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Sample records for non-infectious viral particles

  1. Characterization of Non-Infectious Virus-Like Particle Surrogates for Viral Clearance Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Brorson, Kurt A; Frey, Douglas D; Dhar, Arun K; Cetlin, David A

    2017-03-09

    Viral clearance is a critical aspect of biopharmaceutical manufacturing process validation. To determine the viral clearance efficacy of downstream chromatography and filtration steps, live viral "spiking" studies are conducted with model mammalian viruses such as minute virus of mice (MVM). However, due to biosafety considerations, spiking studies are costly and typically conducted in specialized facilities. In this work, we introduce the concept of utilizing a non-infectious MVM virus-like particle (MVM-VLP) as an economical surrogate for live MVM during process development and characterization. Through transmission electron microscopy, size exclusion chromatography with multi-angle light scattering, chromatofocusing, and a novel solute surface hydrophobicity assay, we examined and compared the size, surface charge, and hydrophobic properties of MVM and MVM-VLP. The results revealed that MVM and MVM-VLP exhibited nearly identical physicochemical properties, indicating the potential utility of MVM-VLP as an accurate and economical surrogate to live MVM during chromatography and filtration process development and characterization studies.

  2. Canine and feline pregnancy loss due to viral and non-infectious causes: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, J; Dhaliwal, G; Verstegen-Onclin, K

    2008-08-01

    Among the causes for pregnancy loss, viruses and non-infectious factors are among the most important. In both dogs and cats, research and clinical evidence provide proof that there is an increasing incidence of pregnancy loss associated with infectious diseases like herpesvirus, as well as the presence of toxicants or chemicals in the animal's diet and environment. Endocrine causes must be taken into consideration when dealing with pregnancy loss. This review will cover the most recent knowledge regarding viral and non-infectious of pregnancy losses in the dog and cat.

  3. Demonstration of non-infectious hemagglutinating particles of rabies virus and isolation of the hemagglutinin by disruption of the virion with Nonidet P-40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Y T; Kondo, A; Suzuki, K

    1976-01-01

    Non-infectious hemagglutinating particles of rabies virus accumulated in the fluid phase of chick embryo cell cultures at 6 days post-infection, though they were undetectable at 4 days. They were characterized as looped filaments resembling viral envelope as revealed by electron microscopy. Another form of hemagglutinin (HAnin) was obtained by solubilization of partially purified virions with Nonidet P-40 (NP-40) followed by successive high speed and CsCl density gradient centrifugations. The density of the isolated HAnin averaged 1.28 g/cm3. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the HAnin demonstrated that it was mainly composed of a glycoprotein (G) with a molecular weight of 83,000. Electron microscopically, it differed from the above non-infectious hemagglutinating particles, being much smaller in size and showing a star- or rosette-like appearance with a diameter of about 25 nm, composed of a central particle surrounded by particles resembling envelope-spikes. Virus-neutralizing (VN) and hemagglutination inhibiting (HI) antibodies were produced in rabbits immunized with the HAnin isolated from virions.

  4. Non-Infectious Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 13 Chapter 14 Annex Viral Meningitis Fungal Meningitis Parasitic ... How it Spreads Non–infectious meningitis causes include: Cancers Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) Certain drugs Head injury ...

  5. Non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yao; CHEUNG Ning; TIAN Bei; WEI Wen-bin

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-infectious endophthalmitis was reported to occur after cataract surgery or intravitreal injections.This study reported a series of patients having non-infectious endophthalmitis after pars plana vitrectomy in the same two operation rooms during the same period to estimate the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.Methods Medical records of patients who presented with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis following vitrectomy between May 13 and June 8,2011,were reviewed.The presenting symptoms and signs were collected,including visual acuity,intraocular pressure,cornea and anterior chamber activity.The treatments and results of microbiology examination were also recorded and analyzed.Results Ten patients were identified with severe non-infectious endophthalmitis,presenting 1 day after pars plana vitrectomy.Three eyes (30%) had previous intraocular surgeries,four (40%) had proliferative diabetic retinopathy,and one (10%) got pars plana vitrectomy combinded with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.All the patients were initially treated with topical and/or oral steroids.Only two patients had intravenous antibiotics because of the atypical presentation.One eye had paracentesis because of high intraocular pressure and the aqueous sample was sent for microbiological examination.The culture of the aqueous,air in the operation room,the swab from hand of surgeons,infusion fluid,and vitrectomy effluent were all negative for bacteria and fungi.The inflammation regressed rapidly after the initial treatment.Conclusions Intraocular surgery history,poor general health status,longer operation time,and more surgical procedures are the risk factors for non-infectious endophthalmitis after vitrectomy.It responds well to steroids.

  6. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes.

  7. A Rapid Method for Viral Particle Detection in Viral-Induced Gastroenteritis: A TEM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, M. John; Barrish, James P.; Hayes, Elizabeth S.; Leer, Laurie C.; Estes, Mary K.; Cubitt, W. D.

    1995-10-01

    Infectious gastroenteritis is a common cause of hospitalization in the pediatric population. The most frequent cause of gastroenteritis is viral in origin. The purpose of this study was to compare a rapid modified negative-staining TEM method with the conventional pseudoreplica technique in detection of viral particles in fecal samples from children with viral gastroenteritis. The modified negative-staining method resulted in a significantly higher (2.5 ± 0.5, p = 0.02) viral rating score than that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique (1.7 ± 0.4). In addition, the preparation time for the negative-staining method was approximately one fifth that for the conventional pseudoreplica technique. Rapid diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis may be made by ultrastructural detection of viral particles in fecal samples using the negative staining technique.

  8. Non-Infectious Ischiogluteal Bursitis: MRI Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Moon; Lee, Young Hwan; Suh, Kyung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin; Jang, Han Won

    2004-01-01

    Objective We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. Materials and Methods The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. Results The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/17 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Conclusion Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance. PMID:15637479

  9. Non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kil Ho; Jang, Han Won [Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Hwan [Daegu Hyosung Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung Jin [Suh and Joo MR Clinic, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Moon; Shin, Myung Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to report on the MRI findings of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis. The MRI findings of 17 confirmed cases of non-infectious ischiogluteal bursitis were analyzed: four out of the 17 cases were confirmed with surgery, and the remaining 13 cases were confirmed with MRI plus the clinical data. The enlarged bursae were located deep to the gluteus muscles and postero-inferior to the ischial tuberosity. The superior ends of the bursal sacs abutted to the infero-medial aspect of the ischial tuberosity. The signal intensity within the enlarged bursa on T1-weighted image (WI) was hypo-intense in three cases (3/17, 17.6%), iso-intense in 10 cases (10/17, 58.9%), and hyper-intense in four cases (4/17, 23.5%) in comparison to that of surrounding muscles. The bursal sac appeared homogeneous in 13 patients (13/17, 76.5%) and heterogeneous in the remaining four patients (4/17, 23.5%) on T1-WI. On T2-WI, the bursa was hyper-intense in all cases (17/17, 100%); it was heterogeneous in 10 cases and homogeneous in seven cases. The heterogeneity was variable depending on the degree of the blood-fluid levels and the septae within the bursae. With contrast enhancement, the inner wall of the bursae was smooth (5/7 cases), and irregular (12/17 cases) because of the synovial proliferation and septation. Ischiogluteal bursitis can be diagnosed with MRI by its characteristic location and cystic appearance.

  10. Evidence for hydrogen-deuterium exchange in viral particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jiangsen; LIU Ziyang; TANG Caihua; HE Yihui; ZHU Jiahong; WANG Chengyu; CHAI Shaoai; CHEN Yueqing; QIAN Wen

    2004-01-01

    Heavy water (D2O) could enhance thermostability of some viruses. However, the underlying mechanism is not clear. Here we report the development of a matrix-aided gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry method that allows direct determination of deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratio in D2O-treated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and RNA from D2O-treated HAV. The D/H ratio was expressed as δDSMOW. Our experiments showed that δDSMOW values increased significantly in D2O-treated viral samples compared to normal controls, and increment in δDSMOW of D2O, treated viral samples was in a fine linear relationship with increment in amount of samples loaded in BSA matrix. Our experiments also indicated that increased δDSMOW of D2O-treated virus correlated well with its enhanced thermostability. The results suggested that hydrogen-deuterium exchange occurred in viral particles and its RNA structure as a result of D2O-treatment. Furthermore, such exchange could cause changes in viral phenotype, such as enhanced thermostability.

  11. Functional Role of Infective Viral Particles on Metal Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coates, John D.

    2014-04-01

    A proposed strategy for the remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sites was based on the immobilization of U by reducing the oxidized soluble U, U(VI), to form a reduced insoluble end product, U(IV). Previous studies identified Geobacter sp., including G. sulfurreducens and G. metallireducens, as predominant U(VI)-reducing bacteria under acetate-oxidizing and U(VI)-reducing conditions. Examination of the finished genome sequence annotation of the canonical metal reducing species Geobacter sulfurreducens strain PCA and G. metallireduceans strain GS-15 as well as the draft genome sequence of G. uraniumreducens strain Rf4 identified phage related proteins. In addition, the completed genome for Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans and the draft genome sequence of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strain G20, two more model metal-reducing bacteria, also revealed phage related sequences. The presence of these gene sequences indicated that Geobacter spp., Anaeromyxobacter spp., and Desulfovibrio spp. are susceptible to viral infection. Furthermore, viral populations in soils and sedimentary environments in the order of 6.4×10{sup 6}–2.7×10{sup 10} VLP’s cm{sup -3} have been observed. In some cases, viral populations exceed bacterial populations in these environments suggesting that a relationship may exist between viruses and bacteria. Our preliminary screens of samples collected from the ESR FRC indicated that viral like particles were observed in significant numbers. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential functional role viruses play in metal reduction specifically Fe(III) and U(VI) reduction, the environmental parameters affecting viral infection of metal reducing bacteria, and the subsequent effects on U transport.

  12. A KDEL Retrieval System for ER-Golgi Transport of Japanese Encephalitis Viral Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Wu, Yu-Jen; Chen, Han-Shan; Chen, Chih-Jung

    2016-02-05

    Evidence has emerged that RNA viruses utilize the host secretory pathway for processing and trafficking mature viral particles and for exiting the infected cells. Upon completing the complex assembly process, the viral particles take advantage of the cellular secretory trafficking machinery for their intracellular trafficking toward the Golgi organelle and budding or export of virions. In this study, we showed that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-induced extracellular GRP78 contains no KDEL motif using an anti-KDEL-specific antibody. Overexpression of the KDEL-truncated GRP78 in the GPR78 knocked down cells significantly reduced JEV infectivity, suggesting that the KDEL motif is required for GRP78 function in the release of JE viral particles. In addition, we demonstrated the KDELR protein, an ER-Golgi retrieval system component, is associated with viral envelope proteins and is engaged in the subcellular localization of viral particles in Golgi. More importantly, accumulation of intracellular virions was observed in the KDELR knocked down cells, indicating that the KDELR protein mediated the intracellular trafficking of JE viral particles. Altogether, we demonstrated that intracellular trafficking of JE assembled viral particles was mediated by the host ER-Golgi retrieval system prior to exit by the secretory pathway.

  13. Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Robert Y.L., E-mail: yuwang@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Kuo, Rei-Lin [Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science and Graduate Program of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Ma, Wei-Chieh [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Huang, Hsing-I [Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science and Graduate Program of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yu, Jau-Song [Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Molecular Medicine Research Center, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Yen, Sih-Min [Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Huang, Chi-Ruei [Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333 Taiwan (China); Shih, Shin-Ru [Research Center for Emerging Viral Infections, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Biotechnology and Laboratory Science and Graduate Program of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90β), but not alpha form (Hsp90α), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90β protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90β protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90β protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90β protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone. - Highlights: • Hsp90β is associated with EV71 virion and is secreted with the release virus. • Hsp90β effects on the correct assembly of viral particles. • Viral titer of cultured medium was reduced in the presence of geldanamycin. • Viral titer was also reduced when Hsp90β was suppressed by siRNA treatment. • The extracellular Hsp90β was also observed in other RNA viruses-infected cells.

  14. [Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea: diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Korinna; Layer, Peter; Andresen, Viola

    2016-09-01

    Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available. Eluxadolin presents a new therapeutic option. It can alleviate abdominal pain and diarrhea by modulation of opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system. Additional approaches in intractable irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) include 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, the antibiotic Rifaximin as well as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants. Specific diets such as the low-FODMAP diet can also relieve symptoms in IBS.

  15. Corticosteroid implants for chronic non-infectious uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Christopher J; Villanti, Andrea C; Law, Hua Andrew; Rahimy, Ehsan; Reddy, Rahul; Sieving, Pamela C; Garg, Sunir J; Tang, Johnny

    2016-01-01

    Background Uveitis is a term used to describe a heterogeneous group of intraocular inflammatory diseases of the anterior, intermediate, and posterior uveal tract (iris, ciliary body, choroid). Uveitis is the fifth most common cause of vision loss in high-income countries, accounting for 5% to 20% of legal blindness, with the highest incidence of disease in the working-age population. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of acute treatment for all anatomical subtypes of non-infectious uveitis and can be administered orally, topically with drops or ointments, by periocular (around the eye) or intravitreal (inside the eye) injection, or by surgical implantation. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of steroid implants in people with chronic non-infectious posterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, and panuveitis. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (Issue 10, 2015), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to November 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to November 2015), PubMed (1948 to November 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to November 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlledtrials.com) (last searched 15 April 2013), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov), and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform(ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en).We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for studies. We last searched the electronic databases on 6 November 2015. We also searched reference lists of included study reports, citation databases, and abstracts and clinical study presentations from professional meetings. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials comparing either fluocinolone acetonide (FA) or dexamethasone intravitreal implants with standard

  16. Characterization of inherent particles and mechanism of thermal stress induced particle formation in HSV-2 viral vaccine candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lillian; Kirkitadze, Marina; Bhandal, Kamaljit; Roque, Cristopher; Yang, Eric; Carpick, Bruce; Rahman, Nausheen

    2017-09-14

    Vaccine formulations may contain visible and/or subvisible particles, which can vary in both size and morphology. Extrinsic particles, which are particles not part of the product such as foreign contaminants, are generally considered undesirable and should be eliminated or controlled in injectable products. However, biological products, in particular vaccines, may also contain particles that are inherent to the product. Here we focus on the characterization of visible and subvisible particles in a live, replication-deficient viral vaccine candidate against HSV genital herpes in an early developmental stage. HSV-2 viral vaccine were characterized using a panel of analytical methods, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Western blot, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), micro-flow imaging (MFI), dynamic light scattering (DLS), right angle light scattering (RALS), and intrinsic fluorescence. Particles in HSV-2 vaccine typically ranged from hundreds of nanometers to hundreds of micrometers in size and were determined to be inherent to the product. The infectious titer did not correlate with any trend in subvisible particle concentration and size distribution as shown by DLS, MFI, and TEM under stressed conditions. This suggested that particle changes in the submicron range were related to HSV-2 virion structure and had direct impact on biological activity. It was also observed that subvisible and visible particles could induce aggregation in the viral product. The temperature induced aggregation was observed by RALS, intrinsic fluorescence, and DLS. The increase of subvisible particle size with temperature could be fitted to a two-step thermokinetic model. Visible and subvisible particles were found to be inherent to the HSV-2 viral vaccine product. The mechanism of protein aggregation was discussed and a two

  17. Heat shock protein-90-beta facilitates enterovirus 71 viral particles assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Robert Y L; Kuo, Rei-Lin; Ma, Wei-Chieh; Huang, Hsing-I; Yu, Jau-Song; Yen, Sih-Min; Huang, Chi-Ruei; Shih, Shin-Ru

    2013-09-01

    Molecular chaperones are reported to be crucial for virus propagation, but are not yet addressed in Human Enterovirus 71 (EV71). Here we describe the specific association of heat shock protein-90-beta (Hsp90β), but not alpha form (Hsp90α), with EV71 viral particles by the co-purification with virions using sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, and by the colocalization with viral particles, as assessed by immunogold electron microscopy. The reduction of the Hsp90β protein using RNA interference decreased the correct assembly of viral particles, without affecting EV71 replication levels. Tracking ectopically expressed Hsp90β protein associated with EV71 virions revealed that Hsp90β protein was transmitted to new host cells through its direct association with infectious viral particles. Our findings suggest a new antiviral strategy in which extracellular Hsp90β protein is targeted to decrease the infectivity of EV71 and other enteroviruses, without affecting the broader functions of this constitutively expressed molecular chaperone.

  18. Viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; García-Arriaza, Juan; Escarmís, Cristina; Manrubia, Susanna C; Perales, Celia; Arias, Armando; Mateu, Mauricio García; Domingo, Esteban

    2011-03-01

    The evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and RNA genetics. Theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter RNA segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. However, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. Here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite RNA virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, in an identical genomic nucleotide sequence context. Results of RNA replication, protein expression, competition experiments, and inactivation of infectious particles point to a non-replicative trait, the particle stability, as the main driver of fitness gain of segmented genomes. Accordingly, measurements of the volume occupation of the genome inside viral capsids indicate that packaging shorter genomes involves a relaxation of the packaging density that is energetically favourable. The empirical observations are used to design a computational model that predicts the existence of a critical multiplicity of infection for domination of segmented over standard types. Our experiments suggest that viral segmented genomes may have arisen as a molecular solution for the trade-off between genome length and particle stability. Genome segmentation allows maximizing the genetic content without the detrimental effect in stability derived from incresing genome length.

  19. Viral genome segmentation can result from a trade-off between genetic content and particle stability.

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    Samuel Ojosnegros

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and RNA genetics. Theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter RNA segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. However, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. Here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite RNA virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, in an identical genomic nucleotide sequence context. Results of RNA replication, protein expression, competition experiments, and inactivation of infectious particles point to a non-replicative trait, the particle stability, as the main driver of fitness gain of segmented genomes. Accordingly, measurements of the volume occupation of the genome inside viral capsids indicate that packaging shorter genomes involves a relaxation of the packaging density that is energetically favourable. The empirical observations are used to design a computational model that predicts the existence of a critical multiplicity of infection for domination of segmented over standard types. Our experiments suggest that viral segmented genomes may have arisen as a molecular solution for the trade-off between genome length and particle stability. Genome segmentation allows maximizing the genetic content without the detrimental effect in stability derived from incresing genome length.

  20. Viral Genome Segmentation Can Result from a Trade-Off between Genetic Content and Particle Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojosnegros, Samuel; García-Arriaza, Juan; Escarmís, Cristina; Manrubia, Susanna C.; Perales, Celia; Arias, Armando; Mateu, Mauricio García; Domingo, Esteban

    2011-01-01

    The evolutionary benefit of viral genome segmentation is a classical, yet unsolved question in evolutionary biology and RNA genetics. Theoretical studies anticipated that replication of shorter RNA segments could provide a replicative advantage over standard size genomes. However, this question has remained elusive to experimentalists because of the lack of a proper viral model system. Here we present a study with a stable segmented bipartite RNA virus and its ancestor non-segmented counterpart, in an identical genomic nucleotide sequence context. Results of RNA replication, protein expression, competition experiments, and inactivation of infectious particles point to a non-replicative trait, the particle stability, as the main driver of fitness gain of segmented genomes. Accordingly, measurements of the volume occupation of the genome inside viral capsids indicate that packaging shorter genomes involves a relaxation of the packaging density that is energetically favourable. The empirical observations are used to design a computational model that predicts the existence of a critical multiplicity of infection for domination of segmented over standard types. Our experiments suggest that viral segmented genomes may have arisen as a molecular solution for the trade-off between genome length and particle stability. Genome segmentation allows maximizing the genetic content without the detrimental effect in stability derived from incresing genome length. PMID:21437265

  1. Toll-like receptor 2 senses hepatitis C virus core protein but not infectious viral particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marco; Zeisel, Mirjam B.; Jilg, Nikolaus; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Wakita, Takaji; Hafkemeyer, Peter; Blum, Hubert E.; Barth, Heidi; Henneke, Philipp; Baumert, Thomas F.

    2009-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pathogen recognition molecules activating the innate immune system. Cell surface expressed TLRs, such as TLR2 and TLR4 have been shown to play an important role in human host defenses against viruses through sensing of viral structural proteins. In this study, we aimed to elucidate whether TLR2 and TLR4 participate in inducing antiviral immunity against hepatitis C virus by sensing viral structural proteins. We studied TLR2 and TLR4 activation by cell-culture derived infectious virions (HCVcc) and serum-derived virions in comparison to purified recombinant HCV structural proteins and enveloped virus-like particles. Incubation of TLR2 or TLR4 transfected cell lines with recombinant core protein resulted in activation of TLR2-dependent signaling. In contrast, neither infectious virions nor enveloped HCV-like particles triggered TLR2 and TLR4 signaling. These findings suggest that monomeric HCV core protein but not intact infectious particles are sensed by TLR2. Impairment of core-TLR interaction in infectious viral particles may contribute to escape from innate antiviral immune responses. PMID:20375602

  2. An Epstein-Barr virus mutant produces immunogenic defective particles devoid of viral DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Sophia; Feederle, Regina; Gärtner, Kathrin; Fuchs, Walter; Granzow, Harald; Delecluse, Henri-Jacques

    2013-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) from hepatitis B and human papillomaviruses have been successfully used as preventative vaccines against these infectious agents. These VLPs consist of a self-associating capsid polymer formed from a single structure protein and are devoid of viral DNA. Since virions from herpesviruses consist of a large number of molecules of viral and cellular origin, generating VLPs from a subset of these would be a particularly arduous task. Therefore, we have adopted an alternative strategy that consists of producing DNA-free defective virus particles in a cell line infected by a herpesvirus mutant incapable of packaging DNA. We previously reported that an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) mutant devoid of the terminal repeats (ΔTR) that act as packaging signals in herpesviruses produces substantial amounts of VLPs and of light particles (LPs). However, ΔTR virions retained some infectious genomes, and although these mutants had lost their transforming abilities, this poses potential concerns for clinical applications. Therefore, we have constructed a series of mutants that lack proteins involved in maturation and assessed their ability to produce viral DNA-free VLP/LPs. Some of the introduced mutations were deleterious for capsid maturation and virus production. However, deletion of BFLF1/BFRF1A or of BBRF1 resulted in the production of DNA-free VLPs/LPs. The ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A viruses elicited a potent CD4(+) T-cell response that was indistinguishable from the one obtained with wild-type controls. In summary, the defective particles produced by the ΔBFLF1/BFRF1A mutant fulfill the criteria of efficacy and safety expected from a preventative vaccine.

  3. Mono-ubiquitylated ORF45 Mediates Association of KSHV Particles with Internal Lipid Rafts for Viral Assembly and Egress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses acquire their envelope by budding into the lumen of cytoplasmic membrane vesicles. This process is initiated by component(s on viral particles, which recognize the budding site where the viral glycoproteins are present and recruit cellular cargo transport and sorting machinery to the site to complete the budding process. Proteins in the tegument layer, connecting capsid and envelope, are candidates for the recognition of budding sites on vesicle membrane and induction of budding and final envelopment. We examined several outer and matrix tegument proteins of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV and found that ORF45 associates with lipid rafts (LRs of cellular membrane. LRs are membrane micro-domains, which have been implicated as relay stations in intracellular signaling and transport including viral entry and virion assembly. The ability of ORF45 to target LR is dependent on the mono-ubiquitylation of ORF45 at Lys297 as the mutation at Lys297 (K297R abolished LR-association of ORF45. The K297R mutation also impairs ORF45 and viral particle co-localization with trans-Golgi network and endosomes, but facilitates ORF45 and viral particles co-localizing with lysosomes. More importantly, the recombinant KSHV carrying ORF45 K297R mutant (BAC-K297R was found severely defective in producing mature and infectious virion particles in comparison to wild type KSHV (BAC16. Taken together, our results reveal a new function of KSHV tegument protein ORF45 in targeting LR of host cell membrane, promoting viral particles co-localization with trans-Golgi and endosome vesicles and facilitating the maturation and release of virion particles, suggesting that ORF45 plays a role in bringing KSHV particles to the budding site on cytoplasmic vesicle membrane and triggering the viral budding process for final envelopment and virion maturation.

  4. Exploiting virus-like particles as innovative vaccines against emerging viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hotcherl; Seong, Baik Lin

    2017-03-01

    Emerging viruses pose a major threat to humans and livestock with global public health and economic burdens. Vaccination remains an effective tool to reduce this threat, and yet, the conventional cell culture often fails to produce sufficient vaccine dose. As an alternative to cell-culture based vaccine, virus-like particles (VLPs) are considered as a highpriority vaccine strategy against emerging viruses. VLPs represent highly ordered repetitive structures via macromolecular assemblies of viral proteins. The particulate nature allows efficient uptake into antigen presenting cells stimulating both innate and adaptive immune responses towards enhanced vaccine efficacy. Increasing research activity and translation opportunity necessitate the advances in the design of VLPs and new bioprocessing modalities for efficient and cost-effective production. Herein, we describe major achievements and challenges in this endeavor, with respect to designing strategies to harnessing the immunogenic potential, production platforms, downstream processes, and some exemplary cases in developing VLP-based vaccines.

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS. Part II: Non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehranzadeh, Jamshid [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Department of Radiological Sciences, Orange, CA (United States); Ter-Oganesyan, Ramon R. [College of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Steinbach, Lynne S. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, San Francisco (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This section of a two-part series on musculoskeletal disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS reviews the non-infectious musculoskeletal conditions. In the first part, the infectious conditions were reviewed. The non-infectious conditions include polymyositis, drug-induced myopathy, myositis ossificans, adhesive capsulitis, avascular necrosis, bone marrow abnormalities, and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy. Inflammatory and reactive arthropathies are more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals, and a separate section is dedicated to these conditions, including Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, HIV-associated arthritis, painful articular syndrome, and acute symmetric polyarthritis. Lastly, we include a discussion of HIV-related neoplastic processes that affect the musculoskeletal system, namely Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (orig.)

  6. Regulation of Non-Infectious Lung Injury, Inflammation, and Repair by the Extracellular Matrix Glycosaminoglycan Hyaluronan

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dianhua; Liang, Jiurong; Noble, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    An important hallmark of tissue remodeling is the dynamic turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM). ECM performs a variety of functions in tissue repair including scaffold formation, modulation of fluid dynamics, and regulating cell behavior. During non-infectious tissue injury ECM degradation products are generated that acquire signaling functions not attributable to the native precursor molecules. Hyaluronan (HA) is a non-sulfated glycosaminoglycan which is produced in great abundance followi...

  7. Non-infectious complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: evaluation with peritoneal computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camsari, T.; Celik, A.; Ozaksoy, D.; Salman, S.; Cavdar, C.; Sifil, A. [Ilica Mahallesi Karakizli Sokak, Onay Apartmani, Izmir (Turkey)

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the non-infectious complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) using peritoneal computed tomography (PCT). Twenty symptomatic patients were included in the study. Initially 2000 ml of dialysate fluid was infused into the peritoneal cavity and standard peritoneal computed cavity and standard peritoneal computed tomography (SPCT) serial scans with 10 mm thickness were performed from the mid-thoracic region to the genital organs. Afterwards, 100 ml of non-ionic contrast material containing 300 mg/ml iodine was injected through the catheter and was distributed homogeneously in the intra-abdominal dialysate fluid by changing the positions of the patients; after waiting for 2-4 h, the CT scan was repeated as peritoneal contrast computed tomography (PCCT). In patients (n = 20) both SPCT and PCCT revealed 90 % (n = 18) pathological findings. But PCCT showed 60 % (n = 12) additional pathological findings. We believe that PCT is beneficial for evaluation of non-infectious complications of CAPD. But PCCT is superior to SPCT in evaluating non-infectious complications encountered in patients on CAPD treatment. (author)

  8. Nucleocapsid-independent assembly of coronavirus-like particles by co-expression of viral envelope protein genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vennema, H; Godeke, G J; Rossen, J W; Voorhout, W F; Horzinek, M C; Opstelten, D J; Rottier, P J

    1996-01-01

    Budding of enveloped viruses has been shown to be driven by interactions between a nucleocapsid and a proteolipid membrane. By contrast, we here describe the assembly of viral envelopes independent of a nucleocapsid. Membrane particles containing coronaviral envelope proteins were assembled in and r

  9. Active cAMP-dependent protein kinase incorporated within highly purified HIV-1 particles is required for viral infectivity and interacts with viral capsid protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Christine; Hemonnot, Bénédicte; Gay, Bernard; Bardy, Martine; Sanchiz, Céline; Devaux, Christian; Briant, Laurence

    2003-09-12

    Host cell components, including protein kinases such as ERK-2/mitogen-activated protein kinase, incorporated within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) virions play a pivotal role in the ability of HIV to infect and replicate in permissive cells. The present work provides evidence that the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (C-PKA) is packaged within HIV-1 virions as demonstrated using purified subtilisin-digested viral particles. Virus-associated C-PKA was shown to be enzymatically active and able to phosphorylate synthetic substrate in vitro. Suppression of virion-associated C-PKA activity by specific synthetic inhibitor had no apparent effect on viral precursor maturation and virus assembly. However, virus-associated C-PKA activity was demonstrated to regulate HIV-1 infectivity as assessed by single round infection assays performed by using viruses produced from cells expressing an inactive form of C-PKA. In addition, virus-associated C-PKA was found to co-precipitate with and to phosphorylate the CAp24gag protein. Altogether our results indicate that virus-associated C-PKA regulates HIV-1 infectivity, possibly by catalyzing phosphorylation of the viral CAp24gag protein.

  10. Enveloped and non-enveloped viral-like particles in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Presas, Ana María; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Ingeborg-Becker; Robert, Lilia; Jiménez, José Agustín; Solano, Sandra; Delgado, Jose; Tato, Patricia; Molinari, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Electron microscopy is routinely used to identify viral infections in protozoan parasites. These viruses have been described as non-enveloped and icosahedral structures with a diameter of 30-60 nm. Most of them are classified within the non-segmented dsRNA Totiviridae family. We observed virus-like particles (VLPs) through transmission electron microscopy in the cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes grown in cultures. Clusters of electrodense enveloped VLPs having a diameter of 48 nm were also observed. These clusters appear to have been released from distended Golgi cisternae. Furthermore, a paracrystalline array of electrodense, non-enveloped VLPs (with a diameter of 32 nm) were found in distended Golgi cisternae or as smaller clusters at a distance from the RE or Golgi. We cannot rule out that the 48 nm enveloped VLPs belong to the ssRNA Flaviviridae family because they are within its size range. The localization of enveloped VLPs is consistent with the replication strategy of these viruses that transit through the Golgi to be released at the cell surface. Due to the size and shape of the 32 nm non-enveloped VLPs, we propose that they belong to the dsRNA Totiviridae family. This is the first description of cytoplasmic enveloped and non-enveloped VLPs in T. cruzi epimastigotes. PMID:28793017

  11. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M; Stewart, Phoebe L; Keri, Ruth A; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2016-01-01

    ...: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays...

  12. A degenerative retinal process in HIV-associated non-infectious retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Kozak

    Full Text Available HIV retinopathy is the most common non-infectious complication in the eyes of HIV-positive individuals. Oncotic lesions in the retinal nerve fiber layer, referred to as cotton wool spots (CWS, and intraretinal (IR hemorrhages are frequently observed but are not unique to this pathology. HIV-positive patients have impaired color vision and contrast sensitivity, which worsens with age. Evidence of inner-retinal lesions and damage have been documented ophthalmoscopically, however their long term structural effect has not been investigated. It has been hypothesized that they may be partially responsible for loss of visual function and visual field. In this study we utilized clinical data, retinal imaging and transcriptomics approaches to comprehensively interrogate non-infectious HIV retinopathy. The methods employed encompassed clinical examinations, fundus photography, indirect ophthalmoscopy, Farmsworth-Munsell 100 hue discrimination testing and Illumina BeadChip analyses. Here we show that changes in the outer retina, specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and photoreceptor outer segments (POS contribute to vision changes in non-infectious HIV retinopathy. We find that in HIV-positive retinae there is an induction of rhodopsin and other transcripts (including PDE6A, PDE6B, PDE6G, CNGA1, CNGB1, CRX, NRL involved in visual transduction, as well as structural components of the rod photoreceptors (ABCA4 and ROM1. This is consistent with an increased rate of renewal of rod outer segments induced via increased phagocytosis by HIV-infected RPE previously reported in culture. Cone-specific transcripts (OPN1SW, OPN1LW, PDE6C, PDE6H and GRK7 are uniformly downregulated in HIV positive retina, likely due to a partial loss of cone photoreceptors. Active cotton wool spots and intraretinal hemorrhages (IRH may not affect photoreceptors directly and the interaction of photoreceptors with the aging RPE may be the key to the progressive vision

  13. Tracking viral particles in the intestinal contents of the American bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, by Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Antonucci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feces are an important viral agent elimination route for infected carrier animals and in aquatic organisms these pathogenic agents can very rapidly propagate due to the habitation environment. The objective of this work is to track viral particles in the intestinal contents of bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus from five commercial frog farms in the region of Vale do Paraíba, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, using negative contrast transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The Coronaviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Parvoviridae and Herpesviridae families were observed and photographed in specimens. This work emphasizes the importance of adopting sanitary measures in commercial farms and confirms that observing feces by TEM is an efficient and rapid diagnostic tool for detecting viral agents.

  14. TREM-1 and its potential ligands in non-infectious diseases: from biology to clinical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammaro, Alessandra; Derive, Marc; Gibot, Sebastien; Leemans, Jaklien C; Florquin, Sandrine; Dessing, Mark C

    2017-09-01

    Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is expressed on the majority of innate immune cells and to a lesser extent on parenchymal cells. Upon activation, TREM-1 can directly amplify an inflammatory response. Although it was initially demonstrated that TREM-1 was predominantly associated with infectious diseases, recent evidences shed new light into its role in sterile inflammatory diseases. Indeed, TREM-1 receptor and its signaling pathways contribute to the pathology of several non-infectious acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, including atherosclerosis, ischemia reperfusion-induced tissue injury, colitis, fibrosis and cancer. This review, aims to give an extensive overview of TREM-1 in non-infectious diseases, with the focus on the therapeutic potential of TREM-1 intervention strategies herein. In addition, we provide the reader with a functional enrichment analysis of TREM-1 signaling pathway and potential TREM-1 ligands in these diseases, obtained via in silico approach. We discuss pre-clinical studies which show that TREM-1 inhibition, via synthetic soluble TREM-1 protein mimickers, is effective in treating (preventing) specific inflammatory disorders, without significant effects on antibacterial response. Further research aimed at identifying specific TREM-1 ligands, in different inflammatory disorders, is required to further unravel the role of this receptor, and explore new avenues to modulate its function. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Intradermal tests with vasomotor agents in chronic non(infectious rhinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Dušanka N.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this prospective study was to examine the skin reactivity to four vasomotor agents in chronic, non-infectious rhinitis patients, and to determine whether non-allergic rhinitis (NAR patients differ from allergic rhinitis (AR patients. Seventy four patients with NAR and 44 with AR were subjected to intradermal testing with papaverin (5 mg/ml, metacholine (0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 mg/ml, histamine (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/ml compound 48/80 (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 μg/ml and saline. It was found that the frequency of pathological skin reactivity to papaverin in the patients with NAR (25/74 was significantly greater (p=5.0·10-3 then in the patients with AR (4/44. No significant inter-group difference in skin reactivity to metacholine, histamine, compound 48/80 and saline was observed. The frequency of the total pathological skin reactivity to vasomotor agents, singly and in combinations, in patients with NAR (80% was significantly greater (p=0.03 than in patients with AR (61%. These findings suggested that the pathological skin reactivity to papaverin, metacholine, histamine and compound 48/80 was a feature of chronic, non-infectious rhinitis patients and it was more frequently associated with non-allergic than with the allergic etiology of rhinitis.

  16. Exacerbation of allergic inflammation in mice exposed to diesel exhaust particles prior to viral infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chason Kelly D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral infections and exposure to oxidant air pollutants are two of the most important inducers of asthma exacerbation. Our previous studies have demonstrated that exposure to diesel exhaust increases the susceptibility to influenza virus infections both in epithelial cells in vitro and in mice in vivo. Therefore, we examined whether in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to oxidant air pollutants enhances the susceptibility to respiratory virus infections, which in turn leads to increased virus-induced exacerbation of asthma. Ovalbumin-sensitized (OVA male C57BL/6 mice were instilled with diesel exhaust particles (DEP or saline and 24 hours later infected with influenza A/PR/8. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours post-infection and analyzed for markers of lung injury, allergic inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Results Exposure to DEP or infection with influenza alone had no significant effects on markers of injury or allergic inflammation. However, OVA-sensitized mice that were exposed to DEP and subsequently infected with influenza showed increased levels of eosinophils in lung lavage and tissue. In addition Th2-type cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, and markers of eosinophil chemotaxis, such as CCL11 and CCR3, were increased in OVA-sensitized mice exposed to DEP prior to infection with influenza. These mice also showed increased levels of IL-1α, but not IL-10, RANTES, and MCP-1 in lung homogenates. Conclusion These data suggest that in the setting of allergic asthma, exposure to diesel exhaust could enhance virus-induced exacerbation of allergic inflammation.

  17. STUDY OF INFECTIOUS AND NON INFECTIOUS PROBLEMS IN ADOLESCENTS OF URBAN CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In adolescents there is a unique set of health problems due to more social contact, less immunity, increase in requirement for nutrition, pubertal growth spurt, behavior problems, so the present study is undertaken to find out infectious and non-infectious problems in the adolescents. AIM & OBJECTIVES: To know the extent of infectious and non-infectious problems in adolescents and also to compare among different socioeconomic groups. METHODS: Adolescents belonging to different socioeconomic groups selected. Three schools and one slum in urban area chosen of adolescents aging between 11-19yrs, there weight, height, blood pressure, clinical examination of face, eye, ear, lips, teeth, gum, nails, tongue, glands, subcutaneous tissue, Musculoskeletal system, CVS, RS, GIT, CNS and previous health record checked. OBSERVATIONS: Study group comprised of 437 adolescents aging between 11-19yrs consisting of 299 girls and 138 boys, In the present study, good habit of personal hygiene was observed in 12.4% of slum adolescents, 46.8% in lower middle class group (OFH+VVH and 62.2% in upper middle class, 37.9% adolescents had falling hair. 34.5% adolescents had Dandruff. Pediculosis and hirsutism were present in 6.4% and 0.9% adolescents respectively, Acne was present in 33.9% of adolescents, 7.3% had white patches, Pyoderma and scabies 2% and 1% of adolescents respectively, 19.4% had Dental pain. It was also observed that Caries in 15.7%, Gum bleeding in 6.6%, Gingivitis in 4.1% and Malocclusion in 3.4% were present, 14.6% adolescents had Sinusitis, 8.6% had Tonsillitis and Rhinitis in 8% and Ear discharge in 0.9% was observed, 15% had Refractive error, 1.3% had Pterigium, 1.1% had Conjunctivitis, 0.7% had Stye and 0.6% had Squint, 6.8% adolescents had Asthma and 0.4% had Tuberculosis. Epilepsy, RHD, CHD, Hyperthyroidism and Goiter was observed in 0.2% adolescents. DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION: Socio economic status plays an important role in infectious

  18. The ideal epidemiological intervention study model on chronic non-infectious diseases - the way forward?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    to modify the specific risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and obesity. The objective here is to present the methodological gold standard for the intervention studies and to discuss how to improve the intervention studies and programs. Material and Methods......Introduction Intervention studies in public- and occupational health on chronic non-infectious diseases have been increasingly used. Also in the maritime health area, intervention studies have been done and some are on the way. The intervention methods are most often counselling or education...... a comprehensive, systemic program of multiple interventions is likely to be effective"(2,3) Conclusions The single epidemiological intervention studies are still important. Concerted actions with comprehensive programs by the national governments, civil communities, educators, employers, unions etc. are needed...

