort that most post-partum mothers complain about, in the case of prolonged pain, the risk of post-partum blues is higher. The usage of evidence based practice method gives a bigger opportunity for nurse and medical attendants to think more critically in making decisions and in performing the appropriate treatment in accordance with the patient's problem and uniqueness. This research aimed to applicate management of non-invasive pain on post partum mother through the approach of evidence based practice. Method: This was a case-study, performed to client Mrs. A P1-1 A0 post sectio caesarea day 1 as there is an indication of suspect cepalo pelvis disproportion secondary arrest. Data were collected at maternity room, dr. Soebandi Regional General Hospital. Using interview, observation, and physical examination. Data analysis was conducted through a descriptive analysis. Result: Through a careful nursing, it is found out that pain location and spreading that generally spotted at the patient’s back during the contraction in the uterus, occurred around the shoulders when evidence-base practice is applied. The basic principle of applying an intervention to non invasive pain based on evidence–base practice are: cutaneous stimulation and distraction, while massaging area was set on the face, while the distraction media was interaction with the baby. Evaluation on evidence –based practice showed that pain is reduced to scale 2, while face and mobilitation become more relaxed. Discussion: Massage was intended to stimulated the production of endorphine and dinorphine that play an important roke to block the pain transmission through the descendent control system. Interaction with the baby was intended to function as a distraction media to dominate the incoming impuls into the ascendant control system,which further may close the gate of the pain transmitter. Both of the interventions were axpected to work

  5. Non-invasive assessment of Alzheimer's disease neurofibrillary pathology using 18F-THK5105 PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Nobuyuki; Furumoto, Shozo; Fodero-Tavoletti, Michelle T; Mulligan, Rachel S; Harada, Ryuichi; Yates, Paul; Pejoska, Svetlana; Kudo, Yukitsuka; Masters, Colin L; Yanai, Kazuhiko; Rowe, Christopher C; Villemagne, Victor L

    2014-06-01

    Non-invasive imaging of tau pathology in the living brain would be useful for accurately diagnosing Alzheimer's disease, tracking disease progression, and evaluating the treatment efficacy of disease-specific therapeutics. In this study, we evaluated the clinical usefulness of a novel tau-imaging positron emission tomography tracer 18F-THK5105 in 16 human subjects including eight patients with Alzheimer's disease (three male and five females, 66-82 years) and eight healthy elderly controls (three male and five females, 63-76 years). All participants underwent neuropsychological examination and 3D magnetic resonance imaging, as well as both 18F-THK5105 and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography scans. Standard uptake value ratios at 90-100 min and 40-70 min post-injection were calculated for 18F-THK5105 and 11C-Pittsburgh compound B, respectively, using the cerebellar cortex as the reference region. As a result, significantly higher 18F-THK5105 retention was observed in the temporal, parietal, posterior cingulate, frontal and mesial temporal cortices of patients with Alzheimer's disease compared with healthy control subjects. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, the inferior temporal cortex, which is an area known to contain high densities of neurofibrillary tangles in the Alzheimer's disease brain, showed prominent 18F-THK5105 retention. Compared with high frequency (100%) of 18F-THK5105 retention in the temporal cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease, frontal 18F-THK5105 retention was less frequent (37.5%) and was only observed in cases with moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease. In contrast, 11C-Pittsburgh compound B retention was highest in the posterior cingulate cortex, followed by the ventrolateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and superior temporal cortices, and did not correlate with 18F-THK5105 retention in the neocortex. In healthy control subjects, 18F-THK5105 retention was ∼10% higher in the mesial temporal cortex than in the

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of hormones: a tool to improve reproduction in captive breeding of the Eurasian lynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnhard, M; Naidenko, S; Frank, A; Braun, B; Göritz, F; Jewgenow, K

    2008-07-01

    The survival of many critical endangered mammal species is often depending on successful captive breeding programmes which include the future option of reintroduction to the wild. Breeding in captivity also demands the application of modern assisted reproductive techniques to ensure maximal biodiversity, but knowledge on reproductive physiology is often limited. Therefore, non-invasive monitoring of urinary and faecal hormones has become an important tool for reproductive management. To exemplify the importance of non-invasive hormone monitoring, we choose the Eurasian lynx as a model for the world's most endangered felid species, the Iberian lynx. We analysed faecal samples of pregnant and pseudo-pregnant female Eurasian lynxes during a 3-year study period. Compared to pre-mating levels faecal progesterone metabolite profiles revealed a tendency towards higher levels in pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with no difference between both categories. Oestrogen levels raised in both pregnant and pseudo-pregnant females with a tendency to be more elevated and prolonged in pregnant females. Surprisingly both E2 and P4 metabolites were highly correlated (r(2) =0.8131, p hormone sources during and after pregnancy (corpus luteum, placenta). We hypothesize, that placental steroid analysis in combination with other highly sophisticated analytical techniques, like liquid chromatography mass spectrometry or urinary relaxin analysis may led to analytical options to confirm pregnancy and to differentiate this from pseudo-pregnancy in lynx species.

  7. Adaptive control with self-tuning for non-invasive beat-by-beat blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, we have successfully carried out the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the root of finger, superficial temporal and radial artery based on the volume-compensation technique with reasonable accuracy. The present study concerns with improvement of control method for this beat-by-beat BP measurement. The measurement system mainly consists of a partial pressurization cuff with a pair of LED and photo-diode for the detection of arterial blood volume, and a digital self-tuning control method. Using healthy subjects, the performance and accuracy of this system were evaluated through comparison experiments with the system using a conventional empirically tuned PID controller. The significant differences of BP measured in finger artery were not showed in systolic (SBP), p=0.52, and diastolic BP (DBP), p=0.35. With the advantage of the adaptive control with self-tuning method, which can tune the control parameters without disturbing the control system, the application area of the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement method will be broadened.

  8. Design, development and experimental validation of a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaiola, C; Tamilia, E; Massaroni, C; Morbidoni, G; Schena, E; Formica, D; Taffoni, F

    2014-01-01

    In newborns, a poor coordination between sucking, swallowing and breathing may undermine the effectiveness of oral feeding and signal immaturity of Central Nervous System. The aim of this work is to develop and validate a non-invasive device for recording respiratory events of newborns during bottle feeding. The proposed device working principle is based on the convective heat exchanged between two hot bodies and the infants' breathing. The sensing elements are inserted into a duct and the gas exchanged by infants is conveyed into this duct thanks to an ad hoc designed system to be mounted on a commercial feeding bottle. Two sets of experiments have been carried out in order to investigate the discrimination threshold of the device and characterize the sensor response at oscillating flows. The effect of distance and tilt between nostrils and device, and the breathing frequency, have been investigated simulating nostrils and neonatal respiratory pattern. The device has a discrimination threshold lower than 0.5 L/min at both 10° and 20° of tilt. Distance for these two settings does not affect the threshold in the investigated range (10-20 mm). Moreover, the device is able to detect breathing events, and to discriminate the onset of expiratory phase, during a neonatal respiratory task delivered by a lung simulator. The results foster the successful application of this device to the assessment of the temporal breathing pattern of newborns during bottle feeding with a non-invasive approach.

  9. Non-Invasive Measurement of Emittance and Optical Parameters for High-Brightness Hadron Beams in a Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Jansson, A

    2001-01-01

    For hadron colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, emittance preservation is of prime importance to achieve a high luminosity. Since there are no significant effects (apart from active cooling) that decrease the emittance of a hadron beam, the smallest possible emittance is set by the source, and has to be preserved along the entire injector chain. One possible source of emittance increase is due to optical mismatch at beam transfer between two machines in this chain. To verify the matching on-line requires a non-invasive instrument capable of measuring the optical parameters of the injected beam. Such instruments are very rare. A quadrupole pick-up is a non-invasive instrument sensitive to beam size. It is basically a beam position monitor, where the non-linear response to particle position is used to extract information on the second moment of the transverse beam distribution. The basic idea was proposed a long time ago, and have been successfully used at a few occasions, but have not found an...

  10. Non-invasive Presymptomatic Detection of Cercospora beticola Infection and Identification of Early Metabolic Responses in Sugar Beet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Nadja; Backhaus, Andreas; Döll, Stefanie; Fischer, Sandra; Seiffert, Udo; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cercospora beticola is an economically significant fungal pathogen of sugar beet, and is the causative pathogen of Cercospora leaf spot. Selected host genotypes with contrasting degree of susceptibility to the disease have been exploited to characterize the patterns of metabolite responses to fungal infection, and to devise a pre-symptomatic, non-invasive method of detecting the presence of the pathogen. Sugar beet genotypes were analyzed for metabolite profiles and hyperspectral signatures. Correlation of data matrices from both approaches facilitated identification of candidates for metabolic markers. Hyperspectral imaging was highly predictive with a classification accuracy of 98.5–99.9% in detecting C. beticola. Metabolite analysis revealed metabolites altered by the host as part of a successful defense response: these were L-DOPA, 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid 12-O-β-D-glucoside, pantothenic acid, and 5-O-feruloylquinic acid. The accumulation of glucosylvitexin in the resistant cultivar suggests it acts as a constitutively produced protectant. The study establishes a proof-of-concept for an unbiased, presymptomatic and non-invasive detection system for the presence of C. beticola. The test needs to be validated with a larger set of genotypes, to be scalable to the level of a crop improvement program, aiming to speed up the selection for resistant cultivars of sugar beet. Untargeted metabolic profiling is a valuable tool to identify metabolites which correlate with hyperspectral data. PMID:27713750

  11. High-speed biosensing strategy for non-invasive profiling of multiple cancer fusion genes in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Kevin M; Wee, Eugene J H; Trau, Matt

    2017-03-15

    Aberrant chromosal rearrangements, such as the multiple variants of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene mutations in prostate cancer (PCa), are promising diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers due to their specific expression in cancerous tissue only. Additionally, TMPRSS2:ERG variants are detectable in urine to provide non-invasive PCa diagnostic sampling as an attractive surrogate for needle biopsies. Therefore, rapid and simplistic assays for identifying multiple urinary TMPRSS2:ERG variants are potentially useful to aid in early cancer detection, immediate patient risk stratification, and prompt personalized treatment. However, current strategies for simultaneous detection of multiple gene fusions are limited by tedious and prolonged experimental protocols, thus limiting their use as rapid clinical screening tools. Herein, we report a simple and rapid gene fusion strategy which expliots the specificity of DNA ligase and the speed of isothermal amplification to simultaneously detect multiple fusion gene RNAs within a short sample-to-answer timeframe of 60min. The method has a low detection limit of 2 amol (1000 copies), and was successfully applied for non-invasive fusion gene profiling in patient urine samples with subsequent validation by a PCR-based gold standard approach.

  12. Ability of non-invasive intermittent blood pressure monitoring and a continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitor (CNAP™) to provide new readings in each 1-min interval during elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T; Telec, N; Dennis, A; Griffiths, J; Buettner, A

    2012-03-01

    We compared the ability of automated non-invasive intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring with a new device, CNAP(TM) (continuous non-invasive arterial pressure) to provide a new blood pressure reading in each 1-min interval between spinal anaesthesia and delivery during caesarean section. We also compared the accuracy of continuous non-invasive arterial pressure readings with non-invasive blood pressure measurements before spinal anaesthesia. Fifty-nine women participated. The non-invasive and continuous non-invasive monitors displayed new blood pressure readings in a mean of 82% (11%) and 83% (13%) (p = 0.97) of the one-minute intervals between spinal anaesthesia and delivery, respectively. Continuous non-invasive arterial pressure was more likely to fail on two or more consecutive minutes (p=0.001). From the pre-spinal readings, the mean bias, defined as non-invasive-continuous non-invasive arterial pressure, and limits of agreement (±2SD mean bias) for systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure respectively were +1.3 (±26.0), -2.9 (±21.8) and +2.6 (±20.4) mmHg. The new monitor has disadvantages compared with conventional non-invasive intermittent blood pressure monitoring. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. Non-invasive geophysical investigation and thermodynamic analysis of a palsa in Lapland, northwest Finland

    CERN Document Server

    Kohout, Tomáš; Rasmus, Kai; Leppäranta, Matti; Matero, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive geophysical prospecting and a thermodynamic model were used to examine the structure, depth and lateral extent of the frozen core of a palsa near Lake Peeraj\\"arvi, in northwest Finland. A simple thermodynamic model verified that the current climatic conditions in the study area allow sustainable palsa development. A ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the palsa under both winter and summer conditions revealed its internal structure and the size of its frozen core. GPR imaging in summer detected the upper peat/core boundary, and imaging in winter detected a deep reflector that probably represents the lower core boundary. This indicates that only a combined summer and winter GPR survey completely reveals the lateral and vertical extent of the frozen core of the palsa. The core underlies the active layer at a depth of ~0.6 m and extends to about 4 m depth. Its lateral extent is ~15 m x ~30 m. The presence of the frozen core could also be traced as minima in surface temperature and ground condu...

  14. Photogrammetry: a Non-Invasive and Objective Method for Detecting Locomotion Problems in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AS Mendes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Locomotion problems in broiler chickens can cause economic losses of up to 40% of the total revenues due to carcass condemnation and downgrading at processing. Leg disorders, such as femoral lesions, tibial dyschondroplasia, and spondylolisthesis, substantially impact the welfare of chickens as these disorders can prevent birds from reaching the feeders and drinkers, thus reducing feed and water intake. The most important issues related to broiler welfare reported in the last two decades are their growing sensitivity to metabolic and locomotion problems due to the fast growth rates and inactivity. Traditional methods for the determination of gait score include the manual scoring of animal behavior in the broiler house. Recorded video images can also be used for manual scoring of chicken gait score. However, scoring of some animal-based information by human experts and manual methods remain difficult, time consuming and expensive when implemented at farm level. In an effort to objectively detect leg disorders, this study aimed at validating the photogrammetry technique as a non-invasive method for identifying locomotion problems in broilers. Photogrammetry allows determining the geometric properties of broilers from digital photos that are processed and analyzed using a computer software. Results obtained using photogrammetry were tested for their correlation with those obtained by accepted methodologies, including gait score and macroscopic examination of femoral degeneration and tibial dyschondroplasia. The photogrammetry results agreed with the results of the afore mentioned accepted methods.

  15. A Real-Time Non-invasive Auto-bioluminescent Urinary Bladder Cancer Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Bincy Anu; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2017-02-01

    The study was to develop an auto-bioluminescent urinary bladder cancer (UBC) xenograft animal model for pre-clinical research. The study used a humanized, bacteria-originated lux reporter system consisting of six (luxCDABEfrp) genes to express components required for producing bioluminescent signals in human UBC J82, J82-Ras, and SW780 cells without exogenous substrates. Immune-deficient nude mice were inoculated with Lux-expressing UBC cells to develop auto-bioluminescent xenograft tumors that were monitored by imaging and physical examination. Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Lux, J82-Ras-Lux, and SW780-Lux cell lines were established. Xenograft tumors derived from tumorigenic Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Ras-Lux cells allowed a serial, non-invasive, real-time monitoring by imaging of tumor development prior to the presence of palpable tumors in animals. Using Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent tumorigenic cells enabled us to monitor the entire course of xenograft tumor development through tumor cell implantation, adaptation, and growth to visible/palpable tumors in animals.

  16. Non-invasive prenatal paternity testing from maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jasenka; Dzijan, Snjezana; Marjanović, Damir; Lauc, Gordan

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal paternity analysis can be performed only after invasive sampling of chorionic villi or amnionic fluid. Aiming to enable noninvasive paternity testing, we attempted to amplify fetal alleles from maternal plasma. Cell-free DNA was isolated from plasma of 20 pregnant women and amplified with ampFLSTR Identifiler and ampFLSTR Yfiler kits. Unfortunately, autosomal fetal alleles were heavily suppressed by maternal DNA, and the only locus that was reliably amplified with AmpFLSTR Identifiler kit was amelogenin, which revealed only fetal gender. Much better success was obtained with AmpFLSTR Yfiler kit, which, in the case of male fetuses, successfully amplified between six and 16 fetal loci. All amplified fetal alleles matched the alleles of their putative fathers, confirming the tested paternity. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first report of noninvasive prenatal paternity testing.

  17. Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders: exploring the ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders is now clearly on the horizon. This new technology offers obvious clinical benefits such as safe testing early in pregnancy. Before widespread implementation, it is important to consider the possible ethical implications. Four hypothetical scenarios are presented that highlight how ethical ideals of respect for autonomy, privacy and fairness may come into play when offering non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders. The first scenario illustrates the moral case for using these tests for 'information only', identifying a potential conflict between larger numbers of women seeking the benefits of the test and the wider social impact of funding tests that do not offer immediate clinical benefit. The second scenario shows how the simplicity and safety of non-invasive prenatal testing could lead to more autonomous decision-making and, conversely, how this could also lead to increased pressure on women to take up testing. In the third scenario we show how, unless strong safeguards are put in place, offering non-invasive prenatal testing could be subject to routinisation with informed consent undermined and that woman who are newly diagnosed as carriers may be particularly vulnerable. The final scenario introduces the possibility of a conflict of the moral rights of a woman and her partner through testing for single gene disorders. This analysis informs our understanding of the potential impacts of non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders on clinical practice and has implications for future policy and guidelines for prenatal care.

  18. A Non-invasive Method of Tracing Spiral Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 毛晓明; 欧阳颀

    2001-01-01

    A new method is developed to trace the tip of spiral waves in an excitable medium. The information of a spiraltip movement is obtained from only six probes. This method can trace the tip of a simple rotating spiral as wellas a complex spiral tip movement. More importantly, it can be used to distinguish between a spiral and a targetwave. The method is checked with data by experiments and numerical simulations, and found to be successful.

  19. Non-invasive bedside assessment of central venous pressure: scanning into the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Rizkallah

    Full Text Available Noninvasive evaluation of central venous pressure (CVP can be achieved by assessing the Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP, Peripheral Venous Collapse (PVC, and ultrasound visualization of the inferior vena cava. The relative accuracy of these techniques compared to one another and their application by trainees of varying experience remains uncertain. We compare the application and utility of the JVP, PVC, and handheld Mini Echo amongst trainees of varying experience including a medical student, internal medicine resident, and cardiology fellow. We also introduce and validate a new physical exam technique to assess central venous pressures, the Anthem sign.Patients presenting for their regularly scheduled echocardiograms at the hospital echo department had clinical evaluations of their CVP using these non-invasive bedside techniques. The examiners were blinded to the echo results, each other's assessments, and patient history; their CVP estimates were compared to the gold standard level 3 echo-cardiographer's estimates at the completion of the study.325 patients combined were examined (mean age 65, s.d. 16 years. When compared to the gold standard of central venous pressure by a level 3 echocardiographer, the JVP was the most sensitive at 86%, improving with clinical experience (p<0.01. The classic PVC technique and Anthem sign had better specificity compared to the JVP. Mini Echo estimates were comparable to physical exam assessments.JVP evaluation is the most sensitive physical examination technique in CVP assessments. The PVC techniques along with the newly described Anthem sign may be of value for the early learner who still has not mastered the art of JVP assessment and in obese patients in whom JVP evaluation is problematic. Mini Echo estimates of CVPs are comparable to physical examination by trained clinicians and require less instruction. The use of Mini Echo in medical training should be further evaluated and encouraged.

  20. Non-invasive monitoring of peripheral perfusion: an exploration of non-invasive peripheral perfusion monitoring for applications in research & healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Blaxter, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The need for real-time, prognostic perfusion data has been widely recognised in clinical practice and academia. Perfusion, the volumetric blood low to tissue, is an important tool for haemodynamic monitoring, since perfusion adequacy is vital to tissue health. Perfusion can serve as both a diagnostic indicator and a fundamental research tool. However, lack of a low cost, easily applied, and non-invasive sensor technology capable of measuring peripheral perfusion in absolute volumetric units i...

  1. A brief examination of predictors of e-learning success for novice and expert learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Stark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the prevalence of e-learning continues to grow in higher education settings, so too does the need for empirical research examining the antecedents of success in this environment. Previous research has suggested some characteristics that may determine success in an online course; however, little empirical evidence exists relating potential predictors of e-learning success with actual performance outcomes, particularly for different levels of learners. Students new to college may need different kinds of support to succeed in an online course compared to students with more experience in taking college-level courses, whether online or in-class, and navigating institutional resources. A primary goal of the current study is to determine the kinds of support needed to help lower-level and upper-level learners succeed in an e-learning environment. We assess several predictors of e-learning success and compare the relative effectiveness of these characteristics across novice and expert learners. Findings suggest that for lower-level students, access to technology predicted learner performance, whereas for upper-level students, motivation and self-discipline predicted learner performance. We discuss the implications of these results for e-learning instructors, instructional designers, and knowledge management practitioners.

  2. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossini, P M; Burke, D; Chen, R

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide an up-date of previous IFCN report on "Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots: basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application" (Rossini et al., 1994). A new Committee, composed of international experts, some...... of whom were in the panel of the 1994 "Report", was selected to produce a current state-of-the-art review of non-invasive stimulation both for clinical application and research in neuroscience. Since 1994, the international scientific community has seen a rapid increase in non-invasive brain stimulation...... in studying cognition, brain-behavior relationship and pathophysiology of various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. New paradigms of stimulation and new techniques have been developed. Furthermore, a large number of studies and clinical trials have demonstrated potential therapeutic applications of non...

  3. [Next generation sequencing and its applications in non-invasive prenatal testing of aneuploidies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babay, Lilla Éva; Horányi, Dániel; Rigó, János; Nagy, Gyula Richárd

    2015-06-28

    The development of the new generation sequencing techniques brought a new era in the field of DNA sequencing, that also revolutionized the prenatal screening for aneuploidy. In order to provide a more complete view, the authors describe some first generation methods as well as the theoretical and technical background of the next generation methods. In the second part of this review, the authors focuse on non-invasive prenatal testing, which is a fetal cell-free DNA based method requiring advanced sequencing procedures. After discussing the theoretical and technical background, the authors review current application and utility of non-invasive prenatal testing. They conclude that non-invasive prenatal testing is the most effective screening test in high risk pregnancies and its efficiency can be justified in studies involving low risk pregnancies as well.

  4. Intraspecies differenes in phenotypic plasticity: Invasive versus non-invasive populations of Ceratophyllum demersum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2012-01-01

    in response to growth temperature. Populations of the submerged macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum from New Zealand, where the species is introduced and invasive, and from Denmark, where the species is native and non-invasive, were grown in a common garden setup at temperatures of 12, 18, 25 and 35 ◦C. We...... hypothesized that the phenotypic plasticity in fitness-related traits like growth and photosynthesis were higher in the invasive than in the non-invasive population. The invasive population acclimated to elevated temperatures through increased rates of photosynthesis (range: Pamb: 8–452 mol O2 g−1 DM h−1......High phenotypic plasticity has been hypothesized to affect the invasiveness of plants, as high plasticity may enlarge the breath of environments in which the plants can survive and reproduce. Here we compare the phenotypic plasticity of invasive and non-invasive populations of the same species...

  5. On the Selection of Non-Invasive Methods Based on Speech Analysis Oriented to Automatic Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unai Martinez de Lizardui

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here is part of a larger study to identify novel technologies and biomarkers for early Alzheimer disease (AD detection and it focuses on evaluating the suitability of a new approach for early AD diagnosis by non-invasive methods. The purpose is to examine in a pilot study the potential of applying intelligent algorithms to speech features obtained from suspected patients in order to contribute to the improvement of diagnosis of AD and its degree of severity. In this sense, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN have been used for the automatic classification of the two classes (AD and control subjects. Two human issues have been analyzed for feature selection: Spontaneous Speech and Emotional Response. Not only linear features but also non-linear ones, such as Fractal Dimension, have been explored. The approach is non invasive, low cost and without any side effects. Obtained experimental results were very satisfactory and promising for early diagnosis and classification of AD patients.

  6. Non-invasive assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts - an update; Koronare Bypassdiagnostik mit CT und MRT - eine Bestandsaufnahme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Ehrhard, K.; Kunz, R.P.; Oberholzer, K.; Mildenberger, P.; Thelen, M. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Radiologie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Abegunewardene, N.; Horstick, G. [2. Medizinische Klinik und Poliklinik der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany); Hake, U. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Herz-Thorax- und Gefaesschirurgie der Johannes Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    The limited lifetime and the correlation between graft occlusion and recurring symptoms underline the need for repeated imaging of coronary artery bypass grafts. CT and MRI allow for noninvasive imaging of coronary bypasses with high accuracies concerning the patency of these vessels. Multidetector CT seem to be the CT technique of choice, especially after the introduction of 16 slice CT scanners for morphologic assessment of coronary artery bypass grafts. Compared with MRI, CT is a robust technique for assessment of cardiac anastomoses, native coronary arteries, anf for the detection of graft stenoses. MRI, however, is able to deliver functional information about the grafts and the recipient coronary arteries by determining the coronary flow reserve. Furthermore, it can be integrated in a multiparametric MR examination protocol. The follow-up of asymptomatic patients can primarily be done by these non-invasive techniques as nearly every third patient reveals an asymptomatic bypass occlusion 5 years after operation. Furthermore, patients with atypical complaints after the operation may undergo non-invasive imaging as long as documented patency of the bypass averts coronary angiography. Patients with recurrent angina pectoris and/or myocardial ischemia discovered by other cardiologic tests have to undergo coronary angiography. (orig.)

  7. [Non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lédinghen, V; Poynard, T; Wartelle, C; Rosenthal, E

    2008-03-01

    In 2007, the recommended FibroScan, FibroTest or liver biopsy for the initial diagnosis of fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C without co morbidities. These methods have to be interpreted according to the clinical situation, keeping in mind negative and positive false results. For FibroTest, hemolysis, Gilbert syndrome or acute inflammation can modify the result. Pre-analytical and analytical conditions of FibroTest have to be respected according to manufactory recommendations. For FibroScan, the numbers of measurements, the rate of successful measurements, and the interquartile range have to be correct. In case of suspicious results, FibroTest or FibroScan have to be done again. The liver biopsy, FibroTest, and FibroScan are less relevant for the distinction of two adjacent stages of fibrosis. However, their performances are excellent for the diagnosis of severe fibrosis or cirrhosis compared to moderate fibrosis.

  8. Highly sensitive, non-invasive detection of colorectal cancer mutations using single molecule, third generation sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Russo

    2015-12-01

    We present the first study that applies the high read accuracy and depth of single molecule, real time, circular consensus sequencing (SMRT-CCS to the detection of mutations in stool DNA in order to provide a non-invasive, sensitive and accurate test for CRC. In stool DNA isolated from patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma, we are able to detect mutations at frequencies below 0.5% with no false positives. This approach establishes a foundation for a non-invasive, highly sensitive assay to screen the population for CRC and the early stage adenomas that lead to CRC.

  9. Two-photon microscopy for non-invasive, quantitative monitoring of stem cell differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William L Rice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The engineering of functional tissues is a complex multi-stage process, the success of which depends on the careful control of culture conditions and ultimately tissue maturation. To enable the efficient optimization of tissue development protocols, techniques suitable for monitoring the effects of added stimuli and induced tissue changes are needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present the quantitative use of two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF and second harmonic generation (SHG as a noninvasive means to monitor the differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs using entirely endogenous sources of contrast. We demonstrate that the individual fluorescence contribution from the intrinsic cellular fluorophores NAD(PH, flavoproteins and lipofuscin can be extracted from TPEF images and monitored dynamically from the same cell population over time. Using the redox ratio, calculated from the contributions of NAD(PH and flavoproteins, we identify distinct patterns in the evolution of the metabolic activity of hMSCs maintained in either propagation, osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation media. The differentiation of these cells is mirrored by changes in cell morphology apparent in high resolution TPEF images and by the detection of collagen production via SHG imaging. Finally, we find dramatic increases in lipofuscin levels in hMSCs maintained at 20% oxygen vs. those in 5% oxygen, establishing the use of this chromophore as a potential biomarker for oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In this study we demonstrate that it is possible to monitor the metabolic activity, morphology, ECM production and oxidative stress of hMSCs in a non-invasive manner. This is accomplished using generally available multiphoton microscopy equipment and simple data analysis techniques, such that the method can widely adopted by laboratories with a diversity of comparable equipment. This method therefore represents a powerful tool

  10. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for respiratory failure due to severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Antonello; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Barlascini, Cornelius; Santo, Mario; Ferrera, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) have been as defined pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit or carrying a high risk of death. Currently, the treatment of sCAP consists of antibiotic therapy and ventilator support. The use of invasive ventilation causes several complications as does admission to ICU. For this reason, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, few studies have currently assessed the usefulness of NIV in sCAP. We prospectively assessed 127 patients with sCAP and severe acute respiratory failure [oxygen arterial pressure/oxygen inspiratory fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2) intubation and the achievement of PaO2/FiO2 >250 with spontaneous breathing. We assessed predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 32 patients (25.1%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, chest X-ray worsening, and a lower PaO2/FiO2 and higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 1 h of NIV all independently predicted NIV failure. Higher lactate dehydrogenase and confusion, elevated blood urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years at admission, higher A-aDO2, respiratory rate and lower PaO2/FiO2 after 1 h of NIV and intubation rate were directly related to hospital mortality. Successful treatment is strongly related to less severe illness as well as to a good initial and sustained response to medical therapy and NIV treatment. Constant monitoring of these patients is mandatory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Novel MRI Technique Enables Non-Invasive Measurement of Atrial Wall Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marta; Morgan, Ross; Theron, Adeline; Dillon-Murphy, Desmond; Chubb, Henry; Whitaker, John; Henningsson, Markus; Aljabar, Paul; Schaeffter, Tobias; Kolbitsch, Christoph; Aslanidi, Oleg V

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of atrial wall thickness (AWT) has the potential to provide important information for patient stratification and the planning of interventions in atrial arrhythmias. To date, information about AWT has only been acquired in post-mortem or poor-contrast computed tomography (CT) studies, providing limited coverage and highly variable estimates of AWT. We present a novel contrast agent-free MRI sequence for imaging AWT and use it to create personalized AWT maps and a biatrial atlas. A novel black-blood phase-sensitive inversion recovery protocol was used to image ten volunteers and, as proof of concept, two atrial fibrillation patients. Both atria were manually segmented to create subject-specific AWT maps using an average of nearest neighbors approach. These were then registered non-linearly to generate an AWT atlas. AWT was 2.4 ± 0.7 and 2.7 ± 0.7 mm in the left and right atria, respectively, in good agreement with post-mortem and CT data, where available. AWT was 2.6 ± 0.7 mm in the left atrium of a patient without structural heart disease, similar to that of volunteers. In a patient with structural heart disease, the AWT was increased to 3.1 ± 1.3 mm. We successfully designed an MRI protocol to non-invasively measure AWT and create the first whole-atria AWT atlas. The atlas can be used as a reference to study alterations in thickness caused by atrial pathology. The protocol can be used to acquire personalized AWT maps in a clinical setting and assist in the treatment of atrial arrhythmias.

