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Sample records for non-invasive blood pressure

  1. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

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    McCarthy, B M; O' Flynn, B; Mathewson, A, E-mail: brian.mccarthy@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, UCC, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  2. Ability of non-invasive intermittent blood pressure monitoring and a continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitor (CNAP™) to provide new readings in each 1-min interval during elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T; Telec, N; Dennis, A; Griffiths, J; Buettner, A

    2012-03-01

    We compared the ability of automated non-invasive intermittent oscillometric blood pressure monitoring with a new device, CNAP(TM) (continuous non-invasive arterial pressure) to provide a new blood pressure reading in each 1-min interval between spinal anaesthesia and delivery during caesarean section. We also compared the accuracy of continuous non-invasive arterial pressure readings with non-invasive blood pressure measurements before spinal anaesthesia. Fifty-nine women participated. The non-invasive and continuous non-invasive monitors displayed new blood pressure readings in a mean of 82% (11%) and 83% (13%) (p = 0.97) of the one-minute intervals between spinal anaesthesia and delivery, respectively. Continuous non-invasive arterial pressure was more likely to fail on two or more consecutive minutes (p=0.001). From the pre-spinal readings, the mean bias, defined as non-invasive-continuous non-invasive arterial pressure, and limits of agreement (±2SD mean bias) for systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure respectively were +1.3 (±26.0), -2.9 (±21.8) and +2.6 (±20.4) mmHg. The new monitor has disadvantages compared with conventional non-invasive intermittent blood pressure monitoring. Anaesthesia © 2012 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Comparison between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in young, middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Qiao; Qiu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (IBP and NIBP) measurements in young, middle and old age using the data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database. In total, 23,679 blood pressure measurements were extracted from 742 patients, divided into three groups of young, middle and old age. IBP-NIBP differences in systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 0.1 ± 16.5 mmHg/11.0 ± 12.2 mmHg in young age, -2.9 ± 19.8 mmHg/6.9 ± 17.5 mmHg in middle age and -3.2 ± 29.3 mmHg/8.5 ± 19.8 mmHg in old age. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP)-non-invasive systolic blood pressure (NISBP) differences increased from young to middle then to old age, and the SD of invasive diastolic blood pressure (IDBP)-non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (NIDBP) differences also increased with age. In young, middle and old age, the correlation coefficients were 0.86, 0.79 and 0.53, respectively, between ISBP and NISBP, and 0.78, 0.78 and 0.41 between IDBP and NIDBP. In conclusion, IBP showed good correlation with NIBP in each age category. The agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was influenced by age category.

  4. Limitations of stroke volume estimation by non-invasive blood pressure monitoring in hypergravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Manen

    Full Text Available Altitude and gravity changes during aeromedical evacuations induce exacerbated cardiovascular responses in unstable patients. Non-invasive cardiac output monitoring is difficult to perform in this environment with limited access to the patient. We evaluated the feasibility and accuracy of stroke volume estimation by finger photoplethysmography (SVp in hypergravity.Finger arterial blood pressure (ABP waveforms were recorded continuously in ten healthy subjects before, during and after exposure to +Gz accelerations in a human centrifuge. The protocol consisted of a 2-min and 8-min exposure up to +4 Gz. SVp was computed from ABP using Liljestrand, systolic area, and Windkessel algorithms, and compared with reference values measured by echocardiography (SVe before and after the centrifuge runs.The ABP signal could be used in 83.3% of cases. After calibration with echocardiography, SVp changes did not differ from SVe and values were linearly correlated (p<0.001. The three algorithms gave comparable SVp. Reproducibility between SVp and SVe was the best with the systolic area algorithm (limits of agreement -20.5 and +38.3 ml.Non-invasive ABP photoplethysmographic monitoring is an interesting technique to estimate relative stroke volume changes in moderate and sustained hypergravity. This method may aid physicians for aeronautic patient monitoring.

  5. The mean prehospital machine; accurate prehospital non-invasive blood pressure measurement in the critically ill patient.

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    Muecke, Sandy; Bersten, Andrew; Plummer, John

    2010-06-01

    Non-invasive blood pressure recordings may be inaccurate in the critically ill patient and measurement difficulties are intensified in the prehospital setting. This may adversely impact upon outcomes for many critically ill patients, particularly those with traumatic brain injury and/or lengthy prehospital times. This study aimed to validate a non-invasive, oscillometric, ambulatory blood pressure measuring device, the Oscar 2, Model 222 (SunTech Medical, Morrisville, USA) during the ambulance transport of critically ill patients. We have previously shown that mean arterial blood pressures observed by Intensive Care Unit nurses from a patient monitor can be considered interchangeable with reference intra-arterial integrated mean pressures. In the current study, we compared non-invasive device mean pressures to intra-arterial pressures observed by retrieval nurses from the patient monitor, during the ambulance transportation of critically ill patients. Device performance was required to fulfil the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) protocol requirements. Additionally, linear mixed effects analyses and Bland-Altman comparisons were undertaken. For 157 measurements recorded from 23 patients, when the Oscar 2 did not indicate a measurement was associated with a fault, the device fulfilled the AAMI protocol requirements, with a mean error of -1.1 mmHg (standard deviation 7.8 mmHg), 95% confidence intervals (linear mixed effects analysis) -2.9, 0.8; P = 0.26. Bland-Altman plots indicated uniform agreement across a wide range of blood pressures. Sixteen percent of recordings were associated with a patient, environment, or device generated fault. When the Oscar 2 does not indicate a fault has occurred, clinicians may be confident the mean pressure, within acceptable limits, is accurate, even during ambulance motion, administration of high doses of vasopressors and mechanical ventilation. The Oscar 2 appears to be an accurate and rugged out

  6. Adaptive control with self-tuning for non-invasive beat-by-beat blood pressure measurement.

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    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, we have successfully carried out the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the root of finger, superficial temporal and radial artery based on the volume-compensation technique with reasonable accuracy. The present study concerns with improvement of control method for this beat-by-beat BP measurement. The measurement system mainly consists of a partial pressurization cuff with a pair of LED and photo-diode for the detection of arterial blood volume, and a digital self-tuning control method. Using healthy subjects, the performance and accuracy of this system were evaluated through comparison experiments with the system using a conventional empirically tuned PID controller. The significant differences of BP measured in finger artery were not showed in systolic (SBP), p=0.52, and diastolic BP (DBP), p=0.35. With the advantage of the adaptive control with self-tuning method, which can tune the control parameters without disturbing the control system, the application area of the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement method will be broadened.

  7. Non-invasive estimation of blood pressure using ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Local blood pressure measurements provide important information on the state of health of organs in the body and can be used to diagnose diseases in the heart, lungs, and kidneys. This paper presents an experimental setup for investigating the ambient pressure sensitivity of a contrast agent using...... measurement series at 485 kPa showed a sensitivity of 0.41 dB/kPa with a correlation coefficient of 0.89. Based on the measurements at 500 kPa, this acoustic driving pressure was concluded to be too high causing the bubbles to be destroyed. The pressure sensitivity for these two measurement series were 0...... diagnostic ultrasound. The setup resembles a realistic clinical setup utilizing a single array transducer for transmit and receive. The ambient pressure sensitivity of SonoVue (Bracco, Milano, Italy) was measured twice using two different acoustic driving pressures, which were selected based on a preliminary...

  8. blood pressure influence of the the Invasive v. non-invasive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... invasive methods of measuring systemic blood pressure. However, there ..... was not possible due to the lack of a high speed recorder.) 3. A separate .... clinician needs to interpret the measurement in the light of the patient's ...

  9. Respiratory rate estimation from the oscillometric waveform obtained from a non-invasive cuff-based blood pressure device.

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    Pimentel, M A F; Santos, M D; Arteta, C; Domingos, J S; Maraci, M A; Clifford, G D

    2014-01-01

    The presence of respiratory activity in the electrocardiogram (ECG), the pulse oximeter's photoplethysmo-graphic and continuous arterial blood pressure signals is a well-documented phenomenon. In this paper, we demonstrate that such information is also present in the oscillometric signal acquired from automatic non-invasive blood pressure monitors, and may be used to estimate the vital sign respiratory rate (RR). We propose a novel method that combines the information from the two respiratory-induced variations (frequency and amplitude) via frequency analysis to both estimate RR and eliminate estimations considered to be unreliable because of poor signal quality. The method was evaluated using data acquired from 40 subjects containing ECG, respiration and blood pressure waveforms, the latter acquired using an in-house built blood pressure device that is able to connect to a mobile phone. Results demonstrated a good RR estimation accuracy of our method when compared to the reference values extracted from the reference respiration waveforms (mean absolute error of 2.69 breaths/min), which is comparable to existing methods in the literature that extract RR from other physiological signals. The proposed method has been implemented in Java on the Android device for use in an mHealth platform.

  10. Non-invasive estimation and control of inlet pressure in an implantable rotary blood pump for heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, A H; Savkin, A V; Ayre, P J; Lim, E; Mason, D G; Salamonsen, R F; Fraser, J F; Lovell, N H

    2011-08-01

    We propose a dynamical model for mean inlet pressure estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump during the diastolic period. Non-invasive measurements of pump impeller rotational speed (ω), motor power (P), and pulse width modulation signal acquired from the pump controller were used as inputs to the model. The model was validated over a wide range of speed ramp studies, including (i) healthy (C1), variations in (ii) heart contractility (C2); (iii) afterload (C2, C3, C4), and (iv) preload (C5, C6, C7). Linear regression analysis between estimated and extracted mean inlet pressure obtained from in vivo animal data (greyhound dogs, N = 3) resulted in a highly significant correlation coefficients (R(2) = 0.957, 0.961, 0.958, 0.963, 0.940, 0.946, and 0.959) and mean absolute errors of (e = 1.604, 2.688, 3.667, 3.990, 2.791, 3.215, and 3.225 mmHg) during C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, and C7, respectively. The proposed model was also used to design a controller to regulate mean diastolic pump inlet pressure using non-invasively measured ω and P. In the presence of model uncertainty, the controller was able to track and settle to the desired input within a finite number of sampling periods and minimal error (0.92 mmHg). The model developed herein will play a crucial role in developing a robust control system of the pump that detects and thus avoids undesired pumping states by regulating the inlet pressure within a predefined physiologically realistic limit.

  11. Comparison of non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using modified arterial applanation tonometry with intra-arterial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harju, Jarkko; Vehkaoja, Antti; Kumpulainen, Pekka; Campadello, Stefano; Lindroos, Ville; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Oksala, Niku

    2017-01-19

    Intermittent non-invasive blood pressure measurement with tourniquets is slow, can cause nerve and skin damage, and interferes with other measurements. Invasive measurement cannot be safely used in all conditions. Modified arterial tonometry may be an alternative for fast and continuous measurement. Our aim was to compare arterial tonometry sensor (BPro(®)) with invasive blood pressure measurement to clarify whether it could be utilized in the postoperative setting. 28 patients who underwent elective surgery requiring arterial cannulation were analyzed. Patients were monitored post-operatively for 2 h with standard invasive monitoring and with a study device comprising an arterial tonometry sensor (BPro(®)) added with a three-dimensional accelerometer to investigate the potential impact of movement. Recordings were collected electronically. The results revealed inaccurate readings in method comparison between the devices based on recommendations by Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). On a Bland-Altman plot, the bias and precision between these two methods was 19.8 ± 16.7 (Limits of agreement - 20.1 to 59.6) mmHg, Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.61. For diastolic pressure, the difference was 4.8 ± 7.7 (LoA - 14.1 to 23.6) mmHg (r = 0.72), and for mean arterial pressure it was 11.18 ± 11.1 (LoA - 12.1 to 34.2) mmHg (r = 0.642). Our study revealed inaccurate agreement (AAMI) between the two methods when measuring systolic and mean blood pressures during post-operative care. The readings for diastolic pressures were inside the limits recommended by AAMI. Movement increased the failure rate significantly (p arterial tonometry is not an appropriate replacement for invasive blood pressure measurement in these patients.

  12. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research.

  13. Comparison of the non-invasive Nexfin® monitor with conventional methods for the measurement of arterial blood pressure in moderate risk orthopaedic surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzer, Felix; Habicher, Marit; Sander, Michael; Sterr, Julian; Scholz, Stephanie; Feldheiser, Aarne; Müller, Michael; Perka, Carsten; Treskatsch, Sascha

    2016-08-01

    Continuous invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring remains the gold standard for BP measurement, but traditional oscillometric non-invasive intermittent pressure (NIBP) measurement is used in most low-to-moderate risk procedures. This study compared non-invasive continuous arterial BP measurement using a Nexfin® monitor with NIBP and IBP monitors. This was a single-centre, prospective, pilot study in patients scheduled for elective orthopaedic surgery. Systolic BP, diastolic BP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) were measured by Nexfin®, IBP and NIBP at five intraoperative time-points. Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman plots and trending ability of Nexfin® measurements were used as criteria for success in the investigation of measurement reliability. A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study. For MAP, there was a sufficient correlation between IBP/Nexfin® (Pearson = 0.75), which was better than the correlation between IBP/NIBP (Pearson = 0.70). Bland-Altman analysis of the data showed that compared with IBP, there was a higher percentage error for MAPNIBP (30%) compared with MAPNexfin® (27%). Nexfin® and NIBP underestimated systolic BP; NIBP also underestimated diastolic BP and MAP. Trending ability for MAPNexfin® and MAPNIBP were comparable to IBP. Non-invasive BP measurement with Nexfin® was comparable with IBP and tended to be more precise than NIBP. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. The impact of continuous non-invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring on blood pressure stability during general anaesthesia in orthopaedic patients: A randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidert, Agnes S; Nold, Johanna S; Hornung, Roman; Paulus, Alexander C; Zwißler, Bernhard; Czerner, Stephan

    2017-11-01

    In patients undergoing general anaesthesia, intraoperative hypotension occurs frequently and is associated with adverse outcomes such as postoperative acute kidney failure, myocardial infarction or stroke. A history of chronic hypertension renders patients more susceptible to a decrease in blood pressure (BP) after induction of general anaesthesia. As a patient's BP is generally monitored intermittently via an upper arm cuff, there may be a delay in the detection of hypotension by the anaesthetist. The current study investigates whether the presence of continuous BP monitoring leads to improved BP stability. Randomised, controlled and single-centre study. A total of 160 orthopaedic patients undergoing general anaesthesia with a history of chronic hypertension. The patients were randomised to either a study group (n = 77) that received continuous non-invasive BP monitoring in addition to oscillometric intermittent monitoring, or a control group (n = 83) whose BP was monitored intermittently only. The interval for oscillometric measurements in both groups was set to 3 min. After induction of general anaesthesia, oscillometric BP values of the two groups were compared for the first hour of the procedure. Anaesthetists were blinded to the purpose of the study. BP stability and hypotensive events. There was no difference in baseline BP between the groups. After adjustment for multiple testing, mean arterial BP in the study group was significantly higher than in the control group at 12 and 15 min. Mean ± SD for study and control group, respectively were: 12 min, 102 ± 24 vs. 90 ± 26 mmHg (P = 0.039) and 15 min, 102 ± 21 vs. 90 ± 23 mmHg (P = 0.023). Hypotensive readings below a mean pressure of 55 mmHg occurred more often in the control group (25 vs. 7, P = 0.047). Continuous monitoring contributes to BP stability in the studied population. NCT02519101.

  15. Improvement and development of non-invasive blood pressure measurement techniques%无创血压测量技术的改进与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑理华; 窦建洪; 何兴华; 屠伟峰; 马铭俊; 吴昊

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the improvement and development of some general non-invasive blood pressure measurement(NBPM)techniques, e.g. korotkoff sound method, oscillometric method and double cuff method. The new practical techniques and methods at home and abroad and perspective of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement(NCBPM)have also been presented systematically in this article, such as arterial tonometry method, arterial volumn clamp method, pulse-wave velocity method, ultrasonic method and the application of wavelet analysis and fuzzy recognition. Finally, it's pointed out that NBPM, especially NCBPM, has a huge market demand. Pulse-wave velocity method can achieve real non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement and thus has abroad application. Research progress of methods and theories of continuous non-invasive measurement of blood pressure will be a desired direction.%介绍数种常规的无创血压测量方法-柯氏音法、示波法和双袖带法及其改进.重点对国际上连续无创血压测量的新型实用技术、方法及前景进行较为详细的介绍,如动脉张力测量法、动脉容积钳制法、脉搏波速度测量法、超声测压法以及小波分析和模糊识别技术在血压信号处理中的应用等.指出无创血压测量技术,尤其是无创连续血压测量方法有着巨大的市场需求;脉搏波速度测量法能实现真正意义上的连续无创血压测量,因此具有广泛的应用前景,而采用新理论进行连续的无创血压测量将是该领域的目标和发展方向.

  16. Comparative Study of Invasive Blood Pressure and Non-invasive Blood Pressure in General Anesthesia%全身麻醉患者无创血压与有创血压的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鑫; 吴廷丽; 马正良; 顾小萍

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of invasive blood pressure( IBP) and non-invasive blood pressure( NIBP) in general anesthesia.Methods Eighty-two patients undergoing general anesthesia were divided into four groups depending on invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP):group A, ISBP≤90mmHg;group B,ISBP 90-120 mmHg;group C, ISBP 120-150mmHg;group D, ISBP>150mmHg.Non-invasive blood pressure and arterial blood pressure was monitored at the same time.Bilateral NIBP and IBP val-ues were compared by paired t-test and linear correlation analysis.Results There was no significant difference between bilateral NIBP of four groups.Invasive systolic blood pressure was lower than bilateral non-invasive systolic blood pressure in group A (P0.05).Arterial diastolic blood pressure was sig-nificantly lower than bilateral non-invasive diastolic blood pressure in group B and C.There was significant correlation between arterial systolic blood pressure and bilateral non-invasive systolic blood pressure (r=0.940,P<0.01).There was significant correlation be-tween arterial diastolic blood pressure and bilateral non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (r=0.925,P<0.01).Conclusion There was significant difference and correlation between arterial blood pressure and non-invasive blood pressure.Arterial blood pressure can be estimated by non-invasive blood pressure in certain blood pressure range.%目的:探讨全身麻醉患者双侧肱动脉无创血压( NIBP)与桡动脉有创动脉压( IBP)的关系。方法于全身麻醉下进行手术的患者82例,麻醉诱导前后及术中同步测量双侧无创血压及有创血压,根据有创收缩压值( ISBP)大小分为A组( ISBP≤90mmHg)、B组(90mmHg<ISBP≤120mmHg)、C组(120mmHg<ISBP≤150mmHg)和D组(ISBP>150mmHg)。对各组数值进行差异分析,并对有创血压和无创血压值做线性相关分析。结果4组患者双侧无创血压无统计学差异(P>0.05);A组有创

  17. 24 hr non-invasive ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate monitoring in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eStübner

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-motor symptoms are now commonly recognized in Parkinson’s Disease (PD and can include dysautonomia. Impairment of cardiovascular autonomic function can occur at any stage of PD but is typically prevalent in advanced stages or related to (anti-parkinsonian drugs and can result in atypical blood pressure (BP readings and related symptoms such as orthostatic hypotension (OH and supine hypertension. OH is usually diagnosed with a head-up-tilt test (HUT or an (active standing test (also known as Schellong test in the laboratory, but 24 hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM in a home setting may have several advantages, such as providing an overview of symptoms in daily life alongside pathophysiology as well as assessment of treatment interventions. This, however, is only possible if ABPM is administrated correctly and an autonomic protocol (including a diary is followed. which will be discussed in this review. A 24hr ABPM does not only allow the detection of OH, if it is present, but also the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction during and after various daily stimuli, such as postprandial and alcohol dependent hypotension, as well as exercise and drug induced hypotension. Furthermore, information about the circadian rhythm of BP and heart rate (HR can be obtained and establish whether or not a patient has a fall of BP at night (i.e. ‘dipper’ vs. non-‘dipper’. The information about nocturnal BP may also allow the investigation or detection of disorders such as sleep dysfunction, nocturnal movement disorders and obstructive sleep apnea, which are common in PD. Additionally, a 24hr ABPM should be conducted to examine the effectiveness of OH therapy. This review will outline the methodology of 24 hr ABPM in PD, summarize findings of such studies in PD and briefly consider common daily stimuli that might affect 24 Hr ABPM.

  18. The effect of blood pressure on non-invasive fractional flow reserve derived from coronary computed tomography angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, Akira [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Coenen, Adriaan; Lubbers, Marisa M.; Nieman, Koen [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Center, Departmenet of Cardiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kido, Teruhito; Mochizuki, Teruhito [Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Toon, Ehime (Japan); Kido, Tomoyuki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Radiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Yamashita, Natsumi [Clinical Research Center, National Hospital Organization Shikoku Cancer Center, Division of Clinical Biostatistics, Section of Cancer Prevention and Epidemiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Watanabe, Kouki [Matsuyama Saiseikai Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Matsuyama, Ehime (Japan); Krestin, Gabriel P. [Erasmus University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    The aim of this study is to assess the effect of blood pressure (BP) on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) derived computational fractional flow reserve (CTA-FFR). Twenty-one patients who underwent coronary CTA and invasive FFR were retrospectively identified. Ischemia was defined as invasive FFR ≤0.80. Using a work-in-progress computational fluid dynamics algorithm, CTA-FFR was computed with BP measured before CTA, and simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg respectively. Correlation between CTA-FFR and invasive FFR was assessed using Pearson test. The repeated measuring test was used for multiple comparisons of CTA-FFR values by simulated BP inputs. Twenty-nine vessels (14 with invasive FFR ≤0.80) were assessed. The average CTA-FFR for measured BP (134 ± 20/73 ± 12 mmHg) was 0.77 ± 0.12. Correlation between CTA-FFR by measured BP and invasive FFR was good (r = 0.735, P < 0.001). For simulated BPs of 60/50, 90/60, 110/70, 130/80, 150/90, and 180/100 mmHg, the CTA-FFR increased: 0.69 ± 0.13, 0.73 ± 0.12, 0.75 ± 0.12, 0.77 ± 0.11, 0.79 ± 0.11, and 0.81 ± 0.10 respectively (P < 0.05). Measurement of the BP just before CTA is preferred for accurate CTA-FFR simulation. BP variations in the common range slightly affect CTA-FFR. However, inaccurate BP assumptions differing from the patient-specific BP could cause misinterpretation of borderline significant lesions. (orig.)

  19. Accuracy Evaluation of Non-invasive Blood Pressure Monitor in Blood Pressure Measurement of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation%无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文志; 周海波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性。方法对60例心房纤颤病人分别采用无创血压监护仪和汞柱台式血压计进行血压监测,对比其测量结果。结果无创血压监护仪和汞柱台式血压计血压测量结果比较,收缩压无显著差异(P>0.05),而舒张压有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性较差,值得临床注意。%Objective To investigate the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure monitor in blood pressure measurement of patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods The blood pressure of 60 patients with atrial fibrillation was measured by using non-invasive blood pressure monitor and mercury sphygmomanometer, respectively. Then the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure monitor were compared with those of mercury sphygmomanometer. Results There was no signiifcant difference between the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure and those of mercury sphygmomanometer on systolic pressure (P>0.05) while there were signiifcant differences between the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure and those of mercury sphygmomanometer on diastolic pressure (P<0.05). Conclusion It is inaccurate to measure the blood pressure of patients with atrial ifbrillation by using non-invasive blood pressure monitor, which should be paid attention to in clinic.

  20. Non-invasive estimation of pulsatile flow and differential pressure in an implantable rotary blood pump for heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlOmari, A H; Savkin, A V; Karantonis, D M; Lim, E; Lovell, N H

    2009-04-01

    We propose dynamical models for pulsatile flow and head estimation in an implantable rotary blood pump. Pulsatile flow and head data were obtained using a circulatory mock loop where fluid solutions with different values of viscosities were used as a blood analogue with varying haematocrit (HCT). Noninvasive measurements of power and pump speed were used with HCT values as inputs to the flow model while the estimated flow was used with the speed as inputs to a head estimation model. Linear regression analysis between estimated and measured flows obtained from a mock loop resulted in a highly significant correlation (R2=0.982) and a mean absolute error (e) of 0.323 L min(-1), while for head, R2=0.933 and e=7.682 mmHg were obtained. R2=0.849 and e=0.584 L min(-1) were obtained when the same model derived in the mock loop was used for flow estimation in ex vivo porcine data (N=6). Furthermore, in the steady state, the solution of the presented flow model can be described by a previously designed and verified static model. The models developed herein will play a vital role in developing a robust control system of the pump flow coping with changing physiological demands.

  1. TNO finger pressure reference guide: guide for the non-invasive finger blood pressure measurement and recording systems Portapres and Finometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    With Portapres and Finometer continuous beat-to-beat finger blood pressure is measured. Although it is relatively easy to perform measurements, a basic understanding of the principles of the device is recommended to obtain reliable measurements. This reference guide addresses the volume-clamp method

  2. TNO finger pressure reference guide: guide for the non-invasive finger blood pressure measurement and recording systems Portapres and Finometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    With Portapres and Finometer continuous beat-to-beat finger blood pressure is measured. Although it is relatively easy to perform measurements, a basic understanding of the principles of the device is recommended to obtain reliable measurements. This reference guide addresses the volume-clamp method

  3. Non-Invasive Optical Blood Glucose Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha C.Pande

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The method for noninvasively blood glucose monitoring system is discussed in this paper. Lot of research work has been done in developing the device which is completely noninvasive to avoid the pros & cons because of frequent pricking. In this paper we are trying to analyze the noninvasive blood glucose measurement study in the near infrared region which is the most suitable region for blood glucose measurement. For this purpose we use a technique which is similar to pulseoximetry based on near infrared spectrometry .An infrared light of particular wavelength is passed through fingertip containing an arterial pulse component are derived,thus minimizing influences of basal components such as resting blood volume,skin, muscle and bone.

  4. Non-invasive ambient pressure estimation using non-linear ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup

    Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the blood pressure locally in the body have been made. This dissertation focuses on the approaches which utilize highly compressible ultrasound contrast agents as ambient pressure sensors. The literature within the topic has been reviewed...

  5. 基于容积脉搏波的无创连续血压测量系统%A Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Plethysmographic Pulse Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永波; 陈真诚; 朱健铭; 殷世民

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement system without the cuff based on plethysmographic pulse wave. Methods A blood pressure estimation equation was established by the stepwise regression analysis on blood pressure and pulse wave transit time which was extracted from a single circle of plethysmographic pulse wave, and then the non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement was realized. Results Compared blood pressure value with detection by the system and Yu-Yue brand mercury sphygmomanometer from various populations, the results indicated that the two methods exhibit good coherence , and the measurement error is better than the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recommendation standard. Conclusion Compared with traditional blood pressure measurement method , the non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement method is more convenient. It can measure blood pressure continuously without cuff and invasion, and may have promising application in the future.%目的 设计一种基于容积脉搏波的无袖套连续血压测量系统.方法 从单一容积脉搏波中提取脉搏波传导时间,经逐步回归分析与血压建立血压估算方程,实现无创连续血压测量.结果 通过对不同人群血压检测,并与鱼跃牌水银血压计进行对比,结果表明该方法和传统方法具有较好的测试一致性,测量误差优于美国医疗仪器促进协会(AAMI)推荐标准.结论 该方法同传统血压测量方法相比,测量方便,可彻底摆脱缚带,并能实现无创连续测量,具有更广阔的应用前景.

  6. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  7. 监护仪无创血压质量检测的评估与推广%Evaluation and Popularization of Non-invasive Blood Pressure quality Detection for Monitors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方河炎; 刘曼芳; 郑峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 对监护仪无创血压示值质量进行评估,(设置输出80/50(60) mmhg、100/65(75) mmhg、120/80(93) mmhg、150/100(116) mmhg及200/150(166) mmHg等5组mmhg参数;设定心率80次/min,评估出各个范围的质量状态.方法使用FLUKE BP Pump2无创血压模拟器内置袖带的质量检测方案,随机抽取南方医院15台HP MP20监护仪和15台GE Dash2500监护仪进行质量检测,采用平均差与标准方差进行分析.结果两种监护仪的实际血压值与设定血压值均存在差异.结论利用血压模拟器对监护仪无创血压质量检测,并结合数理统计学知识分析,此方案具有可行性,可推广到呼吸机流量、输液泵流速及除颤/起搏仪的质量检测与评估.%Objective To evaluate quality of non-invasive blood pressure value of monitors, set the output 80/50 (60), 100/65 (75), 120/80 (93), 150/100 (116) and 200/150 (166) and heart rate 80 beats/min, to assess the quality status of each range. Methods To use the FLUKE BP Pump2 non-invasive blood pressure simulator, the built-in cuff quality detection program, randomly select 15 HP MP20 monitors and 15 GE Dash2500 monitor from Nanfang Hospital to carry out quality detection. The mean difference and standard deviation are analyzed. Results The actual blood pressure value and set blood pressure value of the two monitors are different. Conclusion The program which uses a pressure simulator to test quality of non-invasive blood pressure for monitors, and analysis based on the knowledge of mathematical statistics, can be extended to the ventilator flow, infusion pump flow rate and quality detection and evaluation of defibrillator/pacemaker.

  8. An optical approach for non-invasive blood clot testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Brill, Alexander; Fine, Ilya; Harmelin, Alon

    2007-02-01

    Physiological blood coagulation is an essential biological process. Current tests for plasma coagulation (clotting) need to be performed ex vivo and require fresh blood sampling for every test. A recently published work describes a new, noninvasive, in vivo approach to assess blood coagulation status during mechanical occlusion1. For this purpose, we have tested this approach and applied a controlled laser beam to blood micro-vessels of the mouse ear during mechanical occlusion. Standard setup for intravital transillumination videomicroscopy and laser based imaging techniques were used for monitoring the blood clotting process. Temporal mechanical occlusion of blood vessels in the observed area was applied to ensure blood flow cessation. Subsequently, laser irradiation was used to induce vascular micro-injury. Changes in the vessel wall, as well as in the pattern of blood flow, predispose the area to vascular thrombosis, according to the paradigm of Virchow's triad. In our experiments, two elements of Virchow's triad were used to induce the process of clotting in vivo, and to assess it optically. We identified several parameters that can serve as markers of the blood clotting process in vivo. These include changes in light absorption in the area of illumination, as well as changes in the pattern of the red blood cells' micro-movement in the vessels where blood flow is completely arrested. Thus, our results indicate that blood coagulation status can be characterized by non-invasive, in vivo methodologies.

  9. Continuous blood pressure monitoring via non-invasive radial artery applanation tonometry and invasive arterial catheter demonstrates good agreement in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Chen, Hanjian; Zheng, Jun; Mao, Bin; Zhu, Shengmei; Feng, Jingyi

    2016-12-20

    Radial artery applanation tonometry (RAAT) has been developed and utilized for continuous arterial pressure monitoring. However, evidence is lacking to clinically verify the RAAT technology and identify appropriate patient groups before routine clinical use. This study aims to evaluate the RAAT technology by comparing systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) values in patients undergoing colon carcinoma surgery. Blood Pressure (BP) values obtained via RAAT (TL-300, Tensys Medical Inc., San Diego, CA, USA) and conventional arterial catheterization from 30 colon carcinoma surgical patients were collected and compared via Bland-Atman method, linear regression and 4-quadrant plot concordance analysis. For SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, means of the differences (±standard deviation; 95% limits of agreement) were -0.9 (±7.6; -15.7 to 13.9) mmHg, 3.1 (±6.5; -9.6 to 15.8) mmHg and 4.3 (±7.4; -10.3 to 18.8) mmHg, respectively. Linear regression coefficients of determination were 0.8706 for SBPs, 0.8353 for MBPs and 0.6858 for DBPs. Four-quadrant concordance correlation coefficients were 0.8740, 0.8522 and 0.7108 for SBPs, MBPs and DBPs, respectively. A highly selected patient collective undergoing colon carcinoma surgery was studied. BP measurements obtained via the TL-300 had clinically acceptable agreement with that acquired invasively using an arterial catheter. For use in clinical routine, it is necessary to take measures for improvement regarding movement artifacts and dilution of noise. A large sample size of patients under various conditions is also needed to further evaluate the RAAT technology before clinically routine use.

  10. Non-invasive measurement of pressure gradients using ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    A non-invasive method for estimating 2-D pressure gradients from ultrasound vector velocity data is presented. The method relies on in-plane vector velocity fields acquired using the Transverse Oscillation method. The pressure gradients are estimated by applying the Navier-Stokes equations...... Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The results are validated through finite element simulations of the carotid flow model where the geometry is determined from MR images. This proof of concept study was conducted at nine ultrasound frames per second. Estimated pressure gradients along...... the longitudinal direction of the constriction varied from 0 kPa/m to 10 kPa/m with a normalized bias of -9.1% for the axial component and -7.9% for the lateral component. The relative standard deviation of the estimator, given in reference to the peak gradient, was 28.4% in the axial direction and 64...

  11. Non-invasive Blood Glucose Quantification Using a Hybrid Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan JAYAPAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes Mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose levels which result from defects in insulin secretion. It is very important for the diabetics and normal people to have a correct blood glucose level. The HbA1c test is the most preferred test by renowned doctors for glucose quantification. But this test is an invasive one. At present, there are many available techniques for this purpose but these are mostly invasive or minimally non-invasive and most of these are under research. Among the different methods available, the photo acoustic (PA methods provide a reliable solution since the acoustical energy loss is much less compared to the optical or other techniques. Here a novel framework is presented for blood glucose level measurement using a combination of the HbA1c test and a PA method to get an absolutely consistent and precise, non-invasive technique. The setup uses a pulsed laser diode with pulse duration of 5-15 ns and at a repetition rate of 10 Hz as the source. The detector setup is based on the piezoelectric detection. It consists of a ring detector that includes two double ring sensors that are attached to the ring shaped module that can be worn around the finger. The major aim is to detect the photo acoustic signals from the glycated hemoglobin with the least possible error. The proposed monitoring system is designed with extreme consideration to precision and compatibility with the other computing devices. The results obtained in this research have been studied and analyzed by comparing these with those of in-vitro techniques like the HPLC. The comparison has been plotted and it shows a least error. The results also show a positive drive for using this concept as a basis for future extension in quantifying the other blood components.

  12. Utility of Transcutaneous Capnography for Optimization of Non-Invasive Ventilation Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhajed, Prashant N; Gehrer, Simone; Pandey, Kamlesh V; Vaidya, Preyas J; Leuppi, Joerg D; Tamm, Michael; Strobel, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Nocturnal Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NPPV) is the treatment of choice in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous oxygen saturation measured with a pulse oximeter provides a surrogate measure of arterial oxygen saturation but does not completely reflect ventilation. Currently, Partial Pressure of Arterial (PaCO2) measured by arterial blood analysis is used for estimating the adequacy of ventilatory support and serves as the gold standard. To examine the safety, feasibility and utility of cutaneous capnography to re-titrate the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Twelve patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure prospectively underwent complete polysomnography and cutaneous capnography measurement on the ear lobe. Non-invasive ventilation pressures were adjusted with the aim of normalizing cutaneous carbon dioxide or at least reducing it by 10 to 15 mmHg. Sensor drift for cutaneous carbon dioxide of 0.7 mmHg per hour was integrated in the analysis. Mean baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide was 45.4 ± 6.5 mmHg and drift corrected awake value was 45.1 ± 8.3 mmHg. The correlation of baseline cutaneous carbon dioxide and the corrected awake cutaneous carbon dioxide with arterial blood gas values were 0.91 and 0.85 respectively. Inspiratory positive airway pressures were changed in nine patients (75%) and expiratory positive airway pressures in eight patients (66%). Epworth sleepiness score before and after the study showed no change in five patients, improvement in six patients and deterioration in one patient. Cutaneous capnography is feasible and permits the optimization of non-invasive ventilation pressure settings in patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure due to hypoventilation. Continuous cutaneous capnography might serve as an important additional tool to complement diurnal

  13. Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields of ...... and standard deviation of 10% and 13%, respectively, relative to peak estimated gradient. The paper concludes that maps of pressure gradients can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound with a precision of more than 85%......This paper investigates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The presented set-up is based on vector velocity fields measured on a blood mimicking fluid moving at a peak flow rate of 1 ml/s through a constricted vessel. Fields...... of pressure gradients are calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations. Flow data are acquired to a depth of 3 cm using directional synthetic aperture flow imaging on a linear array transducer producing 1500 image frames of velocity estimates per second. Scans of a carotid bifurcation phantom with a 70...

  14. Consistenyc of perioperative invasive blood pressure m easurement with non-invasive blood pressure measurement for lower extremities in patients undergoing general anesth esia%全麻手术患者围术期下肢有创血压与无创血压的一致性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣晓卓; 李天发; 王红霞; 夏豪; 周期

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析全麻手术患者围术期下肢有创血压与无创血压的一致性。方法选取行神经外科手术的患者30例,均行静脉全身麻醉。术中及术后同时监测患者脚踝部的无创血压及同侧足背动脉的有创血压,对两种血压进行比较。结果在手术开始后0~4 h内,有创测量脚踝部的收缩压及舒张压测量值均高于无创测量(P<0.05),在手术开始后4~16 h,两种测量方法的收缩压及舒张压测量值比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两种测量方法对全麻手术患者围术期下肢收缩压及舒张压的监测一致性均好(Kappa=0.70,0.79)。结论监测全麻手术患者围术期下肢无创血压和有创血压一致性好,但仍存在一定差异,在手术中要根据患者的具体情况选取血压的测量方式。%Objective To analyze the consistency of perioperative invasive blood pressure measurement with non -invasive blood pressure measurement for lower extremities in patients undergoing general anesthesia .Methods Thirty patients receiving neurosurgery were enrolled and underwent intravenous general anesthesia .The non-invasive blood pressure of the ankle and the invasive blood pressure of the ipsilateral dorsal artery were monitored in all cases during surgery and after surgery .The results of the two blood pressure measurements were compared.Results Within 0-4 hours after the surgery starting,the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the ankle measured by the invasive method were higher than those measured by the non -invasive method(P<0.05).Within 4-16 hours after the surgery starting ,there was no significant difference in the systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure between two methods .For patientsundergoing general anesthesia ,good consistency existed between the two measurements for perioperative systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of lower extremities (Kappa

  15. Long-term pressure monitoring with arterial applanation tonometry : a non-invasive alternative during clinical intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, Koen S; Kalmar, Alain F; Struys, Michel M R F; Mortier, Eric P; Avolio, Alberto P; Segers, Patrick; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2008-01-01

    Arterial tonometry is a non-invasive technique for continuous registration of arterial pressure waveforms. This study aims to assess tonometric blood pressure recording (TBP) as an alternative for invasive long-term bedside monitoring. A prospective study was set up where patients undergoing neurosu

  16. Blood biomarkers for the non-invasive diagnosis of endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nisenblat, Vicki; Bossuyt, Patrick M. M.; Shaikh, Rabia; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa; Scheffers, Carola S.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Johnson, Neil; Hull, M. Louise

    2016-01-01

    Background About 10% of reproductive-aged women suffer from endometriosis, a costly chronic disease causing pelvic pain and subfertility. Laparoscopy is the gold standard diagnostic test for endometriosis, but is expensive and carries surgical risks. Currently, there are no non-invasive or minimally

  17. Fast diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for non-invasive measurement of intracranial pressure (ICP) (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzam, Parisa; Sutin, Jason; Wu, Kuan-Cheng; Zimmermann, Bernhard B.; Tamborini, Davide; Dubb, Jay; Boas, David A.; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2017-02-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has a key role in the management of neurosurgical and neurological injuries. Currently, the standard clinical monitoring of ICP requires an invasive transducer into the parenchymal tissue or the brain ventricle, with possibility of complications such as hemorrhage and infection. A non-invasive method for measuring ICP, would be highly preferable, as it would allow clinicians to promptly monitor ICP during transport and allow for monitoring in a larger number of patients. We have introduced diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) as a non-invasive ICP monitor by fast measurement of pulsatile cerebral blood flow (CBF). The method is similar to Transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), which derives ICP from the amplitude of the pulsatile cerebral blood flow velocity, with respect to the amplitude of the pulsatile arterial blood pressure. We believe DCS measurement is superior indicator of ICP than TCD estimation because DCS directly measures blood flow, not blood flow velocity, and the small cortical vessels measured by DCS are more susceptible to transmural pressure changes than the large vessels. For fast DCS measurements to recover pulsatile CBF we have developed a custom high-power long-coherent laser and a strategy for delivering it to the tissue within ANSI standards. We have also developed a custom FPGA-based correlator board, which facilitates DCS data acquisitions at 50-100 Hz. We have tested the feasibility of measuring pulsatile CBF and deriving ICP in two challenging scenarios: humans and rats. SNR is low in human adults due to large optode distances. It is similarly low in rats because the fast heart rate in this setting requires a high repetition rate.