  19. Non-infectious osteomyelitis of the mandible in a young woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anne Q; Andersen, Ulrik B; Jørgensen, Niklas R

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We present the case of a patient with non-infectious osteomyelitis of the mandible, which is a recognized but unusual condition of unknown cause. CASE PRESENTATION: A 14-year-old Caucasian girl presented with pain and edema in the left side of her jaw. A clinical examination led...... to a diagnosis of osteomyelitis and she was treated with antibiotics. Our patient continued antibiotic treatment for osteomyelitis and underwent decortication. Histology based on a biopsy showed new bone formation and chronic inflammation, and a diagnosis of sclerotic osteomyelitis was made. Over the next few...... years, she experienced pain on the left side of her jaw and increasing edema, and the size of the left side of her jaw bone increased. She was then sent to our Department of Medicine at the age of 16 years. Her symptoms included pain in the left side of her jaw that scored 4 on a visual analogue scale...

  20. Spectrum of non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis E Koutroubakis

    2008-01-01

    A variety of inflammatory diseases of the colon,which can be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis by their clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics,are reported as nonIBD and non-infectious colitis.These diseases include microscopic colitis,ischemic colitis,segmental colitis associated with diverticula,radiation colitis,diversion colitis,eosinophilic colitis and Behcet's colitis.The etiopathogenesis of most of these diseases remains obscure and the epidemiological data are rather limited.These conditions are often troublesome for the patient and are associated with diagnostic difficulties for the physician.In many cases the treatment is empirical and there is a need for future research using randomized controlled trials.

  1. Serum procalcitonin level in infectious and non- infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a three- year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadinejad Z

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Sepsis is the leading cause of hospital admission and mortality. One marker for differentiation between infectious and non-infectious diseases is serum procalcitonin (PCT level. The goal of this study was evaluation of serum procalcitonin level for differentiation among infectious & non infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS."n"nMethods: In a cross sectional study 263 patients with probable symptoms of sepsis that admitted to emergency department of Imam Khomeini Hospital Complex in Tehran, Iran, between 2006 and 2008, were evaluated for serum procalcitonin level by semi quantitative method. The clinical findings, demographic and laboratory data were identified by reviewing the medical notes."n"nResults: A total of 263 patients enrolled in the study. Mean age in study patients was 46.9 year (±20.7 and most of the patients were male (65.8%. In 104 patients (39.5% serum procalcitonin level was less than 0.5 (ng/ml, in 49 patients (18.6% was between 0.5 and 2 (ng/ml, in 74 patients (28.1% was between 2 and 10 (ng/ml and in 36 patients (13.8% was more than 10 (ng/ml. Sixty three patients (60.6% with PCT<0.5ng/ml, had non-infectious SIRS, while all patients with PCT≥10ng/ml, had infectious

  2. Non-infectious chemotherapy-associated acute toxicities during childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Klaus; Mogensen, Signe Sloth; Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck; Wolthers, Benjamin Ole; Stoltze, Ulrik Kristoffer; Tuckuviene, Ruta; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia. Few of the non-infectious acute toxicities are associated with clinically useful risk factors, and across study groups there has been wide diversity in toxicity definitions, capture strategies, and reporting, thus hampering meaningful comparisons of toxicity incidences for different leukemia protocols. Since treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia now yields 5-year overall survival rates above 90%, there is a need for strategies for assessing the burden of toxicities in the overall evaluation of anti-leukemic therapy programs. PMID:28413626

  3. Immunosuppressive Treatment of Non-infectious Uveitis: History and Current Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chan; Zhang, Meifen

    2017-04-10

    Non-infectious uveitis is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness worldwide. Long-term immunosuppressive treatment is generally required to achieve durable control of inflammation in posterior and panuveitis. Although systemic corticosteroids have been the gold standard of immunosup- pressive treatment for uveitis since first introduced in 1950s, its side effects of long-term use often warrant an adjuvant treatment to reduce the dosage/duration of corticosteroids needed to maintain disease control. Conventional immunosuppressive drugs, classified into alkylating agent, antimetabolites and T cell inhibitors, have been widely used as corticosteroid-sparing agents, each with characteristic safety/tolerance profiles on different uveitis entities. Recently, biologic agents, which target specific molecules in immunopathogenesis of uveitis, have gained great interest as alternative treatments for refractory uveitis based on their favorable safety and effectiveness in a variety of uveitis entities. However, lack of large randomized controlled clinical trials, concerns about efficacy and safety of long-term usage, and economic burden are limiting the use of biologics in non-infectious uveitis. Local administration of immunosuppressive drugs (from corticosteroids to biologics) through intraocular drug delivery systems represent another direction for drug development and is now under intense investigation, but more evidences are needed to support their use as regular alternative treatments for uveitis. With the numerous choices belonging to different treatment modalities (conventional immunosuppressive agents, biologics and local drug delivery systems) on hand, the practice patterns have been reported to vary greatly from center to center. Factors influence uveitis specialists' choices of immunosuppressive agents may be complex and may include personal familiarity, treatment availability, safety/tolerability, effectiveness, patient compliance, cost concerns and

  4. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Non-infectious Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C. Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H. Nida; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Lawrence, Scott D.; Kempen, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric non-infectious uveitis. Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Participants Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) uveitis followed between January 1978 through December 2007 at five academic uveitis centers in United States. Methods Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Main outcome measures Prevalence and incidence of IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg and incidence of a rise in IOP by ≥10mmHg. To avoid under ascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Results Initially 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg, respectively. Factors associated with presenting IOP elevation included age 6–12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio≥21mmHg [aOR21]=2.42, P=0.01), pars plana vitrectomy (adjusted odds ratio≥30mmHg[aOR30]=11.1, P=0.03), duration of uveitis ≥6 months (aORs30 up to 11.8, Puveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use – that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with non-infectious uveitis should be followed closely for IOP elevation when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present. PMID:26233626

  5. The use of Nanotrap particles technology in capturing HIV-1 virions and viral proteins from infected cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jaworski

    Full Text Available HIV-1 infection results in a chronic but incurable illness since long-term HAART can keep the virus to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases viral burden. Moreover, patients under HAART frequently develop various metabolic disorders and HIV-associated neuronal disease. Today, the main challenge of HIV-1 research is the elimination of the residual virus in infected individuals. The current HIV-1 diagnostics are largely comprised of serological and nucleic acid based technologies. Our goal is to integrate the nanotrap technology into a standard research tool that will allow sensitive detection of HIV-1 infection. This study demonstrates that majority of HIV-1 virions in culture supernatants and Tat/Nef proteins spiked in culture medium can be captured by nanotrap particles. To determine the binding affinities of different baits, we incubated target molecules with nanotrap particles at room temperature. After short sequestration, materials were either eluted or remained attached to nanotrap particles prior to analysis. The unique affinity baits of nanotrap particles preferentially bound HIV-1 materials while excluded albumin. A high level capture of Tat or Tat peptide by NT082 and NT084 particles was measured by western blot (WB. Intracellular Nef protein was captured by NT080, while membrane-associated Nef was captured by NT086 and also detected by WB. Selective capture of HIV-1 particles by NT073 and NT086 was measured by reverse transcriptase assay, while capture of infectious HIV-1 by these nanoparticles was demonstrated by functional transactivation in TZM-bl cells. We also demonstrated specific capture of HIV-1 particles and exosomes-containing TAR-RNA in patients' serum by NT086 and NT082 particles, respectively, using specific qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data indicate that certain types of nanotrap particles selectively capture specific HIV-1 molecules, and we propose to use this technology as a

  6. The Use of Nanotrap Particles Technology in Capturing HIV-1 Virions and Viral Proteins from Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampey, Gavin; Shafagati, Nazly; Van Duyne, Rachel; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Liotta, Lance; Petricoin, Emanuel; Young, Mary; Lepene, Benjamin; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1 infection results in a chronic but incurable illness since long-term HAART can keep the virus to an undetectable level. However, discontinuation of therapy rapidly increases viral burden. Moreover, patients under HAART frequently develop various metabolic disorders and HIV-associated neuronal disease. Today, the main challenge of HIV-1 research is the elimination of the residual virus in infected individuals. The current HIV-1 diagnostics are largely comprised of serological and nucleic acid based technologies. Our goal is to integrate the nanotrap technology into a standard research tool that will allow sensitive detection of HIV-1 infection. This study demonstrates that majority of HIV-1 virions in culture supernatants and Tat/Nef proteins spiked in culture medium can be captured by nanotrap particles. To determine the binding affinities of different baits, we incubated target molecules with nanotrap particles at room temperature. After short sequestration, materials were either eluted or remained attached to nanotrap particles prior to analysis. The unique affinity baits of nanotrap particles preferentially bound HIV-1 materials while excluded albumin. A high level capture of Tat or Tat peptide by NT082 and NT084 particles was measured by western blot (WB). Intracellular Nef protein was captured by NT080, while membrane-associated Nef was captured by NT086 and also detected by WB. Selective capture of HIV-1 particles by NT073 and NT086 was measured by reverse transcriptase assay, while capture of infectious HIV-1 by these nanoparticles was demonstrated by functional transactivation in TZM-bl cells. We also demonstrated specific capture of HIV-1 particles and exosomes-containing TAR-RNA in patients' serum by NT086 and NT082 particles, respectively, using specific qRT-PCR. Collectively, our data indicate that certain types of nanotrap particles selectively capture specific HIV-1 molecules, and we propose to use this technology as a platform to enhance HIV-1

  7. Results of intravitreal dexamethasone implant 0.7 mg (Ozurdex~) in non-infectious posterior uveitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yew; Chong; Yap; Thomas; Papathomas; Ahmed; Kamal

    2015-01-01

    · AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone implant in patients with non-infectious posterior uveitis with cystoid macular edema(CME).·METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients reports with CME secondary to non-infectious uveitis treated with dexamethasone implant. Data included type of posterior uveitis, any systemic immunosuppressive therapy, Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study(ETDRS) best-corrected visual acuity(BCVA), central macular thickness(CMT) on optical coherence tomography(OCT) and signs of intraocular inflammation at baseline and then at 2wk postoperatively and monthly thereafter. Follow-up is up to 10 mo. Any per-operative and post-operative complications were recorded.·RESULTS: Six eyes of 4 patients with CME due to non-infectious posterior uveitis treated with dexamethasone implant. Diagnosis included idiopathic panuveitis, birdshot chorioretinopathy and idiopathic intermediate uveitis. At baseline mean ETDRS BCVA was63 letters and mean CMT 556 μm at 2wk postoperatively mean ETDRS BCVA improved to 70 letters and mean CMT decreased to 329 μm. All eyes showed clinical evidence of decreased inflammation. The duration of effect of the implant was 5 to 6mo and retreatment was required in 2 eyes. Two patients required antiglaucoma therapy for increased intraocular pressures.·CONCLUSION: In patients with non-infectious posterior uveitis dexamethasone implant can be a short-term effective treatment option for controlling intraocular inflammation.

  8. MRI evaluation of infectious and non-infectious synovitis: preliminary studies in a rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strouse, P.J.; DiPietro, M.A.; Teo, E.L.H.J. [Section of Pediatric Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Londy, F. [Division of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chrisp, C.E. [Unit of Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Doi, K. [Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    1999-05-01

    Background. Literature on magnetic resonance imaging (MR) evaluation of inflammatory joint effusions is sparse. Objective. To describe an animal model for studying infectious and non-infectious joint effusions with magnetic resonance imaging. Materials and methods. Ten rabbit knees with septic arthritis and four with talc synovitis were imaged with MR. Contralateral knees injected with saline served as controls. Fat saturation T2-weighted and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images were assessed for joint effusion, and periarticular and adjacent intraosseous increased signal or enhancement. Each knee was cultured and underwent pathologic examination. Results. Both Staphylococcus aureus and talc produced effusions in all knees. The degree of periarticular signal and enhancement was greater in infected knees than talc-injected knees. No abnormal enhancement was seen within bone. Pathologic examination showed a greater degree of inflammation and joint destruction in the infected knees, but no evidence of osteomyelitis. Conclusion. A greater degree of abnormal signal and enhancement seen on MR suggests a more vigorous inflammatory process, as seen with septic arthritis. In spite of advanced septic arthritis, no enhancement was evident within bone, suggesting that enhancement within bone is not an expected finding in isolated septic arthritis and should raise concern for osteomyelitis. (orig.) With 3 figs., 15 refs.

  9. Non-infectious environmental antigens as a trigger for the initiation of an autoimmune skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ye; Culton, Donna A; Jeong, Joseph S; Trupiano, Nicole; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Diaz, Luis A

    2016-09-01

    Pemphigus represents a group of organ specific autoimmune blistering disorders of the skin mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies with well-defined antigenic targets. While most of these diseases are sporadic, endemic forms of disease do exist. The endemic form of pemphigus foliaceus (also known as fogo selvagem, FS) exhibits epidemiological features that suggest exposure to hematophagous insect bites are a possible precipitating factor of this autoimmune disease, and provides a unique opportunity to study how environmental factors contribute to autoimmune disease development. FS patients and healthy individuals from endemic regions show an autoreactive IgM response that starts in early childhood and becomes restricted to IgG4 autoantibodies in FS patients. In searching for triggering environmental antigens, we have found that IgG4 and IgE autoantibodies from FS patients cross-react with a salivary antigen from sand flies. The presence of these cross-reactive antibodies and antibody genetic analysis confirming that these antibodies evolve from the same naïve B cells provides compelling evidence that this non-infectious environmental antigen could be the initial target of the autoantibody response in FS. Consequently, FS serves as an ideal model to study the impact of environmental antigens in the development of autoimmune disease.

  10. A study of pattern and profile of non infectious dermatoses in paediatric age group <12 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Jeta Buch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to assess the incidence of non infectious dermatoses in children under 12 years of age; the incidence and prevalence of various physiological, genetic, papulosquamous, nutritional, autoimmune and drug induced disorders; the systemic association in various dermatoses and early identification of genetic disorder which will help in estimating the genetic risk and planning of future pregnancies. Present clinical study comprises of 1000 children less than 12 years of age in the department of Dermatology, V.S General Hospital, Ahmedabad. The study was conducted from Oct 2012 to Oct 2014. The time of occurrence, extent of involvement and the anatomical location was recorded. Relevant obstetrical history, history of any illness during pregnancy, history of drug ingestion, sibling history and parental consanguinity was noted and various skin lesions recorded. Observations were tabulated and statistically analysed. Follow up was done every 15 days. The dermatoses were classified as papulosquamous (61.0%, nevi (4.8%, genetic (4.2%, hair (9.6%, autoimmune (5.8%, drug reactions (3.1%, nutritional (2.8%, physiological (11.4%, and others (2.5%.The commonest skin manifestations observed were papulosquamous, genetic and autoimmune disorders. Better parent awareness, proper hygiene, adequate nutrition and early identification of the condition help in preventing many of these disorders.

  11. Development and evaluation of a replicon particle vaccine expressing the E2 glycoprotein of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loy John Dustin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine viral diarrhea virus is one of the most significant and costly viral pathogens of cattle worldwide. Alphavirus-derived replicon particles have been shown to be safe and highly effective vaccine vectors against a variety of human and veterinary pathogens. Replicon particles are non-propagating, DIVA compatible, and can induce both humoral and cell mediated immune responses. This is the first experiment to demonstrate that Alphavirus-based replicon particles can be utilized in a standard prime/boost vaccination strategy in calves against a commercially significant bovine pathogen. Findings Replicon particles that express bovine viral diarrhea virus sub-genotype 1b E2 glycoprotein were generated and expression was confirmed in vitro using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies specific to E2. Vaccine made from particles was generated in Vero cells and administered to BVDV free calves in a prime/boost regimen at two dosage levels. Vaccination resulted in neutralizing antibody titers that cross-neutralized both type 1 and type 2 BVD genotypes following booster vaccination. Additionally, high dose vaccine administration demonstrated some protection from clinical disease and significantly reduced the degree of leukopenia caused by viral infection. Conclusions Replicon particle vaccines administered in a prime/boost regimen expressing BVDV E2 glycoprotein can induce cross-neutralizing titers, reduce leukopenia post challenge, and mitigate clinical disease in calves. This strategy holds promise for a safe and effective vaccine to BVDV.

  12. Viral fusion efficacy of specific H3N2 influenza virus reassortant combinations at single-particle level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hung-Lun; Millet, Jean K.; Costello, Deirdre A.; Whittaker, Gary R.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Virus pseudotyping is a useful and safe technique for studying entry of emerging strains of influenza virus. However, few studies have compared different reassortant combinations in pseudoparticle systems, or compared entry kinetics of native viruses and their pseudotyped analogs. Here, vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based pseudovirions displaying distinct influenza virus envelope proteins were tested for fusion activity. We produced VSV pseudotypes containing the prototypical X-31 (H3) HA, either alone or with strain-matched or mismatched N2 NAs. We performed single-particle fusion assays using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to compare hemifusion kinetics among these pairings. Results illustrate that matching pseudoparticles behaved very similarly to native virus. Pseudoparticles harboring mismatched HA-NA pairings fuse at significantly slower rates than native virus, and NA-lacking pseudoparticles exhibiting the slowest fusion rates. Relative viral membrane HA density of matching pseudoparticles was higher than in mismatching or NA-lacking pseudoparticles. An equivalent trend of HA expression level on cell membranes of HA/NA co-transfected cells was observed and intracellular trafficking of HA was affected by NA co-expression. Overall, we show that specific influenza HA-NA combinations can profoundly affect the critical role played by HA during entry, which may factor into viral fitness and the emergence of new pandemic influenza viruses.

  13. Visualization of Content Release from Cell Surface-Attached Single HIV-1 Particles Carrying an Extra-Viral Fluorescent pH-Sensor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetan Sood

    Full Text Available HIV-1 fusion leading to productive entry has long been thought to occur at the plasma membrane. However, our previous single virus imaging data imply that, after Env engagement of CD4 and coreceptors at the cell surface, the virus enters into and fuses with intracellular compartments. We were unable to reliably detect viral fusion at the plasma membrane. Here, we implement a novel virus labeling strategy that biases towards detection of virus fusion that occurs in a pH-neutral environment-at the plasma membrane or, possibly, in early pH-neutral vesicles. Virus particles are co-labeled with an intra-viral content marker, which is released upon fusion, and an extra-viral pH sensor consisting of ecliptic pHluorin fused to the transmembrane domain of ICAM-1. This sensor fully quenches upon virus trafficking to a mildly acidic compartment, thus precluding subsequent detection of viral content release. As an interesting secondary observation, the incorporation of the pH-sensor revealed that HIV-1 particles occasionally shuttle between neutral and acidic compartments in target cells expressing CD4, suggesting a small fraction of viral particles is recycled to the plasma membrane and re-internalized. By imaging viruses bound to living cells, we found that HIV-1 content release in neutral-pH environment was a rare event (~0.4% particles. Surprisingly, viral content release was not significantly reduced by fusion inhibitors, implying that content release was due to spontaneous formation of viral membrane defects occurring at the cell surface. We did not measure a significant occurrence of HIV-1 fusion at neutral pH above this defect-mediated background loss of content, suggesting that the pH sensor may destabilize the membrane of the HIV-1 pseudovirus and, thus, preclude reliable detection of single virus fusion events at neutral pH.

  14. A Clinical Analysis of 293 FUO Patients, A Diagnostic Model Discriminating infectious Diseases from Non-infectious Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective A diagnostic model was established to discriminate infectious diseases from non-infectious diseases. Methods The clinical data of patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO) hospitalized in Xiangya Hospital Central South University, from January, 2006 to April, 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients enrolled were divided into two groups. The ifrst group was used to develop a diagnostic model: independent variables were recorded and considered in a logistic regression analysis to identify infectious and non-infectious diseases (αin= 0.05, αout= 0.10). The second group was used to evaluate the diagnostic model and make ROC analysis. Results The diagnostic rate of 143 patients in the ifrst group was 87.4%, the diagnosis included infectious disease (52.4%), connective tissue diseases (16.8%), neoplastic disease (16.1%) and miscellaneous (2.1%). The diagnostic rate of 168 patients in the second group was 88.4%, and the diagnosis was similar to the ifrst group. Logistic regression analysis showed that decreased white blood cell count (WBC 320 U/L) and lymphadenectasis were independent risk factors associated with non-infectious diseases. The odds ratios were 14.74, 5.84 and 5.11 (P≤ 0.01) , respectively. In ROC analysis, the sensitivity and speciifcity of the positive predictive values was 62.1% and 89.1%, respectively, while that of negative predicting values were 75% and 81.7%, respectively (AUC = 0.76,P = 0.00). Conclusions The combination of WBC 320 U/L and lymphadenectasis may be useful in discriminating infectious diseases from non-infectious diseases in patients hospitalized as FUO.

  15. Vision-related Quality of Life in Patients with Non-infectious Uveitis: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola-Villalobos, Pedro; Abásolo, Lydia; García-Feijoo, Julián; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Méndez-Fernández, Rosalía; Pato, Esperanza; Díaz-Valle, David; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Luis

    2017-03-21

    To analyze the influence of socio-demographic, comorbidity, and clinical-related variables in the vision-related quality of life (VR-QoL) of non-infectious uveitis patients. Cross-sectional study includes 156 consecutive non-infectious uveitis patients from a tertiary uveitis clinic from Madrid (Spain). The main outcome was the log-transformed composite score of the Visual Functioning Questionnaire 25. Bivariate and multivariate ordinary least-squares regression models were performed and results expressed using effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). In the multivariate analysis, one unit increase in the logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution scale [i.e., worse best corrected visual acuity (BCVA)] was associated with a seven times worse VR-QoL (a 0.14-fold change [95% CI: 0.07-0.27]). Patients with ocular comorbidities had a 64% worse VR-QoL (a 0.61-fold change [95% CI: 0.49-0.77]). Lower BCVA and the presence of ocular comorbidities had a significant, independent, and deleterious effect in the VR-QoL of non-infectious uveitis patients.

  16. Acute and subacute non-infectious lung diseases. Usefulness of HRCT for evaluation of activity especially in follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi; Tomiyama, Noriyuki; Honda, Osamu [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Medical School] (and others)

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to survey the usefulness of high-resolution CT (HRCT) for the evaluation of activity in acute and subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases before and after corticosteroid treatment. Sequential HRCT images and chest radiographs obtained before and after treatment were retrospectively evaluated in 33 patients with acute or subacute non-infectious diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. All these patients were histologically confirmed to have pulmonary Inflammation and to have responded to treatment with corticosteroid. Radiographic and CT scores were correlated with the degree of dyspnea and the results of arterial blood gas analysis using Spearman's rank-correlation coefficient. On follow-up HRCT, the profusion score of areas with increased attenuation was significantly correlated with arterial oxygen tension (PaO{sub 2}) (p=.003, r=-.53) and the alveolar-arterial oxygen tension difference (AaDO{sub 2}) (p=.001, r=.57). No other correlation was found after treatment. Nodular and linear opacities were more commonly seen on follow-up chest radiographs and HRCT images than on initial ones. HRCT is useful for the evaluation of disease activity in acute and subacute non-infectious infiltrative lung diseases before and after treatment if paying special attention to the profusion of ground-glass attenuation. Even if pretreatment HRCT has not been performed, posttreatment HRCT should be examined. (author)

  17. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion.

  18. Procalcitonin for the differential diagnosis of infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dong; Zhou, Jianxin; Haraguchi, Go; Arai, Hirokuni; Mitaka, Chieko

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the value of procalcitonin (PCT) for the differential diagnosis between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after cardiac surgery. Patients diagnosed with SIRS after cardiac surgery between April 1, 2011 and March 31, 2013 were retrospectively studied. A total of 142 patients with SIRS, infectious (n = 47) or non-infectious (n = 95), were included. The patients with infectious SIRS included 11 with sepsis, 12 with severe sepsis without shock, and 24 with septic shock. PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), and the white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly higher in the infectious SIRS group than in the non-infectious SIRS group. PCT had the highest sensitivity and specificity for differential diagnosis, with a cut-off value for infectious SIRS of 0.47 ng/mL. PCT was more reliable than CRP in diagnosing severe sepsis without shock, but it was not useful for diagnosing septic shock. The PCT cut-off value for diagnosing severe sepsis without shock was 2.28 ng/mL. PCT was a useful marker for the diagnosis of infectious SIRS after cardiac surgery. The optimal PCT cut-off value for diagnosing infectious SIRS was 0.47 ng/mL.

  19. N-Terminally Myristoylated Feline Foamy Virus Gag Allows Env-Independent Budding of Sub-Viral Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Boum Kim

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Foamy viruses (FVs are distinct retroviruses classified as Spumaretrovirinae in contrast to the other retroviruses, the Orthoretrovirinae. As a unique feature of FVs, Gag is not sufficient for sub-viral particle (SVP release. In primate and feline FVs (PFV and FFV, particle budding completely depends on the cognate FV Env glycoproteins. It was recently shown that an artificially added N-terminal Gag myristoylation signal (myr-signal overcomes this restriction in PFV inducing an Orthoretrovirus-like budding phenotype. Here we show that engineered, heterologous N-terminal myr-signals also induce budding of the distantly related FFV Gag. The budding efficiency depends on the myr-signal and its location relative to the N-terminus of Gag. When the first nine amino acid residues of FFV Gag were replaced by known myr-signals, the budding efficiency as determined by the detection of extracellular SVPs was low. In contrast, adding myr-signals to the intact N‑terminus of FFV Gag resulted in a more efficient SVP release. Importantly, budding of myr-Gag proteins was sensitive towards inhibition of cellular N-myristoyltransferases. As expected, the addition or insertion of myr-signals that allowed Env-independent budding of FFV SVPs also retargeted Gag to plasma membrane-proximal sites and other intracellular membrane compartments. The data confirm that membrane-targeted FV Gag has the capacity of SVP formation.

  20. Role of cleavage at the core-E1 junction of hepatitis C virus polyprotein in viral morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pène, Véronique; Lemasson, Matthieu; Harper, Francis; Pierron, Gérard; Rosenberg, Arielle R.

    2017-01-01

    In hepatitis C virus (HCV) polyprotein sequence, core protein terminates with E1 envelope signal peptide. Cleavage by signal peptidase (SP) separates E1 from the complete form of core protein, anchored in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane by the signal peptide. Subsequent cleavage of the signal peptide by signal-peptide peptidase (SPP) releases the mature form of core protein, which preferentially relocates to lipid droplets. Both of these cleavages are required for the HCV infectious cycle, supporting the idea that HCV assembly begins at the surface of lipid droplets, yet SPP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for initiation of budding in the ER. Here we have addressed at what step(s) of the HCV infectious cycle SP-catalyzed cleavage at the core-E1 junction is required. Taking advantage of the sole system that has allowed visualization of HCV budding events in the ER lumen of mammalian cells, we showed that, unexpectedly, mutations abolishing this cleavage did not prevent but instead tended to promote the initiation of viral budding. Moreover, even though no viral particles were released from Huh-7 cells transfected with a full-length HCV genome bearing these mutations, intracellular viral particles containing core protein protected by a membrane envelope were formed. These were visualized by electron microscopy as capsid-containing particles with a diameter of about 70 nm and 40 nm before and after delipidation, respectively, comparable to intracellular wild-type particle precursors except that they were non-infectious. Thus, our results show that SP-catalyzed cleavage is dispensable for HCV budding per se, but is required for the viral particles to acquire their infectivity and secretion. These data support the idea that HCV assembly occurs in concert with budding at the ER membrane. Furthermore, capsid-containing particles did not accumulate in the absence of SP-catalyzed cleavage, suggesting the quality of newly formed viral particles is controlled before

  1. Accelerated Detection of Viral Particles by Combining AC Electric Field Effects and Micro-Raman Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Robert Tomkins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detection method that combines electric field-assisted virus capture on antibody-decorated surfaces with the “fingerprinting” capabilities of micro-Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated for the case of M13 virus in water. The proof-of-principle surface mapping of model bioparticles (protein coated polystyrene spheres captured by an AC electric field between planar microelectrodes is presented with a methodology for analyzing the resulting spectra by comparing relative peak intensities. The same principle is applied to dielectrophoretically captured M13 phage particles whose presence is indirectly confirmed with micro-Raman spectroscopy using NeutrAvidin-Cy3 as a labeling molecule. It is concluded that the combination of electrokinetically driven virus sampling and micro-Raman based signal transduction provides a promising approach for time-efficient and in situ detection of viruses.

  2. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Lam; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Keri, Ruth A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-01-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but sta...

  3. Bioengineering of Tobacco Mosaic Virus to Create a Non-Infectious Positive Control for Ebola Diagnostic Assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Gulati, Neetu M.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Keri, Ruth A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2016-03-01

    The 2014 Ebola epidemic is the largest to date. There is no cure or treatment for this deadly disease; therefore there is an urgent need to develop new diagnostics to accurately detect Ebola. Current RT-PCR assays lack sensitive and reliable positive controls. To address this critical need, we devised a bio-inspired positive control for use in RT-PCR diagnostics: we encapsulated scrambled Ebola RNA sequences inside of tobacco mosaic virus to create a biomimicry that is non-infectious, but stable, and could therefore serve as a positive control in Ebola diagnostic assays. Here, we report the bioengineering and validation of this probe.

  4. Progressive non-infectious anterior vertebral fusion in a baby with Saethre-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Али Аль-Каисси

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 3-months old baby of Austrian origin and product of non-consanguineous parents. Abnormal craniofacial contour was the main deformity. The overall clinico-radiographic features were consistent with Saether-Chotzen-acrocephalosyndactyly type III syndrome. Bi-directional sequencing of the exon 8 and of the FGFR3-genes, exons 7 of FGFR3 (Fibroblast growth factor receptor3 genes, the exon 5 of the FGFR1 gene, revealed no mutations. Sagittal MRI imaging of the spine showed anterior vertebral fusion along the thoraco-lumbar vertebrae compatible with the non-infectious type.

  5. Development of a non-infectious encapsidated positive control RNA for molecular assays to detect foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Mikidache; Mioulet, Valerie; King, Donald P; Lomonossoff, George P; Montague, Nicholas P

    2015-08-01

    Positive controls are an important component of the quality-control of molecular tests used for diagnosis of livestock diseases. For high consequence agents such as foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the positive controls required to monitor template extraction, reverse transcription and amplification steps usually consist of material derived from infectious viruses. Therefore, their production is dependent upon the use of high containment facilities and their deployment carries the risks associated with inactivation of "live" FMDV. This paper describes the development of a novel non-infectious positive control that encodes FMDV RNA sequences that are encapsidated within Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles. This surrogate RNA has been engineered to contain sequences from the 5'UTR and 3D regions of FMDV targeted by many molecular assays (conventional RT-PCR, real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP). These sequences were inserted into a movement-deficient version of CPMV RNA-2 which is rescued from cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculota) by inoculation with RNA-1. In order to evaluate the performance of these encapsidated RNAs, nucleic acid prepared from a 10-fold dilution series was tested using a range of molecular assays. Results generated by using the molecular assays confirmed RNA-dependent amplification and the suitability of these particles for use in a range of diagnostic tests. Moreover, these CPMV particles were highly stable for periods of up to 46 days at room temperature and 37 °C. Recombinant CPMV can be used to produce high yields of encapsidated RNAs that can be used as positive and negative controls and standards in molecular assays. This approach provides a surrogate that can be potentially used outside of containment laboratories as an alternative to inactivated infectious virus for molecular diagnostic testing.

  6. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Sergeeva; L. Y. Poslova; O. V. Kovalishena; A. S. Blagonravova; N. V. Epifanova; T. A. Sashina; Morozova, O.V.; N. A. Novikova

    2015-01-01

    On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation o...

  7. Antimicrobial Human β-Defensins in the Colon and Their Role in Infectious and Non-Infectious Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Cobo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available β-defensins are small cationic antimicrobial peptides secreted by diverse cell types including colonic epithelial cells. Human β-defensins form an essential component of the intestinal lumen in innate immunity. The defensive mechanisms of β-defensins include binding to negatively charged microbial membranes that cause cell death and chemoattraction of immune cells. The antimicrobial activity of β-defensin is well reported in vitro against several enteric pathogens and in non-infectious processes such as inflammatory bowel diseases, which alters β-defensin production. However, the role of β-defensin in vivo in its interaction with other immune components in host defense against bacteria, viruses and parasites with more complex membranes is still not well known. This review focuses on the latest findings regarding the role of β-defensin in relevant human infectious and non-infectious diseases of the colonic mucosa. In addition, we summarize the most significant aspects of β-defensin and its antimicrobial role in a variety of disease processes.

  8. Inhibitory effect of presenilin inhibitor LY411575 on maturation of hepatitis C virus core protein, production of the viral particle and expression of host proteins involved in pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Teruhime; Tanaka, Tomohisa; Kasai, Hirotake; Yamashita, Atsuya; Moriishi, Kohji

    2016-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) core protein is responsible for the formation of infectious viral particles and induction of pathogenicity. The C-terminal transmembrane region of the immature core protein is cleaved by signal peptide peptidase (SPP) for maturation of the core protein. SPP belongs to the family of presenilin-like aspartic proteases. Some presenilin inhibitors are expected to suppress HCV infection and production; however, this anti-HCV effect has not been investigated in detail. In this study, presenilin inhibitors were screened to identify anti-HCV compounds. Of the 13 presenilin inhibitors tested, LY411575 was the most potent inhibitor of SPP-dependent cleavage of HCV core protein. Production of intracellular core protein and supernatant infectious viral particles from HCV-infected cells was significantly impaired by LY411575 in a dose-dependent manner (half maximum inhibitory concentration = 0.27 μM, cytotoxic concentration of the extracts to cause death to 50% of viable cells > 10 μM). No effect of LY411575 on intracellular HCV RNA in the subgenomic replicon cells was detected. LY411575 synergistically promoted daclatasvir-dependent inhibition of viral production, but not that of viral replication. Furthermore, LY411575 inhibited HCV-related production of reactive oxygen species and expression of NADPH oxidases and vascular endothelial growth factor. Taken together, our data suggest that LY411575 suppresses HCV propagation through SPP inhibition and impairs host gene expressions related to HCV pathogenicity.

  9. Optimization of influencing factors of nucleic acid adsorption onto silica-coated magnetic particles: application to viral nucleic acid extraction from serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoli; Tang, Yan; Liu, Renxiao; Xia, Qiang; Yan, Wenlong; Ge, Guanglu

    2014-01-17

    We present a detailed study of nucleic acid adsorption onto silica-coated magnetic particles in the presence of guanidinium thiocyanate, and extraction of nucleic acid from two important transfusion-transmitted viruses using these particles. Silica-coated magnetic particles were prepared by encapsulating Fe3O4 nanoparticles with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hydrolysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were used for particle characterization. The results indicate that silica-coated magnetic particles are spheroid with a narrow hydrodynamic size distribution of about 500nm. VSM data indicates that these particles display paramagnetic behavior with saturation magnetization of about 30emu/g. The adsorption capacities were evaluated with DNA from salmon sperm and RNA of Escherichia coli strain JM109 in the presence of guanidinium thiocyanate. The maximum of adsorption is up to 10.6mg DNA or 7.7mg RNA per 1g of silica-coated magnetic particles with 4M guanidinium thiocyanate (GTC) at pH 5.5 without adding ethanol. The influencing factors were analyzed in term of the adsorption of nucleic acids onto silica-coated magnetic particles. The adsorption capacity in acidic condition is found to be larger than that in alkaline condition and increases with adding equivalent volume of ethanol. A simple method was therefore established to extract nucleic acids of two important transfusion-transmitted viruses from serum and compared with the commercial kits. The results indicate that the extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles can be adapted to rapidly and facilely isolate viral nucleic acid for diagnosis of viral infection from serum within 30min, irrespective of genome compositions of virus.

  10. Single-particle characterization of oncolytic vaccinia virus by flow virometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vera A; Renner, Tyler M; Varette, Oliver; Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Wang, Jiahu; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Bell, John C; Langlois, Marc-André

    2016-09-30

    Vaccinia virus (VV) is an oncolytic virus that is currently being evaluated as a promising cancer vaccine in several phase I, II and III clinical trials. Although several quality control tests are performed on each new batch of virus, these do not routinely include a systematic characterization of virus particle homogeneity, or relate the infectious titer to the total number of submicron sized particles (SSPs) present in the sample. SSPs are comprised of infectious virus and non-infectious viral particles, but also cell contaminants derived from the virus isolation procedures, such as cellular vesicles and debris. Here we have employed flow virometry (FV) analysis and sorting to isolate and characterize distinct SSP populations in therapeutic oncolytic VV preparations. We show that VV preparations contain SSPs heterogeneous in size and include large numbers of non-infectious VV particles. Furthermore, we used FV to illustrate how VV has a propensity to aggregate over time and under various handling and storage procedures. Accordingly, we find that together the infectious titer, the total number of SSPs, the number of viral genomes and the level of particle aggregation in a sample constitute useful parameters that greatly facilitate inter-sample assessment of physical quality, and also provides a means to monitor sample deterioration over time. Additionally, we have successfully employed FV sorting to further isolate virus from other particles by identifying a lipophilic dye that preferentially stains VV over other SSPs in the sample. Overall, we demonstrate that FV is a fast and effective tool that can be used to perform quality, and consistency control assessments of oncolytic VV vaccine preparations.

  11. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg ) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)(+) Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4(+) T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3(+) Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3(+) Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3(+) Treg cells.