  12. Non-invasive multiparametric qBOLD approach for robust mapping of the oxygen extraction fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domsch, Sebastian; Mie, Moritz B.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Wenz, Frederik [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2014-10-01

    Introduction: The quantitative blood oxygenation level-dependent (qBOLD) method has not become clinically established yet because long acquisition times are necessary to achieve an acceptable certainty of the parameter estimates. In this work, a non-invasive multiparametric (nimp) qBOLD approach based on a simple analytical model is proposed to facilitate robust oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times by using separate measurements. Methods: The protocol consisted of a gradient-echo sampled spin-echo sequence (GESSE), a T{sub 2}-weighted Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence, and a T{sub 2}{sup *}-weighted multi-slice multi-echo gradient echo (MMGE) sequence. The GESSE acquisition time was less than 5 minutes and the extra measurement time for CPMG / MMGE was below 2 minutes each. The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach was validated in healthy subjects (N = 5) and one patient. Results: The proposed nimp-qBOLD approach facilitated more robust OEF mapping with significantly reduced inter- and intra-subject variability compared to the standard qBOLD method. Thereby, an average OEF in all subjects of 27 ± 2 % in white matter (WM) and 29 ± 2 % in gray matter (GM) using the nimp-qBOLD method was more stable compared to 41 ± 10 % (WM) and 46 ± 10 % (GM) with standard qBOLD. Moreover, the spatial variance in the image slice (i.e. standard deviation divided by mean) was on average reduced from 35 % to 25 %. In addition, the preliminary results of the patient are encouraging. Conclusion: The proposed nimp-qBOLD technique provides a promising tool for robust OEF mapping within clinically acceptable acquisition times and could therefore provide an important contribution for analyzing tumors or monitoring the success of radio and chemo therapies. (orig.)

  13. Non invasive cardiac vein mapping: Role of multislice CT coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto, E-mail: robertomalag@yahoo.it [Radiology Department, University Hospital Policlinico G.B.Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Sala, Giuseppe; Zamboni, Giulia A. [Radiology Department, University Hospital Policlinico G.B.Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Tavella, Domenico [Cardiology Service, University Hospital Policlinico G.B.Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy); Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi [Radiology Department, University Hospital Policlinico G.B.Rossi, P.le L.A. Scuro 10, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Coronary venous anatomy is of primary importance when implanting a cardiac resynchronization therapy device, besides, the coronary sinus can be differently enlarged depending on chronic heart failure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of Coronary CTA in describing the coronary venous tree and in particular the coronary sinus and detecting main venous system variants. Materials and methods: 301 consecutive patients (196 Male-Sign , mean age 63.74 years) studied for coronary artery disease with 64 slice Coronary CTA were retrospectively examined. The acquisition protocol was the standard acquisition one used for coronary artery evaluation but the cardiac venous system were visualized. The cardiac venous system was depicted using 3D, MPR, cMPR and MIP post-processing reconstructions on an off-line workstation. For each patient image quality, presence and caliber of the coronary sinus (CS), great cardiac vein (GCV), middle vein (MV), anterior interventricular vein (AIV), lateral cardiac vein (LCV), posterior cardiac vein (PCV), small cardiac vein (SCV) and presence of variant of the normal anatomy were examined and recorded. Results: CS, GCV, MV and AIV were visualized in 100% of the cases. The LCV was visualized in 255/301 (84%) patients, the PCV in 248/301 (83%) patients and the SCV in 69/301 (23%) patients. Mean diameter of the CS was 8.7 mm in 276/301 (91.7%) patients without chronic heart failure and 9.93 mm in 25/301 (8.3%) patients with chronic heart failure. Conclusions: Coronary CTA allows non invasive mapping of the cardiac venous system and may represent a useful presurgical tool for biventricular pacemaker devices implantation.

  14. Use of non-invasive ventilation in acute pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation in emergency medicine: predictors of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarini, Juliana Nalin de Souza; Zambon, Lair; Morcillo, André Moreno; Kosour, Carolina; Saad, Ivete Alonso Bredda

    2012-09-01

    This study analyzed acute respiratory failure caused by acute pulmonary edema, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation, that was treated with non-invasive mechanical ventilation to identify the factors that are associated with the success or failure non-invasive mechanical ventilation in urgent and emergency service. This study was a prospective, descriptive and analytical study. We included patients of both genders aged >18 years who used non-invasive mechanical ventilation due to acute respiratory failure that was secondary to acute pulmonary edema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation. Patients with acute respiratory failure that was secondary to pathologies other than acute pulmonary edema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or who presented with contraindications for the technique were excluded. Expiratory pressures between 5 and 8 cmH2O and inspiratory pressures between 10 and 12 cmH2O were used. Supplemental oxygen maintained peripheral oxygen saturation at >90%. The primary outcome was endotracheal intubation. A total of 152 patients were included. The median non-invasive mechanical ventilation time was 6 hours (range 1 - 32 hours) for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (n=60) and 5 hours (range 2 - 32 hours) for acute pulmonary edema patients (n=92). Most (75.7%) patients progressed successfully. However, reduced APACHE II scores and lower peripheral oxygen saturation were observed. These results were statistically significant in patients who progressed to intubation (pendotracheal intubation 2.3 times (p=0.032). Patients with acute pulmonary edema and elevated GCS scores also increased the probability of success. Respiratory frequency >25 rpm, higher APACHE II scores, BiPAP use and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease diagnosis were associated with endotracheal intubation. Higher GCS and SpO2 values were associated with NIV success. Non-invasive mechanical ventilation can be used in emergency

  15. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Tomographic non-invasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedde, J.P.; Reischies, W.; Fiegler, R.; Felix, H.; Helmchen, H.; Kanowski, S.

    1984-02-01

    The measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow by means of the dynamic single-photon-emission-computed tomography is a method of examination which is completely free of risk for the patient, causes no inconvenience and can be repeated whenever it seems necessary. This method gives a quantitative explanation for the distribution of the effective cerebral perfusion and can only be substituted by the very complicated positron-emission-computed tomography. As well as the exact assessment of the hemodynamic relevance of cerebral vascular disease, this method enables us to prove whether or not in various types of psychiatric disorders an interference in the regional perfusion exists. This method can also contribute to the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms, as well as to the nosological classification of specific psychopathological conditions.

  17. Academic predictors of success on the NCLEX-RN examination for associate degree nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengacher, C A; Keller, R

    1990-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between selected admission variables (entrance GPA, ACT subtests scores in English and mathematics, composite ACT scores), age, perception of role strain, achievement in clinical and nursing courses, achievement on NLN examinations, exit GPA, and performance on NCLEX-RN examination. Data were attained from records of 146 associate degree graduates who were admitted to a specially-designed associate degree program in nursing and on those graduates who wrote the NCLEX-RN examination in July 1987 and July 1988. Pearson product moment correlations and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to identify the relationship between the predictor variables (admission criteria, age, perception of role strain, achievement in clinical and nursing courses), achievement on NLN examinations, exit GPA, and the criterion variable (scores on the NCLEX-RN examination). The best predictor for performance on the NCLEX-RN of the selected admission variables, age, perception of role strain, and exit GPA, were exit GPA (R = .71) and ACT composite scores (R = .75). The ACT math, ACT English scores, entrance GPA, age, and perception of role strain, had no predictive value. The best predictor for performance on the NCLEX-RN of nursing theory course and clinical course grades were the two theory courses in the second year of the program NUR 2712 (R = .77) and NUR 2713 (R = .79). NUR 2711 and 2711L, NUR 2712L, 2713L, and 2813 had no predictive value for success on the NCLEX-RN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouran Samimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8 and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10 and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well.

  19. Non-invasive management of fused upper incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Pouran; Shirban, Mohammad-Reza; Arbabzadeh-Zavareh, Farahnaz

    2012-01-01

    The union of two different dental sprouts which can happen in any phase of dental development is commonly called fusion. This developmental anomaly may cause clinical problems including esthetic impairment, which are mainly treated by endodontic and surgical treatments. There are a few reports of conservative not invasive treatment of fused incisors teeth through restorative or prosthetic techniques. They are rarely reported in mandibular posterior teeth. This paper presents an unusual case of fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth which was treated with a nonendodontic and nonsurgical conservative approach. Patient was a healthy18-year-old female with chief complaint of bad-looking teeth that in intraoral examination revealed the fusion of 7 and 8, and also 9 and 10 teeth. The space between the mesial of the 6 and 11 teeth was reconstructed. Diastema between the fused teeth was closed. A new lateral tooth was replaced between the fused teeth (7 and 8) and 6 tooth with direct fiber-reinforced composite. The space between the fused teeth (9 and 10) and also tooth 11 was partially closed. Gingival papillas were reconstructed using pink composite. The mandibular anterior missing teeth were replaced with rochett bridge. At the end of treatment the esthetic of the patient was improved. As the treatment was not invasive, major complications are not expected; however, there is potential for eventual long-term periodontal problems due to poor oral hygiene. Debonding of the rochett bridge may happen as well.

  20. Examination of the relationship between project management critical success factors and project success of oil and gas drilling projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagba, Tonye J.

    Oil and gas drilling projects are the primary means by which oil companies recover large volumes of commercially available hydrocarbons from deep reservoirs. These types of projects are complex in nature, involving management of multiple stakeholder interfaces, multidisciplinary personnel, complex contractor relationships, and turbulent environmental and market conditions, necessitating the application of proven project management best practices and critical success factors (CSFs) to achieve success. Although there is some practitioner oriented literature on project management CSFs for drilling projects, none of these is based on empirical evidence, from research. In addition, the literature has reported alarming rates of oil and gas drilling project failure, which is attributable not to technical factors, but to failure of project management. The aim of this quantitative correlational study therefore, was to discover an empirically verified list of project management CSFs, which consistent application leads to successful implementation of oil and gas drilling projects. The study collected survey data online, from a random sample of 127 oil and gas drilling personnel who were members of LinkedIn's online community "Drilling Supervisors, Managers, and Engineers". The results of the study indicated that 10 project management factors are individually related to project success of oil and gas drilling projects. These 10 CSFs are namely; Project mission, Top management support, Project schedule/plan, Client consultation, Personnel, Technical tasks, Client acceptance, Monitoring and feedback, Communication, and Troubleshooting. In addition, the study found that the relationships between the 10 CSFs and drilling project success is unaffected by participant and project demographics---role of project personnel, and project location. The significance of these findings are both practical, and theoretical. Practically, application of an empirically verified CSFs list to oil

  1. Examination of the Mathematical Problem-Solving Beliefs and Success Levels of Primary School Teacher Candidates through the Variables of Mathematical Success and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Ayten Pinar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the mathematical problem-solving beliefs and problem-solving success levels of primary school teacher candidates through the variables of academic success and gender. The research was designed according to the mixed methods technique in which qualitative and quantitative methods are used together. The working…

  2. Trial by Dutch Laboratories for Evaluation of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing. Part II - Women's Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachel V; Page-Christiaens, Lieve; Beulen, Lean; Bilardo, Catia M; de Boer, Marjon A; Coumans, Audrey B C; Faas, Brigitte H; van Langen, Irene M; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; van Maarle, Merel C; Macville, Merryn V E; Oepkes, Dick; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate preferences and decision-making amongst high-risk pregnant women offered a choice between Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT), invasive testing or no further testing. METHODS: Nationwide implementation study (TRIDENT) offering NIPT as contingent screening test for women at in

  3. Trial by Dutch Laboratories for Evaluation of Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing. : Part II - Women's Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schendel, Rachel V; Page-Christiaens, Lieve; Beulen, Lean; Bilardo, Catia M; de Boer, Marjon A; Coumans, Audrey B C; Faas, Brigitte H; van Langen, Irene M; Lichtenbelt, Klaske D; van Maarle, Merel C; Macville, Merryn V E; Oepkes, Dick; Pajkrt, Eva; Henneman, Lidewij

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate preferences and decision-making amongst high-risk pregnant women offered a choice between Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT), invasive testing or no further testing. METHODS: Nationwide implementation study (TRIDENT) offering NIPT as contingent screening test for women at in

  4. Liver breath tests non-invasively predict higher stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portincasa, Piero; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Stellaard, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Effectively assessing subtle hepatic metabolic functions by novel non-invasive tests might be of clinical utility in scoring NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and in identifying altered metabolic pathways. The present study was conducted on 39 (20 lean and 19 obese) hypertransaminasemic pati

  5. Emerging technologies for non-invasive quantification of physiological oxygen transport in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P; Taguchi, M; Burrs, S L; Hauser, B A; Salim, W W A W; Claussen, J C; McLamore, E S

    2013-09-01

    Oxygen plays a critical role in plant metabolism, stress response/signaling, and adaptation to environmental changes (Lambers and Colmer, Plant Soil 274:7-15, 2005; Pitzschke et al., Antioxid Redox Signal 8:1757-1764, 2006; Van Breusegem et al., Plant Sci 161:405-414, 2001). Reactive oxygen species (ROS), by-products of various metabolic pathways in which oxygen is a key molecule, are produced during adaptation responses to environmental stress. While much is known about plant adaptation to stress (e.g., detoxifying enzymes, antioxidant production), the link between ROS metabolism, O2 transport, and stress response mechanisms is unknown. Thus, non-invasive technologies for measuring O2 are critical for understanding the link between physiological O2 transport and ROS signaling. New non-invasive technologies allow real-time measurement of O2 at the single cell and even organelle levels. This review briefly summarizes currently available (i.e., mainstream) technologies for measuring O2 and then introduces emerging technologies for measuring O2. Advanced techniques that provide the ability to non-invasively (i.e., non-destructively) measure O2 are highlighted. In the near future, these non-invasive sensors will facilitate novel experimentation that will allow plant physiologists to ask new hypothesis-driven research questions aimed at improving our understanding of physiological O2 transport.

  6. Non-invasive monitoring of endocrine status in laboratory primates: methods, guidelines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the past three decades, non-invasive methods for assessing physiological, in particular endocrine, status have revolutionized almost all areas of primatology, including behavioural ecology, reproductive biology, stress research, conservation and last but not least management of primates in captivity where the technology plays an integral role in assisting the husbandry, breeding and welfare of many species. Non-invasive endocrine methods make use of the fact that hormones circulating in blood are secreted into saliva or deposited in hair and are eliminated from the body via urinary and faecal excretion. The choice of which matrix to use for hormonal assessment depends on a range of factors, including the type of information required, the measurement techniques involved, species differences in hormone metabolism and route of excretion and the practicality of sample collection. However, although sample collection is usually relatively easy, analysing hormones from these non-invasively collected samples is not as easy as many people think, particularly not when dealing with a new species. In this respect, the importance of a careful validation of each technique is essential in order to generate meaningful and accurate results. This paper aims to provide an overview of the available non-invasive endocrine-based methodologies, their relative merits and their potential areas of application for assessing endocrine status in primates, with special reference to captive environments. In addition, general information is given about the most important aspects and caveats researchers have to be aware of when using these methodologies.

  7. Recent Advances in Non-Invasive Delivery of Macromolecules using Nanoparticulate Carriers System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadab, Md; Haque, Shadabul; Sheshala, Ravi; Meng, Lim Wei; Meka, Venkata Srikanth; Ali, Javed

    2017-01-01

    The drug delivery of macromolecules such as proteins and peptides has become an important area of research and represents the fastest expanding share of the market for human medicines. The most common method for delivering macromolecules is parenterally. However parenteral administration of some therapeutic macromolecules has not been effective because of their rapid clearance from the body. As a result, most macromolecules are only therapeutically useful after multiple injections, which causes poor compliance and systemic side effects. Therefore, there is a need to improve delivery of therapeutic macromolecules to enable non-invasive delivery routes, less frequent dosing through controlled-release drug delivery, and improved drug targeting to increase efficacy and reduce side effects. Non-invasive administration routes such as intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal, ocular and oral delivery have been attempted intensively by formulating macromolecules into nanoparticulate carriers system such as polymeric and lipidic nanoparticles. This review discusses barriers to drug delivery and current formulation technologies to overcome the unfavorable properties of macromolecules via non-invasive delivery (mainly intranasal, pulmonary, transdermal oral and ocular) with a focus on nanoparticulate carrier systems. This review also provided a summary and discussion of recent data on non-invasive delivery of macromolecules using nanoparticulate formulations. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. A NEW NON-INVASIVE DEVICE TO MONITOR CORE TEMPERATURE ON EARTH AND IN SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-Christian Gunga

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the core body temperature (cbt is fundamental to the study of human temperature regulation. As standard sites for the placement of cbt measurement sensors have been used: the rectum, the bladder, the esophagus, the nasopharynx and the acoustic meatus. Nevertheless those measurement sites exhibit limited applicability under field conditions, in rescue operations or during peri- and postoperative long-term core temperature monitoring. There is, indeed, a high demand for a reliable, non-invasive, easy to handle telemetric device. But the ideal non-invasive measurement of core temperature has to meet requirements such as i a convenient measurement site, ii no bias through environmental conditions, and iii a high sensitivity of the sensor regarding time shift and absolute temperature value. Recently, together with the Draegerwerke AG we have developed a new heat flux measurement device (so-called "Double Sensor" as a non-invasive cbt sensor aiming to meet the requirements described above. Four recent studies in humans will be summarized and discussed to show the applicability of this new non-invasive method to monitor core temperature under different environmental and clinical settings on Earth and in space.

  9. Cardiac abnormalities assessed by non-invasive techniques in patients with newly diagnosed idiopathic inflammatory myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Diederichsen, Axel Cosmus Pyndt

    2015-01-01

    inflammatory myopathies (IIM) by means of non-invasive techniques. METHODS: Fourteen patients with IIM (8 polymyositis, 4 dermatomyositis, 2 cancer-associated dermatomyositis) and 14 gender- and age- matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Participant assessments included a cardiac questionnaire...

  10. Non-invasive method of field imaging in parallel plate waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We present a new non-invasive air-photonic-based method of terahertz (THz) field imaging inside a parallel plate waveguide. The method is based on THz field-enhanced second harmonic generation of the fundamental laser beam in an external electric field. We also demonstrate the direct measurements...

  11. Non-invasive ambient pressure estimation using non-linear ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup

    Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the blood pressure locally in the body have been made. This dissertation focuses on the approaches which utilize highly compressible ultrasound contrast agents as ambient pressure sensors. The literature within the topic has been reviewed...

  12. Non-invasive versus invasive mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loretta YC Yam; Alfred YF Chan; Thomas MT Cheung; Eva LH Tsui; Jane CK Chan; Vivian CW Wong

    2005-01-01

    Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome is frequently complicated by respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support. We aimed to compare the efficacy of non-invasive ventilation against invasive mechanical ventilation treating respiratory failure in this disease. Methods Retrospective analysis was conducted on all respiratory failure patients identified from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Database. Intubation rate, mortality and secondary outcome of a hospital utilizing non-invasive ventilation under standard infection control conditions (NIV Hospital) were compared against 13 hospitals using solely invasive ventilation (IMV Hospitals). Multiple logistic regression analyses with adjustments for confounding variables were performed to test for association between outcomes and hospital groups. Results Both hospital groups had comparable demographics and clinical profiles, but NIV Hospital (42 patients) had higher lactate dehydrogenase ratio and worse radiographic score on admission and ribavirin-corticosteroid commencement. Compared to IMV Hospitals (451 patients), NIV Hospital had lower adjusted odds ratios for intubation (0.36, 95% CI 0.164-0.791, P=0.011) and death (0.235, 95% CI 0.077-0.716, P=0.011), and improved earlier after pulsed steroid rescue. There were no instances of transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome among health care workers due to the use of non-invasive ventilation.Conclusion Compared to invasive mechanical ventilation, non-invasive ventilation as initial ventilatory support for acute respiratory failure in the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome appeared to be associated with reduced intubation need and mortality.

  13. Non-invasive imaging in detecting myocardial viability: Myocardial function versus perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal A. Elfigih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery disease (CAD is the most prevalent and single most common cause of morbidity and mortality [1] with the resulting left ventricular (LV dysfunction an important complication. The distinction between viable and non-viable myocardium in patients with LV dysfunction is a clinically important issue among possible candidates for myocardial revascularization. Several available non-invasive techniques are used to detect and assess ischemia and myocardial viability. These techniques include echocardiography, radionuclide images, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and recently myocardial computed tomography perfusion imaging. This review aims to distinguish between the available non-invasive imaging techniques in detecting signs of functional and perfusion viability and identify those which have the most clinical relevance in detecting myocardial viability in patients with CAD and chronic ischemic LV dysfunction. The most current available studies showed that both myocardial perfusion and function based on non-invasive imaging have high sensitivity with however wide range of specificity for detecting myocardial viability. Both perfusion and function imaging modalities provide complementary information about myocardial viability and no optimum single imaging technique exists that can provide very accurate diagnostic and prognostic viability assessment. The weight of the body of evidence suggested that non-invasive imaging can help in guiding therapeutic decision making in patients with LV dysfunction.

  14. Ultraweak photon emission as a non-invasive health assessment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ives, J.A.; Wijk, E.P.A. van; Bat, N.; Crawford, C.; Walter, A.; Jonas, W.B.; Wijk, R. van; Greef, J. van der

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review (SR) of the peer reviewed scientific literature on ultraweak photon emissions (UPE) from humans. The question was: Can ultraweak photon emissions from humans be used as a non-invasive health assessment? A systematic search was conducted across eight relevant database

  15. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  16. Non-invasive continuous core temperature measurement by zero heat flux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen, L.P.J.; Klewer, J.; Haan, A. de; Koning, J.J. de; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable continuous core temperature measurement is of major importance for monitoring patients. The zero heat flux method (ZHF) can potentially fulfil the requirements of non-invasiveness, reliability and short delay time that current measurement methods lack. The purpose of this study was to deter

  17. Non-Invasive Study of Nerve Fibres using Laser Interference Microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazhe, A. R.; Brazhe, N. A.; Rodionova, N. N.;

    2008-01-01

    information non-invasively about the internal structure of different regions of a nerve fibre. We also analyse the temporal variations in the internal optical properties in order to detect the rhythmic activity in the nerve fibre at different time scales and to shed light on the underlying biological...

  18. [18F]FLT PET for non-invasive assessment of tumor sensitivity to chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Kamille Dumong; Björkling, Fredrik; Madsen, Jacob;

    2012-01-01

    3'-deoxy-3'-[¹⁸F]fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) is a tracer used to assess cell proliferation in vivo. The aim of the study was to use [18F]FLT positron emission tomography (PET) to study non-invasively early anti-proliferative effects of the experimental chemotherapeutic agent TP202377 in both sensi...... sensitive and resistant tumors....

  19. Microgradients in bacterial colonies : use of fluorescence ratio imaging : a non-invasive technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malakar, P.K.; Brocklehurst, T.F.; Mackie, A.R.; Wilson, P.D.G.; Zwietering, M.H.; Riet, K. van 't

    2000-01-01

    Fluorescence ratio imaging is a non-invasive technique for studying the formation of microgradients in immobilised bacterial colonies. These gradients can be quantified easily when combined with the gel cassette system designed at the Institute of Food Research, Norwich, UK. Colonies of

  20. Invasive versus Non Invasive Methods Applied to Mummy Research: Will This Controversy Ever Be Solved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despina Moissidou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in the application of non invasive techniques to mummified remains have shed new light on past diseases. The virtual inspection of a corpse, which has almost completely replaced classical autopsy, has proven to be important especially when dealing with valuable museum specimens. In spite of some very rewarding results, there are still many open questions. Non invasive techniques provide information on hard and soft tissue pathologies and allow information to be gleaned concerning mummification practices (e.g., ancient Egyptian artificial mummification. Nevertheless, there are other fields of mummy studies in which the results provided by non invasive techniques are not always self-explanatory. Reliance exclusively upon virtual diagnoses can sometimes lead to inconclusive and misleading interpretations. On the other hand, several types of investigation (e.g., histology, paleomicrobiology, and biochemistry, although minimally invasive, require direct contact with the bodies and, for this reason, are often avoided, particularly by museum curators. Here we present an overview of the non invasive and invasive techniques currently used in mummy studies and propose an approach that might solve these conflicts.

  1. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  2. Liver breath tests non-invasively predict higher stages of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portincasa, Piero; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Lauterburg, Bernhard H.; Palmieri, Vincenzo O.; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Stellaard, Frans

    Effectively assessing subtle hepatic metabolic functions by novel non-invasive tests might be of clinical utility in scoring NAFLD (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) and in identifying altered metabolic pathways. The present study was conducted on 39 (20 lean and 19 obese) hypertransaminasemic

  3. Non-invasive dendrochronology of late-medieval objects in Oslo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daly, Aoife; Streeton, Noëlle L.W.

    2017-01-01

    A technique for non-invasive dendrochronological analysis of oak was developed for archaeological material, using an industrial CT scanner. Since 2013, this experience has been extended within the scope of the research project ‘After the Black Death: Painting and Polychrome Sculpture in Norway...

  4. Non-invasive monitoring of living cell culture by lensless digital holography imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunxin Wang; Dayong Wang; Jie Zhao; Yishu Yang; Xiangqian Xiao; Huakun Cui

    2011-01-01

    @@ A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology.Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining.Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method.The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency.Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.%A non-invasive detection method for the status analysis of cell culture is presented based on digital holography technology. Lensless Fourier transform digital holography (LFTDH) configuration is developed for living cell imaging without prestaining. Complex amplitude information is reconstructed by a single inverse fast Fourier transform, and the phase aberration is corrected through the two-step phase subtraction method. The image segmentation is then applied to the automatic evaluation of confluency. Finally,the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is employed for experimental validation, and the results demonstrate that LFTDH imaging with the corresponding image post-processing can provide an automatic and non-invasive approach for monitoring living cell culture.

  5. Molecular Insights on the Transition of Non-invasive DCIS to Invasive ductal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dihua YU

    2009-01-01

    @@ More than 90% of breast cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis not primary tumor. To effectively reduce cancer mortality, it is extremely im-portant to predict the risk of, and to intervene in, the critical transition from non-invasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to life-threatening invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC).

  6. Application of quantum dot nanoparticles for potential non-invasive bio-imaging of mammalian spermatozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various obstacles are encountered by mammalian spermatozoa during their journey through the female genital tract, and only few or none will reach the site of fertilization. Currently, there are limited technical approaches for non-invasive investigation of spermatozoa migration after insemination. A...

  7. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on syste

  8. Factors affecting the clinical use of non-invasive prenatal testing: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirton, Heather; Patch, Christine

    2013-06-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing has been in clinical use for a decade; however, there is evidence that this technology will be more widely applied within the next few years. Guidance is therefore required to ensure that the procedure is offered in a way that is evidence based and ethically and clinically acceptable. We conducted a systematic review of the current relevant literature to ascertain the factors that should be considered when offering non-invasive prenatal testing in a clinical setting. We undertook a systematic search of relevant databases, journals and reference lists, and from an initial list of 298 potential papers, identified 11 that were directly relevant to the study. Original data were extracted and presented in a table, and the content of all papers was analysed and presented in narrative form. Four main themes emerged: perceived attributes of the test, regulation and ethical issues, non-invasive prenatal testing in practice and economic considerations. However, there was a basic difference in the approach of actual or potential service users, who were very positive about the benefits of the technology, compared with other research participants, who were concerned with the potential moral and ethical outcomes of using this testing method. Recommendations for the appropriate use of non-invasive prenatal testing are made.

  9. The clinical utility of non-invasive prenatal testing in pregnancies with ultrasound anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, Lean; Faas, Brigitte H W; Feenstra, Ilse; van Vugt, John M G; Bekker, Mireille N

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as an alternative to invasive diagnostic prenatal testing for pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. METHOD: A retrospective analysis was performed of 251 single and multiple pregnancies at high

  10. Clinical utility of non-invasive prenatal testing in pregnancies with ultrasound anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulen, L.; Faas, B.H.W.; Feenstra, I.; Vugt, J.M.G. van; Bekker, M.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) as an alternative to invasive diagnostic prenatal testing in pregnancies with abnormal ultrasound findings. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 251 singleton and multiple pregnancies at high risk for fetal

  11. NIPTRIC : an online tool for clinical interpretation of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema-Raddatz, Birgit; Johansson, Lennart F; de Boer, Eddy N; Boon, Elles M J; Suijkerbuijk, Ron F; Bouman, Katelijne; Bilardo, Catia M; Swertz, Morris A; Dijkstra, Martijn; van Langen, Irene M; Sinke, Richard J; Te Meerman, Gerard J

    2016-01-01

    To properly interpret the result of a pregnant woman's non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT), her a priori risk must be taken into account in order to obtain her personalised a posteriori risk (PPR), which more accurately expresses her true likelihood of carrying a foetus with trisomy. Our aim was to de

  12. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  13. The influence of different shavers on the skin quantified by non-invasive reflectance confocal microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodijk, F.M.; Zanelli, G.; Geerligs, M.; Erp, P.E.J. van; Peppelman, M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of personal care devices on skin is mainly assessed using subjective tools. However, new objective, accurate non-invasive in vivo imaging techniques have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) in quantifying

  14. Non-invasive imaging of kupffer cell status using radiolabelled mannosylated albumin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahajan, V.; Hartimath, S.; Comley, R.; Stefan-Gueldner, M.; Roth, A.; Poelstra, K.; Reker-Smit, C.; Kamps, J.; Dierckx, R.; de Vries, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Kupffer cells are responsible for maintaining liver homeostasis and have a vital role in chronic hepatotoxicity and various liver diseases. Positron Imaging Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that allows quantification and visualization of biochemical processes

  15. Non Invasive Biomedical Analysis - Breath Networking Session at PittCon 2011, Atlanta, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    This was the second year that our breath colleagues organized a networking session at the Pittsburgh Conference and Exposition or ''PittCon'' (http://www.pincon.org/).This time it was called "Non-invasive Biomedical Analysis" to broaden the scope a bit, but the primary focus rema...

  16. Non-invasive in-vivo imaging of stem cells after transplantation in cardiovascular tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Anders Bruun; Kastrup, Jens

    2013-01-01

    no improvements. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of these results, a reverse translation from bedside to bench has been opened. Non-invasive cell tracking after implantation has a pivotal role in this translation. Imaging based methods can help elucidate important issues such as retention...

  17. Smartphone spectrometer for non-invasive diffuse reflectance spectroscopy based hemoglobin sensing (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Perry S.

    2016-10-01

    Fiber-optic based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) is shown to be a highly specific and highly sensitive method for non-invasive detection of various cancers (e.g. cervical and oral) as well as many other diseases. Fiber-optic DRS diagnosis relies on non-invasive biomarker detection (e.g. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin) and can be done without the need for sophisticated laboratory analysis of samples. Thus, it is highly amenable for clinical adoption especially in resource scarce regions that have limited access to such developed laboratory infrastructure. Despite the demonstrated effectiveness of fiber-optic DRS, such systems remain cost prohibitive in many of these regions, mainly due to the use of bulky and expensive spectrometers. Here, a fiber-optic DRS system is coupled to a smartphone spectrometer and is proposed as a low-cost solution for non-invasive tissue hemoglobin sensing. The performance of the system is assessed by measuring tissue phantoms with varying hemoglobin concentrations. A DRS retrieval algorithm is used to extract hemoglobin parameters from the measurements and determine the accuracy of the system. The results are then compared with those of a previously reported fiber-optic DRS system which is based on a larger more expensive spectrometer system. The preliminary results are encouraging and indicate the potential of the smartphone spectrometer as a viable low-cost option for non-invasive tissue hemoglobin sensing.

  18. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator - Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Santos, Ilmar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype for electromag...

  19. A case of non-invasive serous adenocarcinoma at unilateral fimbria with spread to the peritoneal/uterine cavity: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Miki

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, fimbriae have been identified as a possible arising site for the pelvic serous carcinoma (PSC both in BRCA-positive and BRCA-negative women. Although non-invasive (intraepithelial serous adenocarcinoma of the fimbria has been found in specimens obtained from prophylactic salphingo-oophorectomies in BRCA-positive women, there has not been any case report in clinical situation, since this type of tumor is usually detected after stromal invasion/widespread dissemination. We describe a 67-year-old woman with non-invasive serous adenocarcinoma located solely in the left fimbria. This case may suggest the benefit of endometrial cytology and detailed gross examination of fimbria for the early detection of fimbrial carcinoma. This case may provide evidence suggesting fimbrial intraepithelial adenocarcinoma is one cause of PSC.