  18. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not sufficiently replace invasive measurements in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, A; Defosse, J M; Becker, S; Steffen, C; Wappler, F; Sakka, S G

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we tested the reliability of a non-invasive finger-cuff-based continuous arterial blood pressure monitoring device (Nexfin, BMEYE, Amsterdam, NL) in critically ill surgical patients. Invasive intra-arterial and non-invasive arterial pressure measurements from 25 patients during a 4-h period were compared at five time points. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used and mean bias, precision [sd of bias] and limits of agreement (LOA) [bias (2.0 sd)] were calculated using the Bland-Altman method. Eight data pairs were excluded because of error message from the non-invasive technique, and thus a total of 117 data pairs were analysed. Overall, correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) was r(2)=0.50. Bias, precision, and LOA between invasive and non-invasive MAP were 6 (12) and -18 to +30 mm Hg. In patients requiring norepinephrine (83 data pairs), correlation was r(2)=0.28 and bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (13) and -20 to +32 mm Hg, whereas in patients not receiving norepinephrine (34 data pairs) r(2) was 0.80 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 6 (11) and -16 to +28 mm Hg. In patients with peripheral oedema (49 data pairs), r(2) was 0.40 and mean bias, precision and LOA were 7 (15) and -23 to +37 mm Hg. In patients without oedema (64 data pairs), r(2) was 0.66 and mean bias, precision, and LOA were 5 (9) and -13 to +23 mm Hg. Non-invasive blood pressure monitoring with Nexfin does not seem to be sufficiently accurate to replace intra-arterial invasive blood pressure measurements in critically ill patients.

  19. Continuous Non-Invasive Arterial Pressure Technique Improves Patient Monitoring during Interventional Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Siebig, Felix Rockmann, Karl Sabel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Christine Dierkes, Tanja Brünnler, Christian E. Wrede

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Close monitoring of arterial blood pressure (BP is a central part of cardiovascular surveillance of patients at risk for hypotension. Therefore, patients undergoing diagnostic and therapeutic procedures with the use of sedating agents are monitored by discontinuous non-invasive BP measurement (NIBP. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring based on vascular unloading technique (CNAP®, CN Systems, Graz may improve patient safety in those settings. We investigated if this new technique improved monitoring of patients undergoing interventional endoscopy. Methods: 40 patients undergoing interventional endoscopy between April and December 2007 were prospectively studied with CNAP® in addition to standard monitoring (NIBP, ECG and oxygen saturation. All monitoring values were extracted from the surveillance network at one-second intervals, and clinical parameters were documented. The variance of CNAP® values were calculated for every interval between two NIBP measurements. Results: 2660 minutes of monitoring were recorded (mean 60.1±34.4 min/patient. All patients were analgosedated with midazolam and pethidine, and 24/40 had propofol infusion (mean 90.9±70.3 mg. The mean arterial pressure for CNAP® was 102.4±21.2 mmHg and 106.8±24.8 mmHg for NIBP. Based on the first NIBP value in an interval between two NIBP measurements, BP values determined by CNAP® showed a maximum increase of 30.8±21.7% and a maximum decrease of 22.4±28.3% (mean of all intervals. Discussion: Conventional intermittent blood pressure monitoring of patients receiving sedating agents failed to detect fast changes in BP. The new technique CNAP® improved the detection of rapid BP changes, and may contribute to a better patient safety for those undergoing interventional procedures.

  20. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  1. Long-term pressure monitoring with arterial applanation tonometry: a non-invasive alternative during clinical intervention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, Koen S; Kalmar, Alain F; Struys, Michel M R F; Mortier, Eric P; Avolio, Alberto P; Segers, Patrick; Verdonck, Pascal R

    2008-01-01

    Arterial tonometry is a non-invasive technique for continuous registration of arterial pressure waveforms. This study aims to assess tonometric blood pressure recording (TBP) as an alternative for invasive long-term bedside monitoring. A prospective study was set up where patients undergoing neurosurgical intervention were subjected to both invasive (IBP) and non-invasive (TBP) blood pressure monitoring during the entire procedure. A single-element tonometric pressure transducer was used to better investigate different inherent error sources of TBP measurement. A total of 5.7 hours of combined IBP and TBP were recorded from three patients. Although TBP performed fairly well as an alternative for IBP in steady state scenarios and some short-term variations, it could not detect relevant long-term pressure variations at all times. These findings are discussed in comparison to existing work. Physiological alterations at the site of TBP measurement are highlighted as a potentially important source of artifacts. It is concluded that at this point arterial tonometry remains not enough understood for long-term use during a delicate operative procedure. Physiological changes at the TBP measurement site deserve further investigation before tonometry technology is to be considered as an non-invasive alternative for long-term clinical monitoring.

  2. Finger temperature controller for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiqin; Ting, Choon Meng; Yeo, Joon Hock

    2010-11-01

    Blood glucose level is an important parameter for doctors to diagnose and treat diabetes. The Near-Infra-Red (NIR) spectroscopy method is the most promising approach and this involves measurement on the body skin. However it is noted that the skin temperature does fluctuate with the environmental and physiological conditions and we found that temperature has important influences on the glucose measurement. In-vitro and in-vivo investigations on the temperature influence on blood glucose measurement have been carried out. The in-vitro results show that water temperature has significant influence on water absorption. Since 90% of blood components are water, skin temperature of measurement site has significant influence on blood glucose measurement. Also the skin temperature is related to the blood volume, blood volume inside capillary vessels changes with skin temperature. In this paper the relationship of skin temperature and signal from the skin and inside tissue was studied at different finger temperatures. Our OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test) trials results show the laser signals follow the skin temperature trend and the correlation of signal and skin temperature is much stronger than the correlation of signal and glucose concentration. A finger heater device is designed to heat and maintain the skin temperature of measurement site. The heater is controlled by an electronic circuit according to the skin temperature sensed by a thermocouple that is put close to the measurement site. In vivo trials were carried out and the results show that the skin temperature significantly influences the signal fluctuations caused by pulsate blood and the average signal value.

  3. Tomographic non-invasive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedde, J.P.; Reischies, W.; Fiegler, R.; Felix, H.; Helmchen, H.; Kanowski, S.

    1984-02-01

    The measurement of the regional cerebral blood flow by means of the dynamic single-photon-emission-computed tomography is a method of examination which is completely free of risk for the patient, causes no inconvenience and can be repeated whenever it seems necessary. This method gives a quantitative explanation for the distribution of the effective cerebral perfusion and can only be substituted by the very complicated positron-emission-computed tomography. As well as the exact assessment of the hemodynamic relevance of cerebral vascular disease, this method enables us to prove whether or not in various types of psychiatric disorders an interference in the regional perfusion exists. This method can also contribute to the clarification of pathogenic mechanisms, as well as to the nosological classification of specific psychopathological conditions.

  4. Hybrid model of arm for analysis of regional blood oxygenation in non-invasive optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowocień, Sylwester; Mroczka, Janusz

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a new comprehensive approach to modeling and analysis of processes occurring during the blood flow in the arm's small vessels as well as non-invasive measurement method of mixed venous oxygen saturation. During the work, a meta-analysis of available physiological data was performed and based on its result a hybrid model of forearm vascular tree was proposed. The model, in its structure, takes into account a classical nonlinear hydro-electric analogy in conjunction with light-tissue interaction. Several geometries of arm vascular tree obtained from magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) image were analyzed which allowed to proposed the structure of electrical analog network. Proposed model allows to simulate the behavior of forearm blood flow from the vascular tree mechanics point of view, as well as effects of the impact of cuff and vessel wall mechanics on the recorded photoplethysmographic signals. In particular, it allows to analyze the reaction and anatomical effects in small vessels and microcirculation caused by occlusive maneuver in selected techniques, what was of particular interest to authors and motivation to undertake research in this area. Preliminary studies using proposed model showed that inappropriate selection of occlusion maneuver parameters (e.g. occlusion time, cuff pressure etc.), cause dangerous turbulence of blood flow in the venous section of the vascular tree.

  5. Non-Invasive Measurement of Pulsatile Intracranial Pressures Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, Richard E.; Shuer, Lawrence M.; Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, John H.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Early detection of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) will aid clinical decision-making for head trauma, brain tumor and other cerebrovascular diseases. Conventional methods, however, require surgical procedures which take time and are accompanied by increased risk of infection. Accordingly we have developed and refined a new ultrasound device to measure skull movements which are known to occur in conjunction with altered ICP. The principle of this device is based upon pulse phase locked loop (PPLL), which enables us to detect changes in distance on the order of microns between an ultrasound transducer on one side of the skull and the opposite inner surface of the cranium. The present study was designed to verify this measurement technique in cadavera. Transcranial distance was increased in steps of 10 mmHg from zero to 50 mmHg by saline infusion into the lateral ventricle of two cadavera. In separate experiments, pulsations of ICP with the amplitudes of zero to 2 mmHg were generated by rhythmic injections of saline using a syringe. When the ICP was stepwise increased from zero to 50 mmHg, transcranial distance increased in proportion with the ICP increase (y=12 x - 76, r=0.938), where y is changes in transcranial distance in microns and x is ICP in mmHg. In the data recorded while ICP pulsations were generated, fast Fourier transform analysis demonstrated that cranial pulsations were clearly associated with ICP pulsations. The results indicate that changes in transcranial distance is linearly correlated with those in ICP, and also that the PPLL device has sufficient sensitivity to detect transcranial pulsations which occur in association with the cardiac cycle. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsations, we may be able to estimate the pressure-volume index in the cranium. As a result, estimates of intracranial compliance may be possible by using the PPLL device. Further studies are necessary in normal subjects and patients.

  6. Non-Invasive Measurement of Pulsatile Intracranial Pressures Using Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Toshiaki; Ballard, Richard E.; Shuer, Lawrence M.; Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, John H.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1997-01-01

    Early detection of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) will aid clinical decision-making for head trauma, brain tumor and other cerebrovascular diseases. Conventional methods, however, require surgical procedures which take time and are accompanied by increased risk of infection. Accordingly we have developed and refined a new ultrasound device to measure skull movements which are known to occur in conjunction with altered ICP. The principle of this device is based upon pulse phase locked loop (PPLL), which enables us to detect changes in distance on the order of microns between an ultrasound transducer on one side of the skull and the opposite inner surface of the cranium. The present study was designed to verify this measurement technique in cadavera. Transcranial distance was increased in steps of 10 mmHg from zero to 50 mmHg by saline infusion into the lateral ventricle of two cadavera. In separate experiments, pulsations of ICP with the amplitudes of zero to 2 mmHg were generated by rhythmic injections of saline using a syringe. When the ICP was stepwise increased from zero to 50 mmHg, transcranial distance increased in proportion with the ICP increase (y=12 x - 76, r=0.938), where y is changes in transcranial distance in microns and x is ICP in mmHg. In the data recorded while ICP pulsations were generated, fast Fourier transform analysis demonstrated that cranial pulsations were clearly associated with ICP pulsations. The results indicate that changes in transcranial distance is linearly correlated with those in ICP, and also that the PPLL device has sufficient sensitivity to detect transcranial pulsations which occur in association with the cardiac cycle. By analyzing the magnitude of cranial pulsations, we may be able to estimate the pressure-volume index in the cranium. As a result, estimates of intracranial compliance may be possible by using the PPLL device. Further studies are necessary in normal subjects and patients.

  7. Evaluation of four non-invasive methods for examination and characterization of pressure ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.S.; Karlsmark, T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Pressure ulcers are globally of major concern and there is need for research in the pathogenesis for early intervention. Early studies have suggested existence of a hypo-echogenic subepidermal layer at the location of pressure ulcers, visualized by ultrasound scans. As a continuation......, we here report on usability of four non-invasive techniques for evaluation of pressure ulcers. Methods: Fifteen pressure ulcers in stage 0-IV were examined using four different non-invasive techniques [redness index, skin temperature, skin elasticity (i.e. retraction time), and ultrasound scanning...... at all pressure ulcers, but none at the reference points. The skin retraction time was often higher at the location of a pressure ulcer than at the reference location. We found no correlation between the stage of the ulcers and temperature, redness index, subepidermal layer thickness, or retraction time...

  8. Non-invasive in Situ Simultaneous Measurement of Multi-parameter Mechanical Properties of Red Blood Cell Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing LI; Yao-Xiong HUANG; Tao JI; Mei TU; Xuan MAO; Wen-Xin CHEN; Guang-Wei CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new dynamic image analyzing technique that will give us the ability to measure the viscoelastic parameters of individual living red blood cells non-invasively, in situ and in real time. With this technique, the bending modulus Kc, the shear elasticityμ and their ratio ε were measured under different temperatures, oxygen partial pressures and osmotic pressures. The results not only show the effects of external conditions on mechanical properties of cell membranes including deformability,flexibility, adhesive ability and plasticity, but also demonstrate that the technique can be used to measure cell membrane parameters continuously under several physiological and pathological conditions.

  9. Parametrically defined cerebral blood vessels as non-invasive blood input functions for brain PET studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Marie-Claude; Cunningham, Vincent J.; Amano, Shigeko; Gunn, Roger N.; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-03-01

    A non-invasive alternative to arterial blood sampling for the generation of a blood input function for brain positron emission tomography (PET) studies is presented. The method aims to extract the dimensions of the blood vessel directly from PET images and to simultaneously correct the radioactivity concentration for partial volume and spillover. This involves simulation of the tomographic imaging process to generate images of different blood vessel and background geometries and selecting the one that best fits, in a least-squares sense, the acquired PET image. A phantom experiment was conducted to validate the method which was then applied to eight subjects injected with 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA and one subject injected with [11C]CO-labelled red blood cells. In the phantom study, the diameter of syringes filled with an 11C solution and inserted into a water-filled cylinder were estimated with an accuracy of half a pixel (1 mm). The radioactivity concentration was recovered to 100 ± 4% in the 8.7 mm diameter syringe, the one that most closely approximated the superior sagittal sinus. In the human studies, the method systematically overestimated the calibre of the superior sagittal sinus by 2-3 mm compared to measurements made in magnetic resonance venograms on the same subjects. Sources of discrepancies related to the anatomy of the blood vessel were found not to be fundamental limitations to the applicability of the method to human subjects. This method has the potential to provide accurate quantification of blood radioactivity concentration from PET images without the need for blood samples, corrections for delay and dispersion, co-registered anatomical images, or manually defined regions of interest.

  10. Validation of non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring during carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusdens, J F; Lof, S; Pennekamp, C W A; Specken-Welleweerd, J C; de Borst, G J; van Klei, W A; van Wolfswinkel, L; Immink, R V

    2016-09-01

    Patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy require strict arterial blood pressure (BP) control to maintain adequate cerebral perfusion. In this study we tested whether non-invasive beat-to-beat Nexfin finger BP (BPfin) can replace invasive beat-to-beat radial artery BP (BPrad) in this setting. In 25 consecutive patients (median age 71 yr) scheduled for carotid endarterectomy and receiving general anaesthesia, BPfin and BPrad were monitored simultaneously and ipsilaterally during the 30-min period surrounding carotid artery cross-clamping. Validation was guided by the standard set by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI), which considers a BP monitor adequate when bias (precision) is <5 (8) mm Hg, respectively. BPfin vs BPrad bias (precision) was -3.3 (10.8), 6.1 (5.7) and 3.5 (5.2) mm Hg for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP, respectively. One subject was excluded due to a poor quality BP curve. In another subject, mean BPfin overestimated mean BPrad by 13.5 mm Hg. Mean BPfin could be considered as an alternative for mean BPrad during a carotid endarterectomy, based on the AAMI criteria. In 23 of 24 patients, the use of mean BPfin would not lead to decisions to adjust mean BPrad values outside the predefined BP threshold. NCT01451294. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [The peripheral perfusion pressure: a new non-invasive parameter for the circulatory monitoring of patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huch, A; Lübbers, D W; Huch, R

    1975-01-01

    Heating of a skin area to a temperature of 42 degrees to 44 degrees C produces a certain physiological condition which induces maximal vasodilatation. Detailed experiments have shown that local peripheral vascular resistance of such an area remains constant for several hours. The flow in this area is proportional to the actual perfusion pressure. Relative flow was measured by means of a new type of electrode fixed to the skin like and ECG electrode, and compared with simultaneous intra-arterial blood pressure measruements. The changes in arterial blood pressure were also recorded by the skin electrode. This new parameter is defined as "peripheral perfusion pressure". It is appropiate for non-invasive continuous monitoring of the circulatory system of patients.

  12. Non-invasive Estimation of Pressure Changes along a Streamline using Vector Velocity Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Traberg, Marie Sand;

    2015-01-01

    estimator is evaluated by comparing its results to a 3-D numerical simulation model. The study showed pressure drops across the constricted phantom varying from -5 Pa to 7 Pa with a standard deviation of 4%. The proposed method had a normalised rootmean-square error of 10% in reference to the simulation......A non-invasive method for estimating pressure changes along a streamline using ultrasound is presented. The suggested method estimates pressure gradients from 2-D vector velocity fields. Changes in pressure are derived using a model based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Scans of a carotid...

  13. Fetal cells in maternal blood: state of the art for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S S; O'Donoghue, K; Choolani, M

    2003-09-01

    In Singapore, 1 in 5 pregnancies occur in mothers > 35 years old and genetic diseases, such as thalassaemia, are common. Current methods for the diagnosis of aneuploidy and monogenic disorders require invasive testing by amniocentesis, chorion villus biopsy or fetal blood sampling. These tests carry a procedure-related risk of miscarriage that is unacceptable to many couples. Development of non-invasive methods for obtaining intact fetal cells would allow accurate prenatal diagnosis for aneuploidy and single gene disorders, without the attendant risks associated with invasive testing, and would increase the uptake of prenatal diagnosis by women at risk. Isolation of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood should allow accurate non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of both aneuploidies and monogenic disorders. Expression of gamma-globin in maternal erythroblasts and the inability to locate fetal erythroblasts reliably in all pregnancies have prevented its clinical application. In the absence of a highly specific fetal cell marker, enrichment, identification and diagnosis--the 3 components of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis--have clearly defined objectives. Since fetal cells are rare in maternal blood, the sole purpose of enrichment is yield--to recover as many fetal cells as possible--even if purity is compromised at this stage. In contrast, the primary goal of identification is specificity; absolute certainty of fetal origin is required at this stage if the ultimate objective of diagnosis, accuracy, is to be achieved. This review summarises the current state of the art of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using fetal erythroblasts enriched from maternal blood.

  14. Rheoencephalography (REG) as a Non-Invasive Monitoring Alternative for the Assessment of Brain Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    bioimpedance (rheoencephalography - REG) measurement as a non-invasive, continuous method for assessing the status of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in combat...Dunster KR, Colditz PB, Ward LC. Noninvasive measurement of cerebral bioimpedance for detection of cerebral edema in the neonatal piglet. Brain Res...REG measurements and DC impedance (Ro) were recorded simultaneously on a portable IBM compatible computer using CODAS (DATAQ, Inc., Akron, OH) data

  15. Early predictors of success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, D; Prasad, Bnbm; Tampi, P S; Ramprasad, R

    2011-10-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) has emerged as a significant advancement in the management of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure. Patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure requiring ventilation therapy (respiratory rate [RR] of > 30 breaths per minutes, PaCO2 > 55 mmHg and arterial pH intubation was evaluated. Of the 100 patients, 76 (76%) showed improvement in clinical parameters and ABG. There was improvement in HR and RR, pH, and PCO2 within the first hour in the success group and these parameters continued to improve even after four and 24 hours of NIPPV treatment. Out of 24 (24%) patients who failed to respond, 13 (54%) needed endotracheal intubation within one hour. The failure group had higher baseline HR than the success group. Improvement in HR, RR, pH, and PCO2 one hour after putting the patient on NIPPV predicts success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  16. Continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitoring reflects intra-arterial pressure changes in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofhuizen, C.M.; Lemson, J.; Hemelaar, A.E.A.; Settels, J.J.; Schraa, O.; Singh, S.K.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Scheffer, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous non-invasive measurement of finger arterial pressure (FAP) is a reliable technology in adults. FAP is measured with an inflatable cuff around the finger and simultaneously converted to a reconstructed brachial artery pressure waveform (reBAP) by the Nexfin device. We assessed

  17. Non-invasive blood glucose detection system based on conservation of energy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Liang, Yong-Bo; Chen, Hong-Bo; Yin, Shi-Min; Chen, Zhen-Cheng

    2017-02-01

    The most common method used for minimizing the occurrence of diabetes complications is frequent glucose testing to adjust the insulin dose. However, using blood glucose (BG) meters presents a risk of infection. It is of great importance to develop non-invasive BG detection techniques. To realize high-accuracy, low-cost and continuous glucose monitoring, we have developed a non-invasive BG detection system using a mixed signal processor 430 (MSP430) microcontroller. This method is based on the combination of the conservation-of-energy method with a sensor integration module, which collects physiological parameters, such as the blood oxygen saturation (SPO2), blood flow velocity and heart rate. New methods to detect the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and BV are proposed, which combine the human body heat balance and characteristic signals of photoplethysmography as well dual elastic chambers theory. Four hundred clinical trials on real-time non-invasive BG monitoring under suitable experiment conditions were performed on different individuals, including diabetic patients, senior citizens and healthy adults. A multisensory information fusion model was applied to process these samples. The algorithm (we defined it as DCBPN algorithm) applied in the model combines a decision tree and back propagation neural network, which classifies the physiological and environmental parameters into three categories, and then establishes a corresponding prediction model for the three categories. The DCBPN algorithm provides an accuracy of 88.53% in predicting the BG of new samples. Thus, this system demonstrates a great potential to reliably detect BG values in a non-invasive setting.

  18. Research of transmissive near infrared spectroscopy for non-invasive blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenming; Liao, Ningfang; Li, Yasheng; Shao, Liwei; Huang, Dehuang

    2016-10-01

    Near infrared (NIR) has prospectively applied in non-invasive blood glucose measurement due to glucose absorption among the 1.0-2.5m spectral bands. However, this significant technology is hard to be developed because of other blood components and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this work, we presented a non-invasive glucose measurement system using Fourier transform spectrometer which will work in fingertips or other human body tissues. A refrigerated InGaAs detector with high quantum efficiency performing well in the range of 1.0-1.7μm wavelength is used to acquire transmissive radiation. Preliminary experiment investigations were set up to test glucose levels of aqueous solutions with different concentrations. The analytical modeling of the interferogram data is based on arithmetic Fourier transform and supported by the curvilineal characterization. Experimental results show the variation of light intensity among different glucose concentrations and emphasize the obvious absorption of glucose in NIR wave-range. This study confirms the suitability that NIR can be developed in non-invasive glucose measurement.

  19. Feasibility of non-invasive optical blood-glucose detection using overtone circular dichroism

    CERN Document Server

    Hokr, Brett H; Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most debilitating and costly diseases currently plaguing humanity. It is a leading cause of death and dismemberment in the world, and we know how to treat it. Accurate, continuous monitoring and control of blood glucose levels via insulin treatments are widely known to mitigate the majority of detrimental effects caused by the disease. The primary limitation of continuous glucose monitoring is patient non-compliance due to the unpleasant nature of "finger-stick" testing methods. This limitation can be largely, or even completely, removed by non-invasive testing methods. In this report, we demonstrate the vibrational overtone circular dichroism properties of glucose and analyze its use as a method of non-invasive glucose monitoring, capable of assuaging this trillion dollar scourge.

  20. Proposed Application of Fast Fourier Transform in Near Infra Red Based Non Invasive Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenie, R. P.; Iskandar, J.; Kurniawan, A.; Rustami, E.; Syafutra, H.; Nurdin, N. M.; Handoyo, T.; Prabowo, J.; Febryarto, R.; Rahayu, M. S. K.; Damayanthi, E.; Rimbawan; Sukandar, D.; Suryana, Y.; Irzaman; Alatas, H.

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide emergence of glycaemic status related health disorders, such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome, is growing in alarming rate. The objective was to propose new methods for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system, based on implementation of Fast Fourier Transform methods. This was an initial-lab-scale-research. Data on non invasive blood glucose measurement are referred from Scopus, Medline, and Google Scholar, from 2011 until 2016, and was used as design references, combined with in house verification. System was developed in modular fashion, based on aforementioned compiled references. Several preliminary tests to understand relationship between LED and photo-diode responses have been done. Several references were used as non invasive blood glucose measurement tools design basis. Solution is developed in modular fashion. we have proven different sensor responses to water and glucose. Human test for non invasive blood glucose level measurement system is needed.

  1. Non-invasive quantification of peripheral arterial volume distensibility and its non-linear relationship with arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2009-05-29

    Arterial wall function is associated with different physiological and clinical factors. Changes in arterial pressure cause major changes in the arterial wall. This study presents a simple non-invasive method to quantify arterial volume distensibility changes with different arterial pressures. The electrocardiogram, finger and ear photoplethysmogram were recorded from 15 subjects with the right arm at five different positions (90 degrees , 45 degrees , 0 degrees , -45 degrees and -90 degrees referred to the horizontal level). Arm pulse propagation time was determined by subtracting ear pulse transit time from finger pulse transit time, and was used to obtain arterial volume distensibility. The mean arterial blood pressure with the arm at the horizontal level was acquired, and changes with position were calculated using the hydrostatic principle that blood pressure in the arm is linearly related to its vertical distance from the horizontal level. The mean arm pulse propagation times for the five different positions were 88, 72, 57, 54 and 52ms, with the corresponding mean arterial volume distensibility of 0.234%, 0.158%, 0.099%, 0.088% and 0.083% per mmHg. For all consecutive changes in arm position, arm pulse propagation time and arterial volume distensibility, were significantly different (all probability Ppressure decreased significantly between each consecutive arm position from 90 degrees to -45 degrees (all Ppressure changes from 101 to 58mmHg. In conclusion, the inverse and non-linear relationship between arterial volume distensibility and arterial pressure has been quantified using a simple arm positioning procedure, with the greatest effect at low pressures. This work is an important step in developing a simple non-invasive technique for assessing peripheral arterial volume distensibility.

  2. Influence of cholesterol on non-invasive blood glucose sensing studied with NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingying; Zhang, Lingling; Gong, Qiliang; Xu, Kexin

    2011-03-01

    There is a growing body of studies suggesting that NIR spectroscopy is feasible to be used to non-invasive blood glucose sensing. However, previous results reported that blood components are very complicated and in which glucose concentration is relatively low. This feature limited the practical application of NIR spectroscopy to in vivo blood glucose detection. This talk aims to elucidate how the cholesterol influences blood glucose sensing. Spectroscopic measurements show that cholesterol appears the similar absorbance peaks to those of glucose within NIR range. Furthermore, PLS modelling results demonstrate that the measurement concentrations of glucose are on the high side while containing cholesterol. For example, when the cholesterol concentration is 200mg/dl, the measurement result of glucose with near-infrared spectroscopy will increase 7.961882mg/dl comparing to cholesterol-free glucose solution. Therefore, it is necessary to take steps to reduce cholesterol's effects.

  3. Research on the multiple linear regression in non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianming; Chen, Zhencheng

    2015-01-01

    A non-invasive blood glucose measurement sensor and the data process algorithm based on the metabolic energy conservation (MEC) method are presented in this paper. The physiological parameters of human fingertip can be measured by various sensing modalities, and blood glucose value can be evaluated with the physiological parameters by the multiple linear regression analysis. Five methods such as enter, remove, forward, backward and stepwise in multiple linear regression were compared, and the backward method had the best performance. The best correlation coefficient was 0.876 with the standard error of the estimate 0.534, and the significance was 0.012 (sig. regression equation was valid. The Clarke error grid analysis was performed to compare the MEC method with the hexokinase method, using 200 data points. The correlation coefficient R was 0.867 and all of the points were located in Zone A and Zone B, which shows the MEC method provides a feasible and valid way for non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  4. Modelling, verification, and calibration of a photoacoustics based continuous non-invasive blood glucose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Praful P; Sanki, Pradyut K; Sarangi, Satyabrata; Banerjee, Swapna

    2015-06-01

    This paper examines the use of photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) at an excitation wavelength of 905 nm for making continuous non-invasive blood glucose measurements. The theoretical background of the measurement technique is verified through simulation. An apparatus is fabricated for performing photoacoustic measurements in vitro on glucose solutions and in vivo on human subjects. The amplitude of the photoacoustic signals measured from glucose solutions is observed to increase with the solution concentration, while photoacoustic amplitude obtained from in vivo measurements follows the blood glucose concentration of the subjects, indicating a direct proportionality between the two quantities. A linear calibration method is applied separately on measurements obtained from each individual in order to estimate the blood glucose concentration. The estimated glucose values are compared to reference glucose concentrations measured using a standard glucose meter. A plot of 196 measurement pairs taken over 30 normal subjects on a Clarke error grid gives a point distribution of 82.65% and 17.35% over zones A and B of the grid with a mean absolute relative deviation (MARD) of 11.78% and a mean absolute difference (MAD) of 15.27 mg/dl (0.85 mmol/l). The results obtained are better than or comparable to those obtained using photoacoustic spectroscopy based methods or other non-invasive measurement techniques available. The accuracy levels obtained are also comparable to commercially available continuous glucose monitoring systems.

  5. Online estimation of respiratory mechanics in non-invasive pressure support ventilation: a bench model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Qestra; Tassaux, Didier; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Schindhelm, Klaus; Redmond, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-01-01

    An online algorithm for determining respiratory mechanics in patients using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pressure support mode was developed and embedded in a ventilator system. Based on multiple linear regression (MLR) of respiratory data, the algorithm was tested on a patient bench model under conditions with and without leak and simulating a variety of mechanics. Bland-Altman analysis indicates reliable measures of compliance across the clinical range of interest (± 11-18% limits of agreement). Resistance measures showed large quantitative errors (30-50%), however, it was still possible to qualitatively distinguish between normal and obstructive resistances. This outcome provides clinically significant information for ventilator titration and patient management.

  6. [Efficacy and safety of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation therapy in acute pulmonary edema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarullo, Filippo Maria; D'Alfonso, Giovanni; Brusca, Ignazio; De Michele, Piero; Taormina, Andrea; Di Pasquale, Pietro; Castello, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is an effective treatment for acute respiratory failure in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We assessed the efficacy and safety of this therapy in acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE). In addition to routine therapy consisting of oxygen, nitrates and diuretics, 60 patients (39 male, 21 female, mean age 72.5 +/- 15.8 years) were started on full mask NIPPV using a Sullivan VPAP II ventilator delivering pressure support 15 cm H2O, PEEP 5 cm H2O, FiO2 100%. Pressure support were titrated to achieve oxygen saturation (SaO2) > 95%. Physiological measurements were obtained in the first 2 h and at 3 h, 4 h, and 10 h. Outcome measures included arterial blood gas (ABG), Borg dyspnea score, vital signs, and need for endotracheal intubation (ETI). Initial mean values on FiO2 100% by non nonrebreather mask: pH 7.11 +/- 0.25, paCO2 67.7 +/- 17.5 mmHg, paO2 71.5 +/- 29.7 mmHg, SaO2 83 +/- 12%, lactate concentrations 4.7 +/- 2.3 mmol/L, Borg score 8.6 +/- 1.3, respiratory rate (RR) 41 +/- 7. At 60 minutes of NIPPV, improvement was statistically significant: pH 7.35 +/- 0.18 (difference 0.24; p < 0.0001), paCO2 43 +/- 13 mmHg (difference 24.7; p < 0.0001), paO2 102 +/- 10 mmHg (difference 30.5; p < 0.0001), SaO2 99 +/- 5% (difference 16; p < 0.0001), lactate concentrations 1.2 +/- 0.8 (difference 3.5; p < 0.0001) Borg score 3.6 +/- 0.9 (difference 5; p < 0.0001), RR 24.6 +/- 5 (difference 17.1; p < 0.0001). NIPPV duration ranged from 40 minutes to 24 hours (median 3 hours, 30 minutes). Fifty-six patients (93.4%) improved allowing cessation of NIPPV. ETI was required in four (6.6%) of 60 patients. There were non complications of NIPPV. In this study of acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, NIPPV is an effective treatment and may help prevent ETI.

  7. Evaluation of continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring during induction of general anaesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Anil; Jagadeesh, A M; Singh, Naveen G; Prasad, S R

    2015-01-01

    Continuous arterial pressure monitoring is essential in cardiac surgical patients during induction of general anaesthesia (GA). Continuous non-invasive arterial pressure (CNAP) monitoring is fast gaining importance due to complications associated with the invasive arterial monitoring. Recently, a new continuous non-invasive arterial pressure device (CNAP™) has been validated perioperatively in non-cardiac surgeries. The aim of our study is to compare and assess the performance of CNAP during GA with invasive arterial pressure (IAP) in patients undergoing cardiac surgeries. Sixty patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) data were recorded every minute for 20 min simultaneously for both IAP and CNAP™. Statistical analysis was performed using mountain plot and Bland Altman plots for assessing limits of agreement and bias (accuracy) calculation. Totally 1200 pairs of data were analysed. The CNAP™ systolic, diastolic and MAP bias was 5.98 mm Hg, -3.72 mm Hg, and - 0.02 mm Hg respectively. Percentage within limits of agreement was 96.0%, 95.2% and 95.7% for systolic, diastolic and MAP. The mountain plot showed similar results as the Bland Altman plots. We conclude CNAP™ provides real-time estimates of arterial pressure comparable to IAP during induction of GA for cardiac surgery. We recommend CNAP can be used as an alternative to IAP in situations such as cardiac patients coming for non-cardiac surgeries, cardiac catheterization procedures, positive Allen's test, inability to cannulate radial artery and vascular diseases, where continuous blood pressure monitoring is required.

  8. Evaluating the culture of fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Griffin, D K; Jestice, K; Hackett, G; Cooper, J; Ferguson-Smith, M A

    1998-09-01

    Fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood are important candidate cells for non-invasive prenatal diagnosis. We have cultured erythroblasts from 16 maternal blood samples, both with and without prior enrichment by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS), in a semi-solid medium containing growth factors. Individual colonies were examined by PCR with sex chromosome-specific primers and microsatellite marker primers. No conclusive Y-chromosome specific amplification could be demonstrated in any of the 16 cases, even when the mother was confirmed to be carrying a male fetus. All colonies tested by microsatellite marker PCR were of maternal origin. Our results suggest that the probability of obtaining fetal colonies from fetal erythroblasts circulating in maternal blood is very low and that approaches for culturing fetal erythroblasts in vitro cannot yet be used reliably for prenatal diagnosis using current methods for fetal cell enrichment.

  9. Non-invasive Measurement of Pressure Gradients in Pulsatile Flow using Ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jacob Bjerring; Traberg, Marie Sand; Pihl, Michael Johannes

    2013-01-01

    approach. Pressure gradients are calculated from the measured velocity fields using the Navier-Stokes equation. Velocity fields are measured during constant and pulsating flow on a carotid bifurcation phantom and on a common carotid artery in-vivo. Scanning is performed with a 5 MHz BK8670 linear......This paper demonstrates how pressure gradients in a pulsatile flow environment can be measured non-invasively using ultrasound. The proposed method relies on vector velocity fields acquired from ultrasound data. 2-D flow data are acquired at 18-23 frames/sec using the Transverse Oscillation...... transducer using a BK Medical 2202 UltraView Pro Focus scanner. The calculated pressure gradients are validated through a finite element simulation of the constant flow model. The geometry of the flow simulation model is reproduced using MRI data, thereby providing identical flow domains in measurement...

  10. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention......: To assess the benefits and harms of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care (e.g. bronchodilators and corticosteroids) in children with acute asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through...... both studies as having high risk of bias; both trials assessed effects of bilateral positive airway pressure (BiPAP). Neither trial used continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Controls received standard care. Investigators reported no deaths and no serious adverse events (Grades of Recommendation...

  11. A non-invasive method to produce pressure ulcers of varying severity in a spinal cord-injured rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A K; Goodwin, C R; Sarabia-Estrada, R; Lay, F; Ansari, A M; Steenbergen, C; Pang, C; Cohen, R; Born, L J; Matsangos, A E; Ng, C; Marti, G P; Abu-Bonsrah, N; Phillips, N A; Suk, I; Sciubba, D M; Harmon, J W

    2016-12-01

    Experimental study. The objective of this study was to establish a non-invasive model to produce pressure ulcers of varying severity in animals with spinal cord injury (SCI). The study was conducted at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. A mid-thoracic (T7-T9) left hemisection was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats. At 7 days post SCI, rats received varying degrees of pressure on the left posterior thigh region. Laser Doppler Flowmetry was used to record blood flow. Animals were killed 12 days after SCI. A cardiac puncture was performed for blood chemistry, and full-thickness tissue was harvested for histology. Doppler blood flow after SCI prior to pressure application was 237.808±16.175 PFUs at day 7. Following pressure application, there was a statistically significant decrease in blood flow in all pressure-applied groups in comparison with controls with a mean perfusion of 118.361±18.223 (Ppressure ulcer formation in the setting of a SCI. Histological analysis revealed different stages of injury corresponding to the amount of pressure the animals were exposed to with decreased blood flow immediately after the insult along with a subsequent marked increase in blood flow the next day, conducive to an ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) and a possible inflammatory response following tissue injury. Following ischemia and hypoxia secondary to microcirculation impairment, free radicals generate lipid peroxidation, leading to ischemic tissue damage. Future studies should be aimed at measuring free radicals during this period of increased blood flow, following tissue ischemia.

  12. Non-invasive Technology for Arterial Blood Pressure Signal Based on Photo-diode%基于光电二极管的动脉血压信号无损监测技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊元姣

    2015-01-01

    用红外发光二极管和光电二极管组成的光耦合指套,放置在人身体的指尖部位,通过检测人体末梢组织在动脉舒张和收缩时对红外光的吸收度变化率,来检测人体动脉血压信号的异常。红外发射二极管的驱动采用PWM信号调制的恒流驱动,光电二极管接收穿透人体后的红外光并转换成微弱的电信号,再经过前置放大、倒相、压控二阶低通滤波、陷波电路、A/D 转换等处理后,MCU 从采集的数据中提取有关动脉血压信号的特征值,实现血压信号异常的无损连续监测。%An optical coupling finger stall, composed of IR LED and photo-diode, is placed at fingertip, when the IR transmission light intensity across a finger changes with the diastole and systole of arterial blood pressure, the inverter current of photo-diode varies. Therefore, the arterial blood pressure anomalies can be detected according to the changes. The drive current of IR LED, controlled by PWM is constant in the process of detection. The voltage signal converted by photo-diode is very week, so that it can easily be disturbed. The signal must be processed by the pre-amplification circuit, second order filter circuit, and wave trap. Finally, the data from A/D converter is collected and processed by MCU.

  13. Non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy: prospects for device miniaturization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with diabetes has reached over 350 million, and still continues to increase. The need for regular blood glucose monitoring sparks the interest in the development of modern detection technologies. One of those methods, which allows for noninvasive measurements, is Raman spectroscopy. The ability of infrared light to penetrate deep into tissues allows for obtaining measurements through the skin without its perforation. This paper presents the limitations and possibilities of non-invasive blood glucose monitoring with Raman spectroscopy. Especially focusing on the possibilities for device miniaturization. Such device incorporates a Raman spectrometer, a fiber-optical probe, and a computing device (microcontroller, smartphone, etc.) which calculates the glucose concentration using specialized algorithms. Simplification of device design, as well as turbidity correction technique and a new proposed method of synchronized detection are described.