  12. Regulatory T cell levels and cytokine production in active non-infectious uveitis: in-vitro effects of pharmacological treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, B; Mesquida, M; Lee, R W J; Llorenç, V; Pelegrín, L; Adán, A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the proportion of regulatory T cells (Treg) and cytokine expression by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with active non-infectious uveitis, and to evaluate the effect of in-vitro treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A on Treg levels and cytokine production in PBMCs from uveitis patients and healthy subjects. We included a group of 21 patients with active non-infectious uveitis and 18 age-matched healthy subjects. The proportion of forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ Treg cells and intracellular tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in CD4+ T cells was determined by flow cytometry. PBMCs were also either rested or activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 and cultured in the presence or absence of dexamethasone, cyclosporin A and infliximab. Supernatants of cultured PBMCs were collected and TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). No significant differences were observed in nTreg levels between uveitis patients and healthy subjects. However, PBMCs from uveitis patients produced significantly higher amounts of TNF-α and lower amounts of IL-10. Dexamethasone treatment in vitro significantly reduced FoxP3+ Treg levels in PBMCs from both healthy subjects and uveitis patients, and all tested drugs significantly reduced TNF-α production in PBMCs. Dexamethasone and cyclosporin A significantly reduced IL-17 and IFN-γ production in PBMCs and dexamethasone up-regulated IL-10 production in activated PBMCs from healthy subjects. Our results suggest that PBMCs from patients with uveitis express more TNF-α and less IL-10 than healthy subjects, and this is independent of FoxP3+ Treg levels. Treatment with infliximab, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A in vitro modulates cytokine production, but does not increase the proportion of FoxP3+ Treg cells. PMID:25354724

  13. Evaluation and molecular characterization of human adenovirus in drinking water supplies: viral integrity and viability assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fongaro, Gislaine; Nascimento, Mariana A do; Rigotto, Caroline; Ritterbusch, Giseli; da Silva, Alessandra D' A; Esteves, Paulo A; Barardi, Célia R M

    2013-05-28

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are the second-leading cause of childhood gastroenteritis worldwide. This virus is commonly found in environmental waters and is very resistant to water disinfection and environmental stressors, especially UV light inactivation. Molecular techniques, such as PCR-based methods (Polymerase Chain Reaction), are commonly used to detect and identify viral contamination in water, although PCR alone does not allow the discrimination between infectious and non-infectious viral particles. A combination of cell culture and PCR has allowed detection of infectious viruses that grow slowly or fail to produce cytopathic effects (CPE) in cell culture. This study aimed to assess the integrity and viability of human adenovirus (HAdV) in environmental water and evaluate circulating strains by molecular characterization in three sites of the water supply in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina Island, Brazil: Peri Lagoon water, spring source water, and water from the public water supply system. Water samples were collected, concentrated and HAdV quantified by real-time PCR. Viral integrity was evaluated by enzymatic assay (DNase I) and infectivity by plaque assay (PA) and integrated cell culture using transcribed mRNA (ICC-RT-qPCR). Samples containing particles of infectious HAdV were selected for sequencing and molecular characterization. The analyzed sites contained 83, 66 and 58% undamaged HAdV particles (defined as those in which the genetic material is protected by the viral capsid) at Peri Lagoon, spring source water and public supply system water, respectively. Of these, 66% of the particles (by PA) and 75% (by ICC-RT-qPCR) HAdV were shown to be infectious, due to being undamaged in Peri Lagoon, 33% (by PA) and 58% (by ICC-RT-qPCR) in spring source water and 8% (by PA) and 25% (by ICC-RT-qPCR) in the public water supply system. ICC-RT-qPCR, a very sensitive and rapid technique, was able to detect as low as 1 × 102 HAdV genome copies per milliliter of

  14. Genesis of mammalian prions: from non-infectious amyloid fibrils to a transmissible prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natallia Makarava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The transmissible agent of prion disease consists of a prion protein in its abnormal, β-sheet rich state (PrP(Sc, which is capable of replicating itself according to the template-assisted mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the folding pattern of a newly recruited polypeptide chain accurately reproduces that of a PrP(Sc template. Here we report that authentic PrP(Sc and transmissible prion disease can be generated de novo in wild type animals by recombinant PrP (rPrP amyloid fibrils, which are structurally different from PrP(Sc and lack any detectable PrP(Sc particles. When induced by rPrP fibrils, a long silent stage that involved two serial passages preceded development of the clinical disease. Once emerged, the prion disease was characterized by unique clinical, neuropathological, and biochemical features. The long silent stage to the disease was accompanied by significant transformation in neuropathological properties and biochemical features of the proteinase K-resistant PrP material (PrPres before authentic PrP(Sc evolved. The current work illustrates that transmissible prion diseases can be induced by PrP structures different from that of authentic PrP(Sc and suggests that a new mechanism different from the classical templating exists. This new mechanism designated as "deformed templating" postulates that a change in the PrP folding pattern from the one present in rPrP fibrils to an alternative specific for PrP(Sc can occur. The current work provides important new insight into the mechanisms underlying genesis of the transmissible protein states and has numerous implications for understanding the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Recombinant nucleocapsid-like particles from dengue-2 virus induce protective CD4+ and CD8+ cells against viral encephalitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Lázaro; López, Carlos; Lazo, Laura; Valdés, Iris; Marcos, Ernesto; Alonso, Ruby; Gambe, Ailyn; Martín, Jorge; Romero, Yaremis; Guzmán, María G; Guillén, Gerardo; Hermida, Lisset

    2009-10-01

    Virus-like particles are a highly effective type of subunit vaccine that mimics the overall structure of virus particles without containing infectious genetic material. In this work, a particulate form of the recombinant capsid protein from dengue-2 was evaluated in mice to determine the level of protection against viral challenge and to measure the antigen-induced cell-mediated immunity (CMI). The nucleocapsid-like particles (NLPs) adjuvanted with alum did not induce antiviral antibodies. However, splenocytes from the immunized animals secreted high levels of IFN-gamma upon virus stimulation, and a significant protection rate was achieved after challenge with lethal dengue-2 virus. Finally, both IFN-gamma secretion and protection against viral encephalitis were demonstrated to be dependent on CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. This study provides new evidences regarding the protective role of the CMI in the mouse model without the induction of neutralizing antibodies. Further studies in non-human primates or humanized mice should be carried out to elucidate the usefulness of the NLPs as a potential vaccine candidate against dengue disease.

  16. Vpr14-88-Apobec3G fusion protein is efficiently incorporated into Vif-positive HIV-1 particles and inhibits viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhujun Ao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: APOBEC3G (A3G, a deoxycytidine deaminase, is a potent host antiviral factor that can restrict HIV-1 infection. During Vif-negative HIV-1 replication, A3G is incorporated into HIV-1 particles, induces mutations in reverse transcribed viral DNA and inhibits reverse transcription. However, HIV-1 Vif counteracts A3G's activities by inducing its degradation and by blocking its incorporation into HIV-1 particles. Thus, it is interesting to elucidate a mechanism that would allow A3G to escape the effects of Vif in order to rescue its potent antiviral activity and to provide a possible novel therapeutic strategy for treating HIV-1 infection. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we generated an R88-A3G fusion protein by fusing A3G to a virion-targeting polypeptide (R14-88 derived from HIV-1 Vpr protein and compared its antiviral effects relative to those of HA-tagged native A3G (HA-A3G. Our study showed that transient expression of the R88-A3G fusion protein in both Vif(- and Vif(+ HIV-1 producing cells drastically inhibited viral infection in HeLa-CD4-CCR5-cells, CD4(+ C8166 T cells and human primary PBMCs. Moreover, we established CD4(+ C8166 T cell lines that stably express either R88-A3G or HA-A3G by transduction with VSV-G-pseudotyped lentiviral vector that harbor expression cassettes for R88-A3G or HA-A3G, respectively, and tested their susceptibility to Vif(+ HIV-1 infection. Our results clearly reveal that expression of R88-A3G in transduced CD4(+ C8166 cells significantly blocked Vif(+ HIV-1 infection. In an attempt to understand the mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of R88-A3G, we demonstrated that R88-A3G was efficiently incorporated into viral particles in the presence of Vif. Moreover, PCR analysis revealed that R88-A3G significantly inhibited viral cDNA synthesis during the early stage of Vif(+ virus infection. CONCLUSIONS: Our results clearly indicate that R88 delivers A3G into Vif(+ HIV-1 particles and inhibits

  17. Evaluation of viral clearance in the production of HPV-16 L1 virus-like particles purified from insect cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hye-Sung; Shin, Jin-Ho; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Young-Lim; Bae, Jei-Jun; Kim, Byoung-Guk; Ryu, Seung-Rel; Kim, Soon-Nam; Min, Hong-Ki; Kim, Hong-Jin; Park, Sue-Nie

    2006-12-01

    Biopharmaceutical products produced from cell cultures have a potential for viral contamination from cell sources or from adventitious introduction during production. The objective of this study was to assess viral clearance in the production of insect cell-derived recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 type L1 virus-like particles (VLPs). We selected Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and minute virus of mice (MVM) as relevant viruses to achieve the aim of this study. A downstream process for the production of purified HPV-16 L1 VLPs consisted of detergent lysis of harvested cells, sonication, sucrose cushion centrifugation, and cesium chloride (CsCl) equilibrium density centrifugation. The capacity of each purification/treatment step to clear viruses was expressed as reduction factor by measuring the difference in log virus infectivity of sample pools before and after each process. As a result, detergent treatment (0.5% v/v, Nonidet P-40/phosphate-buffered saline) was effective for inactivating enveloped viruses such as JEV and BVDV, but no significant reduction ( or = 4.40 log(10) reductions). Given the study conditions we used, overall cumulative reduction factors for clearance of JEV, BVDV, and MVM were > or = 10.50, > or = 9.20, and > or = 6.40 log(10) in 150 ml of starting cell cultures, respectively.

  18. [Microbiological diagnosis of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Roberto; Aguilera, Antonio; Córdoba, Juan; Fuertes, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Liver inflammation or hepatitis has many different causes, both infectious and non-infectious. Among the former, viral infection is responsible for at least half of all hepatitis worldwide. Different viruses have been described with primary tropism for liver tissue. These microorganisms have been successively named with letters of the alphabet: A, B, C, D, E and G. The aim of this paper is to review this heterogeneous group of viruses in its most basic aspects, including clinical implications, treatment, main control, and prophylactic measures and, of special interest, diagnostic approaches, both serological and molecular, which are used for their detection, quantification and characterization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Characterization of virus-like particles by atomic force microscopy in ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oropesa, Reinier; Ramos, Jorge R.; Falcón, Viviana; Felipe, Ariel

    2013-06-01

    Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) are attractive candidates for vaccine design since they resemble native viroids in size and morphology, but they are non-infectious due to the absence of a viral genome. The visualization of surface morphologies and structures can be used to deepen the understanding of physical, chemical, and biological phenomena. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for the visualization of soft biological samples in a nanoscale resolution. In this work we have investigated the morphology of recombinant surface antigens of hepatitis B (rHBsAg) VLPs from Cuban vaccine against hepatitis B. The rHBsAg VLPs sizes estimated by AFM between 15 and 30 nm are similar to those reported on previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies.

  20. How does breathing frequency affect the performance of an N95 filtering facepiece respirator and a surgical mask against surrogates of viral particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2014-01-01

    Breathing frequency (breaths/min) differs among individuals and levels of physical activity. Particles enter respirators through two principle penetration pathways: faceseal leakage and filter penetration. However, it is unknown how breathing frequency affects the overall performance of N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) and surgical masks (SMs) against viral particles, as well as other health-relevant submicrometer particles. A FFR and SM were tested on a breathing manikin at four mean inspiratory flows (MIFs) (15, 30, 55, and 85 L/min) and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). Filter penetration (Pfilter) and total inward leakage (TIL) were determined for the tested respiratory protection devices against sodium chloride (NaCl) aerosol particles in the size range of 20 to 500 nm. "Faceseal leakage-to-filter" (FLTF) penetration ratios were calculated. Both MIF and breathing frequency showed significant effects (p breathing frequency increased TIL for the N95 FFR whereas no clear trends were observed for the SM. Increasing MIF increased Pfilter and decreased TIL resulting in decreasing FLTF ratio. Most of FLTF ratios were >1, suggesting that the faceseal leakage was the primary particle penetration pathway at various breathing frequencies. Breathing frequency is another factor (besides MIF) that can significantly affect the performance of N95 FFRs, with higher breathing frequencies increasing TIL. No consistent trend of increase or decrease of TIL with either MIF or breathing frequency was observed for the tested SM. To potentially extend these findings beyond the manikin/breathing system used, future studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism causing the breathing frequency effect on the performance of respiratory protection devices on human subjects.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-mediated syncytium formation is compatible with adenovirus replication and facilitates efficient dispersion of viral gene products and de novo-synthesized virus particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Haviv, Y S; Derdeyn, C A; Lam, J; Coolidge, C; Hunter, E; Curiel, D T; Blackwell, J L

    2001-12-10

    Conditionally replicative adenovirus (CRAd) vectors are designed for specific oncolytic replication in tumor tissues with concomitant sparing of normal cells. As such, CRAds offer an unprecedented level of anticancer potential for malignancies that have been refractory to previous cancer gene therapy interventions. CRAd efficacy may, however, be compromised by inefficient dispersion of the replicating vector within the tumor tissue. To address this issue, we evaluated the utility of a fusogenic membrane glycoprotein (FMG), which induces the fusion of neighboring cellular membranes to form multinucleated syncytia. We hypothesized that the FMG-mediated syncytia would facilitate dispersion of the adenovirus (Ad) gene products and viral progeny. To test this, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins, which induce syncytia in the presence of CD4+ target cells, were expressed by an Ad (Ad5HIVenv) in permissive (CD4-positive) and nonpermissive (CD4-negative) cell lines. After validating this Ad-FMG model, the efficiency of Ad replication in the presence or absence of syncytia was evaluated. The results demonstrated that syncytium formation was compatible with Ad replication and dramatically increased the dispersion of virus gene products within the cytoplasm of the syncytia as well as viral particles in the nuclei of the syncytial mass. Moreover, progeny virions were released more efficiently from syncytia compared with nonsyncytial cells. These data demonstrate the utility of FMGs as a dispersion agent and suggest that FMGs can improve the efficacy of CRAd gene therapy.

  2. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Král, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Bachelor's Thesis deals with effective promotional tools called viral marketing. The main contribution of the thesis is the definition and history of viral marketing, making analysis of process of viral marketing, progresses definition and rules for creating a viral campaign. And also aspects are necessary for a successful viral spread. There are analysis of the characteristics of social media which are dividing according to the orientation and marketing tactics. Thesis is especially about so...

  3. Enfermedades sistémicas no infecciosas y uveítis Non-infectious systemic diseases and uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Díaz-Valle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La uveítis se define como la inflamación del tracto uveal, aunque en la práctica clínica hace referencia a cualquier proceso inflamatorio intraocular. El origen de esta inflamación puede atribuirse a un mecanismo endógeno, ya sea formando parte de una enfermedad sistémica (sarcoidosis, enfermedad de Behçet, esclerosis múltiple, síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada, etc. o de forma ocular aislada. En muchas ocasiones, la enfermedad ocular constituye la forma de comienzo de una enfermedad sistémica. Por otra parte, la afectación ocular constituye, en ocasiones, la principal causa de morbilidad derivada de la enfermedad, por lo que su diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz son de la máxima importancia para evitar secuelas irreversibles. En este artículo se revisan los aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos y terapéuticos más relevantes de la afectación ocular en el contexto clínico de las enfermedades sistémicas no infecciosas más comúnmente asociadas a uveítis.Uveitis can be defined as any inflammation affecting the uveal tract, although in clinical practice this term includes any intraocular inflammatory event. The etiology of this inflammation can be related to an endogenous mechanism in the clinical course of a systemic disease (sarcoidosis, Behçet’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease, etc., or an isolated ocular entity. Sometimes, ocular inflammation is the initial manifestation of an undiagnosed systemic disease. On the other hand, ocular involvement could be the main cause of morbidity of the disease, and early diagnosis and treatment is an important issue in order to avoid irreversible ocular damage. In this article, the authors review some relevant clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic topics related to the most common non-infectious systemic diseases associated with uveitis.

  4. Effect of chitosan on tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) accumulation, hydrolase activity, and morphological abnormalities of the viral particles in leaves of N. tabacum L. cv. Samsun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagorskaya, Vera; Reunov, Anatoliy; Lapshina, Larisa; Davydova, Viktoriya; Yermak, Irina

    2014-08-01

    The effect of chitosan on the development of infection caused by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun has been studied. It was shown that the infectivity and viral coat protein content in leaves inoculated with a mixture of TMV (2 μg/mL) and chitosan (1 mg/mL) were lower in the early period of infection (3 days after inoculation), by 63% and 66% respectively, than in leaves inoculated with TMV only. Treatment of leaves with chitosan 24 h before inoculation with TMV also caused the antiviral effects, but these were less apparent than when the virus and polysaccharide were applied simultaneously. The inhibitory effects of the agent decreased as the infection progressed. Inoculation of leaves with TMV together with chitosan considerably enhanced the activity of hydrolases (proteases, RNases) in the leaves, in comparison with leaves inoculated with TMV alone. Electron microscope assays of phosphotungstic acid (PTA)-stained suspensions from infected tobacco leaves showed that, in addition to the normal TMV particles (18 nm in diameter, 300 nm long), these suspensions contained abnormal (swollen, "thin" and "short") virions. The highest number of abnormal virions was found in suspensions from leaves inoculated with a mixture of TMV and chitosan. Immuno-electron microscopy showed that "thin" virus particles, in contrast to the particles of normal diameter, lost the ability to bind to specific antiserum. It seems that the chitosan-induced activation of hydrolases stimulates the intracellular degradation of TMV particles and hence hydrolase activation may be considered to be one of the polysaccharide-mediated cellular defense mechanisms that limit virus accumulation in cells.

  5. "ISA-Lation" of Single-Stranded Positive-Sense RNA Viruses from Non-Infectious Clinical/Animal Samples.

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    Fabien Aubry

    Full Text Available Isolation of viral pathogens from clinical and/or animal samples has traditionally relied on either cell cultures or laboratory animal model systems. However, virus viability is notoriously susceptible to adverse conditions that may include inappropriate procedures for sample collection, storage temperature, support media and transportation. Using our recently described ISA method, we have developed a novel procedure to isolate infectious single-stranded positive-sense RNA viruses from clinical or animal samples. This approach, that we have now called "ISA-lation", exploits the capacity of viral cDNA subgenomic fragments to re-assemble and produce infectious viral RNA in susceptible cells. Here, it was successfully used to rescue enterovirus, Chikungunya and Tick-borne encephalitis viruses from a variety of inactivated animal and human samples. ISA-lation represents an effective option to rescue infectious virus from clinical and/or animal samples that may have deteriorated during the collection and storage period, but also potentially overcomes logistic and administrative difficulties generated when complying with current health and safety and biosecurity guidelines associated with shipment of infectious viral material.

  6. Virus-Like Particles Exhibit Potential as a Pan-Filovirus Vaccine for Both Ebola and Marburg Viral Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    replication-deficient particles ( VRP ) expressing filovirus proteins have been used with varying degree of success in the mouse and guinea pig models of...filovirus infection [10–16]. For protection against MARV infection, a VRP vaccine encoding MARV GP was completely efficacious in both guinea pigs and non...six VRP -VP40-vaccinated guinea pigs survived challenge with lethal MARV infection [11]. In mice and guinea pigs, vaccine strategies that are protec

  7. Truncated forms of viral VP2 proteins fused to EGFP assemble into fluorescent parvovirus-like particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Leona; Toivola, Jouni; Välilehto, Outi; Saloniemi, Taija; Cunningham, Claire; White, Daniel; Mäkelä, Anna R; Korhonen, Eila; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2006-12-08

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids) were fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). The proteins were produced in insect cells, purified, and analyzed by western blotting, confocal and electron microscopy as well as FCS. The non-truncated form, EGFP-VP2, diffused with a hydrodynamic radius of 17 nm, whereas the fluorescent mutants truncated by 14, 23 and 40 amino acids showed hydrodynamic radii of 7, 20 and 14 nm, respectively. These results show that the non-truncated EGFP-VP2 fusion protein and the EGFP-VP2 constructs truncated by 23 and by as much as 40 amino acids were able to form virus-like particles (VLPs). The fluorescent VLP, harbouring VP2 truncated by 23 amino acids, showed a somewhat larger hydrodynamic radius compared to the non-truncated EGFP-VP2. In contrast, the construct containing EGFP-VP2 truncated by 14 amino acids was not able to assemble into VLP-resembling structures. Formation of capsid structures was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. The number of fluorescent fusion protein molecules present within the different VLPs was determined by FCS. In conclusion, FCS provides a novel strategy to analyze virus assembly and gives valuable structural information for strategic development of parvovirus-like particles.

  8. Truncated forms of viral VP2 proteins fused to EGFP assemble into fluorescent parvovirus-like particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuento Matti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS monitors random movements of fluorescent molecules in solution, giving information about the number and the size of for example nano-particles. The canine parvovirus VP2 structural protein as well as N-terminal deletion mutants of VP2 (-14, -23, and -40 amino acids were fused to the C-terminus of the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP. The proteins were produced in insect cells, purified, and analyzed by western blotting, confocal and electron microscopy as well as FCS. The non-truncated form, EGFP-VP2, diffused with a hydrodynamic radius of 17 nm, whereas the fluorescent mutants truncated by 14, 23 and 40 amino acids showed hydrodynamic radii of 7, 20 and 14 nm, respectively. These results show that the non-truncated EGFP-VP2 fusion protein and the EGFP-VP2 constructs truncated by 23 and by as much as 40 amino acids were able to form virus-like particles (VLPs. The fluorescent VLP, harbouring VP2 truncated by 23 amino acids, showed a somewhat larger hydrodynamic radius compared to the non-truncated EGFP-VP2. In contrast, the construct containing EGFP-VP2 truncated by 14 amino acids was not able to assemble into VLP-resembling structures. Formation of capsid structures was confirmed by confocal and electron microscopy. The number of fluorescent fusion protein molecules present within the different VLPs was determined by FCS. In conclusion, FCS provides a novel strategy to analyze virus assembly and gives valuable structural information for strategic development of parvovirus-like particles.

  9. Influenza Virus Reassortment Is Enhanced by Semi-infectious Particles but Can Be Suppressed by Defective Interfering Particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith M Fonville

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A high particle to infectivity ratio is a feature common to many RNA viruses, with ~90-99% of particles unable to initiate a productive infection under low multiplicity conditions. A recent publication by Brooke et al. revealed that, for influenza A virus (IAV, a proportion of these seemingly non-infectious particles are in fact semi-infectious. Semi-infectious (SI particles deliver an incomplete set of viral genes to the cell, and therefore cannot support a full cycle of replication unless complemented through co-infection. In addition to SI particles, IAV populations often contain defective-interfering (DI particles, which actively interfere with production of infectious progeny. With the aim of understanding the significance to viral evolution of these incomplete particles, we tested the hypothesis that SI and DI particles promote diversification through reassortment. Our approach combined computational simulations with experimental determination of infection, co-infection and reassortment levels following co-inoculation of cultured cells with two distinct influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2-based viruses. Computational results predicted enhanced reassortment at a given % infection or multiplicity of infection with increasing semi-infectious particle content. Comparison of experimental data to the model indicated that the likelihood that a given segment is missing varies among the segments and that most particles fail to deliver ≥1 segment. To verify the prediction that SI particles augment reassortment, we performed co-infections using viruses exposed to low dose UV. As expected, the introduction of semi-infectious particles with UV-induced lesions enhanced reassortment. In contrast to SI particles, inclusion of DI particles in modeled virus populations could not account for observed reassortment outcomes. DI particles were furthermore found experimentally to suppress detectable reassortment, relative to that seen with standard virus stocks

  10. Influenza Virus Reassortment Is Enhanced by Semi-infectious Particles but Can Be Suppressed by Defective Interfering Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Steel, John; Lowen, Anice C.

    2015-01-01

    A high particle to infectivity ratio is a feature common to many RNA viruses, with ~90–99% of particles unable to initiate a productive infection under low multiplicity conditions. A recent publication by Brooke et al. revealed that, for influenza A virus (IAV), a proportion of these seemingly non-infectious particles are in fact semi-infectious. Semi-infectious (SI) particles deliver an incomplete set of viral genes to the cell, and therefore cannot support a full cycle of replication unless complemented through co-infection. In addition to SI particles, IAV populations often contain defective-interfering (DI) particles, which actively interfere with production of infectious progeny. With the aim of understanding the significance to viral evolution of these incomplete particles, we tested the hypothesis that SI and DI particles promote diversification through reassortment. Our approach combined computational simulations with experimental determination of infection, co-infection and reassortment levels following co-inoculation of cultured cells with two distinct influenza A/Panama/2007/99 (H3N2)-based viruses. Computational results predicted enhanced reassortment at a given % infection or multiplicity of infection with increasing semi-infectious particle content. Comparison of experimental data to the model indicated that the likelihood that a given segment is missing varies among the segments and that most particles fail to deliver ≥1 segment. To verify the prediction that SI particles augment reassortment, we performed co-infections using viruses exposed to low dose UV. As expected, the introduction of semi-infectious particles with UV-induced lesions enhanced reassortment. In contrast to SI particles, inclusion of DI particles in modeled virus populations could not account for observed reassortment outcomes. DI particles were furthermore found experimentally to suppress detectable reassortment, relative to that seen with standard virus stocks, most likely by

  11. THE RISK FACTORS AND SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OSTEOPENIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Platitsyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the risk factors (RFs of osteoporosis (OP, the risk of OP-related fractures, the specific features of osteopenic syndrome in patients with chronic non-infectious diseases (CNID (coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, and asthma. Materials and methods. The investigation enrolled 377 patients (mean age 55.3 ± 1.6 years with CNID and 221 persons (mean age, 53.2 ± 1.3 years who formed a control group. According to the nosological entity, the patients were divided as follows: Group 1 included 84 patients with CHD and hypertension; Group 2 comprised 99 hypertensive patients; Group 3 consisted of 70 patients with COPD; and Group 4 included 124 asthmatic patients. The examinees of all the groups were matched for age, gender, and body mass index. The investigation excluded patients with functional class IV chronic heart failure, continuous atrial fibrillation, heart valve disease, or myocardial noncoronarogenic diseases and those with other diseases and conditions that could have an independent impact on bone metabolism. Prior to the examination, the patients had received no specific therapy for the prevention and treatment of OP. RFs for OP were assessed using the one-minute test recommended by the International OP Foundation (2008; 10-year risk for OP-related fractures were calculated applying the FRAX computer program in accordance with the guidelines of the International OP Association and the World Health Organization (WHO, 2008. To investigate bone mineral density (BMD, bioenergy X-ray densitometry of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was carried out by means of a Lunar DPX apparatus (USA. The results were assessed using the t-test in standard deviations (SD from the peak bone mass according to the WHO guidelines. Results. The RFs of OP were more frequently recorded in the patients with CNID than in the healthy individuals. RFs, such as smoking, low physical activity, and

  12. Psoralen Inactivation of Viruses: A Process for the Safe Manipulation of Viral Antigen and Nucleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Schneider

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available High consequence human pathogenic viruses must be handled at biosafety level 2, 3 or 4 and must be rendered non-infectious before they can be utilized for molecular or immunological applications at lower biosafety levels. Here we evaluate psoralen-inactivated Arena-, Bunya-, Corona-, Filo-, Flavi- and Orthomyxoviruses for their suitability as antigen in immunological processes and as template for reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. The method of virus inactivation using a psoralen molecule appears to have broad applicability to RNA viruses and to leave both the particle and RNA of the treated virus intact, while rendering the virus non-infectious.

  13. Viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    BLÁHOVÁ, Adéla

    2012-01-01

    The aim of my thesis is to provide a comprehensive overview of the viral marketing and to analyze selected viral campaigns. There is a description of advantages and disadvantages of this marketing tool. In the end I suggest for which companies viral marketing is an appropriate form of the promotion.

  14. Viral particles drive rapid differentiation of memory B cells into secondary plasma cells producing increased levels of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabel, Franziska; Mohanan, Deepa; Bessa, Juliana; Link, Alexander; Fettelschoss, Antonia; Saudan, Philippe; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2014-06-15

    Extensive studies have been undertaken to describe naive B cells differentiating into memory B cells at a cellular and molecular level. However, relatively little is known about the fate of memory B cells upon Ag re-encounter. We have previously established a system based on virus-like particles (VLPs), which allows tracking of VLP-specific B cells by flow cytometry as well as histology. Using allotype markers, it is possible to adoptively transfer memory B cells into a naive mouse and track responses of naive and memory B cells in the same mouse under physiological conditions. We have observed that VLP-specific memory B cells quickly differentiated into plasma cells that drove the early onset of a strong humoral IgG response. However, neither IgM(+) nor IgG(+) memory B cells proliferated extensively or entered germinal centers. Remarkably, plasma cells derived from memory B cells preferentially homed to the bone marrow earlier and secreted increased levels of Abs when compared with primary plasma cells derived from naive B cells. Hence, memory B cells have the unique phenotype to differentiate into highly effective secondary plasma cells.

  15. Microvesicles and Viral Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, David G.; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Cells secrete various membrane-enclosed microvesicles from their cell surface (shedding microvesicles) and from internal, endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). Intriguingly, these vesicles have many characteristics in common with enveloped viruses, including biophysical properties, biogenesis, and uptake by cells. Recent discoveries describing the microvesicle-mediated intercellular transfer of functional cellular proteins, RNAs, and mRNAs have revealed additional similarities between viruses and cellular microvesicles. Apparent differences include the complexity of viral entry, temporally regulated viral expression, and self-replication proceeding to infection of new cells. Interestingly, many virally infected cells secrete microvesicles that differ in content from their virion counterparts but may contain various viral proteins and RNAs. For the most part, these particles have not been analyzed for their content or functions during viral infection. However, early studies of microvesicles (L-particles) secreted from herpes simplex virus-infected cells provided the first evidence of microvesicle-mediated intercellular communication. In the case of Epstein-Barr virus, recent evidence suggests that this tumorigenic herpesvirus also utilizes exosomes as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of signaling competent proteins and functional microRNAs to uninfected cells. This review focuses on aspects of the biology of microvesicles with an emphasis on their potential contributions to viral infection and pathogenesis. PMID:21976651

  16. Microvesicles and viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckes, David G; Raab-Traub, Nancy

    2011-12-01

    Cells secrete various membrane-enclosed microvesicles from their cell surface (shedding microvesicles) and from internal, endosome-derived membranes (exosomes). Intriguingly, these vesicles have many characteristics in common with enveloped viruses, including biophysical properties, biogenesis, and uptake by cells. Recent discoveries describing the microvesicle-mediated intercellular transfer of functional cellular proteins, RNAs, and mRNAs have revealed additional similarities between viruses and cellular microvesicles. Apparent differences include the complexity of viral entry, temporally regulated viral expression, and self-replication proceeding to infection of new cells. Interestingly, many virally infected cells secrete microvesicles that differ in content from their virion counterparts but may contain various viral proteins and RNAs. For the most part, these particles have not been analyzed for their content or functions during viral infection. However, early studies of microvesicles (L-particles) secreted from herpes simplex virus-infected cells provided the first evidence of microvesicle-mediated intercellular communication. In the case of Epstein-Barr virus, recent evidence suggests that this tumorigenic herpesvirus also utilizes exosomes as a mechanism of cell-to-cell communication through the transfer of signaling competent proteins and functional microRNAs to uninfected cells. This review focuses on aspects of the biology of microvesicles with an emphasis on their potential contributions to viral infection and pathogenesis.

  17. No effect of mitochondrial genotype on reproductive plasticity following exposure to a non-infectious pathogen challenge in female or male Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nystrand, M.; Cassidy, E. J.; Dowling, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genetic variation shapes the expression of life-history traits associated with reproduction, development and survival, and has also been associated with the prevalence and progression of infectious bacteria and viruses in humans. The breadth of these effects on multifaceted components of health, and their link to disease susceptibility, led us to test whether variation across mitochondrial haplotypes affected reproductive success following an immune challenge in the form of a non-infectious pathogen. We test this, by challenging male and female fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), harbouring each of three distinct mitochondrial haplotypes in an otherwise standardized genetic background, to either a mix of heat-killed bacteria, or a procedural control, prior to measuring their subsequent reproductive performance. The effect of the pathogen challenge on reproductive success did not differ across mitochondrial haplotypes; thus there was no evidence that patterns of reproductive plasticity were modified by the mitochondrial genotype following a non-infectious pathogen exposure. We discuss the implications of our data, and suggest future research avenues based on these results. PMID:28181526

  18. Viral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Barott, Katie

    2013-03-01

    Viruses are major drivers of global biogeochemistry and the etiological agents of many diseases. They are also the winners in the game of life: there are more viruses on the planet than cellular organisms and they encode most of the genetic diversity on the planet. In fact, it is reasonable to view life as a viral incubator. Nevertheless, most ecological and evolutionary theories were developed, and continue to be developed, without considering the virosphere. This means these theories need to be to reinterpreted in light of viral knowledge or we need to develop new theory from the viral point-of-view. Here we briefly introduce our viral planet and then address a major outstanding question in biology: why is most of life viral? A key insight is that during an infection cycle the original virus is completely broken down and only the associated information is passed on to the next generation. This is different for cellular organisms, which must pass on some physical part of themselves from generation to generation. Based on this premise, it is proposed that the thermodynamic consequences of physical information (e.g., Landauer's principle) are observed in natural viral populations. This link between physical and genetic information is then used to develop the Viral Information Hypothesis, which states that genetic information replicates itself to the detriment of system energy efficiency (i.e., is viral in nature). Finally, we show how viral information can be tested, and illustrate how this novel view can explain existing ecological and evolutionary theories from more fundamental principles.

  19. VIRAL MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    OLENTSOVA Y.A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This project seeks to investigate how the company Gitz can create awareness towards their brand by using viral marketing. To do this we analyze which elements of viral marketing the company can use, to reach their goal. In order to utilize the selected tools of viral marketing best possible, we need to figure out the company’s customer segment and figure out how to reach that segment. This has been done with the use of Henrik Dahl’s Minerva-model that divides the population into f...

  20. Advances in pharmacotherapy of non-infectious pediatric uveitis%非感染性儿童葡萄膜炎药物治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋燕妮; 杨培增

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric uveitis is one of the common visual-threatening diseases . It′s difficult to make diagnosis because of the insidious onset of the disease and the poor representation of the children , thus brings a lot of difficulties on treatment and causes various complications . Non-infectious pediatric uveitis is the most common in pediatric uveitis. In the past , corticosteroids have long been the mainstay of therapy. However , the significant associated adverse reactions limit their usage on children. In this review , we covered the latest therapeutic options for non-infectious pediatric uveitis including corticosteroids, immunosuppressive agents, and wildly used biological agents nowadays.%儿童葡萄膜炎是儿童致盲常见疾病之一。该病起病隐匿,加之儿童表述能力差,从而延误诊断,给治疗上带来诸多困难并可造成多种并发症。非感染性儿童葡萄膜炎是最常见的儿童葡萄膜炎,糖皮质激素以往一直被用来治疗该病,但因其长期使用可造成严重不良反应而限制了其在儿童中的使用。现就非感染性儿童葡萄膜炎的药物治疗进展进行综述,包括糖皮质激素、免疫抑制剂以及近年来广泛应用于葡萄膜炎的生物制剂。

  1. Viral arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious arthritis - viral ... Arthritis may be a symptom of many virus-related illnesses. It usually disappears on its own without ... the rubella vaccine, only a few people develop arthritis. No risk factors are known.

  2. Viral quasispecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andino, Raul; Domingo, Esteban

    2015-05-01

    New generation sequencing is greatly expanding the capacity to examine the composition of mutant spectra of viral quasispecies in infected cells and host organisms. Here we review recent progress in the understanding of quasispecies dynamics, notably the occurrence of intra-mutant spectrum interactions, and implications of fitness landscapes for virus adaptation and de-adaptation. Complementation or interference can be established among components of the same mutant spectrum, dependent on the mutational status of the ensemble. Replicative fitness relates to an optimal mutant spectrum that provides the molecular basis for phenotypic flexibility, with implications for antiviral therapy. The biological impact of viral fitness renders particularly relevant the capacity of new generation sequencing to establish viral fitness landscapes. Progress with experimental model systems is becoming an important asset to understand virus behavior in the more complex environments faced during natural infections.

  3. Low temperature-dependent salmonid alphavirus glycoprotein processing and recombinant virus-like particle formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan W Metz

    Full Text Available Pancreas disease (PD and sleeping disease (SD are important viral scourges in aquaculture of Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. The etiological agent of PD and SD is salmonid alphavirus (SAV, an unusual member of the Togaviridae (genus Alphavirus. SAV replicates at lower temperatures in fish. Outbreaks of SAV are associated with large economic losses of ~17 to 50 million $/year. Current control strategies rely on vaccination with inactivated virus formulations that are cumbersome to obtain and have intrinsic safety risks. In this research we were able to obtain non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs of SAV via expression of recombinant baculoviruses encoding SAV capsid protein and two major immunodominant viral glycoproteins, E1 and E2 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 insect cells. However, this was only achieved when a temperature shift from 27°C to lower temperatures was applied. At 27°C, precursor E2 (PE2 was misfolded and not processed by host furin into mature E2. Hence, E2 was detected neither on the surface of infected cells nor as VLPs in the culture fluid. However, when temperatures during protein expression were lowered, PE2 was processed into mature E2 in a temperature-dependent manner and VLPs were abundantly produced. So, temperature shift-down during synthesis is a prerequisite for correct SAV glycoprotein processing and recombinant VLP production.

  4. Chimeric classical swine fever (CSF)-Japanese encephalitis (JE) viral particles as a non-transmissible bivalent marker vaccine candidate against CSF and JE infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trans-complemented CSF- JE chimeric viral replicon was constructed using an infectious cDNA clone of the CSF virus (CSFV) Alfort/187 strain. The E2 gene of CSFV Alfort/187 strain was deleted and the resultant plasmid pA187delE2 was inserted by a fragment containing the region coding for a truncate...

  5. Exploring the viral world through metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Karyna; Breitbart, Mya

    2011-10-01

    Viral metagenomics, or shotgun sequencing of purified viral particles, has revolutionized the field of environmental virology by allowing the exploration of viral communities in a variety of sample types throughout the biosphere. The introduction of viral metagenomics has demonstrated that dominant viruses in environmental communities are not well-represented by the cultured viruses in existing sequence databases. Viral metagenomic studies have provided insights into viral ecology by elucidating the genetic potential, community structure, and biogeography of environmental viruses. In addition, viral metagenomics has expanded current knowledge of virus-host interactions by uncovering genes that may allow viruses to manipulate their hosts in unexpected ways. The intrinsic potential for virus discovery through viral metagenomics can help advance a wide array of disciplines including evolutionary biology, pathogen surveillance, and biotechnology.