  20. Lights and shadows of non-invasive mechanical ventilation for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Lopez-Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the overwhelming evidence justifying the use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV for providing ventilatory support in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD exacerbations, recent studies demonstrated that its application in real-life settings remains suboptimal. European clinical audits have shown that 1 NIV is not invariably available, 2 its availability depends on countries and hospital sizes, and 3 numerous centers declare their inability to provide NIV to all of the eligible patients presenting throughout the year. Even with an established indication, the use of NIV in acute respiratory failure due to COPD exacerbations faces important challenges. First, the location and personnel using NIV should be carefully selected. Second, the use of NIV is not straightforward despite the availability of technologically advanced ventilators. Third, NIV therapy of critically ill patients requires a thorough knowledge of both respiratory physiology and existing ventilatory devices. Accordingly, an optimal team-training experience, the careful selection of patients, and special attention to the selection of devices are critical for optimizing NIV outcomes. Additionally, when applied, NIV should be closely monitored, and endotracheal intubation should be promptly available in the case of failure. Another topic that merits careful consideration is the use of NIV in the elderly. This patient population is particularly fragile, with several physiological and social characteristics requiring specific attention in relation to NIV. Several other novel indications should also be critically examined, including the use of NIV during fiberoptic bronchoscopy or transesophageal echocardiography, as well as in interventional cardiology and pulmonology. The present narrative review aims to provide updated information on the use of NIV in acute settings to improve the clinical outcomes of patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbations.

  1. Cognitive and Neurophysiological Effects of Non-invasive Brain Stimulation in Stroke Patients after Motor Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Federico; Peila, Elena; Cicerale, Alessandro; Caglio, Marcella M; Caroppo, Paola; Vighetti, Sergio; Piedimonte, Alessandro; Minuto, Alice; Campagnoli, Marcello; Salatino, Adriana; Molo, Maria T; Mortara, Paolo; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Massazza, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two specific Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, the repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS), and transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), in the upper limb rehabilitation of patients with stroke. Short and long term outcomes (after 3 and 6 months, respectively) were evaluated. We measured, at multiple time points, the manual dexterity using a validated clinical scale (ARAT), electroencephalography auditory event related potentials, and neuropsychological performances in patients with chronic stroke of middle severity. Thirty four patients were enrolled and randomized. The intervention group was treated with a NIBS protocol longer than usual, applying a second cycle of stimulation, after a washout period, using different techniques in the two cycles (rTMS/tDCS). We compared the results with a control group treated with sham stimulation. We split the data analysis into three studies. In this first study we examined if a cumulative effect was clinically visible. In the second study we compared the effects of the two techniques. In the third study we explored if patients with minor cognitive impairment have most benefit from the treatment and if cognitive and motor outcomes were correlated. We found that the impairment in some cognitive domains cannot be considered an exclusion criterion for rehabilitation with NIBS. ERP improved, related to cognitive and attentional processes after stimulation on the motor cortex, but transitorily. This effect could be linked to the restoration of hemispheric balance or by the effects of distant connections. In our study the effects of the two NIBS were comparable, with some advantages using tDCS vs. rTMS in stroke rehabilitation. Finally we found that more than one cycle (2-4 weeks), spaced out by washout periods, should be used, only in responder patients, to obtain clinical relevant results.

  2. DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI STOOL ANTIGEN BY NON-INVASIVE ENZYME IMMUNOASSAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鄢盛恺; 林其燧; 宋耀虹; 王树琴

    2003-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the clinical utility of a new non-invasive enzyme immunoassay(EIA) for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection. Methods. Stool specimens of 63 patients were collected and tested by using a commercial kit for detecting Helicobacter pylori stool antigen (HpSA), of which 61 patients also underwent 13C-Urea breath test (13C-UBT). The tissue samples of 31 patients were obtained endoscopically and were examined with histologic technique (Warthin-Starry silver stain).Regarded 13C-UBT as a golden standard, HpSA test and histologic techniques were evaluated. Using this method,we also investigated the positive rate of H.Pylori infection in children in Beijing.Results.The sensitivity and specificity of HpSA test were 94.7% and 95.1% respectively; the positive and negative predictive values were 97.3% and 91.7% respectively; and the accuracy was 95.1%.The results showed the prevalence of H.pylori infection was 26.0% in children (3~18 years) of district of Xicheng in Beijing. After treatment, HpSA seems to disappear rapidly(3~5 days) from the feces. Conclusion. The detection of HpSA in stool samples by HpSA test is a rapid noninvasive test for detecting H.pylori infection, and has both high sensitivity and high specificity. It is suitable for screening and diagnosis of H.pylori infection, monitoring the treatment efficacy in routine in all hospitals.

  3. Quantitative and qualitative progression of peripheral arterial disease by non-invasive testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, C E; Criqui, M H; Fronek, A; Denenberg, J O; Klauber, M R; Langer, R D

    1999-01-01

    There is little information on the progression of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) over time. A series of 508 patients with a prior examination for PAD were contacted and brought in for follow-up to evaluate the natural history of PAD. A total of 85 patients were excluded because they had interventions in both limbs prior to their return visit. Progression was assessed in the remaining 423 patients for a total of 755 limbs, both quantitatively and qualitatively using six categories of PAD severity. There was a modest overall categorical progression of disease: 228 limbs (30.2%) displayed categorical progression, while 172 limbs (22.8%) improved over a 4.6-year average follow-up. Through analysis of quantitative change, it was determined that more quantitative progression occurred than was evident from categorical progression. Two of the three non-invasive tests employed, the ankle/brachial index (ABI) and posterior tibial peak forward flow velocity (peak PT), showed statistically significant progression during follow-up: mean ABI change = -0.019, 95% confidence interval (CI)= -0.031 to -0.007; mean peak PT change = -2.32 cm/s, 95% CI = -3.20 to -1.44. The toe/brachial index (TBI) also suggested progression: mean change= -0.013, but the 95% CI included no change. Standard scores (sum of the Z-scores for ABI, peak PT and TBI) were calculated. The standard score progressed approximately 0.34 units (standard deviations), p-value amputation status. Thus, in this cohort of PAD patients, PAD on average progressed significantly over 4.6 years. This progression was independently related to age, diabetes and several markers of disease severity.

  4. Non-invasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21 using tandem single nucleotide polymorphisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujana Ghanta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Screening tests for Trisomy 21 (T21, also known as Down syndrome, are routinely performed for the majority of pregnant women. However, current tests rely on either evaluating non-specific markers, which lead to false negative and false positive results, or on invasive tests, which while highly accurate, are expensive and carry a risk of fetal loss. We outline a novel, rapid, highly sensitive, and targeted approach to non-invasively detect fetal T21 using maternal plasma DNA. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Highly heterozygous tandem Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP sequences on chromosome 21 were analyzed using High-Fidelity PCR and Cycling Temperature Capillary Electrophoresis (CTCE. This approach was used to blindly analyze plasma DNA obtained from peripheral blood from 40 high risk pregnant women, in adherence to a Medical College of Wisconsin Institutional Review Board approved protocol. Tandem SNP sequences were informative when the mother was heterozygous and a third paternal haplotype was present, permitting a quantitative comparison between the maternally inherited haplotype and the paternally inherited haplotype to infer fetal chromosomal dosage by calculating a Haplotype Ratio (HR. 27 subjects were assessable; 13 subjects were not informative due to either low DNA yield or were not informative at the tandem SNP sequences examined. All results were confirmed by a procedure (amniocentesis/CVS or at postnatal follow-up. Twenty subjects were identified as carrying a disomy 21 fetus (with two copies of chromosome 21 and seven subjects were identified as carrying a T21 fetus. The sensitivity and the specificity of the assay was 100% when HR values lying between 3/5 and 5/3 were used as a threshold for normal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, a targeted approach, based on calculation of Haplotype Ratios from tandem SNP sequences combined with a sensitive and quantitative DNA measurement technology can be used to accurately detect fetal

  5. Comparison of the non-invasive Nexfin® monitor with conventional methods for the measurement of arterial blood pressure in moderate risk orthopaedic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Felix; Habicher, Marit; Sander, Michael; Sterr, Julian; Scholz, Stephanie; Feldheiser, Aarne; Müller, Michael; Perka, Carsten; Treskatsch, Sascha

    2016-08-01

    Continuous invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring remains the gold standard for BP measurement, but traditional oscillometric non-invasive intermittent pressure (NIBP) measurement is used in most low-to-moderate risk procedures. This study compared non-invasive continuous arterial BP measurement using a Nexfin® monitor with NIBP and IBP monitors. This was a single-centre, prospective, pilot study in patients scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured by Nexfin®, IBP and NIBP at five intraoperative time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and trending ability of Nexfin® measurements were used as criteria for success in the investigation of measurement reliability. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study. For MAP, there was a sufficient correlation between IBP/Nexfin® (Pearson = 0.75), which was better than the correlation between IBP/NIBP (Pearson = 0.70). Bland-Altman analysis of the data showed that compared with IBP, there was a higher percentage error for MAPNIBP (30%) compared with MAPNexfin® (27%). Nexfin® and NIBP underestimated systolic BP; NIBP also underestimated diastolic BP and MAP. Trending ability for MAPNexfin® and MAPNIBP were comparable to IBP. Non-invasive BP measurement with Nexfin® was comparable with IBP and tended to be more precise than NIBP. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. A non-invasive exploitation of energy conservation potentials using ultrasonics. Non-invasive diagnostics; Mit Ultraschall eingriffsfrei Energieeinsparpotenziale erschliessen. Nichtinvasive Diagnostik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, Joerg [Flexim GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Energy conservation is profitable. The independent energy efficiency service provider Eta Cube (Frankfurt, Federal Republic of Germany) provides an intelligent energy optimization which is financed by consumption cuts. A non-invasive measuring clamp-on ultrasonic system is used in order to determine the efficiency potential in the preparation of hot water and domestic water as well as for the air conditioning of buildings. The Fluxus F601 Double Energy from Flexim Flexible Industriemesstechnik GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) determines the performance and efficiency of thermal consumers without interruption of the supply.

  7. HESI admission assessment (A(2)) examination scores, program progression, and NCLEX-RN success in baccalaureate nursing: an exploratory study of dependable academic indicators of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinderer, Katherine A; DiBartolo, Mary C; Walsh, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to meet the demand for well-educated, high-quality nurses, schools of nursing seek to admit those candidates most likely to have both timely progression and first-time success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). Finding the right combination of academic indicators, which are most predictive of success, continues to be an ongoing challenge for entry-level baccalaureate nursing programs across the United States. This pilot study explored the relationship of a standardized admission examination, the Health Education Systems, Inc. (HESI) Admission Assessment (A(2)) Examination to preadmission grade point average (GPA), science GPA, and nursing GPA using a retrospective descriptive design. In addition, the predictive ability of the A(2) Examination, preadmission GPA, and science GPA related to timely progression and NCLEX-RN success were explored. In a sample of 89 students, no relationship was found between the A(2) Examination and preadmission GPA or science GPA. The A(2) Examination was correlated with nursing GPA and NCLEX-RN success but not with timely progression. Further studies are needed to explore the utility and predictive ability of standardized examinations such as the A(2) Examination and the contribution of such examinations to evidence-based admission decision making.

  8. Examining the Interrelationship among Critical Success Factors of Public Private Partnership Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiying Shi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Examining the interrelationships among critical success factors (CSFs for public private partnership (PPP projects is of importance for improving PPP project performance and maintaining the sustainability of PPP project implementation. Previous studies mostly focused on the identification of the CSFs for PPP projects; limited studies investigated the interrelationships among CSFs. Hence, the research objectives are (a to determine the interrelationships among CSFs of PPP projects taking into account the public and (b to identify influence paths contributing to take advantage of CSFs in the process of PPP implementation. A literature review and expert interviews were adopted to construct the CSFs framework; nine hypotheses were constructed and tested by the structural equation modelling (SEM based on the data collected from a questionnaire survey. This research reveals that the relationship between public and private partners is the leader-follower relationship, not the partnership relationship, in PPP projects, indicating that the responsibilities, power or resources existing among partners are very unequal. It also highlights that public involvement has a negative effect on the process of service provisions, and costs and risks exist in the process of public involvement in PPP projects. The determined interrelationships among CSFs will contribute to the sustainability and success of a PPP project.

  9. Clinical applications of non-invasive imaging techniques in suspected coronary artery disease and in acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nucifora, Gaetano

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive cardiac imaging modalities play a crucial role in the diagnostic process and clinical management of patients without known coronary artery disease and patients with acute myocardial infarction. The first part of the thesis discusses the use of non-invasive imaging modalities (including

  10. Non-invasive differentiation of pancreatic lesions: is analysis of FDG kinetics superior to semiquantitative uptake value analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitzsche, E.U.; Hoegerle, S.; Mix, M.; Brink, I.; Otte, A.; Moser, E. [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie; Imdahl, A. [Division of Visceral Surgery, Department of Surgery, Albert Ludwigs University, Medical Center, Freiburg (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    The diagnostic utility of fluorine-18 2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) for the non-invasive differentiation of focal pancreatic lesions originating from cancer or chronic pancreatitis by combined visual image interpretation and semiquantitative uptake value analysis has been documented. However, in clinical routine some misdiagnosis is still observed. This is because there is potential overlap between the semiquantitative uptake values obtained for active inflammatory lesions and cancer. Therefore, this prospective study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that analysis of dynamic kinetics of focal pancreatic lesions based on FDG PET may more accurately determine the benign or malignant nature of such lesions. Thirty patients (56{+-}17 years) were studied dynamically with FDG PET for a period of 60-90 min. Patients were assigned to one of four groups: control, acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer. Two observers, blinded to the clinical data, analysed the time-activity curves of FDG kinetics based on region of interest analysis. The diagnosis predicted by FDG PET was compared with the result of histological examination of the surgical specimen. Analysis of FDG kinetics revealed significant differences in the shape of the time-activity curve for controls, pancreatic cancer and inflammatory disease. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in the time-activity curve shape for chronic pancreatitis and acute pancreatitis; this is, however, not a clinical issue. Furthermore, acquisition time (60 min vs 90 min) did not affect interpretation of the time-activity curve, so that scanning time may be regularly shortened to 60 min. Interobserver agreement was 1. Based on these findings, non-invasive differentiation between pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis was correctly predicted in all cases, as confirmed by histology. In addition, the specificity was increased compared with that obtained from standardised

  11. Precise control of the drug kinetics by means of non-invasive magnetic drug delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuzawa, M., E-mail: chuzawa@qb.see.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S. [Division of Sustainable Energy and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, A1 Bldg., 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► We examined the kinetics of ferromagnetic drugs by simulation. ► We tried to accumulate the magnetic drug in the target part by rotating a magnet. ► Ferromagnetic drugs were accumulated in the target part along the rotating axis. ► Ferromagnetic drugs could be swept downstream in the off-axis part. -- Abstract: In order to solve the problems of the side effects and medical lowering, has been advanced a study on the drug delivery system (DDS) to accumulate the drugs locally in the body with minimum dosage. The DDS is a system that controls the drug kinetics in the body precisely and accumulates the drug locally at the target part, keeping the drugs at high density. Among the DDS, the magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the one that we studied. This is a technique to accumulate drugs by using the magnetic force as the physical driving force. Our previous researches showed the possibility of the technique of MDDS to accumulate the drugs with higher accumulation rate and locality than the traditional methods. It is necessary to apply a strong external magnetic field and a high magnetic gradient to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs at a deep diseased part non-invasively. However, by applying a static magnetic field from one direction, the drug accumulates only at the surface of the body locates near the magnet. In this study, we tried to change the magnetic field applied by a superconducting bulk magnet with time, in order to make a constant and strong magnetic field applied in the center of the body and to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs at the deep target part in the body. First of all, the effect of the surface treatment of the ferromagnetic drugs to prevent its absorption in the normal tissue was examined. Then, to increase the accumulation rate of the ferromagnetic drugs at the target part, the distribution of magnetic field was changed, and the optimum spatial and temporal conditions of magnetic field were examined.

  12. Critical Success in E-learning: An Examination of Technological and Institutional Support Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslin Masrom

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, information technology (IT becomes prominent to support teaching and learning activities. IT tools allow us to create, collect, store and use the information and knowledge. E-learning was one of IT tools introduced at College of Science and Technology (CST, University Technology Malaysia (UTM Kuala Lumpur since 2001. It has enabled a paradigm shift from institutio n-centered instruction to anywhere, anytime and anybody learning models. In CST the e-learning technology was used for accessing the syllabus and course content, submitting assignments, and taking class quizzes. This paper focuses on issues relating to the e-learning critical success factors (CSFs from university students’ perspective. In this study, two main factors related to the e-learning CSFs within a university environment included technological and institutional support factors were examined. Confirmatory factor modeling approach was used to assess the criticality of the measures included in each factor. The results indicated that the most critical measures for technological factor in terms of ease of access and infrastructure are the browser efficiency, course website ease of use and computer network reliability. Meanwhile, for institutional support factor, the most critical measure is the availability of technical support or help desk.

  13. Assessment of various parameters using simple non-invasive tests in patients with cardiovascular diseases with or without cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rehabilitation (CR improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Simpler techniques are needed for use by physicians in the examination room to assess the usefulness of CR. We enrolled 46 consecutive CVD patients in a CR program (CR group and prospectively followed them for 3 months. We compared them to 18 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched CVD patients without CR (non-CR group. Various parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months using 3 simple non-invasive tests: severity of atherosclerosis [arterial velocity pulse index and arterial pressure volume index (API] were determined using PASESA®, an autonomic nerve total activity amount index and a coefficient of variation of the R–R interval (CVRR were determined using eHEART®, and peripheral resistance index, pressure rate product, stroke volume and cardiac index were determined using nico®]. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics including percentages (% of ischemic heart disease and heart failure between the non-CR and CR groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic BP, heart rate and API at baseline significantly decreased and CVRR at baseline significantly increased after 3 months in the CR group, but not in the non-CR group. In addition, ΔAPI (Δ = the value after 3 months minus the value at baseline was positively associated with ΔSBP in the CR group. In conclusion, CR significantly decreased BP and improved atherosclerosis and sympathetic nerve activity. These findings suggest that simple non-invasive tests may be useful for assessing the effects of CR.

  14. Effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia in non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose in non-diabetic subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Itoh, Harumi [Department of Radiology, Fukui Medical University, Matsuoka (Japan); Sadato, Norihiro; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu [Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui Medical University (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of postprandial hyperglycaemia (HG) on the non-invasive measurement of cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRGlc). Five patients who had a meal within an hour before a fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) examination were recruited in this study. They underwent intermittent arterial blood sampling (measured input function), and, based on this sampling, CMRGlc was calculated using an autoradiographic method (CMRGlc{sub real}). Simulated input functions were generated based on standardised input function, body surface area and net injected dose of FDG, and simulated CMRGlc (CMRGlc{sub sim}) was also calculated. Percent error of the area under the curve (AUC) between measured (AUC{sub real}) and simulated input function (AUC{sub IFsim}) and percent error between CMRGlc{sub real} and CMRGlc{sub sim} were calculated. These values were compared with those obtained from a previous study conducted under fasting conditions (F). The serum glucose level in the HG group was significantly higher than that in the F group (165{+-}69 vs 100{+-}9 mg/dl, P=0.0007). Percent errors of AUC and CMRGlc in grey matter and white matter in HG were significantly higher than those in F (12.9%{+-}1.3% vs 3.5%{+-}2.2% in AUC, P=0.0015; 18.2%{+-}2.2% vs 2.9%{+-}1.9% in CMRGlc in grey matter, P=0.0028; 24.0%{+-}4.6% vs 3.4%{+-}2.2% in CMRGlc in white matter, P=0.0028). It is concluded that a non-invasive method of measuring CMRGlc should be applied only in non-diabetic subjects under fasting conditions. (orig.)

  15. Quantification of respiratory depression during pre-operative administration of midazolam using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Castro, Luis N; Mehta, Jaideep H; Brayanov, Jordan B; Mullen, Gary J

    2017-01-01

    Pre-operative administration of benzodiazepines can cause hypoventilation-a decrease in minute ventilation (MV)-commonly referred to as "respiratory compromise or respiratory depression." Respiratory depression can lead to hypercarbia and / or hypoxemia, and may heighten the risk of other respiratory complications. Current anesthesia practice often places patients at risk for respiratory complications even before surgery, as respiratory monitoring is generally postponed until the patient is in the operating room. In the present study we examined and quantified the onset of respiratory depression following the administration of a single dose of midazolam in pre-operative patients, using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor that reports MV, tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR). Impedance-based Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) data were collected and analyzed from 30 patients prior to undergoing orthopedic or general surgical procedures. All patients received 2.0 mg of midazolam intravenously at least 20 minutes prior to the induction of anesthesia and the effects of midazolam on the patient's respiratory function were analyzed. Within 15 minutes of midazolam administration, we noted a significant decrease in both MV (average decrease of 14.3% ± 5.9%, pmidazolam administration on clinically significant respiratory parameters (MV, TV and RR) using a non-invasive RVM, uncovering that the respiratory depressive effect of benzodiazepines affect primarily TV rather than RR. Such respiratory monitoring data provide the opportunity for individualizing dosing and adjustment of clinical interventions, especially important in elderly patients. With additional respiratory data, clinicians may be able to better identify and quantify respiratory depression, reduce adverse effects, and improve overall patient safety.

  16. Magneto-electric nano-particles for non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Yue

    Full Text Available This paper for the first time discusses a computational study of using magneto-electric (ME nanoparticles to artificially stimulate the neural activity deep in the brain. The new technology provides a unique way to couple electric signals in the neural network to the magnetic dipoles in the nanoparticles with the purpose to enable a non-invasive approach. Simulations of the effect of ME nanoparticles for non-invasively stimulating the brain of a patient with Parkinson's Disease to bring the pulsed sequences of the electric field to the levels comparable to those of healthy people show that the optimized values for the concentration of the 20-nm nanoparticles (with the magneto-electric (ME coefficient of 100 V cm(-1 Oe(-1 in the aqueous solution is 3 × 10(6 particles/cc, and the frequency of the externally applied 300-Oe magnetic field is 80 Hz.

  17. Non-invasive determination of the complete elastic moduli of spider silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koski, Kristie J.; Akhenblit, Paul; McKiernan, Keri; Yarger, Jeffery L.

    2013-03-01

    Spider silks possess nature’s most exceptional mechanical properties, with unrivalled extensibility and high tensile strength. Unfortunately, our understanding of silks is limited because the complete elastic response has never been measured—leaving a stark lack of essential fundamental information. Using non-invasive, non-destructive Brillouin light scattering, we obtain the entire stiffness tensors (revealing negative Poisson’s ratios), refractive indices, and longitudinal and transverse sound velocities for major and minor ampullate spider silks: Argiope aurantia, Latrodectus hesperus, Nephila clavipes, Peucetia viridans. These results completely quantify the linear elastic response for all possible deformation modes, information unobtainable with traditional stress-strain tests. For completeness, we apply the principles of Brillouin imaging to spatially map the elastic stiffnesses on a spider web without deforming or disrupting the web in a non-invasive, non-contact measurement, finding variation among discrete fibres, junctions and glue spots. Finally, we provide the stiffness changes that occur with supercontraction.

  18. Non-invasive monitoring and control in silicon photonics by CMOS integrated electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Grillanda, Stefano; Morichetti, Francesco; Ciccarella, Pietro; Annoni, Andrea; Ferrari, Giorgio; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Sampietro, Marco; Melloni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    As photonics breaks away from today's device level toward large scale of integration and complex systems-on-a-chip, concepts like monitoring, control and stabilization of photonic integrated circuits emerge as new paradigms. Here, we show non-invasive monitoring and feedback control of high quality factor silicon photonics resonators assisted by a transparent light detector directly integrated inside the cavity. Control operations are entirely managed by a CMOS microelectronic circuit, hosting many parallel electronic read-out channels, that is bridged to the silicon photonics chip. Advanced functionalities, such as wavelength tuning, locking, labeling and swapping are demonstrated. The non-invasive nature of the transparent monitor and the scalability of the CMOS read-out system offer a viable solution for the control of arbitrarily reconfigurable photonic integrated circuits aggregating many components on a single chip.

  19. A non-invasive method of qualitative and quantitative measurement of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, S T; Gilbert, L M

    1981-09-01

    Methods for quick qualitative and quantitative evaluation of drug intake are needed, especially during emergency situations such as drug overdose and alcohol intoxication. The electronystagmograph was used in an attempt to develop a non-invasive method for identification of drug intake, and to study the effects of alcohol and other drugs on the vestibular system. Results of the study reveal that alcohol, diazepam, opiates, barbiturates, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogenic drugs produce a characteristic printout pattern which can be evaluated qualitatively. This method is a practical, non-invasive, objective procedure that provides rapid assessment of quality of drug intake. Its potential uses are extensive, including such possibilities as evaluation of drug intake in emergency drug overdose situations, monitoring anesthesia during surgery, evaluating drug intake in women about to deliver, (as well as the effects on the newborn), and determining whether or not persons who are being tested on a polygraph are under the influence of drugs.

  20. Feasibility of non-invasive optical blood-glucose detection using overtone circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most debilitating and costly diseases currently plaguing humanity. It is a leading cause of death and dismemberment in the world, and we know how to treat it. Accurate, continuous monitoring and control of blood glucose levels via insulin treatments are widely known to mitigate the majority of detrimental effects caused by the disease. The primary limitation of continuous glucose monitoring is patient non-compliance due to the unpleasant nature of "finger-stick" testing methods. This limitation can be largely, or even completely, removed by non-invasive testing methods. In this report, we demonstrate the vibrational overtone circular dichroism properties of glucose and analyze its use as a method of non-invasive glucose monitoring, capable of assuaging this trillion dollar scourge.

  1. Non-invasive imaging using reporter genes altering cellular water permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Wu, Di; Davis, Hunter C.; Shapiro, Mikhail G.

    2016-12-01

    Non-invasive imaging of gene expression in live, optically opaque animals is important for multiple applications, including monitoring of genetic circuits and tracking of cell-based therapeutics. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable such monitoring with high spatiotemporal resolution. However, existing MRI reporter genes based on metalloproteins or chemical exchange probes are limited by their reliance on metals or relatively low sensitivity. Here we introduce a new class of MRI reporters based on the human water channel aquaporin 1. We show that aquaporin overexpression produces contrast in diffusion-weighted MRI by increasing tissue water diffusivity without affecting viability. Low aquaporin levels or mixed populations comprising as few as 10% aquaporin-expressing cells are sufficient to produce MRI contrast. We characterize this new contrast mechanism through experiments and simulations, and demonstrate its utility in vivo by imaging gene expression in tumours. Our results establish an alternative class of sensitive, metal-free reporter genes for non-invasive imaging.

  2. A holistic multimodal approach to the non-invasive analysis of watercolour paintings

    CERN Document Server

    Kogou, Sotiria; Bellesia, Sonia; Burgio, Lucia; Bailey, Kate; Brooks, Charlotte; Liang, Haida

    2015-01-01

    A holistic approach using non-invasive multimodal imaging and spectroscopic techniques to study the materials (pigments, drawing materials and paper) and painting techniques of watercolour paintings is presented. The non-invasive imaging and spectroscopic techniques include VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy and multispectral imaging, micro-Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The three spectroscopic techniques complement each other in pigment identification. Multispectral imaging (near infrared bands), OCT and micro-Raman complement each other in the visualisation and identification of the drawing material. OCT probes the microstructure and light scattering properties of the substrate while XRF detects the elemental composition that indicates the sizing methods and the filler content. The multiple techniques were applied in a study of forty six 19th century Chinese export watercolours from the Victoria & Albert Museum (V&A) and the Royal Hort...

  3. Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, L.; Eskildsen, Lars; Poel, Mike van der

    2010-01-01

    were susceptible to photobleaching by a non-invasive procedure and whether this would lead to optical rejuvenation of the lens. Methodology/Principal Findings: Nine human donor lenses were treated with an 800 nm infra-red femtosecond pulsed laser in a treatment zone measuring 1 x 1 x 0.52 mm. After...... laser treatment the age-induced yellow discoloration of the lens was markedly reduced and the transmission of light was increased corresponding to an optical rejuvenation of 3 to 7 years. Conclusions/Significance: The results demonstrate that the age-induced yellowing of the human lens can be bleached...... by a non-invasive procedure based on femtosecond laser photolysis. Cataract is a disease associated with old age. At the current technological stage, lens aging is delayed but with a treatment covering the entire lens volume complete optical rejuvenation is expected. Thus, femtosecond photolysis has...

  4. Striving for habitual well-being in non-invasive ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Dorthe; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Grøfte, Thorbjørn;

    2013-01-01

    . A constant comparative classic grounded theory study was performed. Methods. Data collection consisted of participant observation during the treatment of 21 patients undergoing non-invasive ventilation, followed by interviews with 11 of the patients after treatment completion. Data were collected from...... December 2009 to January 2012. Results. A substantive theory of striving for habitual well-being was developed. The theory included three phases: initiation, transition, and determination. Each phase contained a set of subcategories to indicate the dimensions of and variations in the participants......’ behaviour. Conclusions. The substantive theory revealed that the patients’ behaviour was related to their breathlessness, sensation of being restrained by the mask and head gear, and the side effects of non-invasive ventilation. Relevance to clinical practice. This inter-relationship should be addressed...

  5. [CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive breast carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Saki; Sakurai, Kenichi; Suzuki, Shuhei; Hara, Yukiko; Maeda, Tetsuyo; Hirano, Tomohisa; Enomoto, Katsuhisa; Amano, Sadao; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi

    2014-10-01

    CD147 is a multifunctional membrane glycoprotein involved in tumor invasion, and is overexpressed in many solid tumors. However, the role of CD147 in breast cancer is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate CD147 expression in non-invasive and invasive ductal carcinomas. We recruited 156 breast cancer patients who underwent radical operations at our hospital up until 2002. We performed immunohistochemistry on their tumor specimens, and compared these data with clinicopathological factors. We divided the patients into two groups: group A was comprised of non-invasive ductal carcinomas and group B, invasive ductal carcinomas. The CD147-positive rate was 62.8% for all patients and was higher in group B than group A. In all cases, the CD147-positive rate correlated with clinical stage, number of metastatic lymph nodes, and tumor size. These results implied that CD147 may be involved in the process of breast cancer invasion.

  6. Imaging and finite element analysis: a methodology for non-invasive characterization of aortic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamini, Vittoria; Creane, Arthur P; Kerskens, Christian M; Lally, Caitríona

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of the mechanical properties of arterial tissues usually involves an invasive procedure requiring tissue removal. In this work we propose a non-invasive method to perform a biomechanical analysis of cardiovascular aortic tissue. This method is based on combining medical imaging and finite element analysis (FEA). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was chosen since it presents relatively low risks for human health. A finite element model was created from the MRI images and loaded with systolic physiological pressures. By means of an optimization routine, the structural material properties were changed until average strains matched those measured by MRI. The method outlined in this work produced an estimate of the in situ properties of cardiovascular tissue based on non-invasive image datasets and finite element analysis.