  14. Gingival crevicular blood: As a non-invasive screening tool for diabetes mellitus in dental clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neema Shetty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A high number of patients with periodontitis may have undiagnosed diabetes. Self-monitoring devices provide a simple method for rapid monitoring of the glucose level in the blood by utilizing a blood sample from the finger, but this method requires a needle puncture to obtain blood. It is possible that gingival crevicular blood (GCB from routine periodontal probing may be a source of blood for glucose measurements. Aim: To establish whether GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes mellitus during routine periodontal examination. Materials and Methods: The study involved 50 diabetics and 50 non-diabetics, with an age range of 26-66 years. Both diabetic and non-diabetic patients had moderate to severe gingivitis with at least one tooth in the maxillary anterior region showing bleeding upon probing. The Gingival Index and Oral Hygiene Index-Simplified were recorded. Blood oozing from the gingival sulcus/pocket following periodontal pocket probing was collected using a capillary tube and transferred to the test stick of a glucose self-monitoring device (Accu-Chek, Roche Diagnostic, Germany in patients with comparable gingival and oral hygiene status. This value was compared with the peripheral fingerstick blood glucose (PFBG value, which was obtained by pricking the finger tip at the same visit. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson′s correlation coefficient. Result: There was no statistically significant difference between the gingival crevicular blood glucose (GCBG values and the PFBG values in both the diabetic (P = 0.129, NS and the non-diabetic (P = 0.503, NS groups. Karl Pearson′s product-moment correlation coefficient was calculated, which showed a positive correlation between the two measurements in the diabetic (r = 0.943 as well as the non-diabetic (r = 0.926 groups. Conclusion: The results suggest that GCB can be used as a non-invasive diagnostic aid in screening for diabetes

  15. Non-invasive evaluation of placental blood flow: lessons from animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourier, E; Tarrade, A; Duan, J; Richard, C; Bertholdt, C; Beaumont, M; Morel, O; Chavatte-Palmer, P

    2017-03-01

    In human obstetrics, placental vascularisation impairment is frequent as well as linked to severe pathological events (preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction), and there is a need for reliable methods allowing non-invasive evaluation of placental blood flow. Uteroplacental vascularisation is complex, and animal models are essential for the technical development and safety assessment of these imaging tools for human clinical use; however, these techniques can also be applied in the veterinary context. This paper reviews how ultrasound-based imaging methods such as 2D and 3D Doppler can provide valuable insight for the exploration of placental blood flow both in humans and animals and how new approaches such as the use of ultrasound contrast agents or ultrafast Doppler may allow to discriminate between maternal (non-pulsatile) and foetal (pulsatile) blood flow in the placenta. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging could also be used to evaluate placental blood flow, as indicated by studies in animal models, but its safety in human pregnancy still requires to be confirmed. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  16. Continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitoring reflects intra-arterial pressure changes in children undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofhuizen, C M; Lemson, J; Hemelaar, A E A; Settels, J J; Schraa, O; Singh, S K; van der Hoeven, J G; Scheffer, G J

    2010-10-01

    Continuous non-invasive measurement of finger arterial pressure (FAP) is a reliable technology in adults. FAP is measured with an inflatable cuff around the finger and simultaneously converted to a reconstructed brachial artery pressure waveform (reBAP) by the Nexfin™ device. We assessed the adequacy of a prototype device (Nexfin-paediatric), designed for a paediatric population, for detecting rapid arterial pressure changes in children during cardiac surgery. Thirteen anaesthetized children with a median age of 11 months (2 months-7 yr) undergoing congenital cardiac surgery were included in the study. reBAP and intra-arterial pressure (IAP) were recorded simultaneously during the surgical procedure. To assess the accuracy of reBAP in tracking arterial pressure changes, the four largest IAP variations within a 5 min time interval were identified from each procedure. These variations were compared offline with reBAP during a 10 s control period before and a 10 s period after an arterial pressure change had occurred. In 10 out of 13 children, a non-invasive arterial pressure recording could be obtained. Therefore, recordings from these 10 children were eligible for further analysis, resulting in 40 data points. The correlation coefficient between reBAP and IAP in tracking mean arterial pressure (MAP) changes was 0.98. reBAP followed changes in IAP with a mean bias for systolic, diastolic arterial pressure, and MAP of 0.0 mm Hg (sd 5.8), 0.1 (sd 2.8), and 0.19 (sd 2.7), respectively. The prototype device closely follows arterial pressure changes in children. However, in a considerable number of attempts, obtaining a signal was time-consuming or unsuccessful. This technique seems promising but requires further technical development.

  17. Non-invasive perilymphatic pressure measurement in normal hearing subjects using the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    1996-01-01

    The MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser (TDA) is a new device to measure the perilymphatic pressure of the human inner ear in a non-invasive way. In this study, the instrument was used in 50 normal hearing subjects (100 ears) in three different conditions: i) sitting upright and supine; ii) in the

  18. Aortic pressure-area relation in Marfan patients with and without β blocking agents: a new non-invasive approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nollen, G.J.; Westerhof, B.E.; Groenink, M.; Osnabrugge, A.; Wall, E.E. van der; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the heterogeneous response to β blockade in patients with Marfan syndrome by non-invasive assessment of the aortic pressure-area curve. Design and patients: 25 patients with the Marfan syndrome who used β blocking agents (mean (SD) age, 29 (10) years; 20 men, five women), s

  19. Non-invasive bedside assessment of central venous pressure: scanning into the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Rizkallah

    Full Text Available Noninvasive evaluation of central venous pressure (CVP can be achieved by assessing the Jugular Venous Pressure (JVP, Peripheral Venous Collapse (PVC, and ultrasound visualization of the inferior vena cava. The relative accuracy of these techniques compared to one another and their application by trainees of varying experience remains uncertain. We compare the application and utility of the JVP, PVC, and handheld Mini Echo amongst trainees of varying experience including a medical student, internal medicine resident, and cardiology fellow. We also introduce and validate a new physical exam technique to assess central venous pressures, the Anthem sign.Patients presenting for their regularly scheduled echocardiograms at the hospital echo department had clinical evaluations of their CVP using these non-invasive bedside techniques. The examiners were blinded to the echo results, each other's assessments, and patient history; their CVP estimates were compared to the gold standard level 3 echo-cardiographer's estimates at the completion of the study.325 patients combined were examined (mean age 65, s.d. 16 years. When compared to the gold standard of central venous pressure by a level 3 echocardiographer, the JVP was the most sensitive at 86%, improving with clinical experience (p<0.01. The classic PVC technique and Anthem sign had better specificity compared to the JVP. Mini Echo estimates were comparable to physical exam assessments.JVP evaluation is the most sensitive physical examination technique in CVP assessments. The PVC techniques along with the newly described Anthem sign may be of value for the early learner who still has not mastered the art of JVP assessment and in obese patients in whom JVP evaluation is problematic. Mini Echo estimates of CVPs are comparable to physical examination by trained clinicians and require less instruction. The use of Mini Echo in medical training should be further evaluated and encouraged.

  20. Effects of conventional physiotherapy, continuous positive airway pressure and non-invasive ventilatory support with bilevel positive airway pressure after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, P; Jacquet, L; Van Dyck, M; Goenen, M

    2000-01-01

    Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with the use of mammary arteries is associated with severe alteration of lung function parameters. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effect on lung function tests of conventional physiotherapy using incentive spirometry (IS) with non-invasive ventilation on continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and with non-invasive ventilation on bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP or NIV-2P), METHODS: Ninety-six patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: NIV-2P (1 h/3 h), CPAP (1 h/3 h) and IS (20/2 h). Pulmonary function tests and arterial blood gases analyses were obtained before surgery. On the 1st and 2nd postoperative days, these parameters were collected together with cardiac output and calculation of venous admixture. For the 3 groups a severe restrictive pulmonary defect was observed during the 1st postoperative day. On the 2nd postoperative day, in opposition to IS, intensive use of CPAP and NIV-2P reduced significantly the venous admixture (Ppreventive use of NIV can be considered as an effective means to decrease the negative effect of coronary surgery on pulmonary function.

  1. The effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation on blood gas changes and the life quality in patients with overlap syndrome%家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚桂飞; 冯加喜; 龚柳阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation ( BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome. Methods 38 patients with home oxygen therapy treatment and 42 patients with BiPAP treatment were selected, and blood gas analysis ( pH, PaO2 ,and PaCO2 values) and questionnaire of life quality were used to analyze the home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation (BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality. Results Blood pH and PaO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment (P <0. 05). Blood PaCO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (P <0. 05) . There was no significant differ-ence between blood PH,PO2 and blood PaCO2 of home oxygen therapy group before and after treatment. Blood pH and PaO2 BiPAP group increased with time during the treatment period ( P < 0. 05 ) , and blood PaC02 of BiPAP group decreased gradually the normal level(P <0.05) ,there was no significant difference between blood pH,PaO2 and blood PaC02 of home oxygen therapy group during the treatment period. Life quality of the patients of BiPAP group significantly was improved,but not in the home oxygen therapy group. Conclusion The non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) can improve effect blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome more significant than the home oxygen therapy.%目的 探讨家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响.方法 38例经家庭氧疗和42例经双水平无创通气治疗的重叠综合征患者,分析治疗前后患者血液中pH、PaO2,PaCO2值变化情况,并通过调查问卷方式分析治疗前后生活质量.结果 双水平无创通气组治疗后血pH和血PaO2均显著高于治疗前(均P<0.05),血PaCO2显著低于治疗前(P<0.05);家庭氧疗

  2. A Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Urinary Bladder Internal Pressure Monitoring Technique: Its Theoretical Foundation and Feasibility Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Min Joo; Kang, Gwan Suk [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Il [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    A new approach was proposed in this article, named, a non-invasive ultrasonic method to monitor the urinary bladder internal pressure which can resolve the shortcomings of the existing methods. The proposed method makes use of acoustic cavitation. It is based on a physical phenomenon that an extracorporeal high intensity focused ultrasonic pulse generates bubbles inside the urinary bladder and the dynamic properties of the bubbles are related to the urinary bladder internal pressure. The article presents the theoretical foundation for the proposed technique and verifies its feasibility with preliminary experimental data. The suggested ultrasonic urinary bladder internal pressure monitoring method is non-invasive and can be used any time regardless of sex and age.

  3. Non-Invasive Intra-cardiac Pressure Measurements Using Subharmonic-Aided Pressure Estimation: Proof of Concept in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jaydev K; Kulkarni, Sushmita V; Pangaonkar, Purva P; Stanczak, Maria; McDonald, Maureen E; Cohen, Ira S; Mehrotra, Praveen; Savage, Michael P; Walinsky, Paul; Ruggiero, Nicholas J; Fischman, David L; Ogilby, David; VanWhy, Carolyn; Lombardi, Matthew; Forsberg, Flemming

    2017-08-11

    This study evaluated the feasibility of employing non-invasive intra-cardiac pressure estimation using subharmonic signals from ultrasound contrast agents in humans. This institutional review board-approved proof-of-concept study included 15 consenting patients scheduled for left and right heart catheterization. During the catheterization procedure, Definity was infused intra-venously at 4-10 mL/min. Ultrasound scanning was performed with a Sonix RP using pulse inversion, three incident acoustic output levels and 2.5-MHz transmit frequency. Radiofrequency data were processed and subharmonic amplitudes were compared with the pressure catheter data. The correlation coefficient between subharmonic signals and pressure catheter data ranged from -0.3 to -0.9. For acquisitions with optimum acoustic output, pressure errors between the subharmonic technique and catheter were as low as 2.6 mmHg. However, automatically determining optimum acoustic output during scanning for each patient remains to be addressed before clinical applicability can be decided. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A preliminary verification of the floating reference measurement method for non-invasive blood glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Xiaolin; Liu, Rong; Fu, Bo; Xu, Kexin

    2017-06-01

    In the non-invasive sensing of blood glucose by near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the spectrum is highly susceptible to the unstable and complicated background variations from the human body and the environment. In in vitro analyses, background variations are usually corrected by the spectrum of a standard reference sample that has similar optical properties to the analyte of interest. However, it is hard to find a standard sample for the in vivo measurement. Therefore, the floating reference measurement method is proposed to enable relative measurements in vivo, where the spectra under some special source-detector distance, defined as the floating reference position, are insensitive to the changes in glucose concentration due to the absorption effect and scattering effect. Because the diffuse reflectance signals at the floating reference positions only reflect the information on background variations during the measurement, they can be used as the internal reference. In this paper, the theoretical basis of the floating reference positions in a semi-infinite turbid medium was discussed based on the steady-state diffusion equation and its analytical solutions in a semi-infinite turbid medium (under the extrapolated boundary conditions). Then, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations and in vitro experiments based on a custom-built continuous-moving spatially resolving double-fiber NIR measurement system, configured with two types of light source, a super luminescent diode (SLD) and a super-continuum laser, were carried out to verify the existence of the floating reference position in 5%, 10% and 20% Intralipid solutions. The results showed that the simulation values of the floating reference positions are close to the theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of approximately 0.3 mm in 1100-1320 nm. Great differences can be observed in 1340-1400 nm because the optical properties of Intralipid in this region don not satisfy the conditions of the steady

  5. Continuous Non-invasive finger cuff CareTaker® comparable to invasive intra-arterial pressure in patients undergoing major intra-abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Irwin; Deal, Edward; Spitz, Francis; Baruch, Martin; Allen, I Elaine; Seaman, Julia E; Pukenas, Erin; Jean, Smith

    2017-03-21

    Despite increased interest in non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring, the majority of commercially available technologies have failed to satisfy the limits established for the validation of automatic arterial pressure monitoring by the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). According to the ANSI/AAMI/ISO 81060-2:2013 standards, the group-average accuracy and precision are defined as acceptable if bias is not greater than 5 mmHg and standard deviation is not greater than 8 mmHg. In this study, these standards are used to evaluate the CareTaker® (CT) device, a device measuring continuous non-invasive blood pressure via a pulse contour algorithm called Pulse Decomposition Analysis. A convenience sample of 24 patients scheduled for major abdominal surgery were consented to participate in this IRB approved pilot study. Each patient was monitored with a radial arterial catheter and CT using a finger cuff applied to the contralateral thumb. Hemodynamic variables were measured and analyzed from both devices for the first thirty minutes of the surgical procedure including the induction of anesthesia. The mean arterial pressure (MAP), systolic and diastolic blood pressures continuously collected from the arterial catheter and CT were compared. Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated between arterial catheter and CT blood pressure measurements, a Bland-Altman analysis, and polar and 4Q plots were created. The correlation of systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures were 0.92, 0.86, 0.91, respectively (p arterial pressures, respectively with a standard deviation of 7.34, 6.47, 5.33 mmHg for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressures, respectively (p pressure measured using the non-invasive CT device was shown to correlate well with the arterial catheter measurements. Larger studies are needed to confirm these results in more varied settings. Most patients exhibited very good agreement between methods. Results were

  6. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute asthma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang, Steven Kwasi; Feinberg, Joshua; Wetterslev, Jørn; Jakobsen, Janus C

    2016-09-30

    Asthma is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission among children and constitutes a significant economic burden. Use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in the care of children with acute asthma has increased even though evidence supporting the intervention has been considered weak and clinical guidelines do not recommend the intervention. NPPV might be an effective intervention for acute asthma, but no systematic review has been conducted to assess the effects of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care in children with acute asthma. To assess the benefits and harms of NPPV as an add-on therapy to usual care (e.g. bronchodilators and corticosteroids) in children with acute asthma. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through systematic searches of bibliographic databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED and PsycINFO, and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts. We also conducted a search of ClinicalTrials.gov (www.ClinicalTrials.gov) and the WHO trials portal (www.who.int/ictrp/en/). We searched all databases from their inception to February 2016, with no restriction on language of publication. We included randomised clinical trials (RCTs) assessing NPPV as add-on therapy to usual care versus usual care for children (age process in sufficient detail to complete a PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses) flow diagram and 'Characteristics of excluded studies' table. We identified the risk of bias of included studies to reduce the risk of systematic error. We contacted relevant study authors when data were missing. We included two RCTs that randomised 20 participants to NPPV and 20 participants to control. We assessed both studies as having high risk of bias; both trials assessed effects of bilateral positive airway

  7. Case Report of a Pressure Ulcer Occurring Over the Nasal Bridge Due to a Non-Invasive Ventilation Facial Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Faria; Zahoor, Muhammad Umar U

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is used in patients with respiratory failure, sleep apnoea, and dyspnoea related to pulmonary oedema. NIV is provided through a facial mask. Many complications of NIV facial masks have been reported, including the breakdown of facial skin. We report a case of an elderly male admitted with multiple co-morbidities. The facial mask was applied continuously for NIV, without any relief or formal monitoring of the underlying skin. It resulted in a Grade II pressure ulcer. We discuss the possible mechanism and offer advice for prevention of such device-related pressure ulcers. PMID:27843731

  8. Investigation of the agreement of a continuous non-invasive arterial pressure device in comparison with invasive radial artery measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilies, C; Bauer, M; Berg, P; Rosenberg, J; Hedderich, J; Bein, B; Hinz, J; Hanss, R

    2012-02-01

    Arterial pressure (AP) monitoring should be accurate, easy to use, free of risks, and ideally continuous. The continuous non-invasive arterial pressure (CNAP) device is non-invasive and provides continuous pressure readings. This study was performed to compare the agreement of CNAP and invasive AP monitoring. Ninety patients undergoing surgery under general anaesthesia were enrolled. Invasive pressure monitoring was established at the radial artery. CNAP monitoring using a finger sensor recording was begun before induction of anaesthesia. Statistical analysis was conducted with the Bland-Altman method for comparisons of repeated measures. We obtained 16 843 valid pressure readings from 85 patients. Mean (sd) bias during maintenance of anaesthesia was: systolic AP: 4.2 (16.5) mm Hg; mean AP (MAP): -4.3 (10.4) mm Hg; and diastolic AP: -5.8 (6) mm Hg. The results of a subgroup analysis of patients who had a mean intra-arterial pressure of pressure: -0.3 (9.7) mm Hg; mean pressure: -6.8 (7.6) mm Hg; and diastolic pressure: -7.9 (7.2) mm Hg. Bias and percentage error during the induction period were greater in both the main and subgroup analyses, probably due to recalibration being omitted after induction. The CNAP monitor showed an acceptable agreement and was interchangeable with invasive pressure monitoring for MAP during normotensive conditions. During induction of anaesthesia and when the AP was low, the agreement was less good and interchangeability was not achieved. These results suggest that CNAP is not statistically equivalent to invasive monitoring during all periods of anaesthesia but may be a useful additional AP monitor.

  9. Comparison of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitoring with conventional intermittent automated arm arterial pressure measurement in patients under general anaesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J. J.; Poterman, M.; Mooyaart, E. A. Q.; Weening, M.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Kalmar, A. F.

    Background: For a majority of patients undergoing anaesthesia for general surgery, mean arterial pressure (MAP) is only measured intermittently by arm cuff oscillometry (MAP(iNIAP)). In contrast, the Nexfin (R) device provides continuous non-invasive measurement of MAP (MAP(cNIAP)) using a finger

  10. Enrichment of Fetal Nucleated Red Blood Cells by Multi-core Magnetic Composite Particles for Non-invasive Prenatal Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ying; ZHANG Ai-chen; WANG Qing; HUANG Wen-jun; QIAO Feng-li; LIU Yu-ping; ZHANG Yu-cheng; HAl De-yang; DU Ying-ting; WANG Wen-yue

    2012-01-01

    A novel kind of multi-core magnetic composite particles,the surfaces of which were respectively modified with goat-anti-mouse IgG and antitransferrin receptor(anti-CD71 ),was prepared.The fetal nucleated red blood cells(FNRBCs) in the peripheral blood of a gravida were rapidly and effectively enriched and separated by the modified multi-core magnetic composite particles in an external magnetic field.The obtained FNRBCs were used for the identification of the fetal sex by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization(FISH) technique.The results demonstrate that the multi-core magnetic composite particles meet the requirements for the enrichment and speration of FNRBCs with a low concentration and the accuracy of detetion for the diagnosis of fetal sex reached to 95%.Moreover,the obtained FNRBCs were applied to the non-invasive diagnosis of Down syndrome and chromosome 3p21 was detected.The above facts indicate that the novel multi-core magnetic composite particles-based method is simple,reliable and cost-effective and has opened up vast vistas for the potential application in clinic non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

  11. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Determinants of skin contact pressure formation during non-invasive ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellweg, Dominic; Hochrainer, Dieter; Klauke, Matthias; Kerl, Jens; Eiger, Glenn; Kohler, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    There is no published data about mask features that impact skin contact pressure during mask ventilation. To investigate the physical factors of skin contact pressure formation. We measured masks with original and reduced air cushion size and recorded contact pressure. We determined cushion contact and mask areas by planimetric measurements. Contact pressures necessary to prevent air leakage during inspiration exceed inspiratory pressure by 1.01+/-0.41 hPa independent of cushion size. Contact area, ventilator pressure and mask area during inspiration and expiration impact contact pressure. Mask contact pressures are higher during expiration. The contact pressure increases with increase in inspiratory pressures independent of the ventilator cycle. During expiration, the contact pressure will increase in proportion to the expiratory pressure reduction of the ventilator. The mask with reduced air cushion size developed higher contact pressures. Contact pressure can be reduced by selecting masks with a small mask area in combination with a large mask cushion.

  13. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  14. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, P.C.; Mathews, V.J.; Loupas, T.; Stewart, P.A.; Clark, E.B.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature. METHODS:

  15. Blood pressure estimation in the human fetal descending aorta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C. Struijk (Pieter); V.J. Mathews; T. Loupas; P.A. Stewart (Patricia); E.B. Clark; R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The objectives of this study were to estimate fetal blood pressure non-invasively from two-dimensional color Doppler-derived aortic blood flow and diameter waveforms, and to compare the results with invasively derived human fetal blood pressures available from the literature.

  16. Non-Invasive Monitoring of Temporal and Spatial Blood Flow during Bone Graft Healing Using Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Han

    Full Text Available Vascular infiltration and associated alterations in microvascular blood flow are critical for complete bone graft healing. Therefore, real-time, longitudinal measurement of blood flow has the potential to successfully predict graft healing outcomes. Herein, we non-invasively measure longitudinal blood flow changes in bone autografts and allografts using diffuse correlation spectroscopy in a murine femoral segmental defect model. Blood flow was measured at several positions proximal and distal to the graft site before implantation and every week post-implantation for a total of 9 weeks (autograft n = 7 and allograft n = 10. Measurements of the ipsilateral leg with the graft were compared with those of the intact contralateral control leg. Both autografts and allografts exhibited an initial increase in blood flow followed by a gradual return to baseline levels. Blood flow elevation lasted up to 2 weeks in autografts, but this duration varied from 2 to 6 weeks in allografts depending on the spatial location of the measurement. Intact contralateral control leg blood flow remained at baseline levels throughout the 9 weeks in the autograft group; however, in the allograft group, blood flow followed a similar trend to the graft leg. Blood flow difference between the graft and contralateral legs (ΔrBF, a parameter defined to estimate graft-specific changes, was elevated at 1-2 weeks for the autograft group, and at 2-4 weeks for the allograft group at the proximal and the central locations. However, distal to the graft, the allograft group exhibited significantly greater ΔrBF than the autograft group at 3 weeks post-surgery (p < 0.05. These spatial and temporal differences in blood flow supports established trends of delayed healing in allografts versus autografts.

  17. Non-invasive perilymphatic pressure measurement in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    1996-01-01

    The MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser is a new device to measure the perilymphatic pressure in humans. This instrument was used in 25 patients with Meniere's disease (28 affected ears) and a group of 50 young normal hearing subjects. No significant differences were found in perilymphatic pressur

  18. Non-invasive assessment of pulmonary blood supply after staged repair of pulmonary atresia.

    OpenAIRE

    Del Torso, S.; Kelly, M J; Kalff, V; Stellin, G; Mee, R B; Venables, A W

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide studies were performed to determine pulmonary blood flow in six children who had undergone surgery for pulmonary atresia, ventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries with or without major aortopulmonary collateral arteries. Lung blood flow was assessed from both particle perfusion lung scans and the pulmonary and systemic phase of a radionuclide dynamic flow study. Five patients had perfusion defects identified on the particle perfusion lung scan. In three of th...

  19. Non-invasive assessment of pulmonary arterial pressure in healthy neonates.

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, J. R.; Boys, R J; Hunter, S; Hey, E N

    1991-01-01

    Doppler echocardiograms were carried out on 51 healthy babies three times during the first 72 hours of life to estimate pulmonary arterial systolic pressure by measuring regurgitant tricuspid jet velocity and applying the Bernoulli equation. Tricuspid regurgitation was detected at some stage in all preterm babies and most of those born at full term. Pulmonary arterial pressure could be measured from peak regurgitant velocity in babies with pansystolic regurgitation. The incidence of pansystol...

  20. Non invasive blood flow assessment in diabetic foot ulcer using laser speckle contrast imaging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthy, A. K.; Sujatha, N.; Reddy, M. Ramasubba; Narayanamoorthy, V. B.

    2014-03-01

    Measuring microcirculatory tissue blood perfusion is of interest for both clinicians and researchers in a wide range of applications and can provide essential information of the progress of treatment of certain diseases which causes either an increased or decreased blood flow. Diabetic ulcer associated with alterations in tissue blood flow is the most common cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputations. A technique which can detect the onset of ulcer and provide essential information on the progress of the treatment of ulcer would be of great help to the clinicians. A noninvasive, noncontact and whole field laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique has been described in this paper which is used to assess the changes in blood flow in diabetic ulcer affected areas of the foot. The blood flow assessment at the wound site can provide critical information on the efficiency and progress of the treatment given to the diabetic ulcer subjects. The technique may also potentially fulfill a significant need in diabetic foot ulcer screening and management.

  1. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  3. Unilateral pulmonary oedema due to lung re-expansion following pleurocentesis for spontaneous pneumothorax. The role of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Dimitrios K; Gatzioufas, Zisis I; Tzegas, Georgios I; Stergiopoulos, Panagiotis I; Tsokantaridis, Christos G; Chalikias, Georgios K; Tziakas, Dimitrios N

    2007-01-18

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema represents a rare complication of treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax with only a few cases documented in the current literature. We present the case of a 47-year-old male who presented a right-sided spontaneous pneumothorax and developed respiratory failure after chest tube drainage. The diagnosis of re-expansion pulmonary oedema was made and he was successfully treated with non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation. Since pathogenesis of re-expansion unilateral pulmonary oedema differs significantly from that of cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, the role of non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation is discussed as an additional therapeutic option.

  4. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  5. Non-invasive prediction of blood lactate response to constant power outputs from incremental exercise tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, C S; Casaburi, R; Storer, T W; Wasserman, K

    1995-01-01

    We determined the ability of gas exchange analyses during incremental exercise tests (IXT) to predict blood lactate levels associated with a range of constant power output cycle ergometer tests. Twenty-seven healthy young men performed duplicate IXT and four 15-min constant power output tests at intensities ranging from moderate to very severe, before and after a training program. End-exercise blood lactate levels were approximated from superficial venous samples obtained 60 s after each constant power output test. From IXT, the power outputs corresponding to peak oxygen uptake (Wmax) and lactic acidosis threshold (WLAT), were determined. We examined the ability of four measures of exercise intensity to predict blood lactate levels for power outputs above the LAT: (1) power output (W), (2) power difference (W-WLAT), (3) power fraction (W/Wmax) and (4) power difference to delta ratio [(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)]. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.38, 0.69, 0.75, and 0.81, respectively. The best linear regression prediction equation was: lactate (mmol.l-1) = 12.2[(W-WLAT)/(Wmax-WLAT)] + 0.7 mmol.l-1. This relationship was not significantly affected by training, despite increased values of LAT and peak oxygen uptake. Normalizing exercise intensity to the range of power outputs between WLAT and Wmax provided an estimate of blood lactate response to constant power outputs with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 mmol.l-1.

  6. Non-invasive perilymphatic pressure measurement in patients with Meniere's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosingh, HJ; Wit, HP; Albers, FWJ

    The MMS-10 Tympanic Displacement Analyser is a new device to measure the perilymphatic pressure in humans. This instrument was used in 25 patients with Meniere's disease (28 affected ears) and a group of 50 young normal hearing subjects. No significant differences were found in perilymphatic

  7. [Non invasive prenatal diagnosis. Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesarini, Carla; Argibay, Pablo; Otaño, Lucas

    2010-01-01

    Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  8. Non-Invasive Ultrasonic Diagnosing and Monitoring of Intracranial Pressure/Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    related to cardiovascular parameters. ICP VI, Eds. Miller JD, Teasdale GM, Rowan JO, Galbraith SL, Mendelow AD. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 290...Galbraith AD Mendelow (Springer Berlin Heidelberg) 305-309 43. Hayashi M, Handa Y, Kobayashi H, Kawano H, Ishii H, Hirose S (1991). Plateau-wave...Galbraith SL, Mendelow AD Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. 151-155 72. Maeda M, Tanaka K, Nishimur S, Matsuura S (1986). Pressure wave-like changes in

  9. Regression approach to non-invasive determination of bilirubin in neonatal blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, S. A.; Kugeiko, M. M.

    2012-07-01

    A statistical ensemble of structural and biophysical parameters of neonatal skin was modeled based on experimental data. Diffuse scattering coefficients of the skin in the visible and infrared regions were calculated by applying a Monte-Carlo method to each realization of the ensemble. The potential accuracy of recovering the bilirubin concentration in dermis (which correlates closely with that in blood) was estimated from spatially resolved spectrometric measurements of diffuse scattering. The possibility to determine noninvasively the bilirubin concentration was shown by measurements of diffuse scattering at λ = 460, 500, and 660 nm at three source-detector separations under conditions of total variability of the skin biophysical parameters.

  10. Multivariate regression and discreminant calibration models for a novel optical non-invasive blood glucose measurement method named pulse glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2009-01-01

    A novel optical non-invasive in vivo blood glucose concentration (BGL) measurement technique, named "Pulse Glucometry", was combined with a kernel method; support vector machines. The total transmitted radiation intensity (I(lambda)) and the cardiac-related pulsatile changes superimposed on I(lambda) in human adult fingertips were measured over the wavelength range from 900 to 1700 nm using a very fast spectrophotometer, obtaining a differential optical density (DeltaOD(lambda)) related to the blood component in the finger tissues. Subsequently, a calibration model using paired data of a family of DeltaOD(lambda)s and the corresponding known BGLs was constructed with support vector machines (SVMs) regression instead of using calibration by a conventional primary component regression (PCR) and partial least squares regression (PLS). Secondly, SVM method was applied to make a nonlinear discriminant calibration model for "Pulse glucometry." Our results show that the regression calibration model based on the support vector machines can provide a good regression for the 101 paired data, in which the BGLs ranged from 89.0-219 mg/dl (4.94-12.2 mmol/l). The resultant regression was evaluated by the Clarke error grid analysis and all data points fell within the clinically acceptable regions (region A: 93%, region B: 7%). The discriminant calibration model using SVMs also provided a good result for classification (accuracy rate 84% in the best case).

  11. Long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong; LIANG Bin-miao; XU Zhi-bo; TANG Yong-jiang; WANG Ke; XIAO Jun; YI Qun; SUN Jian; FENG Yu-lin

    2011-01-01

    Background The evidence for non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) used in patients with severe stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is insufficient.The aim of the meta-analysis was to assess the treatment effects of long-term NIPPV on gas change,lung function,health-related quality of life (HRQL),survival and mortality in severe stable COPD patients.Methods Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and crossover studies comparing the treatment effects of NIPPV with conventional therapy were identified from electronic databases and reference lists from January 1995 to August 2010.Two reviewers independently assessed study quality.Data were combined using Review Manager 5.0.Both pooled effects and 95% confidence intervals were calculated.Results Five RCTs and one randomized crossover study with a total of 383 severe stable COPD patients were included.NIPPV improved gas change significantly when using a higher inspiratory positive airway pressures.The weighted mean difference (WMD) for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in artery (PaCO2) was -3.52 (-5.26,-1.77) mmHg and for the partial pressure of oxygen in artery (PaO2) 2.84 (0.23,5.44) mmHg.There were significant improvements in dyspnea and sleep quality,but gained no benefits on lung function.The standardized mean difference (SMD) for the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)was 0.00 (0.29,0.29).And the benefits for exercise tolerance,mood,survival and mortality remained unclear.Conclusions Patients with severe stable COPD can gain some substantial treatment benefits when using NIPPV,especially improvements in gas change,dyspnea and sleep quality.Studies of high methodological quality with large population,especially those based on a higher inspiratory positive airway pressures are required to provide more evidences.

  12. Agreement between mathematically arterialised venous versus arterial blood gas values in patients undergoing non-invasive ventilation: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Anne-Maree; Klim, Sharon; Rees, Stephen E

    2014-10-01

    Blood gas analysis is important for assessment of ventilatory function. Traditionally, arterial analysis has been used. A method for mathematically arterialising venous blood gas values has been developed. Our aim was to validate this method in patients undergoing non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in an emergency department (ED). This post hoc substudy of a prospective cohort study included adult patients undergoing NIV for acute respiratory compromise. When arterial blood gas analysis was required for clinical purposes, a venous sample was also drawn. Mathematically arterialised values were calculated independent of arterial values. Primary outcome of interest was agreement between mathematically arterialised venous and arterial values for pH and pCO2. Bland-Altman agreement plot analysis was used. Eighty sample-pairs (58 patients) were studied. Mean difference for arterial pH (actual-calculated) was 0.01 pH units (95% limits of agreement: -0.04, 0.06). Mean difference for pCO2 (actual-calculated) was -0.06 kPa (95% limits of agreement: -1.34, 1.22). For patients undergoing NIV in an ED, agreement between mathematically arterialised venous values and arterial values was close for pH but only moderate for pCO2. Depending on clinician tolerance for agreement, this method may be a clinically useful alternative to arterial blood gas analysis in the ED. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Overview of Five-Years of Experience Performing Non-Invasive Fetal Sex Assessment in Maternal Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jose Trujillo-Tiebas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the presence of fetal DNA in maternal blood, non-invasive fetal sex determination has been the test most widely translated into clinical practice. To date there is no agreement between the different laboratories performing such tests in relation to which is the best protocol. As a consequence there are almost as many protocols as laboratories offering the service, using different methodologies and thus obtaining different diagnostic accuracies. By the end of 2007, after a validation study performed in 316 maternal samples collected between the 5th and 12th week of gestation, the fetal sex determination was incorporated into clinical practice in our Service. The test is performed in the first trimester of pregnancy, and it is offered as part of the genetic counseling process for couples at risk of X-linked disorders. As a general rule and in order to avoid misdiagnosis, two samples at different gestational ages are tested per patient. The analysis is performed by the study of the SRY gene by RT-PCR. Two hundred and twenty six pregnancies have been tested so far in these 5 years. Neither false positives nor false negatives diagnoses have been registered, thus giving a diagnostic accuracy of 100%.

  14. DNA methylome profiling of maternal peripheral blood and placentas reveal potential fetal DNA markers for non-invasive prenatal testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yuqian; Zhang, Junyu; Li, Qiaoli; Zhou, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Xu, Mingqing; Xia, Shihui; Xing, Qinghe; Wang, Lei; He, Lin; Zhao, Xinzhi

    2014-09-01

    Utilizing epigenetic (DNA methylation) differences to differentiate between maternal peripheral blood (PBL) and fetal (placental) DNA has been a promising strategy for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). However, the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) have yet to be fully ascertained. In the present study, we performed genome-wide comparative methylome analysis between maternal PBL and placental DNA from pregnancies of first trimester by methylated DNA immunoprecipitation-sequencing (MeDIP-Seq) and Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip assays. A total of 36 931 DMRs and 45 804 differentially methylated sites (DMSs) covering the whole genome, exclusive of the Y chromosome, were identified via MeDIP-Seq and Infinium 450k array, respectively, of which 3759 sites in 2188 regions were confirmed by both methods. Not only did we find the previously reported potential fetal DNA markers in our identified DMRs/DMSs but also we verified fully the identified DMRs/DMSs in the validation round by MassARRAY EpiTYPER. The screened potential fetal DNA markers may be used for NIPT on aneuploidies and other chromosomal diseases, such as cri du chat syndrome and velo-cardio-facial syndrome. In addition, these potential markers may have application in the early diagnosis of placental dysfunction, such as pre-eclampsia.

  15. Precision and accuracy of a new device (CNAPTM) for continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring: assessment during general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeleazcov, C; Krajinovic, L; Münster, T; Birkholz, T; Fried, R; Schüttler, J; Fechner, J

    2010-09-01

    Continuous non-invasive arterial pressure measured with CNAP (CNAP) has been shown to be superior to intermittent oscillometric measurements during procedural sedation and spinal anaesthesia. We assessed the performance of CNAP during general anaesthesia by analysis of agreement with invasive measurements of arterial pressure (AP). Eighty-eight patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery, cardio-, or neurosurgery were included in the study. Systolic, diastolic, and mean AP measured by an intra-arterial catheter in the radial artery (IAP) were compared with those obtained by CNAP from the same arm. Data were analysed to determine the precision (i.e. measurement error) and accuracy (i.e. systematic error) of beat-to-beat CNAP values with respect to IAP. Also, we compared the frequency of fast changes in AP (FCAP) and hypotension (IOH) by both methods. CNAP precision of 4.5, 3.1, and 3.2 mm Hg (systolic, diastolic, and mean AP, respectively) was not significantly different from IAP precision, and CNAP accuracy was +6.7, -5.6, and -1.6 mm Hg. The frequency of AP pairs having a difference within the calculated limits of agreement was 81%, 64%, and 76% for systolic, diastolic, and mean AP, respectively. The calculated limits of agreement were +/-17.6, +/-11.4, and +/-12.0 mm, Hg, respectively. CNAP and IAP detected simultaneously to 82.1% FCAP and to 84.6% IOH. CNAP provides real-time estimates of arterial pressure comparable with those generated by an invasive intra-arterial catheter system during general anaesthesia.

  16. States of low pulmonary blood flow can be detected non-invasively at the bedside measuring alveolar dead space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusman, Gerardo; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando; Paez, Gabriel; Alvarez, Jorge; Bohm, Stephan H

    2012-06-01

    We tested whether the ratio of alveolar dead space to alveolar tidal volume (VD(alv)/VT(alv)) can detect states of low pulmonary blood flow (PBF) in a non-invasive way. Fifteen patients undergoing cardiovascular surgeries with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were studied. CPB is a technique that excludes the lungs from the general circulation. The weaning of CPB is a model that manipulates PBF in vivo because each time blood flow through the CPB decreases, expected PBF (ePBF) increases. Patients were liberated from CPB in steps of 20 % every 2' starting from 100 % CPB (very low ePBF) to 0 % CPB (100 % ePBF). During constant ventilation, volumetric capnograms were recorded and Bohr's dead space ratio (VD(Bohr)/VT), VD(alv)/VT(alv) and the ratio of airway dead space to tidal volume (VD(aw)/VT) were calculated. Before CPB, VD(Bohr)/VT was 0.36 ± 0.05, VD(aw)/VT 0.21 ± 0.04 and VD(alv)/VT(alv) 0.18 ± 0.06 (mean ± SD). During weaning from CPB, VD(aw)/VT remained unchanged while VD(Bohr)/VT and VD(alv)/VT(alv) decreased with increasing ePBF. At CPB of 80, 60, 40 and 20 % VD(Bohr)/VT was 0.64 ± 0.06, 0.55 ± 0.06, 0.47 ± 0.05 and 0.40 ± 0.04, respectively; p alveolar component of VD(Bohr)/VT increased in proportion to the deficit in lung perfusion.

  17. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  18. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  19. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  20. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  1. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low blood pressure (hypotension) Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Low blood pressure might seem desirable, and for some people, it causes no problems. However, for many people, abnormally low blood pressure (hypotension) can cause dizziness and fainting. In severe ...

  2. Effects of environmental parameters and irrigation on the turgor pressure of banana plants measured using the non-invasive, online monitoring leaf patch clamp pressure probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Rüger, S; Shapira, O; Westhoff, M; Wegner, L H; Reuss, R; Gessner, P; Zimmermann, G; Israeli, Y; Zhou, A; Schwartz, A; Bamberg, E; Zimmermann, D

    2010-05-01

    Turgor pressure provides a sensitive indicator for irrigation scheduling. Leaf turgor pressure of Musa acuminate was measured by using the so-called leaf patch clamp pressure probe, i.e. by application of an external, magnetically generated and constantly retained clamp pressure to a leaf patch and determination of the attenuated output pressure P(p) that is highly correlated with the turgor pressure. Real-time recording of P(p) values was made using wireless telemetric transmitters, which send the data to a receiver base station where data are logged and transferred to a GPRS modem linked to an Internet server. Probes functioned over several months under field and laboratory conditions without damage to the leaf patch. Measurements showed that the magnetic-based probe could monitor very sensitively changes in turgor pressure induced by changes in microclimate (temperature, relative humidity, irradiation and wind) and irrigation. Irrigation effects could clearly be distinguished from environmental effects. Interestingly, oscillations in stomatal aperture, which occurred frequently below turgor pressures of 100 kPa towards noon at high transpiration or at high wind speed, were reflected in the P(p) values. The period of pressure oscillations was comparable with the period of oscillations in transpiration and photosynthesis. Multiple probe readings on individual leaves and/or on several leaves over the entire height of the plants further emphasised the great impact of this non-invasive turgor pressure sensor system for elucidating the dynamics of short- and long-distance water transport in higher plants.

  3. Non-invasive delivery of stealth, brain-penetrating nanoparticles across the blood-brain barrier using MRI-guided focused ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Elizabeth; Timbie, Kelsie; Miller, G Wilson; Song, Ji; Louttit, Cameron; Klibanov, Alexander L; Shih, Ting-Yu; Swaminathan, Ganesh; Tamargo, Rafael J; Woodworth, Graeme F; Hanes, Justin; Price, Richard J

    2014-09-10

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a significant obstacle for the treatment of many central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including invasive brain tumors, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and stroke. Therapeutics must be capable of bypassing the BBB and also penetrate the brain parenchyma to achieve a desired effect within the brain. In this study, we test the unique combination of a non-invasive approach to BBB permeabilization with a therapeutically relevant polymeric nanoparticle platform capable of rapidly penetrating within the brain microenvironment. MR-guided focused ultrasound (FUS) with intravascular microbubbles (MBs) is able to locally and reversibly disrupt the BBB with submillimeter spatial accuracy. Densely poly(ethylene-co-glycol) (PEG) coated, brain-penetrating nanoparticles (BPNs) are long-circulating and diffuse 10-fold slower in normal rat brain tissue compared to diffusion in water. Following intravenous administration of model and biodegradable BPNs in normal healthy rats, we demonstrate safe, pressure-dependent delivery of 60nm BPNs to the brain parenchyma in regions where the BBB is disrupted by FUS and MBs. Delivery of BPNs with MR-guided FUS has the potential to improve efficacy of treatments for many CNS diseases, while reducing systemic side effects by providing sustained, well-dispersed drug delivery into select regions of the brain.