  6. Viral epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milavetz, Barry I; Balakrishnan, Lata

    2015-01-01

    DNA tumor viruses including members of the polyomavirus, adenovirus, papillomavirus, and herpes virus families are presently the subject of intense interest with respect to the role that epigenetics plays in control of the virus life cycle and the transformation of a normal cell to a cancer cell. To date, these studies have primarily focused on the role of histone modification, nucleosome location, and DNA methylation in regulating the biological consequences of infection. Using a wide variety of strategies and techniques ranging from simple ChIP to ChIP-chip and ChIP-seq to identify histone modifications, nuclease digestion to genome wide next generation sequencing to identify nucleosome location, and bisulfite treatment to MeDIP to identify DNA methylation sites, the epigenetic regulation of these viruses is slowly becoming better understood. While the viruses may differ in significant ways from each other and cellular chromatin, the role of epigenetics appears to be relatively similar. Within the viral genome nucleosomes are organized for the expression of appropriate genes with relevant histone modifications particularly histone acetylation. DNA methylation occurs as part of the typical gene silencing during latent infection by herpesviruses. In the simple tumor viruses like the polyomaviruses, adenoviruses, and papillomaviruses, transformation of the cell occurs via integration of the virus genome such that the virus's normal regulation is disrupted. This results in the unregulated expression of critical viral genes capable of redirecting cellular gene expression. The redirected cellular expression is a consequence of either indirect epigenetic regulation where cellular signaling or transcriptional dysregulation occurs or direct epigenetic regulation where epigenetic cofactors such as histone deacetylases are targeted. In the more complex herpersviruses transformation is a consequence of the expression of the viral latency proteins and RNAs which again can

  7. A step-wise approach to define binding mechanisms of surrogate viral particles to multi-modal anion exchange resin in a single solute system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Matthew R; Johnson, Sarah A; Brorson, Kurt A; Lute, Scott C; Roush, David J

    2017-07-01

    Multi-modal anion exchange resins combine properties of both anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography for commercial protein polishing and may provide some viral clearance as well. From a regulatory viral clearance claim standpoint, it is unclear if multi-modal resins are truly orthogonal to either single-mode anion exchange or hydrophobic interaction columns. To answer this, a strategy of solute surface assays and High Throughput Screening of resin in concert with a scale-down model of large scale chromatography purification was employed to determine the predominant binding mechanisms of a panel of bacteriophage (i.e., PR772, PP7, and ϕX174) to multi-modal and single mode resins under various buffer conditions. The buffer conditions were restricted to buffer environments suggested by the manufacturer for the multi-modal resin. Each phage was examined for estimated net charge expression and relative hydrophobicity using chromatographic based methods. Overall, PP7 and PR772 bound to the multimodal resin via both anionic and hydrophobic moieties, while ϕX174 bound predominantly by the anionic moiety. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1487-1494. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The value of procalcitonin and the SAPS II and APACHE III scores in the differentiation of infectious and non-infectious fever in the ICU: a prospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun Ju; Jung, Jae Woo; Choi, Jae Chol; Shin, Jong Wook; Park, In Won; Choi, Byoung Whui; Park, Ae Ja; Kim, Jae Yeol

    2010-11-01

    Early and accurate differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever is vitally important in the intensive care unit (ICU). In the present study, patients admitted to the medical ICU were screened daily from August 2008 to February 2009. Within 24 hr after the development of fever (>38.3℃), serum was collected for the measurement of the procalcitonin (PCT) and high mobility group B 1 levels. Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) III scores were also analyzed. Sixty-three patients developed fever among 448 consecutive patients (14.1%). Fever was caused by either infectious (84.1%) or non-infectious processes (15.9%). Patients with fever due to infectious causes showed higher values of serum PCT (7.8±10.2 vs 0.5±0.2 ng/mL, P=0.026), SAPS II (12.0±3.8 vs 7.6±2.7, P=0.006), and APACHE III (48±20 vs 28.7±13.3, P=0.039) than those with non-infectious fever. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the area under the curve was 0.726 (95% CI; 0.587-0.865) for PCT, 0.759 (95% CI; 0.597-0.922) for SAPS II, and 0.715 (95% CI; 0.550-0.880) for APACHE III. Serum PCT, SAPS II, and APACHE III are useful in the differentiation between infectious and non-infectious fever in the ICU.

  9. Viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottwein, Judith M; Bukh, Jens

    2013-01-01

    With millions of humans infected yearly with HCV, leading to cirrhosis and cancer, a vaccine is urgently needed. Cultured virus particles constitute the antigen in most antiviral vaccines. A study in mice demonstrated induction of neutralizing antibodies by immunization with cell-culture-derived ...

  10. Retrospective detection by negative contrast electron microscopy of faecal viral particles in free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) with suspected enteropathy in Great Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest, D J; Stidworthy, M F; Milne, E M; Meredith, A L; Chantrey, J; Shuttleworth, C; Blackett, T; Butler, H; Wilkinson, M; Sainsbury, A W

    2010-12-25

    Transmission electron microscopy identified adenovirus particles in 10 of 70 (14.3 per cent) samples of large intestinal content collected at postmortem examination from free-living wild red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) across Great Britain between 2000 and 2009. Examination was limited to cases in which an enteropathy was suspected on the basis of predetermined macroscopic criteria such as semi-solid or diarrhoeic faeces, suspected enteritis or the presence of intussusception. In most cases, meaningful histological examination of enteric tissue was not possible due to pronounced autolysis. Two (2.9 per cent) of the samples were negative for adenovirus but were found to contain rotavirus particles, a novel finding in this species.

  11. Immunoreactivity and trypsin sensitivity of recombinant virus-like particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basagoudanavar, S H; Hosamani, M; Tamil, R P; Sreenivasa, B P; Chandrasekhar, B K; Venkataramanan, R

    2015-03-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an important infection affecting the health and productivity of cloven-hoofed livestock. Development of improved vaccines and diagnostic reagents is being explored to facilitate the disease control. There is an emerging interest in virus-like particles (VLPs), as their constituent structural proteins are the major immunogens. The VLPs are similar to natural virus particles but lack viral nucleic acid. The objective of the present study was to express the VLPs of FMD virus (FMDV) serotype Asia-1 (IND 63/72), using baculovirus system and characterize them for antigenic structure. The VLPs expressed in insect cells showed immunoreactivity similar to inactivated cell culture FMDV. Further they possess similar sensitivity to trypsin as the inactivated cell culture FMDV, suggesting that trypsin-sensitive antigenic sites could be similarly arranged. Our findings suggest that the FMD VLPs have similar antigenic conformational feature like the wild type virus, thus supporting their utility in development of non-infectious FMD vaccines and/or diagnostic assays.

  12. Effects of the number of amino acid residues in the signal segment upstream or downstream of the NS2B-3 cleavage site on production and secretion of prM/M-E virus-like particles of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hidehiro; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Maeda-Sato, Masae; Tanaka, Michiko; Tanaka, Keiko; Sawa, Hirofumi; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Takamizawa, Akihisa; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Hasegawa, Hideki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hall, William W; Kurata, Takeshi; Kojima, Asato

    2009-11-01

    Expression of genes for precursor M (prM) and envelope (E) proteins of West Nile virus (WNV) leads to the production of small, capsidless, and non-infectious virus-like particles (VLPs) possessing the E antigen which is responsible for viral entry and immune protection. It has been reported that processing of the secretion signal affects viral release. We examined the secretion efficiency of VLPs into the culture medium from RK13 or 293T cells transfected with expression vectors for prM and E proteins of WNV which were constructed to comprise different lengths of signal peptides upstream of the prM-E domain. The number of amino acid residues present in the segment markedly affected the production, processing, and secretion of VLPs. Secreted VLPs possessed both the processed M protein and the glycosylated E protein. In addition, immunization with VLPs induced neutralizing antibodies in C3H/HeN mice. These results indicate that the number of amino acid residues comprising the N-terminus of the signal segment controls the efficiency of assembly, maturation, and release of VLPs in the absence of viral protease, which in turn indicates the potential of VLPs as a candidate for an effective WNV subunit vaccine.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF CORTISONE ON EXPERIMENTAL VIRAL INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourne, Edwin D.

    1957-01-01

    The administration of cortisone to chicken embryos infected with influenza B virus results in (a) an initial inhibition of viral synthesis and (b) an eventual increase in the final yield of virus attained. Increased yields of virus are attained regardless of the number of viral particles in the infecting inoculum or the proportion of particles which are infective. Changes in the distribution ratios of allantoic fluid and intramembrane virus are effected by cortisone only as the secondary result of reduction in viral synthesis. The manifest effect of cortisone on influenza A virus increase is inhibitory unless inocula containing relatively high proportions of inactive viral particles are used. PMID:13481248

  14. Viral communities associated with human pericardial fluids in idiopathic pericarditis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Fancello

    Full Text Available Pericarditis is a common human disease defined by inflammation of the pericardium. Currently, 40% to 85% of pericarditis cases have no identified etiology. Most of these cases are thought to be caused by an infection of undetected, unsuspected or unknown viruses. In this work, we used a culture- and sequence-independent approach to investigate the viral DNA communities present in human pericardial fluids. Seven viral metagenomes were generated from the pericardial fluid of patients affected by pericarditis of unknown etiology and one metagenome was generated from the pericardial fluid of a sudden infant death case. As a positive control we generated one metagenome from the pericardial fluid of a patient affected by pericarditis caused by herpesvirus type 3. Furthermore, we used as negative controls a total of 6 pericardial fluids from 6 different individuals affected by pericarditis of non-infectious origin: 5 of them were sequenced as a unique pool and the remaining one was sequenced separately. The results showed a significant presence of torque teno viruses especially in one patient, while herpesviruses and papillomaviruses were present in the positive control. Co-infections by different genotypes of the same viral type (torque teno viruses or different viruses (herpesviruses and papillomaviruses were observed. Sequences related to bacteriophages infecting Staphylococcus, Enterobacteria, Streptococcus, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas were also detected in three patients. This study detected torque teno viruses and papillomaviruses, for the first time, in human pericardial fluids.

  15. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Koyama

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine “Max” (PEI “Max”, is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI “Max”/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice.

  16. Highly Effective Non-Viral Antitumor Gene Therapy System Comprised of Biocompatible Small Plasmid Complex Particles Consisting of pDNA, Anionic Polysaccharide, and Fully Deprotected Linear Polyethylenimine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Kikuya; Yoshihara, Chieko; Inaba, Toshio; Ito, Tomoko

    2015-07-23

    We have reported that ternary complexes of plasmid DNA with conventional linear polyethylenimine (l-PEI) and certain polyanions were very stably dispersed, and, with no cryoprotectant, they could be freeze-dried and re-hydrated without the loss of transfection ability. These properties enabled the preparation of a concentrated suspension of very small pDNA complex, by preparing the complexes at highly diluted conditions, followed by condensation via lyophilization-and-rehydration procedure. Recently, a high potency linear polyethylenimine having no residual protective groups, i.e., Polyethylenimine "Max" (PEI "Max"), is available, which has been reported to induce much higher gene expression than conventional l-PEI. We tried to prepare the small DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion complexes by a similar freeze-drying method. Small complex particles could be obtained without apparent aggregation, but transfection activity of the rehydrated complexes was severely reduced. Complex-preparation conditions were investigated in details to achieve the freeze-dried DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion small ternary complexes with high transfection efficiency. DNA/PEI "Max"/polyanion complexes containing cytokine-coding plasmids were then prepared, and their anti-tumor therapeutic efficacy was examined in tumor-bearing mice.

  17. CD4+ T cell-mediated presentation of non-infectious HIV-1virion antigens to HIV-specific CD8+ T cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-qing; Franco Lori; Julianna Lisziewicz

    2006-01-01

    Background The mechanism of chronic immune activation and impairment of HIV-specific immune responses during chronic infection is not fully understood. However, it is known that high immune activation leads to more rapid progression to AIDS. We hypothesize that CD4+ T cell-mediated viral antigen presentation contributes to this pathologic immune activation in HIV-infected individuals.Methods HIV-specific T cells, responding to noninfectious HIV-1 virions as antigen, were measured by flow cytometric assays. These experimental conditions reflect the in vivo condition where noninfectious HIV-1 represents more than 99% of the antigens.Results CD4+ T cells purified from HIV-infected individuals were capable of cross presenting exogenous noninfectious HIV-1 virions to HIV-1-specific CD8+ T cells. Cross presentation required the entry of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells and antigen translocation from endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. Blocking CD4+mediated activation of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells and redirecting the viral antigens to antigen presenting cells improved HIV-specific T cell responses.Conclusions One possible cause of chronic immune activation and impairment of HIV-1 specific T cell responses is represented by HIV-1 harboring CD4+ T cells cross presenting HIV-1 antigen to activate CD8+ T cells. This new mechanism provides the first evidence that cross presentation of noninfectious HIV-1. Virions play a role in the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1 infection.

  18. Influenza virus-like particles produced by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana induce a protective immune response against a lethal viral challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aoust, Marc-André; Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier; Couture, Manon M-J; Trépanier, Sonia; Guay, Jean-Martin; Dargis, Michèle; Mongrand, Sébastien; Landry, Nathalie; Ward, Brian J; Vézina, Louis-P

    2008-12-01

    A strain-specific vaccine represents the best possible response to the threat of an influenza pandemic. Rapid delivery of such a vaccine to the world's population before the peak of the first infection wave seems to be an unattainable goal with the current influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity. Plant-based transient expression is one of the few production systems that can meet the anticipated surge requirement. To assess the capability of plant agroinfiltration to produce an influenza vaccine, we expressed haemagglutinin (HA) from strains A/Indonesia/5/05 (H5N1) and A/New Caledonia/20/99 (H1N1) by agroinfiltration of Nicotiana benthamiana plants. Size distribution analysis of protein content in infiltrated leaves revealed that HA was predominantly assembled into high-molecular-weight structures. H5-containing structures were purified and examination by transmission electron microscopy confirmed virus-like particle (VLP) assembly. High-performance thin layer chromatography analysis of VLP lipid composition highlighted polar and neutral lipid contents comparable with those of purified plasma membranes from tobacco plants. Electron microscopy of VLP-producing cells in N. benthamiana leaves confirmed that VLPs accumulated in apoplastic indentations of the plasma membrane. Finally, immunization of mice with two doses of as little as 0.1 microg of purified influenza H5-VLPs triggered a strong immune response against the homologous virus, whereas two doses of 0.5 microg of H5-VLPs conferred complete protection against a lethal challenge with the heterologous A/Vietnam/1194/04 (H5N1) strain. These results show, for the first time, that plants are capable of producing enveloped influenza VLPs budding from the plasma membrane; such VLPs represent very promising candidates for vaccination against influenza pandemic strains.

  19. Immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen composed of simian immunodeficiency virus DNA, rMVA, and viral particles administered to female rhesus macaques via four different mucosal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Mariana; Kozlowski, Pamela A; Cobo-Molinos, Antonio; Wang, Shainn-Wei; Wilson, Robert L; Montefiori, David C; Carville, Angela; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the immunity stimulated with a vaccine regimen that includes simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and IL-15 DNAs, recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA), and inactivated SIVmac239 particles administered into the oral and nasal cavities, small intestine, and vagina was carried out in female rhesus macaques to determine the best route to induce diverse anti-SIV immunity that may be critical to protection from SIV infection and disease. All four immunizations generated mucosal SIV-specific IgA. Oral immunization was as effective as vaginal immunization in inducing SIV-specific IgA in vaginal secretions and generated greater IgA responses in rectal secretions and saliva samples compared to the other immunization routes. All four immunizations stimulated systemic T-cell responses against Gag and Env, albeit to a different extent, with oral immunization providing greater magnitude and nasal immunization providing wider functional heterogeneity. SIV-specific T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) dominated these responses. Limited levels of SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in plasma samples, and no SIV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in secretions. Vaccination also induced CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell responses in the rectal and vaginal mucosa with greater functional heterogeneity than in blood samples. Rectal T-cell responses were significantly greater in the orally vaccinated animals than in the other animals. The most balanced, diverse, and higher-magnitude vaginal T-cell responses were observed after intestinal vaccination. Significantly higher CD8(+) granzyme B-positive T-cell responses were observed systemically after intestinal vaccination and in rectal cells after oral immunization. The majority of SIV-specific T cells that produced granzyme B did not produce cytokines. Of the immunization routes tested, oral vaccination provided the most diverse and significant response to the vaccine.

  20. A viral-human interactome based on structural motif-domain interactions captures the human infectome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Segura-Cabrera

    Full Text Available Protein interactions between a pathogen and its host are fundamental in the establishment of the pathogen and underline the infection mechanism. In the present work, we developed a single predictive model for building a host-viral interactome based on the identification of structural descriptors from motif-domain interactions of protein complexes deposited in the Protein Data Bank (PDB. The structural descriptors were used for searching, in a database of protein sequences of human and five clinically important viruses; therefore, viral and human proteins sharing a descriptor were predicted as interacting proteins. The analysis of the host-viral interactome allowed to identify a set of new interactions that further explain molecular mechanism associated with viral infections and showed that it was able to capture human proteins already associated to viral infections (human infectome and non-infectious diseases (human diseasome. The analysis of human proteins targeted by viral proteins in the context of a human interactome showed that their neighbors are enriched in proteins reported with differential expression under infection and disease conditions. It is expected that the findings of this work will contribute to the development of systems biology for infectious diseases, and help guide the rational identification and prioritization of novel drug targets.

  1. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact nature of the HA conformational changes that deliver the energy required for fusion remains poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HA structure and dynamics, describes recent single-particle experiments and modeling studies, and discusses their role in understanding how multiple HAs mediate fusion. These approaches provide a mechanistic picture in which HAs independently and stochastically insert into the target membrane, forming a cluster of HAs that is collectively able to overcome the barrier to membrane fusion. The new experimental and modeling approaches described in this review hold promise for a more complete understanding of other viral fusion systems and the protein systems responsible for cellular fusion.

  2. Production and Evaluation of Virus-Like Particles Displaying Immunogenic Epitopes of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Mosale Venkatesh Murthy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is the most significant infectious disease currently affecting the swine industry worldwide. Several inactivated and modified live vaccines (MLV have been developed to curb PRRSV infections. However, the efficacy and safety of these vaccines are unsatisfactory, and hence, there is a strong demand for the development of new PRRS universal vaccines. Virus-like particle (VLP-based vaccines are gaining increasing acceptance compared to subunit vaccines, as they present the antigens in a more veritable conformation and are readily recognized by the immune system. Hepatitis B virus core antigen (HBcAg has been successfully used as a carrier for more than 100 viral sequences. In this study, hybrid HBcAg VLPs were generated by fusion of the conserved protective epitopes of PRRSV and expressed in E. coli. An optimized purification protocol was developed to obtain hybrid HBcAg VLP protein from the inclusion bodies. This hybrid HBcAg VLP protein self-assembled to 23-nm VLPs that were shown to block virus infection of susceptible cells when tested on MARC 145 cells. Together with the safety of non-infectious and non-replicable VLPs and the low cost of production through E. coli fermentation, this hybrid VLP could be a promising vaccine candidate for PRRS.

  3. 新生儿非感染性腹泻乳糖不耐受发生情况调查%Lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏慧敏; 姜毅; 胡玉莲; 杨慧; 董天津

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo investigate the development of lactose intolerance in neonates with non-infectious diarrhea and its association with diarrhea, and to evaluate the diagnostic values of fecal pH value and urine galactose determination for neonatal lactase deifciency.MethodsSeventy hospitalized neonates who developed non-infectious diarrhea between October 2012 and June 2015 were enrolled as the diarrhea group, and 162 hospitalized neonates without non-infectious diarrhea were enrolled as the non-diarrhea group. Test paper was used to determine fecal pH value. The galactose oxidase method was used to detect urine galactose. The neonates with positive galactose oxidase were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, and those with lactase deficiency and diarrhea were diagnosed with lactose intolerance. According to the results of urine galactose detection, 69 neonates in the diarrhea group who underwent urine galactose detection were classiifed into lactose intolerance group (45 neonates) and lactose tolerance group (24 neonates), and their conditions after treatment were compared between the two groups. The follow-up visits were performed for neonates with diarrhea at 3 months after discharge.ResultsFecal pH value and positive rate of urine galactose (65% vs 54%) showed no signiifcant differences between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups (P>0.05). Fecal pH value showed no signiifcant difference between the lactose intolerance and lactose tolerance groups (P>0.05), while the neonates in the lactose intolerance group had a signiifcantly longer time to recovery of defecation than those in the lactose tolerance group (P0.05)。乳糖不耐受和耐受组腹泻患儿大便pH值比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),乳糖不耐受患儿大便恢复时间比耐受组患儿长(P<0.05)。结论新生儿乳糖酶缺乏发生率高,易发生乳糖不耐受性腹泻。大便pH值测定对判断腹泻患儿乳糖不耐受意义不大。

  4. Viral Marketing Past Present Future

    OpenAIRE

    Nessipbekova, Zarina

    2010-01-01

    The work studies the viral marketing. These are past viral campaigns, viral campaigns today, and evaluates their actuality. The work tries to predict the development of viral marketing on the basis of the research done by the author.

  5. Experience of Prof. ZHU Shan for treating non-infectious diarrhea in children%朱珊教授治疗小儿非感染性腹泻经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周怡锦; 朱珊

    2015-01-01

    Non-infectious diarrhea in children is a common pediatric gastrointestinal disease. Based on years of clinical experience, Prof. ZHU Shan found that Pixu and Shisheng is a key factor of pathogenesis, should be treated by Jianpi Huashi. The disease was divided into Shangshi, Shire, and Pixu, it treated in differentiation can achieve good effects.%小儿非感染性腹泻是儿科消化道常见疾病。朱珊教授依据多年临床经验总结发现,脾虚和湿盛是其发病的关键因素,治疗当以健脾化湿为基本治则,临床将其常症分为伤食泻、湿热泻和脾虚泻三大类。并自拟方药对证治疗,临床效果显著。

  6. The Effect of Different Dosing Schedules of Intravitreal Sirolimus, a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Inhibitor, in the Treatment of Non-Infectious Uveitis (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quan Dong; Sadiq, Mohammad Ali; Soliman, Mohamed Kamel; Agarwal, Aniruddha; Do, Diana V; Sepah, Yasir J

    2016-08-01

    To determine if two different doses of intravitreal sirolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, can decrease inflammation and is safe in eyes with non-infectious posterior, intermediate, or panuveitis in the Sirolimus as a Therapeutic Approach UVEitis: Protocol-2 (SAVE-2) Study. SAVE-2 is a prospective randomized, phase II, open-label interventional clinical trial conducted at 4 clinical centers in the United States. Eligible subjects were randomized into one of two treatments. Group 1 received 440µg of intravitreal sirolimus in study eyes on days 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150; group 2 received 880µg of intravitreal sirolimus on days 0, 60, and 120. Fellow eyes were also eligible to receive sirolimus (of opposite dose to that of study eye). Primary endpoint of the study was at month 6 (M6). 24 subjects have been randomized in SAVE-2 and are included in the analysis. Vitreous haze decreased by ≥2 steps in 63.6% and 50% of patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively at M6 (p=0.695). Mean change in best-corrected visual acuity for subjects was +3.66 and -2.91 ETDRS letters in group 1 and 2, respectively. Among subjects with macular edema at baseline (n=13), the mean change in foveal thickness was -89.42µm in group 1 and +81.5µm in group 2 at M6. Both low and high doses of intravitreal sirolimus were found to decrease vitreous haze in eyes with non-infectious uveitis. Low dose (440µg) sirolimus administered monthly may be more efficacious in reducing uveitic macular edema than high dose (880µg) administered every 2 months.

  7. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  8. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic infecti

  9. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  10. 女性非感染性尿道综合征与焦虑障碍的相关性%Correlation between female non-infectious urethral syndrome and anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祥文; 贾中尉; 李丽华; 夏敬彪

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cause of non-infectious urethral syndrome and to find appropriate treatment for it. Methods 117 adult female patients were divided into two groups by diagnostic criteria: non-infectious urethral syndrome group (group A, n=46) and urinary tract infection group (group B, n=71). All the patients were tested by Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for anxiety and depression before and after treatment The incidence of anxiety disorders, changes in anxiety scores before and after treatment, physical and mental anxiety score weights were compared between the two groups. Results The incidences of anxiety disorders of group A and group B were 84.78% and 7.04% respectively, showing statistically significant difference (P<0.01). No significant difference was found in the incidence of depression between the two groups (P<0.05). HAMA scores of group A were (23.56±7.71) before treatment and (9.34±2.42) after treatment, with a significant statistical difference, while the score in group B showed no statistically significant difference before and after treatment (P<0.01). In group A, somatic anxiety scores were significantly higher than mental anxiety scores (P<0.01). Conclusion Female non-infectious urethral syndrome and anxiety disorders are closely related. Psychological intervention and/or anti-anxiety drug treatment are effective for them.%目的 探讨非感染性尿道综合征患者的病因,寻找合适的治疗方法.方法 分别对非感染性尿道综合征组(A组)和尿路感染组(B组)的成年女性患者治疗前后,采用汉米尔顿焦虑抑郁量表进行焦虑抑郁障碍检测,比较两组患者焦虑障碍的发生率、治疗前后焦虑评分的变化及非感染性尿道综合征组躯体、精神焦虑评分的权重.结果 A组、B组焦虑障碍的发生率分别为84.78%、7.04%,两组比较差异有显著的统计学意义(P<0.01),而抑郁障碍两组比较差异无统计学意义((P>0.05);A组

  11. Clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine comprehensive therapy in the treatment of children with non-infectious diarrhea%中医综合疗法治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春莲

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine comprehensive therapy on children with non-infectious diarrhea.Methods One hundred and twenty cases of non-infectious diarrhea from January 2011 to December 2012 admitted to our hospital were randomly divided into two groups.Sixty patients in the control group were treated with the symptomatic treatment and smecta treatment,60 patients in the observation group were treated with the comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine.The clinical efficacy and the recovery time were compared between the two groups.Results The total effective rate was 83.33% in the observation group and 65.00% in the control group,the difference was significant (x2 =5.39,P < 0.05).The vomiting stopping time,diarrhea stopping time,cooling time,improvement of clinical symptoms,hospitalization time in the observation group were significantly shorter than those in the control group,the differences were statistically significant(P < 0.05).Conclusions The comprehensive therapy of traditional Chinese medicine treatment on non-infectious diarrhea has satisfactory effect,and is worthy of clinical application.%目的 探讨中医综合疗法治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床疗效.方法 将2011年1月至2012年12月济阳县人民医院收治的120例非感染性腹泻患几随机分为两组,对照组60例采用对症治疗加思密达治疗,观察组60例采用中医综合疗法,比较两组疗效和临床康复时间.结果 观察组总有效率为83.33%,对照组为65.00%,观察组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(x2=5.39,P<0.05);观察组患者呕吐停止时间、腹泻停止时间、退热时间、临床症状改善时间、住院时间明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P均<0.05).结论 中医综合疗法治疗非感染性腹泻疗效满意,值得临床推广应用.

  12. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  13. Viral marketing on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Štverák, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Thesis provides an overview of viral marketing. It describes the process by which you can be inspired to implement viral campaign. The thesis includes analysis of specific viral Web project. The aim of this thesis is to create a breakdown of the various components of viral marketing, to establish conditions that should be satisfied for the viral marketing to success, suggesting how to use viral marketing on social network Facebook and evaluate the various components of this service for the pr...

  14. Hepatitis viral aguda

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés; René F Espinosa Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, ...

  15. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-08

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  16. Viral Gastroenteritis (Stomach Flu)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... contaminated food or water, although person-to-person transmission also is possible. Rotavirus. Worldwide, this is the ... contaminated drinking water is a cause of viral diarrhea, in many cases the virus is passed through ...

  17. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  18. Viral quasispecies complexity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Esteban, Juan I; Quer, Josep; Domingo, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Mutant spectrum dynamics (changes in the related mutants that compose viral populations) has a decisive impact on virus behavior. The several platforms of next generation sequencing (NGS) to study viral quasispecies offer a magnifying glass to study viral quasispecies complexity. Several parameters are available to quantify the complexity of mutant spectra, but they have limitations. Here we critically evaluate the information provided by several population diversity indices, and we propose the introduction of some new ones used in ecology. In particular we make a distinction between incidence, abundance and function measures of viral quasispecies composition. We suggest a multidimensional approach (complementary information contributed by adequately chosen indices), propose some guidelines, and illustrate the use of indices with a simple example. We apply the indices to three clinical samples of hepatitis C virus that display different population heterogeneity. Areas of virus biology in which population complexity plays a role are discussed.

  19. [Efficiency evaluation of non-infectious uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krásná, J; Mezerová, V; Krásný, J

    2013-08-01

    Authors compared clinical and economic effeciency of treatment of the classical corticosteroids therapy and modern immunosuppressive treatment or their combination. Retrospective evaluation carried out in 2012, covering 2006-2011, monitored sample of 27 patients, 16 women and 11 men, 45 eyes with disabilities. The average age in the last year of follow-up monitoring was 30.2, ranging from 14 to 76 years. The mean duration of disease for the whole sample is 16.5 years with a range from 6 to 36 years. Three basic diagnoses were included in investigated group: chronic iridocyclitis in 59 % of eyes, intermediate uveitis in 30 % of eyes and sympathetic ophthalmia in 11 % of eyes. The optimal treatment not be determined, however, combined corticosteroid sparing therapy was the most beneficial to maintain in terms of visual acuity with minimal side effects and cost effectiveness. Successful outcomes of treatment were observed for intermediate uveitis, because the visual acuity improved in nine letetters of ETDRS chart in the study. Satisfactory treatment was proved in chronic iridocyclitis and sympathetic ophthalmia in general, because visual acuity improved in a few letters of ETDRS chart, in the same line as in the beginning of the six-year follow-up. Rounded average annual prize for treatment including pharmacotherapy, outpatient and inpatient care and laboratory follow-up was in chronic iridocyclitis € 990, in intermediate uveitis € 310 and sympathetic ophthalmia € 1550. Pharmacotherapy exceeded the financial appraisal of specialized medical and inpatient care in total cost. Key words: uveitis, corticosteorids, immunosuppression, costeffectivness.

  20. Treatment of viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Renan Barros

    2009-03-01

    Several viruses may cause central nervous system diseases with a broad range of clinical manifestations. The time course of the viral encephalitis can be acute, subacute, or chronic. Pathologically there are encephalitis with direct viral entry into the CNS in which brain parenchyma exhibits neuronal damaging and viral antigens and there are postinfectious autoimmune encephalitis associated with systemic viral infections with brain tissue presenting perivascular aggregation of immune cells and myelin damaging. Some virus affect previously healthy individuals while others produce encephalitis among imunocompromised ones. Factors such evolving lifestyles and ecological changes have had a considerable impact on the epidemiology of some viral encephalitis [e.g. West-Nile virus, and Japanese B virus]. Citomegalovirus and JC virus are examples of infections of the brain that have been seen more frequently because they occur in immunocompromised patients. In the other hand many scientific achievements in neuroimaging, molecular diagnosis, antiviral therapy, immunomodulatory treatments, and neurointensive care have allowed more precise and earlier diagnoses and more efficient treatments, resulting in improved outcomes. In this article, we will present the current drug options in the management of the main acute and chronic viral infection of the central nervous system of immunocompetent and immunocompromised adults, focusing on drugs mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. The early diagnosis and correct management of such diseases can reduce mortality and neurological sequelae; however, even with recent treatment advances, potentially devastating outcomes are still possible.

  1. Immigration and viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Suraj; Carballo, Manuel; Feld, Jordan J; Janssen, Harry L A

    2015-08-01

    WHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and iatrogenic transmission of HBV and HCV, as well as poor access to healthcare. In 2013, 3.2% of the global population (231 million individuals) migrated into a new host nation. Migrants predominantly originate from the developing countries of the south, into the developed economies of North America and Western Europe. This mass migration of individuals from areas of high-prevalence of viral hepatitis poses a unique challenge to the healthcare systems of the host nations. Due to a lack of universal standards for screening, vaccination and treatment of viral hepatitis, the burden of chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma continues to increase among migrant populations globally. Efforts to increase case identification and treatment among migrants have largely been limited to small outreach programs in urban centers, such that the majority of migrants with viral hepatitis continue to remain unaware of their infection. This review summarizes the data on prevalence of viral hepatitis and burden of chronic liver disease among migrants, current standards for screening and treatment of immigrants and refugees, and efforts to improve the identification and treatment of viral hepatitis among migrants.

  2. NCBI viral genomes resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, J Rodney; Ako-Adjei, Danso; Bao, Yiming; Blinkova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Recent technological innovations have ignited an explosion in virus genome sequencing that promises to fundamentally alter our understanding of viral biology and profoundly impact public health policy. Yet, any potential benefits from the billowing cloud of next generation sequence data hinge upon well implemented reference resources that facilitate the identification of sequences, aid in the assembly of sequence reads and provide reference annotation sources. The NCBI Viral Genomes Resource is a reference resource designed to bring order to this sequence shockwave and improve usability of viral sequence data. The resource can be accessed at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/viruses/ and catalogs all publicly available virus genome sequences and curates reference genome sequences. As the number of genome sequences has grown, so too have the difficulties in annotating and maintaining reference sequences. The rapid expansion of the viral sequence universe has forced a recalibration of the data model to better provide extant sequence representation and enhanced reference sequence products to serve the needs of the various viral communities. This, in turn, has placed increased emphasis on leveraging the knowledge of individual scientific communities to identify important viral sequences and develop well annotated reference virus genome sets.

  3. Viral-templated Palladium Nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cuixian

    Despite recent progress on nanocatalysis, there exist several critical challenges in simple and readily controllable nanocatalyst synthesis including the unpredictable particle growth, deactivation of catalytic activity, cumbersome catalyst recovery and lack of in-situ reaction monitoring. In this dissertation, two novel approaches are presented for the fabrication of viral-templated palladium (Pd) nanocatalysts, and their catalytic activities for dichromate reduction reaction and Suzuki Coupling reaction were thoroughly studied. In the first approach, viral template based bottom-up assembly is employed for the Pd nanocatalyst synthesis in a chip-based format. Specifically, genetically displayed cysteine residues on each coat protein of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) templates provide precisely spaced thiol functionalities for readily controllable surface assembly and enhanced formation of catalytically active Pd nanoparticles. Catalysts with the chip-based format allow for simple separation and in-situ monitoring of the reaction extent. Thorough examination of synthesis-structure-activity relationship of Pd nanoparticles formed on surface-assembled viral templates shows that Pd nanoparticle size, catalyst loading density and catalytic activity of viral-templated Pd nanocatalysts can be readily controlled simply by tuning the synthesis conditions. The viral-templated Pd nanocatalysts with optimized synthesis conditions are shown to have higher catalytic activity per unit Pd mass than the commercial Pd/C catalysts. Furthermore, tunable and selective surface assembly of TMV biotemplates is exploited to control the loading density and location of Pd nanocatalysts on solid substrates via preferential electroless deposition. In addition, the catalytic activities of surface-assembled TMV-templated Pd nanocatalysts were also investigated for the ligand-free Suzuki Coupling reaction under mild reaction conditions. The chip-based format enables simple catalyst separation and

  4. Viral induced demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlman, S A; Hinton, D R

    2001-01-01

    Viral induced demyelination, in both humans and rodent models, has provided unique insights into the cell biology of oligodendroglia, their complex cell-cell interactions and mechanisms of myelin destruction. They illustrate mechanisms of viral persistence, including latent infections in which no infectious virus is readily evident, virus reactivation and viral-induced tissue damage. These studies have also provided excellent paradigms to study the interactions between the immune system and the central nervous system (CNS). Although of interest in their own right, an understanding of the diverse mechanisms used by viruses to induce demyelination may shed light into the etiology and pathogenesis of the common demyelinating disorder multiple sclerosis (MS). This notion is supported by the persistent view that a viral infection acquired during adolescence might initiate MS after a long period of quiescence. Demyelination in both humans and rodents can be initiated by infection with a diverse group of enveloped and non-enveloped RNA and DNA viruses (Table 1). The mechanisms that ultimately result in the loss of CNS myelin appear to be equally diverse as the etiological agents capable of causing diseases which result in demyelination. Although demyelination can be a secondary result of axonal loss, in many examples of viral induced demyelination, myelin loss is primary and associated with axonal sparing. This suggests that demyelination induced by viral infections can result from: 1) a direct viral infection of oligodendroglia resulting in cell death with degeneration of myelin and its subsequent removal; 2) a persistent viral infection, in the presence or absence of infectious virus, resulting in the loss of normal cellular homeostasis and subsequent oligodendroglial death; 3) a vigorous virus-specific inflammatory response wherein the virus replicates in a cell type other than oligodendroglia, but cytokines and other immune mediators directly damage the

  5. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  6. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  7. [Detection of viral infection pathogens in medicinal plants grown in Ukraine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishchenko, L T; Korenieva, A A; Molchanets', O V; Boĭko, A L

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of viral infection on medicinal plant plantations is carried out. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L. with symptoms of viral infection were revealed. Viral nature of symptoms was proved with biotesting method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L., were determined with electron microscopy method. The paper is presented in Ukrainian.

  8. Polymerase Chain Reaction on a Viral Nanoparticle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Smith, James; Pacheco-Gómez, Raúl; Little, Haydn A; Hicks, Matthew R; Sandhu, Sandeep; Steinke, Nadja; Smith, David J; Rodger, Alison; Goodchild, Sarah A; Lukaszewski, Roman A; Tucker, James H R; Dafforn, Timothy R

    2015-12-18

    The field of synthetic biology includes studies that aim to develop new materials and devices from biomolecules. In recent years, much work has been carried out using a range of biomolecular chassis including α-helical coiled coils, β-sheet amyloids and even viral particles. In this work, we show how hybrid bionanoparticles can be produced from a viral M13 bacteriophage scaffold through conjugation with DNA primers that can template a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This unprecedented example of a PCR on a virus particle has been studied by flow aligned linear dichroism spectroscopy, which gives information on the structure of the product as well as a new protototype methodology for DNA detection. We propose that this demonstration of PCR on the surface of a bionanoparticle is a useful addition to ways in which hybrid assemblies may be constructed using synthetic biology.