  7. A new horizon for the use of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has assumed an important role in the management of acute respiratory failure (ARF). NIV, compared with standard medical therapy, improves survival and reduces complications in selected patients with ARF. NIV represents the first-line intervention for some forms of ARF, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. The use of NIV is also well supported for immunocompromised patients who are at high risk for infectious complications from endotracheal intubation. Selection of appropriate patients is crucial for optimizing NIV success rates. Appropriate ventilator settings, a well-fitting and comfortable interface, and a team skilled and experienced in managing NIV are key components to its success. In a recent issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, Patel et al. reported the results of their single-center trial of 83 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) who were randomly assigned to NIV delivered via a helmet or face mask. Patients assigned to the helmet group exhibited a significantly lower intubation rate and were more likely to survive through 90 days. This perspective reviews the findings of this trial in the context of current clinical practice and in light of data from the literature focused on the potential reasons for success of NIV delivered through a helmet compared to face mask. The implications for early management of patients with ARDS are likewise discussed.

  8. The in-service examination score as a predictor of success on the American Board of Preventive Medicine certification examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedno, Sheryl A; Soltis, Michele A; Mancuso, James D; Burnett, Daniel G; Mallon, Timothy M

    2011-12-01

    To date, there has been no study correlating the American College of Preventive Medicine (ACPM) in-service exam (ISE) with the American Board of Preventive Medicine (ABPM) certification exam. To validate the ACPM ISE as a predictor of success on the ABPM certification exam. ISE and ABPM certification exam scores were standardized by year using z-scores. The correlation between practicum year ISE scores and certification exam scores for military preventive medicine residencies in the National Capital and Washington State areas (core component only) was analyzed. A multivariable linear regression model included adjustments for age, gender, Master of Public Health grade point average (GPA), prior specialty board certification, and board deferral ≥1 year after graduation. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2011. Performance on the ISE was correlated with performance on the ABPM certification core exam (r=0.61, pPerformance on the ISE was still significant after adjusting for relevant demographic and educational variables (pGPA (p=0.001) and board deferral (p=0.04) in the linear regression model. Performance on the ISE is moderately correlated with performance on the board certification core exam, and this correlation remained significant after adjustment in the linear regression model. These results serve to validate the ISE as a means for program directors to identify residents at academic risk and as encouragement for residents to take the certification exam as soon as possible after graduation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation in healthy humans reduces sympathetic nerve activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Clancy, JA; Mary, DA; Witte, KK; Greenwood, JP; Deuchars, SA; Deuchars, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is currently used to treat refractory epilepsy and is being investigated as a potential therapy for a range of conditions, including heart failure, tinnitus, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. However, the invasive nature and expense limits the use of VNS in patient populations and hinders the exploration of the mechanisms involved. Objective: We investigated a non-invasive method of VNS through electrical stimulation of the auricular branch of the vagu...

  10. Composite Biomarkers For Non-invasive Screening, Diagnosis And Prognosis Of Colorectal Cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Hicham

    2014-09-11

    The present invention concerns particular biomarkers for diagnosing and/or prognosticating colorectal cancer, in particular in a non-invasive manner. The methods and compositions concern analysis of methylation patterns of one or more genes from a set of 29 genes identified as described herein. In certain embodiments, the gene set includes at least P15.INK4b, SST, GAS7, CNRIP1, and PIK3CG.

  11. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  12. Non-invasive parameters as predictors of high risk of variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Andrea Peñaloza-Posada

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions: The presence of large esophageal varices is the most important predictive risk factor for the occurrence of VB, independently of the class of Child-Pugh. Additionally, the portal vein diameter ≥ 13 mm is a non-invasive parameter related to high risk of VB. Therefore, these factors could be used as predictors of high risk of VB when the measure of HPVG is not available.

  13. Comparing the Validity of Non-Invasive Methods in Measuring Thoracic Kyphosis and Lumbar Lordosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Yousefi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: the purpose of this article is to study the validity of each of the non-invasive methods (flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and processing the image versus the one through-Ray radiation (the basic method and comparing them with each other.Materials and Methods: for evaluating the validity of each of these non-invasive methods, the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle of 20 students of Birjand University (age mean and standard deviation: 26±2, weight: 72±2.5 kg, height: 169±5.5 cm through fours methods of flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing and X-ray.Results: the results indicated that the validity of the methods including flexible ruler, spinal mouse, and image processing in measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis angle respectively have an adherence of 0.81, 0.87, 0.73, 0.76, 0.83, 0.89 (p>0.05. As a result, regarding the gained validity against the golden method of X-ray, it could be stated that the three mentioned non-invasive methods have adequate validity. In addition, the one-way analysis of variance test indicated that there existed a meaningful relationship between the three methods of measuring the thoracic Kyphosis and lumber Lordosis, and with respect to the Tukey’s test result, the image processing method is the most precise one.Conclusion as a result, this method could be used along with other non-invasive methods as a valid measuring method.

  14. Rheoencephalography (REG) as a Non-Invasive Monitoring Alternative for the Assessment of Brain Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    bioimpedance (rheoencephalography - REG) measurement as a non-invasive, continuous method for assessing the status of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in combat...Dunster KR, Colditz PB, Ward LC. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral bioimpedance for detection of cerebral edema in the neonatal piglet. Brain Res...REG measurements and DC impedance (Ro) were recorded simultaneously on a portable IBM compatible computer using CODAS (DATAQ, Inc., Akron, OH) data

  15. Non-invasive electric current stimulation for restoration of vision after unilateral occipital stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall, Carolin; Silvennoinen, Katri; Granata, Giuseppe; de Rossi, Francesca; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Brösel, Doreen; Bola, Michał; Sailer, Michael; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J; Rossini, Paolo M; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Sabel, Bernhard A

    2015-07-01

    Occipital stroke often leads to visual field loss, for which no effective treatment exists. Little is known about the potential of non-invasive electric current stimulation to ameliorate visual functions in patients suffering from unilateral occipital stroke. One reason is the traditional thinking that visual field loss after brain lesions is permanent. Since evidence is available documenting vision restoration by means of vision training or non-invasive electric current stimulation future studies should also consider investigating recovery processes after visual cortical strokes. Here, protocols of repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are presented and the European consortium for restoration of vision (REVIS) is introduced. Within the consortium different stimulation approaches will be applied to patients with unilateral occipital strokes resulting in homonymous hemianopic visual field defects. The aim of the study is to evaluate effects of current stimulation of the brain on vision parameters, vision-related quality of life, and physiological parameters that allow concluding about the mechanisms of vision restoration. These include EEG-spectra and coherence measures, and visual evoked potentials. The design of stimulation protocols involves an appropriate sham-stimulation condition and sufficient follow-up periods to test whether the effects are stable. This is the first application of non-invasive current stimulation for vision rehabilitation in stroke-related visual field deficits. Positive results of the trials could have far-reaching implications for clinical practice. The ability of non-invasive electrical current brain stimulation to modulate the activity of neuronal networks may have implications for stroke rehabilitation also in the visual domain.

  16. Entrainment of Perceptually Relevant Brain Oscillations by Non-Invasive Rhythmic Stimulation of the Human Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Thut, Gregor; Schyns, Philippe G.; Gross, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    The notion of driving brain oscillations by directly stimulating neuronal elements with rhythmic stimulation protocols has become increasingly popular in research on brain rhythms. Induction of brain oscillations in a controlled and functionally meaningful way would likely prove highly beneficial for the study of brain oscillations, and their therapeutic control. We here review conventional and new non-invasive brain stimulation protocols as to their suitability for controlled intervention in...

  17. Liver fibrosis can be assessed by non-invasive ultrasound elastography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thielsen, Peter; Wilkens, Rune; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael;

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis and assessment of liver fibrosis is of great importance for initiating treatment and starting hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance in patients with established cirrhosis. Liver biopsy is still considered the gold standard for liver fibrosis staging, however; it is far from perfect. Non......-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis is becoming more available and is well tolerated. This review describes the feasibility and reliability of two elastography methods: transient elastography and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse-elastography....

  18. Non-invasive, Focused Ultrasound-Facilitated Gene Delivery for Optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao; Kugelman, Tara; Buch, Amanda; Herman, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Karakatsani, Maria Eleni; Hussaini, S. Abid; Duff, Karen; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2017-01-01

    Optogenetics, a widely used technique in neuroscience research, is often limited by its invasive nature of application. Here, we present a noninvasive, ultrasound-based technique to introduce optogenetic channels into the brain by temporarily opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We demonstrate the efficiency of the method developed and evaluate the bioactivity of the non-invasively introduced channelrhodopsin channels by performing stimulation in freely behaving mice.

  19. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  20. Prognostic value of non-invasive stress testing for coronary artery disease in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigvava, Tamar; Zamani, Seyedeh Mahsa; Pieske-Kraigher, Elisabeth; Gebker, Rolf; Pieske, Burkert; Kelle, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    Detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) in obese patients remains a challenge but can have substantial prognostic implications for this patient group. Until now, sufficient data was not available on which to base the selection of the imaging modality in obese patients. The decision on which imaging modality to use should therefore follow the general guidelines. In this article, the authors discuss the prognostic value of the different non-invasive stress testing methods for CAD in obese patients.

  1. EAPD interim seminar and workshop in Brussels May 9 2015 Non-invasive caries treatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Loveren, C.; van Palenstein Helderman, W.

    2016-01-01

    Aim This was to collect information for the 9th European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry Interim Seminar and Workshops to discuss the state of art on non-invasive caries therapy to be used if possible to formulate clinical guidelines by European experts in paediatric dentistry Methods Based on systematic reviews and additional papers were assessed for methods to prevent caries initiation and caries progression both in the state of pre-cavitation and cavitation without invasive technologies. R...

  2. Non-invasive method of determination of thermoelectric materials figure of merit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov А. А.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric effects arising in a sample placed in a measuring oscillating loop have been studied. It has been shown that asymmetric character of flowing current results in a volumetric bundle of induced Foucault currents and regions of Peltier heat release by thermoelectric sample which leads to increasing of irreversible heat losses recorded by measuring oscillating loop. The presence of this effect has caused the emergence of ingenious non-invasive method for recording of thermoelectric materials figure of merit.

  3. NON INVASIVE THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING OF PROPRANOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE BY REVERSE IONTOPHORESIS

    OpenAIRE

    Saini Vipin; Nair Anroop; Goel Ankit

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is highly required for drugs possessing narrow therapeutic index as a slight variation in the therapeutic range could result in no or low clinical efficiency or causes significant side effects or high risk of toxicity. In recent days, reverse iontophoresis technique has been attempted for the non invasive drug monitoring. Typically, it applies a low electric current through a pair of skin electrodes to promote the transport of both charged and neutral molecul...

  4. Gene profiles between non-invasive and invasive colon cancer using laser microdissection and polypeptide analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Shui Zhu; Hua Guo; Ming-Quan Song; Guo-Qiang Chen; Qun Sun; Qiang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the expression of differential gene expression profiles of target cell between non-invasive submucosal and invasive advanced tumor in colon carcinoma using laser microdissection (LMD) in combination with polypeptide analysis.METHODS: Normal colon tissue samples from 20 healthy individuals and 30 cancer tissue samples from early non-invasive colon cancer cells were obtained. The cells from these samples were used LMD independently after P27-based amplification. aRNA from advanced colon cancer cells and metastatic cancer cells of 40 cases were applied to LMD and polypeptide analysis, semiquantitative reverse transcribed polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical assays were used to verify the results of microarray and further identify differentially expressed genes in non-invasive early stages of colon cancer.RESULTS: Five gene expressions were changed in colon carcinoma cells compared with that of controls. Of the five genes, three genes were downregulated and two were upregulated in invasive submucosal colon carcinoma compared with non-invasive cases. The results were confirmed at the level of aRNA and gene expression. Five genes were further identified as differentially expressed genes in the majority of cases (50%, 25/40) in progression of colon cancer, and their expression patterns of which were similar to tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes.CONCLUSION: This study suggested that combined use of polypeptide analysis might identify early expression profiles of five differential genes associated with the invasion of colon cancer. These results reveal that this gene may be a marker of submucosal invasion in early colon cancer.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of endothelial function. Intra and inter-observer variability

    OpenAIRE

    Sotomayor González,Arturo; Kostine,Andrea; Gómez-Flores,Jorge R; Márquez, Manlio F; Hermosillo,Antonio G; Verdejo París,Juan; Iturralde Torres,Pedro; Colin Lizalde,Luis; Nava Townsend,Santiago; Cárdenas, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Background and objectives: Non-invasive evaluation of endothelial function with high resolution ultrasound has become a widely accepted tool in determination of high risk subjects for early atherosclerosis. Despite its simple appearance, ultrasonographic assessment of brachial artery changes, is technically challenging and has a significant learning curve. In the present study, we evaluate the intra and inter-observer variability in assessing peripheral endothelial function with high resoluti...

  6. SNP-based non-invasive prenatal testing detects sex chromosome aneuploidies with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samango-Sprouse, Carole; Banjevic, Milena; Ryan, Allison; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Hill, Matthew; Hall, Megan P.; Westemeyer, Margaret; Saucier, Jennifer; Demko, Zachary; Rabinowitz, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a single nucleotide polymorphism- and informatics-based non-invasive prenatal test that detects sex chromosome aneuploidies early in pregnancy. Methods Fifteen aneuploid samples, including thirteen 45,X, two 47,XXY, and one 47,XYY, along with 185 euploid controls, were analyzed. Cell-free DNA was isolated from maternal plasma, amplified in a single multiplex PCR assay that targeted 19,488 polymorphic loci covering chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X, and Y, and sequenced. Sequencing results were analyzed using a Bayesian-based maximum likelihood statistical method to determine copy number of interrogated chromosomes, calculating sample-specific accuracies. Results Of the samples that passed a stringent quality control metric (93%), the algorithm correctly identified copy number at all five chromosomes in all 187 samples, for 934/935 correct calls as early as 9.4 weeks of gestation. We detected 45,X with 91.7% sensitivity (CI: 61.5-99.8%) and 100% specificity (CI: 97.9-100%), and 47,XXY and 47,XYY. The average calculated accuracy was 99.78%. Conclusion This method non-invasively detected 45,X, 47,XXY, and 47,XYY fetuses from cfDNA isolated from maternal plasma with high calculated accuracies, and thus offers a non-invasive method with the potential to function as a routine screen allowing for early prenatal detection of rarely diagnosed yet commonly occurring sex aneuploidies. PMID:23712453

  7. Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields of ...... and standard deviation of 10% and 13%, respectively, relative to peak estimated gradient. The paper concludes that maps of pressure gradients can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound with a precision of more than 85%......This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields...... of pressure gradients are calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations. Flow data are acquired to a depth of 3 cm using directional synthetic aperture flow imaging on a linear array transducer producing 1500 image frames of velocity estimates per second. Scans of a carotid bifurcation phantom with a 70...

  8. Non-invasive monitoring of Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine efficacy using biophotonic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz M Alam

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes infection of the nasopharynx represents a key step in the pathogenic cycle of this organism and a major focus for vaccine development, requiring robust models to facilitate the screening of potentially protective antigens. One antigen that may be an important target for vaccination is the chemokine protease, SpyCEP, which is cell surface-associated and plays a role in pathogenesis. Biophotonic imaging (BPI can non-invasively characterize the spatial location and abundance of bioluminescent bacteria in vivo. We have developed a bioluminescent derivative of a pharyngeal S. pyogenes strain by transformation of an emm75 clinical isolate with the luxABCDE operon. Evaluation of isogenic recombinant strains in vitro and in vivo confirmed that bioluminescence conferred a growth deficit that manifests as a fitness cost during infection. Notwithstanding this, bioluminescence expression permitted non-invasive longitudinal quantitation of S. pyogenes within the murine nasopharynx albeit with a detection limit corresponding to approximately 10(5 bacterial colony forming units (CFU in this region. Vaccination of mice with heat killed streptococci, or with SpyCEP led to a specific IgG response in the serum. BPI demonstrated that both vaccine candidates reduced S. pyogenes bioluminescence emission over the course of nasopharyngeal infection. The work suggests the potential for BPI to be used in the non-invasive longitudinal evaluation of potential S. pyogenes vaccines.

  9. Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Imaging Technologies for Cosmetic and Skin Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynlee L. Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of nanoparticles within cosmetic and skin care formulations. More importantly, imaging technology holds tremendous promise for understanding how formulated nanoparticles interact with our skin. Imaging technologies can be broken into two major groups that include those that require invasive sample collection and processing (e.g., electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy and those that can be used in non-invasive data collection settings. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography fall into the latter category and are the focus of this review in the context of skin care product and cosmetics testing. Cosmetic and skin care product testing is most informative when carried out in volunteers. This makes invasive or disruptive analysis techniques unfeasible and supports the use of non-invasive imaging technologies. The combination of non-invasive imaging and minimally invasive microbiopsy sampling for combined imaging and molecular data is the future of skin care product testing.

  10. Assessment of lung function using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Lei; Clifton, David A; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D

    2013-10-01

    Conventional methods for monitoring lung function can require complex, or special, gas analysers, and may therefore not be practical in clinical areas such as the intensive care unit (ICU) or operating theatre. The system proposed in this article is a compact and non-invasive system for the measurement and monitoring of lung variables, such as alveolar volume, airway dead space, and pulmonary blood flow. In contrast with conventional methods, the compact apparatus and non-invasive nature of the proposed method could eventually allow it to be used in the ICU, as well as in general clinical settings. We also propose a novel tidal ventilation model using a non-invasive oscillating gas-forcing technique, where both nitrous oxide and oxygen are used as indicator gases. Experimental results are obtained from healthy volunteers, and are compared with those obtained using a conventional continuous ventilation model. Our findings show that the proposed technique can be used to assess lung function, and has several advantages over conventional methods such as compact and portable apparatus, easy usage, and quick estimation of cardiopulmonary variables.

  11. The Book of Kells: A non-invasive MOLAB investigation by complementary spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, B.; Daveri, A.; Clementi, C.; Romani, A.; Bioletti, S.; Brunetti, B.; Sgamellotti, A.; Miliani, C.

    2013-11-01

    This paper highlights the efficacy of non-invasive portable spectroscopy for assessing the execution technique and constituent materials in one of the most important medieval manuscripts, the Book of Kells. An aimed campaign of in situ measurements by the MObile LABoratory (MOLAB) has analyzed its elemental composition and vibrational and electronic molecular properties. The ample analytical toolbox has afforded complementary diagnostic information of the pigment palette permitting the characterization of both inorganic and organic materials as pigments and dyes in the white, purple, blue, red, orange, green and black areas. In particular, the novel widespread use of calcinated gypsum (anhydrite) as both a white pigment and in correlation to the organic dyes in this manuscript has been noted. The non-invasive identification of the organic dye orchil is significant considering its rare non invasive detection in medieval manuscripts. Finally the occurrence of particular alterations of the organic black areas giving rise to calcium carboxylate and calcium oxalate has been specifically highlighted. Importantly, this work elaborates complex aspects of the employed painting materials which have given rise to numerous significant points of interest for a more elaborate understanding of this Irish treasure.

  12. Toenail as Non-invasive Biomarker in Metal Toxicity Measurement of Welding Fumes Exposure - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakri, S. F. Z.; Hariri, A.; Ma'arop, N. F.; Hussin, N. S. A. W.

    2017-01-01

    Workers are exposed to a variety of heavy metal pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of workplace activities. This chemical pollutants are incorporated into the human by varies of routes entry and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, consequently have a potential to lead an adverse health effects and/or diseases. As to minimize the impact, a control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biological marker is a very effective tool in the assessment of occupational exposure and potential related risk as the results is normally accurate and reproducible. Toenail is the ideal matrix for most common heavy metals due to its reliability and practicality compared to other biological samples as well as it is a non-invasive and this appears as a huge advantage of toenail as a biomarker. This paper reviews studies that measure the heavy metals concentration in toenail as non-invasive matrix which later may adapt in the investigation of metal fume emitted from welding process. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of toenail as non-invasive approach. The presence of a heavy metal in this matrix reflects an exposure but the correlations between heavy metal levels in the toenail must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. These findings suggest that further studies on interactions of these heavy metals in metal fumes utilizing toenail biomarker endpoints are highly warranted especially among welders.

  13. Retinal functional imager (RFI): non-invasive functional imaging of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganekal, S

    2013-01-01

    Retinal functional imager (RFI) is a unique non-invasive functional imaging system with novel capabilities for visualizing the retina. The objective of this review was to show the utility of non-invasive functional imaging in various disorders. Electronic literature search was carried out using the websites www.pubmed.gov and www.google.com. The search words were retinal functional imager and non-invasive retinal imaging used in combination. The articles published or translated into English were studied. The RFI directly measures hemodynamic parameters such as retinal blood-flow velocity, oximetric state, metabolic responses to photic activation and generates capillary perfusion maps (CPM) that provides retinal vasculature detail similar to flourescein angiography. All of these parameters stand in a direct relationship to the function and therefore the health of the retina, and are known to be degraded in the course of retinal diseases. Detecting changes in retinal function aid early diagnosis and treatment as functional changes often precede structural changes in many retinal disorders.

  14. Hyperspectral imaging coupled with chemometric analysis for non-invasive differentiation of black pens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebda, Damian K.; Majda, Alicja; Łojewski, Tomasz; Łojewska, Joanna

    2016-11-01

    Differentiation of the written text can be performed with a non-invasive and non-contact tool that connects conventional imaging methods with spectroscopy. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a relatively new and rapid analytical technique that can be applied in forensic science disciplines. It allows an image of the sample to be acquired, with full spectral information within every pixel. For this paper, HSI and three statistical methods (hierarchical cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and spectral angle mapper) were used to distinguish between traces of modern black gel pen inks. Non-invasiveness and high efficiency are among the unquestionable advantages of ink differentiation using HSI. It is also less time-consuming than traditional methods such as chromatography. In this study, a set of 45 modern gel pen ink marks deposited on a paper sheet were registered. The spectral characteristics embodied in every pixel were extracted from an image and analysed using statistical methods, externally and directly on the hypercube. As a result, different black gel inks deposited on paper can be distinguished and classified into several groups, in a non-invasive manner.

  15. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur

    2016-11-01

    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  16. Optimized intravenous Flat Detector CT for non-invasive visualization of intracranial stents: first results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struffert, Tobias; Kloska, Stephan; Engelhorn, Tobias; Deuerling-Zheng, Yu; Ott, Sabine; Doelken, Marc; Saake, Marc; Köhrmann, Martin; Doerfler, Arnd

    2011-02-01

    As stents for treating intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis may develop in-stent re-stenosis (ISR) in up to 30%, follow-up imaging is mandatory. Residual stenosis (RS) is not rare. We evaluated an optimised Flat Detector CT protocol with intravenous contrast material application (i.v. FD-CTA) for non-invasive follow-up. In 12 patients with intracranial stents, follow-up imaging was performed using i.v. FD-CTA. MPR, subtracted MIP and VRT reconstructions were used to correlate to intra-arterial angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists evaluated the images in anonymous consensus reading and calculated the ISR or RS. Correlation coefficients and a Wilcoxon test were used for statistical analysis. In 4 patients, no stenosis was detected. In 6 patients RS and in two cases ISR by intima hyperplasia perfectly visible on MPR reconstructions of i.v. FD-CTA were detected. Wilcoxon's test showed no significant differences between the methods (p > 0.05). We found a high correlation with coefficients of the pairs DSA/ FD-CT MIP r = 0.91, DSA/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.82 and FD-CT MIP/ FD-CT MPR r = 0.8. Intravenous FD-CTA could clearly visualise the stent and the lumen, allowing ISR or RS to be recognised. FD-CTA provides a non-invasive depiction of intracranial stents and might replace DSA for non-invasive follow-up imaging.

  17. Non-invasive, transient determination of the core temperature of a heat-generating solid body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Dean; Sarkar, Daipayan; Jain, Ankur

    2016-11-02

    While temperature on the surface of a heat-generating solid body can be easily measured using a variety of methods, very few techniques exist for non-invasively measuring the temperature inside the solid body as a function of time. Measurement of internal temperature is very desirable since measurement of just the surface temperature gives no indication of temperature inside the body, and system performance and safety is governed primarily by the highest temperature, encountered usually at the core of the body. This paper presents a technique to non-invasively determine the internal temperature based on the theoretical relationship between the core temperature and surface temperature distribution on the outside of a heat-generating solid body as functions of time. Experiments using infrared thermography of the outside surface of a thermal test cell in a variety of heating and cooling conditions demonstrate good agreement of the predicted core temperature as a function of time with actual core temperature measurement using an embedded thermocouple. This paper demonstrates a capability to thermally probe inside solid bodies in a non-invasive fashion. This directly benefits the accurate performance prediction and control of a variety of engineering systems where the time-varying core temperature plays a key role.

  18. Research of transmissive near infrared spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Yasheng; Shao, Liwei; Huang, Dehuang

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) has prospectively applied in non-invasive blood glucose measurement due to glucose absorption among the 1.0-2.5m spectral bands. However, this significant technology is hard to be developed because of other blood components and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this work, we presented a non-invasive glucose measurement system using Fourier transform spectrometer which will work in fingertips or other human body tissues. A refrigerated InGaAs detector with high quantum efficiency performing well in the range of 1.0-1.7μm wavelength is used to acquire transmissive radiation. Preliminary experiment investigations were set up to test glucose levels of aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The analytical modeling of the interferogram data is based on arithmetic Fourier transform and supported by the curvilineal characterization. Experimental results show the variation of light intensity among different glucose concentrations and emphasize the obvious absorption of glucose in NIR wave-range. This study confirms the suitability that NIR can be developed in non-invasive glucose measurement.

  19. Scanning superlens microscopy for non-invasive large field-of-view visible light nanoscale imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feifei; Liu, Lianqing; Yu, Haibo; Wen, Yangdong; Yu, Peng; Liu, Zhu; Wang, Yuechao; Li, Wen Jung

    2016-12-01

    Nanoscale correlation of structural information acquisition with specific-molecule identification provides new insight for studying rare subcellular events. To achieve this correlation, scanning electron microscopy has been combined with super-resolution fluorescent microscopy, despite its destructivity when acquiring biological structure information. Here we propose time-efficient non-invasive microsphere-based scanning superlens microscopy that enables the large-area observation of live-cell morphology or sub-membrane structures with sub-diffraction-limited resolution and is demonstrated by observing biological and non-biological objects. This microscopy operates in both non-invasive and contact modes with ~200 times the acquisition efficiency of atomic force microscopy, which is achieved by replacing the point of an atomic force microscope tip with an imaging area of microspheres and stitching the areas recorded during scanning, enabling sub-diffraction-limited resolution. Our method marks a possible path to non-invasive cell imaging and simultaneous tracking of specific molecules with nanoscale resolution, facilitating the study of subcellular events over a total cell period.

  20. A non invasive method to detect stratigraphy, thicknesses and pigment concentration of pictorial multilayers based on EDXRF and vis-RS: in situ applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonizzoni, L. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Istituto di Fisica Generale Applicata, Milano (Italy); Caglio, S. [Dipartimento di analisi scientifiche, Open Care, Milano (Italy); Galli, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, CNR-INFM, Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Milano (Italy); Poldi, G. [Dipartimento di analisi scientifiche, Open Care, Milano (Italy); LANIAC, Universita degli Studi di Verona, Verona (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Energy dispersive XRF analysis (EDXRF) in association with visible reflectance spectroscopy (vis-RS), both achieved by portable instruments, can be successfully applied, in a wide range of cases, to investigate wood or canvas paintings in order to obtain some stratigraphic information with non-invasive techniques. The specific aim of this work is to use them as quantitative tools: EDXRF to reconstruct the thicknesses of the detected layers, vis-RS to report pigment concentration in the uppermost layer. We present here some in situ analyses of famous paintings by Andrea Mantegna and Giovanni Bellini, compared with stratigraphic optical microscopy observations on cross sections. Advantages and limits are pointed out. (orig.)

  1. Muscular structure at the male bladder outlet examined with successive colloid in-embedded slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟丽东; 张平

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To re-examine the detailed anatomy of the muscular system at the bladder neck and proximal urethra in the male and to explore its function in urinary continence and micturition further. Methods:The pelvic organs, including bladder, prostate, and rectum, were obtained from 20 formalin-fixed adult male ca-davers and were removed from the pelvic cavity and embedded in celloidin in their entirety. The embedded block was cut into successive slices with an immersing-alcohol microtome. Results:Circular muscle fibers of the detrusor at the bladder outlet consist of the anterior downward projected circular muscle fibers of the bladder outlet ( AD-PC) , the bilateral accumulated circular fibers, and the posterior circular fibers of the bladder outlet. Together, these fibers concentrically surround the internal urethral orifice and trigone muscle. The lower part of the ADPC surrounds the ventral surface of the proximal urethra. Longitudinal muscle fibers are radially inserted into the circu-lar muscle around the internal urethral orifice. Numerous fibers from the ventral longitudinal muscle are inserted in-to the lower part of the ADPC. The upper part of the trigone muscle exists in bladder cavity;the lower part extends into the proximal urethra to surround the posterior and posterolateral surface of the urethra. Conclusions:The AD-PC and the upward extension of the rhabdosphincter comprise the anterior fibromuscular stroma. The circular mus-cle of the bladder outlet may be responsible for closure; the longitudinal muscle of the bladder outlet may be re-sponsible for opening of the internal urethral orifice and proximal urethra.

  2. Non-invasive optical detection of glucose in cell culture nutrient medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Gerald L.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research was to begin the development of a non-invasive optical sensor for measuring glucose concentration in the output medium of cell cultures grown in a unique NASA bioreactor referred to as an integrated rotating-wall vessel (IRWV). The input, a bovine serum based nutrient media, has a known glucose concentration. The cells within the bioreactor digest a portion of the glucose. Thus, the non-invasive optical sensor is needed to monitor the decrease in glucose due to cellular consumption since the critical parameters for sustained cellular productivity are glucose and pH. Previous glucose sensing techniques have used chemical reactions to quantify the glucose concentration. Chemical reactions, however, cannot provide for continuous, real time, non-invasive measurement as is required in this application. Our effort while in the fellowship program was focused on the design, optical setup, and testing of one bench top prototype non-invasive optical sensor using a mid-infrared absorption spectroscopy technique. Glucose has a fundamental vibrational absorption peak in the mid-infrared wavelength range at 9.6 micron. Preliminary absorption data using a CO2 laser were collected at this wavelength for water based glucose solutions at different concentrations and one bovine serum based nutrient medium (GTSF) with added glucose. The results showed near linear absorption responses for the glucose-in-water data with resolutions as high at 108 mg/dl and as low as 10 mg/dl. The nutrient medium had a resolution of 291 mg/dl. The variability of the results was due mainly to thermal and polarization drifts of the laser while the decrease in sensitivity to glucose in the nutrient medium was expected due to the increase in the number of confounders present in the nutrient medium. A multispectral approach needs to be used to compensate for these confounders. The CO2 laser used for these studies was wavelength tunable (9.2 to 10.8 micrometers), however

  3. A Quantitative Examination of Critical Success Factors Comparing Agile and Waterfall Project Management Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of success for IT projects using agile and standard project management methodologies. Any successful project requires use of project methodology. Specifically, large projects require formal project management methodologies or models, which establish a blueprint of processes and project planning activities. This…

  4. A Quantitative Examination of Critical Success Factors Comparing Agile and Waterfall Project Management Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mitra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the rate of success for IT projects using agile and standard project management methodologies. Any successful project requires use of project methodology. Specifically, large projects require formal project management methodologies or models, which establish a blueprint of processes and project planning activities. This…

  5. Towards real-time MRI-guided 3D localization of deforming targets for non-invasive cardiac radiosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsen, S.; Blanck, O.; Lowther, N. J.; Liney, G. P.; Rai, R.; Bode, F.; Dunst, J.; Schweikard, A.; Keall, P. J.