  4. Radial artery applanation tonometry for continuous non-invasive arterial pressure monitoring in intensive care unit patients: comparison with invasively assessed radial arterial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidert, A S; Huber, W; Müller, J N; Schöfthaler, M; Hapfelmeier, A; Langwieser, N; Wagner, J Y; Eyer, F; Schmid, R M; Saugel, B

    2014-03-01

    Radial artery applanation tonometry technology can be used for continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure (AP). The purpose of this study was to evaluate this AP monitoring technology in intensive care unit (ICU) patients in comparison with invasive AP monitoring using a radial arterial catheter. In 24 ICU patients (German university hospital), AP values were simultaneously recorded on a beat-to-beat basis using radial artery applanation tonometry (T-Line system; Tensys Medical, San Diego, CA, USA) and a radial arterial catheter (contralateral arm). The primary endpoint of the study was to investigate the accuracy and precision of the non-invasively assessed AP measurements with the Bland-Altman method based on averaged 10 beat AP epochs (n=2993 10 beat epochs). For mean AP (MAP), systolic AP (SAP), and diastolic AP (DAP), we observed a bias (±standard deviation of the bias; 95% limits of agreement; percentage error) of +2 mm Hg (±6; -11 to +15 mm Hg; 15%), -3 mm Hg (±15; -33 to +27 mm Hg; 23%), and +5 mm Hg (±7; -9 to +19 mm Hg; 22%), respectively. In ICU patients, MAP and DAP measurements obtained using radial artery applanation tonometry show clinically acceptable agreement with invasive AP determination with a radial arterial catheter. While the radial artery applanation tonometry technology also allows SAP measurements with high accuracy, its precision for SAP measurements needs to be further improved.

  5. Differences analysis of invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in patients with hypertension and stroke:a Meta analysis%高血压及休克患者有创与无创血压差异性的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宇娇; 高岚; 孙士艳; 李春静

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the best method of monitoring blood pressure in patients with hypertensive or shock. Methods According to the meta-analysis of the studies that compared records the of the invasive and noninvasive blood pressure of the hypertensive and shock patients in Chinese medical journals published, through the Revman5. 1 for metaanalysis. Results The hypertension group had totally retrieved 6 articles, and Meta analysis showed the systolic pressure was WMD=18. 08,95%CI=13. 75-2. 40, and NBP had difference with IBP in systolic pressure that the blood pressure of IBP method was higher than that of NBP;after U test, P <0. 000 1. The diastolic was WMD =4. 36, 95% CI = -2. 963-11. 68 and there was no statistically significant in difference of two methods to measure diastolic pressure. The stroke group was totally retrieved 9 randomized trails with diastolic blood pressure WMD= -13. 79, 95%CI= -16. 7--10. 88 and systolic blood pressure WMD= -8. 67, 95%CI= -10. 53--6. 81; both NBP of diastolic and systolic blood pressure were higher than that of IBP;after U test, P<0. 000 1. Conclusions IBP can reflect the change of hypertension and stroke dynamically, so it can save value time of rescue in clinical.%目的 探讨高血压及休克患者血压监测的最佳方法. 方法 检索中英文医学期刊公开发表的关于高血压及休克患者有创与无创血压监测进行对比的文献,通过Revman 5. 3 软件进行Meta分析. 结果 高血压组共纳入6篇文献,Meta分析结果显示,收缩压WMD=18. 08,95%CI=13. 75~2. 40,无创血压(NBP)与有创血压(IBP)测得收缩压值不同,IBP法高于NBP法,经U检验,P<0. 000 1,结果具有统计学意义. 舒张压WMD=4. 36,95%CI= -2. 963~11. 68,两种方法所测舒张压差异无统计学意义. 休克组共纳入9篇随机对照试验文献,收缩压WMD= -13. 79,95%CI= -16. 7~ -10. 88,舒张压WMD= -8. 67,95%CI= -10. 53~ -6. 81,无论收缩压或舒张压,NBP法测得值均高于IBP法,经U检验,P<0

  6. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in acute hypercapnic respiratory failure: ten-year’s clinical experience of a Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit (VERSIONE IN ITALIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Naldi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough several prospective controlled randomizedtrials demonstrated the success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIV in selected cases of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (IRA in setting with different care levels, clinical practice data about the use of NIV in the “real world” are limited.AimTo report the results of our clinical experience in NIV applied for IRA in the Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit (UTSIR allocated within the Respiratory Division of Arezzo in the years 1996-2006 in terms of: tolerance, effects upon arterial blood gases, success rate and predictors of failure.MethodsThree hundred filthy of the 1484 patients (23.6% consecutively admitted for IRA to our RespiratoryDivision during the study period received NIV in addition to standard therapy, according to the pre-defined routinely used criteria.ResultsEight patients (2.3% did not tolerated NIV becauseof mask discomfort, while the remaining 342 (M: 240, F: 102; median (interquartiles age: 74.0 (68.0-79.3 yrs; COPD: 69.3% were ventilatedfor >1 hour. Arterial blood gases significantlyimproved after two hours of NIV (mean (standard deviation pH: 7.33 (0.07 versus 7.28 (7.25-7.31, p 48 hrs of ventilation after an initial positive response.ConclusionsAs results of our ten-year’s clinical experience performed in a UTSIR, NIV is confirmed to be well tolerated, effective in improving arterial blood gases and useful in avoiding intubation in most IRA episodes non-responder to standard therapy.

  7. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  8. Advances in the clinical application of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation%无创正压通气临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫帅; 刘跃建

    2013-01-01

    20世纪初首次运用负压机械通气治疗神经肌肉疾病,从此开创了呼吸疾病治疗史上的新纪元.如今无创正压通气有了迅猛发展,在观念和机器设备上都发生了革命性变化.为顺应医学事业发展,国内外相继发表了无创通气治疗指南,这些指南以循证医学为依据并具有较高科学价值与临床实用性,很大程度上促进了无创呼吸机的应用与推广.现就无创正压通气应用现状及进展综述如下.%In the beginning of the twentith century,negative pressure mechanical ventilation was used in the treatment of neuromuscular diseases for the first time,and began a new era in the history of respiratory disease treatment.Today,non invasive positive pressure ventilation has been the dramatic development of a revolutionary change in terms of concepts and machinery and equipment.In order to conform to the medical career development,non invasive ventilation treatment guidelines have been published at home and abroad,these guidelines have been based on the evidence-based medicine and have a high scientific value and clinical utility,also contributed to the application and promotion of non invasive ventilation.This review aims to summarize the current situation and progression for non invasive positive pressure ventilation.

  9. Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Acute Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure: Ten-Year’s Clinical Experience of a Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Scala, M.D., esp.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough several prospective controlled randomizedtrials demonstrated the success of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV in selected cases of acute hypercapnic respiratory failure (ARF in setting with different care levels, clinical practice data about the use of VNI in the “real world” are limited.AimTo report the results of our clinical experiencein NIPPV applied for ARF in the Respiratory Semi-Intensive Care Unit (UTSIR allocated within the Respiratory Division of Arezzo betweenthe years 1996-2006 in terms of: patient tolerance, effects upon arterial blood gases, successrate and predictors of failure. Methods: Three hundred and filthy out of the 1484 patients (23.6% consecutively admittedfor ARF to our Respiratory Division during the study period received NIPPV in addition to standard therapy, according to the predeterminedroutinely used criteria. Results: Eight patients (2.3% did not tolerateNIPPV because of mask discomfort, while the remaining 342 (M: 240, F: 102; median (interquartilesage: 74.0 (68.0-79.3 yrs; COPD: 69.3% were ventilated for >1 hour. Arterial blood gases significantly improved after two hours of NIPPV (mean (standard deviation pH: 7.33 (0.07 versus 7.28 (7.25-7.31, p 48 hrs of ventilation after an initial positive response. Conclusions: As results of ten years of clinicalexperience at our UTSIR, NIPPV was shown to be well tolerated, effective in improving arterialblood gases and useful in avoiding intubationin most ARF episodes non-responsive to standard therapy.

  10. Non-invasive submilligram level quantification of in vivo blood components with slitless high-sensitivity spectrometer and noncooled NIR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuribayashi, Ryosuke; Furukawa, Hiromitsu

    2015-03-01

    By using a "slit-less" Fourier-transform spectrometer, we demonstrate that cardiac-pulsation amplitude of absorbance can be extracted from 3.5-level absorbance unit (AU) spectra of a human fingertip with a resolution of blood components (water, HbO2, and lipids/proteins) in a fingertip are deduced in the sub-milligram order. The results indicate the capacity of the spectrometer for a portable non-invasive blood monitor as well as for a high-end analytic instrument.

  11. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  12. Validation of non-invasive haemodynamic methods in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittain, Jane M; Busk, Troels M; Møller, Søren

    2017-01-01

    , SBP, DBP and HR were measured non-invasively and by femoral artery catheterization. CO was measured non-invasively and by indicator dilution technique. The non-invasive pressure monitoring was considered acceptable with a bias (accuracy) and a SD (precision) not exceeding 5 and 8 mmHg, respectively......Patients with advanced cirrhosis often present a hyperdynamic circulation characterized by a decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), and an increase in heart rate (HR) and cardiac output (CO). Accurate assessment of the altered circulation can be performed invasively......; however, due to the disadvantages of this approach, non-invasive methods are warranted. The purpose of this study was to compare continuous non-invasive measurements of haemodynamic variables by the Finometer and the Task Force Monitor with simultaneous invasive measurements. In 25 patients with cirrhosis...

  13. Comparison of continuous non-invasive finger arterial pressure monitoring with conventional intermittent automated arm arterial pressure measurement in patients under general anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, J J; Poterman, M; Mooyaart, E A Q; Weening, M; Struys, M M R F; Scheeren, T W L; Kalmar, A F

    2014-07-01

    For a majority of patients undergoing anaesthesia for general surgery, mean arterial pressure (MAP) is only measured intermittently by arm cuff oscillometry (MAPiNIAP). In contrast, the Nexfin(®) device provides continuous non-invasive measurement of MAP (MAPcNIAP) using a finger cuff. We explored the agreement of MAPcNIAP and MAPiNIAP with the gold standard: continuous invasive MAP measurement by placement of a radial artery catheter (MAPinvasive). In a total of 120 patients undergoing elective general surgery and clinically requiring MAPinvasive measurement, MAPiNIAP and MAPcNIAP were measured in a 30 min time period at an arbitrary moment during surgery with stable haemodynamics. MAPiNIAP was measured every 5 min. Data from 112 patients were analysed. Compared with MAPinvasive, modified Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias (sd) of 2 (9) mm Hg for MAPcNIAP and -2 (12) mm Hg for MAPiNIAP. Percentage errors for MAPcNIAP and MAPiNIAP were 22% and 32%, respectively. In a haemodynamically stable phase in patients undergoing general anaesthesia, the agreement with invasive MAP of continuous non-invasive measurement using a finger cuff was not inferior to the agreement of intermittent arm cuff oscillometry. Continuous measurements using a finger cuff can interchangeably be used as an alternative for intermittent arm cuff oscillometry in haemodynamically stable patients, with the advantage of beat-to-beat haemodynamic monitoring. NCT 01362335 (clinicaltrials.gov). © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoremba Norbert

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV. The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45 undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask. Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de

  15. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mmHg People read "118 over 76" millimeters of mercury. Normal Blood Pressure Normal blood pressure for adults ... health. Share your story with other women on Facebook . The Heart Truth campaign offers a variety of ...

  17. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  18. A systematic approach for the accurate non-invasive estimation of blood glucose utilizing a novel light-tissue interaction adaptive modelling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybynok, V O; Kyriacou, P A [City University, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Diabetes is one of the biggest health challenges of the 21st century. The obesity epidemic, sedentary lifestyles and an ageing population mean prevalence of the condition is currently doubling every generation. Diabetes is associated with serious chronic ill health, disability and premature mortality. Long-term complications including heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney disease and amputations, make the greatest contribution to the costs of diabetes care. Many of these long-term effects could be avoided with earlier, more effective monitoring and treatment. Currently, blood glucose can only be monitored through the use of invasive techniques. To date there is no widely accepted and readily available non-invasive monitoring technique to measure blood glucose despite the many attempts. This paper challenges one of the most difficult non-invasive monitoring techniques, that of blood glucose, and proposes a new novel approach that will enable the accurate, and calibration free estimation of glucose concentration in blood. This approach is based on spectroscopic techniques and a new adaptive modelling scheme. The theoretical implementation and the effectiveness of the adaptive modelling scheme for this application has been described and a detailed mathematical evaluation has been employed to prove that such a scheme has the capability of extracting accurately the concentration of glucose from a complex biological media.

  19. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  20. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  1. High blood pressure - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number is the diastolic pressure. This measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart is at rest. Blood pressure ... Medical Professional Call your child's provider if home monitoring shows that your child's blood pressure is still high. Prevention Your child's provider will ...

  2. [Application of wavelet transform on improving detecting precision of the non-invasive blood components measurement based on dynamic spectrum method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Men, Jian-Long; Sun, Zhao-Min; Wang, Hui-Quan; Lin, Ling; Tong, Ying; Zhang, Bao-Ju

    2011-02-01

    Time-varying noises in spectra collection process have influence on the prediction accuracy of quantitative calibration in the non-invasive blood components measurement which is based on dynamic spectrum (DS) method. By wavelet transform, we focused on the absorbance wave of fingertip transmission spectrum in pulse frequency band. Then we increased the signal to noise ratio of DS data, and improved the detecting precision of quantitative calibration. After carrying out spectrum data continuous acquisition of the same subject for 10 times, we used wavelet transform de-noising to increase the average correlation coefficient of DS data from 0.979 6 to 0.990 3. BP neural network was used to establish the calibration model of subjects' blood components concentration values against dynamic spectrum data of 110 volunteers. After wavelet transform de-noising, the correlation coefficient of prediction set increased from 0.677 4 to 0.846 8, and the average relative error was decreased from 15.8% to 5.3%. Experimental results showed that the introduction of wavelet transform can effectively remove the noise in DS data, improve the detecting precision, and accelerate the development of non-invasive blood components measurement based on DS method.

  3. Efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of respiratory failure in patients with COPD at the acute exacerbation stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Peng Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the efficacy of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the treatment of respiratory failure in patients with COPD at the acute exacerbation stage. Methods:A total of 38 COPD patients at the acute exacerbation stage with respiratory failure who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2012 to January, 2013 with complete medical materials were included in the study and divided into the observation group and the control group according to different treatment methods. On admission, the patients in the two groups were given oxygen inhalation, positive infection control, and drugs that could improve the respiratory function. On the basis, the patients in the observation group were given additional NIPPV. The improvement of blood gas indicators 4, 24, 72 d after admission, and 5, 30 d after discharge in the two groups was compared. The hospitalization time and the number of second hospitalization within 3 months in the two groups were compared.Results: In the observation group, pH value after 4 h ventilation was significantly elevated, and maintained at a stable state after 24 h ventilation, while in the control group, the change of pH value was not statistically significant, and after 5 d treatment, pH value was yet low. In the observation group, PaCO2 was significantly reduced in a short ventilation time, while in the control group, the descending range was small. The comparison of pH and PaCO2 4 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 5 d after treatment between the two groups was statistically significant, but PaCO2 in the two groups could not reduce to the normal level. PaO2 after treatment in the two groups was improved, but the improved degree in the observation degree was significantly superior to that in the control group. The comparison of blood gas indicators 30 d after discharge between the two groups was not statistically significant. The hospitalization time in the observation group was shortened, and the number of second hospitalization

  4. Efficiency and outcome of non-invasive versus invasive positive pressure ventilation therapy in respiratory failure due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amri Maleh, Valiollah; Monadi, Mahmood; Heidari, Behzad; Maleh, Parviz Amri; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Application noninvasive ventilation in the patients with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) reduced mortality. This case-control study was designed to compare efficiency and outcome of non-invasive (NIV) versus invasive positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) in respiratory failure due to COPD. Methods: The patients were assigned to NIV or IPPV intermittantly.The clinical parameters, including RR (respiratory rate), BP (blood pressure), HR (heart rate) and PH, PaCO2, PaO2 before and 1, 4 and 24 h after treatment were measured. Demographic information such as age, sex, severity of disease based on APACHE score, length of stay and outcome were recorded. Results: Fifty patients were enrolled in the NIV group and 50 patients in IPPV. The mean age was 70.5 in NIV and 63.9 in invasive ventilation group (p>0.05). In IPPV group, the average values of PH: PCO2: and PO2, were 7.22±0.11, 69.64 + 24.25: and 68.86±24.41 .In NIV, the respective values were 7.30±0.07, 83.94±18.95, and 60.60±19.88. In NIV group, after 1, 4 and 24 h treatment, the clinical and ventilation parameters were stable. The mean APACHE score in was IPPV, 26.46±5.45 and in NIV was 12.26±5.54 (p<0.05). The average length of hospital stay in IPPV was 15.90±10 and in NIV 8.12±6.49 days (p<0.05). The total mortality in the NIV was 4 (8%) and in IPPV, 27 patients (54%) (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study indicates that using NIPPV is a useful therapeutic mode of treatment for respiratory failure with acceptable success rate and lower mortality. The application of NIPPV reduces hospital stay, intubation and its consequent complications. PMID:27386061

  5. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain tumors Inherited conditions (problems that run in families) Thyroid problems Blood pressure rises as the baby grows. The average blood ... vomiting constantly Prevention Some causes of high blood pressure run in families. Talk to your provider before you get pregnant ...

  6. Early use of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Collaborative Research Group of Noninvasive Mechan

    2005-01-01

    Background Respiratory muscle fatigue plays an important role in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). In previous clinical studies, non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) was proved to be successful only for AECOPD patients with severe respiratory failure. We hypothesized that, the outcomes of AECOPD would be improved if NPPV is early (within 24 to 48 hours of admission) administered in those patients with respiratory muscle fatigue and mild respiratory insufficiency, especially in patients without fulfilling the conventional criteria of mechanical ventilatory support. Methods A prospective multicentre randomized controlled trial was conducted in 19 hospitals in China over 16 months. Three hundred and forty-two AECOPD patients with pH≥7.25 and PaCO2>45 mmHg were recruited on general ward and randomly assigned to standard medical treatment (control group) or early administration of additional NPPV (NPPV group).Results The characteristics of two groups on admission were similar. The number of AECOPD patients requiring intubations in NPPV group was much fewer than that of the control group (8/171 vs 26/71, P=0.002). Subgroup analysis showed the needs for intubation in mildly (pH≥7.35) and severe (pH<7.30) acidotic patients in NPPV group were both decreased (9/80 vs 2/71, P=0.047 and 8/30 vs 3/43, P=0.048, respectively). The mortality in hospital was reduced slightly by NPPV but with no significant difference (7/171 vs 12/171, P=0.345). Respiratory rate (RR),scale for accessory muscle use and arterial pH improved rapidly at the first 2 hours only in patients of NPPV group. After 24 hours, the differences of pH, PaO2, scale for accessory muscle use and RR in NPPV group [(7.36±0.06) mmHg, (72±22) mmHg, (2.5±0.9)/min, (22±4)/min] were statistically significant compared with control group (7.37±0.05) mmHg, (85±34) mmHg, (2.3±1.1)/min, (21±4)/min, P<0.01 for all comparisons].Conclusions The early use of NPPV on

  7. Limitations of split-night polysomnography for the diagnosis of nocturnal hypoventilation and titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Andrea H S; Korngut, Lawrence; Rimmer, Karen; Damji, Omar; Turin, Tanvir C; Hanly, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Split-night polysomnography is performed at our centre in all patients with ALS who require assessment for nocturnal hypoventilation and their response to non-invasive ventilation. The purpose of this study was to determine how successful this practice has been, reflected by whether a complete assessment was achieved by a single split-night polysomnogram. We undertook a systematic, retrospective review of all consecutive split-night polysomnograms in ALS patients between 2005 and 2012. A total of 47 cases were reviewed. Forty-three percent of patients had an incomplete test, resulting in a recommendation to repeat the polysomnogram. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep in the diagnostic portion of the study were strongly associated with incomplete studies. Clinical variables that reflect severity of ALS (FVC, PaCO2, ALSFRS-R) and use of REM-suppressing antidepressants or sedative-hypnotics were not associated with incomplete split-night polysomnogram. In conclusion, a single, split-night polysomnogram is frequently inconclusive for the assessment of nocturnal hypoventilation and complete titration of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with ALS. Poor sleep efficiency and absence of REM sleep are the main limitations of split-night polysomnography in this patient population.

  8. ON THE USEFULNESS OF FINGER BLOOD-PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR STUDIES ON MENTAL WORKLOAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDMAN, JBP; RUDDEL, H; ROBBE, HWJ; Mulder, Lambertus; Mulder, Gysbertus

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the usefulness of the Penaz method for non-invasive, continuous finger blood pressure measurements during mental stress testing. In the first study, blood pressure was measured with the Penaz method, in the second it was measured intra-arterially. Two differ

  9. Impact of the column hardware volume on resolution in very high pressure liquid chromatography non-invasive investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; McDonald, Thomas; Gilar, Martin

    2015-11-13

    The impact of the column hardware volume (≃ 1.7 μL) on the optimum reduced plate heights of a series of short 2.1 mm × 50 mm columns (hold-up volume ≃ 80-90 μL) packed with 1.8 μm HSS-T3, 1.7 μm BEH-C18, 1.7 μm CSH-C18, 1.6 μm CORTECS-C18+, and 1.7 μm BEH-C4 particles was investigated. A rapid and non-invasive method based on the reduction of the system dispersion (to only 0.15 μL(2)) of an I-class Acquity system and on the corrected plate heights (for system dispersion) of five weakly retained n-alkanophenones in RPLC was proposed. Evidence for sample dispersion through the column hardware volume was also revealed from the experimental plot of the peak capacities for smooth linear gradients versus the corrected efficiency of a weakly retained alkanophenone (isocratic runs). The plot is built for a constant gradient steepness irrespective of the applied flow rates (0.01-0.30 mL/min) and column lengths (2, 3, 5, and 10 cm). The volume variance caused by column endfittings and frits was estimated in between 0.1 and 0.7 μL(2) depending on the applied flow rate. After correction for system and hardware dispersion, the minimum reduced plate heights of short (5 cm) and narrow-bore (2.1mm i.d.) beds packed with sub-2 μm fully and superficially porous particles were found close to 1.5 and 0.7, respectively, instead of the classical h values of 2.0 and 1.4 for the whole column assembly.

  10. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  11. A non-invasive technique for estimating carpal tunnel pressure by measuring shear wave speed in tendon: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuexiang; Qiang, Bo; Zhang, Xiaoming; Greenleaf, James F; An, Kai-Nan; Amadio, Peter C; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2012-11-15

    Although a close relationship between carpal tunnel pressure and median nerve dysfunction has been found, the current methods for pressure measurements are invasive, using a catheter in the carpal canal to monitor the pressure. A noninvasive method for quantifying carpal tunnel pressure would be useful as an alternative to the catheter method. In this study, a simplified experimental model was developed to measure the shear wave speed in a canine Achilles tendon under different tunnel pressures. The results showed that the speed of waves through the inside-tunnel tendon had a linear relationship with the pressure in the tunnel (first measurement: r=0.966, Ppropagation speed. However, further validations in human cadavers and clinical subjects are necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Continuous stroke volume monitoring by modelling flow from non-invasive measurement of arterial pressure in humans under orthostatic stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harms, M.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Pott, F.; Jenstrup, M.; Goudoever, J. van; Secher, N.H.; Lieshout, J.J. van

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between aortic flow and pressure is described by a three-element model of the arterial input impedance, including continuous correction for variations in the diameter and the compliance of the aorta (Modelflow). We computed the aortic flow from arterial pressure by this model, and

  13. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients.

  14. [Coronary artery blood flow velocity non-invasively measured using a vessel-tracking pulsed Doppler system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateishi, O; Aizawa, O; Okamura, T; Yoshida, T; Furuhata, H; Seo, Y; Iinuma, K; Shiki, E

    1988-09-01

    A newly-developed noninvasive method was used to measure left coronary blood flow during phantom experiments. Two techniques were used in which: (1) the sample position can always be set in a fluctuating vessel using a wall echo-tracking method with a phase-locked-loop, and (2) the Doppler reference signal was generated separately synchronous with the wall echo signal. These techniques were combined, using a commercially available pulsed Doppler apparatus (SSH-40B: Toshiba). Basic experiments were performed using a blood vessel phantom to verify the validity of these systems. Blood flow velocity in the fluctuating tube could be measured clearly using a vessel-tracking method. The blood flow velocity of the left anterior descending artery was measured in three normal subjects and in seven patients from the third intercostal space along the left sternal border. The velocity pattern was characterized by a crescendo-decrescendo shape in diastole. The peak velocity which appeared in diastole ranged from 19 to 69 cm/sec, with no difference by disease entity. However, in all cases, the blood flow velocity signals were marred by extraneous signals, making it impossible to measure blood flow velocity during systole. Further improvement of the system is mandatory in order to use this flowmeter clinically.

  15. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  16. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  17. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... giving Gift and estate planning Circle of Champions Corporate sponsorship Join us at an event The Hope ... blood pressure is the #2 cause of kidney failure. It accounts for about one-fourth of all ...

  18. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  19. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... possible. Practice healthy coping techniques, such as muscle relaxation, deep breathing or meditation. Getting regular physical activity ... you monitor your blood pressure at home. Practice relaxation or slow, deep breathing. Practice taking deep, slow ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  1. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... providers diagnose high blood pressure when blood pressure readings are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming ... minutes before the test. To track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure » Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical ...

  4. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  5. Postural-induced changes in intracranial pressure evaluated non-invasively using the MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, N; Walsted, A

    2000-01-01

    Inner ear pressure reflects intracranial pressure (ICP) primarily because of the direct communication of perilymph and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the cochlear aqueduct (CA). The MMS-10 tympanic displacement analyser (TDA) is a relatively new device for measuring perilymphatic pressure non-invasively, and thereby also indirectly measuring intracranial pressure. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of the TDA in a daily clinical setting. Other aims were to investigate changes in perilymphatic pressure from sitting to lying position in healthy volunteers in two age groups (mean age: 33 years and 50 years) and to compare the patency of the CA in these groups using the MMS-10 TDA. Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) analyses were performed in the test subjects initially twice in sitting position (test-retest) and then in sitting and supine positions. We found that the MMS-10 TDA is easy to use, and that it gives reproducible values in repeated tests, but with large inter-subject differences. The TMD test showed curves, which, in the whole test group, were more negative in supine position, in accordance with an increasing intracranial and inner ear pressure when lying down. The change from sitting to lying position was larger in the younger group than in the older group. In 11% of the younger group (males) and in 30% of the older group (females), the CA was considered to be non-patent, although the difference was not statistically significant. However, the finding is in keeping with the hypothesis of a greater proportion of patent CA in younger than in older individuals.

  6. Support vector machines as multivariate calibration model for prediction of blood glucose concentration using a new non-invasive optical method named Pulse Glucometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Makoto; Nogawa, Masamichi; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Rolfe, Peter; Tamura, Toshiyo; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2007-01-01

    A novel optical non-invasive in vivo blood glucose concentration (BGL) measurement technique, named "Pulse Glucometry", was combined with a kernel method; support vector machines. The total transmitted radiation intensity (I lambda) and the cardiac-related pulsatile changes superimposed on I lambda in human adult fingertips were measured over the wavelength range from 900 to 1700 nm using a very fast spectrophotometer, obtaining a differential optical density (delta OD lambda) related to the blood component in the finger tissues. Subsequently, a calibration model using paired data of a family of delta OD lambda s and the corresponding known BGLs was constructed with support vector machines regression instead of using calibration by a conventional partial least squares regression (PLS). Our results show that the calibration model based on the support vector machines can provide a good regression for the 183 paired data, in which the BGLs ranged from 89.0-219 mg/dl (4.94-12.2 mmol/l). The resultant regression was evaluated by the Clarke error grid analysis and all data points fell within the clinically acceptable regions (region A: 93%, region B: 7%).

  7. Comparison of ASL and DCE MRI for the non-invasive measurement of renal blood flow: quantification and reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutajar, Marica; Hales, Patrick W.; Clark, Christopher A.; Gordon, Isky [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Thomas, David L. [UCL Institute of Neurology, Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, London (United Kingdom); Banks, T. [Great Ormond Street Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-15

    To investigate the reproducibility of arterial spin labelling (ASL) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and quantitatively compare these techniques for the measurement of renal blood flow (RBF). Sixteen healthy volunteers were examined on two different occasions. ASL was performed using a multi-TI FAIR labelling scheme with a segmented 3D-GRASE imaging module. DCE MRI was performed using a 3D-FLASH pulse sequence. A Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess repeatability of each technique, and determine the degree of correspondence between the two methods. The overall mean cortical renal blood flow (RBF) of the ASL group was 263 ± 41 ml min{sup -1} [100 ml tissue]{sup -1}, and using DCE MRI was 287 ± 70 ml min{sup -1} [100 ml tissue]{sup -1}. The group coefficient of variation (CV{sub g}) was 18 % for ASL and 28 % for DCE-MRI. Repeatability studies showed that ASL was more reproducible than DCE with CV{sub g}s of 16 % and 25 % for ASL and DCE respectively. Bland-Altman analysis comparing the two techniques showed a good agreement. The repeated measures analysis shows that the ASL technique has better reproducibility than DCE-MRI. Difference analysis shows no significant difference between the RBF values of the two techniques. (orig.)

  8. Cord Blood Karyotyping: A Safe and Non-Invasive Method for Postnatal Testing of Assisted Reproductive Technology Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Zarei Moradi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To verify the hypothesis that the incidence of chromosomal abnormalities increases in babies conceived by different assisted reproduction procedures. The availability of the umbilical cord blood encouraged us to study this hypothesis via this method. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive study, umbilical cord blood samples of assisted reproductive technology (ART children were analyzed with standard cytogenetic techniques (G banding. Karyotyping was possible in 109 cases. Results: The number of abnormal cases was four (3.7%, among which, three cases (2.8% were inherited and only 1 case (0.9% was a de novo translocation. In total, the incidence of de novo chromosomal abnormalities was in the range observed in all live births in the general population (0.7-1%. Conclusion: No significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal abnormality was found between ART and naturally conceived babies. To date, several studies have examined the medical and developmental outcome of ART children and still have not reached a definite conclusion. Genetic counseling is recommended as an integral part of planning of treatment strategies for couples wishing to undergo ART.

  9. Non-invasive and transdermal measurement of blood uric acid level in human by electroporation and reverse iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Kuei Lee

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chih-Kuei Lee1, Congo Tak-Shing Ching2–4, Tai-Ping Sun2,3, Chun-Lang Tsai2, Wei Huang5, Hsin-Hung Huang6, Jen-Fu Kuo7, Li-Hang Lai6, Mei-Ya Chien8, Hsin-Hui Tseng9, Hui-Tzu Pan10, Shiow-Yuan Huang4, Hsiu-Li Shieh3, Wei-Hao Liu2, Chia-Ming Liu2, Hsin-Wei Huang21Hopkins Health Management Center, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 2Graduate Institute of Biomedicine and Biomedical Technology, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 3Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chi Nan University, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 4Department of Photonics and Communication Engineering, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan, Republic of China; 5Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 6Family Medical Department, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 7Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 8Nutrition Department, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 9Aboriginal Health Care, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of China; 10Department of Medical Research and Education, Puli Christian Hospital, Nantou, Taiwan, Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of this study was to find out the optimum combination of electroporation (EP and reverse iontophoresis (RI on noninvasive and transdermal determination of blood uric acid level in humans. EP is the use of high-voltage electric pulse to create nano-channels on the stratum corneum, temporarily and reversibly. RI is the use of small current to facilitate both charged and uncharged molecule transportation across the skin. It is believed that the combination of these two techniques has additional benefits on the molecules’ extraction across the human skin. In vitro studies using porcine skin and diffusion cell have indicated that the optimum mode for transdermal uric acid extraction is the

  10. Non-invasive cerebral blood volume measurement during seizures using multi-channel near infrared spectroscopic topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eiju; Maki, Atsushi; Kawaguchi, Fumio; Yamashita, Yuichi; Koizumi, Hideaki; Mayanagi, Yoshiaki

    2000-07-01

    Near infrared spectroscopic topography (NIRS) is widely recognized as a noninvasive method to measure the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) dynamics coupled with neuronal activities. We analyzed the rCBV change in the early phase of epileptic seizures in 12 consecutive patients with medically intractable epilepsy. Seizure was induced by bemegride injection. We used eight-channel NIRS in nine cases and 24 channel in three cases. In all of the cases, rCBV increased rapidly after the seizure onset on the focus side. The increased rCBV was observed for about 30 - 60 s. The NIRS method can be applied to monitor the rCBV change continuously during seizures. Therefore, this method may be combined with ictal SPECT as one of the most reliable noninvasive methods of focus diagnosis.

  11. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  12. Non-invasive ventilation for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Fidelma; Bradley, Judy M; Piper, Amanda J

    2017-02-20

    Non-invasive ventilation may be a means to temporarily reverse or slow the progression of respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis by providing ventilatory support and avoiding tracheal intubation. Using non-invasive ventilation, in the appropriate situation or individuals, can improve lung mechanics through increasing airflow and gas exchange and decreasing the work of breathing. Non-invasive ventilation thus acts as an external respiratory muscle. This is an update of a previously published review. To compare the effect of non-invasive ventilation versus no non-invasive ventilation in people with cystic fibrosis for airway clearance, during sleep and during exercise. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We searched the reference lists of each trial for additional publications possibly containing other trials.Most recent search: 08 August 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing a form of pressure preset or volume preset non-invasive ventilation to no non-invasive ventilation used for airway clearance or during sleep or exercise in people with acute or chronic respiratory failure in cystic fibrosis. Three reviewers independently assessed trials for inclusion criteria and methodological quality, and extracted data. Ten trials met the inclusion criteria with a total of 191 participants. Seven trials evaluated single treatment sessions, one evaluated a two-week intervention, one evaluated a six-week intervention and one a three-month intervention. It is only possible to blind trials of airway clearance and overnight ventilatory support to the outcome assessors. In most of the trials we judged there was an unclear risk of bias with regards to blinding due to inadequate descriptions. The six-week trial was the only one judged to have a low risk of bias for all

  13. Non-Invasive Method for the Rapid Assessment of Central Venous Pressure: Description and Validation by a Single Examiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zidulka, Arnold

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a means of assessing the external jugular venous pressure (JVP as an indicator of normal or elevated central venous pressure (CVP.Methods: Intensive care unit patients having CVP monitoring were examined. With patients in bed, the external jugular vein (EJV was occluded at the base of the neck and observed to distend. The occlusion was then removed and the vein observed for collapse. Complete collapse was hypothesized to indicate a non-elevated CVP (≤8cm of water. In those patients whose EJV collapsed incompletely, the vein was then occluded with the finger near the angle of the jaw. With the occlusion maintained, the vein was milked downwards with the other hand to cause its emptying and was then observed for filling from below. Filling from below was hypothesized to indicate an elevated CVP (>8cm of water.Results: In 12 of the 40 patients examined, the EJV could not be assessed (EJV not seen at all: 5, and difficult to visualize: 7. For the remaining 28 patients, 11 had a CVP > 8 cm, while 17 had a CVP of < 8. EJV assessment was 100% accurate (95% Confidence Interval 88-100 in predicting whether or not a patient’s CVP was greater or less than 8 cm of water.Conclusion: EJV assessment, when visible, is accurate to clinically assess a patient’s CVP in the hands of the author. Further studies are needed to see if they are reproducible by other observer.[WestJEM. 2008;9:201-205.

  14. Non-invasive estimation of intracranial pressure. MR-based evaluation in children with hydrocephalus; Nichtinvasive Bestimmung des intrakraniellen Drucks. MR-basierte Untersuchung bei Kindern mit Hydrozephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehlmann, M.; Steffinger, D.; Ertl-Wagner, B.; Koerte, I.K. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Institut fuer Klinische Radiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Peraud, A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Neurochirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Lehner, M. [Dr. von Haunersches Kinderspital, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Abteilung fuer Kinderchirurgie, Muenchen (Germany); Heinen, F.; Alperin, N. [University Miami, Department of Radiology, Miller School of Medicine, Miami (United States)

    2012-09-15

    The intracranial pressure (ICP) is a crucially important parameter for diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making in patients with hydrocephalus. So far there is no standard method to non-invasively assess the ICP. Various approaches to obtain the ICP semi-invasively or non-invasively are discussed and the clinical application of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based method to estimate ICP (MR-ICP) is demonstrated in a group of pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. Arterial inflow, venous drainage and craniospinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow were quantified using phase-contrast imaging to derive the MR-ICP. A total of 15 patients with hydrocephalus (n=9 treated with shunt placement or ventriculostomy) underwent MRI on a 3 T scanner applying retrospectively-gated cine phase contrast sequences. Of the patients six had clinical symptoms indicating increased ICP (age 2.5-14.61 years, mean 7.4 years) and nine patients had no clinical signs of elevated ICP (age 2.1-15.9 years; mean 9.8 years; all treated with shunt or ventriculostomy). Median MR-ICP in symptomatic patients was 24.5 mmHg (25th percentile 20.4 mmHg; 75th percentile 44.6 mmHg). Median MR-ICP in patients without acute signs of increased ICP was 9.8 mmHg (25th percentile 8.6 mmHg; 75th percentile 11.4 mmHg). Group differences were significant (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney U-test). The MR-ICP technique is a promising non-invasive tool for estimating ICP. Further studies in larger patient cohorts are warranted to investigate its application in children with hydrocephalus. (orig.) [German] Der intrakranielle Druck (''intracranial pressure'' - ICP) ist ein entscheidender Parameter bei der Diagnostik, Therapie und Verlaufsbeurteilung von Patienten mit Hydrozephalus. Derzeit gibt es keine radiologische Standardmethode, um den intrakraniellen Druck quantitativ zu bestimmen. Methoden zur invasiven und nichtinvasiven Einschaetzung des ICP werden diskutiert und die Anwendung eines MR

  15. Doppler Tissue Imaging: A Non-Invasive Technique for Estimation of Left Ventricular End Diastolic Pressure in Severe Mitral Regurgitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Salarifar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Conventional Doppler measurements, including mitral inflow and pulmonary venous flow, are used to estimate left ventricular end diastolic pressure (LVEDP. However, these parameters have limitations in predicting LVEDP among patients with mitral regurgitation. This study sought to establish whether the correlation between measurements derived from tissue Doppler echocardiography and LVEDP remains valid in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation.Methods: Thirty patients (mean age: 57.37 ± 13.29 years with severe mitral regurgitation and a mean left ventricular ejection fraction (EF of 46.0 ± 14.95 were enrolled; 16 (53.4% patients were defined to have EF < 50% and 14 (46.6% patients had EF ≥ 50%. Doppler signals from the mitral inflow, pulmonary venous flow, and Doppler tissue imaging indices were obtained, and LVEDP was measured invasively through cardiac catheterization.Results: The majority of the standard Doppler and Doppler tissue imaging indices were not significantly correlated with LVEDP in the univariate analysis. In the multiple linear regression, however, early (E transmitral velocity to annular E' (E/E' ratio (ß = 1.09, p value < 0.01, E wave velocity to propagation velocity (E/Vp ratio (ß = 7.87, p value < 0.01, and isovolumic relaxation time (ß = 0.21, p value = 0.01 were shown as independent predictors of LVEDP (R2 = 91.7%.Conclusion: The ratio of E/Vp and E/E' ratio and also the isovolumic relaxation time could be applied properly to estimate LVEDP in mitral regurgitation patients even in the setting of severe mitral regurgitation.

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... High Blood Pressure Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living ... Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in ...

  17. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  18. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done in a health care provider’s office ... severity of your blood pressure, he or she can order additional tests to determine if your blood ...

  20. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure • Know Your Numbers • Understand Symptoms and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health • Make Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  1. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  2. Broad band spectral analysis of 24 h continuous finger blood pressure: Comparison with intra-arterial recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castiglioni, P.; Parati, G.; Omboni, S.; Mancia, G.; Imholz, B.P.M.; Wesseling, K.H.; Rienzo, M. di

    1999-01-01

    The present study compares the spectral characteristics of 24-h blood pressure variability estimated invasively at the brachial artery level with those estimated by measurement of blood pressure at the finger artery using the non-invasive Portapres device. Broad-band spectra (from 3 x

  3. Modulation of gastric motility by brain-gut peptides using a novel non-invasive miniaturized pressure transducer method in anesthetized rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourcerol, Guillaume; Adelson, David W; Million, Mulugeta; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-04-01

    Acute in vivo measurements are often the initial, most practicable approach used to investigate the effects of novel compounds or genetic manipulations on the regulation of gastric motility. Such acute methods typically involve either surgical implantation of devices or require intragastric perfusion of solutions, which can substantially alter gastric activity and may require extended periods of time to allow stabilization or recovery of the preparation. We validated a simple, non-invasive novel method to measure acutely gastric contractility, using a solid-state catheter pressure transducer inserted orally into the gastric corpus, in fasted, anesthetized rats or mice. The area under the curve of the phasic component (pAUC) of intragastric pressure (IGP) was obtained from continuous manometric recordings of basal activity and in responses to central or peripheral activation of cholinergic pathways, or to abdominal surgery. In rats, intravenous ghrelin or intracisternal injection of the thyrotropin-releasing hormone agonist, RX-77368, significantly increased pAUC while coeliotomy and cacal palpation induced a rapid onset inhibition of phasic activity lasting for the 1-h recording period. In mice, RX-77368 injected into the lateral brain ventricle induced high-amplitude contractions, and carbachol injected intraperitoneally increased pAUC significantly, while coeliotomy and cecal palpation inhibited baseline contractile activity. In wild-type mice, cold exposure (15 min) increased gastric phasic activity and tone, while there was no gastric response in corticotropin releasing factor (CRF)-overexpressing mice, a model of chronic stress. Thus, the novel solid-state manometric approach provides a simple, reliable means for acute pharmacological studies of gastric motility effects in rodents. Using this method we established in mice that the gastric motility response to central vagal activation is impaired under chronic expression of CRF.