  9. The effect of non-infectious diseases on serum procalcitonin concentrations in premature neonates%非感染因素对早产新生儿血清降钙素原浓度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴志新; 郭婕; 许靖; 武荣; 花少栋; 封志纯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of non-infectious factors on serum procalcitonin(PCT) in preterm neonates.MethodThe premature infants of neonatal intensive care unit(NICU) in our hospital were chosen from gestational age ranged from 33 to 36 weeks, birth time less than 12 hours without premature rupture and hospitalization period from January 2012 to December 2012. All of the premature infants were drawn blood immediately admitted to hospital and C-reactive protein (CRP), blood cultures and procalcitonin were tested. The types of premature infants non-infectious diseases included intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), neonatal asphyxia and the control group (preterm infants) without disease. The blood routine , C-reactive protein, blood culture, procalcitonin and other infections indicators in each group were monitored dynamicly in order to study the impact of these non-infectious diseases on serum procalcitonin concentrations by statistical analysis.Results ① Compared with the current literature recommended serum procalcitonin concentrations (<0.5ng / ml), procalcitonin concentrations in preterm neonates singniifcantly increase (1.07± 0.76) ng / ml.②Compared with control group (1.07±0.76) ng/ml,the procalcitonin levels in intracranial hemorrhage group (2.12± 0.99) ng/ml, neonatal respiratory distress syndrome group (2.28±1.09) ng/ml and asphyxia group (3.64± 3.17) ng / ml signiifcantly increased (F= 10.462,P <0.05).There were no signiifcant differences (F= 0.173,P= 0.950) among the different levels of intracranial hemorrhage group; Compared with the ifrst grade NRDS , the procalcitonin leves in second grade and third grade NRDS groups were significantly increased (F=5.475,P= 0.010); The procalciton level in severe asphyxia group was signiifcantly higher than in mild asphyxia group (t= 5.245,P= 0.003). Conclusions The procalcitonin concentration physiologically increased after preterm neonates were born. Many factors

  10. Viral diseases of marine invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. T.

    1984-03-01

    Approximately 40 viruses are known from marine sponges; turbellarian and monogenetic flatworms; cephalopod, bivalve, and gastropod mollusks; nereid polychaetes; and isopod and decapod crustaceans. Most of the viruses can be tentatively assigned to the Herpesviridae, Baculoviridae, Iridoviridae, Adenoviridae, Papovaviridae, Reoviridae, “Birnaviridae”, Bunyaviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Picornaviridae. Viruslike particles found in oysters might be representatives of the Togaviridae and Retroviridae. Enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses from crustaceans have developmental and morphological characteristics intermediate between families, and some show evidence of relationships to the Paramyxoviridae as well as the Bunyaviridae or Rhabdoviridae. Certain small viruses of shrimp cannot be assigned, even tentatively, to a particular family. Some viruses cause disease in wild and captive hosts, others are associated with disease states but may not be primary instigators, and many occur in apparently normal animals. The frequency of viral disease in natural populations of marine invertebrates is unknown. Several viruses that cause disease in captive animals, with or without experimental intervention, have also been found in diseased wild hosts, including herpeslike viruses of crabs and oysters, iridovirus of octopus, and reolike and bunyalike viruses of crabs. Iridolike viruses have been implicated in massive mortalities of cultured oysters. Baculoviruses, and IHHN virus, which is of uncertain affinities, cause economically damaging diseases in cultured penaeid shrimp. Double or multiple viral infection is common in crabs. For example, a reolike virus and associated rhabdolike virus act synergistically to cause paralytic and fatal disease in Callinectes sapidus. Information on host range, most susceptible stage, and viral latency is available only for viruses of shrimp. One baculovirus attacks five species of New World penaeid shrimp. IHHN virus infects three species of

  11. Viral meningitis and encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuppeny, Misti

    2013-09-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, whereas encephalitis is inflammation of the parenchymal brain tissue. The single distinguishing element between the 2 diagnoses is the altered state of consciousness, focal deficits, and seizures found in encephalitis. Consequently meningoencephalitis is a term used when both findings are present in the patient. Viral meningitis is not necessarily reported as it is often underdiagnosed, whereas encephalitis cases are on the increase in various areas of North America. Improved imaging and viral diagnostics, as well as enhanced neurocritical care management, have improved patient outcomes to date.

  12. Viral infections in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlier, D; Vindevogel, H

    2006-07-01

    This review provides a current update on the major viral diseases of the domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica), based on scientific reports and clinical experience. Paramyxovirus 1, adenovirus, rotavirus, herpesvirus 1, poxvirus and circovirus infections are described according to common clinical signs and target tissues. Since pigeons are sometimes treated as if they were poultry, the review also summarises the common viral infections of poultry for which pigeons are considered resistant. It is hoped that the review will provide a useful reference for veterinarians and others and offer advice on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of the major infectious diseases of pigeons.

  13. RNAi, a new therapeutic strategy against viral infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fischer L. TAN; James Q. YIN

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is an adaptive defense mechanism triggered by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). It is a powerful reverse genetic tool that has been widely employed to silence gene expression in mammalian and human cells.RNAi-based gene therapies, especially in viral diseases have become more and more interesting and promising. Recently,small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to protect host from viral infection, inhibit the expression of viral antigen and accessory genes, control the transcription and replication of viral genome, hinder the assembly of viral particles, and display influences in virus-host interactions. In this review, we attempt to present recent progresses of this breakthrough technology in the above fields and summarize the possibilities of siRNA-based drugs.

  14. Viral Penetration of High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    unique categories: vegetative bacterial cells, 54 spores, viruses, and toxins; viruses are the primary concern in this report. Although the 55 viral...most applications the HEPA is adequate, but tolerance for viral penetration is very 71 low, and thus only a few penetrating virions may be enough to...larger particles will be 397 more likely to contain viable virions). Tryptone is reported to protect viruses from 398 desiccation during aerosolization

  15. Viral diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogstad, Aric P; Simpson, Janet E; Korte, Scott W

    2005-01-01

    Viral disease in the rabbit is encountered infrequently by the clinical practitioner; however, several viral diseases were reported to occur in this species. Viral diseases that are described in the rabbit primarily may affect the integument, gastrointestinal tract or, central nervous system or maybe multi-systemic in nature. Rabbit viral diseases range from oral papillomatosis, with benign clinical signs, to rabbit hemorrhagic disease and myxomatosis, which may result in significant clinical disease and mortality. The wild rabbit may serve as a reservoir for disease transmission for many of these viral agents. In general, treatment of viral disease in the rabbit is supportive in nature.

  16. Immigration and viral hepatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Sharma (Suraj); M. Carballo (Manuel); J.J. Feld (Jordan J.); H.L.A. Janssen (Harry)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWHO estimates reveal that the global prevalence of viral hepatitis may be as high as 500 million, with an annual mortality rate of up to 1.3 million individuals. The majority of this global burden of disease is borne by nations of the developing world with high rates of vertical and

  17. VIRAL ETIOLOGY ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS MOLECULAR MONITORING IN CHILDREN’S HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the territory of the Russian Federation in the overall structure of acute intestinal infections the proportion of viral diarrhea among children varies from 24 to 78% of cases depending on the season. The acute viral intestinal infections etiological confirmation is performed mainly among patients of infectious hospitals. The prevalence of viral acute intestinal infections in non-infectious hospitals, including infections associated with medical care, remains unclear. Currently estimation of viral component in the acute intestinal infections overall structure mainly consists in determination of rotavirus infection prevalence excluding other pathogens. As the part of viral etiology hospital infections epidemiological surveillance in non-infections children’s hospital the study of acute viral intestinal infections etiological structure and molecular genetics characterization of identified enteric viruses is conducted. The syndrome diagnosis of acute intestinal infections cases was introduced — an identification and evaluation of patients with signs of dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, that is not related to the underlying disease. A set of laboratory methods included identification of various intestinal pathogens DNA (RNA by PCR-RT method; genotyping of enteric viruses using sequencing; nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNA fragments using the BLAST software package for identification of closely related strains and an online service for automatic genotyping of noroviruses by Norovirus Genotyping Tool Version 1.0. Alignment of nucleotide sequences and phylogenetic analysis was performed using the software MEGA 5.0. The obtained sequence fragments of the genome was downloaded in GenBank international database. The use of molecular genetics research methods allowed to differentiate viral pathogens of acute intestinal infections and to establish the fact of nosocomial transmission. The proportion of viral etiology acute intestinal

  18. 穴位埋线治疗非感染性癌性发热40例%Treatment of 40 Cases of Non-infectious Cancer Fever with acupoint embedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜春淇; 王力冰; 林延生

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察穴位埋线对治疗非感染性癌性发热的临床疗效。方法采用随机对照方法将40例患者分为治疗组(20例)和对照组(20例),治疗组以穴位埋线配合物理降温为主要治疗手段,对照组仅以物理降温为主要治疗措施。以10d作为1个疗程,观察记录其结果,三个疗程后分析退热疗效。结果两组退热有效率分别为95%和70%,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。治疗组观察期间未见明显不良反应。结论穴位埋线对治疗非感染性癌性发热有较好疗效,退热作用持久,副作用小。%Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Non-infectious Cancer Fever with acupoint embedding.Methods A randomized controlled method was adopted to divide 40 patients intotreatment group(20casePhysical cooling”,and control group was only given Physical cos) and control group(20cases);treatment group was given“acupoint embedding and oling .The fever was observed instantly after treatment,with a course of 10 days. Then analyse the effect of fever relief after three period of treatment .Results The effective rate of fever relief was 95%in the treatment group And 70%in the control group,with a signiifcant difference(P<0.01);no adversere actions were found in the treatment group.Conclusions Acupoint embedding is effective for cancer fever,and has a long effect on it ,without any adversere actions.

  19. Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Clinical Trials Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis Wilson Disease Hepatitis (Viral) View or Print All Sections What is Viral Hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection that causes liver inflammation ...

  20. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  1. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  2. Viral Marketing and Academic Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Koktová, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis examines modern and constantly developing kind of internet marketing -- the so called viral marketing. It deals with its origin, principle, process, advantages and disadvantages, types of viral marketing and presumptions of creating successful viral campaign. The aim of the theoretical part is especially the understanding of viral marketing as one of the effective instruments of contemporary marketing. In this theoretical part the thesis also elaborates a marketing school...

  3. Immunogenetics of viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maureen P; Carrington, Mary

    2005-10-01

    The HLA class I and II genes encode molecules that lie at the heart of the acquired immune response against infectious diseases. Associations between these polymorphic loci and genetically complex infectious diseases have been historically elusive, in contrast to the more obvious HLA associations with autoimmune diseases. High resolution molecular typing of large, clinically well-defined cohorts has begun to uncover evidence for the influence of HLA diversity on diseases of viral etiology, such as those caused by HIV-1, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human papilloma virus. Combinations of HLA and KIR also appear to affect outcome to viral infection, supporting a role for HLA class I diversity in the innate immune response in addition to the acquired immune response.

  4. Viral quasispecies evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo, Esteban; Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-01-01

    Summary: Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of...

  5. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  6. Hepatitis viral C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Poma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El virus de la hepatitis C se trasmite por contacto directo con la sangre de la persona infectada. La mayoría de los pacientes no presenta síntomas en la fase aguda o crónica de la hepatitis. Dos a tres décadas después, algunos pacientes progresan a la cirrosis compensada, que también es asintomática. En un examen de sangre, los anticuerpos se presentan como una sorpresa, porque no se les relaciona con un episodio de contagio. Un embarazo ocasiona la posibilidad de efectos negativos de la infección en la madre o el niño. El tratamiento actual no ofrece la certeza de cura, dependiendo del genotipo viral, y presenta efectos adversos que pueden ser severos. La cirrosis descompensada causa la mayoría de muertes relacionadas con esta infección; algunos de estos pacientes desarrollan carcinoma hepatocelular. La reproducción viral causa partículas virales diferentes del virus original, característica que ha impedido el desarrollo de una vacuna. Actualmente, la prevención consiste en evitar el contacto con sangre infectada. Este artículo revisa la infección con el virus de la hepatitis C, incluyendo los últimos progresos en tratamiento. Es necesario educar a la comunidad acerca de los efectos de este virus en la salud pública.

  7. [Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, D

    1999-01-01

    In tropical zones, uncertain living conditions, inadequate food intake, and poor medical facilities enhance unnecessary morbidity and mortality especially involving infants and young children. In addition to protein-caloric malnutrition, deficiencies in essential micronutrients have a specific health impact. Such deficiencies can be the direct cause of disease such as vitamin A deficiency and blindness or have a promoting effect by compromising immune status and increasing susceptibility to and severity of infectious diseases especially of viral origin. The promoting effect of micronutrient deficiency plays a significant role in measles, rotavirus-related diarrhea, and, to a certain extent, progression of HIV infection. Several examples are described to illustrate the relationship between tropical viral infection and micronutrients including vitamin A, selenium, and various other antioxidants. These examples highlight the effect of infectious disease on micronutritional status (vitamin A and measles) and the need to develop reliable, practical tools to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of dietary supplementation. In any case, improving living conditions and health programs such as the Expanded Vaccination Program are required and illustrate a transverse approach for prevention of infectious and non-infectious tropical disease. The relationship between micronutrients and infection is only one aspect of the multifactorial reality that must be dealt with in tropical medicine.

  8. Virion-targeted viral inactivation: new therapy against viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, N; Kitamura, Y; Kobayashi, N; Sakuma, R; Ishikawa, T; Kitamura, T

    2001-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is resistant to all current therapy. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative or additive to current, unsatisfactory AIDS therapy. To develop an antiviral molecule targeting viral integrase (HIV IN), we generated a single-chain antibody, termed scAb, which interacted with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IN and inhibited virus replication at the integration step when expressed intracellularly. To reduce infectivity from within the virus particles, we made expression plasmids (pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-CA, and pC-scAbE-WXXF), which expressed the anti-HIV IN scAb fused to the N-terminus of HIV-1-associated accessory protein R (Vpr), capsid protein (CA), and specific binding motif to Vpr (WXXF), respectively. All fusion proteins were tagged with a nine-amino acid peptide derived from influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) at the C terminus. The fusion molecules, termed scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF, interacted specifically with HIV IN immobilized on a nitrocellulose membrane. Immunoblot analysis showed that scAbE-Vpr, scAbE-CA, and scAbE-WXXF were incorporated into the virions produced by cotransfection of 293T cells with HIV-1 infectious clone DNA (pLAI) and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF. A multinuclear activation galactosidase indicator (MAGI) assay revealed that the virions released from 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and pC-scAbE-Vpr, pC-scAbE-WXXF had as little 1000-fold of the infectivity of the control wild-type virions, which were produced from the 293T cells transfected with pLAI alone. Furthermore, the virions produced from the 293T cells cotransfected with pLAI and an scAb expression vector (pC-scAb) showed only 1% of the infectivity of the control HIV-1 in a MAGI assay, although scAb was not incorporated into the virions. In either instance, the total quantity of the progeny virions released from the transfected 293T cells and the patterns of the virion proteins were hardly affected by the presence of

  9. Lytic to temperate switching of viral communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, B.; Silveira, C. B.; Bailey, B. A.; Barott, K.; Cantu, V. A.; Cobián-Güemes, A. G.; Coutinho, F. H.; Dinsdale, E. A.; Felts, B.; Furby, K. A.; George, E. E.; Green, K. T.; Gregoracci, G. B.; Haas, A. F.; Haggerty, J. M.; Hester, E. R.; Hisakawa, N.; Kelly, L. W.; Lim, Y. W.; Little, M.; Luque, A.; McDole-Somera, T.; McNair, K.; de Oliveira, L. S.; Quistad, S. D.; Robinett, N. L.; Sala, E.; Salamon, P.; Sanchez, S. E.; Sandin, S.; Silva, G. G. Z.; Smith, J.; Sullivan, C.; Thompson, C.; Vermeij, M. J. A.; Youle, M.; Young, C.; Zgliczynski, B.; Brainard, R.; Edwards, R. A.; Nulton, J.; Thompson, F.; Rohwer, F.

    2016-03-01

    Microbial viruses can control host abundances via density-dependent lytic predator-prey dynamics. Less clear is how temperate viruses, which coexist and replicate with their host, influence microbial communities. Here we show that virus-like particles are relatively less abundant at high host densities. This suggests suppressed lysis where established models predict lytic dynamics are favoured. Meta-analysis of published viral and microbial densities showed that this trend was widespread in diverse ecosystems ranging from soil to freshwater to human lungs. Experimental manipulations showed viral densities more consistent with temperate than lytic life cycles at increasing microbial abundance. An analysis of 24 coral reef viromes showed a relative increase in the abundance of hallmark genes encoded by temperate viruses with increased microbial abundance. Based on these four lines of evidence, we propose the Piggyback-the-Winner model wherein temperate dynamics become increasingly important in ecosystems with high microbial densities; thus ‘more microbes, fewer viruses’.

  10. Colocalization of different influenza viral RNA segments in the cytoplasm before viral budding as shown by single-molecule sensitivity FISH analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-ying Chou

    Full Text Available The Influenza A virus genome consists of eight negative sense, single-stranded RNA segments. Although it has been established that most virus particles contain a single copy of each of the eight viral RNAs, the packaging selection mechanism remains poorly understood. Influenza viral RNAs are synthesized in the nucleus, exported into the cytoplasm and travel to the plasma membrane where viral budding and genome packaging occurs. Due to the difficulties in analyzing associated vRNPs while preserving information about their positions within the cell, it has remained unclear how and where during cellular trafficking the viral RNAs of different segments encounter each other. Using a multicolor single-molecule sensitivity fluorescence in situ hybridization (smFISH approach, we have quantitatively monitored the colocalization of pairs of influenza viral RNAs in infected cells. We found that upon infection, the viral RNAs from the incoming particles travel together until they reach the nucleus. The viral RNAs were then detected in distinct locations in the nucleus; they are then exported individually and initially remain separated in the cytoplasm. At later time points, the different viral RNA segments gather together in the cytoplasm in a microtubule independent manner. Viral RNAs of different identities colocalize at a high frequency when they are associated with Rab11 positive vesicles, suggesting that Rab11 positive organelles may facilitate the association of different viral RNAs. Using engineered influenza viruses lacking the expression of HA or M2 protein, we showed that these viral proteins are not essential for the colocalization of two different viral RNAs in the cytoplasm. In sum, our smFISH results reveal that the viral RNAs travel together in the cytoplasm before their arrival at the plasma membrane budding sites. This newly characterized step of the genome packaging process demonstrates the precise spatiotemporal regulation of the

  11. High Serum Lipopolysaccharide-Binding Protein Level in Chronic Hepatitis C Viral Infection Is Reduced by Anti-Viral Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Hsiao-Ching; Hsu, Shih-Jer; Su, Tung-Hung; Yang, Po-Jen; Sheu, Jin-Chuan; Wang, Jin-Town; Chow, Lu-Ping; Chen, Chi-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Background Lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) has been reported to associate with metabolic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Since chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with metabolic derangements, the relationship between LBP and HCV deserves additional studies. This study aimed to determine the serum LBP level in subjects with or without HCV infection and investigate the change of its level after anti-viral treatments with or without interferon. Methods and Findings We recruited 120 non-HCV subjects, 42 and 17 HCV-infected subjects respectively treated with peginterferon α-2a/ribavirin and direct-acting antiviral drugs. Basic information, clinical data, serum LBP level and abdominal ultrasonography were collected. All the subjects provided written informed consent before being enrolled approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the National Taiwan University Hospital. Serum LBP level was significantly higher in HCV-infected subjects than non-HCV subjects (31.0 ± 8.8 versus 20.0 ± 6.4 μg/mL; p-value < 0.001). After multivariate analyses, LBP at baseline was independently associated with body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and HCV infection. Moreover, the baseline LBP was only significantly positively associated with ALT and inversely with fatty liver in HCV-infected subjects. The LBP level significantly decreased at sustained virologic response (27.4 ± 6.6 versus 34.6 ± 7.3 μg/mL, p-value < 0.001; 15.9 ± 4.4 versus 22.2 ± 5.7 μg/mL, p-value = 0.001), regardless of interferon-based or -free therapy. Conclusions LBP, an endotoxemia associated protein might be used as an inflammatory biomarker of both infectious and non-infectious origins in HCV-infected subjects. PMID:28107471

  12. VIRAL HEPATITIS E DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. Malinnikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The results of clinical and epidemiological studies conducted in the M.P. Chumakov’ Research Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitis and in the different research institutions of the world have been summarized in the current article. Data on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, epidemiology and prevention of hepatitis E are presented. Increasing of significance of this infection for health care system in Russia is emphasized . The actual problems of hepatitis E (autochthonic hepatitis E, hepatitis E as zoonosis, chronic hepatitis E are discussed.

  13. [A variety of extrahepatic manifestations of chronic viral hepatitis B and C: basic treatment principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baĭkova, T A; Lopatkina, T N

    2013-01-01

    Chronic viral hepatitides B and C are systemic diseases with a great number of extrahepatic manifestations caused by different immune abnormalities due to viral replication in and outside the liver and to the direct pathological effects of viral particles. Many of them can be the only manifestation of the infection and come to the foreground in its clinical picture, by determining the prognosis of the disease.

  14. Viral infections of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Peter J; Donnelly, Thomas M

    2013-05-01

    Viral diseases of rabbits have been used historically to study oncogenesis (e.g. rabbit fibroma virus, cottontail rabbit papillomavirus) and biologically to control feral rabbit populations (e.g. myxoma virus). However, clinicians seeing pet rabbits in North America infrequently encounter viral diseases although myxomatosis may be seen occasionally. The situation is different in Europe and Australia, where myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease are endemic. Advances in epidemiology and virology have led to detection of other lapine viruses that are now recognized as agents of emerging infectious diseases. Rabbit caliciviruses, related to rabbit hemorrhagic disease, are generally avirulent, but lethal variants are being identified in Europe and North America. Enteric viruses including lapine rotavirus, rabbit enteric coronavirus and rabbit astrovirus are being acknowledged as contributors to the multifactorial enteritis complex of juvenile rabbits. Three avirulent leporid herpesviruses are found in domestic rabbits. A fourth highly pathogenic virus designated leporid herpesvirus 4 has been described in Canada and Alaska. This review considers viruses affecting rabbits by their clinical significance. Viruses of major and minor clinical significance are described, and viruses of laboratory significance are mentioned. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic imaging of cell-free and cell-associated viral capture in mature dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Useros, Nuria; Esteban, Olga; Rodriguez-Plata, Maria T; Erkizia, Itziar; Prado, Julia G; Blanco, Julià; García-Parajo, Maria F; Martinez-Picado, Javier

    2011-12-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) capture human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) through a non-fusogenic mechanism that enables viral transmission to CD4(+) T cells, contributing to in vivo viral dissemination. Although previous studies have provided important clues to cell-free viral capture by mature DCs (mDCs), dynamic and kinetic insight on this process is still missing. Here, we used three-dimensional video microscopy and single-particle tracking approaches to dynamically dissect both cell-free and cell-associated viral capture by living mDCs. We show that cell-free virus capture by mDCs operates through three sequential phases: virus binding through specific determinants expressed in the viral particle, polarized or directional movements toward concrete regions of the cell membrane and virus accumulation in a sac-like structure where trapped viral particles display a hindered diffusive behavior. Moreover, real-time imaging of cell-associated viral transfer to mDCs showed a similar dynamics to that exhibited by cell-free virus endocytosis leading to viral accumulation in compartments. However, cell-associated HIV type 1 transfer to mDCs was the most effective pathway, boosted throughout enhanced cellular contacts with infected CD4(+) T cells. Our results suggest that in lymphoid tissues, mDC viral uptake could occur either by encountering cell-free or cell-associated virus produced by infected cells generating the perfect scenario to promote HIV pathogenesis and impact disease progression.

  16. Cytokine determinants of viral tropism

    OpenAIRE

    McFadden, Grant; Mohamed, Mohamed R.; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Bartee, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The specificity of a given virus for a ceil type, tissue or species — collectively known as viral tropism — is an important factor in determining the outcome of viral infection in any particular host. Owing to the increased prevalence of zoonotic infections and the threat of emerging and re-emerging pathogens, gaining a better understanding of the factors that determine viral tropism has become particularly important. In this Review, we summarize our current understanding of the central role ...

  17. Intrahepatic immune response in chronic viral hepatitis : an immunohistochemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J. Tang (Thjon J.)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a 42 nm viral particle and belongs to a family of closely related DNA viruses called the hepadnaviruses. All the hepadnaviruses have similar hepatotropism and life cycles in their hosts. It is an enveloped small circular, partially double stranded

  18. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  19. Viral quasispecies evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Esteban; Sheldon, Julie; Perales, Celia

    2012-06-01

    Evolution of RNA viruses occurs through disequilibria of collections of closely related mutant spectra or mutant clouds termed viral quasispecies. Here we review the origin of the quasispecies concept and some biological implications of quasispecies dynamics. Two main aspects are addressed: (i) mutant clouds as reservoirs of phenotypic variants for virus adaptability and (ii) the internal interactions that are established within mutant spectra that render a virus ensemble the unit of selection. The understanding of viruses as quasispecies has led to new antiviral designs, such as lethal mutagenesis, whose aim is to drive viruses toward low fitness values with limited chances of fitness recovery. The impact of quasispecies for three salient human pathogens, human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B and C viruses, is reviewed, with emphasis on antiviral treatment strategies. Finally, extensions of quasispecies to nonviral systems are briefly mentioned to emphasize the broad applicability of quasispecies theory.

  20. Viral infections as controlling factors for the deep biosphere? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, B.; Engelhardt, T.; Sahlberg, M.; Cypionka, H.

    2009-12-01

    The marine deep biosphere represents the largest biotope on Earth. Throughout the last years, we have obtained interesting insights into its microbial community composition. However, one component that was completely overlooked so far is the viral inventory of deep-subsurface sediments. While viral infections were identified to have a major impact on the benthic microflora of deep-sea surface sediments (Danavaro et al. 2008), no studies were performed on deep-biosphere samples, so far. As grazers probably play only a minor role in anoxic and highly compressed deep sediments, viruses might be the main “predators” for indigenous microorganisms. Furthermore, the release of cell components, called “the viral shunt”, could have a major impact on the deep biosphere in providing labile organic compounds to non-infected microorganisms in these generally nutrient depleted sediments. However, direct counting of viruses in sediments is highly challenging due to the small size of viruses and the high background of small particles. Even molecular surveys using “universal” PCR primers that target phage-specific genes fail due to the vast phage diversity. One solution for this problem is the lysogenic viral life cycle as many bacteriophages integrate their DNA into the host genome. It is estimated that up to 70% of cultivated bacteria contain prophages within their genome. Therefore, culture collections (Batzke et al. 2007) represent an archive of the viral composition within the respective habitat. These prophages can be induced to become free phage particles in stimulation experiments in which the host cells are set under certain stress situations such as a treatment with UV exposure or DNA-damaging antibiotics. The study of the viral component within the deep biosphere offers to answer the following questions: To which extent are deep-biosphere populations controlled by viral infections? What is the inter- and intra-specific diversity and the host-specific viral

  1. Evaluation of Chicken IgY Generated Against Canine Parvovirus Viral-Like Particles and Development of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Immunochromatographic Assay for Canine Parvovirus Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxin; Wang, Yuan; Sun, Shiqi; Zhang, Xiaoying

    2015-11-01

    Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies were generated against canine parvovirus virus-like particles (CPV-VLPs) antigen using chickens. Anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY was extracted from hen egg yolk and used for developing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunochromatographic assay (ICA) for the detection of CPV in dog feces. The cutoff negative values for anti-CPV-VLPs-IgY were determined using negative fecal samples (already confirmed by polymerase chain reaction [PCR]). In both ELISA and ICA, there was no cross-reaction with other diarrheal pathogens. Thirty-four fecal samples were collected from dogs with diarrhea, of which 26.47% were confirmed as CPV-positive samples by PCR, while 29.41% and 32.35% of the samples were found to be positive by ELISA and ICA, respectively. The developed ELISA and ICA exhibited 97.06% and 94.12% conformity with PCR. Higher sensitivity and specificity were observed for IgY-based ELISA and ICA. Thus, they could be suitable for routine use in the diagnosis of CPV in dogs.

  2. Análise da qualidade de vida de portadores de uveítes de causas infecciosas e não infecciosas pelo questionário NEI-VFQ-25 Analysis of the life quality of infectious and non-infectious patients with uveitis using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Resende Aquino de Assis Pereira Mello

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade de vida dos pacientes portadores de uveítes infecciosas e não infecciosas avaliados no setor de uveíte do serviço de oftalmologia do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho - UFRJ, por meio da aplicação do questionário NEI-VFQ-25, de modo a esclarecer melhor a importância do diagnóstico e tratamento das uveítes, assim como suas conseqüências na função visual e social dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo composto de 30 pacientes com uveítes que foram divididos em dois grupos conforme a etiologia, infecciosa e não infecciosa, tendo sido aplicado duas vezes em cada paciente o questionário NEI-VFQ-25 que avalia a qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde geral e visual. RESULTADOS: A toxoplasmose foi a principal causa de uveíte infecciosa, enquanto a não infecciosa foi a síndrome de Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada. Quanto à qualidade de vida, a saúde geral é melhor no grupo de causa infecciosa, sendo que a saúde ocular é regular nos dois grupos. Apesar do déficit visual não provocar grandes distúrbios e restrições sociais, ambos os grupos apresentam comprometimento emocional importante, sendo que no grupo de causa não infecciosa, esse comprometimento gera grau maior de dependência para a realização de tarefas do cotidiano. CONCLUSÃO: A maior dependência social e na realização de atividades do dia-a-dia no grupo de uveítes de causa não infecciosas, se explica pelo modo crônico e recidivante dessas afecções, o que leva à qualidade de vida inferior se comparada ao outro grupo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the life quality of patients with infectious and non-infectious uveitis evaluated at the uveitis service of the Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho-UFRJ, using the NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaire in order to clarify the importance of uveitis diagnosis and treatment as well as its consequences to visual and social functions of the patients. METHODS: Prospective study of 30 patients

  3. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  4. Dengue viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurugama Padmalal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito-borne diseases in the world. Presently dengue is endemic in 112 countries in the world. It has been estimated that almost 100 million cases of dengue fever and half a million cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF occur worldwide. An increasing proportion of DHF is in children less than 15 years of age, especially in South East and South Asia. The unique structure of the dengue virus and the pathophysiologic responses of the host, different serotypes, and favorable conditions for vector breeding have led to the virulence and spread of the infections. The manifestations of dengue infections are protean from being asymptomatic to undifferentiated fever, severe dengue infections, and unusual complications. Early recognition and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive treatment are often delayed resulting in unnecessarily high morbidity and mortality. Attempts are underway for the development of a vaccine for preventing the burden of this neglected disease. This review outlines the epidemiology, clinical features, pathophysiologic mechanisms, management, and control of dengue infections.

  5. Emerging zoonotic viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L-F; Crameri, G

    2014-08-01

    Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases that are naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans and vice versa. They are caused by all types of pathogenic agents, including bacteria, parasites, fungi, viruses and prions. Although they have been recognised for many centuries, their impact on public health has increased in the last few decades due to a combination of the success in reducing the spread of human infectious diseases through vaccination and effective therapies and the emergence of novel zoonotic diseases. It is being increasingly recognised that a One Health approach at the human-animal-ecosystem interface is needed for effective investigation, prevention and control of any emerging zoonotic disease. Here, the authors will review the drivers for emergence, highlight some of the high-impact emerging zoonotic diseases of the last two decades and provide examples of novel One Health approaches for disease investigation, prevention and control. Although this review focuses on emerging zoonotic viral diseases, the authors consider that the discussions presented in this paper will be equally applicable to emerging zoonotic diseases of other pathogen types.

  6. Sphingolipids in viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2015-06-01

    Viruses exploit membranes and their components such as sphingolipids in all steps of their life cycle including attachment and membrane fusion, intracellular transport, replication, protein sorting and budding. Examples for sphingolipid-dependent virus entry are found for: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which besides its protein receptors also interacts with glycosphingolipids (GSLs); rhinovirus, which promotes the formation of ceramide-enriched platforms and endocytosis; or measles virus (MV), which induces the surface expression of its own receptor CD150 via activation of sphingomyelinases (SMases). While SMase activation was implicated in Ebola virus (EBOV) attachment, the virus utilizes the cholesterol transporter Niemann-Pick C protein 1 (NPC1) as 'intracellular' entry receptor after uptake into endosomes. Differential activities of SMases also affect the intracellular milieu required for virus replication. Sindbis virus (SINV), for example, replicates better in cells lacking acid SMase (ASMase). Defined lipid compositions of viral assembly and budding sites influence virus release and infectivity, as found for hepatitis C virus (HCV) or HIV. And finally, viruses manipulate cellular signaling and the sphingolipid metabolism to their advantage, as for example influenza A virus (IAV), which activates sphingosine kinase 1 and the transcription factor NF-κB.

  7. Viral infection, inflammation and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeland, Rachel E; Fatemi, S Hossein

    2013-04-05

    Schizophrenia is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with genetic and environmental etiologies. Prenatal viral/bacterial infections and inflammation play major roles in the genesis of schizophrenia. In this review, we describe a viral model of schizophrenia tested in mice whereby the offspring of mice prenatally infected with influenza at E7, E9, E16, and E18 show significant gene, protein, and brain structural abnormalities postnatally. Similarly, we describe data on rodents exposed to bacterial infection or injected with a synthetic viral mimic (PolyI:C) also demonstrating brain structural and behavioral abnormalities. Moreover, human serologic data has been indispensible in supporting the viral theory of schizophrenia. Individuals born seropositive for bacterial and viral agents are at a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia. While the specific mechanisms of prenatal viral/bacterial infections and brain disorder are unclear, recent findings suggest that the maternal inflammatory response may be associated with fetal brain injury. Preventive and therapeutic treatment options are also proposed. This review presents data related to epidemiology, human serology, and experimental animal models which support the viral model of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Enfermedades virales emergentes y reemergentes

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño; Ana Isabel Toro Montoya

    1996-01-01

    Los virus no son una excepción al principio de que toda forma de vida de hoyes el producto de la evolución de información gen ética preexistente. Tradicionalmente se ha reconocido que ta expresión clínica de las enfermedades virales cambia con el tiempo; molecularmente se ha demostrado que esos cambios fenotípicos son el producto de variaciones en el genoma viral. La tasa de cambio
    gen ético y fenotípico no es la misma en todos los agentes virales y ello está determinado, principal...

  9. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Much...

  10. Vaccination with virus-like particles containing H5 antigens from three H5N1 clades protects chickens from H5N1 and H5N8 influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczynski, Darrell R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter

    2016-03-18

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 2.3.4.4), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus.

  11. Neuroanatomy goes viral!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eNassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system is complex not simply because of the enormous number of neurons it contains but by virtue of the specificity with which they are connected. Unraveling this specificity is the task of neuroanatomy. In this endeavor, neuroanatomists have traditionally exploited an impressive array of tools ranging from the Golgi method to electron microscopy. An ideal method for studying anatomy would label neurons that are interconnected, and, in addition, allow expression of foreign genes in these neurons. Fortuitously, nature has already partially developed such a method in the form of neurotropic viruses, which have evolved to deliver their genetic material between synaptically connected neurons while largely eluding glia and the immune system. While these characteristics make some of these viruses a threat to human health, simple modifications allow them to be used in controlled experimental settings, thus enabling neuroanatomists to trace multi-synaptic connections within and across brain regions. Wild-type neurotropic viruses, such as rabies and alpha-herpes virus, have already contributed greatly to our understanding of brain connectivity, and modern molecular techniques have enabled the construction of recombinant forms of these and other viruses. These newly engineered reagents are particularly useful, as they can target genetically defined populations of neurons, spread only one synapse to either inputs or outputs, and carry instructions by which the targeted neurons can be made to express exogenous proteins, such as calcium sensors or light-sensitive ion channels, that can be used to study neuronal function. In this review, we address these uniquely powerful features of the viruses already in the neuroanatomist's toolbox, as well as the aspects of their biology that currently limit their utility. Based on the latter, we consider strategies for improving viral tracing methods by reducing toxicity, improving control of transsynaptic

  12. HTLV-1 viral RNA is detected rarely in plasma of HTLV-1 infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demontis, Maria Antonietta; Sadiq, Maaz Tahir; Golz, Simon; Taylor, Graham P

    2015-12-01

    Plasma of patients infected with HTLV-1 is considered non-infectious but detection of HTLV-1 genomic RNA in plasma has been recently reported. The aim of this project was to detect and quantify HTLV-1 RNA in plasma and assess its potential value in diagnosis and prognosis. RNA from 1 ml of plasma from 65 subjects infected with HTLV-1 (27 asymptomatic carriers [AC]), 17 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP), 14 with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), two co-infected with HIV, and five with other HTLV-1-associated disease, was extracted and reverse transcribed. HTLV-1 specific nested PCR was performed using primers to amplify the conserved Tax region. All samples were run in quadruplicate, nested PCR products were detected by gel electrophoresis. HTLV-1 RNA was detected in plasma from 18 (28%) patients, always at a very low copy number (3-13 copies viral cDNA per milliliter of plasma). Mean values of HTLV-1 proviral load did not differ between patients in whom HTLV-1 RNA was detected and patients in whom it was not possible to detect HTLV-1 RNA in plasma. HTLV-1 genomic RNA can be detected in the plasma of a minority of patients but not at a level or frequency to be useful clinically or diagnostically. Lack of transmission of HTLV-1 by plasma is due to the rare presence of HTLV-1 virions, regardless of any other factor.

  13. FastStats: Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Viral Hepatitis Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are for the U.S. Morbidity Number of new hepatitis A cases: 1,781 (2013) Number of new ...

  14. Viral marketing as epidemiological model

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia

    2015-01-01

    In epidemiology, an epidemic is defined as the spread of an infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time. In the marketing context, a message is viral when it is broadly sent and received by the target market through person-to-person transmission. This specific marketing communication strategy is commonly referred as viral marketing. Due to this similarity between an epidemic and the viral marketing process and because the understanding of the critical factors to this communications strategy effectiveness remain largely unknown, the mathematical models in epidemiology are presented in this marketing specific field. In this paper, an epidemiological model SIR (Susceptible- Infected-Recovered) to study the effects of a viral marketing strategy is presented. It is made a comparison between the disease parameters and the marketing application, and simulations using the Matlab software are performed. Finally, some conclusions are given and their marketing impli...

  15. Statistical mechanics of viral entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Dudko, Olga K

    2015-01-09

    Viruses that have lipid-membrane envelopes infect cells by fusing with the cell membrane to release viral genes. Membrane fusion is known to be hindered by high kinetic barriers associated with drastic structural rearrangements-yet viral infection, which occurs by fusion, proceeds on remarkably short time scales. Here, we present a quantitative framework that captures the principles behind the invasion strategy shared by all enveloped viruses. The key to this strategy-ligand-triggered conformational changes in the viral proteins that pull the membranes together-is treated as a set of concurrent, bias field-induced activated rate processes. The framework results in analytical solutions for experimentally measurable characteristics of virus-cell fusion and enables us to express the efficiency of the viral strategy in quantitative terms. The predictive value of the theory is validated through simulations and illustrated through recent experimental data on influenza virus infection.