    2016-11-01

    Radiosurgery to the pulmonary vein antrum in the left atrium (LA) has recently been proposed for non-invasive treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF). Precise real-time target localization during treatment is necessary due to complex respiratory and cardiac motion and high radiation doses. To determine the 3D position of the LA for motion compensation during radiosurgery, a tracking method based on orthogonal real-time MRI planes was developed for AF treatments with an MRI-guided radiotherapy system. Four healthy volunteers underwent cardiac MRI of the LA. Contractile motion was quantified on 3D LA models derived from 4D scans with 10 phases acquired in end-exhalation. Three localization strategies were developed and tested retrospectively on 2D real-time scans (sagittal, temporal resolution 100 ms, free breathing). The best-performing method was then used to measure 3D target positions in 2D-2D orthogonal planes (sagittal-coronal, temporal resolution 200-252 ms, free breathing) in 20 configurations of a digital phantom and in the volunteer data. The 3D target localization accuracy was quantified in the phantom and qualitatively assessed in the real data. Mean cardiac contraction was  ⩽  3.9 mm between maximum dilation and contraction but anisotropic. A template matching approach with two distinct template phases and ECG-based selection yielded the highest 2D accuracy of 1.2 mm. 3D target localization showed a mean error of 3.2 mm in the customized digital phantoms. Our algorithms were successfully applied to the 2D-2D volunteer data in which we measured a mean 3D LA motion extent of 16.5 mm (SI), 5.8 mm (AP) and 3.1 mm (LR). Real-time target localization on orthogonal MRI planes was successfully implemented for highly deformable targets treated in cardiac radiosurgery. The developed method measures target shifts caused by respiration and cardiac contraction. If the detected motion can be compensated accordingly, an MRI-guided radiotherapy

  6. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  7. Non-invasive plant growth measurements for detection of blue-light dose response of stem elongation in Chrysanthemum morifolium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig

    2012-01-01

    . In the present study a non-invasive plant growth sensor (PlantEye, Phenospex B.V, Heerlen, NL) was tested in analysing changes in diurnal stem elongation patterns and plant height in response to the spectral quality of the light environment. Plants were grown in four different LED supplemental lighting...... treatments with 0%, 12.5%, 18.5% and 22.5% blue light under greenhouse conditions in winter (18 h day/4 h night). The non-invasive measurements were carried out automatically every four hour with three repetitions, and supported by manual measurements of plant height every third day. A strong linear relation...... between the non-invasive measurements and manual measurements of plant height was achieved, and a blue-light dose-response showing a decrease in plant height in relation to an increase in blue light was demonstrated. However, the non-invasive plant growth sensor was not able to distinguish between diurnal...

  8. Examination of the 8th grade students' TIMSS mathematics success in terms of different variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli-Yılmaz, Gül; Hanci, Alper

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to determine how the TIMSS mathematics success of the 8th grade students differentiates according to the school type, gender, mathematics report mark, parents' education level, cognitive domains and cognitive domains by gender. Relational survey method was used in the study. Six-hundred fifty two 8th grade students studying in the same city in Turkey participated in this study. In this study, a 45 question test that was made up by choosing TIMSS 2011 mathematics questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Quantitative data analysis methods were used in the data analysis, frequency, percentage, average, standard deviation, independent sample test, one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests were applied to data by using SPSS packaged software. At the end of the study, it was determined that the school type, mathematics school mark, parents' education level and cognitive domains influenced the students' TIMSS mathematics success but their gender was a neutral element. Moreover, it was seen that schools which are really successful in national exams are more successful in TIMSS exam; students whose mathematics school marks are 5 and whose parents graduated from university are more successful in TIMSS exams than others. This study was produced from Alper HANCİ's master thesis that is made consulting Asst. Prof. Gül KALELİ YILMAZ.

  9. Positive Attitudes towards Non-Invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT in a Swedish Cohort of 1,003 Pregnant Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellika Sahlin

    Full Text Available The clinical utilization of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT for identification of fetal aneuploidies is expanding worldwide. The aim of this study was to gain an increased understanding of pregnant women's awareness, attitudes, preferences for risk information and decision-making concerning prenatal examinations with emphasis on NIPT, before its introduction into Swedish healthcare.Pregnant women were recruited to fill in a questionnaire, including multiple-choice questions and Likert scales, at nine maternity clinics located in different areas of Stockholm, Sweden.In total, 1,003 women participated in the study (86% consent rate. The vast majority (90.7% considered examinations aiming to detect fetal abnormalities to be good. Regarding NIPT, 59.8% stated that they had heard about the method previously, yet 74.0% would like to use the test if available. The main factor affecting the women's decision to undergo prenatal chromosomal screening was worry about the baby's health (82.5%, followed by the urge to have as much information as possible about the fetus (54.5%. Most women (79.9% preferred to receive NIPT information orally.The overwhelming majority of a cohort of 1,003 pregnant women considered prenatal examinations good. Moreover, the majority had a positive attitude towards NIPT and would like to use the test if available.

  10. Transcriptome Analysis Showed a Differential Signature between Invasive and Non-invasive Corticotrophinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Leonardo Jose Tadeu; Lerario, Antonio Marcondes; de Castro, Margaret; Martins, Clarissa Silva; Bronstein, Marcello Delano; Machado, Marcio Carlos; Trarbach, Ericka Barbosa; Villares Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson

    2017-01-01

    ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism caused by a pituitary adenoma [Cushing’s disease (CD)] is the most common cause of endogenous Cushing’s syndrome. CD is often associated with several morbidities, including hypertension, diabetes, osteoporosis/bone fractures, secondary infections, and increased cardiovascular mortality. While the majority (≈80%) of the corticotrophinomas visible on pituitary magnetic resonance imaging are microadenomas (MICs, hypopituitarism and visual defects. Given the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of corticotrophinomas, the aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of genetic differential expression between MIC and MAC, including the invasiveness grade as a criterion for categorizing these tumors. In this study, were included tumor samples from patients with clinical, laboratorial, radiological, and histopathological diagnosis of hypercortisolism due to an ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Differential gene expression was studied using an Affymetrix microarray platform in 12 corticotrophinomas, classified as non-invasive MIC (n = 4) and MAC (n = 5), and invasive MAC (n = 3), according to modified Hardy criteria. Somatic mutations in USP8 were also investigated, but none of the patients exhibited USP8 variants. Differential expression analysis demonstrated that non-invasive MIC and MAC have a similar genetic signature, while invasive MACs exhibited a differential expression profile. Among the genes differentially expressed, we highlighted CCND2, ZNF676, DAPK1, and TIMP2, and their differential expression was validated through quantitative real-time PCR in another cohort of 15 non-invasive and 3 invasive cortocotrophinomas. We also identified potential biological pathways associated with growth and invasiveness, TGF-β and G protein signaling pathways, DNA damage response pathway, and pathways associated with focal adhesion. Our study revealed a differential pattern of genetic signature in a subgroup of MAC

  11. Detection of fetal mutations causing hemoglobinopathies by non-invasive prenatal diagnosis from maternal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E D′Souza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies enables couples at risk to have a healthy child. Currently used fetal sampling procedures are invasive with some risk of miscarriage. A non-invasive approach to obtain fetal deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA for diagnosis would eliminate this risk. Aim: To develop and evaluate a non-invasive prenatal diagnostic approach for hemoglobinopathies using cell-free fetal DNA circulating in the maternal plasma. Settings and Design: Couples referred to us for prenatal diagnosis of hemoglobinopathies where the maternal and paternal mutations were different were included in the study. Materials and Methods: Maternal peripheral blood was collected at different periods of gestation before the invasive fetal sampling procedure was done. The blood was centrifuged to isolate the plasma and prepare DNA. A size separation approach was used to isolate fetal DNA. Nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based protocols were developed for detection of the presence or absence of the paternal mutation. Results and Conclusions: There were 30 couples where the parental mutations were different. Of these, in 14 cases the paternal mutation was absent and in 16 cases it was present in the fetus. Using cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma, the absence of the paternal mutation was accurately determined in 12 of the 14 cases and the presence of the paternal mutation was correctly identified in 12 of the 16 cases. Thus, this non-invasive approach gave comparable results to those obtained by the conventional invasive fetal sampling methods in 24 cases giving an accuracy of 80.0%. Although the nested PCR approach enabled amplification of small quantities of cell-free DNA from maternal plasma at different periods of gestation after size separation to eliminate the more abundant maternal DNA, an accurate diagnosis of the presence or absence of the paternal mutation in the fetus was not possible in all cases to make it clinically

  12. Prediction of human core body temperature using non-invasive measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Reto; Wyss, Eva; Annaheim, Simon; Psikuta, Agnes; Davey, Sarah; Rossi, René Michel

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of core body temperature is an efficient method for monitoring heat stress amongst workers in hot conditions. However, invasive measurement of core body temperature (e.g. rectal, intestinal, oesophageal temperature) is impractical for such applications. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define relevant non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature under various conditions. We conducted two human subject studies with different experimental protocols, different environmental temperatures (10 °C, 30 °C) and different subjects. In both studies the same non-invasive measurement methods (skin temperature, skin heat flux, heart rate) were applied. A principle component analysis was conducted to extract independent factors, which were then used in a linear regression model. We identified six parameters (three skin temperatures, two skin heat fluxes and heart rate), which were included for the calculation of two factors. The predictive value of these factors for core body temperature was evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. The calculated root mean square deviation (rmsd) was in the range from 0.28 °C to 0.34 °C for all environmental conditions. These errors are similar to previous models using non-invasive measures to predict core body temperature. The results from this study illustrate that multiple physiological parameters (e.g. skin temperature and skin heat fluxes) are needed to predict core body temperature. In addition, the physiological measurements chosen in this study and the algorithm defined in this work are potentially applicable as real-time core body temperature monitoring to assess health risk in broad range of working conditions.

  13. Does non-invasive brain stimulation improve cognition in major depressive disorder? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortella, Gabriel; Selingardi, Priscila M L; Moreno, Marina L; Veronezi, Beatriz P; Brunoni, Andre R

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been increasingly used in different contexts to improve cognitive performance and ameliorate depression symptoms. Considering that major depression is usually accompanied by cognitive deficits, NIBS technique could be also helpful to improve cognition in depressed patients. In this systematic review, we researched for articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE from the first date available to June 2014 that assessed cognitive performance in patients with depression before and after NIBS. Out of 191 references, 25 (16 for rTMS and 9 for tDCS) studies matched our eligibility criteria. Non-invasive brain stimulation interventions, such as rTMS and tDCS seem to be a promising tool for cognitive enhancement in MDD, although several issues and biases (e.g., blinding issues, tests without correction for multiple comparisons, placebo effects and exploratory analyses, practice effects) hinder us to conclude that NIBS technique improve cognition in patients with depression. We discussed possible shortcomings of the included studies, such as the use of different depression treatment protocols, the possibility that some findings were false-positive results of the employed cognitive tasks and whether cognition improvement could have been an epiphenomenon secondary to depression improvement. To conclude, whereas these non-pharmacological, non-invasive techniques are particularly appealing for cognitive improvement in depression, further studies are still warranted to disentangle whether NIBS technique induce positive effects on cognition beyond their antidepressant effects.

  14. Non-invasive bleaching of the human lens by femtosecond laser photolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Kessel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Globally, cataract is the leading cause of blindness and impaired vision. Cataract surgery is an attractive treatment option but it remains unavailable in sufficient quantity for the vast majority of the world population living in areas without access to specialized health care. Reducing blindness from cataract requires solutions that can be applied outside operating theatres. Cataract is a protein conformational disease characterized by accumulation of light absorbing, fluorescent and scattering protein aggregates. The aim of the study was to investigate whether these compounds were susceptible to photobleaching by a non-invasive procedure and whether this would lead to optical rejuvenation of the lens. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Nine human donor lenses were treated with an 800 nm infra-red femtosecond pulsed laser in a treatment zone measuring 1x1x0.52 mm. After laser treatment the age-induced yellow discoloration of the lens was markedly reduced and the transmission of light was increased corresponding to an optical rejuvenation of 3 to 7 years. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrate that the age-induced yellowing of the human lens can be bleached by a non-invasive procedure based on femtosecond laser photolysis. Cataract is a disease associated with old age. At the current technological stage, lens aging is delayed but with a treatment covering the entire lens volume complete optical rejuvenation is expected. Thus, femtosecond photolysis has the potential clinical value of replacing invasive cataract surgery by a non-invasive treatment modality that can be placed in mobile units, thus breaking down many of the barriers impeding access to treatment in remote and poor regions of the world.

  15. Non invasive fibrosis biomarkers reduce but not substitute the need for liver biopsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giada Sebastiani; Alfredo Alberti

    2006-01-01

    Chronic liver diseases are very common worldwide,particularly those linked to viral hepatitis and to alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver. Their natural history is variable and long-term evolution differs in individual patients. Optimised clinical management of compensated chronic liver diseases requires precise definition of the stage of liver fibrosis, the main determinant of prognosis and of most therapeutic decisions. Liver biopsy is the gold standard for assessment of hepatic fibrosis.However, it is invasive with possible complications,costly and prone to sampling errors. Many non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis have been recently proposed and assessed in the clinical setting as surrogates of liver biopsy. Direct markers are based on biochemical parameters directly linked to fibrogenesis while indirect markers use simple or more sophisticated parameters that correlate with liver fibrosis stages. Non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis have been tested in different forms of chronic liver disease and showed variable diagnostic performance, but accuracy rarely was above 75%-80%. Better results were obtained when markers were combined. On this line, we have recently proposed a set of algorithms that combine sequentially indirectnon-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, reaching 90%-95%diagnostic accuracy with significant reduction in the need for liver biopsy. Based on available evidence, it can be anticipated that non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis and their combined use will soon become a most useful tool in the clinical management of many forms of chronic liver disease. However, their implementation is expected to reduce, but not to completely eliminate, the need for liver biopsy.

  16. Contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Matthew J; Diko, Sindi; Baehr, Leslie M; Baar, Keith; Bodine, Sue C; Christiansen, Blaine A

    2016-10-01

    Development of osteoarthritis commonly involves degeneration of epiphyseal trabecular bone. In previous studies, we observed 30-44% loss of epiphyseal trabecular bone (BV/TV) from the distal femur within 1 week following non-invasive knee injury in mice. Mechanical unloading (disuse) may contribute to this bone loss; however, it is unclear to what extent the injured limb is unloaded following injury, and whether disuse can fully account for the observed magnitude of bone loss. In this study, we investigated the contribution of mechanical unloading to trabecular bone changes observed following non-invasive knee injury in mice (female C57BL/6N). We investigated changes in gait during treadmill walking, and changes in voluntary activity level using Open Field analysis at 4, 14, 28, and 42 days post-injury. We also quantified epiphyseal trabecular bone using μCT and weighed lower-limb muscles to quantify atrophy following knee injury in both ground control and hindlimb unloaded (HLU) mice. Gait analysis revealed a slightly altered stride pattern in the injured limb, with a decreased stance phase and increased swing phase. However, Open Field analysis revealed no differences in voluntary movement between injured and sham mice at any time point. Both knee injury and HLU resulted in comparable magnitudes of trabecular bone loss; however, HLU resulted in considerably more muscle loss than knee injury, suggesting another mechanism contributing to bone loss following injury. Altogether, these data suggest that mechanical unloading likely contributes to trabecular bone loss following non-invasive knee injury, but the magnitude of this bone loss cannot be fully explained by disuse. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1680-1687, 2016.

  17. Comparison between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in young, middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Qiao; Qiu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (IBP and NIBP) measurements in young, middle and old age using the data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database. In total, 23,679 blood pressure measurements were extracted from 742 patients, divided into three groups of young, middle and old age. IBP-NIBP differences in systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 0.1 ± 16.5 mmHg/11.0 ± 12.2 mmHg in young age, -2.9 ± 19.8 mmHg/6.9 ± 17.5 mmHg in middle age and -3.2 ± 29.3 mmHg/8.5 ± 19.8 mmHg in old age. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP)-non-invasive systolic blood pressure (NISBP) differences increased from young to middle then to old age, and the SD of invasive diastolic blood pressure (IDBP)-non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (NIDBP) differences also increased with age. In young, middle and old age, the correlation coefficients were 0.86, 0.79 and 0.53, respectively, between ISBP and NISBP, and 0.78, 0.78 and 0.41 between IDBP and NIDBP. In conclusion, IBP showed good correlation with NIBP in each age category. The agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was influenced by age category.

  18. Diamonds in the Rough: Examining a Case of Successful Black Male Student Athletes in College Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimper, Albert Y., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Clark, Langston

    2013-01-01

    Ailing academic performances of Black male student athletes have been an impetus for a search of recourse by the National Collegiate Athletic Association. Amid the volume of these academic underperformances, particularly in revenue-generating sports, there are Black male student athletes who achieve a level of success in the classroom that rivals…

  19. Non-invasive index of liver fibrosis induced by alcohol, thioacetamide and schistosomal infection in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Beltagy Doha M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non invasive approaches will likely be increasing utilized to assess liver fibrosis. This work provides a new non invasive index to predict liver fibrosis induced in mice. Methods Fibrosis was generated by thioacetamide (TAA, chronic intake of ethanol, or infection with S. mansoni in 240 mice. Both progression and regression of fibrosis (after treatment with silymarin and/or praziquantel were monitored. The following methods were employed: (i The METAVIR system was utilized to grade and stage liver inflammation and fibosis; (ii Determination of hepatic hydroxyproline and collagen; and (iii Derivation of a new hepatic fibrosis index from the induced changes, and its prospective validation in a group of 70 mice. Results The index is composed of 4 serum variable including total proteins, γ-GT, bilirubin and reduced glutathione (GSH, measured in diseased, treated and normal mice. These parameters were highly correlated with both the histological stage and the grade. They were combined in a logarithmic formula, which non-invasively scores the severity of liver fibrosis through a range (0 to 2, starting with healthy liver (corresponding to stage 0 to advanced fibrosis (corresponding stage 3.Receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC for the accuracy of the index to predict the histological stages demonstrated that the areas under the curve (AUC were 0.954, 0.979 and 0.99 for index values corresponding to histological stages 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Also, the index was correlated with stage and grade, (0.947 and 0.859, respectively. The cut off values that cover the range between stages 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 are 0.4, 1.12 and 1.79, respectively. The results in the validation group confirmed the accuracy of the test. The AUROC was 0.869 and there was good correlation with the stage of fibrosis and grade of inflammation. Conclusion The index fulfils the basic criteria of non-invasive marker of liver fibrosis since it is liver

  20. Intercomparison of techniques for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    A variety of methods are presently available for the non-invasive measurement of bone mass of both normal individuals and patients with metabolic disorders. Chief among these methods are radiographic techniques such as radiogrammetry, photon absorptiometry, computer tomography, Compton scattering and neutron activation analysis. In this review, the salient features of the bone measurement techniques are discussed along with their accuracy and precision. The advantages and disadvantages of the various techniques for measuring bone mass are summarized. Where possible, intercomparisons are made of the various techniques.

  1. CARDIAC TRANSPLANT REJECTION AND NON-INVASIVE COMON CAROTID ARTERY WALL FUNCTIONAL INDICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Shevchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allograft rejection would entail an increase in certain blood biomarkers and active substances derived from activated inflammatory cells which could influence entire vascular endothelial function and deteriorate arterial wall stiffness. We propose that carotid wall functional indices measured with non-invasive ultrasound could we valuable markers of the subclinical cardiac allograft rejection. Aim. Our goal was to analyze the clinical utility of functional common carotid wall (CCW variables measured with high-resolution Doppler ultrasound as a non-invasive screening tool for allograft rejection in cardiac transplant patients (pts. Methods. One hundred and seventy one pts included 93 cardiac recipients, 30 dilated cardiomyopathy waiting list pts, and 48 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD pts without decompensated heart failure were included. Along with resistive index (Ri, pulsative index (Pi, and CCW intima-media thickness (IMT, CCW rigidity index (iRIG was estimated using empirical equation. Non-invasive evaluation was performed in cardiac transplant recipients prior the endomyo- cardial biopsy. Results. Neither of Ri, Pi, or CCW IMT were different in studied subgroups. iRIG was signifi- cantly lower in SCAD pts when compared to the dilated cardiomyopathy subgroup. The later had similar values with cardiac transplant recipients without rejection. Antibody-mediated and cellular rejection were found in 22 (23.7% and 17 (18.3% cardiac recipients, respectively. Mean iRIG in pts without rejection was significantly lower in comparison to antibody-mediated rejection and cell-mediated (5514.7 ± 2404.0 vs 11856.1 ± 6643.5 and 16071.9 ± 10029.1 cm/sec2, respectively, p = 0.001. Area under ROC for iRIG was 0.90 ± 0.03 units2. Analysis showed that iRIG values above estimated treshold 7172 cm/sec2 suggested relative risk of any type of rejection 17.7 (95%CI = 6.3–49.9 sensitivity 80.5%, specificity – 81.1%, negative predictive value – 84

  2. Accurate non-invasive image-based cytotoxicity assays for cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brouwer Jaap

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CloneSelect™ Imager system is an image-based visualisation system for cell growth assessment. Traditionally cell proliferation is measured with the colorimetric MTT assay. Results Here we show that both the CloneSelect Imager and the MTT approach result in comparable EC50 values when assaying the cytotoxicity of cisplatin and oxaliplatin on various cell lines. However, the image-based technique was found non-invasive, considerably quicker and more accurate than the MTT assay. Conclusions This new image-based technique has the potential to replace the cumbersome MTT assay when fast, unbiased and high-throughput cytotoxicity assays are requested.

  3. Non-invasive electrocardiogram detection of in vivo zebrafish embryos using electric potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Morales, E.; Prance, R. J.; Prance, H.; Aviles-Espinosa, R.

    2015-11-01

    In this letter, we report the continuous detection of the cardiac electrical activity in embryonic zebrafish using a non-invasive approach. We present a portable and cost-effective platform based on the electric potential sensing technology, to monitor in vivo electrocardiogram activity from the zebrafish heart. This proof of principle demonstration shows how electrocardiogram measurements from the embryonic zebrafish may become accessible by using electric field detection. We present preliminary results using the prototype, which enables the acquisition of electrophysiological signals from in vivo 3 and 5 days-post-fertilization zebrafish embryos. The recorded waveforms show electrocardiogram traces including detailed features such as QRS complex, P and T waves.

  4. Non-invasive evaluation of arrhythmic risk in dilated cardiomyopathy:From imaging to electrocardiographic measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Massimo; Iacoviello; Francesco; Monitillo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are a major adverse event and worsen the prognosis of patients affected by ischemic and non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy.The main parameter currently used to stratify arrhythmic risk and guide decision making towards the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator is the evaluation of the left ventricular ejection fraction.However,this strategy is characterized by several limitations and consequently additional parameters have been suggested in order to improve arrhythmic risk stratification.The aim of this review is to critically revise the prognostic significance of non-invasive diagnostic tools in order to better stratify the arrhythmic risk prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy patients.

  5. Peripartum cardiomyopathy: postpartum decompensation and use of non-invasive cardiac output monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorello, G; Cubillos, J; McDonald, M; Balki, M

    2014-02-01

    The utility of a non-invasive cardiac output monitor (NICOM™) in guiding the peripartum management and identification of postpartum complications in a patient with severe peripartum cardiomyopathy is reported. A 31-year-old nulliparous woman at 35 weeks of gestation presented with a three-week history of worsening dyspnea and progressive functional deterioration. A transthoracic echocardiogram showed severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction with an ejection fraction peripartum cardiomyopathy. We suggest that use of NICOM™ be extended into the postpartum period to detect signs of cardiac decompensation in such patients.

  6. Retromolar Intubation:An alternative non invasive technique for airway management in maxillofacial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthkarsha Lokesh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Airway management during surgery in patients with complex maxillofacial trauma has always been a challenge for anesthesiologists, as the surgeon and the anesthesiologist share the same limited space. The necessity of intraoperative restoration of dental occlusion by intermaxillary fixation (IMF makes the presence of oral endotracheal tube unfeasible.The purpose of our study is to evaluate the Retromolar intubation is non-invasive technique of securing airway in patients with panfacial trauma. It avoids the complications of submental intubation and tracheostomy.This review article emphasizes on the use of the retromolar intubation technique in certain cases of maxillofacial trauma

  7. Non-medical applications of non invasive prenatal testing: ethical issues and apllicabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Tasinato, Paola

    2013-01-01

    The possibility of obtaining material for foetal molecular analysis without the need of invasive procedures has been a long wished improvement of practice in prenatal diagnostics. The demonstration of the presence of foetal cells and circulating foetal free-DNA in a sample of mother-to-be’s blood promised that a non-invasive approach for prenatal diagnostics is near to becoming a reality. The presence of foetal cells (albeit in low numbers) in maternal blood has been known since 1893, when...

  8. Open source non-invasive prenatal testing platform and its performance in a public health laboratory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Peter; Richter, Stine R; Balslev-Harder, Marie

    2016-01-01

    : The pipeline correctly detected 27/27 trisomy 21, 4/4 trisomy 18, and 3/3 trisomy 13 fetuses. Neither false negatives nor false positives (chromosomes 13, 18, and 21) were observed in our validation dataset. Fetal sex was identified correctly in all but one triploid fetus (172/173). SeqFF showed a strong......OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to introduce non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal autosomal trisomies and gender in a Danish public health setting, using semi-conductor sequencing and published open source scripts for analysis. METHODS: Plasma-derived DNA from a total of 375...

  9. Non-invasive epigenetic detection of fetal trisomy 21 in first trimester maternal plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hyae Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS is the most common known aneuploidy, caused by an extra copy of all or part of chromosome 21. Fetal-specific epigenetic markers have been investigated for non-invasive prenatal detection of fetal DS. The phosphodiesterases gene, PDE9A, located on chromosome 21q22.3, is completely methylated in blood (M-PDE9A and unmethylated in the placenta (U-PDE9A. Therefore, we estimated the accuracy of non-invasive fetal DS detection during the first trimester of pregnancy using this tissue-specific epigenetic characteristic of PDE9A. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nested, case-control study was conducted using maternal plasma samples collected from 108 pregnant women carrying 18 DS and 90 normal fetuses (each case was matched with 5 controls according to gestational weeks at blood sampling. All pregnancies were singletons at or before 12 weeks of gestation between October 2008 and May 2009. The maternal plasma levels of M-PDE9A and U-PDE9A were measured by quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. M-PDE9A and U-PDE9A levels were obtained in all samples and did not differ between male and female fetuses. M-PDE9A levels did not differ between the DS cases and controls (1854.3 vs 2004.5 copies/mL; P = 0.928. U-PDE9A levels were significantly elevated in women with DS fetuses compared with controls (356.8 vs 194.7 copies/mL, P<0.001. The sensitivities of U-PDE9A level and the unmethylation index of PDE9A for non-invasive fetal DS detection were 77.8% and 83.3%, respectively, with a 5% false-positive rate. In the risk assessment for fetal DS, the adjusted odds ratios of U-PDE9A level and UI were 46.2 [95% confidence interval: 7.8-151.6] and 63.7 [95% confidence interval: 23.2-206.7], respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that U-PDE9A level and the unmethylation index of PDE9A may be useful biomarkers for non-invasive fetal DS detection during the first trimester of pregnancy, regardless of fetal

  10. A new index for non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Naohiro; Ichino; Keisuke; Osakabe; Toru; Nishikawa; Hiroko; Sugiyama; Miho; Kato; Shiho; Kitahara; Senju; Hashimoto; Naoto; Kawabe; Masao; Harata; Yoshifumi; Nitta; Michihito; Murao; Takuji; Nakano; Yuko; Arima; Hiroaki; Shimazaki; Koji; Suzuki; Kentaro; Yoshioka

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To construct and evaluate a new non-invasive fibrosis index for assessment of the stage of liver f ibrosis. METHODS:A new f ibrosis index (Fibro-Stiffness index) was developed in 165 of 285 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and was validated in the other 120 patients where liver biopsy was performed. Its usefulness was compared with liver stiffness (LS) measured by FibroScan, the aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, the Forns index and the FibroIndex. RESULTS: The Fibro-Stiffness index consists of...

  11. Control of a team of micro-robots for non-invasive medical applications

    OpenAIRE

    Perrard, Christophe; Andreff, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the control and the synchronisation of a team of micro-robots that performs a non-invasive surgical act into a human body. These micro-robots are very small sized (from ten to some hundred microns). A single unit embeds the minimum of computing power and memory (minimalist electronics) to run a very light program, such as a finite-state machine. The mass effect of the joined micro-robots will allow to achieve the mission through a satisfactory way...

  12. Non-invasive cardiac mapping in clinical practice: Application to the ablation of cardiac arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Rémi; Shah, Ashok J; Hocini, Mélèze; Denis, Arnaud; Derval, Nicolas; Cochet, Hubert; Sacher, Frédéric; Bear, Laura; Duchateau, Josselin; Jais, Pierre; Haissaguerre, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Ten years ago, electrocardiographic imaging (ECGI) started to demonstrate its efficiency in clinical settings. The initial application to localize focal ventricular arrhythmias such as ventricular premature beats was probably the easiest to challenge and validates the concept. Our clinical experience in using this non-invasive mapping technique to identify the sources of electrical disorders and guide catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats) and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) is described here.

  13. Online estimation of respiratory mechanics in non-invasive pressure support ventilation: a bench model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Qestra; Tassaux, Didier; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Schindhelm, Klaus; Redmond, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-01-01

    An online algorithm for determining respiratory mechanics in patients using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pressure support mode was developed and embedded in a ventilator system. Based on multiple linear regression (MLR) of respiratory data, the algorithm was tested on a patient bench model under conditions with and without leak and simulating a variety of mechanics. Bland-Altman analysis indicates reliable measures of compliance across the clinical range of interest (± 11-18% limits of agreement). Resistance measures showed large quantitative errors (30-50%), however, it was still possible to qualitatively distinguish between normal and obstructive resistances. This outcome provides clinically significant information for ventilator titration and patient management.

  14. Method for Non-Invasive Determination of Chemical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Paul W. (Inventor); Jones, Alan (Inventor); Thomas, Nathan A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for non-invasively determining a chemical property of an aqueous solution is provided. The method provides the steps of providing a colored solute having a light absorbance spectrum and transmitting light through the colored solute at two different wavelengths. The method further provides the steps of measuring light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different transmitted light wavelengths, and comparing the light absorbance of the colored solute at the two different wavelengths to determine a chemical property of an aqueous solution.

  15. Non-Invasive Microwave Sensors for Biomedical Applications: New Design Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Costanzo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic operation principles of non-invasive microwave sensors are summarized in this work, with specific emphasis on health-care systems applications. Design criteria to achieve reliable results in terms of biological parameters detection are specifically highlighted. In particular, the importance to adopt accurate frequency models for the complex permittivity (in terms of both dielectric constant as well as loss tangent in the synthesis procedure of the microwave sensor is clearly motivated. Finally, an application example of the outlined new perspectives in the framework of glucose monitoring to face diabete disease is deeply discussed.