  4. Non-invasive measurement of right atrial pressure by near-infrared spectroscopy: preliminary experience. A report from the SICA-HF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicori, Pierpaolo; Clark, Andrew L; Kallvikbacka-Bennett, Anna; Zhang, Jufen; Urbinati, Alessia; Monzo, Luca; Dierckx, Riet; Anker, Stefan D; Cleland, John G F

    2017-07-01

    To assess the clinical value of measuring right atrial pressure (RAP) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). RAP was measured non-invasively using NIRS over the external jugular vein (Venus 1000, Mespere LifeSciences, Canada) in ambulatory patients with CHF enrolled in the Studies Investigating Co-morbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF) programme. Comparing 243 patients with CHF (mean age 71 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 45%, median NT-proBNP 788 ng/L) to 49 controls (NT-proBNP ≤125 ng/L), RAP was 7 [interquartile range (IQR) 4-11] mmHg vs. 4 (IQR 3-8) mmHg (P < 0.001). Those with RAP ≥10 mmHg (n = 75) were older, had more severe clinical congestion and renal dysfunction, higher plasma NT-proBNP, larger left atrial volume, higher systolic pulmonary pressure and were more often in atrial fibrillation but their LVEF was similar to patients with lower RAP. During a median follow-up of 595 (IQR: 492-714) days, 49 patients (20%) died or were hospitalized for worsening CHF. Compared with patients with RAP ≤5 mmHg, those with RAP ≥10 mmHg had a greater risk of an event (hazard ratio 2.38, 95% confidence interval 1.19-4.75, P = 0.014). RAP measured by NIRS predicted outcome, competing with NT-proBNP in multivariable models. Measuring RAP using NIRS identifies ambulatory patients with CHF who have more severe congestion and a worse outcome. The device might be a useful objective method of monitoring RAP, especially for those inexperienced in eliciting physical signs or when measurement of natriuretic peptides is not immediately available. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  5. 连续无创血压监测系统在全身麻醉中的应用%Efficacy of a continuous non -invasive arterial pressure monitor system during general anesthesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 周婷; 田丽平; 徐世元; 张鸿飞

    2016-01-01

    目的:评价TL_300 tensymeter系统(TL_300)所测的连续无创血压(NIBP)在全身麻醉中的有效性及安全性。方法选择全身麻醉下行择期仰卧位手术的成年患者20例,ASAⅠ~Ⅲ级。麻醉诱导后无菌操作下左侧桡动脉穿刺置入动脉导管进行连续有创血压( IBP)监测,右侧手臂连接TL_300进行NIBP监测,稳定5 min后,同时测量IBP和NIBP,间隔3 min分别记录IBP监测及相应时点NIBP监测的收缩压、舒张压和平均压。术后监测与两种血压监测相关的并发症如肢体缺血、坏死、感觉异常。结果 NIBP监测与IBP监测所测收缩压、舒张压和平均压差值分别为(-0.086±9.59)、(3.203±7.11)、(2.60±6.76) mmHg,两种血压监测方法的收缩压、舒张压和平均压的决定系数分别为0.711、0.565和0.729,P值均小于0.001。所有患者均未发生肢体缺血、坏死、感觉异常。结论与IBP监测相比,NIBP监测在全身麻醉成年手术患者中,可提供连续、无创、准确、安全的血压监测。%Objective To investigate the accuracy, precision and safety of continuous non-invasive blood pres-sure( NIBP) monitoring delivered by TL_300 tensymeter system.Methods Twenty ASA classification of Ⅰ-Ⅲadult patients undergoing elective surgeries in a supine position under general anesthesia were included in the study.A catheter was placed into the left radial artery under local anesthesia before induction, with the TL_300 tensymeter system connected to the right arm.Continuous invasive blood pressure ( IBP) monitoring was derived from the invasive artery catheter while the NIBP was from TL_300 tensymeter system.Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure were recorded every 3 mi-nutes simultaneously for both IBP and NIBP from 5 min after monitoring to the end of surgery.Complications associated with both pressure monitors including limb ischemia, necrosis and paresthesia were recorded

  6. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  7. Analysis of peripheral blood dendritic cells as a non-invasive tool in the follow-up of patients with chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosignani, Andrea; Riva, Antonio; Della Bella, Silvia

    2016-01-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has a high propensity to establish chronic infections. Failure of HCV-infected individuals to activate effective antiviral immune responses is at least in part related to HCV-induced impairment of dendritic cells (DCs) that play a central role in activating T cell responses. Although the impact of HCV on DC phenotype and function is likely to be more prominent in the liver, major HCV-induced alterations are detectable in peripheral blood DCs (pbDCs) that represent the most accessible source of DCs. These alterations include numerical reduction, impaired production of inflammatory cytokines and increased production of immunosuppressive IL10. These changes in DCs are relevant to our understanding the immune mechanisms underlying the propensity of HCV to establish persistent infection. Importantly, the non-invasive accessibility of pbDCs renders the analysis of these cells a convenient procedure that can be serially repeated in patient follow-up. Accordingly, the study of pbDCs in HCV-infected patients during conventional treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin indicated that restoration of normal plasmacytoid DC count may represent an additional mechanism contributing to the efficacy of the dual therapy. It also identified the pre-treatment levels of plasmacytoid DCs and IL10 as putative predictors of response to therapy. Treatment of chronic HCV infection is changing, as new generation direct-acting antiviral agents will soon be available for use in interferon-free therapeutic strategies. The phenotypic and functional analysis of pbDCs in this novel therapeutic setting will provide a valuable tool for investigating mechanisms underlying treatment efficacy and for identifying predictors of treatment response.

  8. Compromised Cerebral Blood Flow(CBF) in Congestive Heart Failure (CHB): non-invasive quantification with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD radionuclide angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Kim, Jae Joong; Lim, Ki Chun; Lee, Hee Kyung; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Recent reports revealed that cerebral metabolism in CHF was abnormally deranged and proposed as a potential marker of disease severity. Since deranged cerebral metabolism in CHF may result from compromised cerebral perfusion, quantification of CHF may be useful for accurate risk stratification of CHF. Therefore, we investigated whether CHF in patients with CHF is compromised and correlated with clinical parameters. Fifteen patients (M/F:11/5, 45{+-}9yr) with CHF (LVEF<40%) and 7 healthy controls (M/F:5/2, 41{+-}8yr) were prospectively studied. All patients underwent radionuclide angiography including cerebral hemispheres and aortic arch using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Global CBF was measured non-invasively by the application of Patlak graphical plot analysis. All patients were also evaluated using a standardized protocol that included echocardiography and clinical evaluation. Global CBF (40.3{+-}5.2 ml/min/100g) of the patients with CHF were significantly lower than those (49.7{+-}2.4 ml/min/100g) of controls (p<0.01). Global CBF were correlated with NYHA functional class (r=-0.617, p=0.43), but not correlated with other clinical parameters such as age (r=-0.463, p=0.082), duration (r=0.237, p>0.1), systolic BP (r=-0.063, p>0.5), LVEF (r=-0.13, p>0.1), LV dimension(r=0.139, p>0.5), and PV pressure gradients (r=0.072, p>0.5). Cerebral perfusion of the patients with CHF was compromised and not correlated with cardiopulmonary hemodynamic parameters.

  9. Non-Invasive Mechanic Ventilation Using in Flail Chest, Caused By Blunt Chest Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Onat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old woman admitted our faculty emergency room with shortness of breath, and chest pain after traffic accident’s second hour. She was diagnosed as bilateral multipl rib fractures, left clavicula fracture, and left flail chest by phsical and radiological examinations. She was transfered to Chest Surgery Depatment’s intensive care unit. The patient was undergone non-invasive mask mechanic ventilation support, because of the decreasing of blood oxygen saturation and increasing of arteriel blood partial carbondioxide pressure. The treatment of non-invasive mechanic ventilation was succesfull for ventilation support. With this report, we would like to attentioned that non-invasive mechanic ventilation for blunt chest trauma patients could be used succesfully and could be used instead of endotracheal invasive mechanic ventilation.

  10. Can non-invasive positive pressure ventilation prevent endotracheal intubation in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Wang, Mao-yun; Zhu, Hui; Liang, Bin-miao; Liu, Dan; Peng, Xia-ying; Wang, Rong-chun; Li, Chun-tao; He, Chen-yun; Liang, Zong-an

    2014-11-01

    The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in acute lung injury (ALI)/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether NIPPV could prevent endotracheal intubation and decrease mortality rate in patients with ALI/ARDS. Randomized controlled trials (RCT) which reported endotracheal intubation and mortality rate in patients with ALI/ARDS treated by NIPPV were identified in Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Central Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, reference lists and by manual searches. Fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks. This meta-analysis included six RCT involving 227 patients. The results showed that endotracheal intubation rate was lower in NIPPV (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.80, z = 3.44, P = 0.0006), but no significant difference was found either in intensive care unit (ICU) mortality (95% CI: 0.45-1.07, z = 1.65, P = 0.10) or in hospital mortality (95% CI: 0.17-1.58, z = 1.16, P = 0.25). Only two studies discussed the aetiology of ALI/ARDS as pulmonary or extra-pulmonary, and neither showed statistical heterogeneity (I(2)  = 0%, χ(2)  = 0.31, P = 0.58), nor a significant difference in endotracheal intubation rate (95% CI: 0.35-9.08, z = 0.69, P = 0.49). In conclusion, the early use of NIPPV can decrease the endotracheal intubation rate in patients with ALI/ARDS, but does not change the mortality of these patients.

  11. Non-invasive methods for absolute cerebral blood flow measurement using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD: a study in healthy volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Laere, K.; Dierckx, R. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Dumont, F. [Radiopharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Koole, M. [Medical Image and Signal Processing Department (MEDISIP), Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    Radionuclide angiography with technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) allows non-invasive estimation of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF), either by graphical Patlak-Gjedde analysis (PGA) or by spectral analysis (SA). Other methods estimate CBF by means of single-point arterial or venous sampling. The aim of this study was to evaluate radionuclide scanning and single-point venous sampling as potential clinical non- to minimally invasive methods for CBF determination in a large set of carefully screened healthy volunteers over the adult age range. Eighty-three carefully screened healthy volunteers (20-81 years, 43 males, 40 females) underwent planar radionuclide angiography with 925 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. After correction for camera dead-time loss, hemispheric CBF was calculated from brain perfusion indices (BPI): BPI{sup G} for PGA and BPI{sup S} for SA. Of the volunteers, 49 also underwent venous sampling 6 min post injection, from which the lipophilic octanol extraction fraction and hemispheric brain fractionation index (BFI) were determined. All datasets were correlated and evaluated as a function of age and gender. Intrasubject variability for the BPI measurements was assessed in 11 volunteers by repeat study within 2 weeks of the first acquisition. Graphical and spectral analysis BPIs were strongly correlated (R=0.846, P<0.00001). This correlation coefficient increased to R=0.903 for the 74 cases in which graphical analysis was not hampered by temporal tracer retention in cervicobrachial venous valves. The BFI was weakly correlated to both BPI indices (BPI{sup G}: R=0.34, P=0.02; BPI{sup S}: R=0.31, P=0.04). The right hemisphere showed significant asymmetry for BPI{sup S} (AI=2.7%{+-}4.3%, P<0.001), in correspondence with previous {sup 99m}Tc-ECD data. BPI{sup G}, BPI{sup S} and BFI were all inversely related to age, with an increased gradient after the age of 55 years, while there was no significant gender difference. The ratio of BPI{sup G} to BIP{sup S

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & ... blood pressure is due to other conditions or medicines or if you have primary high blood pressure. ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to keep a written log of all your results. Whenever you have an appointment with the health ... appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the results of your blood pressure test, your health care ...

  15. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  16. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Sep 15,2017 ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  17. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  18. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  19. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  20. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  4. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  5. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  6. Invasive and non-invasive methods for cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavdaniti M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The hemodynamic status monitoring of high-risk surgical patients and critically ill patients inIntensive Care Units is one of the main objectives of their therapeutic management. Cardiac output is one of the mostimportant parameters for cardiac function monitoring, providing an estimate of whole body perfusion oxygen deliveryand allowing for an understanding of the causes of high blood pressure. The purpose of the present review is thedescription of cardiac output measurement methods as presented in the international literature. The articles documentthat there are many methods of monitoring the hemodynamic status of patients, both invasive and non-invasive, themost popular of which is thermodilution. The invasive methods are the Fick method and thermodilution, whereasthe non-invasive methods are oeshophaegeal Doppler, transoesophageal echocardiography, lithium dilution, pulsecontour, partial CO2 rebreathing and thoracic electrical bioimpedance. All of them have their advantages and disadvantages,but thermodilution is the golden standard for critical patients, although it does entail many risks. The idealsystem for cardiac output monitoring would be non-invasive, easy to use, reliable and compatible in patients. A numberof research studies have been carried out in clinical care settings, by nurses as well as other health professionals, for thepurpose of finding a method of measurement that would have the least disadvantages. Nevertheless, the thermodilutiontechnique remains the most common approach in use today.

  7. Clinical study of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome%无创正压通气治疗OSAHS的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文清; 韩勇; 曹慧敏

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价无创正压通气治疗阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合症(OSAHS)的疗效.方法 42例阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合症患者治疗前后进行多导睡眠仪(Polysomnography,PSG)监测血氧饱和度,呼吸暂停次数,低通气次数的对比研究.结果 42例患者经过3个月无创正压通气治疗呼吸暂停次数,低通气次数,平均血氧饱和度等指标均有明显改善,具有统计学意义.结论 无创正压通气是治疗阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合症的一种有效治疗方法.%Objective To evaluate the curative effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome ( OSAHS .). Methods 42 patients with OSAHS were treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, and their oxygen saturation, apnea, and hypopnea were comparatively studied. Results The improvement of their oxygen saturation, apnea, and hypopnea showed a statistical significance after the 3 months' treatment of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Conclusion Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation is an effective method in the treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.

  8. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure during a previous pregnancy, have a family history of high blood pressure or mild kidney disease. The combination of birth ... Print (PDF) | Online How to Measure Your Blood Pressure (PDF) Questions To Ask ... FREE digital-only, quarterly magazine for patients, families, and caregivers, which focuses on the prevention and ...

  9. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  10. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  11. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  13. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  14. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...

  15. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-01-01

    of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our......Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists...... reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF...

  16. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  17. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  18. Ventilación no invasiva en pacientes con exacerbacion de EPOC Non invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with COPD exacerbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar J. Caberlotto

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo sobre la utilización de la ventilación mecánica no invasiva (VNI en pacientes internados en Clínica Médica Neumonológica por exacerbación de la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC, con el objetivo de evaluar la evolución, los cambios gasométricos, las comorbilidades y la mortalidad de los pacientes internados. Desde enero 2000 a enero 2003 ingresaron al estudio 39 pacientes, evaluados según normas internacionales en 54 internaciones, siendo clasificados como de grado grave y muy grave, dado que la medición del volumen espiratorio forzado en un segundo (VEF1 era del 26%. Veintinueve pacientes (74.4% presentaron alguna comorbilidad. Como consecuencia de la aplicación de la VNI, el pH se incrementó entre la primera y tercera medición. El pH promedio inicial fue de 7.25 llegando a 7.33 a las 2 horas y a 7.39 al alta, en tanto que la pCO2 con promedio inicial de 83.8 mm Hg llegó a 67.8 mm Hg y 54.2 mm Hg en el mismo período. Treinta y cinco de los 39 pacientes fueron dados de alta con un período de internación promedio de 13.6 días. Cuatro pacientes (10.3% fallecieron. Se concluye que con la aplicación de la VNI en pacientes con exacerbación de EPOC, el pH y la PaCO2 cambian significativamente en las muestras sucesivas, y que la adecuada capacitación del equipo de salud puede permitir el tratamiento de estos pacientes en áreas de menor complejidad. Deben ser tenidas en cuenta las posibles complicaciones que pueden sufrir los pacientes durante la internación, que pueden requerir la aplicación de ventilación invasiva.This is a prospective study on the implementation of the non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in patients hospitalized in a Pneumological Unit. From January 2000 to January 2003, 39 patients were included during 54 different exacerbation events after

  19. Potential role of blood microRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers for early detection of asymptomatic coronary atherosclerosis in obese children with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, Ahmed; Elimam, Dalia; He, Fang; Peng, Jing; Yin, Fei

    2012-12-01

    The pandemic of the childhood obesity represent a major public health problem all over the world. This leads to detection of many health conditions that were previously considered an adulthood diseases. The rise in the prevalence of the obesity and overweight among children means that the world will face an explosion in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS), which increases the risk of atherosclerotic disease and death in adulthood. The atherosclerotic process has proved to develop silently for decades during childhood and adolescence before the cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke occur. This means that obese children especially with MS could have heart attacks and suffer from heart disease in an age when they should be very healthy, but most of these data either derived from autopsy findings or studies that confirmed the presence of peripheral atherosclerosis. Very early detection of coronary atherosclerosis in obese children with metabolic syndrome through a non invasive method will be of great importance, allowing for early therapeutic intervention. The discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) is considered a major scientific breakthrough in the last years; recent studies have suggested a potentially important role of miRNAs in the control of diversity aspects of cardiac functions in health and disease including coronary atherosclerosis. Moreover, circulating miRNAs profiles recently used as a non-invasive biomarker for diagnosis of multiple cardiovascular diseases. The identification of distinct circulating miRNA profiles may impact the development of specific miRNAs as biomarkers in pediatric cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we postulate that some of these circulating miRNAs may be a potential biomarker for early non-invasive diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis in very early asymptomatic stage in obese children with metabolic syndrome, giving an excellent chance to fight against the first killer in the adult population in

  20. Cell-free fetal DNA and intact fetal cells in maternal blood circulation: implications for first and second trimester non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Farideh Z; Sinacori, Mina K; Dang, Dianne D; Marquez-Do, Deborah; Horne, Cassandra; Lewis, Dorothy E; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Both intact fetal cells as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation and can be recovered for non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Although methods for enrichment and isolation of rare intact fetal cells have been challenging, diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy including trisomy 21 in first- and second-trimester pregnancies has been achieved with a 50-75% detection rate. Similarly, cell-free fetal DNA can be reliably recovered from maternal plasma and assessed by quantitative PCR to detect fetal trisomy 21 and paternally derived single gene mutations. Real-time PCR assays are robust in detecting low-level fetal DNA concentrations, with sensitivity of approximately 95-100% and specificity near 100%. Comparing intact fetal cell versus cell-free fetal DNA methods for non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal aneuploidy reveals that the latter is at least four times more sensitive. These preliminary results do not support a relationship between frequency of intact fetal cells and concentration of cell-free fetal DNA. The above results imply that the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may not be dependent on circulating intact fetal cells but rather be a product of growth and cellular turnover during embryonic or fetal development.

  1. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  2. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  3. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  4. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  5. Use of Doppler ultrasound for non-invasive urodynamic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Ozawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A totally non-invasive transperineal urodynamic technique using Doppler ultrasonography has been developed. Methods: Since normal urine does not have blood cells, urine was thought not to produce the Doppler effects. However, basic studies confirmed that the decrease of pressure at high velocity (Bernouilli effect caused dissolved gas to form microbubbles, which are detected by Doppler ultrasonography. Subjects sat and the probe was advanced via remote control to achieve gentle contact with the perineal skin. The digital uroflow data signals and the color Doppler ultrasound video images were processed on a personal computer. The flow-velocity curves from two sites; the distal prostatic urethra just above the external sphincter (V1 and the sphincteric urethra (V2 were plotted against time. The parameters of both the pressure-flow studies and the Doppler ultrasound urodynamic studies were compared in men who had various degrees of obstruction. Results: Functional cross-sectional area at prostatic urethra (A1, calculated by Q max /V1, was lower in the group of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO vs. control group. Velocity ratio (VR, which was calculated by V1/V2, was the parameter having the best correlation with BOO index, though A1 had a similar correlation. This method is viable to diagnose the degree of BOO. Conclusions: The development of non-invasive Doppler ultrasound videourodynamics (Doppler UDS will dramatically expand the information on voiding function.

  6. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  7. Non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab; Rhee, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Technology has transformed the practice of medicine and surgery in particular over the last several decades. This change in practice has allowed diagnostic and therapeutic tests to be performed less invasively. Hemoglobin monitoring remains one of the most commonly performed diagnostic tests in the United States. Recently, non-invasive hemoglobin monitoring technology has gained popularity. The aim of this article is to review the principles of how this technology works, pros and cons, and the implications of non-invasive hemoglobin technology particularly in trauma surgery.

  8. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  9. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  10. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilius, Georg; Katamadze, Nato; Domanski, Ulrike; Schroeder, Maik; Franke, Karl-Josef

    2017-01-01

    COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST]) non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS) in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG) and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2) measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0-45; lower scores indicate better acceptability). Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years). The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7) and IVAPS (8.3±10.2) conditions (P=0.064). There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg). Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH2O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]). Overall patient assessment scores were similar, although there was a trend toward less discomfort during IVAPS. Our results show that IVAPS NIV allows application of higher nocturnal ventilation pressures versus ST without affecting sleep quality or inducing ventilation- associated events.

  11. Non-invasive ventilation with intelligent volume-assured pressure support versus pressure-controlled ventilation: effects on the respiratory event rate and sleep quality in COPD with chronic hypercapnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilius G

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Georg Nilius,1,2 Nato Katamadze,1,2 Ulrike Domanski,1 Maik Schroeder,1 Karl-Josef Franke1,2 1HELIOS Klinik Hagen-Ambrock, 2Internal Medicine I, Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, Germany Background: COPD patients who develop chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure have a poor prognosis. Treatment of choice, especially the best form of ventilation, is not well known. Objectives: This study compared the effects of pressure-controlled (spontaneous timed [ST] non-invasive ventilation (NIV and NIV with intelligent volume-assured pressure support (IVAPS in chronic hypercapnic COPD patients regarding the effects on alveolar ventilation, adverse patient/ventilator interactions and sleep quality. Methods: This prospective, single-center, crossover study randomized patients to one night of NIV using ST then one night with the IVAPS function activated, or vice versa. Patients were monitored using polysomnography (PSG and transcutaneous carbon dioxide pressure (PtcCO2 measurement. Patients rated their subjective experience (total score, 0–45; lower scores indicate better acceptability. Results: Fourteen patients were included (4 females, age 59.4±8.9 years. The total number of respiratory events was low, and similar under pressure-controlled (5.4±6.7 and IVAPS (8.3±10.2 conditions (P=0.064. There were also no clinically relevant differences in PtcCO2 between pressure-controlled and IVAPS NIV (52.9±6.2 versus 49.1±6.4 mmHg. Respiratory rate was lower under IVAPS overall; between-group differences reached statistical significance during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement sleep. Ventilation pressures were 2.6 cmH2O higher under IVAPS versus pressure-controlled ventilation, resulting in a 20.1 mL increase in breathing volume. Sleep efficiency was slightly higher under pressure-controlled ventilation versus IVAPS. Respiratory arousals were uncommon (24.4/h [pressure-controlled] versus 25.4/h [IVAPS]. Overall patient assessment scores were similar

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High ... also may ask you to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. ... The Heart Truth ® —a national heart disease awareness campaign for ...

  15. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to check readings at home or at other locations that have blood pressure equipment and to keep ... office compared with readings taken in any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high ...

  16. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs ... track blood pressure readings over a period of time, the health care provider may ask you to ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ... Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: ...

  18. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Events Spokespeople Email Alerts E-Newsletters About NHLBI Organization NHLBI Director Budget, Planning, & Legislative Advisory Committees Jobs Contact Us FAQs Home » Health Information for the Public » Health Topics » High Blood Pressure » ...

  20. Blood pressure and contraceptive use

    OpenAIRE

    Khaw, Kay-Tee; Peart, W S

    1982-01-01

    In a survey of 461 women routinely attending family planning clinics those taking oral contraceptives had significantly higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those using non-hormonal contraception. There appeared to be a dose-response relation of blood pressure to the progestogen component of two oral contraceptives with an identical 30 μg ethinyloestradiol component. This supports the idea that the progestogen as well as the oestrogen component has an aetiological role in t...

  1. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  2. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  3. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  4. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  5. Non-invasive optical mapping of the piglet brain in real time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Sergio; Franceschini, Maria Angela; Gratton, Enrico; Hueber, Dennis; Rosenfeld, Warren; Maulik, Dev; Stubblefield, Phillip; Stankovic, Mikjan

    1999-04-01

    We have performed non-invasive, real-time optical mapping of the piglet brain during a subcortical injection of autologous blood. The time resolution of the optical maps is 192 ms, thus allowing us to generate a real-time video of the growing subcortical hematoma. The increased absorption at the site of blood injection is accompanied by a decreased absorption at the contralateral brain side. This contralateral decrease in the optical absorption and the corresponding time traces of the cerebral hemoglobin parameters are consistent with a reduced cerebral blood flow caused by the increased intracranial pressure.

  6. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  7. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  8. A CMOS-Based Tactile Sensor for Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Kirstein, K -U; Salo, T; Hagleitner, C; Vancura, T; Hierlemann, A

    2011-01-01

    A monolithic integrated tactile sensor array is presented, which is used to perform non-invasive blood pressure monitoring of a patient. The advantage of this device compared to a hand cuff based approach is the capability of recording continuous blood pressure data. The capacitive, membrane-based sensor device is fabricated in an industrial CMOS-technology combined with post-CMOS micromachining. The capacitance change is detected by a S?-modulator. The modulator is operated at a sampling rate of 128kS/s and achieves a resolution of 12bit with an external decimation filter and an OSR of 128.

  9. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  10. PET-measured heterogeneity in longitudinal myocardial blood flow in response to sympathetic and pharmacologic stress as a non-invasive probe of epicardial vasomotor dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Thomas H.; Facta, Alvaro D.; Prior, John O.; Campisi, Roxana; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kreissl, Michael C.; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Sayre, James; Dahlbom, Magnus; Schelbert, Heinrich R. [University of California at Los Angeles, Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We investigated whether a myocardial perfusion gradient during pharmacologically induced hyperemia also occurred during sympathetic stimulation with cold pressor testing (CPT), which commonly induces a paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction in individuals with coronary risk factors. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured in absolute units (ml/g/min) with {sup 13}N-ammonia and PET at rest, during CPT, and during pharmacologic vasodilation in 59 participants with coronary risk factors (''at risk'') and in 43 healthy individuals (controls). MBF was assessed globally as mean MBF, and in the mid and mid-distal myocardium of the left ventricle (LV). A decrease in MBF from mid to mid-distal LV myocardium was defined as MBF difference indicative of a perfusion gradient. The change in mean MBF to CPT ({delta}MBF) in the at-risk group was significantly reduced compared with controls (0.05{+-}0.19 vs 0.31{+-}0.20 ml/g/min, p<0.0001), whereas mean MBF during pharmacologic vasodilation in the at-risk group tended to be lower than in controls (1.72{+-}0.71 vs 2.00{+-}0.64 ml/g/min, p=NS). Absolute MBFs during CPT and pharmacologic vasodilation were significantly lower in the mid-distal than in the mid LV myocardium, resulting in a significant MBF difference in the at-risk group (0.15{+-}0.06 and 0.27{+-}0.12 ml/g/min, p<0.0001) that was not observed in controls (0.007{+-}0.05 and 0.014{+-}0.10 ml/g/min, p=NS). In the at-risk group there was a significant correlation between the difference of mid to mid-distal MBF during CPT and that during pharmacologic vasodilation (r=0.43, p<0.004), suggesting functional alterations of epicardial vessels as the predominant cause for the observed MBF difference. The relative decrease in MBF from the mid to the mid-distal left-ventricular myocardium suggests an intracoronary pressure decline during CPT and pharmacologic vasodilation, which is likely to reflect an impairment of flow-mediated epicardial vasomotor function

  11. Blood pressure lowering effect of Pennisetum glaucum in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate the seeds of Pennisetum glaucum for its blood pressure lowering effect in rats. Aqueous-methanolic extract of P. glaucum seeds in 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses was studied in normotensive, egg-feed diet and glucose-induced hypertensive rats using non-invasive technique. The extract significantly (p˂0.5 - p˂0.001 decreased blood pressure and heart rate with maximum effect at 1,000 mg/kg dose. The extract was found to prevent rise in blood pressure of egg and glucose fed rats as compared to control group in 21 days study. The extract was safe in mice up to dose of 4 g/kg and sub-chronic toxicity study showed that there was no significant alterations in blood chemistry of extract treated rats. It is conceivable, therefore, that aqueous-methanolic extract of P. glaucum seeds has exerted considerable antihypertensive activity which may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents.

  12. The observation on curative effect of non-invasive positive airway pressure ventilation in treatment to AECOPD patients with typeⅡrespiratory failure%无创正压通气治疗AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨欢欢; 刘荣玉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative effect of Bi - level Positive Airway Pressure Non - invasive mechanical treatment to AECOPD patients with type II respiratory failure. Methods A total of 79 patients who suffered from AECOPD with type II respiratory failure were divided into two groups. The therapy group included 39 patients who were given routine treatment ( meditations and oxygen ) and Bi -PAP non - invasive ventilation; the contrast group included 40 patients who were only given routine treatment. Arterial blood gases before and after treatment, the clinical symptom were observed and compared. Results After 7 days treatment, the arterial Ph and PaO2 increased significantly in the therapy group ( P <0. 01 ), and PaCO2 decreased significantly ( P <0. 01 ). The heart rate and the respiratory rate were also improved significantly( P<0.05 ). The arterial blood gases and the clinical symptom of the therapy group were improved more significantly than the contrast group( P <0. 05 ). Conclusion The use of Bi - PAP non - invasive ventilation in AECOPD patients with type II respiratory failure is effective in improving arterial blood gases and the clinical symptom.%目的 观察双水平无创正压通气治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期(acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,AECOPD)合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者的疗效.方法 79例AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的患者,随机分为使用Bi-PAP无创呼吸机行双水平正压辅助通气治疗组(治疗组,39例)和常规治疗组(对照组,40例),观察和比较两组患者治疗前后临床症状及动脉血气的变化情况.结果 治疗组患者在治疗7天后pH、PO2、PCO2结果均较治疗前明显改善(P<0.01),心率及呼吸频率也明显改善(P<0.05),且治疗组与对照组比较各项指标改善更明显(P<0.05).结论 Bi-PAP无创呼吸机双水平正压辅助通气治疗AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者有显著的疗效,值得临床推广及应用.

  13. Non-invasive neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, William J.; Sanguinetti, Joseph L.; Fini, Maria; Hool, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Neurotechnologies for non-invasively interfacing with neural circuits have been evolving from those capable of sensing neural activity to those capable of restoring and enhancing human brain function. Generally referred to as non-invasive neural stimulation (NINS) methods, these neuromodulation approaches rely on electrical, magnetic, photonic, and acoustic or ultrasonic energy to influence nervous system activity, brain function, and behavior. Evidence that has been surmounting for decades shows that advanced neural engineering of NINS technologies will indeed transform the way humans treat diseases, interact with information, communicate, and learn. The physics underlying the ability of various NINS methods to modulate nervous system activity can be quite different from one another depending on the energy modality used as we briefly discuss. For members of commercial and defense industry sectors that have not traditionally engaged in neuroscience research and development, the science, engineering and technology required to advance NINS methods beyond the state-of-the-art presents tremendous opportunities. Within the past few years alone there have been large increases in global investments made by federal agencies, foundations, private investors and multinational corporations to develop advanced applications of NINS technologies. Driven by these efforts NINS methods and devices have recently been introduced to mass markets via the consumer electronics industry. Further, NINS continues to be explored in a growing number of defense applications focused on enhancing human dimensions. The present paper provides a brief introduction to the field of non-invasive neural stimulation by highlighting some of the more common methods in use or under current development today.

  14. Questions and Answers about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... checked out by a doctor. Am I at risk for high blood pressure? Anyone can develop high blood pressure. But there are several factors that increase your risk: Being overweight or obese Not ... if I have high blood pressure? High blood pressure is often called "the silent ...

  15. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  16. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  17. NON-INVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Dey, Sumita Agarwal and Sumedha Sharma

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Aneuploidies are one of the important causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Initially screening for aneuploidies started with maternal age risk estimation. Later on, serum testing for biochemical markers and ultrasound markers were added. Women detected to be at high risk for aneuploidies were offered invasive testing. Recently, various methods including non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT by analysis of cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA in maternal blood has shown promise for highly accurate detection of common fetal autosomal trisomies. Incorporating these new non-invasive technologies into clinical practice will impact the current prenatal screening paradigm for fetal aneuploidy, in which genetic counselling plays an integral role. The advantage of the technique being elimination of risks such as miscarriage associated with invasive diagnostic procedures. But then this new technique has its own set of technical limitations and ethical issues at present and further research is required before implementation. Data was obtained through a literature search via Pubmed and Google as well as detailed search of our library database.

  18. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  19. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical Studies NHLBI Trials Clinical Trial Websites News & ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  20. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  1. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in the office and readings taken anywhere else. Researchers believe stress, which can occur during the medical appointment, causes white coat hypertension. Rate This Content: NEXT >> Updated: ...

  2. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ... are consistently higher than 120/80 mmHg. Your child’s blood pressure numbers are outside average numbers for ...

  3. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Explore High Blood Pressure What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Atherosclerosis DASH Eating Plan Overweight and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link ...

  4. Non-invasive light observer

    CERN Document Server

    Morichetti, Francesco; Carminati, Marco; Ferrari, Giorgio; Sampietro, Marco; Strain, Michael; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Photonic technologies lack non-invasive monitoring tools to inspect the light inside optical waveguides. This is one of the main barriers to large scale of integration, even though photonic platforms are potentially ready to host several thousands of elements on a single chip. Here, we demonstrate non-invasive light observation in silicon photonics devices by exploiting photon interaction with intra-gap energy states localized at the waveguide surface. Light intensity is measured through a ContactLess Integrated Photonic Probe (CLIPP) that introduces no measurable extra-photon absorption and a phase perturbation as low as 0.2 mrad, comparable to thermal fluctuations of less than 3 mK. Multipoint light monitoring is demonstrated with a sensitivity of -30 dBm and a dynamic range of 40 dB. CLIPP technology is simple, inherently CMOS compatible, and scalable to hundreds of probing points per chip. This concept provides a viable way to real-time conditioning and feedback control of densely-integrated photonic syst...

  5. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  6. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: Implications for non-invasive monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Colleen E. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); College of Charleston, Grice Marine Laboratory, 205 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States)], E-mail: colleen.bryan@nist.gov; Christopher, Steven J. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Hollings Marine Laboratory, 331 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412 (United States); Balmer, Brian C.; Wells, Randall S. [Chicago Zoological Society c/o Mote Marine Laboratory, 1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, Florida 34236 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n = 51) and skin (n = 40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p < 0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r = 0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  7. Availability of Floating-Reference Theory to Non-Invasive Blood Component Measurement by Optical Technology%血液成分无创光学检测中浮动基准理论的适用性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋景英; 龚启亮; 徐可欣

    2012-01-01

    Based on the studies of floating-reference theory(FRT) applied to non-invasive optical blood glucose sensing, this paper further investigated the availability of FRT in measuring other blood compo-nents, like bilirubin. According to the conditions of the radial reference location, the results of Monte Carlo simulation show no appearance of radial reference location in non-invasive bilirubin measurement. While the study on the replacement effect of bilirubin and water shows that, at the wavelength of 524 run, the absorption value of bilirubin solution has no relationship with its concentration. Therefore, this wave-length is regarded as the reference wavelength, and in the further study, it can be used to remove the in-fluence caused by the change of environment and background. In general, the application of FRT in blood glucose and bilirubin shows the specificity of floating reference location and floating reference wave-length in measuring different blood components by optical technology within the designated wavelength, which further improves and extends the application of FRT.%在浮动基准理论(FRT)应用于血糖无创光学检测研究成果的基础上,进一步研究其在其他血液成分(如胆红素)无创光学检测中的适用性.根据径向检测基准位置存在的条件,经蒙特卡洛模拟的结果表明胆红素测量中难以找到浮动基准位置;而通过研究胆红素与水的置换效应,发现在波长524 nm处吸光度值与胆红素的浓度无关,将该波长作为基准波长,实际测量中可以用于去除背景噪声和环境干扰.综合FRT在血糖及胆红素两种不同血液成分中应用的研究结果表明:对于不同检测成分,在相应的检测波段,浮动基准位置和浮动基准波长有一定的特异性,从而进一步完善和扩展了FRT的应用领域.

  8. Treatment of sleep central apnea with non-invasive mechanical ventilation with 2 levels of positive pressure (bilevel) in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamine, Ricardo Tera; Grossklauss, Luís Fernando; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Chiéia, Marco Antônio; Mesquita, Denis; Bulle Oliveira, Acary Souza; Tufik, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a 29 year-old female with diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy type 1 (Steinert’s disease) with excessive daytime sleepiness, muscle fatigue, snoring, frequent arousals, non-restorative sleep, and witnessed apneas. Pulmonary function tests revealed a mild decrease of forced vital capacity. Nocturnal polysomnography showed an increase of apnea/hypopnea index (85.9 events/h), mainly of central type (236), minimal oxygen saturation of 72%, and end-tidal carbon dioxide values that varied from 45 to 53 mmHg. Bi-level positive airway pressure titration was initiated at an inspiratory pressure (IPAP) of 8 and an expiratory pressure (EPAP) of 4 cm H2O. IPAP was then gradually increased to eliminate respiratory events and improve oxygen saturation. An IPAP of 12cm H20 and an EPAP of 4cm H2O eliminated all respiratory events, and the oxygen saturation remained above 90%. Bi-level positive airway pressure treatment at spontaneous/timed mode showed an improvement in snoring, apneas, and Epworth sleepiness scale decreased from 20 to 10. This case illustrates the beneficial effects of Bi-level positive airway pressure support in central sleep apnea syndrome of a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1. PMID:26483914

  9. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Cate, F.J. ten; Neumann, H.A.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R)

  10. Remote non-invasive stereoscopic imaging of blood vessels: first in-vivo results of a new multispectral contrast enhancement technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Cate, F.J. ten; Neumann, H.A.M.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe a contactless optical technique selectively enhancing superficial blood vessels below variously pigmented intact human skin by combining images in different spectral bands. Two CMOS-cameras, with apochromatic lenses and dual-band LED-arrays, simultaneously streamed Left (L) and Right (R)

  11. Clinical Study of Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Treatment of Severe Acute Cardiogenic Pulmonary Edema%无创正压通气治疗急性重症心源性肺水肿的临床效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于冰; 林盛翠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and explore the effect of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of severe a-cute cardiogenic pulmonary edema. Methods 60 patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema admitted to our hospital from February 2013 to April 2015 were selected and randomly divided into study group and control group. The control group was given conventional drug therapy, while the study group underwent non-invasive positive pressure ventilation based on the methods used in the control group. The changes of clinical symptoms, complications and related parameters before and after treatment were measured. Results After 1-4 h treatment with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for patients in the study group, their heart rate and respiration rate, and their mean arterial pressure, as well as parameters of arterial blood gases all decreased significantly, P<0.001, and decreased significantly, P<0.001, and related complications improved. Further more, the efficacy was significantly better in the study group than in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant difference, P<0.01. Conclusion Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation could improve hypoxemia and cardiac function, relieve symptoms in patients with severe acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema and shorten the course of heart failure. It is a safe and effective method for treating severe a-cute pulmonary edema, and is worthy of promotion.%目的:观察并分析无创正压通气治疗急性重症心源性肺水肿的临床效果。方法随机选取2013年2月-2015年3月该院收治的60例急性重症心源性肺水肿患者为研究对象,随机分为研究组和对照组,两组均采取常规药物治疗,研究组在此基础上采用无创正压通气治疗,观察并比较两组患者通气前和通气后体征、临床症状以及相关指标等的变化。结果经过1~4 h的无创通气治疗,患者的心率和呼吸频率与

  12. Non-invasive continuous arterial pressure measurement based on radial artery tonometry in the intensive care unit: a method comparison study using the T-Line TL-200pro device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, B; Meidert, A S; Hapfelmeier, A; Eyer, F; Schmid, R M; Huber, W

    2013-08-01

    The T-Line TL-200pro (TL-200pro) device (Tensys Medical, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA), based on radial artery tonometry, provides an arterial pressure (AP) waveform and beat-to-beat values of systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate this non-invasive technique for continuous AP monitoring in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Arterial pressure measurements obtained using the TL-200pro technology were compared using Bland-Altman analysis with values measured directly from a femoral arterial catheter in 34 ICU patients. Arterial pressure values were analysed and compared in 4502 averaged 10-beat epochs. A bias of +0.72 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -9.37 to +10.82 mm Hg) was observed for MAP. For SAP and DAP, there was a mean difference of -1.39 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -18.74 to +15.96 mm Hg) and +4.36 mm Hg (95% limits of agreement -8.66 to +17.38 mm Hg), respectively. The percentage error for MAP, SAP, and DAP was 12%, 14%, and 21%, respectively. Arterial pressure measurement based on radial artery tonometry using the TL-200pro technology is feasible in medical ICU patients. The TL-200pro system is capable of providing MAP values with high accuracy (low mean difference) and precision (narrow limits of agreement) compared with MAP measured invasively using a femoral arterial catheter. The TL-200pro technology is promising for the measurement of SAP and DAP but further development is necessary to improve accuracy and precision.