  16. Viral Evolution Core | FNLCR Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon F. Keele, Ph.D. PI/Senior Principal Investigator, Retroviral Evolution Section Head, Viral Evolution Core Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research Frederick, MD 21702-1201 Tel: 301-846-173

  17. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  18. Controlled Assembly of Viral Surface Proteins into Biological Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani-Webster, Eri

    In recent years, therapeutic use of engineered particles on the 1-1,000 nm scale has gained popularity; these nanoparticles have been developed for use in drug delivery, gene therapy, vaccine preparation, and diagnostics. Often, viral proteins are utilized in the design of such species, and outlined here are completed studies on the in vitro assembly of nanoparticles derived from two very different viral systems. The incorporation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein precursor gp160 into phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs is discussed as a potential platform for vaccine design; efforts were successful, however yield currently limits the practical application of this approach. The utility of bacteriophage lambda procapsids and virus-like particles in therapeutic nanoparticle design is also outlined, as are efforts toward the structural and thermodynamic characterization of a urea-triggered capsid maturation event. It is demonstrated that lambda virus-like particles can be assembled from purified capsid and scaffolding proteins, and that these particles undergo urea-triggered maturation and in vitro decoration protein addition similar to that seen in lambda procapsids. The studies on lambda provided materials for the further development of nanoparticles potentially useful in a clinical setting, as well as shedding light on critical viral assembly and maturation events as they may take place in vivo.

  19. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  20. Microbiological diagnostics of viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    HASDEMİR, Ufuk

    2016-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is an infection that primarily affects the liverbut may also have systemic clinical manifestations. The vastmajority of viral hepatitis are caused by one of five hepatotropicviruses: hepatitis A virus (HAV), hepatitis B virus (HBV),hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis D (delta) virus (HDV), andhepatitis E virus (HEV) (Table I) [1]. HBV, HCV, and HDValso cause chronic hepatitis, whereas HAV does not. HEVcauses acute hepatitis in normal hosts but can cause protractedand chronic he...

  1. Viral control of mitochondrial apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the process of pathogen-host co-evolution, viruses have developed a battery of distinct strategies to overcome biochemical and immunological defenses of the host. Thus, viruses have acquired the capacity to subvert host cell apoptosis, control inflammatory responses, and evade immune reactions. Since the elimination of infected cells via programmed cell death is one of the most ancestral defense mechanisms against infection, disabling host cell apoptosis might represent an almost obligate step in the viral life cycle. Conversely, viruses may take advantage of stimulating apoptosis, either to kill uninfected cells from the immune system, or to induce the breakdown of infected cells, thereby favoring viral dissemination. Several viral polypeptides are homologs of host-derived apoptosis-regulatory proteins, such as members of the Bcl-2 family. Moreover, viral factors with no homology to host proteins specifically target key components of the apoptotic machinery. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the viral modulation of mitochondrial apoptosis, by focusing in particular on the mechanisms by which viral proteins control the host cell death apparatus.

  2. Viral RNAs are unusually compact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajaykumar Gopal

    Full Text Available A majority of viruses are composed of long single-stranded genomic RNA molecules encapsulated by protein shells with diameters of just a few tens of nanometers. We examine the extent to which these viral RNAs have evolved to be physically compact molecules to facilitate encapsulation. Measurements of equal-length viral, non-viral, coding and non-coding RNAs show viral RNAs to have among the smallest sizes in solution, i.e., the highest gel-electrophoretic mobilities and the smallest hydrodynamic radii. Using graph-theoretical analyses we demonstrate that their sizes correlate with the compactness of branching patterns in predicted secondary structure ensembles. The density of branching is determined by the number and relative positions of 3-helix junctions, and is highly sensitive to the presence of rare higher-order junctions with 4 or more helices. Compact branching arises from a preponderance of base pairing between nucleotides close to each other in the primary sequence. The density of branching represents a degree of freedom optimized by viral RNA genomes in response to the evolutionary pressure to be packaged reliably. Several families of viruses are analyzed to delineate the effects of capsid geometry, size and charge stabilization on the selective pressure for RNA compactness. Compact branching has important implications for RNA folding and viral assembly.

  3. Hepatitis B virus: pathogenesis, viral intermediates, and viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Yee; Locarnini, Stephen

    2004-05-01

    Although HBV has the potential to generate an almost limitless spectrum of quasispecies during chronic infection, the viability of the majority of these quasispecies is almost certainly impaired due to constraints imposed by the remarkably compact organization of the HBV genome. On the other hand, single mutations may affect more than one gene and result in complex and unpredictable effects on viral phenotype. Better understanding of the constraints imposed by gene overlap and of genotype-phenotype relationships should help in the development of improved antiviral strategies and management approaches. Although the probability of developing viral resistance is directly proportional to the intensity of selection pressure and the diversity of quasispecies, potent inhibition of HBV replication should be able to prevent development of drug resistance because mutagenesis is replication dependent. If viral replication can be suppressed for a sufficient length of time, viral load should decline to a point where the continued production of quasispecies with the potential to resist new drug treatments no longer occurs. Clinical application of this concept will require optimization of combination therapies analogous to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection. Total cure of hepatitis B will require elimination of the intranuclear pool of viral minichromosomes, which will probably only be achieved by normal cell turnover, reactivation of host immunity, or elucidation of the antiviral mechanisms operating during cytokine clearance in acute hepatitis B (see Fig. 1).

  4. Viral mimicry of the complement system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    John Bernet; Jayati Mullick; Akhilesh K Singh; Arvind Sahu

    2003-04-01

    The complement system is a potent innate immune mechanism consisting of cascades of proteins which are designed to fight against and annul intrusion of all the foreign pathogens. Although viruses are smaller in size and have relatively simple structure, they are not immune to complement attack. Thus, activation of the complement system can lead to neutralization of cell-free viruses, phagocytosis of C3b-coated viral particles, lysis of virus-infected cells, and generation of inflammatory and specific immune responses. However, to combat host responses and succeed as pathogens, viruses not only have developed/adopted mechanisms to control complement, but also have turned these interactions to their own advantage. Important examples include poxviruses, herpesviruses, retroviruses, paramyxoviruses and picornaviruses. In this review, we provide information on the various complement evasion strategies that viruses have developed to thwart the complement attack of the host. A special emphasis is given on the interactions between the viral proteins that are involved in molecular mimicry and the complement system.

  5. New Insights into Viral Architecture via Affine Extended Symmetry Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Keef

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the seminal work of Caspar and Klug on the structure of the protein containers that encapsulate and hence protect the viral genome, it has been recognized that icosahedral symmetry is crucial for the structural organization of viruses. In particular, icosahedral symmetry has been invoked in order to predict the surface structures of viral capsids in terms of tessellations or tilings that schematically encode the locations of the protein subunits in the capsids. Whilst this approach is capable of predicting the relative locations of the proteins in the capsids, a prediction on the relative sizes of different virus particles in a family cannot be made. Moreover, information on the full 3D structure of viral particles, including the tertiary structures of the capsid proteins and the organization of the viral genome within the capsid are inaccessible with their approach. We develop here a mathematical framework based on affine extensions of the icosahedral group that allows us to address these issues. In particular, we show that the relative radii of viruses in the family of Polyomaviridae and the material boundaries in simple RNA viruses can be determined with our approach. The results complement Caspar and Klug's theory of quasi-equivalence and provide details on virus structure that have not been accessible with previous methods, implying that icosahedral symmetry is more important for virus architecture than previously appreciated.

  6. Tv-commercial verliest het van virals

    OpenAIRE

    Gisbergen, M.S. van; Ketelaar, P.E.; Baudoin, P,

    2007-01-01

    Viral commercials werken goed. De meeste jongeren bekijken viral commercials en beoordelen ze positiever dan tv-commercials. Doordat viral commercials volgens consumenten voor vermaak zorgen, ontwijken zij ze minder dan tv-commercials. Ook onthouden jongeren de in viral commercials geadverteerde producten en merken goed. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van de Radboud Universiteit in samenwerking met De Vos & Jansen onder 412 jongeren.

  7. [Neuropsychiatric sequelae of viral meningitis in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsgaard, Jesper; Hjerrild, Simon; Renvillard, Signe Groth; Leutscher, Peter Derek Christian

    2011-10-10

    Viral meningitis is considered to be a benign illness with only mild symptoms. In contrast to viral encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, the prognosis is usually good. However, retrospective studies have demonstrated that patients suffering from viral meningitis may experience cognitive impairment following the acute course of infection. Larger controlled studies are needed to elucidate the potential neuropsychiatric adverse outcome of viral meningitis.

  8. Metagenomic characterization of viral communities in Goseong Bay, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jinik; Park, So Yun; Park, Mirye; Lee, Sukchan; Jo, Yeonhwa; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2016-12-01

    In this study, seawater samples were collected from Goseong Bay, Korea in March 2014 and viral populations were examined by metagenomics assembly. Enrichment of marine viral particles using FeCl3 followed by next-generation sequencing produced numerous sequences. De novo assembly and BLAST search showed that most of the obtained contigs were unknown sequences and only 0.74% of sequences were associated with known viruses. As a result, 138 viruses, including bacteriophages (87%), viruses infecting algae and others (13%) were identified. The identified 138 viruses were divided into 11 orders, 14 families, 34 genera, and 133 species. The dominant viruses were Pelagibacter phage HTVC010P and Roseobacter phage SIO1. The viruses infecting algae, including the Ostreococcus species, accounted for 9.4% of total identified viruses. In addition, we identified pathogenic herpes viruses infecting fishes and giant viruses infecting parasitic acanthamoeba species. This is a comprehensive study to reveal the viral populations in the Goseong Bay using metagenomics. The information associated with the marine viral community in Goseong Bay, Korea will be useful for comparative analysis in other marine viral communities.

  9. Use of computer algorithms to reduce viral quasispecies sequence space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, E S; Tyrer, H W

    1995-01-01

    A virus may express multiple simple mutations producing a set of viral subspecies called quasispecies: the quasispecies are considered the same species as the original virus. We are interested in reducing the point mutation space to enumerate that sequence space. We form a point mutation by applying a single bit mutation to a strand of viral DNA. How many differing viruses are possible if we allow any of the base pairs to change along the strand? For a strand of arbitrary length n we see that there is a possible sequence space of 4n-1.4 = 4n combinations. We can further remove identical sequences due to redundant amino acid codon encoding. This requires the use of a computer, but this time the complexity is a product: the number of possible amino acids times the number of codons. This substantial reduction from an exponential complexity O(4n) to a product O(n.amino-acid-number) gives us the complete list of mutant viral entities which are one mutation away from the original. Further reduction is possible, but requires biological insight regarding the viability of the mutation. By recognizing the possible sequence space, prediction can be made toward identifying future viral strains of HIV and influenza (to name two important viral particles), and perhaps develop a predictive intervention.

  10. Discovery of a Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus from a Sea Turtle Fibropapilloma by Using Viral Metagenomics▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Manire, Charles; Borrowman, Kelly; Langer, Tammy; Ehrhart, Llewellyn; Breitbart, Mya

    2008-01-01

    Viral metagenomics, consisting of viral particle purification and shotgun sequencing, is a powerful technique for discovering viruses associated with diseases with no definitive etiology, viruses that share limited homology with known viruses, or viruses that are not culturable. Here we used viral metagenomics to examine viruses associated with sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), a debilitating neoplastic disease affecting sea turtles worldwide. By means of purifying and shotgun sequencing t...

  11. [Pathology and viral metagenomics, a recent history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Pauline; Albina, Emmanuel; Eloit, Marc; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Human, animal and plant viral diseases have greatly benefited from recent metagenomics developments. Viral metagenomics is a culture-independent approach used to investigate the complete viral genetic populations of a sample. During the last decade, metagenomics concepts and techniques that were first used by ecologists progressively spread into the scientific field of viral pathology. The sample, which was first for ecologists a fraction of ecosystem, became for pathologists an organism that hosts millions of microbes and viruses. This new approach, providing without a priori high resolution qualitative and quantitative data on the viral diversity, is now revolutionizing the way pathologists decipher viral diseases. This review describes the very last improvements of the high throughput next generation sequencing methods and discusses the applications of viral metagenomics in viral pathology, including discovery of novel viruses, viral surveillance and diagnostic, large-scale molecular epidemiology, and viral evolution.

  12. Metagenomics-based analysis of viral communities in dairy lagoon wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhamlan, F S; Ederer, M M; Brown, C J; Coats, E R; Crawford, R L

    2013-02-15

    Microbial populations, especially those of viruses, are poorly studied in dairy wastewater treatment operations. Here we report signature nucleic acid metagenomic sequences obtained by pyrosequencing viromes of virus-like particles that were extracted from two dairy waste treatment lagoons. The lagoons are operated in series, with Lagoon I being used as the primary stage and Lagoon II as the secondary stage of wastewater treatment. An average of 2000 sequences was obtained from each lagoon. More than 300 signatures from each lagoon matched sequences in the virus database of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). We utilized a bioinformatics approach and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to characterize the viral diversity and presence of potential viral pathogens within the lagoons. Our results showed differences in viral community compositions between Lagoon I and Lagoon II, suggesting that the viral community changes significantly in the transition of water between the two lagoons. Furthermore, the diverse viral community in the lagoon samples contained signature sequences of a variety of bacterial, plant, and animal viruses. Bacteriophage sequences dominated the viral community metagenomes in both lagoons. Ultimately these results can be used to identify viral bioindicators to rapidly assess wastewater treatment quality and the potential impacts of dairy operations on watersheds. Our viral metagenomic sequences have been submitted to GenBank (GPID 65805) and can provide insight into the composition and structure of viral communities within wastewaters of dairy lagoon systems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  14. Integrin Activation and Viral Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-dian GAO; Jun-zheng DU; Jian-hua ZHOU; Hui-yun CHANG; Qing-ge XIE

    2008-01-01

    Integrins are members of a ubiquitous membrane receptor family which includes 18 different α subunits and 8 β subunits forming more than 20 α/β heterodimers. Integrins play key functions in vascular endothelial cell and tumour cell adhesion, lymphocyte trafficking, tumor growth and viral infection. Current understanding of the molecular basis of integrins as viral receptors has been achieved through many decades of study into the biology of transmembrane glycoproteins and their interactions with several viruses. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge on the molecular bases of interactions between viruses and integrins, which are of potential practical significance. Inhibition of virus-integrin interactions at the points of virus attachment or entry will provide a novel approach for the therapeutic treatment of viral diseases.

  15. Enfermedades virales emergentes y reemergentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eliécer Ossa Londoño

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Los virus no son una excepción al principio de que toda forma de vida de hoyes el producto de la evolución de información gen ética preexistente. Tradicionalmente se ha reconocido que ta expresión clínica de las enfermedades virales cambia con el tiempo; molecularmente se ha demostrado que esos cambios fenotípicos son el producto de variaciones en el genoma viral. La tasa de cambio
    gen ético y fenotípico no es la misma en todos los agentes virales y ello está determinado, principalmente, por factores intrínsecos del virus, como la naturaleza de su ácido nucleico, y por la longevidad
    y tasa reproductiva del huésped.

  16. Acute bacterial and viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartt, Russell

    2012-12-01

    Most cases of acute meningitis are infectious and result from a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Acute meningitis is infectious in most cases and caused by a potentially wide range of bacterial and viral pathogens. Shifts in the epidemiology of bacterial pathogens have been influenced by changes in vaccines and their implementation. Seasonal and environmental changes influence the likely viral and rickettsial pathogens. The organized approach to the patient with suspected meningitis enables the prompt administration of antibiotics, possibly corticosteroids, and diagnostic testing with neuroimaging and spinal fluid analysis. Pertinent testing and treatment can vary with the clinical presentation, season, and possible exposures. This article reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of acute meningitis.

  17. Cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Ahmed; Said, Adnan

    2015-02-01

    There are several extrahepatic cutaneous manifestations associated with hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infection. Serum sickness and polyarteritis nodosa are predominantly associated with hepatitis B infection, whereas mixed cryoglobulinemia associated vasculitis and porphyria cutanea tarda are more frequently seen in hepatitis C infection. The clinico-pathogenic associations of these skin conditions are not completely defined but appear to involve activation of the host immune system including the complement system. Management of the aforementioned cutaneous manifestations of viral hepatitis is often similar to that done in cases without viral hepatitis, with control of immune activation being a key strategy. In cases associated with hepatitis B and C, control of viral replication with specific antiviral therapy is also important and associated with improvement in most of the associated clinical manifestations.

  18. Going Viral with Fluorescent Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Lindsey M; Snapp, Erik L

    2015-10-01

    Many longstanding questions about dynamics of virus-cell interactions can be answered by combining fluorescence imaging techniques with fluorescent protein (FP) tagging strategies. Successfully creating a FP fusion with a cellular or viral protein of interest first requires selecting the appropriate FP. However, while viral architecture and cellular localization often dictate the suitability of a FP, a FP's chemical and physical properties must also be considered. Here, we discuss the challenges of and offer suggestions for identifying the optimal FPs for studying the cell biology of viruses.

  19. Function of Membrane Rafts in Viral Lifecycles and Host Cellular Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadanobu Takahashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane rafts are small (10–200 nm sterol- and sphingolipid-enriched domains that compartmentalize cellular processes. Membrane rafts play an important role in viral infection cycles and viral virulence. Viruses are divided into four main classes, enveloped DNA virus, enveloped RNA virus, nonenveloped DNA virus, and nonenveloped RNA virus. General virus infection cycle is also classified into two sections, the early stage (entry process and the late stage (assembly, budding, and release processes of virus particles. In the viral cycle, membrane rafts act as a scaffold of many cellular signal transductions, which are associated with symptoms caused by viral infections. In this paper, we describe the functions of membrane rafts in viral lifecycles and host cellular response according to each virus classification, each stage of the virus lifecycle, and each virus-induced signal transduction.

  20. RNA Control of HIV-1 Particle Size Polydispersity

    CERN Document Server

    Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine; Thomas, Audrey; Tartour, Kevin; Beck, Yvonne; Iazykov, Maksym; Danial, John; Lourdin, Morgane; Muriaux, Delphine; Castelnovo, Martin

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1, an enveloped RNA virus, produces viral particles that are known to be much more heterogeneous in size than is typical of non-enveloped viruses. We present here a novel strategy to study HIV-1 Viral Like Particles (VLP) assembly by measuring the size distribution of these purified VLPs and subsequent viral cores thanks to Atomic Force Microscopy imaging and statistical analysis. This strategy allowed us to identify whether the presence of viral RNA acts as a modulator for VLPs and cores size heterogeneity in a large population of particles. These results are analyzed in the light of a recently proposed statistical physics model for the self-assembly process. In particular, our results reveal that the modulation of size distribution by the presence of viral RNA is qualitatively reproduced, suggesting therefore an entropic origin for the modulation of RNA uptake by the nascent VLP.

  1. Cross-clade protective immune responses to influenza viruses with H5N1 HA and NA elicited by an influenza virus-like particle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick A Bright

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vaccination is a cost-effective counter-measure to the threat of seasonal or pandemic outbreaks of influenza. To address the need for improved influenza vaccines and alternatives to egg-based manufacturing, we have engineered an influenza virus-like particle (VLP as a new generation of non-egg or non-mammalian cell culture-based candidate vaccine. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated from a baculovirus expression system using insect cells, a non-infectious recombinant VLP vaccine from both influenza A H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2 isolates with pandemic potential. VLPs were administered to mice in either a one-dose or two-dose regimen and the immune responses were compared to those induced by recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA. Both humoral and cellular responses were analyzed. Mice vaccinated with VLPs were protected against challenge with lethal reassortant viruses expressing the H5N1 HA and NA, regardless if the H5N1 clade was homologous or heterologous to the vaccine. However, rHA-vaccinated mice showed considerable weight loss and death following challenge with the heterovariant clade virus. Protection against death induced by VLPs was independent of the pre-challenge HAI titer or cell-mediated responses to HA or M1 since vaccinated mice, with low to undetectable cross-clade HAI antibodies or cellular responses to influenza antigens, were still protected from a lethal viral challenge. However, an apparent association rate of antibody binding to HA correlated with protection and was enhanced using VLPs, particularly when delivered intranasally, compared to rHA vaccines. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first report describing the use of an H5N1 VLP vaccine created from a clade 2 isolate. The results show that a non-replicating virus-like particle is effective at eliciting a broadened, cross-clade protective immune response to proteins from emerging H5N1 influenza isolates giving rise to a potential pandemic influenza vaccine

  2. Ventilator and viral induced inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennus, M.P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis expands current knowledge on ventilator induced lung injury and provides insights on the immunological effects of mechanical ventilation during viral respiratory infections. The experimental studies in the first part of this thesis improve our understanding of how mechanical ventilation

  3. Non-Viral Deoxyribonucleoside Kinases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Louise Slot; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Knecht, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Deoxyribonucleoside kinases (dNKs) phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides to their corresponding monophosphate compounds. dNks also phosphorylate deoxyribonucleoside analogues that are used in the treatment of cancer or viral infections. The study of the mammalian dNKs has therefore always been of gr...

  4. The practice guideline of non-infectious uveitis and the revelation of current studies on actual treatment modalities%非感染性葡萄膜炎的临床治疗指南及当前实际治疗模式的研究启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢弘; 余烁

    2013-01-01

    The causes and pathophysiology fo uveitis are quite complex, involving autoimmunity, trauma, infection and other factors.It is mainly divided into infectious and non-infectious uveitis. non-infectious uveitis is divided into exogenous and endogenous.Glucocorticoids is the only drug which approved by U.S.Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of non-infectious uveitis.Since long-term glucocorticoid experience will cause serious side effects for uveitis patients,in 2000,an American experts group developed a practice guideline on uveitis,and revised it in 2005.Quan Dong Nguyen and his team conducted a multi-center cross-sectional study across the United States. This study recruited 60 ophthalmologists and rheumatologists in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases,Ninth Revision code (360.12,360.11,363.20,374.3,364.3) from 27states .The goal is to understand the current treatment information of non-infectious anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior uveitis and panuveitis, moreover to obtain demographic information, treatment types of uveitis patients and the measurement characteristics relevant to descriptions,record.The study also tried to assess universal degree of the practice guideline in current uveitis treatment.According to the results of the American cross-sectional study about non-infectious uveitis treatment,the author presented a pooled analysis of the current awareness degree of uveitis practice guideline within the professional scope, the range of clinical implementation and personal practice experience in order to arouse counterparts′thinking.%葡萄膜炎的发病原因和机制相当复杂,涉及自身免疫、外伤、感染等多种因素。主要分为感染性和非感染性两大类,非感染性葡萄膜炎又分为外源性和内源性。糖皮质激素是唯一获得美国食品和药物管理局批准用于非感染性葡萄膜炎治疗的药物。由于葡萄膜炎患者长期大量应用糖皮质

  5. Mast cells in viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Witczak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available  There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9, but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Furthermore, mast cells generate various mediators, cytokines and chemokines which modulate the intensity of inflammation and regulate the course of innate and adaptive anti-viral immunity. Indirect evidence for the role of mast cells in viral infections is also provided by clinical observations and results of animal studies. Currently, more and more data indicate that mast cells can be infected by some viruses (dengue virus, adenoviruses, hantaviruses, cytomegaloviruses, reoviruses, HIV-1 virus. It is also demonstrated that mast cells can release pre formed mediators as well as synthesize de novo eicosanoids in response to stimulation by viruses. Several data indicate that virus-stimulated mast cells secrete cytokines and chemokines, including interferons as well as chemokines with a key role in NK and Tc lymphocyte influx. Moreover, some information indicates that mast cell stimulation via TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9 can affect their adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins and chemotaxis, and influence expression of some membrane molecules. Critical analysis of current data leads to the conclusion that it is not yet possible to make definitive statements about the role of mast cells in innate and acquired defense mechanisms developing in the course of viral infection and/or pathomechanisms of viral diseases.

  6. Autistic disorder and viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbey, Jane E; Sweeten, Thayne L; McMahon, William M; Fujinami, Robert S

    2005-02-01

    Autistic disorder (autism) is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder with a wide range of behaviors. Although the etiology of autism is unknown, data suggest that autism results from multiple etiologies with both genetic and environmental contributions, which may explain the spectrum of behaviors seen in this disorder. One proposed etiology for autism is viral infection very early in development. The mechanism, by which viral infection may lead to autism, be it through direct infection of the central nervous system (CNS), through infection elsewhere in the body acting as a trigger for disease in the CNS, through alteration of the immune response of the mother or offspring, or through a combination of these, is not yet known. Animal models in which early viral infection results in behavioral changes later in life include the influenza virus model in pregnant mice and the Borna disease virus model in newborn Lewis rats. Many studies over the years have presented evidence both for and against the association of autism with various viral infections. The best association to date has been made between congenital rubella and autism; however, members of the herpes virus family may also have a role in autism. Recently, controversy has arisen as to the involvement of measles virus and/or the measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine in the development of autism. Biological assays lend support to the association between measles virus or MMR and autism whereas epidemiologic studies show no association between MMR and autism. Further research is needed to clarify both the mechanisms whereby viral infection early in development may lead to autism and the possible involvement of the MMR vaccine in the development of autism.

  7. Generation of Recombinant Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (rVHSV) Expressing Two Foreign Proteins and Effect of Lengthened Viral Genome on Viral Growth and In Vivo Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a new recombinant VHSV (rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp) was generated by insertion of a red fluorescent protein (RFP) gene between N and P genes, a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene between P and M genes of VHSV genome, the expression of each heterologous gene in infected cells, and effects of the lengthened recombinant VHSV's genome on the replication ability and in vivo virulence to olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) fingerlings were compared with previously generated rVHSVs (rVHSV-wild, rVHSV-Arfp, and rVHSV-Brfp). The expression of RFP and GFP in cells infected with rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp was verified through fluorescent microscopy and FACS analysis. In the viral growth analysis, rVHSV-Arfp and rVHSV-Brfp showed significantly lower viral titers than rVHSV-wild, and the replication of rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp was significantly decreased compared to that of even rVHSV-Arfp or rVHSV-Brfp. These results suggest that the genome length is a critical factor for the determination of rVHSVs replication efficiency. In the in vivo virulence experiment, the cumulative mortalities of olive flounder fingerlings infected with each rVHSV were inversely proportional to the length of the viral genome, suggesting that decreased viral growth rate due to the lengthened viral genome is accompanied with the decrease of in vivo virulence of rVHSVs. Recombinant viruses expressing multiple foreign antigens can be used for the development of combined vaccines. However, as the present rVHSV-Arfp-Bgfp still possesses an ability to kill hosts (although very weakened), researches on the producing more attenuated viruses or propagation-deficient replicon particles are needed to solve safety-related problems.

  8. Latex immunoagglutination assay for bovine viral diarrhea virus utilizing forward light scattering in a microfluidic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Brian C.; Song, Jae-Young; Han, Jin-Hee; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2008-02-01

    We have investigated the utilization of particle agglutination assays using forward light scattering measurements in a microfluidic device towards detecting viral particles. The model viral target was bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Highly carboxylated polystyrene microspheres (510 nm) were coated with anti-BVDV monoclonal antibodies. This solution was in turn used to detect live modified BVDV. This assay was first performed in a two well slide for proof of concept and then in a simple y-channel microfluidic device with optical fibers arranged in a close proximity setup. Particle immunoagglutination was detected through static light scattering measurements taken at 45° to incident light. In the microfluidic device, modified live BVDV was detected with a detection limit of 0.5 TCID 50 mL -1.

  9. Fabrication of an anti-viral air filter with SiO₂-Ag nanoparticles and performance evaluation in a continuous airflow condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Yun Haeng; Woo, Kyoungja; Hwang, Jungho

    2014-09-15

    In this study, SiO2 nanoparticles surface coated with Ag nanoparticles (SA particles) were fabricated to coat a medium air filter. The pressure drop, filtration efficiency, and anti-viral ability of the filter were evaluated against aerosolized bacteriophage MS2 in a continuous air flow condition. A mathematical approach was developed to measure the anti-viral ability of the filter with various virus deposition times. Moreover, two quality factors based on the anti-viral ability of the filter, and a traditional quality factor based on filtration efficiency, were calculated. The filtration efficiency and pressure drop increased with decreasing media velocity and with increasing SA particle coating level. The anti-viral efficiency also increased with increasing SA particle coating level, and decreased by with increasing virus deposition time. Consequently, SA particle coating on a filter does not have significant effects on filtration quality, and there is an optimal coating level to produce the highest anti-viral quality.

  10. Non-random patterns in viral diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Simon J.; Islam, Ariful; Johnson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear whether changes in viral communities will ever be predictable. Here we investigate whether viral communities in wildlife are inherently structured (inferring predictability) by looking at whether communities are assembled through deterministic (often predictable) or stocha...

  11. Endemic Poultry Viral Diseases 2016 Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral infections of the avian gastrointestinal tract negatively impact poultry production; however, determining the complex etiologies of the viral enteric diseases in poultry has been difficult. Project scientists are continuing to investigate the species specificity, molecular phylogenetics, and p...

  12. Clinical Efficacy of Integrative Medicine in Treatment of Nine HIV/AIDS-associated Non-infectious Skin Lesion Cases%中西医结合治疗9例HIV/AIDS相关性非感染性皮损患者的临床疗效观察*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨舒淳; 叶建清; 王艺颖; 马秀兰; 李静茹; 马建萍

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the clinical efficacy of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) combined withPing-Ai(PA) Mixture in the treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus / Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients with non-infectious skin lesions, in order to study the advantages of integrative medicine in AIDS prevention and treatment. A total of 9 cases, who met the inclusion criteria of AIDS-associated non-infectious skin lesion with the pattern ofqi-yin deficiency and internal obstruction of phlegm-stasis, were selected. The combination of HAART and number 1 and 4 prescription of PA Mixture were used in the treatment for 3 months. The observations were made on changes of clinical symptoms, body signs, Karovsky integral and CD4+ T cells of patients before and after treatment. Stata 12.0 was used in the statistical analysis. The results showed that after integrative therapy, the single integral of clinical symptoms and body signs, such as skin spot papula, subcutaneous nodules, skin itching, fatigue was obviously reduced compared to that of the pretreatment. The total score decreased than that of the pretreatment. The patients’ quality of life (QOL) significantly increased. The Karovsky integral increased compared with that of pretreatment. The CD4+ T cells values were higher than that of the pretreatment. It was concluded that the integrative therapy had a certain effect in the treatment of AIDS-associated non-infectious skin lesions, which can improve the clinical symptoms, body signs, obviously increase the patients’ QOL and immune function.%目的:通过观察高效抗逆转录病毒治疗(Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy,HAART)联合平艾合剂治疗人类免疫缺陷病毒/获得性免疫缺陷综合征(Human Immunodeficiency Virus /Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome,HIV/AIDS,简称“艾滋病”)相关性非感染性皮损患者的临床疗效,进一步研究中西医结合在艾滋病防治中的优

  13. Viral reproductive strategies: How can lytic viruses be evolutionarily competitive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, Natalia L

    2007-12-21

    Viral release strategies can be roughly classified as lytic (the ones that accumulate inside the host cell and exit in a burst, killing the cell), and budding (the ones that are produced and released from the host cell gradually). Here we study the evolutionary competition between the two strategies. If all the parameters, such as the rate of viral production, cell life-span and the neutralizing capacity of the antibodies, were the same for lytic and budding viruses, the budding life-strategy would have a large evolutionary advantage. The question arises what makes lytic viruses evolutionarily competitive. We propose that it is the different removal capacity of the antibodies against budding and lytic virions. The latter exit the cell in a large burst such that the antibodies are "flooded" and a larger proportion of virions can escape the immune system and spread to new cells. We create two spatial models of virus-antibody interaction and show that for realistic parameter values, the effect of antibody flooding can indeed take place. We also argue that the lytic life cycle, including a relatively large burst-size, has evolved to promote survival in the face of antibody attack. According to the calculations, in the absence of efficient antibodies, the optimal burst size of lytic viruses would be only a few virus particles, as opposed to the observed 10(2)-10(5) viral particles. Similarly, there is an evolutionary pressure to extend the life-span as a response to antibody action.

  14. Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics Global Health Health Consequences of Drug Misuse Hepatitis (Viral) HIV/AIDS Mental Health Military Opioid Overdose Reversal ... Publications » DrugFacts » Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) Email Facebook Twitter Revised March ...

  15. Viral commercials: the consumer as marketeer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, P.E.; Lucassen, P.; Kregting, G.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Research into the reasons why consumers pass along viral commercials: their motives, the content characteristics of viral commercials and the medium context in which viral commercials appear. Based on the uses and gratifications perspective this study has determined which motives of consumers,

  16. Viral ecology of a shallow eutrophic lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, M.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to give an insight into the ecology of the viral community in a shallow eutrophic lake. To achieve this, the population dynamics, diversity and control of the viral community in Lake Loosdrecht were studied, as well as the impact of the viral community on plankton mortality and comm

  17. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); R. Bodewes (Rogier); A. Ruiz-Gonzalez (Aritz); V. Baumgärtner (Volkmar); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A. Schürch (Anita)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractViral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow r

  18. Virally encoded 7TM receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M M; Waldhoer, M; Lüttichau, H R

    2001-01-01

    A number of herpes- and poxviruses encode 7TM G-protein coupled receptors most of which clearly are derived from their host chemokine system as well as induce high expression of certain 7TM receptors in the infected cells. The receptors appear to be exploited by the virus for either immune evasion...... in various parts of the viral life cyclus. Most of the receptors encoded by human pathogenic virus are still orphan receptors, i.e. the endogenous ligand is unknown. In the few cases where it has been possible to characterize these receptors pharmacologically, they have been found to bind a broad spectrum...... expression of this single gene in certain lymphocyte cell lineages leads to the development of lesions which are remarkably similar to Kaposi's sarcoma, a human herpesvirus 8 associated disease. Thus, this and other virally encoded 7TM receptors appear to be attractive future drug targets....

  19. [Recent acquisitions on viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resti, M; Tucci, F; Vierucci, A

    1990-01-01

    In the last years the research on viral hepatitis let to better understand the biological, molecular, immunological and epidemiologic characteristics of the viruses that are responsible for hepatitis. The first studied virus was hepatitis B virus (HBv). The scientific attention is still, today, focused on that virus since new markers of infectivity and biological importance in early diagnosis and in disease evolution have been found. The most important result in the last years in the field of viral hepatitis has been, however, the identification of agents responsible for Non-A-Non-B hepatitis. Its epidemiology and clinical importance are discussed in the present paper. Virus C is the most important parenteral agent of NANB hepatitis. Its epidemiology in at risk populations and its role in post-transfusional and cryptogenetic hepatitis are here discussed. The research of new markers of HCV infection is today considered a main goal since the role of the only marker now available is still under discussion.

  20. Viral diseases and human evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leal Élcio de Souza

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish long-lasting associations with man. Although not all viral agents cause disease and some may in fact be considered beneficial, the present situation of overpopulation, poverty and ecological inbalance may have devastating effets on human progress. Recently emerged diseases causing massive pandemics (eg., HIV-1 and HCV, dengue, etc. are becoming formidable challenges, which may have a direct impact on the fate of our species.

  1. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  2. RHEUMATIC MANIFESTATIONS IN VIRAL HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L P Anan'eva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune reactions are of primary importance in the development of extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis, among which there are rheumatic symptoms and syndromes. The incidence of clinically significant extrahepatic manifestations is shown to be relatively low, but they may be in the foreground in the clinical picture of the disease and are noted for severity. It is concluded that due to the high prevalence of hepatitis and the systemic pattern of their chronic forms, patients with extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis may be encountered in the practice of a therapist and a rheumatologist. The onset of the infection caused by hepatitis viruses may be accompanied by articular lesion therefore the rheumatologist may be the first physician such a patient may resort to.

  3. Viral diseases and human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The interaction of man with viral agents was possibly a key factor shaping human evolution, culture and civilization from its outset. Evidence of the effect of disease, since the early stages of human speciation, through pre-historical times to the present suggest that the types of viruses associated with man changed in time. As human populations progressed technologically, they grew in numbers and density. As a consequence different viruses found suitable conditions to thrive and establish l...

  4. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  5. STUDY OF PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTION IN AN ANIMAL MODEL OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马睿; 陈曙霞; 刘晶星

    2000-01-01

    ffeStnn6 Objectif Etudier ie r6le de l'infection virale persistante dans ie pethog4de de la myOCardite virale.ANt~ L' ARN viral dens ie my~rde et ie mug et l' alteration potholedque du m~rde ent ate ewilnd per la techniquede PCR adns un mangle de myrmrdite virale chez ies ~ris. Rhaltats L 'ARN viral a ate detects an 3'jour dens ie mug etie myrmrde. An 8'jour, I 'ARN viral an niveau du mug a ate pertiellement dewnu then f lorsque l' alteration pethologiquedu myocarde a atteint un maximum. he 12'jour, L' ARN ...

  6. Pediatric Asthma and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garcia, M Luz; Calvo Rey, Cristina; Del Rosal Rabes, Teresa

    2016-05-01

    Respiratory viral infections, particularly respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus, are the most importance risk factors for the onset of wheezing in infants and small children. Bronchiolitis is the most common acute respiratory infection in children under 1year of age, and the most common cause of hospitalization in this age group. RSV accounts for approximately 70% of all these cases, followed by rhinovirus, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and bocavirus. The association between bronchiolitis caused by RSV and the development of recurrent wheezing and/or asthma was first described more than 40years ago, but it is still unclear whether bronchiolitis causes chronic respiratory symptoms, or if it is a marker for children with a genetic predisposition for developing asthma in the medium or long term. In any case, sufficient evidence is available to corroborate the existence of this association, which is particularly strong when the causative agent of bronchiolitis is rhinovirus. The pathogenic role of respiratory viruses as triggers for exacerbations in asthmatic patients has not been fully characterized. However, it is clear that respiratory viruses, and in particular rhinovirus, are the most common causes of exacerbation in children, and some type of respiratory virus has been identified in over 90% of children hospitalized for an episode of wheezing. Changes in the immune response to viral infections in genetically predisposed individuals are very likely to be the main factors involved in the association between viral infection and asthma.