  16. Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-20

    The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.

  17. Non-invasive estimation of the metabolic heat production of breast tumors using digital infrared imaging

    CERN Document Server

    González, Francisco Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this work the metabolic heat generated by breast tumors was estimated indirectly and noninvasively from digital infrared images and numerically simulating a simplified breast model and a cancerous tumor, this parameter can be of clinical importance since it has been related to the doubling volume's time and malignancy for that particular tumor. The results indicate that digital infrared imaging has the potential to estimate in a non-invasive way the malignancy of a tumor by calculating its metabolic heat generation from bioheat thermal transfer models.

  18. Non-invasive studies of multiphase flow in process equipment. Positron emission particle tracking technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakin, B. V.; Adamsen, T. C. H.; Chang, Y.-F.; Kosinski, P.; Hoffmann, A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) is a novel experimental technique for non-invasive inspection of industrial fluid/particle flows. The method is based on the dynamic positioning of a positron-emitting, flowing object (particle) performed through the sensing of annihilation events and subsequent numerical treatment to determine the particle position. The present paper shows an integrated overview of PEPT studies which were carried out using a new PET scanner in the Bergen University Hospital to study multiphase flows in different geometric configurations.

  19. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  20. Modeling the pelvic region for non-invasive pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moszkowski Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Finite element analysis (FEA of electric current distribution in the pelvis minor may help to assess the usability of non-invasive surface stimulation for continuous pelvic intraoperative neuromonitoring. FEA requires generation of quality volumetric tetrahedral mesh geometry. This study proposes the generation of a suitable mesh based on MRI data. The resulting volumetric mesh models the autonomous nerve structures at risk during total mesorectal excision. The model also contains the bone, cartilage, fat, skin, muscle tissues of the pelvic region, and a set of electrodes for surface stimulation. The model is ready for finite element analysis of the discrete Maxwell’s equations.

  1. Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Changes along a Streamline using Vector Velocity Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand;

    2015-01-01

    estimator is evaluated by comparing its results to a 3-D numerical simulation model. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -5 Pa to 7 Pa with a standard deviation of 4%. The proposed method had a normalised rootmean-square error of 10% in reference to the simulation......A non-invasive method for estimating pressure changes along a streamline using ultrasound is presented. The suggested method estimates pressure gradients from 2-D vector velocity fields. Changes in pressure are derived using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Scans of a carotid...

  2. Continuous non-invasive PCO2 monitoring in weaning patients: Transcutaneous is advantageous over end-tidal PCO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Sarah B; Windisch, Wolfram; Magnet, Friederike S; Schmoor, Claudia; Karagiannidis, Christian; Callegari, Jens; Huttmann, Sophie E; Storre, Jan H

    2017-06-14

    Continuous partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 ) assessment is essential for the success of mechanical ventilation (MV). Non-invasive end-tidal PCO2 (PetCO2 ) and transcutaneous PCO2 (PtcCO2 ) measurements serve as alternatives to the gold standard arterial PCO2 (PaCO2 ) method, but their eligibility in critical care is unclear. The present study therefore performed methodological comparisons of PaCO2 versus PetCO2 and PtcCO2 , respectively, in weaning patients receiving invasive MV via tracheal cannulas. PetCO2 and PtcCO2 were recorded continuously, while PaCO2 was analysed at baseline, and after 30 and 60 min. Using the Bland-Altman analysis, a clinically acceptable range was defined as a mean difference of ±4 mm Hg between PaCO2 and non-invasive strategies. A total of 60 patients (COPD (n = 30) and non-COPD (n = 30)) completed the protocol. Mean PCO2 values were 42.4 ± 8.6 mm Hg (PaCO2 ), 36.5 ± 7.5 mm Hg (PetCO2 ) and 41.7 ± 8.7 mm Hg (PtcCO2 ). Mean differences between PtcCO2 and PaCO2 were -0.7 ± 3.6 mm Hg (95% CI: -1.6/0.3 mm Hg; 95% limits of agreement: -7.8 to 6.4 mm Hg), and between PetCO2 and PaCO2 -5.9 ± 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI: -7.2/-4.5 mm Hg; 95% limits of agreement: -16.2 to 4.5 mm Hg). Underestimation of PaCO2 by PetCO2 was most pronounced in COPD patients. Our data therefore support PtcCO2 as a suitable means for monitoring PCO2 in patients undergoing invasive MV. This is in contrast to PetCO2 , which clearly underestimated PaCO2 , especially in patients with COPD. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  3. FAMULATUR PLUS - A successful model for improving students' physical examination skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Traue, Harald; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Project description: Several studies have revealed insufficient physical examination skills among medical students, both with regard to the completeness of the physical examination and the accuracy of the techniques used. FAMULATUR PLUS was developed in response to these findings. As part of this practice-oriented instructional intervention, physical examination skills should be taught through examination seminars and problem-oriented learning approaches. In order to ensure practical relevance, all courses are integrated into a 30-day clinical traineeship in the surgery or internal medicine department of a hospital (FAMULATUR PLUS). Research question: Does participation in the FAMULATUR PLUS project lead to a more optimistic self-assessment of examination skills and/or improved performance of the physical examination? Methodology: A total of 49 medical students participated in the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: enrollment in the clinical studies element of their degree program at the University of Ulm and completion of the university course in internal medicine examinations. Based on their personal preferences, students were assigned to either the intervention (surgery/internal medicine; n=24) or the control group (internal medicine; n=25). All students completed a self-assessment of their physical examination skills in the form of a questionnaire. However, practical examination skills were only assessed in the students in the intervention group. These students were asked to carry out a general physical examination of the simulation patient, which was recorded and evaluated in a standardized manner. In both instances, data collection was carried out prior to and after the intervention. Results: The scores arising from the student self-assessment in the intervention (IG) and control groups (CG) improves significantly in the pre-post comparison, with average scores increasing from 3.83 (±0.72; IG) and 3.54 (±0.37; CG) to 1.92 (±0

  4. FAMULATUR PLUS – A successful model for improving students' physical examination skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerg, Achim; Öchsner, Wolfgang; Traue, Harald; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Introduction/Project description: Several studies have revealed insufficient physical examination skills among medical students, both with regard to the completeness of the physical examination and the accuracy of the techniques used. FAMULATUR PLUS was developed in response to these findings. As part of this practice-oriented instructional intervention, physical examination skills should be taught through examination seminars and problem-oriented learning approaches. In order to ensure practical relevance, all courses are integrated into a 30-day clinical traineeship in the surgery or internal medicine department of a hospital (FAMULATUR PLUS). Research question: Does participation in the FAMULATUR PLUS project lead to a more optimistic self-assessment of examination skills and/or improved performance of the physical examination? Methodology: A total of 49 medical students participated in the study. The inclusion criteria were as follows: enrollment in the clinical studies element of their degree program at the University of Ulm and completion of the university course in internal medicine examinations. Based on their personal preferences, students were assigned to either the intervention (surgery/internal medicine; n=24) or the control group (internal medicine; n=25). All students completed a self-assessment of their physical examination skills in the form of a questionnaire. However, practical examination skills were only assessed in the students in the intervention group. These students were asked to carry out a general physical examination of the simulation patient, which was recorded and evaluated in a standardized manner. In both instances, data collection was carried out prior to and after the intervention. Results: The scores arising from the student self-assessment in the intervention (IG) and control groups (CG) improves significantly in the pre-post comparison, with average scores increasing from 3.83 (±0.72; IG) and 3.54 (±0.37; CG) to 1.92 (±0

  5. Direct infussion Electrospray Mass Spectrometry as a new non-invasive tool for serum metabolomics in induced-stress subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Lorenzo-Tejedor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Nanotechnology is becoming a tool for the study of changes in the metabolome of patients in different states of disease. Analytical techniques such as Electrospray Mass Spectrometry, allow to find biomarkers by determination of metabolites. Nowadays, there is not an objective analytical approach for diagnosis of stress. Thus, the objectives of this pilot work are: Describing the development of a fast, direct and non-invasive analytical protocol, applied for the first time, to study the metabolomic profile of patient´s different states through a disease. Testing the protocol in a pilot sample with non-stressed and stress-induced subjects. Methods: High resolution direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry has been used to analyse the metabolome of blood samples (0.3 ml from six subjects. Results: Data prove a clear discrimination between non-stressed and stressed states in the metabolome. Data showed different predominant metabolites in both states. Results allow objective characterization of the state of the patient. Conclusions: Although this is a pilot study, the method was successful in discriminating different metabolites in non-stressed and stress-induced subjects.

  6. Thermo-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-grafted hollow fiber membranes for osteoblasts culture and non-invasive harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Meiling; Liu, Tianqing; Song, Kedong; Ge, Dan; Li, Xiangqin

    2015-10-01

    Hollow fiber membrane (HFM) culture system is one of the most important bioreactors for the large-scale culture and expansion of therapeutic cells. However, enzymatic and mechanical treatments are traditionally applied to harvest the expanded cells from HFMs, which inevitably causes harm to the cells. In this study, thermo-responsive cellulose acetate HFMs for cell culture and non-invasive harvest were prepared for the first time via free radical polymerization in the presence of cerium (IV). ATR-FTIR and elemental analysis results indicated that the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) was covalently grafted on HFMs successfully. Dynamic contact angle measurements at different temperatures revealed that the magnitude of volume phase transition was decreased with increasing grafted amount of PNIPAAm. And the amount of serum protein adsorbed on HFMs surface also displayed the same pattern. Meanwhile osteoblasts adhered and spread well on the surface of PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs at 37 °C. And Calcein-AM/PI staining, AB assay, ALP activity and OCN protein expression level all showed that PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs had good cell compatibility. After incubation at 20 °C for 120 min, the adhering cells on PNIPAAm-grafted HFMs turned to be round and detached after being gently pipetted. These results suggest that thermo-responsive HFMs are attractive cell culture substrates which enable cell culture, expansion and the recovery without proteolytic enzyme treatment for the application in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  7. Non-invasive assessment of reproductive status and stress in captive Asian elephants in three south Indian zoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Palugulla Reddy, Vivekananda; Kokkiligadda, Adiseshu; Shivaji, Sisinthy; Umapathy, Govindhaswamy

    2014-05-15

    Asian elephants in captivity need immediate attention to be bred so as to meet the increasing demand for captive elephants and to overcome the dependence on supplementing the captive stock with wild animals. Unfortunately, captive breeding programs across the globe have met with limited success and therefore more effort is needed to improve breeding in captivity. Endocrine profiling of reproductive hormones (progestagens and androgens) and the stress hormone (glucocorticoids) could facilitate better management and breeding strategies. In the present study, we investigated reproductive and stress physiology of 12 captive Asian elephants for 10-27 months using a non-invasive method based on steroid analysis of 1700 elephant dung samples. Most of the elephants were cycling regularly. Males during musth showed increased fecal androgen metabolite concentrations and exhibited a slight increase in fecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. Elephants used in public festivals and processions showed significantly increased in faecal glucocorticoid metabolite levels. The results indicate that captive elephants require periodic health care, better husbandry practices and scientific management for sustainable captive population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Upper Limb Motor Practice Poststroke: A Model for Selection of Cortical Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle L. Harris-Love

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Motor practice is an essential part of upper limb motor recovery following stroke. To be effective, it must be intensive with a high number of repetitions. Despite the time and effort required, gains made from practice alone are often relatively limited, and substantial residual impairment remains. Using non-invasive brain stimulation to modulate cortical excitability prior to practice could enhance the effects of practice and provide greater returns on the investment of time and effort. However, determining which cortical area to target is not trivial. The implications of relevant conceptual frameworks such as Interhemispheric Competition and Bimodal Balance Recovery are discussed. In addition, we introduce the STAC (Structural reserve, Task Attributes, Connectivity framework, which incorporates patient-, site-, and task-specific factors. An example is provided of how this framework can assist in selecting a cortical region to target for priming prior to reaching practice poststroke. We suggest that this expanded patient-, site-, and task-specific approach provides a useful model for guiding the development of more successful approaches to neuromodulation for enhancing motor recovery after stroke.

  9. Performance Anxiety and Academic Success Level Examination of Students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRŞEN OTACIOĞLU, Sena

    2016-01-01

    Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306). Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004) a...

  10. Voice correlates of mating success in men: examining "contests" versus "mate choice" modes of sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Gaulin, Steven J C; Puts, David A

    2011-06-01

    Men's copulatory success can often be predicted by measuring traits involved in male contests and female choice. Previous research has demonstrated relationships between one such vocal trait in men, mean fundamental frequency (F(0)), and the outcomes and indicators of sexual success with women. The present study investigated the role of another vocal parameter, F(0) variation (the within-subject SD in F(0) across the utterance, F(0)-SD), in predicting men's reported number of female sexual partners in the last year. Male participants (N = 111) competed with another man for a date with a woman. Recorded interactions with the competitor ("competitive recording") and the woman ("courtship recording") were analyzed for five non-linguistic vocal parameters: F(0)-SD, mean F(0), intensity, duration, and formant dispersion (D( f ), an acoustic correlate of vocal tract length), as well as dominant and attractive linguistic content. After controlling for age and attitudes toward uncommitted sex (SOI), lower F(0)-SD (i.e., a more monotone voice) and more dominant linguistic content were strong predictors of the number of past-year sexual partners, whereas mean F(0) and D( f ) did not significantly predict past-year partners. These contrasts have implications for the relative importance of male contests and female choice in shaping men's mating success and hence the origins and maintenance of sexually dimorphic traits in humans.

  11. Examining "success" in post-hip fracture care transitions: a strengths-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Gould, Joanie; Byrne, Kerry; Hicks, Elisabeth; Khan, Karim; Stolee, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Transitions between health care settings are a high-risk period for care quality and patient safety (Coleman, 2003; Picker Institute, 1999), particularly for older patients - such as those with hip fracture - who have complex needs and may undergo multiple care transitions. We sought to understand the key elements of "success" in care transition. Using a strengths-based perspective (Rapp, 1998; Saleebey, 2006), we focused on interprofessional health care providers' perspectives of what constitutes a "good" care transition for elderly hip fracture patients. As part of a larger ethnographic field study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 health providers across a number of disciplines employed across the continuum of post-hip fracture management in British Columbia, Canada. We found two hallmarks of "success" in care transitions: a focus on process - information gathering and communication, and a focus on outcomes - autonomy and care pathways. Strategies for promoting and improving success, such as using practitioner-driven ground-up solutions to address challenges in care transitions, are highlighted.

  12. Building successful student-athlete coach relationships: examining coaching practices and commitment to the coach

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rezania, Davar; Gurney, Robert

    2014-01-01

    .... We examined the impact of commitment to the coach on the coaching outcome of in-role behaviour, and the influence of coaching practices, of information sharing, training, and encouraging teamwork...

  13. The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) as a Predictor of Success at the Naval Postgraduate School

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    the author and do not reflect the official policy or po- sition of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 17 Cosati Codes IS Subject Terms...potential. Among these are the Graduate Record Examination (GRE). the Graduate Management Admission Test ( GMAT ), undergrad- uate grade point averages...performance." [Ref. 16: p. 141 Throughout the Guide Educational Testing Service cautions against using the Graduate Record Examination Scores as the only

  14. Use and performance of non-invasive ventilation in Internal Medicine ward: a real-life study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ventrella

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlled trials demonstrated efficacy and safety of non-invasive ventilation (NIV in treatment of acute respiratory failure, initially in Intensive Care Units, then in other care settings (semi-intensive care units, emergency departments, and also in the wards, more often pneumological ones. Few studies have been published about NIV in Italian wards of Internal Medicine with full self-management of NIV by internists in a normal ward setting. We performed a prospective real-life study about the use of NIV in Internal Medicine ward devoid of a critical area of semi-intensive therapy, with the aim of confirming, in this setting, the effectiveness of NIV. During a period of 13 months, 42 patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure of different etiology and acidosis (pH<7.25were treated by NIV. NIV was successful in 81% of patients. In-hospital mortality was 9.5%. Safety of NIV is demonstrated by the absence of serious complications: only 7 patients showed poor compliance and 2 patients had facial pressure ulcer due to the mask. There were not statistical differences in success rate of NIV according to severity of acidosis at admission (pH<7.25 vs pH>7.25, neither according to the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and the national early warning score, but the modified early warning score only showed statistically significant difference with lower values in the success group: 2.82±1.57 vs 4.13±1.46 (P<0.05. NIV has proven to be effective and safe in Internal Medicine ward.

  15. Anaphylaxis Imaging: Non-Invasive Measurement of Surface Body Temperature and Physical Activity in Small Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Manzano-Szalai

    Full Text Available In highly sensitized patients, the encounter with a specific allergen from food, insect stings or medications may rapidly induce systemic anaphylaxis with potentially lethal symptoms. Countless animal models of anaphylaxis, most often in BALB/c mice, were established to understand the pathophysiology and to prove the safety of different treatments. The most common symptoms during anaphylactic shock are drop of body temperature and reduced physical activity. To refine, improve and objectify the currently applied manual monitoring methods, we developed an imaging method for the automated, non-invasive measurement of the whole-body surface temperature and, at the same time, of the horizontal and vertical movement activity of small animals. We tested the anaphylaxis imaging in three in vivo allergy mouse models for i milk allergy, ii peanut allergy and iii egg allergy. These proof-of-principle experiments suggest that the imaging technology represents a reliable non-invasive method for the objective monitoring of small animals during anaphylaxis over time. We propose that the method will be useful for monitoring diseases associated with both, changes in body temperature and in physical behaviour.

  16. Non-Invasive Ventilation in Patients with Heart Failure: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Hugo Souza; dos Reis, Helena França Correia; Lima, Melissa Santos; Gomes Neto, Mansueto

    2017-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) may perfect respiratory and cardiac performance in patients with heart failure (HF). The objective of the study to establish, through systematic review and meta-analysis, NIV influence on functional capacity of HF patients. A systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized studies was carried out through research of databases of Cochrane Library, SciELO, Pubmed and PEDro, using the key-words: heart failure, non-invasive ventilation, exercise tolerance; and the free terms: bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and functional capacity (terms were searched for in English and Portuguese) using the Boolean operators AND and OR. Methodological quality was ensured through PEDro scale. Weighted averages and a 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. The meta-analysis was done thorugh the software Review Manager, version 5.3 (Cochrane Collaboration). Four randomized clinical trials were included. Individual studies suggest NIV improved functional capacity. NIV resulted in improvement in the distance of the six-minute walk test (6MWT) (68.7m 95%CI: 52.6 to 84.9) in comparison to the control group. We conclude that the NIV is an intervention that promotes important effects in the improvement of functional capacity of HF patients. However, there is a gap in literature on which are the most adequate parameters for the application of this technique. PMID:28099587

  17. Non-invasive diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leon A; Feldstein, Ariel E

    2011-02-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in the USA and many other parts of the world. Its prevalence continues to rise; currently affecting about one in four adults and 10% of children in the USA. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign, no-progressive clinical course, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. Currently, the diagnosis of NASH requires an invasive liver biopsy with drawbacks of sampling and interpretation error. Clinical risk factors for NASH include diabetes and the metabolic syndrome; however, these are not sufficiently predictive of the condition by themselves. Routine liver enzyme levels are not reliable; however, novel plasma hepatocyte cell death markers either alone or in combination with clinical risk factors are potential non-invasive diagnostic tools for the future. This review provides a concise overview of the role non-invasive diagnostic tools for the differentiation of fatty liver from NASH as well as for the determination of presence and extent of fibrosis.

  18. Non-invasive monitoring for living cell culture with lensless Fourier transform digital holography microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxin; Wang, Dayong; Zhao, Jie; Li, Yan; Meng, Puhui; Wan, Yuhong; Jiang, Zhuqing

    2010-08-01

    The number of cells is commonly employed to describe the cell viability and the status of cell culture in a certain extent. An automatic and non-invasive detecting method for the status analysis of cell culture is developed based on digital holography microscopy (DHM) technology. Digital holographic imaging can retrieve quantitative information of object wavefront by the numerical reconstruction from a single digital hologram recorded by a detector such as CCD or CMOS camera, which is especially suitable for the morphology detection of the transparent or semi-transparent cells. In this contribution, the lensless Fourier transform (LFT) based holography configuration is designed for cell imaging without prestaining, and the amplitude and phase of living cells can be reconstructed by digital reconstruction and phase unwrapped algorithms. Then the image filtering and segmentation are combined for the automatic evaluation of the level of confluency. In imaging experiments, the culture status of the cervical cancer cell TZMbl is detected, and the results demonstrate that digital holography microscopy provides a feasible non-invasive method for monitoring the living cell culture.

  19. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wann-Yun Shieh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  20. Development of a portable non-invasive swallowing and respiration assessment device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-05-27

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders.

  1. Development of a Portable Non-Invasive Swallowing and Respiration Assessment Device †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Wann-Yun; Wang, Chin-Man; Chang, Chia-Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is a condition that happens when a person cannot smoothly swallow food from the mouth to the stomach. It causes malnourishment in patients, or can even cause death due to aspiration pneumonia. Recently, more and more researchers have focused their attention on the importance of swallowing and respiration coordination, and the use of non-invasive assessment systems has become a hot research trend. In this study, we aimed to integrate the timing and pattern monitoring of respiration and swallowing by using a portable and non-invasive approach which can be applied at the bedside in hospitals or institutions, or in a home environment. In this approach, we use a force sensing resistor (FSR) to detect the motions of the thyroid cartilage in the pharyngeal phase. We also use the surface electromyography (sEMG) to detect the contraction of the submental muscle in the oral phase, and a nasal cannula to detect nasal airflow for respiration monitoring during the swallowing process. All signals are received and processed for swallowing event recognition. A total of 19 volunteers participated in the testing and over 57 measurements were made. The results show that the proposed approach can effectively distinguish the swallowing function in people of different ages and genders. PMID:26024414

  2. Pneumococci in biofilms are non-invasive: implications on nasopharyngeal colonization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Paul Gilley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus is an opportunistic pathogen that colonizes the human nasopharynx asymptomatically. Invasive pneumococcal disease develops following bacterial aspiration into the lungs. Pneumococci within the nasopharynx exist as biofilms, a growth phenotype characterized by surface attachment, encasement within an extracellular matrix, and antimicrobial resistance. Experimental evidence indicates that biofilm pneumococci are attenuated versus their planktonic counterpart. Biofilm pneumococci failed to cause invasive disease in experimentally challenged mice and in vitro were shown to be non-invasive despite being hyper-adhesive. This attenuated phenotype corresponds with observations that biofilm pneumococci elicit significantly less cytokine and chemokine production from host cells than their planktonic counterparts. Microarray and proteomic studies show that pneumococci within biofilms have decreased metabolism, less capsular polysaccharide, and reduced production of the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin. Biofilm pneumococci are predominately in the transparent phenotype, which has elevated cell wall phosphorylcholine, an adhesin subject to C-reactive protein mediated opsonization. Herein, we review these changes in virulence, interpret their impact on colonization and transmission, and discuss the notion that non-invasive biofilms are principal lifestyle of S. pneumoniae.

  3. Non-invasive multimodal functional imaging of the intestine with frozen micellar naphthalocyanines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumiao; Jeon, Mansik; Rich, Laurie J.; Hong, Hao; Geng, Jumin; Zhang, Yin; Shi, Sixiang; Barnhart, Todd E.; Alexandridis, Paschalis; Huizinga, Jan D.; Seshadri, Mukund; Cai, Weibo; Kim, Chulhong; Lovell, Jonathan F.

    2014-08-01

    There is a need for safer and improved methods for non-invasive imaging of the gastrointestinal tract. Modalities based on X-ray radiation, magnetic resonance and ultrasound suffer from limitations with respect to safety, accessibility or lack of adequate contrast. Functional intestinal imaging of dynamic gut processes has not been practical using existing approaches. Here, we report the development of a family of nanoparticles that can withstand the harsh conditions of the stomach and intestine, avoid systemic absorption, and provide good optical contrast for photoacoustic imaging. The hydrophobicity of naphthalocyanine dyes was exploited to generate purified ∼20 nm frozen micelles, which we call nanonaps, with tunable and large near-infrared absorption values (>1,000). Unlike conventional chromophores, nanonaps exhibit non-shifting spectra at ultrahigh optical densities and, following oral administration in mice, passed safely through the gastrointestinal tract. Non-invasive, non-ionizing photoacoustic techniques were used to visualize nanonap intestinal distribution with low background and remarkable resolution, and enabled real-time intestinal functional imaging with ultrasound co-registration. Positron emission tomography following seamless nanonap radiolabelling allowed complementary whole-body imaging.

  4. Triple non-invasive diagnostic test for exclusion of common bile ducts stones before laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the impact of a preoperative "triple non-invasive diagnostic test" for diagnosis and/or exclusion of common bile duct stones.METHODS: All patients with symptomatic gallstone disease, operated on by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from March 2004 to March 2006 were studied retrospectively. Two hundred patients were included and reviewed by using a triple diagnostic test including:patient's medical history, routine liver function tests and routine ultrasonography. All patients were followed up 2-24 mo after surgery to evaluate the impact of triple diagnostic test.RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified to have common bile duct stones. Lack of history of stones,negative laboratory tests and normal ultrasonography alone was proven to exclude common bile duct stones in some patients. However, a combination of these three components (triple diagnostic), was proven to be the most statistically significant test to exclude common bile duct stones in patients with gallstone disease.CONCLUSION: Using a combination of routinely used diagnostic components as triple diagnostic modality would increase the diagnostic accuracy of common bile duct stones preoperatively. This triple non-invasive test is recommended for excluding common bile duct stones and to identify patients in need for other investigations.

  5. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  6. Deconstructing autofluorescence: non-invasive detection and monitoring of biochemistry in cells and tissues (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldys, Ewa M.; Gosnell, Martin E.; Anwer, Ayad G.; Cassano, Juan C.; Sue, Carolyn M.; Mahbub, Saabah B.; Pernichery, Sandeep M.; Inglis, David W.; Adhikary, Partho P.; Jazayeri, Jalal A.; Cahill, Michael A.; Saad, Sonia; Pollock, Carol; Sutton-Mcdowall, Melanie L.; Thompson, Jeremy G.

    2016-03-01

    Automated and unbiased methods of non-invasive cell monitoring able to deal with complex biological heterogeneity are fundamentally important for biology and medicine. Label-free cell imaging provides information about endogenous fluorescent metabolites, enzymes and cofactors in cells. However extracting high content information from imaging of native fluorescence has been hitherto impossible. Here, we quantitatively characterise cell populations in different tissue types, live or fixed, by using novel image processing and a simple multispectral upgrade of a wide-field fluorescence microscope. Multispectral intrinsic fluorescence imaging was applied to patient olfactory neurosphere-derived cells, cell model of a human metabolic disease MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, stroke-like syndrome). By using an endogenous source of contrast, subtle metabolic variations have been detected between living cells in their full morphological context which made it possible to distinguish healthy from diseased cells before and after therapy. Cellular maps of native fluorophores, flavins, bound and free NADH and retinoids unveiled subtle metabolic signatures and helped uncover significant cell subpopulations, in particular a subpopulation with compromised mitochondrial function. The versatility of our method is further illustrated by detecting genetic mutations in cancer, non-invasive monitoring of CD90 expression, label-free tracking of stem cell differentiation, identifying stem cell subpopulations with varying functional characteristics, tissue diagnostics in diabetes, and assessing the condition of preimplantation embryos. Our optimal discrimination approach enables statistical hypothesis testing and intuitive visualisations where previously undetectable differences become clearly apparent.

  7. Non-invasive temperature measurement by using phase changes in electromagnetic waves in a cavity resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yasutoshi; Ohwada, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment, a novel method of non-invasive measurement of changes in body temperature is proposed. The proposed method is based on phase changes with temperature in electromagnetic waves in a heating applicator and the temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. An image of the temperature change inside a body is reconstructed by applying a computed tomography algorithm. This method can be combined easily with a heating applicator based on a cavity resonator and can be used to treat cancer effectively while non-invasively monitoring the heating effect. In this paper the phase change distributions of electromagnetic waves with temperature changes are measured experimentally, and the accuracy of reconstruction is discussed. The phase change distribution is reconstructed by using a prototype system with a rectangular aluminum cavity resonator that can be rotated 360° around an axis of rotation. To make measurements without disturbing the electromagnetic field distribution, an optical electric field sensor is used. The phase change distribution is reconstructed from 4-projection data by using a simple back-projection algorithm. The paper demonstrates that the phase change distribution can be reconstructed. The difference between phase changes obtained experimentally and by numerical analysis is about 20% and is related mainly to the limited signal detection sensitivity of electromagnetic waves. A temperature change inside an object can be reconstructed from the measured phase changes in a cavity resonator.

  8. Application of magnetic resonance elastography as a non-invasive technique for diagnosis of liver fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Minglei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At present, liver biopsy is the gold standard for the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis, but its limitations have been widely acknowledged. The non-invasive detection methods are needed in clinical practice, and at present, magnetic resonance elastography (MRE is a hot research topic. This article reviews the advances in the clinical application of MRE in related fields, and studies have shown that MRE has a high diagnostic value due to its high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis and grading of liver fibrosis and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve as high as 0.95. Compared with serological and other imaging diagnostic methods, MRE can determine fibrosis stage more accurately and has good reproducibility and objectivity. MRE can be widely applied in all patients except those with hemochromatosis, with special advantages in the diagnosis for patients with obesity and ascites, and can make up for the disadvantages of other methods. This article points out that MRE may become the best non-invasive method for the assessment of liver fibrosis, especially advanced fibrosis.

  9. The biological basis of non-invasive strategies for selection of human oocytes and embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lynette

    2003-01-01

    There is a need for more accurate embryo selection in human assisted reproduction, if the goal of reducing the number of embryos used in embryo transfer is to be realized. Furthermore, any selection strategy should be non-invasive if the embryos are to be used in embryo transfer. Currently, the strategy is selection by one to three parameters in the cleaving- and blastocyst-stage embryo, sometimes with additional pronuclear selection. It is clear that no one system is ideal, as the vast majority of transferred embryos do not implant. As the health of the embryo is largely dictated by the originating gametes, the very early events in oocyte development should be considered. This review will point to the early biological events in the unfertilized and fertilized oocyte that can be scored non-invasively and which can have a profound effect on the later developmental stages. Using a sequential scoring system, with emphasis on the oocyte, a system for selecting the most viable single embryo for transfer may hopefully be achieved.

  10. Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Li

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A non-invasive glucose measurement system based on the method of metabolic heat conformation (MHC is presented in this paper. This system consists of three temperature sensors, two humidity sensors, an infrared sensor and an optical measurement device. The glucose level can be deduced from the quantity of heat dissipation, blood flow rate of local tissue and degree of blood oxygen saturation. The methodology of the data process and the measurement error are also analyzed. The system is applied in a primary clinical test. Compared with the results of a commercial automated chemistry analyzer, the correlation coefficient of the collected data from the system is 0.856. Result shows that the correlation coefficient improves when the factor of heat dissipated by evaporation of the skin is added in. A non-invasive method of measuring the blood flow rate of local tissue by heat transmission between skin and contacted conductor is also introduced. Theoretical derivation and numerical simulation are completed as well. The so-called normalized difference mean (NDM is chosen to express the quantity of the blood flow rate. The correlation coefficient between the blood flow rates by this method and the results of a Doppler blood flow meter is equal to 0.914.