  13. Relative pressure estimation from velocity measurements in blood flows: state-of-the-art and new approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoglio, Cristóbal; Núñez, Rodolfo; Galarce, Felipe; Nordsletten, David; Osses, Axel

    2017-09-07

    The relative pressure difference across stenotic blood vessels serves as an important clinical index for the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases. While the clinical gold standard for relative pressure difference measurements is invasive catheterization, Phase-Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging has emerged as a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification, by linking highly spatially resolved velocity measurements with relative pressures via the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. In this work we provide a review and analysis of current methods for relative pressure estimation and propose three additional techniques. Methods are compared using synthetic data from numerical examples and sensitivity to subsampling and noise was explored. Through our analysis, we verify that the newly proposed approaches are more robust with respect to spatial subsampling and less sensitive to noise, and therefore provide improved means for estimating relative pressure differences non-invasively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Progress of MIR Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Determination and Effect of Stratum Corneum%中红外无创血糖研究进展并论角质层影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星旦; 王动民; 卢启鹏; 丁海泉

    2011-01-01

    The progress of non-invasive blood glucose determination based on mid-infrared spectroscopy is introduced firstly. After this, the effect of stratum corneum (SC) on blood glucose determination is studied by experiment while interstitial fluid (ISF) is collected on the skin surface. Using the spectra of simulated ISF, partial least square regression (PLSR) calibration model of glucose determination is established, and the value of root mean squares error of cross validation (RMSECV) is 9.6 mg/dL. While including the interference of stratum corneum from three volenteers individually, three RMSECV are obtained, and they are 17.4, 16.3 and 17.1 mg/dL, respectively. The results show that the effects of SC from different volenteers are the same nearly; including the interference of SC, the accuracy of the non-invasive blood glucose determination based on attenuated total reflection mid-infrared spectroscopy can reach 18 mg/dL.%在介绍中红外无创血糖研究进展的基础上,实验探讨了组织液渗透到手指皮肤表面时,角质层对血糖测量的影响.加入角质层干扰信息前,用偏最小二乘法(PLSR)建立了模拟组织液中葡萄糖定标模型,其内部交叉验证均方差(RMSECV)为9.6 mg/dL;加入三个志愿者手指皮肤吸收的干扰信息后,所得三个模型的RMSECV分别为17.4,16.3和17.1 mg/dL.结果表明,当组织液渗透到手指皮肤表面时,不同志愿者的角质层对定标模型的影响程度大致相同;计入角质层的干扰,中红外光谱无创血糖的检测精度有望达到18 mg/dL.

  15. Non-invasive measurement of pan-colonic pressure over a whole digestive cycle: Clinical applications of a capsule-style manometric system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Qiang Zhang; Guo-Zheng Yan; Lian-Zhi Yu; Xin-Qing Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the prolonged colonic motility under normal conditions with a novel capsule-style microsystem and to assess its clinical significance.METHODS: A single use telemetry capsule (10 mm in diameter, 20 mm in length) embedded with a pressure sensor was ingested by the subjects. The sensor is capable of transmitting colonic pressure wirelessly for more than 130 h. The time of capsule entering the segmental colon was detected by ultrasound. The ultrasonic electrodes were mounted on the surface of the ileocecum and navel and at the junction of the left and rectosigmoid colon of the subjects in sequence,which were identified by abdominal X-rays with radiopaque markers. To verify the accuracy and reliability of ultrasonic detection of telemetry capsules at key points of colon, the segmental colonic transit time was simultaneously recorded by using radiopaque markers.RESULTS: The signal lamp showed that all recorders could receive the radio signal transmitted by the telemetry capsule. The X-rays showed that all telemetry capsules were detected successfully when they were passing through the key points of colon. There was a significant correlation between the transit results obtained by ultrasonic detection or by radiopaque markers. Colorectal recording was obtained from 20 healthy subjects during 613 h (411 h during waking, 202 h during sleep). Compared to waking, the number of pressure contractions and the area under pressure contractions were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased during sleep (21 ± 5 h-1 vs 15 ± 4 h-1, 463 ± 54 motility exhibited significant regional variations both in the circadian behavior and in response to waking and meal.CONCLUSION: The capsule-style micro-system is reliable and noninvasive, and may represent a useful tool for the study of physiology and pathology of colonic motor disorders.

  16. CHRONOBIOLOGY OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornélissen, G.; Halberg, F.; Bakken, E. E.; Wang, Z.; Tarquini, R.; Perfetto, F.; Laffi, G.; Maggioni, C.; Kumagai, Y.; Homolka, P.; Havelková, A.; Dušek, J.; Svačinová, H.; Siegelová, J.; Fišer, B.

    2008-01-01

    BIOCOS, the project aimed at studying BIOlogical systems in their COSmos, has obtained a great deal of expertise in the fields of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) monitoring and of marker rhythmometry for the purposes of screening, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Prolonging the monitoring reduces the uncertainty in the estimation of circadian parameters; the current recommendation of BIOCOS requires monitoring for at least 7 days. The BIOCOS approach consists of a parametric and a non-parametric analysis of the data, in which the results from the individual subject are being compared with gender- and age-specified reference values in health. Chronobiological designs can offer important new information regarding the optimization of treatment by timing its administration as a function of circadian and other rhythms. New technological developments are needed to close the loop between the monitoring of blood pressure and the administration of antihypertensive drugs. PMID:19122770

  17. The Environment and Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D

    2017-05-01

    A host of environmental factors can significantly increase arterial blood pressure (BP) including cold temperature, high altitude, loud noises, and ambient air pollutants. Although brief exposures acutely elevate BP, over the long term, chronic exposures may be capable of promoting the development of sustained hypertension. Given their omnipresent nature, environmental factors may play a role in worsening BP control and heightening overall cardiovascular risk at the global public health level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Carotid arterial blood pressure waveform monitoring using a portable ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joohyun Seo; Pietrangelo, Sabino J; Hae-Seung Lee; Sodini, Charles G

    2015-08-01

    This work presents a non-invasive arterial blood pressure (ABP) waveform monitoring technique using ultrasound. A portable ultrasound system to excite ultrasound transducers and acquire data is designed with off-the-shelf components. The insonation angles are identified using a vector Doppler technique based on the cosine dependency of the Doppler signals. The pulse pressure of an estimated waveform at the left common carotid artery is compared to the standard sphygmomanometer measurement in a clinical test. The estimated carotid ABP waveform shows excellent agreement to the finger ABP waveform with expected discrepancy of the systolic peak shape due to different measurement sites. The proposed method also tracks slow blood pressure fluctuations. This validation on human subjects shows potential for a noninvasive blood pressure waveform monitoring device at central arterial sites.

  19. Diagnóstico prenatal no invasivo: Ácidos nucleicos de origen fetal en sangre materna Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: Fetal nucleic acid analysis in maternal blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sesarini

    2010-12-01

    decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives.

  20. THE CIRCADIAN ALTERATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN PATIENTS WITH SECONDARY HYPERTENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱珠; 王宪衍; 金翠燕; 陈丽莎; 董寿琪

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the pattern of circadian blood pressure changes in patients with secondary hypertension. Methods The 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in 80 patients with secondary hypertension ( SH ) including primary aldosteronisrn in 44, pheochromocytoma in 11, renovascular hypertension in 10, renoparenchymal hypertension in 15 and compared with 80 patients with essential hypertension (EH) matched by age and sex. Results The diurnal rhythm in patients with SH was different from that of patients with EH. The diurnal curves in SH and EH was overlapped in daytime and separated from each other at nighttime. The nocturnal blood pressure fall was less and average blood pressure at nighttime was higher in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure loading and non-dipper phenomenon were much more frequently seen in patients with SH than those in patients with EH (P<0.01). The nighttime blood pressure/daytime blood pressure ratio was significantly higher in patients with SH than that in patients with EH (P<0.01). Conclusion The non-invasive 24h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring may be a useful method in screening for SH.

  1. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  2. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in ..... determinants of high blood pressure in a group of urban Nigerians. J. Hum. ... Endurance exercise effects on quality of life and menopausal ...

  3. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 10,2017 The importance of stress ... content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  4. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  5. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  6. How Is High Blood Pressure Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or focusing on something calm or peaceful Performing yoga or tai chi Meditating Medicines Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to stop or slow some of the body’s functions that cause high blood pressure. Medicines to lower ...

  7. PEEP in non invasive ventilatory treatment of worsened BPCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Lari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory failure due to exacerbation of chronic pulmonary disease is usually treated with bilevel pressure non invasive ventilation. An high inspiratory pressure is used to improve tidal volume, a lower expiratory pressure is used to neutralize end expiratory positive pressure of patient (PEEPi caused by flow limitation and airway trapping. When ventilators for bilevel pressure ventilation are not available, is useful to administer to patient an external low (5cmH2O positive pressure with simple CPAP systems (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, such as Venturi like flow generator largely available and well known everywhere.

  8. Alginate/PEG based microcarriers with cleavable crosslinkage for expansion and non-invasive harvest of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chunge [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qian, Yufeng [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Austin, 2500 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Zhao, Shuang [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yin, Yuji, E-mail: yinyuji@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Junjie, E-mail: li41308@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, No. 92, Weijin Road, Tianjin 300072 (China); Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences and Tissue Engineering Research Center, Academy of Military Medical Sciences, No. 27, Taiping Road, Beijing 100850 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Porous microcarriers are increasingly used to expand and harvest stem cells. Generally, the cells are harvested via proteolytic enzyme treatment, which always leads to damages to stem cells. To address this disadvantage, a series of alginate/PEG (AL/PEG) semi-interpenetrating network microcarriers are prepared in this study. In this AL/PEG system, the chemically cross-linked alginate networks are formed via the reaction between carboxylic acid group of alginate and di-terminated amine groups of cystamine. PEG is introduced to modulate the degradation of microcarriers, which does not participate in this cross-linked reaction, while it interpenetrates in alginate network via physical interactions. In addition, chitosan are coated on the surface of AL/PEG to improve the mechanical strength via the electrostatic interactions. Biocompatible fibronectin are also coated on these microcarriers to modulate the biological behaviors of cells seeded in microcarriers. Results suggest that the size of AL/PEG microcarriers can be modulated via adjusting the contents and molecular weight of PEG. Moreover, the microcarriers are designed to be degraded with cleavage of disulfide crosslinkage. By changing the type and concentration of reductant, the ratio of AL to PEG, and the magnitude of chitosan coating, the degradation ability of AL/PEG microcarriers can be well controlled. In addition, AL/PEG microcarriers can support the attachment and proliferation of human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs). More importantly, the expanded hUCB-MSCs can be detached from microcarriers after addition of reductant, which indeed reduce the cell damage caused by proteolytic enzyme treatment. Therefore, it is convinced that AL/PEG based microcarriers will be a promising candidate for large-scale expansion of hUCB-MSCs. - Graphical abstract: Alginate/PEG IPN microcarriers can support the attachment and expansion of hUCB-MSCs. More importantly, the expanded cells can be harvested

  9. Non-invasive, neuron-specific gene therapy by focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening in Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Yin; Hsieh, Han-Yi; Chen, Chiung-Mei; Wu, Shang-Rung; Tsai, Chih-Hung; Huang, Chiung-Yin; Hua, Mu-Yi; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Yeh, Chih-Kuang; Liu, Hao-Li

    2016-08-10

    Focused ultrasound (FUS)-induced with microbubbles (MBs) is a promising technique for noninvasive opening of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to allow targeted delivery of therapeutic substances into the brain and thus the noninvasive delivery of gene vectors for CNS treatment. We have previously demonstrated that a separated gene-carrying liposome and MBs administration plus FUS exposure can deliver genes into the brain, with the successful expression of the reporter gene and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) gene. In this study, we further modify the delivery system by conjugating gene-carrying liposomes with MBs to improve the GDNF gene-delivery efficiency, and to verify the possibility of using this system to perform treatment in the 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced animal disease model. FUS-BBB opening was verified by contrast-enhanced MRI, and GFP gene expression was verified via in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Western blots as well as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to measure protein expression, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was conducted to test the Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-neuron distribution. Dopamine (DA) and its metabolites as well as dopamine active transporter (DAT) were quantitatively analyzed to show dopaminergic neuronal dopamine secretion/activity/metabolism. Motor performance was evaluated by rotarod test weekly. Results demonstrated that the LpDNA-MBs (gene-liposome-MBs) complexes successfully serve as gene carrier and BBB-opening catalyst, and outperformed the separated LpDNA/MBs administration both in terms of gene delivery and expression. TH-positive IHC and measurement of DA and its metabolites DOPAC and HVA confirmed improved neuronal function, and the proposed system also provided the best neuroprotective effect to retard the progression of motor-related behavioral abnormalities. Immunoblotting and histological staining further confirmed the expression of reporter genes in

  10. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  11. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  12. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  13. Development and performance evaluation of Time-over-Threshold based digital PET (TODPET2) scanner using SiPM/Ce:GAGG-arrays for non-invasive measurement of blood RI concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, M.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Lipovec, A.; Takahashi, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Takahashi, M.; Momose, T.; Ito, S.; Tsutsumi, K.; Endo, T.; Sato, H.; Usuki, Y.

    2017-02-01

    We developed Time-over-Threshold based digital PET (TODPET2) tomograph using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) arrays coupled with pixelized Ce:Gd3(Ga, Al)5O12 (Ce:GAGG) scintillators dedicated for non-invasive measurement of blood RI concentrations. The detector consists of 1.57 × 1.57 mm2 SiPM chips and 1.6 × 1.6 × 15 mm3 Ce:GAGG scintillators arranged on a 12 × 12 channel, both working as individual readout systems. After the development of the detector, we fabricated the PET gantry composed of 8 pieces of SiPM/Ce:GAGG detector array which signals were sent to the current-comparing type time-over-threshold (TOT) ASIC for individual readout of pixels. The PET scanner which we developed has 25 mm axial field-of-view (FOV) and 60 mm transaxial FOV. The spatial resolution reconstructed with maximum likelihood estimation method (MLEM) is 0.98 mm (FWHM) at the center of FOV. The sensitivity of the system is measured to be 1.31% using 22Na point source. Finally, timing response to changes in RI concentration was also measured using 5 mm diameter syringe injected with several concentrations of 18FDG.

  14. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, and they include: Eating too much sodium or ...

  15. Accuracy of the Dinamap 1846 XT automated blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, E R; Card, C M; Card, S E; Biem, H J; Wilson, T W

    2002-09-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is important for the detection and treatment of hypertension. Despite widespread use of automated devices, there is limited published evidence for their reliability and accuracy. To determine the reliability and accuracy of the Dinamap 1846XT (Critikon Corporation, Tampa, FL, USA), a commonly used non-invasive oscillometric BP monitor The Dinamap was evaluated against the mercury manometer in 70 randomly selected adult hospitalised medical patients. Each individual underwent three sets of standardised BP measurement by automated method and three sets by mercury manometer by two independent observers. Reliability of BP measurement was assessed by repeated measures analysis. Dinamap accuracy was evaluated according to the American Association of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and British Hypertension Society (BHS) guidelines. Most patients were either normotensive or had stage I hypertension. The Dinamap tended to overestimate lower diastolic BP, and displayed poor reliability (P mercury manometer and 84% of systolic and 80% of diastolic readings were within 10 mm hg (bhs grade c). systolic and diastolic accuracy were worse with pressures >160/90 mm Hg (grade D) although these measures were based on a smaller sample of subjects. In conclusion the Dinamap yields inaccurate estimates of both systolic and diastolic BP even under standardised, and thus optimal conditions. This inaccuracy is exaggerated at higher BP (>160/90 mm Hg), although the number of measurements at higher pressures was small. We recommend that this device not be used when accurate BP measurement is needed for therapeutic decision-making.

  16. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  17. 家庭无创正压通气在慢性阻塞性肺疾病稳定期患者中的疗效%Clinical value of home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with stable-phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王峰; 李艳丽; 刘占祥

    2010-01-01

    目的 研究稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病并慢性呼吸衰竭患者家庭氧疗加用无创正压通气与单独应用家庭氧疗治疗的疗效.方法 慢性阻塞性肺疾病稳定期并慢性呼吸衰竭患者使用家庭氧疗加无创正压通气与单纯长期家庭氧疗患者比较在治疗1年中的病情恶化次数、住院次数、住院时间以及治疗前与治疗12个月后的血气指标和肺功能参数的变化和症状、体征.结果 随访12个月后,家庭氧疗加用无创正压通气治疗组病情恶化次数和住院次数均较单纯氧疗组明显减少.在治疗12个月随访时,家庭氧疗加用无创正压通气治疗组的动脉血氧分压(PaO2),动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2),血液pH与单纯氧疗组比较均有显著改善,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 无创正压通气是慢性阻塞性肺疾病稳定期并慢性呼吸衰竭患者积极和有效的治疗措施.%Objective To study the clinical value of home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation(NIPPV) in patients with stable-phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and chronic respiratory failure.Methods Stable COPD patients complicated with chronic respiratory failure received Bi-level positive airway pressure ventilation.The frequency of acute exacerbation,admissiontimes-admission expending,blood gas analysis were compared in these patients with those received long term oxygen therapy. Results After one year home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation,PaCO2,HCO-3 were decreased,while pH and PaO2 increased.Compared with patients received long term oxygen therapy,PaCO2 was greatly ameliorated and the frequency of acute exacerbation,admission times and admission expending declined.Conclusions Home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation will do good to COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure during stable phase.

  18. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to two weeks. Heavy drinkers who stop suddenly risk developing severe high blood pressure for several days. If you have high blood ... and may contribute to unwanted weight gain — a risk factor for high blood pressure. Also, alcohol can interfere with the effectiveness and ...

  19. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  20. 双水平正压无创通气治疗肺结核并发呼吸衰竭临床观察%The clinical observation of two-level non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of tuberculosis and respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海; 吕静; 罗艺

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察双水平正压(BiPAP)无创通气治疗肺结核并发呼吸衰竭的疗效.方法:选择我院2010-2012年的48例肺结核并发呼吸衰竭的住院患者,随机分为治疗组24例,采用BiPAP呼吸机经面罩无创通气治疗;对照组24例,采用鼻导管吸氧.两组均常规给予抗结核,抗感染,解痉,祛痰,纠正酸碱失衡,电解质紊乱治疗,对治疗前后血气分析的PH值,氧分压(PaO2),二氧化碳分压(PaCO2),氧饱和度(SaO2),心率,呼吸频率,血压进行观察.结果:BiPAP无创通气治疗24 h后PaO2,SaO2均明显升高,PaCO2明显降低,心率,呼吸频率指标均有明显改善,治疗前后比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),但血压治疗前后无明显变化.结论:BiPAP无创通气治疗肺结核合并呼吸衰竭疗效肯定,并发症少,值得临床推广.%Objective:To observe the clinical effect of two-level non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in the treatment of tuberculosis and respiratory failureMethod:Forty eight cases of tuberculosis patients with respira tory failure admitted in our hospital in 2010-2012 years were selected in the study.The patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group.Patients in treatment group (24 cases) were treated with noninvasive ventilation BiPAP ventilator through the mask.Patients in the control group (24 cases) were administered oxygen inhalation through nasal catheter.Regular anti-tuberculosis,anti-infection,spasmolysis,expectorant,correcting acid-base imbalance,electrolyte disorder treatment were applied in both group.Blood gas analysis before and after the treatment,oxygen partial pressure (PaO2),co2 partial pressure (PaCO2),oxygen saturation (SaO2),heart rate,breathing rate and blood pressure were observed.Result:After 24 hours treatment with BiPAP non-invasive ventilation,PaO2,SaO2 significantly elevated,PaCO2 decreased,heart rate,breathing rate index improved significantly compared before treatment with significant difference

  1. [Accuracy of the oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego Filho, E A; Mello, S F; Silva, C R; Vituri, D W; Bazoni, E; Gordan, L N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the substitution of the standard auscultatory method by the oscillometric blood pressure monitor, independently of the validity of the intraarterial blood pressure measurement. The accuracy of the automatic oscillometric monitor was compared to the auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurement in apparently healthy school age children. METHODS: A device able to perform 3 simultaneous readings are used: one reading by the monitor and the others by two "blind" observers. We studied 72 school age children with the following characteristics: mean age 9.5 (6.1-16.1) and 39 males (54.2%). RESULTS: The difference for the systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the monitor was in average + 6.2 mmHg and + 10.0 mmHg, respectively, when compared to the observer's readings. There was neither a good correlation nor a good agreement between the two observers and the monitor in the blood pressure determination. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the substitution of the standard auscultatory method for the non-invasive oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in school age children can not be generally recommended.

  2. Validation of the pulse decomposition analysis algorithm using central arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C; Kalantari, Kambiz; Gerdt, David W; Adkins, Charles M

    2014-07-08

    There is a significant need for continuous noninvasive blood pressure (cNIBP) monitoring, especially for anesthetized surgery and ICU recovery. cNIBP systems could lower costs and expand the use of continuous blood pressure monitoring, lowering risk and improving outcomes.The test system examined here is the CareTaker® and a pulse contour analysis algorithm, Pulse Decomposition Analysis (PDA). PDA's premise is that the peripheral arterial pressure pulse is a superposition of five individual component pressure pulses that are due to the left ventricular ejection and reflections and re-reflections from only two reflection sites within the central arteries.The hypothesis examined here is that the model's principal parameters P2P1 and T13 can be correlated with, respectively, systolic and pulse pressures. Central arterial blood pressures of patients (38 m/25 f, mean age: 62.7 y, SD: 11.5 y, mean height: 172.3 cm, SD: 9.7 cm, mean weight: 86.8 kg, SD: 20.1 kg) undergoing cardiac catheterization were monitored using central line catheters while the PDA parameters were extracted from the arterial pulse signal obtained non-invasively using CareTaker system. Qualitative validation of the model was achieved with the direct observation of the five component pressure pulses in the central arteries using central line catheters. Statistically significant correlations between P2P1 and systole and T13 and pulse pressure were established (systole: R square: 0.92 (p pressures obtained through the conversion of PDA parameters to blood pressures of non-invasively obtained pulse signatures with catheter-obtained blood pressures fell within the trend guidelines of the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation SP-10 standard (standard deviation: 8 mmHg(systole: 5.87 mmHg, diastole: 5.69 mmHg)). The results indicate that arterial blood pressure can be accurately measured and tracked noninvasively and continuously using the CareTaker system and the PDA algorithm. The

  3. A Simple Adaptive Transfer Function for Deriving the Central Blood Pressure Waveform from a Radial Blood Pressure Waveform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingwu; Rose, William C; Fetics, Barry; Kass, David A; Chen, Chen-Huan; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-09-14

    Generalized transfer functions (GTFs) are available to compute the more relevant central blood pressure (BP) waveform from a more easily measured radial BP waveform. However, GTFs are population averages and therefore may not adapt to variations in pulse pressure (PP) amplification (ratio of radial to central PP). A simple adaptive transfer function (ATF) was developed. First, the transfer function is defined in terms of the wave travel time and reflection coefficient parameters of an arterial model. Then, the parameters are estimated from the radial BP waveform by exploiting the observation that central BP waveforms exhibit exponential diastolic decays. The ATF was assessed using the original data that helped popularize the GTF. These data included radial BP waveforms and invasive reference central BP waveforms from cardiac catheterization patients. The data were divided into low, middle, and high PP amplification groups. The ATF estimated central BP with greater accuracy than GTFs in the low PP amplification group (e.g., central systolic BP and PP root-mean-square-errors of 3.3 and 4.2 mm Hg versus 6.2 and 7.1 mm Hg; p ≤ 0.05) while showing similar accuracy in the higher PP amplification groups. The ATF may permit more accurate, non-invasive central BP monitoring in elderly and hypertensive patients.

  4. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  5. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  6. A non-invasive miniaturized-wireless laser-Doppler fiber optic sensor for understanding distal fingertip injuries in astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Pollonini, Luca; Rodriguez, Mikael; Opperman, Roedolph; Hochstein, Jason

    2009-02-01

    During extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) or space walks astronauts over use their fingertips under pressure inside the confined spaces of gloves/space-suite. The repetitive hand motion is a probable cause for discomfort and injuries to the finger-tips. We describe a new wireless fiber-optic probe that can be integrated inside the astronaut glove for non-invasive blood perfusion measurements in distal finger tips. In this preliminary study, we present blood perfusion measurements while performing hand-grip exercises simulating the use of space tools.

  7. Non-invasive photo acoustic approach for human bone diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thella, Ashok Kumar; Rizkalla, James; Helmy, Ahdy; Suryadevara, Vinay Kumar; Salama, Paul; Rizkalla, Maher

    2016-12-01

    The existing modalities of bone diagnosis including X-ray and ultrasound may cite drawback in some cases related to health issues and penetration depth, while the ultrasound modality may lack image quality. Photo acoustic approach however, provides light energy to the acoustic wave, enabling it to activate and respond according to the propagating media (which is type of bones in this case). At the same time, a differential temperature change may result in the bio heat response, resulting from the heat absorbed across the multiple materials under study. In this work, we have demonstrated the features of using photo acoustic modality in order to non-invasively diagnose the type of human bones based on their electrical, thermal, and acoustic properties that differentiate the output response of each type. COMSOL software was utilized to combine both acoustic equations and bio heat equations, in order to study both the thermal and acoustic responses through which the differential diagnosis can be obtained. In this study, we solved both the acoustic equation and bio heat equations for four types of bones, bone (cancellous), bone (cortical), bone marrow (red), and bone marrow (yellow). 1 MHz acoustic source frequency was chosen and 10(5) W/m(2) power source was used in the simulation. The simulation tested the dynamic response of the wave over a distance of 5 cm from each side for the source. Near 2.4 cm was detected from simulation from each side of the source with a temperature change of within 0.5 K for various types of bones, citing a promising technique for a practical model to detect the type of bones via the differential temperature as well as the acoustic was response via the multiple materials associated with the human bones (skin and blood). The simulation results suggest that the PA technique may be applied to non-invasive diagnosis for the different types of bones, including cancerous bones. A practical model for detecting both the temperature change via

  8. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  9. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and animal),

  10. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...

  11. Non-invasive sensing for food reassurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaobo, Zou; Xiaowei, Huang; Povey, Malcolm

    2016-03-01

    Consumers and governments are increasingly interested in the safety, authenticity and quality of food commodities. This has driven attention towards non-invasive sensing techniques used for rapid analyzing these commodities. This paper provides an overview of the state of the art in, and available alternatives for, food assurance based on non-invasive sensing techniques. The main food quality traits of interest using non-invasive sensing techniques are sensory characteristics, chemical composition, physicochemical properties, health-protecting properties, nutritional characteristics and safety. A wide range of non-invasive sensing techniques, from optical, acoustical, electrical, to nuclear magnetic, X-ray, biosensor, microwave and terahertz, are organized according to physical principle. Some of these techniques are now in a period of transition between experimental and applied utilization and several sensors and instruments are reviewed. With continued innovation and attention to key challenges, such non-invasive sensors and biosensors are expected to open up new exciting avenues in the field of portable and wearable wireless sensing devices and connecting with mobile networks, thus finding considerable use in a wide range of food assurance applications. The need for an appropriate regulatory framework is emphasized which acts to exclude unwanted components in foods and includes needed components, with sensors as part of a reassurance framework supporting regulation and food chain management. The integration of these sensor modalities into a single technological and commercial platform offers an opportunity for a paradigm shift in food reassurance.

  12. Non-invasive matrices in human biomonitoring: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Marta; Castaño, Argelia

    2009-02-01

    Humans and other living organisms are exposed to a variety of chemical pollutants that are released into the environment as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. Environmental pollutants are incorporated into the organism by different routes and can then be stored and distributed in different tissues, which leads to an internal concentration that can induce different alterations, adverse effects and/or diseases. Control measures should be taken to avoid these effects and human biomonitoring is a very useful tool that can contribute to this aim. Human biomonitoring uses different matrices to measure the target chemicals depending on the chemical, the amount of matrix necessary for the analysis and the detection limit (LOD) of the analytical technique. Blood is the ideal matrix for most chemicals due to its contact with the whole organism and its equilibrium with organs and tissues where chemicals are stored. However, it has an important disadvantage of being an invasive matrix. The development of new methodology and modern analytical techniques has allowed the use of other matrices that are less or non-invasive, such as saliva, urine, meconium, nails, hair, and semen or breast milk. The presence of a chemical in these matrices reflects an exposure, but correlations between levels in non-invasive matrices and blood must be established to ensure that these levels are related to the total body burden. The development of new biomarkers that are measurable in these matrices will improve non-invasive biomonitoring. This paper reviews studies that measure Cd, Pb, Hg, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides and phthalates in non-invasive matrices, the most used techniques for measurements and what alternative techniques are available.

  13. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry......, the oscillometry showed a positive predictive value of 47%. The presence of PAD was significantly correlated to exercise related leg pain, a diagnosis of hypertension and smoking, whereas no correlation could be found with a diagnosis of heart disease, stroke, or with the presence of diabetes. The prevalence...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  14. An affordable cuff-less blood pressure estimation solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Monika; Kumar, Niranjan; Deb, Sujay

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a cuff-less hypertension pre-screening device that non-invasively monitors the Blood Pressure (BP) and Heart Rate (HR) continuously. The proposed device simultaneously records two clinically significant and highly correlated biomedical signals, viz., Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG). The device provides a common data acquisition platform that can interface with PC/laptop, Smart phone/tablet and Raspberry-pi etc. The hardware stores and processes the recorded ECG and PPG in order to extract the real-time BP and HR using kernel regression approach. The BP and HR estimation error is measured in terms of normalized mean square error, Error Standard Deviation (ESD) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE), with respect to a clinically proven digital BP monitor (OMRON HBP1300). The computed error falls under the maximum standard allowable error mentioned by Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation; MAE <; 5 mmHg and ESD <; 8mmHg. The results are validated using two-tailed dependent sample t-test also. The proposed device is a portable low-cost home and clinic bases solution for continuous health monitoring.

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  16. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  17. The effects of short-term blood pressure variability and nighttime blood pressure levels on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemaru, A; Kanemaru, K; Kuwajima, I

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between 24-h blood pressure (BP) and cognitive function. We performed the Hasegawa Dementia Scale Revised (HDSR), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices Test (RCPM) in 88 subjects (71+/-9 years) with no history of stroke. Ambulatory BP was non-invasively measured using a TM2421 for 24 h in all patients. Whereas 90% of the scores converged into a narrow range between 25 and 30 points in the HDSR and the MMSE tests, the RCPM score was widely distributed, ranging from 9 to 36 points. The subjects were therefore divided into three groups of > or =25, 26-30, and 31-36 according to their RCPM scores. Subjects with lower scores were significantly associated with increased short-term BP variability during the daytime (p<0.05) and had a tendency toward higher nighttime SBP (p=0.05) compared with those with higher scores. Increased short-term variability of daytime BP and high nighttime systolic BP were associated with cognitive impairment as assessed by the RCPM. The RCPM, which can assess the capacity for judgment through visual information processing, may detect earlier stages of cognitive impairment related to high BP. To prevent a deterioration of cognitive function, strict control of nighttime BP and suppression of short-term BP variability are thus necessary.

  18. Blood Pressure in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is present in up to 84% of patients presenting with acute stroke, and a smaller proportion of patients have blood pressures that are below typical values in the context of cerebral ischemia. Outcomes are generally worse in those who present with either low or severely elevated blood pressure. Several studies have provided valuable information about malignant trends in blood pressure during the transition from the acute to the subacute phase of stroke. It is not uncommon for practitioners in clinical practice to identify what appear to be pressure-dependent neurologic deficits. Despite physiologic and clinical data suggesting the importance of blood pressure modulation to support cerebral blood flow to ischemic tissue, randomized controlled trials have not yielded robust evidence for this in acute ischemic stroke. We highlight previous studies involving acute-stroke patients that have defined trends in blood pressure and that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of blood-pressure modulation in acute ischemic stroke. This overview reports the current status of this topic from the perspective of a stroke neurologist and provides a framework for future research. PMID:26833984

  19. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found......Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  20. Health Behavior Change after Blood Pressure Feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Pu

    Full Text Available Better understanding is needed for antihypertensive medication initiation and lifestyle modification among younger populations with elevated blood pressure. This study aimed to assess health behavior change after receiving a report of elevated blood pressure among African Americans and Caucasians younger than 50 years old. We used the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA repository dataset. By examination year twenty, 424 out of 2,478 Caucasian and 2,637 African American participants had received feedback from the CARDIA study due to elevated blood pressure readings. Blood pressure was measured by trained CARDIA researchers at the participant's home and was repeatedly recorded at seven examinations over twenty years. A feedback/referral letter was sent to participants with an elevated blood pressure reading. On average, participants first had an elevated blood pressure reading at the age of 34. After receiving the feedback letter, 44% of the previously undiagnosed participants received a formal diagnosis. In addition, 23% initiated the use of antihypertensive medication if they had not received medication treatment before. Among the participants with at-risk lifestyle behaviors, 40% reduced alcohol consumption, 14% increased exercise level, 11% stopped smoking, and 8% reached normal weight. While none of the studied patient factors were associated with lifestyle modification, age had a positive impact on antihypertensive medication initiation (p<0.05. We found no evidence of differences in health behavior change between African American and Caucasian participants after receiving the feedback letter. This research is one of the first to study what followed after receiving a feedback letter about elevated blood pressure outside of healthcare settings. Although additional referral care and behavior interventions are needed to facilitate medication initiation and lifestyle modification, our observations suggest that providing

  1. Applicability of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickmilder Marc

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With its inclusion under Action 3 in the Environment and Health Action Plan 2004–2010 of the European Commission, human biomonitoring is currently receiving an increasing amount of attention from the scientific community as a tool to better quantify human exposure to, and health effects of, environmental stressors. Despite the policy support, however, there are still several issues that restrict the routine application of human biomonitoring data in environmental health impact assessment. One of the main issues is the obvious need to routinely collect human samples for large-scale surveys. Particularly the collection of invasive samples from susceptible populations may suffer from ethical and practical limitations. Children, pregnant women, elderly, or chronically-ill people are among those that would benefit the most from non-invasive, repeated or routine sampling. Therefore, the use of non-invasively collected matrices for human biomonitoring should be promoted as an ethically appropriate, cost-efficient and toxicologically relevant alternative for many biomarkers that are currently determined in invasively collected matrices. This review illustrates that several non-invasively collected matrices are widely used that can be an valuable addition to, or alternative for, invasively collected matrices such as peripheral blood sampling. Moreover, a well-informed choice of matrix can provide an added value for human biomonitoring, as different non-invasively collected matrices can offer opportunities to study additional aspects of exposure to and effects from environmental contaminants, such as repeated sampling, historical overview of exposure, mother-child transfer of substances, or monitoring of substances with short biological half-lives.

  2. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  3. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Child Health, University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria ... Blood pressures were higher in private school pupils compared with public school pupils of the ... or risks of screening and treating such underlying causes of.

  4. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  5. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  6. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  7. Moving Toward a Better Blood Pressure Pill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... found was that four quarter doses [of different medications] gives a lot of benefit with few apparent side effects." High blood pressure is a leading cause of stroke, heart attack and several other major conditions, so it's ...

  8. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  9. Association between blood Pressure, waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the main cardiovascular risk ... with waist circumference, triglycerides and cholesterol are rare in low and middle income ... towards cardiovascular risk awareness and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) ...

  10. Inspiratory muscle training followed by non- invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease:a randomized controlled trial%呼吸肌肉锻炼加序贯无创正压通气在稳定期重度慢阻肺患者中的应用:临床随机对照试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周露茜; 黎晓莹; 李允; 郭炳鹏; 关力理; 陈新; 罗裕文; 罗鹏; 陈荣昌

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training followed by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods This investigator-initiated randomized, controlled trial recruited 88 patients with stable GOLD stage IV COPD, who were randomized into 4 equal groups to continue oxygen therapy (control group) or to receive inspiratory muscle training followed by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (IMT-NPPV group), inspiratory muscle training only (IMT group), or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation only (NPPV group) for at least 8 weeks. The outcomes of the patients were assessed including the quality of life (SRI scores), maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP), maximum expiratory pressure (MEP), dyspnea (MRC scores), 6-min walking distance (6MWD) and lung function. Results Compared to baseline values, SRI scores, 6MWT and MRC scores increased significantly after 8 weeks in IMT-NPPV, IMT and NPPV groups, and the improvements were significantly greater in IMT-NPPV group than in IMT and NPPV groups (P0.05). Conclusion Inspiratory muscle training followed by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation, compared with inspiratory muscle training or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation alone, can better enhance the quality of life, strengthen the respiratory muscles, improve exercise tolerance and relieve the dyspnea in patients with COPD.%目的:探讨呼吸肌肉锻练序贯无创通气的肺康复策略的临床应用价值。方法88例患者随机分为序贯组、呼吸肌肉锻炼组、无创组及对照组并干预8周。评价生活质量(SRI)、呼吸肌力(MIP、MEP)、呼吸困难(MRC)、运动耐量(6MWD)及肺功能。结果序贯组、锻炼组及无创组SRI总分、6MWD、MRC均显著改变(P均0.05)。结论呼吸肌肉锻练序贯无创通气康复策略对于稳定期重度慢阻肺患者而言临床效果最优,与单用呼吸肌

  11. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  12. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  13. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  14. 无创正压通气减少儿童心内直视术后再次插管%Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation reduces the rate of re-intubation in pediatric patients after cardiac surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高海红; 谈林华; 张彩云; 何小军; 杜立中

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨鼻(面)罩双水平无创正压通气(bilevel positive airway pressure,BiPAP)应用于儿童心内直视术后呼吸功能不全的呼吸支持,减少再次插管的疗效.方法 将2007年1月至2007年12月在浙江大学医学院附属儿章医院行先天性心脏病(先心病)体外循环心内直视术后在拔除气管插管后表现呼吸费力、呼吸功能不全经常规治疗无效,已符合二次插管机械通气指征的25例患者进行前瞻性研究,记录无创BiPAP通气应用前后临床和动脉血气等指标的变化并进行单因素方差分析,同时分析患者的转1月.结果 (1)25例患者共30例次接受无创鼻(面)罩BiPAP.其中25例次患者(25/30,83.3%)在应用无创BiPAP通气后成功地避免了再次插管.4例患者共5例次接受无创鼻(面)罩BiPAP呼吸衰竭无法改善予气管捕管.(2)该组患者平均在撤离有创通气后9.4 h(0-72)h应用无创BiPAP治疗,BiPAP应用时间1.96 d(0.03-12)d,并发症少而轻微.(3)应用无创BiPAP治疗1 h后患者心率、呼吸频率及心率收缩压乘积显著降低(P2 and PaO2/FiO2 were increased significantly and A-aDO2 was decreased significantly (P < 0.05 all). The PaCO2, was decreased significantly four hours after BiPAP (P < 0.05). Conclusions Non-invasive nasal mask BiPAP can be used safely and effectively in children after cardiac surgery to improve oxygenation/ventilation, decreasing the work of breathing. It may be particularly useful in patients with high risk of re-intubation.

  15. 长期无创正压通气用于慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者的疗效及护理%Clinical Effects and Nursing of Long-term Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨长期无创正压通气用于慢性阻塞性肺疾病(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,COPD)患者的临床疗效及其护理.方法选择因慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重并发Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭接受鼻(面)罩无创正压通气(non-invasive positive pressure ventilation,NIV)且通气功能改善后携带家庭型双水平(BiPAP)呼吸机返家的患者45例为治疗组,同期同类患者出院后由于各种原因停用NIV改用吸氧治疗的患者45例设为对照组.观察两组患者住院期间的血气分析和肺功能指标,以及出院后3个月PaCO2和肺动脉压指标.结果 两组患者在实施NIV治疗后,通气功能及肺动脉压均有改善.出院3个月后随访显示,两组PaCO2分别为(30±5.20)和(47±5.62)mmHg(P<0.05)、FEV1分别为(87±4.6)%和(70±6.3)%(P<0 05)、肺动脉压分别为(18±2.8)和(22.2±3.5)mmHg(P<0.05),差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 长期无创正压通气治疗能够降低COPD患者肺动脉压力,在经济条件许可的情况下,建议COPD合并呼吸衰竭患者在COPD稳定期仍继续接受家庭型呼吸机治疗,以减少患者反复发作次数、延长患者的生存期,提高患者的生活质量.%Objective To explore the clinical effect and nursing of long-term non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(C()PD). Methods Forty-five COPD patients during acute embittering period combined with type Ⅱ respiratory failure receiving nasal (facial) mask of noninvasive ventilation(NIV) who were discharged with the family-type bi-level(BiPAP) ventilator after their ventilation function were improved were taken as the treatment group. Simultaneously, 45 counterparts discontinuing nasal(facial) mask of NIV after discharge from hospital were taken as the control group. Observations were conducted in blood gas analysis,pulmonary function indicators, PaCO2 and pulmonary artery pressure situatio 3 months after discharge. Results After

  16. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  17. Permeability dependence study of the focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening at distinct pressures and microbubble diameters using DCE-MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Vlachos, Fotios; TUNG, YAO-SHENG; Konofagou, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening using focused ultrasound (FUS) and microbubbles has been experimentally established as a non-invasive and localized brain drug delivery technique. In this study, the permeability of the opening is assessed in the murine hippocampus after the application of FUS at three different acoustic pressures and microbubble sizes. Using DCE-MRI, the transfer rates were estimated, yielding permeability maps and quantitative Ktrans values for a predefined region of intere...