  7. Problems in diagnosing viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, F; Colloredo Mels, G; Bellati, G; Ideo, G; Oliveri, F; Colombatto, P; Brunetto, M R

    1993-01-01

    The most reliable method of making a specific aetiological diagnosis of chronic viral hepatitis would be to identify virus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes responsible for the killing of virus infected hepatocytes in each patient's liver. Unfortunately, this can not be proposed for routine diagnosis and surrogate tests are required. The detection of virus markers, and even of the virus itself, does not imply that liver damage is caused by virus infection. Indirect markers of the host's antiviral immunoresponse have to be used to confirm more specifically the diagnosis of viral hepatitis. IgM antibodies against viral antigens implicated in the elimination of the virus seem to be suitable alternative candidates. Significant changes in the serum values of viraemia and aminotransferases occur within a few days, while a significant variation in liver histology takes much longer. Only the kinetics of the highly variable parameters can be used for an appropriate study of the relationship between viraemia, antiviral immunoresponse, and liver cell necrosis. Quantitative and dynamic analyses of hepatitis virus markers seem the most suitable and reliable methods of monitoring the patients eligible for antiviral treatment and identifying the most appropriate time to start this. PMID:8314490

  8. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Vale-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral–host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC, and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  9. MOLECULAR BIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AT FATAL CONSEQUENCES OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smelyanskaya MV

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosis of viral myocarditis, based on the evidence base, is still one of the key problems of the heart disease. The presence of morphological features of the inflammatory process makes it possible to confirm the diagnosis of myocarditis, but, at the same time, the absence of these features is not sufficient to remove this diagnosis. In routine postmortem study of deaths in multidisciplinary (non-infectious hospital myocarditis is stated as a cause of death in 0.2-0.4% of all the autopsies. Mortality in myocarditis depends on the severity of the underlying disease, premorbid background, age and sex composition of the patients. According to different authors, it is very different and ranges from 0.03 to 26%. The aim of the work was to carry out histological and molecular biological studies postmortem material for confirming the etiologic role of herpesviruses with fatal consequences of infectious myocarditis during the observation period 2015-2016 years. Material & methods. The material of pathological heart, vascular endothelium, nerve ganglia, kidneys, liver and pancreas were investigated. Viral antigen detection was performed by fluorescent antibody technique with specific sera labeled with FITC (Dako Corporation, Carpinteria, CA and detection of the viral genome by PCR (in SYNEVO Laboratory. Morphological studies have been conducted in the post-mortem offices of the Kharkov clinical hospitals. Detection of viral genome was performed by PCR using certified commercial kits for detection of nucleotide sequences of herpesviruses «HSV I, II-EPh», «VZV-FL», «EBV-EPh», «CMV-EPh», «HHV VI-Eph», («AmpliSens». Diagnosis was made in «real time» using modern six-channel thermocycler «Rotor Gene 6000» (Qiagen, Germany. The first group consisted of 19 people who died from infectious myocarditis (group 1. The second group (group 2 consisted of 22 dead from complications of other cardiovascular disease. Pathoanatomical

  10. Extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Marc R; Andrew White, K

    2007-08-01

    The analysis of viral RNA is a fundamental aspect of plant RNA virus research. Studies that focus on viral RNAs often involve virus infections of plant protoplasts (see UNITS 16D.1-16D.4). Protoplast offer the advantage of simultaneous initiation of infections, which allows for superior temporal and quantitative analyses of viral RNAs. The efficient isolation of intact viral RNA is key to any such investigations. This unit describes two basic protocols for extracting viral RNAs from plant protoplasts. An approach for preparing double-stranded viral RNA from total RNA pools is also provided. The viral RNA prepared by using these techniques can be used for further analyses such as primer extension, reverse transcription-PCR, and northern blotting.

  11. 苍苓止泻口服液联合双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻%Cangling oral liquid combined with Bifidobacterium Tetravaccine tablets on treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新文; 刘存英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the Cangling antidiarrheal oral liquid combined with bifid Bacillus tetragenus lacto-bacillus tablets in the treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea clinical effect .Methods Selected 130 cases of non infectious diarrhea were randomly divided into observation group and control group .Control group was treated with conven-tional therapy ,the observation group in the control group on the basis of the Cangling antidiarrheal oral liquid combined with bifid Bacillus tetragenus live bacteria tablets in the treatment of and compared between the two groups the total efficiency , diarrhea stopping time ,dehydration ,correct time ,hospitalization time and serum IL-6 ,IL-7 ,fecal SIgA level .Results The total effective rate in the observation group was 96 .92% ,higher than that of the control group of 86 .15% ,the difference is statistically significant ( P<0 .05 );observation group of children with diarrhea stops time ,dehydration ,correct time and hospitalization time were lower than those in the control group ,the difference is statistically significant ( P<0 .05 );72 hours treatment ,the observation group ,IL-6 and IL-7 levels significantly lower than that in control group ,the difference is statisti-cally significant ( P<0 .05 );treatment group fecal SIgA levels higher than that of the control group ,the difference is statisti-cally significant ( P<0 .05 ) .Conclusion Bifidobacterium quadruple live bacteria tablets combined Cang Ling antidiarrhea oral liquid can effectively shorten the non infectious diarrhea in children with diarrhea time ,dehydration recovery time and hospitalization time ,reduce IL-6 and IL-17 levels ,increased intestinal SIgA level ,reduce the inflammatory response in chil-dren ,and defense against pathogen invasion ,and treatment of children with non infectious diarrhea .%目的:探讨苍苓止泻口服液联合双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床效果。方法选取130例非感染

  12. Alteration of viral lipid composition by expression of the phospholipid floppase ABCB4 reduces HIV vector infectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Til Niek P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of cholesterol in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV lipid envelop is important for viral function as cholesterol depleted viral particles show reduced infectivity. However, it is less well established whether other viral membrane lipids are also important for HIV infection. The ABCB4 protein is a phosphatidyl choline (PC floppase that mediates transport of PC from the inner to the outer membrane leaflet. This property enabled us to modulate the lipid composition of HIV vectors and study the effects on membrane composition and infection efficiency. Results Virus generated in the presence of ABCB4 was enriched in PC and cholesterol but contained less sphingomyelin (SM. Viral titers were reduced 5.9 fold. These effects were not observed with an inactive ABCB4 mutant. The presence of the ABC transport inhibitor verapamil abolished the effect of ABCB4 expression on viral titers. The ABCB4 mediated reduction in infectivity was caused by changes in the viral particles and not by components co purified with the virus because virus made in the presence of ABCB4 did not inhibit virus made without ABCB4 in a competition assay. Incorporation of the envelope protein was not affected by the expression of ABCB4. The inhibitory effect of ABCB4 was independent of the viral envelope as the effect was observed with two different envelope proteins. Conclusion Our data indicate that increasing the PC content of HIV particles reduces infectivity.

  13. Visualizing viral protein structures in cells using genetic probes for correlated light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Horng D; Deerinck, Thomas J; Bushong, Eric; Ellisman, Mark H; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2015-11-15

    Structural studies of viral proteins most often use high-resolution techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance, single particle negative stain, or cryo-electron microscopy (EM) to reveal atomic interactions of soluble, homogeneous viral proteins or viral protein complexes. Once viral proteins or complexes are separated from their host's cellular environment, their natural in situ structure and details of how they interact with other cellular components may be lost. EM has been an invaluable tool in virology since its introduction in the late 1940's and subsequent application to cells in the 1950's. EM studies have expanded our knowledge of viral entry, viral replication, alteration of cellular components, and viral lysis. Most of these early studies were focused on conspicuous morphological cellular changes, because classic EM metal stains were designed to highlight classes of cellular structures rather than specific molecular structures. Much later, to identify viral proteins inducing specific structural configurations at the cellular level, immunostaining with a primary antibody followed by colloidal gold secondary antibody was employed to mark the location of specific viral proteins. This technique can suffer from artifacts in cellular ultrastructure due to compromises required to provide access to the immuno-reagents. Immunolocalization methods also require the generation of highly specific antibodies, which may not be available for every viral protein. Here we discuss new methods to visualize viral proteins and structures at high resolutions in situ using correlated light and electron microscopy (CLEM). We discuss the use of genetically encoded protein fusions that oxidize diaminobenzidine (DAB) into an osmiophilic polymer that can be visualized by EM. Detailed protocols for applying the genetically encoded photo-oxidizing protein MiniSOG to a viral protein, photo-oxidation of the fusion protein to yield DAB polymer staining, and

  14. Encefalitis virales en la infancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Téllez de Meneses

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La encefalitis viral es una enfermedad grave que implica el compromiso inflamatorio del parénquima cerebral. Las infecciones virales del SNC ocurren con frecuencia como complicación de infecciones virales sistémicas. Más de 100 virus están implicados como agentes causales, entre los cuales el virus Herpes simplex tipo I, es el agente causal más frecuente de encefalitis no epidémica en todos los grupos poblacionales del mundo; es el responsable de los casos más graves en todas las edades. Muchos de los virus para los cuales existe vacunas también pueden causar encefalitis como: sarampión, paperas, polio, rabia, rubéola, varicela. El virus produce una inflamación del tejido cerebral, la cual puede evolucionar a una destrucción de neuronas, provocar hemorragia y daño cerebral, dando lugar a encefalitis graves, como la encefalitis necrotizante o hemorrágica, con mucho peor pronóstico, produciendo secuelas graves, incluso la muerte. El cuadro clínico, incluye la presencia de cefalea, fiebre y alteración de la conciencia, de rápida progresión. El pronóstico de las encefalitis víricas es variable, algunos casos son leves, con recuperación completa, sin embargo existen casos graves que pueden ocasionar secuelas importantes a nivel cerebral. Es fundamental realizar un diagnóstico lo antes posible, a través de pruebas de laboratorio (bioquímica, PCR, cultivos y de neuroimagen (TAC, RM y ante todo, la instauración de un tratamiento precoz para evitar la evolución del proceso y sus posibles complicaciones. El pronóstico empeora si se retrasa la instauración del tratamiento.

  15. Evaluation of Viral Meningoencephalitis Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handan Ilhan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate retrospectively adult cases of viral encephalitis. METHOD: Fifteen patients described viral encephalitis hospitalized between the years 2006-2011 follow-up and treatment at the infectious diseases clinic were analyzed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most of the patients (%60 had applied in the spring. Fever (87%, confusion (73%, neck stiffness (73%, headache (73%, nausea-vomiting (33%, loss of consciousness (33%, amnesia (33%, agitation (20%, convulsion (%20, focal neurological signs (13%, Brudzinski-sign (13% were most frequently encountered findings. Electroencephalography test was applied to 13 of 14 patients, and pathological findings compatible with encephalitis have been found. Radiological imaging methods such as CT and MRI were performed in 9 of the 14 patients, and findings consistent with encephalitis were reported. All of initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples were abnormal. The domination of the first examples was lymphocytes in 14 patients; only one patient had an increase in neutrophilic cells have been found. CSF protein level was high in nine patients, and low glucose level was detected in two patients. Herpes simplex virus polymerized chain reaction (PCR analyze was performed to fourteen patients CSF. Only two of them (14% were found positive. One of the patients sample selectively examined was found to be Parvovirus B19 (+, the other patient urine sample Jacobs-creutzfeld virus PCR was found to be positively. Empiric acyclovir therapy was given to all patients. Neuropsychiatric squeal developed at the one patient. CONCLUSION: The cases in the forefront of change in mental status viral meningoencephalitis should be considered and empirical treatment with acyclovir should be started. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(4.000: 447-452

  16. Non Infectious Complications of Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Flayou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has proven to be as effective as hemodialysis. However, it is associated with several complications. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and outcome of complications in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis at our center. Material and methods: A retrospective study between January 2007 and February 2015 at the nephrology, dialysis and renal transplantation department of Ibn Sina university. Predisposing factors and long-term outcomes were analyzed. Results: Fifty two mechanical complications were noted among thirty eight patients between June 2007 and February 2015. Migration was the most common (23 cases followed by obstruction, hernia and dialysate leakes in respectively 9, 7 and 6 cases. We have also noted 2 cases of hemoperitoneum, 3 catheter perforation and 2 cases of externalization. Onset time of complications was 25,4 ± 12,7 months. Conclusion: this study proves the interest of the prevention of mechanical complications in peritoneal dialysis. This requires a periodic retraining of patients and caregivers.

  17. RNA silencing and plant viral diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Bo; Masuta, Chikara; Smith, Neil A; Shimura, Hanako

    2012-10-01

    RNA silencing plays a critical role in plant resistance against viruses, with multiple silencing factors participating in antiviral defense. Both RNA and DNA viruses are targeted by the small RNA-directed RNA degradation pathway, with DNA viruses being also targeted by RNA-directed DNA methylation. To evade RNA silencing, plant viruses have evolved a variety of counter-defense mechanisms such as expressing RNA-silencing suppressors or adopting silencing-resistant RNA structures. This constant defense-counter defense arms race is likely to have played a major role in defining viral host specificity and in shaping viral and possibly host genomes. Recent studies have provided evidence that RNA silencing also plays a direct role in viral disease induction in plants, with viral RNA-silencing suppressors and viral siRNAs as potentially the dominant players in viral pathogenicity. However, questions remain as to whether RNA silencing is the principal mediator of viral pathogenicity or if other RNA-silencing-independent mechanisms also account for viral disease induction. RNA silencing has been exploited as a powerful tool for engineering virus resistance in plants as well as in animals. Further understanding of the role of RNA silencing in plant-virus interactions and viral symptom induction is likely to result in novel anti-viral strategies in both plants and animals.

  18. [The ABC of viral hepatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bambeke, F

    2008-03-01

    Viral hepatitis has long been under-diagnosed. Hepatitis A is an acute disease, while patients infected by hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses are likely to develop chronical infections and severe complications (cancer, cirrhosis). The current treatment of hepatitis B and C consists in alpha interferon (preferably under its pegylated form), in combination with ribavirin for hepatitis C. The frequent and severe adverse effects of interferon-based therapy constitute, however, a major limiting factor (reactions at the injection site, flu-like syndrome, neurological disorders, ...). For hepatitis B, two alternatives are available so far, namely lamivudine and adefovir (used as a prodrug with highe oral bioavailability).

  19. Authentic counterfeit in viral marketing

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis deals with authentic fake, a phenomenon present in viral marketing. After a brief introduction into the issue and clarification of terms, the study aims to find out whether a seemingly authentic video recording of a catchy incident helps a marketing campaign to succeed, that is to say to achieve high sharing figures amongst internet users. In a theoretical part, the thesis elaborates information from technical books, publications and internet sources dealing with authentici...

  20. Mast cells in viral infections

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Witczak; Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk

    2012-01-01

     There are some premises suggesting that mast cells are involved in the mechanisms of anti-virus defense and in viral disease pathomechanisms. Mast cells are particularly numerous at the portals of infections and thus may have immediate and easy contact with the external environment and invading pathogens. These cells express receptors responsible for recognition of virus-derived PAMP molecules, mainly Toll-like receptors (TLR3, TLR7/8 and TLR9), but also RIG-I-like and NOD-like molecules. Fu...

  1. Coherent Brightfield Microscopy Provides the Spatiotemporal Resolution To Study Early Stage Viral Infection in Live Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Fan; Zhuo, Guan-Yu; Chou, Chun-Yu; Lin, Cheng-Hao; Chang, Wen; Hsieh, Chia-Lung

    2017-03-28

    Viral infection starts with a virus particle landing on a cell surface followed by penetration of the plasma membrane. Due to the difficulty of measuring the rapid motion of small-sized virus particles on the membrane, little is known about how a virus particle reaches an endocytic site after landing at a random location. Here, we use coherent brightfield (COBRI) microscopy to investigate early stage viral infection with ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution. By detecting intrinsic scattered light via imaging-based interferometry, COBRI microscopy allows us to track the motion of a single vaccinia virus particle with nanometer spatial precision (speed scattering-based optical imaging may provide opportunities for resolving rapid virus-receptor interactions with nanometer clarity.

  2. Lipid rafts both in cellular membrane and viral envelope are critical for PRRSV efficient infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qian; Zhang, Qiong; Tang, Jun; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2015-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) represents a significantly economical challenge to the swine industry worldwide. In this study, we investigated the importance of cellular and viral lipid rafts in PRRSV infection. First, we demonstrated that PRRSV glycoproteins, Gp3 and Gp4, were associated with lipid rafts during viral entry, and disruption of cellular lipid rafts inhibited PRRSV entry. We also showed the raft-location of CD163, which might contribute to the glycoproteins-raft association. Subsequently, raft disruption caused a significant reduction of viral RNA production. Moreover, Nsp9 was shown to be distributed in rafts, suggesting that rafts probably serve as a platform for PRRSV replication. Finally, we confirmed that disassembly of rafts on the virus envelope may affect the integrity of PRRSV particles and cause the leakage of viral proteins, which impaired PRRSV infectivity. These findings might provide insights on our understanding of the mechanism of PRRSV infection.

  3. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Adina; Ringus, Daina L.; Williams, Ryan J.; Choo, Zi-Ning; Greenwald, Stephanie M.; Owens, Sarah M.; Coleman, Maureen L.; Meyer, Folker; Chang, Eugene B.

    2015-10-16

    To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses showed significant overlap, supporting a largely temperate viral lifestyle within these gut microbiomes. The resistance of baseline communities to dietary disturbances was evaluated, and we observed contrasting responses of baseline LF and MF bacterial and viral communities. In contrast to baseline LF viral communities and bacterial communities in both diet treatments, baseline MF viral communities were sensitive to dietary disturbances as reflected in their non-recovery during the washout period. The contrasting responses of bacterial and viral communities suggest that these communities can respond to perturbations independently of each other and highlight the potentially unique role of viruses in gut health.

  4. Divergent responses of viral and bacterial communities in the gut microbiome to dietary disturbances in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Adina; Ringus, Daina L; Williams, Ryan J; Choo, Zi-Ning; Greenwald, Stephanie M; Owens, Sarah M; Coleman, Maureen L; Meyer, Folker; Chang, Eugene B

    2016-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the stability of mammalian intestinal communities, we characterized the responses of both bacterial and viral communities in murine fecal samples to dietary changes between high- and low-fat (LF) diets. Targeted DNA extraction methods for bacteria, virus-like particles and induced prophages were used to generate bacterial and viral metagenomes as well as 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons. Gut microbiome communities from two cohorts of C57BL/6 mice were characterized in a 6-week diet perturbation study in response to high fiber, LF and high-refined sugar, milkfat (MF) diets. The resulting metagenomes from induced bacterial prophages and extracellular viruses showed significant overlap, supporting a largely temperate viral lifestyle within these gut microbiomes. The resistance of baseline communities to dietary disturbances was evaluated, and we observed contrasting responses of baseline LF and MF bacterial and viral communities. In contrast to baseline LF viral communities and bacterial communities in both diet treatments, baseline MF viral communities were sensitive to dietary disturbances as reflected in their non-recovery during the washout period. The contrasting responses of bacterial and viral communities suggest that these communities can respond to perturbations independently of each other and highlight the potentially unique role of viruses in gut health. PMID:26473721

  5. Transfer of Viral Communities between Human Individuals during Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Chehoud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT is a highly effective treatment for refractory Clostridium difficile infections. However, concerns persist about unwanted cotransfer of pathogenic microbes such as viruses. Here we studed FMT from a single healthy human donor to three pediatric ulcerative colitis patients, each of whom received a course of 22 to 30 FMT treatments. Viral particles were purified from donor and recipient stool samples and sequenced; the reads were then assembled into contigs corresponding to viral genomes or partial genomes. Transfer of selected viruses was confirmed by quantitative PCR. Viral contigs present in the donor could be readily detected in recipients, with up to 32 different donor viral contigs appearing in a recipient sample. Reassuringly, none of these were viruses are known to replicate on human cells. Instead, viral contigs either scored as bacteriophage or could not be attributed taxonomically, suggestive of unstudied phage. The two most frequently transferred gene types were associated with temperate-phage replication. In addition, members of Siphoviridae, the group of typically temperate phages that includes phage lambda, were found to be transferred with significantly greater efficiency than other groups. On the basis of these findings, we propose that the temperate-phage replication style may promote efficient phage transfer between human individuals. In summary, we documented transfer of multiple viral lineages between human individuals through FMT, but in this case series, none were from viral groups known to infect human cells.

  6. CNOT4-Mediated Ubiquitination of Influenza A Virus Nucleoprotein Promotes Viral RNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Lin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV RNA segments are individually packaged with viral nucleoprotein (NP and RNA polymerases to form a viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex. We previously reported that NP is a monoubiquitinated protein which can be deubiquitinated by a cellular ubiquitin protease, USP11. In this study, we identified an E3 ubiquitin ligase, CNOT4 (Ccr4-Not transcription complex subunit 4, which can ubiquitinate NP. We found that the levels of viral RNA, protein, viral particles, and RNA polymerase activity in CNOT4 knockdown cells were lower than those in the control cells upon IAV infection. Conversely, overexpression of CNOT4 rescued viral RNP activity. In addition, CNOT4 interacted with the NP in the cell. An in vitro ubiquitination assay also showed that NP could be ubiquitinated by in vitro-translated CNOT4, but ubiquitination did not affect the protein stability of NP. Significantly, CNOT4 increased NP ubiquitination, whereas USP11 decreased it. Mass spectrometry analysis of ubiquitinated NP revealed multiple ubiquitination sites on the various lysine residues of NP. Three of these, K184, K227, and K273, are located on the RNA-binding groove of NP. Mutations of these sites to arginine reduced viral RNA replication. These results indicate that CNOT4 is a ubiquitin ligase of NP, and ubiquitination of NP plays a positive role in viral RNA replication.

  7. Intravirion Processing of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vif Protein by the Viral Protease May Be Correlated with Vif Function

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Mohammad A.; Akari, Hirofumi; Kao, Sandra; Aberham, Claudia; Davis, David; Buckler-White, Alicia; Strebel, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Vif protein is specifically packaged into virus particles through an interaction with viral genomic RNA in which it associates with the viral nucleoprotein complex. We now demonstrate for the first time that virus-associated Vif is subject to proteolytic processing by the viral protease (Pr). Pr-dependent processing of Vif was observed both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo processing of Vif was cell type independent and evident by the appearance of...

  8. Viral impacts on bacterial communities in Arctic cryoconite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Christopher M.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Telling, Jon;

    2013-01-01

    The surfaces of glaciers are extreme ecosystems dominated by microbial communities. Viruses are found in abundance here, with a high frequency of bacteria displaying visible virus infection. In this study, viral and bacterial production was measured in Arctic cryoconite holes to address the control......, virus production was found to be high, up to 8.98 x 10(7) virus like particles g(-1) dry wt. h(-1) were produced, which is comparable to virus production in sediments around the globe. The virus burst size was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and found to be amongst the lowest recorded...

  9. Analysis of the viral progeny during the indirect recombinogenesis of the lambda bacteriophage; Analisis de la progenie viral durante la recombinogenesis indirecta del bacteriofago lambda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcantara D, D. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    1993-12-15

    In this work the effect of the UV irradiation on the number of cells that follow the lytic via of the phage is determined, as well as the production of total particles and recombinants in irradiated individual cells and not irradiated with light UV. The results show that the indirect recombinogenesis of lambda is caused by a so much increment in the number of recombinant phages for cells like in the number of cells in those that happen events of viral recombination, without any significant effect on the number of bacteria that follow the lytic via of viral development. (Author)

  10. Sequencing Needs for Viral Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Lam, M; Mulakken, N J; Torres, C L; Smith, J R; Slezak, T

    2004-01-26

    We built a system to guide decisions regarding the amount of genomic sequencing required to develop diagnostic DNA signatures, which are short sequences that are sufficient to uniquely identify a viral species. We used our existing DNA diagnostic signature prediction pipeline, which selects regions of a target species genome that are conserved among strains of the target (for reliability, to prevent false negatives) and unique relative to other species (for specificity, to avoid false positives). We performed simulations, based on existing sequence data, to assess the number of genome sequences of a target species and of close phylogenetic relatives (''near neighbors'') that are required to predict diagnostic signature regions that are conserved among strains of the target species and unique relative to other bacterial and viral species. For DNA viruses such as variola (smallpox), three target genomes provide sufficient guidance for selecting species-wide signatures. Three near neighbor genomes are critical for species specificity. In contrast, most RNA viruses require four target genomes and no near neighbor genomes, since lack of conservation among strains is more limiting than uniqueness. SARS and Ebola Zaire are exceptional, as additional target genomes currently do not improve predictions, but near neighbor sequences are urgently needed. Our results also indicate that double stranded DNA viruses are more conserved among strains than are RNA viruses, since in most cases there was at least one conserved signature candidate for the DNA viruses and zero conserved signature candidates for the RNA viruses.

  11. Population Dynamics of Viral Inactivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Krista; Li, Dong; Behrens, Manja; Streletzky, Kiril; Olsson, Ulf; Evilevitch, Alex

    We have investigated the population dynamics of viral inactivation in vitrousing time-resolved cryo electron microscopy combined with light and X-ray scattering techniques. Using bacteriophage λ as a model system for pressurized double-stranded DNA viruses, we found that virions incubated with their cell receptor eject their genome in a stochastic triggering process. The triggering of DNA ejection occurs in a non synchronized manner after the receptor addition, resulting in an exponential decay of the number of genome-filled viruses with time. We have explored the characteristic time constant of this triggering process at different temperatures, salt conditions, and packaged genome lengths. Furthermore, using the temperature dependence we determined an activation energy for DNA ejections. The dependences of the time constant and activation energy on internal DNA pressure, affected by salt conditions and encapsidated genome length, suggest that the triggering process is directly dependent on the conformational state of the encapsidated DNA. The results of this work provide insight into how the in vivo kinetics of the spread of viral infection are influenced by intra- and extra cellular environmental conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. DGE-1252522.

  12. Commercialization of veterinary viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flore, P H

    2004-12-01

    If vaccines are to reliably prevent disease, they must be developed, produced and quality-controlled according to very strict regulations and procedures. Veterinary viral vaccine registrations are governed by different rules in different countries, but these rules all emphasize that the quality of the raw materials--the cells, eggs, animals or plants that are used in production--need to be carefully controlled. The veterinary vaccine business is also very cost-conscious. Emphasis over the last 5-10 years has therefore been to develop culture systems that minimize labor and sterility problems and thus provide for reliable and cost-effective production. Implementing these often more complex systems in a production environment takes considerable effort, first in scale-up trials and further down the line in convincing production personnel to change their familiar system for something new and possibly untried. To complete scale-up trials successfully, it is absolutely necessary to understand the biochemistry of the cells and the influence of the virus on the cells under scale-up and later production conditions. Once a viral product can be produced on a large scale, it is imperative that the quality of the end-product is controlled in an intelligent way. One needs to know whether the end-product performs in the animal as was intended during its conception in the research and development department. The development of the appropriate tests to demonstrate this plays an important role in the successful development of a vaccine.

  13. Innate immune response to viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Shohei; Ishii, Ken J; Coban, Cevayir; Akira, Shizuo

    2008-09-01

    In viral infections the host innate immune system is meant to act as a first line defense to prevent viral invasion or replication before more specific protection by the adaptive immune system is generated. In the innate immune response, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are engaged to detect specific viral components such as viral RNA or DNA or viral intermediate products and to induce type I interferons (IFNs) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines in the infected cells and other immune cells. Recently these innate immune receptors and their unique downstream pathways have been identified. Here, we summarize their roles in the innate immune response to virus infection, discrimination between self and viral nucleic acids and inhibition by virulent factors and provide some recent advances in the coordination between innate and adaptive immune activation.

  14. Sponging of Cellular Proteins by Viral RNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Charley, Phillida A.; Wilusz, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Viral RNAs accumulate to high levels during infection and interact with a variety of cellular factors including miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins. Although many of these interactions exist to directly modulate replication, translation and decay of viral transcripts, evidence is emerging that abundant viral RNAs may in certain cases serve as a sponge to sequester host non coding RNAs and proteins. By effectively reducing the ability of cellular RNA binding proteins to regulate host cell gene exp...

  15. Viral Advertising on Facebook in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Phuong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to explore which factors affect the effectiveness of viral advertising on Facebook in Vietnam. The quantitative research method is applied in this research and the sample is Vietnamese Facebook users. After the data analysis stage using SPSS, it became clear that weak ties, perceptual affinity and emotions have an impact on the effectiveness of viral advertising. The results provide a pratical implication of how to make an Ad which can go viral on Facebook. Moreo...

  16. Pediatric knowledge about acute viral hepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Franca,Rita; Silva,Luciana; Melo, Maria Clotildes; Cavalcante,Suzy; Lima, Bruno; Rocha, Anita; Gomes, Cristiana; Franca, Mônica

    2004-01-01

    p.227-235 Knowledge about hepatotropic viruses is crucial for pediatricians because of the high prevalence of viral hepatitis during childhood. The multiplicity of hepatotropic viruses, the spectrum of acute and chronic infections, and the sequels of viral hepatitis result in a need for physicians to better understand the clinical and epidemiological context of patients with viral hepatitis, as well as the importance of prevention measures for hepatitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study...

  17. Consumers’ attitude towards viral marketing in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Kiani Irshad ZERNIGAH; Kamran SOHAIL

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of technology has opened many costeffective avenues for marketers to promote their products. One of the emerging techniques of products promotion through the use of technology is viral marketing that is becoming a popular direct marketing tool for marketers across the world. Therefore, marketers should understand factors that result in increased acceptance of viral marketing by consumers. The present research was conducted to investigate consumers’ attitude towards viral...

  18. [Workshop on Molecular Epidemiology of Viral Diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, B; Cabrera, L; Arias, C F

    1997-01-01

    A workshop on viral epidemiology was held on September 29, 1995 at the Medical School of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico. The aim of this workshop was to promote interaction among scientists working in viral epidemiology. Eighteen scientists from ten institutions presented their experiences and work. General aspects of the epidemiology of meaningful viral diseases in the country were discussed, and lectures presented on the rota, polio, respiratory syncytial, dengue, papiloma, rabies, VIH and hepatitis viruses.

  19. Quantification of infectious HIV-1 plasma viral load using a boosted in vitro infection protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusert, Peter; Fischer, Marek; Joos, Beda; Leemann, Christine; Kuster, Herbert; Flepp, Markus; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Günthard, Huldrych F; Trkola, Alexandra

    2004-08-15

    Methods currently used for HIV-1 viral load measurements are very sensitive, but cannot distinguish between infectious and noninfectious particles. Here we describe the development of a novel, sensitive, and highly reproducible method that allows rapid isolation and quantification of infectious particles from patient plasma. By immobilizing HIV-1 particles in human plasma to platelets using polybrene, we observed a 10- to 1000-fold increase in infectivity over infection protocols using free virus particles. Using this method, we evaluated infectivity in plasma from 52 patients at various disease stages. At plasma viral loads of 1000-10000 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml 18%, at 10,000-50,000 copies/ml 73%, at 50,000-100,000 copies/ml 90%, and above 100,000 copies 96% of cultures were positive. We found that infectious titers among patients vary distinctively but are characteristic for a patient over extended time periods. Furthermore, we demonstrate that by evaluating infectious titers in conjunction with total HIV RNA loads, subtle effects of treatment intervention on viremia levels can be detected. The immobilization procedure does not interfere with viral entry and does not restore the infectivity of neutralized virus. Therefore, this assay system can be utilized to investigate the influence of substances that specifically affect virion infectivity such as neutralizing antibodies, soluble CD4, or protease inhibitors. Measuring viral infectivity may thereby function as an additional, useful marker in monitoring disease progression and evaluating efficacy of antivirals in vivo.

  20. Exploring Text Virality in Social Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Guerini, Marco; Ozbal, Gozde

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to shed some light on the concept of virality - especially in social networks - and to provide new insights on its structure. We argue that: (a) virality is a phenomenon strictly connected to the nature of the content being spread, rather than to the influencers who spread it, (b) virality is a phenomenon with many facets, i.e. under this generic term several different effects of persuasive communication are comprised and they only partially overlap. To give ground to our claims, we provide initial experiments in a machine learning framework to show how various aspects of virality can be independently predicted according to content features.

  1. Chronic viral hepatitis : diagnosis and therapeutics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, George Y; Koff, Raymond S

    2001-01-01

    .... The discussion of patient management includes contributions on developing novel therapeutics, supporting patients during therapy, alternative treatments, the use of drugs in chronic viral hepatitis...

  2. Viral Subversion of the Nuclear Pore Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Le Sage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear pore complex (NPC acts as a selective barrier between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and is responsible for mediating communication by regulating the transport of RNA and proteins. Numerous viral pathogens have evolved different mechanisms to hijack the NPC in order to regulate trafficking of viral proteins, genomes and even capsids into and out of the nucleus thus promoting virus replication. The present review examines the different strategies and the specific nucleoporins utilized during viral infections as a means of promoting their life cycle and inhibiting host viral defenses.

  3. Effects of integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine for treating elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome in 31 cases%中西医结合治疗老年女性非感染性尿道综合征31例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼辉; 陈英

    2012-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic methods of non-infectious urethral syndrome in elderly women. Methods 83 cases of elderly female non-infectious urethral syndrome were randomly divided into 3 groups, the observation group(n = 31) , the pure Western medicine group(n=30) and the control group(n = 22). The pure Western medicine group was given Tibolone tablets produced by Nanjing Organon Pharmaceutical Co. ,Ltd. Oral 2. 5 mg,once daily. The observation group and the control group were given the same medication and added with acupuncture. The control group was orally given diazepam 2. 5 mg,once to twice daily(according to the severity of symptoms) ,oryzanol 10 mg,3 times daily. The curative effects were compared among 3 groups. Results The excellent effective rate,the effective rate and ineffective rate were 77. 42% ,19. 36% and 3. 23% in the observation group,43. 34% ,30. 00% and 26. 67% in the pure Western medicine group and 9. 08% , 18. 19% and 72. 73% in the control group, showing statistical difference among them(P<0. 05). Conclusion Acupuncture plus estrogen replacement is safe and effective to treat elderly female non-infectous urethral syndrome.%目的 探讨老年女性患者非感染性尿道综合征的治疗方法.方法 选择2008年1月至2011年3月该院收治的老年女性非感染性尿道综合征患者83例,随机分为观察组(n=31)、纯西药组(n=30)和对照组(n=22).纯西药组给予南京欧加农制药有限公司生产的替勃龙片每次2.5 mg,每日1次口服;观察组用药与对照组相同,再加针灸治疗;对照组给予地西泮每次2.5 mg,每日1~2次口服(以症状轻重而定),谷维素10 mg,3次/日口服,比较3组治疗效果.结果 观察组显效(77.42%)、有效(19.36%)和无效(3.23%)与单纯西医治疗组(43.34%、30.00%、26.67%)和对照组(9.08%、18.19%、72.73%)比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 老年女性非感染性尿道综合征给予针灸加雌激素替代治疗安全、有效.

  4. STUDY OF PERSISTENT VIRAL INFECTION IN AN ANIMALMODEL OF VIRAL MYOCARDITIS BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the role of persistent viral infection in the mechanism of viral myocarditis. Methods A mice model of CVB3m viral myocarditis was made and the viral RNA in mice myocardium and whole blood sample was tested by using polymerase chain reaction ( PCR ) technique. The pathological changes in mice myocardium were determined. Results On day 3, the viral gene in whole blood and myocardium was found, which partly became negative on day 8, but the change of myocardial pathology became obvious. Although the blood specimens were tested negatively on day 12, the viral gene in mice myocardium remained positive within 120d. Conclusion This study indicates that persistent viral infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of viral myocarditis.

  5. Viral diseases of northern ungulates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Frölich

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes viral diseases reported in northern ungulates and those that are a potential threat to these species. The following diseases are discussed: bovine viral diarrhoea/mucosal disease (BVD/MD, alphaherpesvirus infections, malignant catarrhal fever (MCF, poxvirus infections, parainfluenza type 3 virus infection, Alvsborg disease, foot-and-mouth disease, epizootic haemorrhage disease of deer and bluetongue disease, rabies, respiratory syncytial virus infection, adenovirus infection, hog-cholera, Aujeszky's disease and equine herpesvirus infections. There are no significant differences in antibody prevalence to BVDV among deer in habitats with high, intermediate and low density of cattle. In addition, sequence analysis from the BVDV isolated from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus showed that this strain was unique within BVDV group I. Distinct BVDV strains might circulate in free-ranging roe deer populations in Germany and virus transmission may be independent of domestic livestock. Similar results have been obtained in a serological survey of alpha-herpesviruses in deer in Germany. Malignant catarrhal fever was studied in fallow deer (Cervus dama in Germany: the seroprevalence and positive PCR results detected in sheep originating from the same area as the antibody-positive deer might indicate that sheep are the main reservoir animals. Contagious ecthyma (CE is a common disease in domestic sheep and goats caused by the orf virus. CE has been diagnosed in Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus, Dall sheep (Ovis dalli, chamois (Rupkapra rupi-capra, muskox {Ovibos moschatus and reindeer (Rangifer tarandus. Most parainfluenza type 3 virus infections are mild or clinically undetectable. Serological surveys in wildlife have been successfully conducted in many species. In 1985, a new disease was identified in Swedish moose (Alces alces, designated as Alvsborg disease. This wasting syndrome probably

  6. 思密达联合合生元益生菌治疗小儿非感染性腹泻疗效分析%Analysis on the effect of Smecta and synbiotics probiotics on treatment of pediatric non-infectious diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察思密达联合合生元益生菌制剂治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效.方法 将194例0~3岁确诊为非细菌感染性小儿腹泻的住院患儿随机分为观察组和对照组,观察组采用合生元益生菌制剂与思密达联合治疗,对照组给予传统方法常规治疗.结果 两组在显效率方面存在明显差异(P<0.05).结论 益生菌联合思密达在0~3岁小儿腹泻治疗中可显著提高疗效,值得推荐.%OBJECTIVE To observe the effect of Smecta and synbiotics prohtolics treatment for non-infectious diarrhea in new-bom. METHODS 194 cases of 0 to 3 years patients diagnosed with non-bacterial diarrhea hospitalized in pediatric department were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group, the observation group was treated with synbiotics probiotics and Smecta, the control group was given conventional method for routine treatment RESULTS The efficiency in the two groups were obviously different (P< 0.05). CONCLUSION Probiotics combined with Smecta in treatment of diarrhea for 0-3 years old children can improve the curative effect, and is worthy of recommendation.

  7. VIRAL ANTIBODIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saidi

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sera from children 1 - 6 years of age, representative of a large serum collection, were tested for the prevalence of antibodies against different viruses. Hemagglutination-inhibition (HI antibodies were found in 68% for measles; 61 % for rubella; 75'% for influenza A2/Hong Kong/68, 16% for influenza B/Md./59, 0% for group A arboviruses, 10% for group B arboviruses, 3% for phlebotomus fever group and 4% for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever (C-CHF group of arboviruses Poliomyelitis-neutralizing antibodies for type 1, 2 and 3 were 90%; 85% and 84%~ respectively. Antibody to EH virus was detected in 84% of the sera by immuno-fluorescence. None of the sera were positive for hepatitis-B antigen or antibody by immuno-precipitation test. The prevalence of some viral antibodies found in this survey are compared with results obtained from surveys in other parts of the country.