  11. Distribution of emm types in invasive and non-invasive group A and G streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vähäkuopus, S; Vuento, R; Siljander, T; Syrjänen, J; Vuopio, J

    2012-06-01

    Our study describes the emm type distributions of invasive and non-invasive group A streptococci (GAS) and group G streptococci (GGS) strains in one of the biggest Health Districts in Finland. A total of 571 GAS or GGS were recovered from patients with invasive or non-invasive infections during a 1-year period in 2008-2009 in Pirkanmaa Health District in Finland. We describe here the emm type distributions of GAS and GGS collected from throat (n = 246), pus (n = 217), deep tissue (n = 56) and blood (n = 52). The most common emm types among GAS were emm77, emm1, emm28, emm89 and emm12. Among GGS, the most common emm types were stG480, stG643, stG6, stC6979 and stG485. Some emm types were found to associate with certain infection focus. In GAS, emm77 associated with pus isolates, whereas emm1 and emm12 were more frequent among throat isolates. In GGS, stG480 was more commonly found from throat isolates.

  12. Non invasive methods for genetic analysis applied to ecological and behavioral studies in Latino-America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting the presence and abundance of the neotropical mammals is the first step for understanding their population ecology, behavior and genetic dynamics in designing conservation plans. The combination of field research with molecular genetics techniques are new tools that provide valuable biological information avoiding the disturbance in the ecosystems, trying to minimize the human impact in the process to gather biological information. The objective of this paper is to review the available non invasive sampling techniques that have been used in Neotropical mammal studies to apply to determine the presence and abundance, population structure, sex ratio, taxonomic diagnostic using mitochondrial markers, and assessing genetic variability using nuclear markers. There are a wide range of non invasive sampling techniques used to determine the species identification that inhabit an area such as searching for tracks, feces, and carcasses. Other useful equipment is the camera traps that can generate an image bank that can be valuable to assess species presence and abundance by morphology. With recent advances in molecular biology, it is now possible to use the trace amounts of DNA in feces and amplify it to analyze the species diversity in an area, and the genetic variability at intraspecific level. This is particularly helpful in cases of sympatric and cryptic species in which morphology failed to diagnose the taxonomic status of several species of brocket deer of the genus Mazama.

  13. Breath analysis as a potential and non-invasive frontier in disease diagnosis: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Porto-Figueira, Priscilla; Cavaco, Carina; Taunk, Khushman; Rapole, Srikanth; Dhakne, Rahul; Nagarajaram, Hampapathalu; Câmara, José S

    2015-01-09

    Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs), oncologic (ODs), neurodegenerative (NDDs), chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB) that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction) coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc.) allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  14. Acute changes in liver tumour perfusion measured non-invasively with arterial spin labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S Peter; Ramasawmy, Rajiv; Campbell-Washburn, Adrienne E; Wells, Jack A; Robson, Mathew; Rajkumar, Vineeth; Lythgoe, Mark F; Pedley, R Barbara; Walker-Samuel, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-invasive measures of tumour vascular perfusion are desirable, in order to assess response to vascular targeting (or modifying) therapies. In this study, hepatic arterial spin labelling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was investigated to measure acute changes in perfusion of colorectal cancer in the liver, in response to vascular disruption therapy with OXi4503. Methods: SW1222 and LS174T tumours were established in the liver of MF1 nu/nu mice via intrasplenic injection. Perfusion and R2* MRI measurements were acquired with an Agilent 9.4T horizontal bore scanner, before and at 90 min after 40 mg kg−1 OXi4503. Results: A significant decrease in SW1222 tumour perfusion was observed (−43±33%, Pchange in tumour perfusion and the proximity to large vessels, with pre-treatment blood flow predictive of subsequent response. Histological evaluation confirmed the onset of necrosis and evidence of heterogeneous response between tumour deposits. Conclusions: Hepatic ASL-MRI can detect acute response to targeted tumour vascular disruption entirely non-invasively. Hepatic ASL of liver tumours has potential for use in a clinical setting. PMID:27031853

  15. Monitoring high-risk patients: minimally invasive and non-invasive possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Jochen; Grünewald, Matthias; Bein, Berthold

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades, there has been considerable progress in the field of less invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies. Substantial evidence has accumulated, which supports the continuous measurement and optimization of flow-based variables such as stroke volume, that is, cardiac output, in order to prevent occult hypoperfusion and consequently to improve patients' outcome in the perioperative setting. However, there is a striking gap between the developments in haemodynamic monitoring and the increasing evidence to implement defined treatment protocols based on the measured variables, and daily clinical routine. Recent trials have shown that perioperative morbidity and mortality is higher than anticipated. This emphasizes the need for the anaesthesia community to address this issue and promotes the implementation of proven concepts into clinical practice in order to improve patients' outcome, especially in high-risk patients. The advances in minimally invasive and non-invasive monitoring techniques can be seen as a driving force in this respect, as the degree of invasiveness of any monitoring tool determines the frequency of its application, especially in the operating room (OR). From this point of view, we are very confident that some of these minimally invasive and non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring technologies will become an inherent part of our monitoring armamentarium in the OR and in the intensive care unit (ICU).

  16. Targets and probes for non-invasive imaging of β-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodal, Andreas; Behe, Martin [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); Schibli, Roger [Paul Scherrer Institut, Center for Radiopharmaceutical Sciences ETH-PSI-USZ, Villigen (Switzerland); ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    β-cells, located in the islets of the pancreas, are responsible for production and secretion of insulin and play a crucial role in blood sugar regulation. Pathologic β-cells often cause serious medical conditions affecting blood glucose level, which severely impact life quality and are life-threatening if untreated. With 347 million patients, diabetes is one of the most prevalent diseases, and will continue to be one of the largest socioeconomic challenges in the future. The diagnosis still relies mainly on indirect methods like blood sugar measurements. A non-invasive diagnostic imaging modality would allow direct evaluation of β-cell mass and would be a huge step towards personalized medicine. Hyperinsulinism is another serious condition caused by β-cells that excessively secrete insulin, like for instance β-cell hyperplasia and insulinomas. Treatment options with drugs are normally not curative, whereas curative procedures usually consist of the resection of affected regions for which, however, an exact localization of the foci is necessary. In this review, we describe potential tracers under development for targeting β-cells with focus on radiotracers for PET and SPECT imaging, which allow the non-invasive visualization of β-cells. We discuss either the advantages or limitations for the various tracers and modalities. This article concludes with an outlook on future developments and discuss the potential of new imaging probes including dual probes that utilize functionalities for both a radioactive and optical moiety as well as for theranostic applications. (orig.)

  17. Non-invasive optical detection of HBV based on serum surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zuci; Wang, Qiwen; Weng, Cuncheng; Lin, Xueliang; Lin, Yao; Feng, Shangyuan

    2016-10-01

    An optical method of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was developed for non-invasive detection of hepatitis B surface virus (HBV). Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) is an established serological marker that is routinely used for the diagnosis of acute or chronic hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. Utilizing SERS to analyze blood serum for detecting HBV has not been reported in previous literature. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of serum samples: one group for 50 HBV patients and the other group for 50 healthy volunteers. Blood serum samples are collected from healthy control subjects and patients diagnosed with HBV. Furthermore, principal components analysis (PCA) combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were employed to differentiate HBV patients from healthy volunteer and achieved sensitivity of 80.0% and specificity of 74.0%. This exploratory work demonstrates that SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of HBV.

  18. Evaluation of optical coherence tomography as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuck, Monika; Strese, Helene; Alawi, Seyed Arash; Meinke, Martina C; Fluhr, Joachim W; Burbach, Guido J; Krah, Martin; Sterry, Wolfram; Lademann, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    The monitoring of wound-healing processes is indispensable for the therapeutic effectiveness and improved care of chronic wounds. Histological sections provide the best morphological assessment of wound recovery, but cause further tissue destruction and increase the risk of infection. Therefore, it is reasonable to apply a diagnostic tool that allows a non-invasive and reliable observation of morphological changes in wound healing. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique for in vivo evaluation of skin diseases with a resolution close to histopathology. The aim of this study was to investigate whether OCT is suited to display the phases of wound healing. For this purpose, six patients with chronic wounds were objectively characterized by OCT during a period of 2 weeks. Comparable results between histological findings and OCT were achieved. OCT allowed the detection of partial loss of the epidermis, vasoconstriction, vasodilatation and epithelialization. Consequently, OCT could be a potential non-invasive diagnostic tool for the characterization and monitoring of cutaneous wound-healing processes over time. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  20. Non-invasive in vivo imaging of calcium signaling in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Rogers

    Full Text Available Rapid and transient elevations of Ca(2+ within cellular microdomains play a critical role in the regulation of many signal transduction pathways. Described here is a genetic approach for non-invasive detection of localized Ca(2+ concentration ([Ca(2+] rises in live animals using bioluminescence imaging (BLI. Transgenic mice conditionally expressing the Ca(2+-sensitive bioluminescent reporter GFP-aequorin targeted to the mitochondrial matrix were studied in several experimental paradigms. Rapid [Ca(2+] rises inside the mitochondrial matrix could be readily detected during single-twitch muscle contractions. Whole body patterns of [Ca(2+] were monitored in freely moving mice and during epileptic seizures. Furthermore, variations in mitochondrial [Ca(2+] correlated to behavioral components of the sleep/wake cycle were observed during prolonged whole body recordings of newborn mice. This non-invasive imaging technique opens new avenues for the analysis of Ca(2+ signaling whenever whole body information in freely moving animals is desired, in particular during behavioral and developmental studies.

  1. Non-invasive screening of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in children using a dipstick immunocapture assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodinová, M; Trefilová, E; Honzík, T; Tesařová, M; Zeman, J; Hansíková, H

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CIV) deficiency is among the most common childhood mitochondrial disorders. The diagnosis of this deficiency is complex, and muscle biopsy is used as the gold standard of diagnosis. Our aim was to minimize the patient burden and to test the use of a dipstick immunocapture assay (DIA) to determine the amount of CIV in non-invasively obtained buccal epithelial cells. Buccal smears were obtained from five children with Leigh syndrome including three children exhibiting a previously confirmed CIV deficiency in muscle and fibroblasts and two children who were clinical suspects for CIV deficiency; the smear samples were analysed using CI and CIV human protein quantity dipstick assay kits. Samples from five children of similar age and five adults were used as controls. Analysis of the controls demonstrated that only samples of buccal cells that were frozen for a maximum of 4 h after collection provide accurate results. All three patients with confirmed CIV deficiency due to mutations in the SURF1 gene exhibited significantly lower amounts of CIV than the similarly aged controls; significantly lower amounts were also observed in two new patients, for whom later molecular analysis also confirmed pathologic mutations in the SURF1 gene. We conclude that DIA is a simple, fast and sensitive method for the determination of CIV in buccal cells and is suitable for the screening of CIV deficiency in non-invasively obtained material from children who are suspected of having mitochondrial disease.

  2. Reactivity of dogs' brain oscillations to visual stimuli measured with non-invasive electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15-30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (~2-6 Hz suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication.

  3. Non-invasive diagnostic techniques in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warszawik-Hendzel, Olga; Olszewska, Małgorzata; Maj, Małgorzata; Rakowska, Adriana; Czuwara, Joanna; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2015-12-31

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cutaneous malignancy after basal cell carcinoma. Although the gold standard of diagnosis for squamous cell carcinoma is biopsy followed by histopathology evaluation, optical non-invasive diagnostic tools have obtained increased attention. Dermoscopy has become one of the basic diagnostic methods in clinical practice. The most common dermoscopic features of squamous cell carcinoma include clustered vascular pattern, glomerular vessels and hyperkeratosis. Under reflectance confocal microscopy, squamous cell carcinoma shows an atypical honeycomb or disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis, round nucleated bright cells in the epidermis and round vessels in the dermis. High frequency ultrasound and optical coherence tomography may be helpful in predominantly in pre-surgical evaluation of tumor size. Emerging non-invasive or minimal invasive techniques with possible application in the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, lip, oral mucosa, vulva or other tissues include high-definition optical coherence tomography, in vivo multiphoton tomography, direct oral microscopy, electrical impedance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, elastic scattering spectroscopy, differential path-length spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and angle-resolved low coherence interferometry.

  4. Diagnostic and prognostic utility of non-invasive imaging indiabetes management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Medical imaging technologies are acquiring an increasingrelevance to assist clinicians in diagnosis and to guidemanagement and therapeutic treatment of patients,thanks to their non invasive and high resolution properties.Computed tomography, magnetic resonanceimaging, and ultrasonography are the most usedimaging modalities to provide detailed morphologicalreconstructions of tissues and organs. In addition, theuse of contrast dyes or radionuclide-labeled tracerspermits to get functional and quantitative informationabout tissue physiology and metabolism in normal anddisease state. In recent years, the development ofmultimodal and hydrid imaging techniques is comingto be the new frontier of medical imaging for thepossibility to overcome limitations of single modalitiesand to obtain physiological and pathophysiologicalmeasurements within an accurate anatomical framework.Moreover, the employment of molecular probes,such as ligands or antibodies, allows a selective in vivotargeting of biomolecules involved in specific cellularprocesses, so expanding the potentialities of imagingtechniques for clinical and research applications. Thisreview is aimed to give a survey of characteristicsof main diagnostic non-invasive imaging techniques.Current clinical appliances and future perspectives ofimaging in the diagnostic and prognostic assessment ofdiabetic complications affecting different organ systemswill be particularly addressed.

  5. Fur: A non-invasive approach to monitor metal exposure in bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernout, Béatrice V; McClean, Colin J; Arnold, Kathryn E; Walls, Michael; Baxter, Malcolm; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel assessment of the use of fur as a non-invasive proxy to biomonitor metal contamination in insectivorous bats. Concentrations of metals (cadmium, copper, lead and zinc) were measured using ICP-MS in tissues (kidneys, liver, stomach and stomach content, bones and fur) obtained from 193 Pipistrellus pipistrellus/pygmaeus bats. The bats were collected across a gradient of metal pollution in England and Wales. The utility of small samples of fur as an indicator of metal exposure from the environment was demonstrated with strong relationships obtained between the concentrations of non-essential metals in fur with concentrations in stomach content, kidneys, liver and bones. Stronger relationships were observed for non-essential metals than for essential metals. Fur analyses might therefore be a useful non-invasive proxy for understanding recent, as well as long term and chronic, metal exposure of live animals. The use of fur may provide valuable information on the level of endogenous metal exposure and contamination of bat populations and communities.

  6. Non-invasive structural and biomechanical imaging of the developing embryos (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jitao; Wu, Chen; Raghunathan, Raksha; Larin, Kirill V.; Scarcelli, Giuliano

    2017-02-01

    Embryos undergo dramatic changes in size, shape, and mechanical properties during development, which is regulated by both genetic and environmental factors. Quantifying mechanical properties of different embryonic tissues may represent good metrics for the embryonic health and proper development. Alternations and structure coupled with biomechanical information may provide a way for early diagnosis and drug treatment of various congenital diseases. Many methods have been developed to determine the mechanical properties of the embryo, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultrasound elastography (UE), and optical coherent elastography (OCE). However, AFM is invasive and time-consuming. While UE and OCE are both non-invasive methods, the spatial resolutions are limited to mm to sub-mm, which is not enough to observe the details inside the embryo. Brillouin microscopy can potentially enable non-invasive measurement of the mechanical properties of a sample by measuring the spectra of acoustically induced light scattering therein. It has fast speed ( 0.1 second per point) and high resolution (sub-micron), and thus has been widely investigated for biomedical application, such as single cell and tissue. In this work, we utilized this technique to characterize the mechanical property of an embryo. A 2D elasticity imaging of the whole body of an E8 embryo was acquired by a Brillouin microscopy, and the stiffness changes between different organs (such as brain, heart, and spine) were shown. The elasticity maps were correlated with structural information provided by OCT.

  7. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  8. A non-invasive study of alopecia in Japanese macaques Macaca fuscata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng ZHANG

    2011-01-01

    This article provides information on the phenomenon of alopecia in Japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata, in various environments and proposes a 3-step scoring system for a quantitative assessment of hair loss. Results suggest that alopecia is commonly observed in Japanese macaques, with 20.5% of individuals showing head alopecia and 4.7% showing back alopecia across eight study groups. Alopecia was more commonly observed in adult females (30.8% individuals showing head alopecia and 15.3% showing back alopecia) than in other age-sex classes. Seasonal variation of back alopecia was noted, in particular, individuals with patchy back hair were more frequently observed in winter than in summer. Seasonal variation was not observed in head hair. The distribution of alopecia was also different among study groups. The wild population generally had better hair condition than provisioned populations and captive populations. The present study used a non-invasive alopecia scoring system which can be a useful, rapid and non-invasive tool to monitor animal health and well-being at a population level.

  9. Robust, non-invasive methods for metering groundwater well extraction in remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulovic, Nevenka; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying the rate of extraction from groundwater wells can be essential for regional scale groundwater management and impact assessment. This is especially the case in regions heavily dependent on groundwater such as the semi-arid Surat and Bowen Basins in Queensland, Australia. Of the 30 000+ groundwater wells in this area, the majority of which are used for stock watering and domestic purposes, almost none have flow metering devices installed. As part of a research project to estimate regional groundwater extraction, we have undertaken a small scale flow metering program on a selected set of wells. Conventional in-line flow meters were unsuitable for our project, as both non-invasiveness and adaptability / suitability to a variety of discharge pipe characteristics was critical. We describe the use of two metering technologies not widely used in groundwater applications, non-invasive, clamp-on ultrasonic transit time flow meters and tipping bucket flow meters, as semi-permanent installations on discharge pipes of various artesian and sub-artesian groundwater wells. We present examples of detailed extraction rate time-series, which are of particular value in developing predictive models of water well extraction in data limited areas where water use dynamics and drivers are poorly understood. We conclude by discussing future project trajectories, which include expansion of the monitoring network through development of novel metering techniques and telemetry across large areas of poor connectivity.

  10. Non-invasive tissue temperature measurements based on quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, S H [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Cerussi, A E; Tromberg, B J [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, 1002 Health Sciences Road, Irvine 92612, CA (United States); Merritt, S I [Masimo Corporation, 40 Parker, Irvine, CA 92618 (United States); Ruth, J, E-mail: bjtrombe@uci.ed [Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 210 S. 33rd Street, Room 240, Skirkanich Hall, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2010-07-07

    We describe the development of a non-invasive method for quantitative tissue temperature measurements using Broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS). Our approach is based on well-characterized opposing shifts in near-infrared (NIR) water absorption spectra that appear with temperature and macromolecular binding state. Unlike conventional reflectance methods, DOS is used to generate scattering-corrected tissue water absorption spectra. This allows us to separate the macromolecular bound water contribution from the thermally induced spectral shift using the temperature isosbestic point at 996 nm. The method was validated in intralipid tissue phantoms by correlating DOS with thermistor measurements (R = 0.96) with a difference of 1.1 {+-} 0.91 {sup 0}C over a range of 28-48 {sup 0}C. Once validated, thermal and hemodynamic (i.e. oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration) changes were measured simultaneously and continuously in human subjects (forearm) during mild cold stress. DOS-measured arm temperatures were consistent with previously reported invasive deep tissue temperature studies. These results suggest that DOS can be used for non-invasive, co-registered measurements of absolute temperature and hemoglobin parameters in thick tissues, a potentially important approach for optimizing thermal diagnostics and therapeutics.

  11. The non-invasive documentation of coronary microcirculation impairment: role of transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galderisi Maurizio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transthoracic Doppler echocardiographic-derived coronary flow reserve is an useful hemodynamic index to assess dysfunction of coronary microcirculation. Isolated coronary microvascular abnormalities are overt by reduced coronary flow reserve despite normal epicardial coronary arteries. These abnormalities may occur in several diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, syndrome X, aortic valve disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. The prognostic role of impaired microvascular coronary flow reserve has been shown unfavourable especially in hypertrophic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies. Coronary flow reserve reduction may be reversible, for instance after regression of left ventricular hypertrophy subsequent to valve replacement in patients with aortic stenosis, after anti-hypertensive treatment or using cholesterol lowering drugs. Coronary flow reserve may increase by 30% or more after pharmacological therapy and achieve normal level >3.0. In contrast to other non invasive tools as positron emission tomography, very expensive and associated with radiation exposure, transthoracic Doppler-derived coronary flow reserve is equally non invasive but cheaper, very accessible and prone to a reliable exploration of coronary microvascular territories, otherwise not detectable by invasive coronary angiography, able to visualize only large epicardial arteries.

  12. High-precision, non-invasive anti-microvascular approach via concurrent ultrasound and laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zizhong; Zhang, Haonan; Mordovanakis, Aghapi; Paulus, Yannis M.; Liu, Qinghuai; Wang, Xueding; Yang, Xinmai

    2017-01-01

    Antivascular therapy represents a proven strategy to treat angiogenesis. By applying synchronized ultrasound bursts and nanosecond laser irradiation, we developed a novel, selective, non-invasive, localized antivascular method, termed photo-mediated ultrasound therapy (PUT). PUT takes advantage of the high native optical contrast among biological tissues and can treat microvessels without causing collateral damage to the surrounding tissue. In a chicken yolk sac membrane model, under the same ultrasound parameters (1 MHz at 0.45 MPa and 10 Hz with 10% duty cycle), PUT with 4 mJ/cm2 and 6 mJ/cm2 laser fluence induced 51% (p = 0.001) and 37% (p = 0.018) vessel diameter reductions respectively. With 8 mJ/cm2 laser fluence, PUT would yield vessel disruption (90%, p cavitation may play a role in PUT. In conclusion, PUT holds significant promise as a novel non-invasive antivascular method with the capability to precisely target blood vessels.

  13. Updated scar management practical guidelines: non-invasive and invasive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monstrey, Stan; Middelkoop, Esther; Vranckx, Jan Jeroen; Bassetto, Franco; Ziegler, Ulrich E; Meaume, Sylvie; Téot, Luc

    2014-08-01

    Hypertrophic scars and keloids can be aesthetically displeasing and lead to severe psychosocial impairment. Many invasive and non-invasive options are available for the plastic (and any other) surgeon both to prevent and to treat abnormal scar formation. Recently, an updated set of practical evidence-based guidelines for the management of hypertrophic scars and keloids was developed by an international group of 24 experts from a wide range of specialities. An initial set of strategies to minimize the risk of scar formation is applicable to all types of scars and is indicated before, during and immediately after surgery. In addition to optimal surgical management, this includes measures to reduce skin tension, and to provide taping, hydration and ultraviolet (UV) protection of the early scar tissue. Silicone sheeting or gel is universally considered as the first-line prophylactic and treatment option for hypertrophic scars and keloids. The efficacy and safety of this gold-standard, non-invasive therapy has been demonstrated in many clinical studies. Other (more specialized) scar treatment options are available for high-risk patients and/or scars. Pressure garments may be indicated for more widespread scarring, especially after burns. At a later stage, more invasive or surgical procedures may be necessary for the correction of permanent unaesthetic scars and can be combined with adjuvant measures to achieve optimal outcomes. The choice of scar management measures for a particular patient should be based on the newly updated evidence-based recommendations taking individual patient and wound characteristics into consideration.

  14. Breath Analysis as a Potential and Non-Invasive Frontier in Disease Diagnosis: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a small number of diseases, particularly cardiovascular (CVDs, oncologic (ODs, neurodegenerative (NDDs, chronic respiratory diseases, as well as diabetes, form a severe burden to most of the countries worldwide. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of efficient diagnostic tools, particularly those enabling reliable detection of diseases, at their early stages, preferably using non-invasive approaches. Breath analysis is a non-invasive approach relying only on the characterisation of volatile composition of the exhaled breath (EB that in turn reflects the volatile composition of the bloodstream and airways and therefore the status and condition of the whole organism metabolism. Advanced sampling procedures (solid-phase and needle traps microextraction coupled with modern analytical technologies (proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry, e-noses, etc. allow the characterisation of EB composition to an unprecedented level. However, a key challenge in EB analysis is the proper statistical analysis and interpretation of the large and heterogeneous datasets obtained from EB research. There is no standard statistical framework/protocol yet available in literature that can be used for EB data analysis towards discovery of biomarkers for use in a typical clinical setup. Nevertheless, EB analysis has immense potential towards development of biomarkers for the early disease diagnosis of diseases.

  15. Differences in cap formation between invasive Entamoeba histolytica and non-invasive Entamoeba dispar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Talamás-Rohana, Patricia; Castañón, Guadalupe; Salazar-Villatoro, Lizbeth; Hernández-Ramírez, Verónica; Martínez-Palomo, Adolfo

    2012-07-01

    The rapid redistribution of surface antigen-antibody complexes in trophozoites of the human protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, in a process known as capping, has been considered as a means of the parasite to evade the host immune response. So far, capping has been documented in the invasive E. histolytica, whereas the mobility of surface components in the non-invasive Entamoeba dispar is not known. E. dispar does not induce liver lesions in rodent experimental models, in contrast to the liver abscesses produced by E. histolytica in the same animal model. We have therefore analyzed the mobility of surface receptors to the lectin concanavalin A and of Rab11, a membrane-associated protein, in both species of Entamoebae by confocal fluorescence microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The great majority of E. histolytica trophozoites became morphologically polarized through the formation of well-defined caps at the posterior pole of the parasite. Actin colocalized with the lectin caps. Antibodies against the membrane protein Rab 11 also produced capping. In striking contrast, in E. dispar, the mobility of concanavalin A surface receptors was restricted to the formation of irregular surface patches that did no progress to constitute well-defined caps. Also, anti-Rab 11 antibodies did not result in capping in E. dispar. Whether the failure of E. dispar to efficiently mobilize surface molecules in response to lectin or antibodies as shown in the present results is related to its non-invasive character represents an interesting hypothesis requiring further analysis.

  16. Limitations of stroke volume estimation by non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in hypergravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manen

    Full Text Available Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp in hypergravity.Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe before and after the centrifuge runs.The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001. The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement -20.5 and +38.3 ml.Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring.

  17. A Non-invasive Prenatal Diagnosis Method: Free Fetal DNA in Maternal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Dundar Yenilmez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis for genetic diseases nowadays is still carried out by invasive procedures such as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis or cordocentesis. These techniques, however, accompanied with risk of fetal losses. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis tests based on the analysis of fetal DNA in maternal plasma have potential to be a safer alternative to invasive methods. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis has been a long-standing research theme in prenatal medicine. The discovery of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in maternal plasma in 1997 has opened new possibilities for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The measurement and detection of fetal DNA in maternal plasma and serum has led to clinical applications for the identification of fetal aneuploidies, pre-eclamptic pregnancies, noninvasive diagnosis of fetal Rhesus D genotype and some single gene disorders. The detection of fetal DNA sequences is a reality and could reduce the risk of invasive techniques for certain fetal disorders in the near future. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2013; 22(3.000: 317-334

  18. Non-Invasive Glucose Measurement by Use of Metabolic Heat Conformation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohao; Wang, Dongsheng; Li, Junfeng

    2008-05-21

    A non-invasive glucose measurement system based on the method of metabolic heat conformation (MHC) is presented in this paper. This system consists of three temperature sensors, two humidity sensors, an infrared sensor and an optical measurement device. The glucose level can be deduced from the quantity of heat dissipation, blood flow rate of local tissue and degree of blood oxygen saturation. The methodology of the data process and the measurement error are also analyzed. The system is applied in a primary clinical test. Compared with the results of a commercial automated chemistry analyzer, the correlation coefficient of the collected data from the system is 0.856. Result shows that the correlation coefficient improves when the factor of heat dissipated by evaporation of the skin is added in. A non-invasive method of measuring the blood flow rate of local tissue by heat transmission between skin and contacted conductor is also introduced. Theoretical derivation and numerical simulation are completed as well. The so-called normalized difference mean (NDM) is chosen to express the quantity of the blood flow rate. The correlation coefficient between the blood flow rates by this method and the results of a Doppler blood flow meter is equal to 0.914.

  19. Effect of a musical intervention on tolerance and efficacy of non-invasive ventilation in the ICU: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MUSique pour l’Insuffisance Respiratoire Aigue - Mus-IRA)

    OpenAIRE

    Messika, Jonathan; Hajage, David; Panneckoucke, Nataly; Villard, Serge; Martin, Yolaine; Renard, Emilie; Blivet, Annie; Reignier, Jean; Maquigneau, Natacha; Stoclin, Annabelle; Puechberty, Christelle; Guétin, Stéphane; Dechanet, Aline; Fauquembergue, Amandine; Gaudry, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) tolerance is a key factor of NIV success. Hence, numerous sedative pharmacological or non-pharmacological strategies have been assessed to improve NIV tolerance. Music therapy in various health care settings has shown beneficial effects. In invasively ventilated critical care patients, encouraging results of music therapy on physiological parameters, anxiety, and agitation have been reported. We hypothesize that a musical intervention improves NIV tol...

  20. The Determination of the Relationship between Academic Achievement in Nursing Courses and Success on the Registered Nurse Licensure Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millican, Julie E.

    The objective of a study was to determine if academic achievement in nursing courses could be used to predict success on the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN). It investigated the relationship between NCLEX outcomes and academic achievement in theory and clinical courses and the relationship between NCLEX…

  1. Predicting Success: A Study of Admission Processes and Passing the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaab, Kathryn R.

    2013-01-01

    In order to practice physical therapy, physical therapist assistants (PTAs) must graduate from an accredited academic program and pass the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (PTA-NPTE). The primary objective of academic programs is to prepare students to successfully complete these two milestones to become…

  2. A feasible method for non-invasive measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance in pulmonary arterial hypertension: Combined use of transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance. Non-invasive estimation of pulmonary vascular resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chaowu; Xu, Zhongying; Jin, Jinglin; Lv, Jianhua; Liu, Qiong; Zhu, Zhenhui; Pang, Kunjing; Shi, Yisheng; Fang, Wei; Wang, Yang

    2015-12-07

    Transthoracic Doppler-echocardiography (TTE) can estimate mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) reliably, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is the best modality for non-invasive measurement of cardiac output (CO). We speculated that the combined use of TTE and CMR could provide a feasible method for non-invasive measurement of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Right heart catheterization (RHC) was undertaken in 77 patients (17M/60F) with PAH, and simultaneous TTE was carried out to evaluate MPAP, PCWP and CO. Within 2 days, CO was measured again with CMR in similar physiological status. Then, PVR was calculated with the integrated non-invasive method: TTE-derived (MPAP-PCWP)/CMR-derived CO and the isolated TTE method: TTE-derived (MPAP-PCWP)/TTE-derived CO, respectively. The PVR calculated with integrated non-invasive method correlated well with RHC-calculated PVR (r = 0.931, 95% confidence interval 0.893 to 0.956). Between the integrated non-invasive PVR and RHC-calculated PVR, the Bland-Altman analysis showed the satisfactory limits of agreement (mean value: - 0.89 ± 2.59). In comparison, the limits of agreement were less satisfactory between TTE-calculated PVR and RHC-calculated PVR (mean value: - 1.80 ± 3.33). Furthermore, there were excellent intra- and inter-observer correlations for the measurements of TTE and CMR (P measurement of PVR is very important in clinical practice. Up to now, however, the widely accepted non-invasive method is still unavailable. Since TTE can estimate (MPAP-PCWP) reliably and CMR is the best image modality for the measurement of CO, the combined use of two modalities has the potential to determine PVR non-invasively. In this research, the integrated non-invasive method showed good diagnostic accuracy and repeatability compared with RHC. Therefore, it might be a feasible method for non-invasive measurement of PVR in patients

  3. Community College Nursing Student Success on Professional Qualifying Examinations from Admission to Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Lenora; Sandiford, Janice

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate variables associated with learning and performance as measured by the National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN), (2) to validate the predictive value of the Assessment Technologies Institute (ATI) achievement exit exam, and (3) to provide a model that could…

  4. Determining a Model to Predict Hispanic Preservice Teachers' Success on the Texas Examination of Educator Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhidong; Telese, James

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we report the regression relations between preservice teachers' academic characteristics and their performance on the Texas Examination of Educator Standards. These academic characteristics include grade point average, reading ability, and critical thinking. The studies indicate that the critical thinking was the best predictor…

  5. Transformational Christian College and University Presidents: An Examination of Fundraising Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Keith O.