  18. Clinical role of non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognesi, Massimo; Di Pascoli, Marco; Sacerdoti, David

    2017-01-07

    Measurement of portal pressure is pivotal in the evaluation of patients with liver cirrhosis. The measurement of the hepatic venous pressure gradient represents the reference method by which portal pressure is estimated. However, it is an invasive procedure that requires significant hospital resources, including experienced staff, and is associated with considerable cost. Non-invasive methods that can be reliably used to estimate the presence and the degree of portal hypertension are urgently needed in clinical practice. Biochemical and morphological parameters have been proposed for this purpose, but have shown disappointing results overall. Splanchnic Doppler ultrasonography and the analysis of microbubble contrast agent kinetics with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography have shown better accuracy for the evaluation of patients with portal hypertension. A key advancement in the non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension has been the introduction in clinical practice of methods able to measure stiffness in the liver, as well as stiffness/congestion in the spleen. According to the data published to date, it appears to be possible to rule out clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis (i.e., hepatic venous pressure gradient ≥ 10 mmHg) with a level of clinically-acceptable accuracy by combining measurements of liver stiffness and spleen stiffness along with Doppler ultrasound evaluation. It is probable that the combination of these methods may also allow for the identification of patients with the most serious degree of portal hypertension, and ongoing research is helping to ensure progress in this field.

  19. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  20. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertension in Adolescents in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Paediatric Nephrology ... An average of three readings was taken as the actual blood pressure. ... diastolic blood pressures greater than or equal to 2 standard deviation above the mean blood pressure for age and sex.

  1. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  2. Blood pressure response to out-patient drug treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure response to out-patient drug treatment of hypertension in 1973 ... as the increased number of drugs did not decrease blood pressure significantly. Keywords: Hypertension, Antihypertensive drugs, Blood pressure treatment, ...

  3. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  4. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  5. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood pressure (hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. ... Tommaso, M.D. Blood pressure generally increases after menopause. Some doctors think this increase suggests that hormonal ...

  6. 无创正压机械通气辅助治疗重症肺炎合并呼吸衰竭效果分析%Effect of Non-invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation Treatment of Severe Pneumonia Combined with Acute Respiratory Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建良; 郑辉才

    2016-01-01

    .Methods Total of 70 cases of severe pneumonia combined with acute respiratory failure in Department of Respiratory Medicine ,Lingao County People′s Hos-pital from Jan.2012 to Dec.2014 were selected and then randomly divided into invasive group and non-inva-sive group according to random number table method,35 cases in each group.The invasive group was given invasive mechanical ventilation (pressure support ventilation 5-10 cmH2O,positive end-expiratory pressure 3-5 cmH2 O) on the basis of conventional therapy,and the non-invasive group was given non-invasive positive pressure ventilation( breathing frequency 12-18 tims/min,inspiratory pressure 8-22 cmH2 O,expiratory pres-sure 4-6 cmH2O,oxygen flow 4-6 L/min).The indexes of vital sign,blood gas analysis index and prognosis were compared between the two groups after treatment.Results The heart rate and breathing rate of the non-invasive group were much lower than those of the invasive group[(86.5 ±8.4) times/min vs(96.7 ±11.0) times/min,(23.7 ±3.1) times/min vs (28.6 ±4.3)times/min] (P 0.05).Conclusion Invasive positive pressure ventilation can be used for treatment of severe pneumonia combined with acute respiratory failure patients,which can adjust heart rate and breathing frequency,relieve hypoxia state and improve prognosis of the patients,and is better than invasive positive pressure ventilation.

  7. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, J. Rick; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings ca...

  8. [Non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Ezra, Oranit; Ben-Ari, Ziv

    2015-03-01

    Chronic liver diseases represent a major public health problem, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prognosis and management of chronic liver diseases depend on the amount of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy has long remained the gold standard for assessment of liver fibrosis. Liver biopsy is an invasive procedure with associated morbidity, it is rarely the cause for mortality, and has a few limitations. During the past two decades, in an attempt to overcome the limitations of liver biopsy, non-invasive methods for the evaluation of liver fibrosis have been developed, mainly in the field of viral hepatitis. This review will focus on different methods available for non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis including a biological approach which quantifies serum levels of biomarkers of fibrosis and physical techniques which measure liver stiffness by transient elastography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance based elastography, their accuracy, advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Non-invasive Mapping of Cardiac Arrhythmias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Hocini, Meleze; Haissaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    Since more than 100 years, 12-lead electrocardiography (ECG) is the standard-of-care tool, which involves measuring electrical potentials from limited sites on the body surface to diagnose cardiac disorder, its possible mechanism, and the likely site of origin. Several decades of research has led to the development of a 252-lead ECG and computed tomography (CT) scan-based three-dimensional electro-imaging modality to non-invasively map abnormal cardiac rhythms including fibrillation. These maps provide guidance towards ablative therapy and thereby help advance the management of complex heart rhythm disorders. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using non-invasive technique in mapping the electrical disorder and guide the catheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias (premature atrial beat, atrial tachycardia, atrial fibrillation), ventricular arrhythmias (premature ventricular beats), and ventricular pre-excitation (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome).

  10. Ultrasonic non invasive techniques for microbiological instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvira, L.; Sierra, C.; Galán, B.; Resa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Non invasive techniques based on ultrasounds have advantageous features to study, characterize and monitor microbiological and enzymatic reactions. These processes may change the sound speed, viscosity or particle distribution size of the medium where they take place, which makes possible their analysis using ultrasonic techniques. In this work, two different systems for the analysis of microbiological liquid media based on ultrasounds are presented. In first place, an industrial application based on an ultrasonic monitoring technique for microbiological growth detection in milk is shown. Such a system may improve the quality control strategies in food production factories, being able to decrease the time required to detect possible contaminations in packed products. Secondly, a study about the growing of the Escherichia coli DH5 α in different conditions is presented. It is shown that the use of ultrasonic non invasive characterization techniques in combination with other conventional measurements like optical density provides complementary information about the metabolism of these bacteria.

  11. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  12. Application Effect of Non-invasive Bi -level Positive Airway Pressure Ventilation in the Treatment of Patients With Acute Severe Asthma%无创双水平正压通气在急性重症哮喘患者治疗中的应用效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝柯; 陈兵阳; 代义春

    2016-01-01

    目的 观察无创双水平正压通气在急性重症哮喘患者治疗中的应用效果.方法 选取2012年12月—2014年12月成都市第七人民医院呼吸科收治的急性重症哮喘患者122例,随机分为对照组和观察组,各61例.两组患者均给予常规治疗,观察组患者在常规治疗基础上采用瑞思迈VPAPⅢ自动同步无创双水平正压呼吸机进行通气治疗,1周为1个疗程,共治疗2个疗程.比较两组患者治疗前后血气指标〔动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、氧合指数及动脉血氧饱和度(SaO2)〕,采用Hogg方法评定两组患者治疗前后哮喘症状评分,并观察治疗期间不良反应/并发症发生情况.结果 治疗前两组患者PaO2、PaCO2、氧合指数、SaO2比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后观察组患者PaO2、氧合指数、SaO2高于对照组,PaCO2低于对照组(P0.05);治疗后观察组患者哮喘症状评分低于对照组(P0.05).结论 无创双水平正压通气治疗急性重症哮喘效果确切,能有效改善患者血气指标,减轻哮喘症状,且安全性较高.%Objective To observe the application effect of non - invasive bi - level positive airway pressure ventilation in the treatment of patients with acute severe asthma. Methods From December 2012 to December 2014 in the Department of Respiratory Medicine,the Seventh People's Hospital of Chengdu,a total of 122 patients with acute severe asthma were selected, and they were randomly divided into control group and observation group,each of 61 cases. Patients of both groups received conventional treatment after admission,while patients of observation group received extra non - invasive bi - level positive airway pressure ventilation for 2 courses(1 week as a course). Blood - gas index(including PaO2 ,PaCO2 ,oxygenation index and SaO2 )before and after treatment were compared between the two groups,asthma - symptom score before and after treatment was respectively

  13. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  14. Confounders of auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, R H; Ende, J

    1995-04-01

    The appropriate use of any test requires the clinician to appreciate that test's limitations. By recognizing the potential confounders of the auscultatory assessment of blood pressure, the clinician minimizes the likelihood of enacting therapeutic decisions based on inaccurate data. When approaching the treatment of a hypertensive patient, several points should be kept in mind. First, the measurement of persistent and severe hypertension in a patient receiving treatment who describes symptoms of orthostatic hypotension with apparently adequate standing blood pressure or who lacks corroborating retinal, echocardiographic, or electrocardiographic signs of hypertension should raise the concern of pseudohypertension or a white-coat response. Similarly, when one finds a normal or near-normal systolic blood pressure in a patient with a clinical picture consistent with severe hypertension, one should make a directed effort to look for an unrecognized auscultatory gap. Second, marked discrepancies in measurements as obtained by different operators or in different settings should raise concern of the white-coat response or methodologic errors by one operator, such as undercuffing, excessive pressure on the head of the stethoscope, rapid deflation of the cuff, or use of different arms. In treating hypertension in even the minimally obese patient, a special point must be made that an adequate size cuff be used for all blood pressure determinations. Third, when blood pressure is determined with the patient in any but the satndardized back-and-arm-supported seated position described above, the clinician should acknowledge the possibility that the position may alter the patient's classification. Fourth, the diagnosis and management of hypertension requires multiple measurements of blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Maternal Blood Pressure During Pregnancy and Early Childhood Blood Pressures in the Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Lee, Yung-Seng; Yap, Fabian Kok-Peng; Aris, Izzudin Mohd; Ngee, Lek; Meaney, Michael; Gluckman, Peter D.; Godfrey, Keith M.; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although epidemiological studies suggest that offspring of women with preeclampsia are at increased risk to higher blood pressures and cardiovascular disease, little is known about the nature of blood pressures between the mother and her offspring. As blood pressures comprise of both pulsatile (systolic blood pressure [SBP] and pulse pressure [PP]) and stable (diastolic blood pressure [DBP]) components, and they differ between central and peripheral sites, we sought to examine maternal peripheral and central blood pressure components in relation to offspring early childhood blood pressures. A prospective birth cohort of 567 Chinese, Malay, and Indian mother–offspring with complete blood pressure information were studied. Maternal brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 26 to 28 weeks gestation; and central SBP and PP were estimated from radial artery waveforms. Offspring brachial artery SBP, DBP, and PP were measured at 3 years of age. Associations between continuous variables of maternal blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, PP, central SBP, and PP) and offspring blood pressures (peripheral SBP, DBP, and PP) were examined using multiple linear regression with adjustment for maternal characteristics (age, education level, parity, smoking status, alcohol consumption and physical activity during pregnancy, and pre-pregnancy BMI) and offspring characteristics (sex, ethnicity, BMI, and height at 3 years of age). In the multivariate models, offspring peripheral SBP increased by 0.08 (95% confidence interval 0.00–0.17, P = 0.06) mmHg with every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central SBP, and offspring peripheral PP increased by 0.10 (0.01–0.18, P = 0.03) mmHg for every 1-mmHg increase in maternal central PP. The relations of maternal-offspring peripheral blood pressures (SBP, DBP, and PP) were positive but not statistically significant, and the corresponding values were 0.05 (−0.03 to 0.13; P = 0.21), 0.03 (−0.04 to 0.10; P = 0

  16. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to prospe......Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...... of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation...

  17. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  18. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  19. A review on the non-invasive evaluation of skeletal muscle oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, A. A. A.; Laili, M. H.; Aziz, N. A.; Laili, A. R.; Salikin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review is to conduct a feasibility study of non-invasive evaluation in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This non-invasive evaluation could extract many information using a safe non-invasive method regarding to the oxygenation and microcirculation status in human blood muscle. This brief review highlights the progress of the application of NIRS to evaluate skeletal muscle oxygenation in various activity of human nature from the historical point of view to the present advancement. Since the discovery of non-invasive optical method during 1992, there are many non-invasive techniques uses optical properties on human subject such as near infrared spectroscopy NIRS, optical topography, functional near infrared spectroscopy fNIRS and imaging fNIRI. Furthermore, in this paper we discuss the light absorption potential (LAP) towards chromophores content inside human muscle. Modified beer lambert law was studied in order to build a better understanding toward LAP between chromophores under tissue multilayers in human muscle. This paper will describe the NIRS principle and the basis for its proposed used in skeletal muscle oxygenation. This will cover the advantages and limitation of such application. Thus, these non-invasive techniques could open other possibilities to study muscle performance diagnosis.

  20. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  1. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  2. Coping strategies and diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, T A; Sweeney, D

    1989-10-01

    An organizational field study involving 95 civil service employees examined the ways these individuals coped with the stressful events of their daily living. Lazarus' cognitive-phenomenological analysis of psychological stress provided the theoretical framework. Subjects indicated on Lazarus' Ways of Coping Checklist those coping thoughts and actions used in the specific encounter described as stressful. As hypothesized, individuals experiencing higher diastolic blood pressure were more likely to cope using strategies characterized by wishful thinking, avoidance, and minimization of threat than were individuals exhibiting lower blood pressure. Implications from both an individual and organizational perspective are discussed.

  3. A novel approach to office blood pressure measurement: 30-minute office blood pressure vs daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, M.C. van der; Buunk, I.E.; Weel, C. van; Thien, Th.; Bakx, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) is often not executed according to guidelines and cannot prevent the white-coat effect. Serial, automated, oscillometric OBPM has the potential to overcome both these problems. We therefore developed a 30-minute OBPM method that we compared

  4. Blood pressure in head‐injured patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrick; Gregson, Barbara A; Piper, Ian; Citerio, Giuseppe; Mendelow, A David; Chambers, Iain R

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the statistical characteristics of blood pressure (BP) readings from a large number of head‐injured patients. Methods The BrainIT group has collected high time‐resolution physiological and clinical data from head‐injured patients who require intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring. The statistical features of this dataset of BP measurements with time resolution of 1 min from 200 patients is examined. The distributions of BP measurements and their relationship with simultaneous ICP measurements are described. Results The distributions of mean, systolic and diastolic readings are close to normal with modest skewing towards higher values. There is a trend towards an increase in blood pressure with advancing age, but this is not significant. Simultaneous blood pressure and ICP values suggest a triphasic relationship with a BP rising at 0.28 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP, for ICP up to 32 mm Hg, and 0.9 mm Hg/mm Hg of ICP for ICP from 33 to 55 mm Hg, and falling sharply with rising ICP for ICP >55 mm Hg. Conclusions Patients with head injury appear to have a near normal distribution of blood pressure readings that are skewed towards higher values. The relationship between BP and ICP may be triphasic. PMID:17138594

  5. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  6. More accurate systolic blood pressure measurement is required for improved hypertension management: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Meir Nitzan,1 Itzchak Slotki,2 Linda Shavit2 1Department of Applied Physics/Electro-Optics, Jerusalem College of Technology, 2Department of Nephrology, Shaare Zedek Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel Abstract: The commonly used techniques for systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP measurement are the auscultatory Korotkoff-based sphygmomanometry and oscillometry. The former technique is relatively accurate but is limited to a physician’s office because its automatic variant is subject to noise artifacts. Consequently, the Korotkoff-based measurement overestimates the blood pressure in some patients due to white coat effect, and because it is a single measurement, it cannot properly represent the variable blood pressure. Automatic oscillometry can be used at home by the patient and is preferred even in clinics. However, the technique’s accuracy is low and errors of 10–15 mmHg are common. Recently, we have developed an automatic technique for SBP measurement, based on an arm pressure cuff and a finger photoplethysmographic probe. The technique was found to be significantly more accurate than oscillometry, and comparable to the Korotkoff-based technique, the reference-standard for non-invasive blood pressure measurements. The measurement of SBP is a mainstay for the diagnosis and follow-up of hypertension, which is a major risk factor for several adverse events, mainly cardiovascular. Lowering blood pressure evidently reduces the risk, but excessive lowering can result in hypotension and consequently hypoperfusion to vital organs, since blood pressure is the driving force for blood flow. Erroneous measurement by 10 mmHg can lead to a similar unintended reduction of SBP and may adversely affect patients treated to an SBP of 120–130 mmHg. In particular, in elderly patients, unintended excessive reduction of blood pressure due to inaccurate SBP measurement can result in cerebral hypoperfusion and consequent cognitive

  7. 老年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病患者冠状动脉病变程度与无创中心动脉压的相关性研究%Correlation of coronary artery lesions and non-invasive central aortic pressure in elderly patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金勇; 陈夏欢; 陈亚红; 黄波; 欧阳福珍; 刘梅林

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨老年冠状动脉粥样硬化性心脏病(冠心病)患者冠状动脉病变程度与无创中心动脉压的相关性.方法 选取2013年4月至2015年4月北京大学第一医院老年冠心病住院患者102例,测量患者无创中心动脉压和肱动脉压.根据冠状动脉造影结果将患者分为单支病变组(34例)、双支病变组(36例)和多支病变组(32例);计算冠状动脉Gensini评分,根据Gensini评分将所有患者分为Gensini评分≤20分组(43例)、21 ~ 70分组(38例)、≥71分组(21例).观察无创中心动脉压与冠状动脉病变支数及冠状动脉Gensini评分的关系.结果 冠状动脉病变支数及Gensini评分各分组比较均显示,随着冠状动脉病变程度加重,无创中心动脉脉压增高[单支病变组:(65±15) mmHg(1mmHg =0.133 kPa),双支病变组(71±16) mmHg,多支病变组(77±17) mmHg;Gensini评分≤20分组:(61±14) mmHg、21 ~ 70分组:(70±16) mmHg、≥71分组:(77±16) mmHg],各组两两比较差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).冠状动脉Gensini评分与无创中心动脉脉压呈正相关(r=0.567,P=0.001).Logistic回归分析显示:无创中心动脉脉压升高(比值比=1.196,95%置信区间:1.153 ~1.247,p=0.001)、糖尿病(比值比=1.175,95%置信区间:1.135~1.726,P=0.003)是冠心病多支病变的危险因素.结论 老年冠心病患者冠状动脉病变程度与无创中心动脉脉压呈正相关,无创中心动脉脉压升高是冠心病多支病变的危险因素.%Objective To explore the correlations between coronary artery disease and central aortic pressure measured by non-invasive method in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.Methods Totally 102 patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) from April 2013 to April 2015 were enrolled.According to results of coronary angiography,the patients were divided into single vessel disease group (34 cases),double-vessel group (36 cases) and multi-vessel group (32 cases

  8. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  9. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  10. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  11. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  12. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  13. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  14. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  15. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an i

  16. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  17. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  18. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  19. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest

  20. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, GD; Andersen, S; Rossing, P; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH

    2005-01-01

    Background. AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. Methods. We tested this in two studies designed to find th

  1. Non-invasive distress evaluation in preterm newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Bocchi, L; Orlandi, S; Calisti, M; Spaccaterra, L; Donzelli, G P

    2008-01-01

    With the increased survival of very preterm infants, there is a growing concern for their developmental outcomes. Infant cry characteristics reflect the development and possibly the integrity of the central nervous system. In this paper, relationships between fundamental frequency (F(0)) and vocal tract resonance frequencies (F(1)-F(3)) are investigated for a set of preterm newborns, by means of a multi-purpose voice analysis tool (BioVoice), characterised by high-resolution and tracking capabilities. Also, first results about possible distress occurring during cry in preterm newborn infants, as related to the decrease of central blood oxygenation, are presented. To this aim, a recording system (Newborn Recorder) has been developed, that allows synchronised, non-invasive monitoring of blood oxygenation and audio recordings of newborn infant's cry. The method has been applied to preterm newborns at the Intensive Care Unit, A.Meyer Children Hospital, Firenze, Italy.

  2. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  3. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-31

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial characteristics, incidence and progression of retinopathy, visual acuity, quality of life

  4. Infrared thermography: A non-invasive window into thermal physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Glenn J

    2016-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a non-invasive technique that measures mid to long-wave infrared radiation emanating from all objects and converts this to temperature. As an imaging technique, the value of modern infrared thermography is its ability to produce a digitized image or high speed video rendering a thermal map of the scene in false colour. Since temperature is an important environmental parameter influencing animal physiology and metabolic heat production an energetically expensive process, measuring temperature and energy exchange in animals is critical to understanding physiology, especially under field conditions. As a non-contact approach, infrared thermography provides a non-invasive complement to physiological data gathering. One caveat, however, is that only surface temperatures are measured, which guides much research to those thermal events occurring at the skin and insulating regions of the body. As an imaging technique, infrared thermal imaging is also subject to certain uncertainties that require physical modelling, which is typically done via built-in software approaches. Infrared thermal imaging has enabled different insights into the comparative physiology of phenomena ranging from thermogenesis, peripheral blood flow adjustments, evaporative cooling, and to respiratory physiology. In this review, I provide background and guidelines for the use of thermal imaging, primarily aimed at field physiologists and biologists interested in thermal biology. I also discuss some of the better known approaches and discoveries revealed from using thermal imaging with the objective of encouraging more quantitative assessment.

  5. Non-invasive assessment of the liver using imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorling Thompson, Camilla; Wang, Haolu; Liu, Xin; Liang, Xiaowen; Crawford, Darrell H.; Roberts, Michael S.

    2016-12-01

    Chronic liver disease causes 2,000 deaths in Australia per year and early diagnosis is crucial to avoid progression to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. There is no ideal method to evaluate liver function. Blood tests and liver biopsies provide spot examinations and are unable to track changes in function quickly. Therefore better techniques are needed. Non-invasive imaging has the potential to extract increased information over a large sampling area, continuously tracking dynamic changes in liver function. This project aimed to study the ability of three imaging techniques, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy, infrared thermography and photoacoustic imaging, in measuring liver function. Collagen deposition was obvious in multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging in fibrosis and cirrhosis and comparable to conventional histology. Infrared thermography revealed a significantly increased liver temperature in hepatocellular carcinoma. In addition, multiphoton and fluorescence lifetime imaging and photoacoustic imaging could both track uptake and excretion of indocyanine green in rat liver. These results prove that non-invasive imaging can extract crucial information about the liver continuously over time and has the potential to be translated into clinic in the assessment of liver disease.

  6. Non-invasive Evaluation for Epilepsy Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    IWASAKI, Masaki; JIN, Kazutaka; NAKASATO, Nobukazu; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy surgery is aimed to remove the brain tissues that are indispensable for generating patient’s epileptic seizures. There are two purposes in the pre-operative evaluation: localization of the epileptogenic zone and localization of function. Surgery is planned to remove possible epileptogenic zone while preserving functional area. Since no single diagnostic modality is superior to others in identifying and localizing the epileptogenic zone, multiple non-invasive evaluations are performed to estimate the location of the epileptogenic zone after concordance between evaluations. Essential components of non-invasive pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy include detailed clinical history, long-term video-electroencephalography monitoring, epilepsy-protocol magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and neuropsychological testing. However, a significant portion of drug-resistant epilepsy is associated with no or subtle MRI lesions or with ambiguous electro-clinical signs. Additional evaluations including fluoro-deoxy glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), magnetoencephalography and ictal single photon emission computed tomography can play critical roles in planning surgery. FDG-PET should be registered on three-dimensional MRI for better detection of focal cortical dysplasia. All diagnostic tools are complementary to each other in defining the epileptogenic zone, so that it is always important to reassess the data based on other results to pick up or confirm subtle abnormalities. PMID:27627857

  7. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  8. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  9. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2850 - Extravascular blood pressure transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extravascular blood pressure transducer. 870.2850... blood pressure transducer. (a) Identification. An extravascular blood pressure transducer is a device... proximal end of the transducer is connected to a pressure monitor that produces an analog or digital...

  11. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  12. Does nicotinic acid (niacin) lower blood pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, H E; Rader, D J

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a well-established treatment for dyslipidaemia – an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, niacin may also reduce blood pressure (BP), which is another important CVD risk factor. This review examines the limited publicly available data on niacin’s BP effects. Acute administration of immediate-release niacin may lower BP because of niacin’s acute vasodilatory effects. Although not always supported by clinical trial data, the package insert of a ...

  13. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Diego Mediavilla García; Fernando Jaén Águila; Celia Fernández Torres; Blas Gil Extremera; Juan Jiménez Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension is high in the elderly and is present in 2/3 of the patients older than 65 years. Prevalence can reach 90% in patients older than 80 years. The presence of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is characteristic of this population. However, the prevalence of hypertension by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is not well known. In this study, we analyzed the special characteristics of hypertension in this population, giving special emphasis on ABPM readings.

  14. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  15. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  16. Regulation of blood pressure by dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Pedro A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Felder, Robin A

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine is an important regulator of blood pressure. Its actions on renal hemodynamics, epithelial transport and humoral agents such as aldosterone, catecholamines, endothelin, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, renin and vasopressin place it in central homeostatic position for regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Dopamine also modulates fluid and sodium intake via actions in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, and by regulation of cardiovascular centers that control the functions of the heart, arteries and veins. Abnormalities in dopamine production and receptor function accompany a high percentage of human essential hypertension and several forms of rodent genetic hypertension. Some dopamine receptor genes and their regulators are in loci linked to hypertension in humans and in rodents. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes that regulate dopamine receptors, alone or via the interaction with SNPs of genes that regulate the renin-angiotensin system, are associated with human essential hypertension. Each of the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) participates in the regulation of blood pressure by mechanisms specific for the subtype. Some receptors (D2 and D5) influence the central and/or peripheral nervous system; others influence epithelial transport and regulate the secretion and receptors of several humoral agents (e.g., the D1, D3 and D4 receptors interact with the renin-angiotensin system). Modifications of the usual actions of the receptor can produce blood pressure changes. In addition, abnormal functioning of these dopamine receptor subtypes impairs their antioxidant function.

  17. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  18. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  19. Ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood hypertension. Normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP values in children with body heights between 100 and 120 cm have not been reported. The aim of the study was to establish the normal range of values for ABPM in these children. 24-hour ABPM was performed in 40 normotensive (auscultatory casual blood pressure was obtained before ABPM subjects, aged from 4 to 6 years (26 males, 14 females with body heights between 95 and 125 cm. ABPM was carried out on non-dominant arm using the oscillometric device (SpaceLab 90207 with appropriate cuff size. The monitor was programmed to measure BP every 15 min. during the day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and every 30 min. during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.. The mean daytime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 108+/-6/67+/-5 and 105+/-5/66+/-1, respectively. The mean nighttime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 98+/-6/56+/-5 and 97+/-7/56+/-4, respectively. There was a significant difference between day and night readings of SBP, DBP and heart rate (nocturnal fall was observed. The distribution of ABP noted in this study could serve as preliminary reference. A multicenter study should be performed to provide normal ranges of ABP.

  20. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  1. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana V. Do

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure.OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes.METHODS:Search methods: We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria: We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis: Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We

  2. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  3. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  4. [Non-invasive prenatal testing: challenges for future implementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Lidewij; Page-Chrisiaens, G C M L Lieve; Oepkes, Dick

    2015-01-01

    The non-invasive prenatal test (NIPT) is an accurate and safe test in which blood from the pregnant woman is used to investigate if the unborn child possibly has trisomy 21 (Down's syndrome), trisomy 18 (Edwards' syndrome) or trisomy 13 (Patau syndrome). Since April 2014 the NIPT has been available in the Netherlands as part of the TRIDENT implementation project for those in whom the first trimester combined test showed an elevated risk (> 1:200) of trisomy, or on medical indication, as an alternative to chorionic villous sampling or amniocentesis. Since the introduction of the NIPT the use of these invasive tests, which are associated with a risk of miscarriage, has fallen steeply. The NIPT may replace the combined test. Also the number of conditions that is tested for can be increased. Modification of current prenatal screening will require extensive discussion, but whatever the modification, careful counseling remains essential to facilitate pregnant women's autonomous reproductive decision making.

  5. Non-invasive prenatal testing: ethics and policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstone, Meredith; King, Carol; de Vrijer, Barbra; Nisker, Jeff

    2014-06-01

    New technologies analyzing fetal DNA in maternal blood have led to the wide commercial availability of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). We present here for clinicians the ethical and policy issues related to an emerging practice option. Although NIPT presents opportunities for pregnant women, particularly women who are at increased risk of having a baby with an abnormality or who are otherwise likely to access invasive prenatal testing, NIPT brings significant ethics and policy challenges. The ethical issues include multiple aspects of informed decision-making, such as access to counselling about the possible results of the test in advance of making a decision about participation in NIPT. Policy considerations include issues related to offering and promoting a privately available medical strategy in publicly funded institutions. Ethics and policy considerations merge in NIPT with regard to sex selection and support for persons living with disabilities.

  6. 无创通气在重症肺炎中的运用%The application of non invasive ventilation in severe pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一飞; 郭小芙; 吴允孚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨无创双水平正压通气(BiPAP)在救治重症肺炎中的价值.方法 回顾性分析42例重症肺炎患者的临床资料,记录无创通气治疗组与对照组血气分析结果、心率/呼吸频率、血压的改变,作统计学分析.结果 治疗24 h后,治疗组氧分压、血氧饱和度和心率较对照组明显改善.气管插管率、病死率无显著性差异.结论 运用无创双水平正压通气治疗重症肺炎,在改善血气数值/缩短住院时间方面明显优于对照组.%Objective To investigate the value of non - invasive bi - level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in the treatment of severe pneumonia. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted to the clinical data of 42 patients with severe pneumonia. The changes of non - invasive ventilation, blood gas analysis, heart rate/respiratory rate, blood pressure in the treatment group and control group were recorded and statistically analyzed. Results Compared with the control group, the oxygen partial pressure, oxygen saturation and heart rate in the treatment group were markedly improved after 24 h treatment. There was no significant difference in endotracheal intuba tion rate and mortality. Conclusion The use of non - invasive bi - level positive airway pressure for treatment of severe pneumonia can markedly improve blood gas values and shorten hospital stay.

  7. Non-invasive assessment of phonatory and respiratory dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBlance, G R; Steckol, K F; Cooper, M H

    1991-10-01

    Evaluation of vocal pathology and the accompanying dysphonia should include an assessment of laryngeal structure and mobility as well as respiratory dynamics. Laryngeal structure is best observed through laryngoscopy which provides an accurate assessment of the tissues and their mobility. Respiratory measures of lung volume, air-flow and pressure, and breathing dynamics are typically determined via spirometry and pneumotachography. While the above are traditional invasive procedures which interfere with normal speech production, recent advances in electronic technology have resulted in the development of non-invasive procedures to assess phonatory and respiratory dynamics. These procedures, when used as an adjunct to laryngoscopy, can provide information that is useful in the diagnosis and management of vocal tract dysfunction. The Laryngograph and Computer-Aided Fluency Establishment Trainer, described here, are examples of this new technology.

  8. Functional assessment of lesion severity without using the pressure wire: coronary imaging and blood flow simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papafaklis, Michail I; Mavrogiannis, Michail C; Siogkas, Panagiotis K; Lakkas, Lampros S; Katsouras, Christos S; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Michalis, Lampros K

    2017-09-19

    Hemodynamic indices derived from measurements with the pressure wire (primarily fractional flow reserve [FFR]) have been established as a reliable tool for assessing coronary stenoses and improving clinical decision making. However, the use of the pressure wire constitutes a hurdle for the universal adoption of physiology-guided patient management. Technological advancements have enabled the large-scale application of blood flow simulation (computational fluid dynamics [CFD]) to medical imaging, thereby enabling the virtual assessment of coronary physiology. Areas covered: This review summarizes the stand-alone non-invasive (coronary computed tomographic imaging) and invasive (coronary angiography) imaging approaches which were initially used for predicting FFR, and focuses on the use of blood flow modeling for functional assessment of coronary lesions in clinical practice. Expert commentary: Validation studies of CFD-derived methodologies for functional assessment have shown that virtual indices correlate well and have good diagnostic accuracy compared to pressure wire-FFR despite inherent limitations of spatial resolution and assumptions regarding boundary conditions in flow modeling. Beyond point-to-point agreement with FFR, further studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical safety/efficacy of these computational tools regarding patient outcomes. Such evidence base could support the incorporation of these methodologies into routine patient management for decision making and reliable risk stratification.

  9. Using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to assess blood pressure of firefighters with parental history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos, Carlos Eduardo; de Mattos, Marco Antonio; Toledo, Daniele Gusmão; de Siqueira Filho, Aristarco Gonçalves

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of family history of systemic arterial hypertension (FSAH) on the effect of stress from work in Uniformed Firefighters (BMCs) through Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring (ABPM). A prospective case-control study. Sixty-six healthy BMC underwent ABPM during 12 hours of work at the Communication Center (CC). Thirty-four had hypertensive parents (group 1) and thirty-two had normotensive parents (group 2). Group I differed from group 2 in that it showed higher mean systolic (134.1 +/- 9.9 mmHg X 120.8 +/- 9.9 mmHg p pressure, in addition to greater systolic (31.4 +/- 25.6 % X 9.4 +/- 9.4 % p = 0.0001) and diastolic (28.3 +/- 26.6 % X 6.1 +/- 8.9 % p = 0.0001) loads. The prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) in group 1 at the workplace was 32.3%. Monitored away from the job, these subjects showed normal blood pressure (functionally hypertensive). Group 2 revealed normal blood pressure (BP) at work. Higher blood pressure in BMC with hypertensive parents is explained independently by the SAH. Subjects who developed SAH during their work at the CC may be considered functionally hypertensive, whereas those with normotensive parents and who underwent psychological stress are free of blood pressure changes.

  10. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  11. Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders: exploring the ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deans, Zuzana; Hill, Melissa; Chitty, Lyn S; Lewis, Celine

    2013-07-01

    Non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders is now clearly on the horizon. This new technology offers obvious clinical benefits such as safe testing early in pregnancy. Before widespread implementation, it is important to consider the possible ethical implications. Four hypothetical scenarios are presented that highlight how ethical ideals of respect for autonomy, privacy and fairness may come into play when offering non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders. The first scenario illustrates the moral case for using these tests for 'information only', identifying a potential conflict between larger numbers of women seeking the benefits of the test and the wider social impact of funding tests that do not offer immediate clinical benefit. The second scenario shows how the simplicity and safety of non-invasive prenatal testing could lead to more autonomous decision-making and, conversely, how this could also lead to increased pressure on women to take up testing. In the third scenario we show how, unless strong safeguards are put in place, offering non-invasive prenatal testing could be subject to routinisation with informed consent undermined and that woman who are newly diagnosed as carriers may be particularly vulnerable. The final scenario introduces the possibility of a conflict of the moral rights of a woman and her partner through testing for single gene disorders. This analysis informs our understanding of the potential impacts of non-invasive prenatal testing for single gene disorders on clinical practice and has implications for future policy and guidelines for prenatal care.

  12. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  13. Analysis of the Mask Method to Solve the Non Invasive Respirator Mask Leakage and Pressure Injury%浅析口罩法解决无创呼吸机面罩漏气和压伤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽萍; 曲明月; 赵微

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo observe the effect of the application of medical cotton gauze mask on the air leakage and the preventive effect of the mask on the nasal and facial injuries.MethodsOn the machine before the cotton face mask pack around nasal mask and fixed on the cross on the back side of the mask and in central clipping masks the snout exposed,to cover in the patient's face,fixed headband,patients felt soft and comfortable.Results Through clinical observation of patients continued on the machine for 12 hours without any discomfort,also won't lead to leakage because of the patient's face and thin differences,improved the patients on ventilator of tolerance and compliance,improved the therapeutic effect.Conclusion The respirator method can be used to solve the air leakage and crush injury of non-invasive respirator mask. This method is easy to operate and can be used by family therapy,and it can not increase the economic burden of the patients, and is easy to accept.%目的:观察应用医用棉口罩解决无创呼吸机面罩的漏气效果以及面罩对鼻面部产生压伤的预防作用。方法上机前将棉口罩包绕住鼻面罩,并在面罩的背侧交叉固定,然后在口罩中央裁剪,使其露出口鼻部,再罩于患者面部,头带固定,患者感觉柔软舒服。结果通过临床观察,患者持续上机12 h无任何不适,也不会发生因患者脸型和胖瘦有差异导致漏气,提高患者对呼吸机使用的耐受性和依从性,提高治疗效果。结论口罩法解决无创呼吸机面罩的漏气和压伤,此方法操作简单,家庭疗法的患者也可以自行使用,并且不给患者增加经济负担,易于接受。

  14. 无粘胶敷料对长期使用无创呼吸机面罩所致压疮的预防效果%Protective effect of non-adhesive dressings about pressure sore of patients who use non-invasive ventilator mask with long-term

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈迪; 贾艳红; 杨建

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the protective effect of non-adhesive dressings on nasal facial skin in patients who used non-invasive ventilator mask continually for a long time.Methods Eighty-six patients who used non-invasive ventilation with long-term were divided into two groups according to its hospital identification number.Forty-three patients in the experimental group used non-adhesive dressings, whereas forty-three patients in the control group used adhesive dressings.Results The incidence of pressure sores in the experimental group was 6.98%, as well as it was 20.93%in the control group.The nasal and facial pressure sore rate difference had statistics significance between the two groups (χ2 =4.44,P =0.035).Conclusions No sticky foam dressings have better protective effect on nasal and facial skin of patients who use non-invasive ventilator mask continuously with long-term.%目的:探讨无粘胶敷料保护长期使用无创呼吸机面罩患者鼻面部皮肤的临床效果。方法将86例长期使用无创呼吸机的患者按住院单双号分为两组,其中研究组43例使用无粘胶敷料,对照组43例使用粘性敷料,比较两组患者的面部皮肤状况。结果研究组压疮发生率为6.98%,明显低于对照组的20.93%,差异有统计学意义(χ2=4.44,P=0.035)。结论无粘胶敷料对于长期使用无创呼吸机面罩的患者的鼻面部皮肤有较好的保护效果。

  15. 'Simple 7' Steps Can Help Improve Blood Pressure in Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... few healthy lifestyle habits can reduce black Americans' risk of high blood pressure, researchers say. "We found that even small improvements in cardiovascular health can reduce risk for developing high blood pressure," said study lead author John Booth III, of ...

  16. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  18. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  19. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  20. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  1. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  2. Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162363.html Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension Young, lean patients can have high blood pressure that's not caught during regular exams, study finds ...

  3. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide is commonly prescribed for ...

  4. Non-hemodynamic predictors of blood pressure in recreational sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-hemodynamic predictors of blood pressure in recreational sport practitioners in ... that regular physical activity is an efficient means to control high blood pressure. ... structures can be effective in managing hemodynamic health problems.

  5. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  6. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from ... G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating more whole-grain foods on a regular basis may help reduce ...

  7. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: progress and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Montfrans, G A

    2001-12-01

    Oscillometric blood pressure measurement has become very popular, but although a number of devices have now passed both the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation and British Hypertension Society criteria, complacency with the state of the technique is as yet premature. In individual subjects, a substantial number of readings may deviate more than a clinically relevant 5 mmHg in devices that have earned a British Hypertension Society grade A rating. The marketing of pressure-wave-simulating devices is a welcome development as monitors can now be tested for reproducibility; an intra-device standard deviation of less than 2 mmHg has been proposed as the limit. Authors suggest that these simulators are currently better suited to intra- than between-device testing since they are not yet fully confident that the simulated waveforms are indistinguishable from the man-made pressure waves. Simulators should, however, be incorporated into our standard validation protocols in order eventually to obviate the human, fallible, factor in the validation protocols. The currently employed maximal amplitude algorithm has many drawbacks as the parameter identification points for systolic and diastolic pressure depend on many factors, for example pulse pressure, heart rate and arterial stiffness. These errors have now been demonstrated in clinical studies. Modern pattern recognition algorithms are being constructed but have not yet produced convincing results. As repeatedly stated, the development of a more robust and more widely applicable algorithm than the maximal amplitude approach should be allocated a high priority.

  8. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  9. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliability of blood pressure measurement for proper cardiovascular risk prediction, both in and out of the doctor’s office. We show that it is possible to obtain a reliable blood pressure without the use o...