    2016-01-01

    The nature of presidential leadership styles at Christian higher education institutions was examined through the lens of fundraising. There has been a growing understanding that college and university presidents are being called on to play a more significant role in the leadership of their institutions, particularly in light of the fiscal…

  6. Achieving the Dream: An Examination of Success Factors with a Focus on Cultural Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Cathy D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the change process to enhance student persistence and graduation rates in four North Carolina community colleges. Using a qualitative research methodology, Lewin's change model is presented as a framework to investigate the acceptance and implementation of AtD principles in two community colleges. Processes to enhance student…

  7. A Culture of Success--Examining School Culture and Student Outcomes via a Performance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, Matthew; Swanson, Anne; Adams-Manning, Andrea; Byrd, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This study is a report of the relationship between a collaborative school culture, teacher quality and the influence these variables have upon student attendance and suspensions. The research is based upon data gathered from 50 public schools throughout the southeastern United States. Surveys were administered to examine teacher quality…

  8. Non-invasive genetic sampling of the Eurasian Otter (Lutra lutra using hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Anderson

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract
    The material for the genetic characterisation of wild Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra has previously been derived from carcasses and spraints. Hair samples however have proved to be a much more reliable source of DNA than spraints, and offer the opportunity of sampling the living population non-invasively. Until now there has been no research into methods of sampling hairs from wild otters or on the DNA extraction efficiency from these hairs. A hair trap was therefore developed and tested on otters in captivity. The success rate of the trap was 0.71 samples collected per trap night. The suitability of genetic analysis from otter hairs was examined using paired samples of hair and tissue taken from 15 individual otters recovered from road mortalities. DNA was extracted from the tissue samples using a Proteinase K digestion in a PCR compatible buffer. This process had a 100% success rate. Individual root hair segments were treated by Chelex Ionic bead resin treatment and Proteinase K digestion in a PCR compatible buffer. The Chelex method gave a 55% amplification success rate while the Proteinase K method gave a much higher amplification success rate of 87%. The DNA extracts were typed for 9 microsatellites using the latest versions of the primers. Proportions of allelic dropout and false allele detection associated with hair DNA extracts were estimated by comparing the genotypes of hair extracts with the genotypes from tissue. Preliminary attempts to develop a ZFX/Y assay to sex otters identified polymorphisms between ZFX and ZFY sequences, but typing based on restriction digests requires further optimisation. The use of recovered DNA from hair offers a step forward in the study of Eurasian otter populations as its continuing endangered status in many countries creates legal and ethical constraints on capturing animals for marking or radio tracking.
    Riassunto
    Campionamento genetico non-invasivo della Lontra (

  9. High-flow nasal cannula therapy versus non-invasive ventilation in children with severe acute asthma exacerbation: An observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilar, J; Modesto I Alapont, V; Lopez-Fernandez, Y M; Lopez-Macias, O; Garcia-Urabayen, D; Amores-Hernandez, I

    2017-10-01

    The present study describes our experience with the high-flow humidified nasal cannula (HFNC) versus non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in children with severe acute asthma exacerbation (SA). An observational study of a retrospective cohort of 42 children with SA admitted to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) for non-invasive respiratory support was made. The primary outcome measure was failure of initial respiratory support (need to escalate from HFNC to NIV or from NIV to invasive ventilation). Secondary outcome measures were the duration of respiratory support and PICU length of stay (LOS). Forty-two children met the inclusion criteria. Twenty (47.6%) received HFNC and 22 (52.3%) NIV as initial respiratory support. There were no treatment failures in the NIV group. However, 8 children (40%) in the HFNC group required escalation to NIV. The PICU LOS was similar in both the NIV and HFNC groups. However, on considering the HFNC failure subgroup, the median length of respiratory support was 3-fold longer (63h) and the PICU LOS was also longer compared with the rest of subjects exhibiting treatment success. Despite its obvious limitations, this observational study could suggest that HFNC in some subjects with SA may delay NIV support and potentially cause longer respiratory support, and longer PICU LOS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  10. Limitations of split-night polysomnography for the diagnosis of nocturnal hypoventilation and titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Andrea H S; Korngut, Lawrence; Rimmer, Karen; Damji, Omar; Turin, Tanvir C; Hanly, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Split-night polysomnography is performed at our centre in all patients with ALS who require assessment for nocturnal hypoventilation and their response to non-invasive ventilation. The purpose of this study was to determine how successful this practice has been, reflected by whether a complete assessment was achieved by a single split-night polysomnogram. We undertook a systematic, retrospective review of all consecutive split-night polysomnograms in ALS patients between 2005 and 2012. A total of 47 cases were reviewed. Forty-three percent of patients had an incomplete test, resulting in a recommendation to repeat the polysomnogram. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep in the diagnostic portion of the study were strongly associated with incomplete studies. Clinical variables that reflect severity of ALS (FVC, PaCO2, ALSFRS-R) and use of REM-suppressing antidepressants or sedative-hypnotics were not associated with incomplete split-night polysomnogram. In conclusion, a single, split-night polysomnogram is frequently inconclusive for the assessment of nocturnal hypoventilation and complete titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with ALS. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep are the main limitations of split-night polysomnography in this patient population.

  11. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Zanarivero Gardiner

    Full Text Available Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  12. A face in the crowd: a non-invasive and cost effective photo-identification methodology to understand the fine scale movement of eastern water dragons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Riana Zanarivero; Doran, Erik; Strickland, Kasha; Carpenter-Bundhoo, Luke; Frère, Celine

    2014-01-01

    Ectothermic vertebrates face many challenges of thermoregulation. Many species rely on behavioral thermoregulation and move within their landscape to maintain homeostasis. Understanding the fine-scale nature of this regulation through tracking techniques can provide a better understanding of the relationships between such species and their dynamic environments. The use of animal tracking and telemetry technology has allowed the extensive collection of such data which has enabled us to better understand the ways animals move within their landscape. However, such technologies do not come without certain costs: they are generally invasive, relatively expensive, can be too heavy for small sized animals and unreliable in certain habitats. This study provides a cost-effective and non-invasive method through photo-identification, to determine fine scale movements of individuals. With our methodology, we have been able to find that male eastern water dragons (Intellagama leuseurii) have home ranges one and a half times larger than those of females. Furthermore, we found intraspecific differences in the size of home ranges depending on the time of the day. Lastly, we found that location mostly influenced females' home ranges, but not males and discuss why this may be so. Overall, we provide valuable information regarding the ecology of the eastern water dragon, but most importantly demonstrate that non-invasive photo-identification can be successfully applied to the study of reptiles.

  13. Performance Anxiety and Academic Success Level Examination of Students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sena GÜRŞEN OTACIOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this scope, “performance anxiety” grades of students being educated in music education branches, conservatories and fine arts were assessed in respect to different variables (n=306. Research was carried out in order to reveal how relations of performance anxiety and academic success levels of students receiving professional music education in different universities could differ among variables. “Kenny Music Performance anxiety” inventory developed by Kenny (2004 and adopted to Turkish in order to measure “music performance anxiety level” were used in study. Research data, frequency percentage (% of variables (f and (ss values given for M.P.A inventory, “one-way analysis of variance”, independent (unrelated group t-test, M.W.U and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used. At the end of the research it was determined that there was negative relation between “musical performance anxiety” and “academic success” levels.

  14. Building successful student-athlete coach relationships: examining coaching practices and commitment to the coach

    OpenAIRE

    Rezania, Davar; Gurney, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In this study we utilized the concept of commitment to explain the impact of coaching practices on student-athlete’s behaviour. We examined the impact of commitment to the coach on the coaching outcome of in-role behaviour, and the influence of coaching practices, of information sharing, training, and encouraging teamwork, on the formation of relationships. We adopted measures from the organizational behaviour literature and surveyed student-athletes at two universities in Canada. The sample ...

  15. For your interest? The ethical acceptability of using non-invasive prenatal testing to test 'purely for information'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana; Clarke, Angus J; Newson, Ainsley J

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) is an emerging form of prenatal genetic testing that provides information about the genetic constitution of a foetus without the risk of pregnancy loss as a direct result of the test procedure. As with other prenatal tests, information from NIPT can help to make a decision about termination of pregnancy, plan contingencies for birth or prepare parents to raise a child with a genetic condition. NIPT can also be used by women and couples to test purely 'for information'. Here, no particular action is envisaged following the test; it is motivated entirely by an interest in the result. The fact that NIPT can be performed without posing a risk to the pregnancy could give rise to an increase in such requests. In this paper, we examine the ethical aspects of using NIPT 'purely for information', including the competing interests of the prospective parents and the future child, and the acceptability of testing for 'frivolous' reasons. Drawing on several clinical scenarios, we claim that arguments about testing children for genetic conditions are relevant to this debate. In addition, we raise ethical concerns over the potential for objectification of the child. We conclude that, in most cases, using NIPT to test for adult-onset conditions, carrier status or non-serious traits presenting in childhood would be unacceptable.

  16. Quantification of respiratory depression during pre-operative administration of midazolam using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Castro, Luis N.; Mehta, Jaideep H.; Brayanov, Jordan B.; Mullen, Gary J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pre-operative administration of benzodiazepines can cause hypoventilation—a decrease in minute ventilation (MV)—commonly referred to as “respiratory compromise or respiratory depression.” Respiratory depression can lead to hypercarbia and / or hypoxemia, and may heighten the risk of other respiratory complications. Current anesthesia practice often places patients at risk for respiratory complications even before surgery, as respiratory monitoring is generally postponed until the patient is in the operating room. In the present study we examined and quantified the onset of respiratory depression following the administration of a single dose of midazolam in pre-operative patients, using a non-invasive respiratory volume monitor that reports MV, tidal volume (TV), and respiratory rate (RR). Methods Impedance-based Respiratory Volume Monitor (RVM) data were collected and analyzed from 30 patients prior to undergoing orthopedic or general surgical procedures. All patients received 2.0 mg of midazolam intravenously at least 20 minutes prior to the induction of anesthesia and the effects of midazolam on the patient's respiratory function were analyzed. Results Within 15 minutes of midazolam administration, we noted a significant decrease in both MV (average decrease of 14.3% ± 5.9%, pbenzodiazepines affect primarily TV rather than RR. Such respiratory monitoring data provide the opportunity for individualizing dosing and adjustment of clinical interventions, especially important in elderly patients. With additional respiratory data, clinicians may be able to better identify and quantify respiratory depression, reduce adverse effects, and improve overall patient safety. PMID:28235069

  17. Structured telephone support or non-invasive telemonitoring for patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, Sally C; Clark, Robyn A; Dierckx, Riet; Prieto-Merino, David; Cleland, John G F

    2015-10-31

    Specialised disease management programmes for heart failure aim to improve care, clinical outcomes and/or reduce healthcare utilisation. Since the last version of this review in 2010, several new trials of structured telephone support and non-invasive home telemonitoring have been published which have raised questions about their effectiveness. To review randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of structured telephone support or non-invasive home telemonitoring compared to standard practice for people with heart failure, in order to quantify the effects of these interventions over and above usual care. We updated the searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology AsseFssment Database (HTA) on the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (OVID), EMBASE (OVID), CINAHL (EBSCO), Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (CPCI-S) on Web of Science (Thomson Reuters), AMED, Proquest Theses and Dissertations, IEEE Xplore and TROVE in January 2015. We handsearched bibliographies of relevant studies and systematic reviews and abstract conference proceedings. We applied no language limits. We included only peer-reviewed, published RCTs comparing structured telephone support or non-invasive home telemonitoring to usual care of people with chronic heart failure. The intervention or usual care could not include protocol-driven home visits or more intensive than usual (typically four to six weeks) clinic follow-up. We present data as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, all-cause and heart failure-related hospitalisations, which we analysed using a fixed-effect model. Other outcomes included length of stay, health-related quality of life, heart failure knowledge and self care, acceptability and cost; we described and tabulated these. We performed meta-regression to assess homogeneity (the

  18. Quantitative whole body biodistribution of fluorescent-labeled agents by non-invasive tomographic imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine O Vasquez

    Full Text Available When small molecules or proteins are injected into live animals, their physical and chemical properties will significantly affect pharmacokinetics, tissue penetration, and the ultimate routes of metabolism and clearance. Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT offers the ability to non-invasively image and quantify temporal changes in fluorescence throughout the major organ systems of living animals, in a manner analogous to traditional approaches with radiolabeled agents. This approach is best used with biotherapeutics (therapeutic antibodies, or other large proteins or large-scaffold drug-delivery vectors, that are minimally affected by low-level fluorophore conjugation. Application to small molecule drugs should take into account the significant impact of fluorophore labeling on size and physicochemical properties, however, the presents studies show that this technique is readily applied to small molecule agents developed for far-red (FR or near infrared (NIR imaging. Quantification by non-invasive FMT correlated well with both fluorescence from tissue homogenates as well as with planar (2D fluorescence reflectance imaging of excised intact organs (r²  =  0.996 and 0.969, respectively. Dynamic FMT imaging (multiple times from 0 to 24 h performed in live mice after the injection of four different FR/NIR-labeled agents, including immunoglobulin, 20-50 nm nanoparticles, a large vascular imaging agent, and a small molecule integrin antagonist, showed clear differences in the percentage of injected dose per gram of tissue (%ID/g in liver, kidney, and bladder signal. Nanoparticles and IgG1 favored liver over kidney signal, the small molecule integrin-binding agent favored rapid kidney and bladder clearance, and the vascular agent, showed both liver and kidney clearance. Further assessment of the volume of distribution of these agents by fluorescent volume added information regarding their biodistribution and highlighted the relatively poor

  19. Non-invasive evaluation of physiological stress in an iconic Australian marsupial: the Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Edward J; Webster, Koa; Nicolson, Vere; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-06-15

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are the only extant representatives of Australia's unique marsupial family Phascolarctidae and were listed as nationally Vulnerable in 2012. Causes of mortality are diverse, although the disease chlamydiosis, dog attacks, collisions with cars, and loss of habitat represent the principal reasons for the continued species decline. Koala breeding facilities in Queensland and New South Wales, Australia have been established for conservation and tourism. Non-invasive monitoring of physiological stress is important for determining the sub-lethal effects of environmental stressors on the well-being, reproduction and survival of Koalas in Zoos and also in the wild. In this study, we developed a faecal cortisol metabolite (FCM) enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) for monitoring physiological stress in Koalas from two established Zoos in Australia and also within a free-living sub-population from Queensland. Biological validation of the FCM EIA was done using an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge. We discovered excretory lag-times of FCM of 24 h in females (n=2) and 48 h in male (n=2) Koalas in response to the ACTH challenge. FCM levels showed an episodic and delayed peak response lasting up to 9 days post ACTH challenge. This finding should be taken into consideration when designing future experiments to study the impacts of short-term (acute) and chronic stressors on the Koalas. Laboratory validations were done using parallelism and recovery checks (extraction efficiency) of the cortisol standard against pooled Koala faecal extracts. Greater than 99% recovery of the cortisol standard was obtained as well as a parallel displacement curve against Koala faecal extracts. FCM levels of the captive Koalas (n=10 males and 13 females) significantly differed by sex, reproductive condition (lactating versus non-lactating Koalas) and the handling groups. Handled male Koalas had 200% higher FCM levels than their non-handled counterparts, while females

  20. Non-invasive measurements of exhaled NO and CO associated with methacholine responses in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameredes Bill T

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO in exhaled breath are considered obtainable biomarkers of physiologic mechanisms. Therefore, obtaining their measures simply, non-invasively, and repeatedly, is of interest, and was the purpose of the current study. Methods Expired NO (ENO and CO (ECO were measured non-invasively using a gas micro-analyzer on several strains of mice (C57Bl6, IL-10-/-, A/J, MKK3-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/- and NOS-3-/- with and without allergic airway inflammation (AI induced by ovalbumin systemic sensitization and aerosol challenge, compared using independent-sample t-tests between groups, and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA within groups over time of inflammation induction. ENO and ECO were also measured in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, ages 8–58 weeks old, the relationship of which was determined by regression analysis. S-methionyl-L-thiocitrulline (SMTC, and tin protoporphyrin (SnPP were used to inhibit neuronal/constitutive NOS-1 and heme-oxygenase, respectively, and alter NO and CO production, respectively, as assessed by paired t-tests. Methacholine-associated airway responses (AR were measured by the enhanced pause method, with comparisons by repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc testing. Results ENO was significantly elevated in naïve IL-10-/- (9–14 ppb and NOS-2-/- (16 ppb mice as compared to others (average: 5–8 ppb, whereas ECO was significantly higher in naïve A/J, NOS-3-/- (3–4 ppm, and MKK3-/- (4–5 ppm mice, as compared to others (average: 2.5 ppm. As compared to C57Bl6 mice, AR of IL-10-/-, JNK1-/-, NOS-2-/-, and NOS-3-/- mice were decreased, whereas they were greater for A/J and MKK3-/- mice. SMTC significantly decreased ENO by ~30%, but did not change AR in NOS-2-/- mice. SnPP reduced ECO in C57Bl6 and IL-10-/- mice, and increased AR in NOS-2-/- mice. ENO decreased as a function of age in IL-10-/- mice, remaining unchanged in C57Bl6 mice. Conclusion These results are

  1. Cognitive and learning styles as predictors of success on the National Board Dental Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar-Horenstein, L S; Garvan, Cynthia W; Bowman, B J; Bulosan, M; Hancock, S; Johnson, M; Mutlu, B

    2011-04-01

    Using a deidentified retrospective dataset of three cohorts of matriculated dental students, we measured the degree to which selected student attributes, the Learning Type Measure, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Dental Admission Test subtests scores predicted passage on the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. Gender, Myers-Briggs Type Indicators, and the Dental Admission Test subtests for academic average and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I. Gender, a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (thinking over feeling), and the Dental Admission Test subtests on reading and biology were found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part II. The Learning Type Measure was not found to be predictive of passing the NBDE Part I or Part II. This study holds implications for heightening faculty members' awareness of students' aptitude and cognitive attributes, for teaching, and for the admissions process.

  2. Fluid Vessel Quantity Using Non-invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Anthony A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  3. Non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis by FibroScan imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chunyan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver fibrosis is a common etiology of chronic liver diseases. Treatment in the early stage, by anti-inflammatories or other drugs targeting the specific fibrosis-promoting factor/pathogen, can reverse the liver fibrosis; treatments in the later stages can effectively reduce the extent of fibrosis. Therefore, sensitive and accurate methods to predict and/or diagnose liver fibrosis are crucial for identifying the condition at the earliest possible stage to initiate timely therapy and inhibit disease progression. Liver biopsy is currently the gold standard for diagnosing and staging fibrosis. However, the procedure is invasive and presents surgery-related risks, such as infection and bleeding. The FibroScan imaging system represents a new, non-invasive approach to diagnose and stage liver fibrosis. This review discusses the FibroScan technology and its clinical application and efficacy.

  4. Non-invasive Measurement of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    approach. Pressure gradients are calculated from the measured velocity fields using the Navier-Stokes equation. Velocity fields are measured during constant and pulsating flow on a carotid bifurcation phantom and on a common carotid artery in-vivo. Scanning is performed with a 5 MHz BK8670 linear......This paper demonstrates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The proposed method relies on vector velocity fields acquired from ultrasound data. 2-D flow data are acquired at 18-23 frames/sec using the Transverse Oscillation...... transducer using a BK Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The calculated pressure gradients are validated through a finite element simulation of the constant flow model. The geometry of the flow simulation model is reproduced using MRI data, thereby providing identical flow domains in measurement...

  5. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, AJ; Antal, A; Bikson, M; Boggio, PS; Brunoni, AR; Celnik, P; Cohen, LG; Fregni, F; Herrmann, CS; Kappenman, ES; Knotkova, H; Liebetanz, D; Miniussi, C; Miranda, PC; Paulus, W; Priori, A; Reato, D; Stagg, C; Wenderoth, N; Nitsche, MA

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), including transcranial direct and alternating current stimulation (tDCS, tACS) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques increasingly used for modulation of central nervous system excitability in humans. Here we address methodological issues required for tES application. This review covers technical aspects of tES, as well as applications like exploration of brain physiology, modelling approaches, tES in cognitive neurosciences, and interventional approaches. It aims to help the reader to appropriately design and conduct studies involving these brain stimulation techniques, understand limitations and avoid shortcomings, which might hamper the scientific rigor and potential applications in the clinical domain. PMID:26652115

  6. Contemporary artists' spinel pigments: Non-invasive characterization by means of electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Eva Mariasole; Bacci, Mauro; Bartolozzi, Giovanni; Cantisani, Emma; Picollo, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    The identification of artistic materials represents a fundamental step in supporting the conservation of cultural heritage objects. The importance of their appropriate characterization is particularly relevant in modern-contemporary art, since they could be affected by the occurrence of rapid changes in chemical formulation over time. This paper focuses on an investigation of a series of contemporary blue-green commercial acrylic paints constituted of spinel pigments, using non-invasive spectroscopic techniques. The spectroscopic and color measurements obtained make it possible to characterize the acrylic paints under investigation and to compare the results obtained with those reported in the literature and in spectral databases. To be more precise, the proposed UV-vis-NIR reflectance spectroscopic technique was sensitive enough to characterize the acrylic paints according to their d-d ligand field and the charge transfer (CT) electronic transitions involved in the spinel structures. In addition, an overview of this class of inorganic pigments is also given.

  7. Non-invasive classification of microcalcifications with phase-contrast X-ray mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhentian; Hauser, Nik; Singer, Gad; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Schneider, Christof W.; Stampanoni, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Microcalcifications can be indicative in the diagnosis of early breast cancer. Here we report a non-invasive diagnostic method that may potentially distinguish between different types of microcalcifications using X-ray phase-contrast imaging. Our approach exploits the complementary nature of the absorption and small-angle scattering signals of microcalcifications, obtained simultaneously with an X-ray grating interferometer on a conventional X-ray tube. We demonstrate that the new approach has 100% sensitivity and specificity when applied to phantom data, and we provide evidence of the solidity of the technique by showing its discrimination power when applied to fixed biopsies, to non-fixed tissue specimens and to fresh, whole-breast samples. The proposed method might be further developed to improve early breast cancer diagnosis and has the potential to increase the diagnostic accuracy and reduce the number of uncomfortable breast biopsies, or, in case of widespread microcalcifications, to select the biopsy site before intervention.

  8. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention......: To assess the benefits and harms of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care (e.g. bronchodilators and corticosteroids) in children with acute asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through...... both studies as having high risk of bias; both trials assessed effects of bilateral positive airway pressure (BiPAP). Neither trial used continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Controls received standard care. Investigators reported no deaths and no serious adverse events (Grades of Recommendation...

  9. Non-invasive imaging technics for diagnosis in children with surgical abdominal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Koonosuke; Sato, Yutaka; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Kim, Yoshitaka; Ishikawa, Misao (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1984-04-01

    The usefullness of non-invasive imaging technics namely CT and ultrasonography was evaluated in pediatric surgical abdominal diseases, under the category of A) inflammatory masses (10), B) biliary abnormalities (6), C) neoplasms (12), and D) blunt abdominal traumas (8), which were experienced at St. Marianna University Hospital from April 1978 to January 1982. According to the results of the clinical study, the plan of useful diagnostic approaches in each group by means of several imaging technics was outlined. In group A and B, ultrasonography is usually suffice for diagnosis and therapy planning, whereas in group C and D, in addition to the ultrasound, CT is sometimes required for evaluating the involvement of vascular structures and surrounding vital structures in cases of neoplasm, and coexisting injuries in the traumas.

  10. [Are non-invasive tests going to replace liver biopsy for diagnosis of liver fibrosis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restellini, Sophie; Spahr, Laurent

    2012-06-27

    Liver fibrosis is associated with chronic liver diseases, and may evolve into cirrhosis that may be complicated by liver failure and portal hypertension. Detection and quantification of liver fibrosis is a key point in the follow-up of patients with chronic liver diseases. Liver biopsy is the gold standard method to assess and quantify fibrosis, but its invasiveness is a limiting factor in everyday clinical practice. Non invasive markers using either biological or radiological parameters have been developed and may decrease the need for liver biopsy in some cases. However, information is limited to fibrosis, and cut-offs values and diagnostic accuracies for significant fibrosis may vary according to the etiology of liver disease. Liver biopsy allows the assessment of intermediate stages of fibrosis and describes accompanying lesions.

  11. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  12. Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology Flight Volume Measurements Under Zero G Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, Anthony A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to perform analysis of data using the Systems Engineering Educational Discovery (SEED) program data from 2011 and 2012 Fluid Vessel Quantity using Non-Invasive PZT Technology flight volume measurements under Zero G conditions (parabolic Plane flight data). Also experimental planning and lab work for future sub-orbital experiments to use the NASA PZT technology for fluid volume measurement. Along with conducting data analysis of flight data, I also did a variety of other tasks. I provided the lab with detailed technical drawings, experimented with 3d printers, made changes to the liquid nitrogen skid schematics, and learned how to weld. I also programmed microcontrollers to interact with various sensors and helped with other things going on around the lab.

  13. The importance of optical methods for non-invasive measurements in the skin care industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatas, Georgios N.

    2010-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries are concerned with treating skin disease, as well as maintaining and promoting skin health. They are dealing with a unique tissue that defines our body in space. As such, skin provides not only the natural boundary with the environment inhibiting body dehydration as well as penetration of exogenous aggressors to the body, it is also ideally situated for optical measurements. A plurality of spectroscopic and imaging methods is being used to understand skin physiology and pathology and document the effects of topically applied products on the skin. The obvious advantage of such methods over traditional biopsy techniques is the ability to measure the cutaneous tissue in vivo and non-invasively. In this work, we will review such applications of various spectroscopy and imaging methods in skin research that is of interest the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. Examples will be given on the importance of optical techniques in acquiring new insights about acne pathogenesis and infant skin development.

  14. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  15. Non-invasive imaging of skin cancer with fluorescence lifetime imaging using two photon tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Alexandrov, Yuriy; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Christopher

    2011-07-01

    Multispectral fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) using two photon microscopy as a non-invasive technique for the diagnosis of skin lesions is described. Skin contains fluorophores including elastin, keratin, collagen, FAD and NADH. This endogenous contrast allows tissue to be imaged without the addition of exogenous agents and allows the in vivo state of cells and tissues to be studied. A modified DermaInspect® multiphoton tomography system was used to excite autofluorescence at 760 nm in vivo and on freshly excised ex vivo tissue. This instrument simultaneously acquires fluorescence lifetime images in four spectral channels between 360-655 nm using time-correlated single photon counting and can also provide hyperspectral images. The multispectral fluorescence lifetime images were spatially segmented and binned to determine lifetimes for each cell by fitting to a double exponential lifetime model. A comparative analysis between the cellular lifetimes from different diagnoses demonstrates significant diagnostic potential.

  16. NON-INVASIVE SPECTROSCOPIC ON-LINE METHODS TO MONITOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooker, M. H.; Berg, Rolf W.

    2003-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy can be used to identify and establish concentrations of many common molecules and complex ions over a wide range of concentrations and conditions. Advances in CCD detection devices, notch-filters, lasers, micro- and fiber-optics have made it possible to use infrared and R......, studied with non-invasive Raman spectroscopy), and finally a discussion of some recent advances in experimental methods that make it possible to use Raman and infrared spectroscopy for on line analyses in some industrial applications.......Vibrational spectroscopy can be used to identify and establish concentrations of many common molecules and complex ions over a wide range of concentrations and conditions. Advances in CCD detection devices, notch-filters, lasers, micro- and fiber-optics have made it possible to use infrared...

  17. Non-invasive Self-Care Anemia Detection during Pregnancy Using a Smartphone Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraeni, M. D.; Fatoni, A.

    2017-02-01

    Indonesian maternal mortality rate is the highest in South East Asia. Postpartum hemorrhage is the major causes of maternal mortality in Indonesia. Anemia during pregnancy contributes significantly to postpartum hemorrhage. Early detection of anemia during pregnancy may save mothers from maternal death. This research aim to develop a non-invasive self-care anemia detection based on the palpebral color observation and using a smartphone camera. The color intensity (Red, Green, and Blue) was then measured using a Colorgrab software (Loomatix) and analyzed compared to the hemoglobin concentration of the samples, measured using standard Spectrophotometer method. The result showed that the red color intensity had a high correlation (R2=0.814) with a linear regression of y=14.486x + 50.228. This preliminary study may be used as anemia early detection which more objective compared to visual assessment usually performed.

  18. The neurophysiology of language: Insights from non-invasive brain stimulation in the healthy human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS), a new decade in the study of language has started. NIBS allows for testing the functional relevance of language-related brain activation and enables the researcher to investigate how neural activation changes in response to focal perturbations. This review focuses on the application of NIBS in the healthy brain. First, some basic mechanisms will be introduced and the prerequisites for carrying out NIBS studies of language are addressed. The next section outlines how NIBS can be used to characterize the contribution of the stimulated area to a task. In this context, novel approaches such as multifocal transcranial magnetic stimulation and the condition-and-perturb approach are discussed. The third part addresses the combination of NIBS and neuroimaging in the study of plasticity. These approaches are particularly suited to investigate short-term reorganization in the healthy brain and may inform models of language recovery in post-stroke aphasia.

  19. Experimental bifurcation analysis of an impact oscillator—Tuning a non-invasive control scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau, Emil; Schilder, Frank; Ferreira Santos, Ilmar; Juel Thomsen, Jon; Starke, Jens

    2013-10-01

    We investigate a non-invasive, locally stabilizing control scheme necessary for an experimental bifurcation analysis. Our test-rig comprises a harmonically forced impact oscillator with hardening spring nonlinearity controlled by electromagnetic actuators, and serves as a prototype for electromagnetic bearings and other machinery with build-in actuators. We propose a sequence of experiments that allows one to choose optimal control-gains, filter parameters and settings for a continuation method without a priori study of a model. Depending on the algorithm for estimating the Jacobian required by Newton's method we find two almost disjoint sets of suitable control parameters. Control-based continuation succeeds reliably in producing the full bifurcation diagram including both stable and unstable equilibrium states for an appropriately tuned controller.

  20. Non-invasive brain stimulation: enhancing motor and cognitive functions in healthy old subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Zimerman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by changes in cognitive and motor functions that result in impairment of activities of daily living. This process involves a number of modifications in the brain and is associated with metabolic, structural and physiological changes; some of these serving as adaptive responses to the functional declines. Up to date there are no universally accepted strategies to ameliorate declining functions in this population. An essential basis to develop such strategies is a better understanding of neuroplastic changes during healthy aging. In this context, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial direct current or transcranial magnetic stimulation, provide an attractive option to modulate cortical neuronal assemblies, even with subsequent changes in neuroplasticity. Thus, in the present review we discuss the use of these techniques as a tool to study underlying cortical mechanisms during healthy aging and as an interventional strategy to enhance declining functions and learning abilities in aged subjects.