  10. bpshape wk4: a computer program that implements a physiological model for analyzing the shape of blood pressure waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocasio, W. C.; Rigney, D. R.; Clark, K. P.; Mark, R. G.; Goldberger, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    We describe the theory and computer implementation of a newly-derived mathematical model for analyzing the shape of blood pressure waveforms. Input to the program consists of an ECG signal, plus a single continuous channel of peripheral blood pressure, which is often obtained invasively from an indwelling catheter during intensive-care monitoring or non-invasively from a tonometer. Output from the program includes a set of parameter estimates, made for every heart beat. Parameters of the model can be interpreted in terms of the capacitance of large arteries, the capacitance of peripheral arteries, the inertance of blood flow, the peripheral resistance, and arterial pressure due to basal vascular tone. Aortic flow due to contraction of the left ventricle is represented by a forcing function in the form of a descending ramp, the area under which represents the stroke volume. Differential equations describing the model are solved by the method of Laplace transforms, permitting rapid parameter estimation by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Parameter estimates and their confidence intervals are given in six examples, which are chosen to represent a variety of pressure waveforms that are observed during intensive-care monitoring. The examples demonstrate that some of the parameters may fluctuate markedly from beat to beat. Our program will find application in projects that are intended to correlate the details of the blood pressure waveform with other physiological variables, pathological conditions, and the effects of interventions.

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whites. • Heredity —A tendency to have high blood pressure runs in families. • Age — In general, the older you get, the greater your chance of developing high blood pressure. • Sex — Men tend to develop high blood pressure ...

  12. Anxiety and blood pressure prior to dental treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.; Asscheman, H.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed dental anxiety and blood pressure immediately prior to a dental appointment in 24 patients attending a university dental clinic or a clinic for anxious dental patients in the Netherlands. Blood pressure was assessed by 2 independent methods, and the interchangeability of the blood-pressure

  13. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stroke. How does high blood pressure increase stroke risk? High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for ... vessel ruptures over time. Who is at higher risk for HBP? People with a family history of high blood pressure African-Americans People age 35 or older People ...

  14. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  15. The computation of evoked heart rate and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers, G.; Mulder, L.J.M.; van der Veen, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    For many years psychophysiologists have been interested in stimulus related changes in heart rate and blood pressure. To represent these evoked heart rate and blood pressure patterns, heart rate and blood pressure data have to be transformed into equidistant time series. This paper presents an

  16. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  17. Non-invasive monitoring of peripheral perfusion: an exploration of non-invasive peripheral perfusion monitoring for applications in research & healthcare

    OpenAIRE

    Blaxter, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The need for real-time, prognostic perfusion data has been widely recognised in clinical practice and academia. Perfusion, the volumetric blood low to tissue, is an important tool for haemodynamic monitoring, since perfusion adequacy is vital to tissue health. Perfusion can serve as both a diagnostic indicator and a fundamental research tool. However, lack of a low cost, easily applied, and non-invasive sensor technology capable of measuring peripheral perfusion in absolute volumetric units i...

  18. AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭经无创正压通气治疗的临床研究%Clinical reseach of the treatment of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for aecopd with type ⅱ respiratory failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴荣华; 许健辉; 伦演荭; 林润培

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭经无创正压通气治疗的临床效果.方法 选择2008年1月-2009年8月呼吸内科及ICU的144例住院患者,并随机分为观察组(NIPPV)72例和对照组(非NIPPV)72例.对照组72例采用常规治疗,包括抗感染、解痉平喘、祛痰、纠正水电解质紊乱和酸碱平衡失调、支气管扩张剂、通畅气道,持续低流量吸氧、用呼吸兴奋剂及营养支持等治疗,观察组72例除采用常规治疗外加用无创呼吸机治疗,并比较两组患者的血气分析指标变化(呼吸频率RR、心率HR、pH值、PaO2、PaCO2),住院病程,气管插管率和病死率的指标.结果 观察组72例治疗后血气分析各项指标较治疗前有明显改善,住院病程缩短,气管捕管率为15.28%、病死率8.33%,对照组气管插管率为47.22%、病死率34.72%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.05).结论 NIPPV治疗AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭患者是一种有效的方法,能缓解病人的呼吸肌疲劳,改善氧合,能有效地降低PaCO2、呼吸频率和死亡率.从而避免气管插管,疗效显著.提高PaCO2是治疗AECOPD合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭的有效手段.%Objective To investigate the clinical effects of the treatment of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for AECOPD with type II respiratory failure.Methods 144 cases of hospitalized patients were randomly divided into two groups.who were treatted in the Department of Respiratory Medicine and ICU from January 2008 to August 2009,observation group (NIPPV) with 72 cases and the control group (non-NIPPV) with 72 cases.In the control group,they were dealled with routine treatment, including anti-infection,spasmolysis and anti-asthma,expectorant,correcting water-electrolyte disorders and acid-base balance disorders, bronchodilators, airway smooth.eontinuous flow of oxygen at the end, with respiratory stimulants and nutritional support,treatment.In the observation group,on the basic of conventional treatment

  19. Association between blood pressure and some other cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-11-20

    Nov 20, 2009 ... Blood pressures, serum total cholesterol levels, blood glucose levels, anthropometric parameters and ages of five ... regulation deserve more attention. Keywords: blood ... stand at ambient temperature until clotting took place.

  20. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  1. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  2. Associations of maternal and paternal blood pressure patterns and hypertensive disorders during pregnancy with childhood blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Miliku (Kozeta); N.E. Bergen (Nienke); H. Bakker (Hanneke); A. Hofman (Albert); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); R. Gaillard (Romy); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground-Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy may affect the cardiovascular risk of offspring. We examined the associations of maternal blood pressure throughout pregnancy and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy with childhood blood pressure of offspring. Specific focus was on the

  3. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and

  4. Non-invasive diagnostic methods in dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todea, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    The paper, will present the most important non-invasive methods for diagnostic, in different fields of dentistry. Moreover, the laser-based methods will be emphasis. In orthodontics, 3D laser scanners are increasingly being used to establish database for normative population and cross-sectional growth changes but also to asses clinical outcomes in orthognatic surgical and non-surgical treatments. In prevention the main methods for diagnostic of demineralization and caries detection in early stages are represented by laser fluorescence - Quantitative Light Florescence (QLF); DiagnoDent-system-655nm; FOTI-Fiberoptic transillumination; DIFOTI-Digital Imaging Fiberoptic transillumination; and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). In odontology, Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) is a noninvasive real time method used for determining the tooth vitality by monitoring the pulp microcirculation in traumatized teeth, fractured teeth, and teeth undergoing different conservative treatments. In periodontology, recently study shows the ability of LDF to evaluate the health of gingival tissue in periodontal tissue diseases but also after different periodontal treatments.

  5. Calf blood pressure: clinical implications and correlations with arm blood pressure in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapanzano, M S; Strong, W B; Newman, I R; Hixon, R L; Casal, D; Linder, C W

    1996-02-01

    Indirect measurement of lower extremity blood pressure is often used in the clinical setting, although normative data after the newborn period are not readily available. Indirect blood pressure (BP) measurement was obtained in the right arms and right calves of 148 healthy infants and young children 2 weeks to 3 years of age. All measurements were made using an oscillometric device. The infants and children are quiet or asleep and in the supine position. A BP cuff of proper size was chosen. Three measurements were made in both extremities; the average of the second and third measurements was used for all analyses. Age correlated better with calf systolic blood pressure (SBPc) than with arm SBP (SBPa) (r = .52 vs .17). Calf diastolic blood pressure (DBPc) and calf mean blood pressure (MBPc) correlated moderately poorly with age (r = .37 and .39, respectively). There was no order effect. SBPc correlated best with height (r = .53), then age (r = .52), and, finally, weight (r = .51). The correlation between BPc and BPa was moderately low. The correlation of SBPc with SBPa was r = .46; that of DBPc with DBPa was r = .37; and that of MBPc with MBPa was r = .41. From birth to 6 months, SBPc was slightly lower than SBPa (1 to 3 mm Hg). SBPc increased linearly relative to SBPa and began to exceed SBPa at 6 months of age. The pattern of DBP and MBP was similar. Wide variability of blood pressure parameters was noted between the infants and children at all ages. Reference data are presented for BPc and the difference between BPc and BPa in healthy infants and children from 2 weeks to 3 years of age. BPc is not equivalent to BPa and should not be arbitrarily substituted. Because of the wide variability among healthy infants and children, SBPc measurements should be interpreted with caution when evaluating for coarctation of the aorta.

  6. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  7. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose.

  8. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of αvalores obtidos estavam alterados. O tempo médio de admissão até o registro da primeira pressão arterial foi de 2,5 minutos, e de 42 minutos entre as medidas subsequentes. Não foi encontrada correlação entre os valores de pressão arterial sistólica e o intervalo médio de tempo entre os registros da pressão arterial: 0,173 (p=0,031). O presente estudo não encontrou correlação entre frequência de verificação da pressão arterial e os valores de pressão arterial. A frequência do registro da pressão arterial aumentou de acordo com a gravidade do paciente e diminuiu durante seu tempo de permanência no serviço de emergência.

  10. Respiratory mechanics in COPD patients who failed non-invasive ventilation: role of intrinsic PEEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaglia, Vittorio; Ferluga, Massimo; Capitanio, Guido; Lucangelo, Umberto; Piller, Fulvia; Roman-Pognuz, Erik; Biancardi, Bruno; Caggegi, Giuseppe Davide; Zin, Walter A

    2012-10-15

    Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) is the first choice to treat exacerbations in COPD patients. NPPV can fail owing to different causes related to gas exchange impairment (RF group) or intolerance (INT group). To assess if the respiratory mechanical properties and the ratio between the dynamic and static intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat), reflecting lung mechanical inequalities, were different between groups, 29 COPD patients who failed NPPV (15 RF and 14 INT) were studied, early after the application of invasive ventilation. Blood gas analysis, clinical status, and mechanical properties were measured. pH was higher in INT patients before intubation (p<0.001). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was found higher in INT group with (p=0.021) and without PEEP (ZEEP, p<0.01). PEEP(i),dyn/PEEP(i),stat was exponentially associated with the duration of NPPV in INT group (p=0.011). INT and RF patients had similar impairment of respiratory system resistance and elastance.

  11. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  12. [Chronobiology of blood pressure and chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, R E; Bramlage, P; Schunkert, H

    2012-02-01

    Arterial blood pressure is subject to a circadian rhythm that results in a fall of blood pressure during the night. In patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, left-ventricular hypertrophy, sleep apnea, hypertension of pregnancy, and different forms of secondary hypertension a nocturnal fall of blood pressure is even abandoned or reverted. Diagnosis is made using 24-h blood pressure measurement, which is however used not frequently enough for a clinical assessment or adjustment of therapy. An adaption of the selection or the time of administration of antihypertensive drugs with respect to the circadian rhythm is beneficial to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular morbidity. This is particularly true for patients with an a non- or inverted dipping blood pressure pattern, in which the bedtime dosing may result in a normalization of blood pressure and restoration of a normal circadian rhythm. The present manuscript reviews the chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension and grant practical recommendations for their translation into clinical practice.

  13. Women, Hypertension, and the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nanette K; Ferdinand, Keith C; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Walsh, Mary Norine; Gulati, Martha; Pepine, Carl J

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension accounts for approximately 1 in 5 deaths in American women and is the major contributor to many comorbid conditions. Although blood pressure lowering reduces cardiovascular disease outcomes, considerable uncertainty remains on best management in women. Specifically, female blood pressure treatment goals have not been established, particularly among older and African American and Hispanic women, for whom hypertension prevalence, related adverse outcomes, and poor control rates are high. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) planned to clarify optimal blood pressure management in both sexes. Although confirming that a lower blood pressure goal is generally better, because female enrollment and event rates were low and follow-up shortened, outcomes differences in women were not statistically significant. Thus optimal blood pressure goals for women have not been established with the highest evidence. This review addresses SPRINT's significance and key remaining knowledge gaps in optimal blood pressure management to improve women's health.

  14. Accuracy in Blood Pressure Monitoring: The Effect of Noninvasive Blood Pressure Cuff Inflation on Intra-arterial Blood Pressure Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshadri, Veena; Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar; Nagappa, Mahesh; Venkatraghavan, Lashmi

    2017-01-01

    Both invasive and noninvasive blood pressure (invasive arterial blood pressure [IABP] and noninvasive BP [NIBP]) monitors are used perioperatively; however, they often produce different values. The reason for this discrepancy is not clear, and it is possible that the act of cuff inflation itself might affect the IABP values, especially with the recurrent cycling of NIBP cuff. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ipsilateral NIBP cuff inflation on the contralateral IABP values. Prospective, observational study. One hundred consecutive patients were studied. The NIBP device was set to cycle every 5 min for a total of 6 times. During each cuff inflation cycle, changes in IABP values from the arterial line in the contralateral arm were recorded. A total of 582 measurements were included for data analysis. Chi-square, paired t-test, analysis of variance. Mean (± standard deviation) changes in systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP, and mean BP with cuff inflation were 6.7 ± 5.9, 2.6 ± 4.0, and 4.0 ± 3.9 mmHg, respectively. We observed an increase of 0-10 mmHg in SBP in majority (73.4%) of cuff inflations. The changes in IABP did not differ between the patients with or without hypertension or with the baseline SBP. This study showed that there is a transient reactive rise in IABP values with NIBP cuff inflation. This is important information in the perioperative and intensive care settings, where both these measurement techniques are routinely used. The exact mechanism for this effect is not known but may be attributed to the pain and discomfort from cuff inflation.

  15. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  16. Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omboni, S.; Parati, G.; Castiglioni, P.; Rienzo, M. di; Imholz, B.P.M.; Langewouters, G.J.; Wesseling, K.H.; Mancia, G.

    1998-01-01

    Portapres is a noninvasive, beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (BP) monitor that has been shown to accurately estimate 24-hour intra-arterial BP at normal and high BPs. However, no information is available on the ability of this device to accurately track ambulatory BP variability. In 20 ambulatory

  17. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  18. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next

  1. High-resolution harmonics ultrasound imaging for non-invasive characterization of wound healing in a pre-clinical swine model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya C Gnyawali

    Full Text Available This work represents the first study employing non-invasive high-resolution harmonic ultrasound imaging to longitudinally characterize skin wound healing. Burn wounds (day 0-42, on the dorsum of a domestic Yorkshire white pig were studied non-invasively using tandem digital planimetry, laser speckle imaging and dual mode (B and Doppler ultrasound imaging. Wound depth, as measured by B-mode imaging, progressively increased until day 21 and decreased thereafter. Initially, blood flow at the wound edge increased up to day 14 and subsequently regressed to baseline levels by day 21, when the wound was more than 90% closed. Coinciding with regression of blood flow at the wound edge, there was an increase in blood flow in the wound bed. This was observed to regress by day 42. Such changes in wound angiogenesis were corroborated histologically. Gated Doppler imaging quantitated the pulse pressure of the primary feeder artery supplying the wound site. This pulse pressure markedly increased with a bimodal pattern following wounding connecting it to the induction of wound angiogenesis. Finally, ultrasound elastography measured tissue stiffness and visualized growth of new tissue over time. These studies have elegantly captured the physiological sequence of events during the process of wound healing, much of which is anticipated based on certain dynamics in play, to provide the framework for future studies on molecular mechanisms driving these processes. We conclude that the tandem use of non-invasive imaging technologies has the power to provide unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the healing skin tissue.

  2. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood pressure load responses to low sodium intervention in Han Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangchao; Chen, Panpan; Li, Dianjiang; Yang, Xueli; Huang, Jianfeng; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to illustrate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters responses to low sodium intake and their differences between salt-sensitive and non-salt-sensitive individuals. A total of 186 participants were included in this analysis. Twenty-four hour, day-time and night-time blood pressure (BP) and BP load decreased during low sodium intervention, especially in salt-sensitive (SS) group. After multivariable adjustment, 24-h systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure and BP load responses to low sodium intervention of SS individuals were more pronounced than those of non-salt-sensitive individuals. Thus, reducing salt intake is potentially needed for the prevention of hypertension, especially in SS individuals.

  3. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  4. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  5. 家庭无创机械通气对稳定期重度慢性阻塞性肺疾病患者的疗效观察%The effect of long term home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨婕; 蔡元萍; 胡建武; 卢桥发

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估长期家庭无创正压机械通气治疗稳定期慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)患者的疗效。方法将42例经住院治疗后处于重度 COPD 合并Ⅱ型呼吸衰竭稳定期患者分为长期家庭无创正压机械通气(HNIPPV )+常规治疗组(观察组22例)和常规治疗组(对照组20例)。随访治疗1年后,比较两组患者的动脉血气、肺功能、6 min 步行距离(6MWD)、呼吸困难评分、焦虑评分、1年内病情恶化住院次数等6项指标。结果治疗1年后,观察组动脉血二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、动脉血氧分压(PaO2)、6MWD 、呼吸困难评分、焦虑评分、1年内病情恶化住院次数均改善,观察组较对照组改善明显,差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。两组患者治疗1年后肺功能指标[用力肺活量(FVC)及一秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)]均有所下降,但组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),两组患者治疗1年期间无死亡病例或其他原因退出病例。结论 HNIPPV 治疗可以改善重度 COPD 患者呼吸衰竭,减少急性加重次数,改善血气指标,提高生活质量,对于重度稳定期 COPD 合并高碳酸血症患者是一种有效的治疗手段。%Objective To evaluate the effect of long term home non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (HNIPPV ) in stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) .Methods Forty-two patients with stable severe COPD after hospital dis-charge were divided into 2 groups :The observation group (conventional treatment + HNIPPV ,22 patients) and control group (con-ventional treatment ,20 patients) .Parameters before and after one year follow-up observation were compared ,which includes arterial bloods gases ,lung function test ,6-min walking distance(6MWD) ,dyspnea grade ,scoring for emotional disorders ,the hospitalization rates .Results PaCO2 ,PaO2 ,6MWD ,dyspnea grade ,scoring for emotional disorders ,the hospitalization

  6. Genome-Wide Linkage Analysis for Loci Affecting Pulse Pressure: The Family Blood Pressure Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bielinski, Suzette J; Lynch, Amy I; Miller, Michael B; Weder, Alan; Cooper, Richard; Oberman, Albert; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Turner, Stephen T; Fornage, Myriam; Province, Michael; Arnett, Donna K

    2005-01-01

    ... in sequential oligogenic linkage analysis routines. The analysis sample included 10 798 participants in 3320 families who were recruited as part of the Family Blood Pressure Program and were phenotyped with an oscillometric blood pressure measurement...

  7. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  8. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...

  9. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  10. Hybrid Optical Unobtrusive Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG and imaging PPG (iPPG are two feasible ways to obtain PPG signals. In this study, we proposed a hybrid system (called the ICPPG system employing both methods that can be implemented on a wearable device, facilitating the measurement of BP in an inconspicuous way. The feasibility of the ICPPG system was validated on a dataset with 29 subjects. It has been proved that the ICPPG system is able to estimate PTT values. Moreover, the PTT measured by the new system shows a correlation on average with BP variations for most subjects, which could facilitate a new generation of BP measurement using wearable and mobile devices.

  11. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P pressures......, but surprisingly normal arterial blood pressure during the nighttime, and the circadian variation in blood pressure and HR is diminished, probably because of an almost unaltered cardiac output during the 24 hours. These results may reflect a major defect in the ability of optimal regulation of blood pressure...

  12. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  13. Peripheral blood pressure by Dinamap and central blood pressure by applanation tonometry in outpatient general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Luiz Miguel; Simões, Ana Rita; Ricardo Miranda, Paula; Matias, Catarina; Rosendo, Inês; Constantino, Liliana; Santos, Tiago; Neto, Maria da Glória; Francisco, Maria dos Prazeres

    2013-06-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) is the pressure exerted by the blood column at any given moment on the aortic and carotid artery walls, which is a close proxy for the blood pressure inside the brain and the heart, and is thus a better marker of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than peripheral blood pressure (PBP). To assess how the augmentation index (AI), peripheral pulse pressure (pPP), central pulse pressure (cPP) and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) vary in hypertensive patients according to level of control of CBP and PBP. We performed an observational, cross-sectional study in a convenience sample from a general practice in Central Portugal over a period of four days in May 2010. Measurements were taken after a four-minute resting period. The following values were considered to reflect controlled pressures: PBP <140/90 mmHg, CBP <130/80 mmHg, pPP <55 mmHg and cPP <45 mmHg. The sample included 92 patients, 38 male (41.3%), mean age 62.3±11.1 years, with no significant difference in gender distribution. PBP was controlled in 55 (59.8%), and CBP in 53 (57.6%). Both PBP and CBP were controlled in 50 patients (54.3%) and neither was controlled in 34 (37.9%). pPP and cPP were significantly lower in those with controlled PBP (p<0.001) and CBP (p<0.001). AI was non-significantly lower in those with controlled PBP (78±9 vs. 80.7) and those with controlled CBP (78±9 vs.81±7) (p=0.02). SEVR was within the desirable range in 92 patients (92.2%). 78.4% of individuals were taking drugs acting on the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS). In a convenience sample of 92 patients, PBP and CBP were controlled in 59.8% and 57.6%, respectively. Those with controlled PBP had significantly better peripheral systolic and diastolic blood pressure, CBP, pPP and cPP; the same was true of those with controlled CBP, who also had a significantly better AI. The percentage of the cardiac cycle in diastole had a desirable value for 92,2% of the subjects. Copyright © 2011

  14. Blood pressure management in children on dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglialonga, F; Consolo, S; Edefonti, A; Montini, G

    2017-06-09

    Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular complications in children on dialysis. Volume overload and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system play a major role in the pathophysiology of hypertension. The first step in managing blood pressure (BP) is the careful assessment of ambulatory BP monitoring. Volume control is essential and should start with the accurate identification of dry weight, based on a comprehensive assessment, including bioimpedance analysis and intradialytic blood volume monitoring (BVM). Reduction of interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) is critical, as higher IDWG is associated with a worse left ventricular mass index and poorer BP control: it can be obtained by means of salt restriction, reduced fluid intake, and optimized sodium removal in dialysis. Optimization of peritoneal dialysis and intensified hemodialysis or hemodiafiltration have been shown to improve both fluid and sodium management, leading to better BP levels. Studies comparing different antihypertensive agents in children are lacking. The pharmacokinetic properties of each drug should be considered. At present, BP control remains suboptimal in many patients and efforts are needed to improve the long-term outcomes of children on dialysis.

  15. Affective impairment in chronic low blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschek, Stefan; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyes Del Paso, Gustavo A

    2017-02-01

    Physical complaints such as faintness, dizziness, cold limbs and headaches have been well-established in chronic low blood pressure (hypotension). This study investigated the occurrence of adverse emotional states and the symptoms of depression in this condition. As autonomic dysregulation, particularly diminished sympathetic tone, is believed to be involved in the etiology of hypotension, the impact of different facets of autonomic cardiovascular control on mood and depressive symptoms was also explored. Forty individuals with chronic hypotension and forty normotensive control persons were presented with the Mood Scale and Beck Depression Inventory. Stroke volume, cardiac output, pre-ejection period, Heather index and aortic peak blood flow velocity were recorded under resting conditions as indices of beta-adrenergic inotropic drive. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and baroreflex sensitivity were additionally obtained. Hypotensive individuals scored markedly higher on both questionnaire scales than controls, indicating an adversely affected emotional state and more severe depressive symptoms. In the entire sample, cardiac output, Heather index, and aortic peak blood flow velocity correlated negatively with the questionnaire scores; according to regression analysis, the Heather index explained the largest proportion of test score variance. Although hypotension does not constitute a serious medical condition, the findings of an adverse affective state and increased burden with depressive symptoms corroborate the view that it can have a considerable impact on wellbeing and quality of life. The correlations of the beta-adrenergic indices with the questionnaire scales indicate that cardiac sympathetic regulation plays a key role in the psychophysiological mediation of hypotension-related mood impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. blood pressure reducing effect of bitter kola in wistar rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEAN'S OFFICE

    ABSTRACT: In this study the effect of Garcinia kola (GK) on blood pressure was ... and for blood pressure measurements on a recording device (Ugo Basile ... doses produced statistically significiant (P<0.05) fall in mean arterial pressure and ...

  17. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  18. Non-invasive monitoring of endocrine status in laboratory primates: methods, guidelines and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heistermann, M.

    2010-11-01

    During the past three decades, non-invasive methods for assessing physiological, in particular endocrine, status have revolutionized almost all areas of primatology, including behavioural ecology, reproductive biology, stress research, conservation and last but not least management of primates in captivity where the technology plays an integral role in assisting the husbandry, breeding and welfare of many species. Non-invasive endocrine methods make use of the fact that hormones circulating in blood are secreted into saliva or deposited in hair and are eliminated from the body via urinary and faecal excretion. The choice of which matrix to use for hormonal assessment depends on a range of factors, including the type of information required, the measurement techniques involved, species differences in hormone metabolism and route of excretion and the practicality of sample collection. However, although sample collection is usually relatively easy, analysing hormones from these non-invasively collected samples is not as easy as many people think, particularly not when dealing with a new species. In this respect, the importance of a careful validation of each technique is essential in order to generate meaningful and accurate results. This paper aims to provide an overview of the available non-invasive endocrine-based methodologies, their relative merits and their potential areas of application for assessing endocrine status in primates, with special reference to captive environments. In addition, general information is given about the most important aspects and caveats researchers have to be aware of when using these methodologies.

  19. Blood glucose and nocturnal blood pressure in African and caucasian men: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Lammertyn, Leandi; Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth; Schutte, Rudolph

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between nocturnal blood pressure and chronically elevated blood glucose to determine if these elevated blood glucose concentrations contribute to a non-dipping blood pressure, especially in high-risk groups such as Africans. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2011.05.011

  20. [Relationship between occupational stress and blood glucose, blood lipid, blood pressure of video display terminal operators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Song, Hui; Chen, Nan; Liu, He-rong; Zhu, Ling-qin; Zhang, Zhen-xiang; Wang, Ling

    2007-03-01

    To explore the relationship between occupational stress and blood glucose, Blood lipid and blood pressure. 108 video display terminals(VDT) operators who had the working experience were recruited to the study. The occupational stress indicator (OSI), the lever of blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein of high density and lipoprotein of low density in serum were measured by using GOD-PAP, CHOD-PAP, GPO-PAP and PVS. The subjects were classified into three groups according to the score of occupational stress. The contents of blood glucose of low, middle and high level of stress groups were (3.39 +/- 1.24), (3.59 +/- 1.26), (2.54 +/- 0.94) mmol/L respectively (F = 7.324, P stress, the content of blood glucose decreased significantly (r = -0.376, P occupational stress, among video display terminals and it can be used as the index for estimating occupational stress.

  1. The impedance threshold device (ITD-7)--a new device for combat casualty care to augment circulation and blood pressure in hypotensive spontaneously breathing warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Don; Convertino, Vic; Idris, Ahamed; Smith, Stephen; Lindstrom, David; Parquette, Brent; Aufderheide, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration through -7cm H2O resistance results in an increase in venous blood flow back to the heart and a subsequent increase in cardiac output and blood pressure in hypotensive animals and patients. Breathing through the impedance threshold device with 7cm H2O resistance (ITD-7) also reduces intracranial pressure with each inspiration, thereby providing greater blood flow to the brain. A new device called an ITD-7 was developed to exploit these physiological mechanisms to buy time in hypotensive War Fighters when other therapies are not readily available. Animal and clinical data with the ITD-7 demonstrate the potential value and limitations of this new non-invasive approach to enhancing circulation.

  2. Assessment of various parameters using simple non-invasive tests in patients with cardiovascular diseases with or without cardiac rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ueda

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac rehabilitation (CR improves cardiac function and exercise capacity in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Simpler techniques are needed for use by physicians in the examination room to assess the usefulness of CR. We enrolled 46 consecutive CVD patients in a CR program (CR group and prospectively followed them for 3 months. We compared them to 18 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched CVD patients without CR (non-CR group. Various parameters were measured at baseline and after 3 months using 3 simple non-invasive tests: severity of atherosclerosis [arterial velocity pulse index and arterial pressure volume index (API] were determined using PASESA®, an autonomic nerve total activity amount index and a coefficient of variation of the R–R interval (CVRR were determined using eHEART®, and peripheral resistance index, pressure rate product, stroke volume and cardiac index were determined using nico®]. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics including percentages (% of ischemic heart disease and heart failure between the non-CR and CR groups. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic BP, heart rate and API at baseline significantly decreased and CVRR at baseline significantly increased after 3 months in the CR group, but not in the non-CR group. In addition, ΔAPI (Δ = the value after 3 months minus the value at baseline was positively associated with ΔSBP in the CR group. In conclusion, CR significantly decreased BP and improved atherosclerosis and sympathetic nerve activity. These findings suggest that simple non-invasive tests may be useful for assessing the effects of CR.

  3. Time course study of blood pressure in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pichler

    Full Text Available To describe temporal changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.Prospective observational two-center study. In term infants SBP, DBP, and MBP were assessed non-invasively every minute for the first 15 minutes, and in preterm infants every minute for the first 15 minutes, as well as at 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after birth. Regression analyses were performed by gender and respiratory support in all neonates; and by mode of delivery, cord clamping time, and development of ultrasound-detected brain injury in preterm neonates.Term infants (n = 54 had a mean (SD birth weight of 3298 (442 g and gestational age of 38 (1 weeks, and preterm infants (n = 94 weighed 1340 (672 g and were 30 (3 weeks gestation. Term infants' SBP, DBP and MBP within the first 15 minutes after birth were independent of gender or respiratory support. Linear mixed regression analysis showed that preterm infants, who were female, born vaginally, had delayed cord clamping and did not require positive pressure ventilation nor develop periventricular injury or ventriculomegaly, had significantly higher SBP, DBP, and MBP at some measurement points within the first hour after birth.We present novel reference ranges of BP immediately after birth in a cohort of term and preterm neonates. They may aid in optimization of cardiovascular support during early transition at all gestations.

  4. Impact of home blood pressure telemonitoring and blood pressure control: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omboni, Stefano; Guarda, Alessia

    2011-09-01

    Home blood pressure telemonitoring figures among the possible solutions that could help improve blood pressure control of hypertensive patients. To summarize the effectiveness of home blood pressure telemonitoring on blood pressure control from randomized, controlled studies. Electronic databases were searched for publications in English, reporting on randomized trials of home blood pressure telemonitoring vs. usual care. Outcome measures were office or ambulatory blood pressure changes, rate of blood pressure control, and number of antihypertensive drugs used by patients. A random effects model was applied. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. A high level of heterogeneity was found among studies for all the variables explored. Office blood pressure was reduced significantly more in patients randomized to home telemonitoring (systolic: 5.64 (95% confidence interval: 7.92, 3.36) mm Hg; diastolic: 2.78 (3.93, 1.62) mm Hg; 11 comparisons, n = 4,389). The effect on ambulatory blood pressure was smaller than on office blood pressure (systolic: 2.28 (4.32, 0.24); diastolic: 1.38 (3.55, +0.79) mm Hg; 3 comparisons, n = 655). The relative risk of blood pressure normalization (telemonitoring vs. the usual care group was 1.31 (1.06, 1.62) (5 comparisons, n = 2,432 subjects). Use of telemonitoring was associated with a significantly increased use of antihypertensive medications (+0.22 (+0.02, +0.43), 5 comparisons, n = 1,991). Home blood pressure telemonitoring may represent a useful tool to improve blood pressure control. However, heterogeneity of published studies suggests that well designed, large-scale, randomized, controlled studies are still needed to demonstrate the clinical usefulness of this technique.

  5. Dynamics of the brain: Mathematical models and non-invasive experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toronov, V.; Myllylä, T.; Kiviniemi, V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2013-10-01

    Dynamics is an essential aspect of the brain function. In this article we review theoretical models of neural and haemodynamic processes in the human brain and experimental non-invasive techniques developed to study brain functions and to measure dynamic characteristics, such as neurodynamics, neurovascular coupling, haemodynamic changes due to brain activity and autoregulation, and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen. We focus on emerging theoretical biophysical models and experimental functional neuroimaging results, obtained mostly by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). We also included our current results on the effects of blood pressure variations on cerebral haemodynamics and simultaneous measurements of fast processes in the brain by near-infrared spectroscopy and a very novel functional MRI technique called magnetic resonance encephalography. Based on a rapid progress in theoretical and experimental techniques and due to the growing computational capacities and combined use of rapidly improving and emerging neuroimaging techniques we anticipate during next decade great achievements in the overall knowledge of the human brain.

  6. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  7. Home monitoring of blood pressure: patients' perception and role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Home monitoring of blood pressure: patients' perception and role of the ... One hundred patients with doctor-diagnosed hypertension were recruited into the study. ... A majority of participants suffer from anxiety (68 %) in response to high blood ...

  8. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  9. Indirect blood pressure measurement: a need to reassess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, F D; Cunningham, S G; Maloney, J P

    1993-07-01

    Indirect blood pressure measurement is the assessment tool used most frequently in epidemiological studies and hypertension management in the population at large. To review indirect blood pressure measurement within the context of nursing practice. Nurses are not following recommended American Heart Association measurement guidelines. A national program of certification in indirect blood pressure measurement, similar to that of basic and advanced cardiac life support, is needed. An initial approach to evaluating present practice is also suggested.

  10. Blood Pressure and Global Risk Assessment in a Swedish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Eckner; Larsson, Charlotte A.; Lennart Råstam; Ulf Lindblad

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between SCORE and the 2007 ESH-ESC blood pressure categories and explored achievements of blood pressure goals considering global risk. In 2001–2005, a random sample of inhabitants aged 30–74 years in southwestern Sweden was invited to a survey of cardiovascular risk factors. The study enrolled 2816 participants (participation rate 76%). Blood pressure was categorized according to the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines. Global risk of 10-year CVD death was estimat...

  11. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  12. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  13. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (P

  14. Early non-invasive ventilation treatment for respiratory failure due to severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Antonello; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Ferrari-Bravo, Maura; Barlascini, Cornelius; Santo, Mario; Ferrera, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Severe community-acquired pneumonia (sCAP) have been as defined pneumonia requiring admission to the intensive care unit or carrying a high risk of death. Currently, the treatment of sCAP consists of antibiotic therapy and ventilator support. The use of invasive ventilation causes several complications as does admission to ICU. For this reason, non-invasive ventilation (NIV) has been used for acute respiratory failure to avoid endotracheal intubation. However, few studies have currently assessed the usefulness of NIV in sCAP. We prospectively assessed 127 patients with sCAP and severe acute respiratory failure [oxygen arterial pressure/oxygen inspiratory fraction ratio (PaO2/FiO2) intubation and the achievement of PaO2/FiO2 >250 with spontaneous breathing. We assessed predictors of NIV failure and hospital mortality using univariate and multivariate analyses. NIV failed in 32 patients (25.1%). Higher chest X-ray score at admission, chest X-ray worsening, and a lower PaO2/FiO2 and higher alveolar-arteriolar gradient (A-aDO2) after 1 h of NIV all independently predicted NIV failure. Higher lactate dehydrogenase and confusion, elevated blood urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure plus age ≥65 years at admission, higher A-aDO2, respiratory rate and lower PaO2/FiO2 after 1 h of NIV and intubation rate were directly related to hospital mortality. Successful treatment is strongly related to less severe illness as well as to a good initial and sustained response to medical therapy and NIV treatment. Constant monitoring of these patients is mandatory. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A new non-invasive statistical method to assess the spontaneous cardiac baroreflex in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducher, M; Fauvel, J P; Gustin, M P; Cerutti, C; Najem, R; Cuisinaud, G; Laville, M; Pozet, N; Paultre, C Z

    1995-06-01

    1. A new method was developed to evaluate cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. The association of a high systolic blood pressure with a low heart rate or the converse is considered to be under the influence of cardiac baroreflex activity. This method is based on the determination of the statistical dependence between systolic blood pressure and heart rate values obtained non-invasively by a Finapres device. Our computerized analysis selects the associations with the highest statistical dependence. A 'Z-coefficient' quantifies the strength of the statistical dependence. The slope of the linear regression, computed on these selected associations, is used to estimate baroreflex sensitivity. 2. The present study was carried out in 11 healthy resting male subjects. The results obtained by the 'Z-coefficient' method were compared with those obtained by cross-spectrum analysis, which has already been validated in humans. Furthermore, the reproducibility of both methods was checked after 1 week. 3. The results obtained by the two methods were significantly correlated (r = 0.78 for the first and r = 0.76 for the second experiment, P < 0.01). When repeated after 1 week, the average results were not significantly different. Considering individual results, test-retest correlation coefficients were higher with the Z-analysis (r = 0.79, P < 0.01) than with the cross-spectrum analysis (r = 0.61, P < 0.05). 4. In conclusion, as the Z-method gives results similar to but more reproducible than the cross-spectrum method, it might be a powerful and reliable tool to assess baroreflex sensitivity in humans.

  16. Non-invasive accurate measurement of arterial PCO2 in a pediatric animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstra, Jorn; Winter, Jeff D; Machina, Matthew; Lukovic, Jelena; Duffin, James; Kassner, Andrea; Fisher, Joseph A

    2013-04-01

    The PCO2 in arterial blood (PaCO2) is a good parameter for monitoring ventilation and acid-base changes in ventilated patients, but its measurement is invasive and difficult to obtain in small children. Attempts have been made to use the partial pressure of CO2 in end-tidal gas (PETCO2), as a noninvasive surrogate for PaCO2. Studies have revealed that, unfortunately, the differences between PETCO2 and PaCO2 are too variable to be clinically useful. We hypothesized that end-inspiratory rebreathing, previously shown to equalize PETCO2 and PaCO2 in spontaneously breathing humans, would also be effective with positive pressure ventilation. Eight newborn Yorkshire pigs were mechanically ventilated via a partial rebreathing circuit to implement end-inspiratory rebreathing. Arterial blood was sampled and tested for PaCO2. A variety of alveolar ventilations resulting in different combinations of end-tidal PCO2 (30-50 mmHg) and PO2 (35-500 mmHg) were tested for differences between PETCO2 and PaCO2 (PET-aCO2). The PET-aCO2 of all samples was (mean ± 1.96 SD) 0.4 ± 2.7 mmHg. Our study demonstrates that, in ventilated juvenile animals, end-inspiratory rebreathing maintains PET-aCO2 to what would be a clinically useful range. If verified clinically, this approach could open the way for non-invasive monitoring of arterial PCO2 in critically ill patients.

  17. Non-invasive Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Hao; Yang, Yunan; Zhang, Yin; Cai, Weibo

    2010-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) hold tremendous therapeutic potential in a variety of diseases. Over the last decade, non-invasive imaging techniques have proven to be of great value in tracking transplanted hESCs. This review article will briefly summarize the various techniques used for non-invasive imaging of hESCs, which include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), bioluminescence imaging (BLI), fluorescence, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), positron emission tomography...

  18. Non-invasive prediction of oesophageal varices in cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sambit Sen; William JH Griffiths

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive predictors of varices in cirrhosis would reduce the need for screening endoscopies. Platelet count and spleen size have been shown to be useful parameters, in mixed groups of cirrhotics with different aetiologies. We evaluated this in two homogeneous groups with cirrhosis due to hepatitis C and alcohol.Non-invasive predictors appear promising in the former group, but less so in the latter group.

  19. Noninvasive automatic blood pressure monitoring does not attenuate nighttime hypotension. Evidence from 24 h intraarterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, A; Parati, G; Groppelli, A; Omboni, S; Di Rienzo, M; Mancia, G

    1992-10-01

    Automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring makes use of repeated cuff inflations throughout the day and night. This may interfere with the cardiovascular effects of sleep and thus alter the 24 h blood pressure profile. The possibility that intermittent automatic blood pressure measurements prevent nocturnal hypotension was examined in 17 mild or moderate essential hypertensive patients in whom blood pressure was recorded intraarterially for 48 h by the Oxford technique. During the first or the second 24 h period, blood pressure was also monitored noninvasively by the SpaceLabs (Redmond, WA) 5300 (n = 10) and by the Sandoz Pressure System SPS 1558 (Lavanchy Electronique, Prilly, Switzerland) (n = 7) devices, automatic measurements being performed at 15 min intervals during the day and at 30 min intervals during the night. Separate computer analysis of 24 h intraarterial tracings obtained in absence and in concomitance of contralateral automatic blood pressure monitoring showed that the occurrence of automatic measurements had not interfered with the day-night intraarterial blood pressure and heart rate profiles. Thus the frequent cuff inflations that characterize automatic blood pressure monitoring do not attenuate nighttime hypotension and bradycardia. This finding supports use of the noninvasive approach in assessing blood pressure profiles.

  20. Non-invasive, Focused Ultrasound-Facilitated Gene Delivery for Optogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shutao; Kugelman, Tara; Buch, Amanda; Herman, Mathieu; Han, Yang; Karakatsani, Maria Eleni; Hussaini, S. Abid; Duff, Karen; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2017-01-01

    Optogenetics, a widely used technique in neuroscience research, is often limited by its invasive nature of application. Here, we present a noninvasive, ultrasound-based technique to introduce optogenetic channels into the brain by temporarily opening the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We demonstrate the efficiency of the method developed and evaluate the bioactivity of the non-invasively introduced channelrhodopsin channels by performing stimulation in freely behaving mice.