  8. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  9. Viral bronchiolitis for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2011-04-01

    Viral bronchiolitis is common, and about 98-99% of infants are managed in the home. Because about 95% of infants < 2 years old are infected with respiratory syncytial virus, however, bronchiolitis is the commonest reason for admission to hospital in the first 6 months of life. It is usually a self-limiting condition lasting around a week in previously well children. About 1% of infants are admitted to hospital, and about 10% of hospitalised infants will require admission to the intensive care unit. Respiratory syncytial virus is isolated from about 70% of infants hospitalised with bronchiolitis. The emphasis of hospital treatment is to ensure adequate hydration and oxygenation. Other than supplemental oxygen, little in the way of pharmacological treatment has been demonstrated to alter the course of the illness or the risk of wheezing in the months following bronchiolitis.

  10. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  11. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P.

    2011-01-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features. PMID:22069523

  12. Ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Wierzbicka, Aneta;

    2013-01-01

    Particle number (PN) concentrations (10-300 nm in size) were continuously measured over a period of ∼45 h in 56 residences of nonsmokers in Copenhagen, Denmark. The highest concentrations were measured when occupants were present and awake (geometric mean, GM: 22.3 × 103 cm-3), the lowest when...... the homes were vacant (GM: 6.1 × 103 cm-3) or the occupants were asleep (GM: 5.1 × 103 cm-3). Diary entries regarding occupancy and particle related activities were used to identify source events and apportion the daily integrated exposure among sources. Source events clearly resulted in increased PN...... concentrations and decreased average particle diameter. For a given event, elevated particle concentrations persisted for several hours after the emission of fresh particles ceased. The residential daily integrated PN exposure in the 56 homes ranged between 37 × 103 and 6.0 × 106 particles per cm3·h/day (GM: 3...

  13. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  14. Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B R

    2008-01-01

    An essential introduction to particle physics, with coverage ranging from the basics through to the very latest developments, in an accessible and carefully structured text. Particle Physics: Third Edition is a revision of a highly regarded introduction to particle physics. In its two previous editions this book has proved to be an accessible and balanced introduction to modern particle physics, suitable for those students needed a more comprehensive introduction to the subject than provided by the 'compendium' style physics books. In the Third Edition the standard mod

  15. Molecular Surveillance of Viral Processes Using Silicon Nitride Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah F. Kelly

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we present new applications for silicon nitride (SiN membranes to evaluate biological processes. We determined that 50-nanometer thin films of SiN produced from silicon wafers were sufficiently durable to bind active rotavirus assemblies. A direct comparison of SiN microchips with conventional carbon support films indicated that SiN performs equivalent to the traditional substrate to prepare samples for Electron Microscopy (EM imaging. Likewise, SiN films coated with Ni-NTA affinity layers concentrated rotavirus particles similarly to affinity-coated carbon films. However, affinity-coated SiN membranes outperformed glow-discharged conventional carbon films 5-fold as indicated by the number of viral particles quantified in EM images. In addition, we were able to recapitulate viral uncoating and transcription mechanisms directed onto the microchip surfaces. EM images of these processes revealed the production of RNA transcripts emerging from active rotavirus complexes. These results were confirmed by the functional incorporation of radiolabeled nucleotides into the nascent RNA transcripts. Collectively, we demonstrate new uses for SiN membranes to perform molecular surveillance on life processes in real-time.

  16. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  17. Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis - United States, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Programs Resource Center Viral Hepatitis Surveillance for Viral Hepatitis – United States, 2014 Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Cases Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Discussion Hepatitis A virus Index PAGE DESCRIPTION Table 2.1 Reported ...

  18. Viral Quasispecies Assembly via Maximal Clique Enumeration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepfer, A.; Marschall, T.; Bull, R.A.; Luciani, F.; Schoenhuth, A.; Beerenwinkel, N.

    2014-01-01

    Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the s

  19. Emerging Viral Diseases of Tomato Crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanssen, I.M.; Lapidot, M.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    Viral diseases are an important limiting factor in many crop production systems. Because antiviral products are not available, control strategies rely on genetic resistance or hygienic measures to prevent viral diseases, or on eradication of diseased crops to control such diseases. Increasing intern

  20. Viral Population Changes during Murine Norovirus Propagation in RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Kitamoto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory adaptation of viruses is an essential technique for basic virology research, including the generation of attenuated vaccine strains, although the principles of cell adaptation remain largely unknown. Deep sequencing of murine norovirus (MuNoV S7 during serial passages in RAW264.7 cells showed that the frequencies of viral variants were altered more dynamically than previously reported. Serial passages of the virus following two different multiplicity of infections gave rise to distinct haplotypes, implying that multiple cell-adaptable sequences were present in the founder population. Nucleotide variants lost during passage were assembled into a viral genome representative of that prior to cell adaptation, which was unable to generate viral particles upon infection in cultured cells. In addition, presence of the reconstructed genome interfered with production of infectious particles from viruses that were fully adapted to in vitro culture. Although the key nucleotide changes dictating cell adaptation of MuNoV S7 viral infection are yet to be elucidated, our results revealed the elaborate interplay among selected sequences of viral variants better adapted to propagation in cell culture. Such knowledge will be instrumental in understanding the processes necessary for the laboratory adaptation of viruses, especially to those without relevant cell culture systems.

  1. 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达影响研究%Effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴立新; 张声生

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药对小儿非感染性腹泻的疗效及血清中白细胞介素(IL)-6、IL-17表达的影响.方法 选择重庆市开县人民医院儿科收治的非感染性腹泻患儿100例,采用双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗50例为观察组;采用常规治疗50例为对照组.比较两组患儿的疗效及血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平.结果 观察组总有效率与对照组比较,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗小儿非感染性腹泻疗效显著,且血清中IL-6、IL-17表达水平恢复正常相对更快,而且服用方便,无明显不良反应,适宜应用于临床.%Objective To investigate the effect of viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use in treating children non-infectious diarrhea and its influence on serum IL-6,IL-17 expression. Methods 100 children with non-infectious diarrhea in this hospital were selected .The observation group (50 cases) was treated by viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use and the con -trol group (50 cases) by the conventional therapy .The effects and serum expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were compared between the two groups .Results The total effective rates had statistical differences between the two groups (P0 .05) .Conclusion Viable bifidobacterium quadruple combination use has significant effect in treating children non-infectious diarrhea ,serum IL-6 ,IL-17 expression returning to normal rapidly ,which is easy to take without significant adverse reactions and suitable for clinical application .

  2. Characterization of the viral O-glycopeptidome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cló, Emiliano; Kracun, Stjepan K; Nudelman, Aaron S

    2012-01-01

    Viral envelope proteins mediate interactions with host cells, leading to internalization and intracellular propagation. Envelope proteins are glycosylated and are known to serve important functions in masking host immunity to viral glycoproteins. However, the viral infectious cycle in cells may...... also lead to aberrant glycosylation that may elicit immunity. Our knowledge of immunity to aberrant viral glycans and glycoproteins is limited, potentially due to technical limitations in identifying immunogenic glycans and glycopeptide epitopes. This work describes three different complementary...... methods for high-throughput screening and identification of potential immunodominant O-glycopeptide epitopes on viral envelope glycoproteins: (i) on-chip enzymatic glycosylation of scan peptides, (ii) chemical glycopeptide microarray synthesis, and (iii) a one-bead-one-compound random glycopeptide library...

  3. Ethical Considerations in Research Participation Virality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis-Barton, Carol

    2016-07-01

    This article seeks to commence and encourage discussion around the upcoming ethical challenges of virality in network structures. When the call for participation in a research project on lupus in Ireland went from an advertisement in a newsletter to a meme (unit of transmissible information) on a closed Facebook page, the ethical considerations of virality were raised. The article analyzes the Association of Internet Researchers guidelines, Facebook policies, and the context of privacy in relation to virality. Virality creates the leverage for methodological pluralism. The nature of the inquiry can determine the method rather than the other way around. Viral ethical considerations are evolving due to the cyber world becoming the primary meme of communication, with flexibility in the researcher's protocol providing opportunities for efficient, cost-effective, and diverse recruitment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Origins and challenges of viral dark matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Siddharth R; Wang, David

    2017-02-09

    The accurate classification of viral dark matter - metagenomic sequences that originate from viruses but do not align to any reference virus sequences - is one of the major obstacles in comprehensively defining the virome. Depending on the sample, viral dark matter can make up from anywhere between 40 and 90% of sequences. This review focuses on the specific nature of dark matter as it relates to viral sequences. We identify three factors that contribute to the existence of viral dark matter: the divergence and length of virus sequences, the limitations of alignment based classification, and limited representation of viruses in reference sequence databases. We then discuss current methods that have been developed to at least partially circumvent these limitations and thereby reduce the extent of viral dark matter.

  5. Can the Bacterial Community of a High Arctic Glacier Surface Escape Viral Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassner, Sara M. E.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Girdwood, Susan E.; Hell, Katherina; Gokul, Jarishma K.; Whitworth, David E.; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-01-01

    Glacial ice surfaces represent a seasonally evolving three-dimensional photic zone which accumulates microbial biomass and potentiates positive feedbacks in ice melt. Since viruses are abundant in glacial systems and may exert controls on supraglacial bacterial production, we examined whether changes in resource availability would promote changes in the bacterial community and the dynamics between viruses and bacteria of meltwater from the photic zone of a Svalbard glacier. Our results indicated that, under ambient nutrient conditions, low estimated viral decay rates account for a strong viral control of bacterial productivity, incurring a potent viral shunt of a third of bacterial carbon in the supraglacial microbial loop. Moreover, it appears that virus particles are very stable in supraglacial meltwater, raising the prospect that viruses liberated in melt are viable downstream. However, manipulating resource availability as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in experimental microcosms demonstrates that the photic zone bacterial communities can escape viral control. This is evidenced by a marked decline in virus-to-bacterium ratio (VBR) concomitant with increased bacterial productivity and number. Pyrosequencing shows a few bacterial taxa, principally Janthinobacterium sp., dominate both the source meltwater and microcosm communities. Combined, our results suggest that viruses maintain high VBR to promote contact with low-density hosts, by the manufacture of robust particles, but that this necessitates a trade-off which limits viral production. Consequently, dominant bacterial taxa appear to access resources to evade viral control. We propose that a delicate interplay of bacterial and viral strategies affects biogeochemical cycling upon glaciers and, ultimately, downstream ecosystems. PMID:27446002

  6. Can the Bacterial Community of a High Arctic Glacier Surface Escape Viral Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassner, Sara M E; Anesio, Alexandre M; Girdwood, Susan E; Hell, Katherina; Gokul, Jarishma K; Whitworth, David E; Edwards, Arwyn

    2016-01-01

    Glacial ice surfaces represent a seasonally evolving three-dimensional photic zone which accumulates microbial biomass and potentiates positive feedbacks in ice melt. Since viruses are abundant in glacial systems and may exert controls on supraglacial bacterial production, we examined whether changes in resource availability would promote changes in the bacterial community and the dynamics between viruses and bacteria of meltwater from the photic zone of a Svalbard glacier. Our results indicated that, under ambient nutrient conditions, low estimated viral decay rates account for a strong viral control of bacterial productivity, incurring a potent viral shunt of a third of bacterial carbon in the supraglacial microbial loop. Moreover, it appears that virus particles are very stable in supraglacial meltwater, raising the prospect that viruses liberated in melt are viable downstream. However, manipulating resource availability as dissolved organic carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorous in experimental microcosms demonstrates that the photic zone bacterial communities can escape viral control. This is evidenced by a marked decline in virus-to-bacterium ratio (VBR) concomitant with increased bacterial productivity and number. Pyrosequencing shows a few bacterial taxa, principally Janthinobacterium sp., dominate both the source meltwater and microcosm communities. Combined, our results suggest that viruses maintain high VBR to promote contact with low-density hosts, by the manufacture of robust particles, but that this necessitates a trade-off which limits viral production. Consequently, dominant bacterial taxa appear to access resources to evade viral control. We propose that a delicate interplay of bacterial and viral strategies affects biogeochemical cycling upon glaciers and, ultimately, downstream ecosystems.

  7. A bio-synthetic interface for discovery of viral entry mechanisms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutzler, Mike; Maar, Dianna; Negrete, Oscar; Hayden, Carl C.; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.; Wang, Julia

    2010-09-01

    Understanding and defending against pathogenic viruses is an important public health and biodefense challenge. The focus of our LDRD project has been to uncover the mechanisms enveloped viruses use to identify and invade host cells. We have constructed interfaces between viral particles and synthetic lipid bilayers. This approach provides a minimal setting for investigating the initial events of host-virus interaction - (i) recognition of, and (ii) entry into the host via membrane fusion. This understanding could enable rational design of therapeutics that block viral entry as well as future construction of synthetic, non-proliferating sensors that detect live virus in the environment. We have observed fusion between synthetic lipid vesicles and Vesicular Stomatitis virus particles, and we have observed interactions between Nipah virus-like particles and supported lipid bilayers and giant unilamellar vesicles.

  8. Biological roles and functional mechanisms of arenavirus Z protein in viral replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialong; Danzy, Shamika; Kumar, Naveen; Ly, Hinh; Liang, Yuying

    2012-09-01

    Arenaviruses can cause severe hemorrhagic fever diseases in humans, with limited prophylactic or therapeutic measures. A small RING-domain viral protein Z has been shown to mediate the formation of virus-like particles and to inhibit viral RNA synthesis, although its biological roles in an infectious viral life cycle have not been directly addressed. By taking advantage of the available reverse genetics system for a model arenavirus, Pichinde virus (PICV), we provide the direct evidence for the essential biological roles of the Z protein's conserved residues, including the G2 myristylation site, the conserved C and H residues of RING domain, and the poorly characterized C-terminal L79 and P80 residues. Dicodon substitutions within the late (L) domain (PSAPPYEP) of the PICV Z protein, although producing viable mutant viruses, have significantly reduced virus growth, a finding suggestive of an important role for the intact L domain in viral replication. Further structure-function analyses of both PICV and Lassa fever virus Z proteins suggest that arenavirus Z proteins have similar molecular mechanisms in mediating their multiple functions, with some interesting variations, such as the role of the G2 residue in blocking viral RNA synthesis. In summary, our studies have characterized the biological roles of the Z protein in an infectious arenavirus system and have shed important light on the distinct functions of its domains in virus budding and viral RNA regulation, the knowledge of which may lead to the development of novel antiviral drugs.

  9. Potentiation of anthrax vaccines using protective antigen-expressing viral replicon vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Chao; An, Huai-Jie; Yu, Yun-Zhou; Xu, Qing

    2015-02-01

    DNA vaccines require improvement for human use because they are generally weak stimulators of the immune system in humans. The efficacy of DNA vaccines can be improved using a viral replicon as vector to administer antigen of pathogen. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the conventional non-viral DNA, viral replicon DNA or viral replicon particles (VRP) vaccines encoding different forms of anthrax protective antigen (PA) for specific immunity and protective potency against anthrax. Our current results clearly suggested that these viral replicon DNA or VRP vaccines derived from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) induced stronger PA-specific immune responses than the conventional non-viral DNA vaccines when encoding the same antigen forms, which resulted in potent protection against challenge with the Bacillus anthracis strain A16R. Additionally, the naked PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines without the need for high doses or demanding particular delivery regimens elicited robust immune responses and afforded completely protective potencies, which indicated the potential of the SFV replicon as vector of anthrax vaccines for use in clinical application. Therefore, our results suggest that these PA-expressing SFV replicon DNA or VRP vaccines may be suitable as candidate vaccines against anthrax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative real-time single particle analysis of virions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Susanne; Metzner, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Providing information about single virus particles has for a long time been mainly the domain of electron microscopy. More recently, technologies have been developed-or adapted from other fields, such as nanotechnology-to allow for the real-time quantification of physical virion particles, while supplying additional information such as particle diameter concomitantly. These technologies have progressed to the stage of commercialization increasing the speed of viral titer measurements from hours to minutes, thus providing a significant advantage for many aspects of virology research and biotechnology applications. Additional advantages lie in the broad spectrum of virus species that may be measured and the possibility to determine the ratio of infectious to total particles. A series of disadvantages remain associated with these technologies, such as a low specificity for viral particles. In this review we will discuss these technologies by comparing four systems for real-time single virus particle analysis and quantification.

  11. Drosophila germline invasion by the endogenous retrovirus gypsy: involvement of the viral env gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelisson, A; Mejlumian, L; Robert, V; Terzian, C; Bucheton, A

    2002-10-01

    The endogenous retrovirus gypsy is expressed at high levels in mutant flamenco female flies. Gypsy viral particles extracted from such flies can infect naive flamenco individuals raised in the presence of these extracts mixed into their food. This results in the integration of new proviruses into the germline genome. These proviruses can then increase their copy number by (1) expression in the flamenco female somatic cells, (2) transfer into the oocyte and (3) integration into the genome of the progeny. Surprisingly, unlike the infection observed in the feeding experiments, this strategy of endogenous proviral multiplication does not seem to involve the expression of the viral env gene.

  12. Viral Hepatitis: Information for Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Gay and Bisexual Men What is viral hepatitis? Viral hepatitis is an infection of the liver caused by ... the United States, the most common types of viral hepatitis are Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C. ...

  13. [Treatment of viral hepatitis C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassany, O

    1996-12-14

    Viral hepatitis C is a serious public health problem in France by the number of infected patients, the evolutive profile and by the lack of fully efficient therapeutics. However, the risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma may not be so high as it has been stated until now. Interferon alpha is at the present time, the only approved drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. Its efficiency on criteria such as normalization of aminotransferases values or negativation of viremia is obtained in less than 25% of patients. The present recommendation is to use 3 MU of interferon alpha, 3 times per week during 12 months. While interferon leads to improvement of histologic lesions, it is not yet proved that a treatment by interferon can reduce, years after, the incidence of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. No therapeutic strategy has been defined yet for the frequent situations of "no response", relapses or presence of factors that reduce the efficacy of treatment (high initial viremia level, genotype 1b, cirrhosis). It is possible that the course of patients having low or no elevation of aminotransferases and/or minimal histologic lesions, is good without any treatment. The efficacy of interferon alone appears insufficient. Thus trials in progress concern associations of antiviral drugs such as vidarabine. In lack of vaccine, preventive treatment is essential and depends upon knowledge of conditions of transmission of the virus. Transmission through blood and intravenous drug addiction represent 60 to 70% of cases of hepatitis C.

  14. Immunological techniques in viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehermann, Barbara; Naoumov, Nikolai V

    2007-03-01

    The need to quantitate and monitor immune responses of large patient cohorts with standardized techniques is increasing due to the growing range of treatment options for hepatitis B and hepatitis C, the development of combination therapies, and candidate experimental vaccines for HCV. In addition, advances in immunological techniques have provided new tools for detailed phenotypic and functional analysis of cellular immune responses. At present, there is substantial variation in laboratory protocols, reagents, controls and analysis and presentation of results. Standardization of immunological assays would therefore allow better comparison of results amongst individual laboratories and patient cohorts. The EASL-sponsored and AASLD-endorsed Monothematic Conference on Clinical Immunology in Viral Hepatitis was held at the University College London, United Kingdom, Oct 7-8, 2006 to bring together investigators with research experience in clinical immunology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections for in-depth discussion, critical evaluation and standardization of immunological assays. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the conference, but is not intended to represent a consensus statement. Our aim is to highlight topics and issues that were supported by general agreement and those that were controversial, as well as to provide suggestions for future work.

  15. Development of viral nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuojun; Chen, Kevin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Dirksen, Anouk; Fischer, Rainer; Dawson, Philip E.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) based on plant viruses such as Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be used for a broad range of biomedical applications because they present a robust scaffold that allows functionalization by chemical conjugation and genetic modification, thereby offering an efficient drug delivery platform that can target specific cells and tissues. VNPs such as CPMV show natural affinity to cells; however, cellular uptake is inefficient. Here we show that chemical modification of the CPMV surface with a highly reactive, specific and UV-traceable hydrazone linker allows bioconjugation of polyarginine (R5) cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can overcome these limitations. The resulting CPMV-R5 particles were taken up into a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) more efficiently than native particles. Uptake efficiency was dependent on the density of R5 peptides on the surface of the VNP; particles displaying 40 R5 peptides per CPMV (denoted as CPMV-R5H) interact strongly with the plasma membrane and are taken up into the cells via an energy-dependent mechanism whereas particles displaying 10 R5 peptides per CPMV (CPMV-R5L) are only slowly taken up. The fate of CPMV-R5 versus native CPMV particles within cells was evaluated in a co-localization time course study. It was indicated that the intracellular localization of CPMV-R5 and CPMV differs; CPMV remains trapped in Lamp-1 positive endolysosomes over long time frames; in contrast, 30-50% of the CPMV-R5 particles transitioned from the endosome into other cellular vesicles or compartments. Our data provide the groundwork for the development of efficient drug delivery formulations based on CPMV-R5.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) based on plant viruses such as Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be used for a broad range of biomedical applications because they present a robust scaffold that allows functionalization by chemical conjugation and genetic modification, thereby offering an efficient drug delivery platform

  16. Assembly of viral genomes from metagenomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia L Smits

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Viral infections remain a serious global health issue. Metagenomic approaches are increasingly used in the detection of novel viral pathogens but also to generate complete genomes of uncultivated viruses. In silico identification of complete viral genomes from sequence data would allow rapid phylogenetic characterization of these new viruses. Often, however, complete viral genomes are not recovered, but rather several distinct contigs derived from a single entity, some of which have no sequence homology to any known proteins. De novo assembly of single viruses from a metagenome is challenging, not only because of the lack of a reference genome, but also because of intrapopulation variation and uneven or insufficient coverage. Here we explored different assembly algorithms, remote homology searches, genome-specific sequence motifs, k-mer frequency ranking, and coverage profile binning to detect and obtain viral target genomes from metagenomes. All methods were tested on 454-generated sequencing datasets containing three recently described RNA viruses with a relatively large genome which were divergent to previously known viruses from the viral families Rhabdoviridae and Coronaviridae. Depending on specific characteristics of the target virus and the metagenomic community, different assembly and in silico gap closure strategies were successful in obtaining near complete viral genomes.

  17. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor

  18. Final Technical Report: Viral Infection of Subsurface Microorganisms and Metal/Radionuclide Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Karrie A.; Bender, Kelly S.; Li, Yusong

    2013-09-28

    Microbially mediated metabolisms have been identified as a significant factor either directly or indirectly impacting the fate and transport of heavy metal/radionuclide contaminants. To date microorganisms have been isolated from contaminated environments. Examination of annotated finished genome sequences of many of these subsurface isolates from DOE sites, revealed evidence of prior viral infection. To date the role that viruses play influencing microbial mortality and the resulting community structure which directly influences biogeochemical cycling in soils and sedimentary environments remains poorly understood. The objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the role of viral infection of subsurface bacteria and the formation of contaminant-bearing viral particles. This objective was approached by examining the following working hypotheses: (i) subsurface microorganisms are susceptible to viral infections by the indigenous subsurface viral community, and (ii) viral surfaces will adsorb heavy metals and radionuclides. Our results have addressed basic research needed to accomplish the BER Long Term Measure to provide sufficient scientific understanding such that DOE sites would be able to incorporate coupled physical, chemical and biological processes into decision making for environmental remediation or natural attenuation and long-term stewardship by establishing viral-microbial relationships on the subsequent fate and transport of heavy metals and radionuclides. Here we demonstrated that viruses play a significant role in microbial mortality and community structure in terrestrial subsurface sedimentary systems. The production of viral-like particles within subsurface sediments in response to biostimulation with dissolved organic carbon and a terminal electron acceptor resulted in the production of viral-like particles. Organic carbon alone did not result in significant viral production and required the addition of a terminal electron acceptor

  19. Vaccines in the Prevention of Viral Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Clementine S; Jha, Akhilesh; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2017-03-01

    Pneumonia is of great global public health importance. Viral infections play both direct and indirect parts in its cause across the globe. Influenza is a leading cause of viral pneumonia in both children and adults, and respiratory syncytial virus is increasingly recognized as causing disease at both extremes of age. Vaccination offers the best prospect for prevention but current influenza vaccines do not provide universal and durable protection, and require yearly reformulation. In the future, it is hoped that influenza vaccines will give better and universal protection, and that new vaccines can be found for other causes of viral pneumonia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A skeptical look at viral immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, I A; Rouse, B T

    1997-12-01

    In the past several years, many viral gene products have been found to encode proteins which interfere with immune defense mechanisms. Whether these interactions between virus and immune system components are actually evasion mechanisms used during viral infections in their natural hosts remains to be proven. In vitro studies do, however, reveal several tactics which may aid viral replication and dissemination by interfering with components of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. In this manuscript, we discuss the more intensively studied of these putative in vitro evasion tactics and ponder their relevance in in vivo situations.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  2. Viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francque Sven M

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is one of the most common malignant tumors in the world. The incidence of HCC varies considerably with the geographic area because of differences in the major causative factors. Chronic hepatitis B and C, mostly in the cirrhotic stage, are responsible for the great majority of cases of HCC worldwide. The geographic areas at the highest risk are South-East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, here hepatitis B is highly endemic and is the main cause of HCC. In areas with an intermediate rate of HCC such as Southern Europe and Japan, hepatitis C is the predominant cause, whereas in low rate areas such as Northern Europe and the USA, HCC is often related to other factors as alcoholic liver disease. There is a rising incidence in HCC in developed countries during the last two decades, due to the increasing rate of hepatitis C infection and improvement of the clinical management of cirrhosis. Methods This article reviews the literature on hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The Medline search was carried out using these key words and articles were selected on epidemiology, risk factors, screening, and prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma. Results Screening of patients with advanced chronic hepatitis B and C with hepatic ultrasound and determination of serum alfa-fetoprotein may improve the detection of HCC, but further studies are needed whether screening improves clinical outcome. Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV/HCV can be implicated in the development of HCC in an indirect way, through induction of chronic inflammation, or directly by means of viral proteins or, in the case of HBV, by creation of mutations by integration into the genome of the hepatocyte. Conclusion The most effective tool to prevent HCC is avoidance of the risk factors such as viral infection. For HBV, a very effective vaccine is available. Preliminary data from Taiwan indicate a protective effect of universal vaccination on the

  3. Metatranscriptomic analysis of extremely halophilic viral communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos, Fernando; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; Meseguer, Inmaculada; López, Cristina; Rosselló-Mora, Ramon; Parro, Víctor; Antón, Josefa

    2011-01-01

    .... In this work, we analyzed the viral expression in one crystallizer using a metatranscriptomic approach in which clones from a metaviromic library were immobilized in a microarray and used as probes...

  4. Viral Hepatitis: A through E and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Barr virus, also called infectious mononucleosis; herpesvi rus; parvovirus; and adenovirus. What are the symptoms of viral ... such as cytomega lovirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpesvirus, parvovirus, and adenovirus. These cases are called non-A– ...

  5. viral infections of the central nervous system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) include both acute and chronic conditions ... ADEM is a rare, immune-mediated disorder that is triggered by an environmental stimulus in ... difficulties and apathy. Typically there is cognitive ...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2014.In this Table, all conditions with a 5-year average annual national total of more than or equals 1,000 cases but...

  8. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) C - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  9. [Pediatrics. New treatment options for viral bronchiolitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochat, I; Hafen, G

    2013-01-16

    The combination of nebulized epinephrine and high dose dexamethasone, or nebulized hypertonic saline, are promising new therapeutic strategies for viral bronchiolitis in the young infant. However, further research is needed before a general recommendation can be given.

  10. Viral fitness: definitions, measurement, and current insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Viral fitness is an active area of research, with recent work involving an expanded number of human, non-human vertebrate, invertebrate, plant, and bacterial viruses. Many publications deal with RNA viruses associated with major disease emergence events, such as HIV-1, influenza virus, and Dengue virus. Study topics include drug resistance, immune escape, viral emergence, host jumps, mutation effects, quasispecies diversity, and mathematical models of viral fitness. Important recent trends include increasing use of in vivo systems to assess vertebrate virus fitness, and a broadening of research beyond replicative fitness to also investigate transmission fitness and epidemiologic fitness. This is essential for a more integrated understanding of overall viral fitness, with implications for disease management in the future.

  11. Notified viral hepatitis in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlashan, N

    1976-05-26

    Statistical analysis of notified cases of viral hepatits in New Zealand for an 18-month period is used first to demonstrate and then to consider a geographical gradient across the country with implications warranting further epidemiologic enquiry.

  12. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Hepatitis (viral, acute) - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  14. Sclera-Specific and non-sclera-specific autoantibodies in the serum of patients with non-infectious anterior scleritis Auto-anticorpos contra antígenos específicos e não-específicos da esclera no soro de pacientes com esclerite anterior não-infecciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Koji Aragaki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to study the frequency and specificity of sclera-specific and non-sclera-specific autoantibodies in the sera of patients with anterior non-infectious scleritis. METHODS: prospective study involving 25 patients examined at the sector of Cornea and External Disease of the Department of Ophthalmology and Immuno-Rheumatology Laboratory at Federal University of São Paulo/Paulista Medicine School, during one year. The diagnosis of scleritis was according to Watson and Hayreh's (1976 classification criteria. The exclusion criterion was infectious scleritis. All the patients underwent a full clinical and ophthalmologic evaluation, including serological tests for syphilis and tuberculosis investigation. The following autoantibodies were tested: rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibodies, anticardiolipin antibodies, ANCA (anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies, anti-SS-A/Ro, anti-SS-B/La, anti-Sm, anti-DNA and anti-APF (antiperinuclear factor. For sclera-specific autoantibodies, sera of all patients were subjected to indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot assays, using human sclera from eye banks as a substrate. Sera from 25 healthy individuals were used as a normal control in the immunologic assays. RESULTS: as non-sclera-specific autoantibodies we detected one patient with positive rheumatoid factor, two patients with positive antinuclear antibodies, two patients with positive anticardiolipin antibody and two patients with positive anti-APF. Sclera-specific autoantibodies were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence in the serum of two patients with scleritis. The two patients with sclera-specific autoantibodies did not show non-sclera-specific autoantibodies and also presented no evidence of autoimmune rheumatic disease. Normal controls were negative for all tested autoantibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Sclera-specific autoantibodies were detected solely in the serum of patients with isolated non-infectious anterior scleritis. Non

  15. Stability of Retroviral Vectors Against Ultracentrifugation Is Determined by the Viral Internal Core and Envelope Proteins Used for Pseudotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Lim, Kwang-Il

    2017-05-31

    Retroviral and lentiviral vectors are mostly pseudotyped and often purified and concentrated via ultracentrifugation. In this study, we quantified and compared the stabilities of retroviral [murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based] and lentiviral [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-based] vectors pseudotyped with relatively mechanically stable envelope proteins, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoproteins (VSVGs), and the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins against ultracentrifugation. Lentiviral genomic and functional particles were more stable than the corresponding retroviral particles against ultracentrifugation when pseudotyped with VSVGs. However, both retroviral and lentiviral particles were unstable when pseudotyped with the influenza virus WSN strain envelope proteins. Therefore, the stabilities of pseudotyped retroviral and lentiviral vectors against ultracentrifugation process are a function of not only the type of envelope proteins, but also the type of viral internal core (MLV or HIV-1 core). In addition, the fraction of functional viral particles among genomic viral particles greatly varied at times during packaging, depending on the type of envelope proteins used for pseudotyping and the viral internal core.

  16. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  17. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  18. Institute of Medicine's Report on Viral Hepatitis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-18

    In this podcast, Dr. John Ward, Director of CDC’s Division of Viral Hepatitis, discusses the 2010 report, Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis B and C, from the Institute of Medicine.  Created: 5/18/2010 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 5/18/2010.

  19. Generating viral metagenomes from the coral holobiont

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Dawn Weynberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals comprise multipartite symbioses where the cnidarian animal is host to an array of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms, and the viruses that infect them. These viruses are critical elements of the coral holobiont, serving not only as agents of mortality, but also as potential vectors for lateral gene flow, and as elements encoding a variety of auxiliary metabolic functions. Consequently, understanding the functioning and health of the coral holobiont requires detailed knowledge of the associated viral assemblage and its function. Currently, the most tractable way of uncovering viral diversity and function is through metagenomic approaches, which is inherently difficult in corals because of the complex holobiont community, an extracellular mucus layer that all corals secrete, and the variety of sizes and structures of nucleic acids found in viruses. Here we present the first protocol for isolating, purifying and amplifying viral nucleic acids from corals based on mechanical disruption of cells. This method produces at least 50% higher yields of viral nucleic acids, has very low levels of cellular sequence contamination and captures wider viral diversity than previously used chemical-based extraction methods. We demonstrate that our mechanical-based method profiles a greater diversity of DNA and RNA genomes, including virus groups such as Retro-transcribing and ssRNA viruses, which are absent from metagenomes generated via chemical-based methods. In addition, we briefly present (and make publically available the first paired DNA and RNA viral metagenomes from the coral Acropora tenuis.

  20. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  1. Viral Metagenomics: MetaView Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, C; Smith, J

    2007-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to design and develop a tool for analysis of raw sequence read data from viral metagenomics experiments. The tool should compare read sequences of known viral nucleic acid sequence data and enable a user to attempt to determine, with some degree of confidence, what virus groups may be present in the sample. This project was conducted in two phases. In phase 1 we surveyed the literature and examined existing metagenomics tools to educate ourselves and to more precisely define the problem of analyzing raw read data from viral metagenomic experiments. In phase 2 we devised an approach and built a prototype code and database. This code takes viral metagenomic read data in fasta format as input and accesses all complete viral genomes from Kpath for sequence comparison. The system executes at the UNIX command line, producing output that is stored in an Oracle relational database. We provide here a description of the approach we came up with for handling un-assembled, short read data sets from viral metagenomics experiments. We include a discussion of the current MetaView code capabilities and additional functionality that we believe should be added, should additional funding be acquired to continue the work.

  2. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells and Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maytawan Thanunchai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs are a subset of nonhematopoietic adult stem cells, readily isolated from various tissues and easily culture-expanded ex vivo. Intensive studies of the immune modulation and tissue regeneration over the past few years have demonstrated the great potential of MSCs for the prevention and treatment of steroid-resistant acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD, immune-related disorders, and viral diseases. In immunocompromised individuals, the immunomodulatory activities of MSCs have raised safety concerns regarding the greater risk of primary viral infection and viral reactivation, which is a major cause of mortality after allogeneic transplantation. Moreover, high susceptibilities of MSCs to viral infections in vitro could reflect the destructive outcomes that might impair the clinical efficacy of MSCs infusion. However, the interplay between MSCs and virus is like a double-edge sword, and it also provides beneficial effects such as allowing the proliferation and function of antiviral specific effector cells instead of suppressing them, serving as an ideal tool for study of viral pathogenesis, and protecting hosts against viral challenge by using the antimicrobial activity. Here, we therefore review favorable and unfavorable consequences of MSCs and virus interaction with the highlight of safety and efficacy for applying MSCs as cell therapy.

  3. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  4. Comparing viral metagenomics methods using a highly multiplexed human viral pathogens reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mee, Edward T; Collot-Teixeira, Sophie; Anderson, Rob; Schepelmann, Silke; Minor, Philip D; Delwart, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Unbiased metagenomic sequencing holds significant potential as a diagnostic tool for the simultaneous detection of any previously genetically described viral nucleic acids in clinical samples. Viral genome sequences can also inform on likely phenotypes including drug susceptibility or neutralization serotypes. In this study, different variables of the laboratory methods often used to generate viral metagenomics libraries were compared for their abilities to detect multiple viruses and generate full genome coverage. A biological reagent consisting of 25 different human RNA and DNA viral pathogens was used to estimate the effect of filtration and nuclease digestion, DNA/RNA extraction methods, pre-amplification and the use of different library preparation kits on the detection of viral nucleic acids. Filtration and nuclease treatment led to slight decreases in the percentage of viral sequence reads and number of viruses detected. For nucleic acid extractions silica spin columns improved viral sequence recovery relative to magnetic beads and Trizol extraction. Pre-amplification using random RT-PCR while generating more viral sequence reads resulted in detection of fewer viruses, more overlapping sequences, and lower genome coverage. The ScriptSeq library preparation method retrieved more viruses and a greater fraction of their genomes than the TruSeq and Nextera methods. Viral metagenomics sequencing was able to simultaneously detect up to 22 different viruses in the biological reagent analyzed including all those detected by qPCR. Further optimization will be required for the detection of viruses in biologically more complex samples such as tissues, blood, or feces.

  5. Conserved residues in Lassa fever virus Z protein modulate viral infectivity at the level of the ribonucleoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capul, Althea A; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Buchmeier, Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Arenaviruses are negative-strand RNA viruses that cause human diseases such as lymphocytic choriomeningitis, Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, and Lassa hemorrhagic fever. No licensed vaccines exist, and current treatment is limited to ribavirin. The prototypic arenavirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), is a model for dissecting virus-host interactions in persistent and acute disease. The RING finger protein Z has been identified as the driving force of arenaviral budding and acts as the viral matrix protein. While residues in Z required for viral budding have been described, residues that govern the Z matrix function(s) have yet to be fully elucidated. Because this matrix function is integral to viral assembly, we reasoned that this would be reflected in sequence conservation. Using sequence alignment, we identified several conserved residues in Z outside the RING and late domains. Nine residues were each mutated to alanine in Lassa fever virus Z. All of the mutations affected the expression of an LCMV minigenome and the infectivity of virus-like particles, but to greatly varying degrees. Interestingly, no mutations appeared to affect Z-mediated budding or association with viral GP. Our findings provide direct experimental evidence supporting a role for Z in the modulation of the activity of the viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex and its packaging into mature infectious viral particles.

  6. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A

    2016-05-23

    polishing by Karl Habel (a superb senior virologist who left the National Institutes of Health and came to Scripps), and the gifted postdoctoral fellows who joined my laboratory over four decades form the log of my scientific voyage. The strong friendships and collaborations developed with other young but growing experimentalists like Bernie Fields and Abner Notkins are the fabric of the tale I will weave and were pivotal in the establishment of viral pathogenesis as a discipline.

  7. Production and titering of recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Christina; Cole, Katy L H; Wulff, Peer; Klugmann, Matthias; Murray, Andrew J

    2011-11-27

    In recent years recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) have become increasingly valuable for in vivo studies in animals, and are also currently being tested in human clinical trials. Wild-type AAV is a non-pathogenic member of the parvoviridae family and inherently replication-deficient. The broad transduction profile, low immune response as well as the strong and persistent transgene expression achieved with these vectors has made them a popular and versatile tool for in vitro and in vivo gene delivery. rAAVs can be easily and cheaply produced in the laboratory and, based on their favourable safety profile, are generally given a low safety classification. Here, we describe a method for the production and titering of chimeric rAAVs containing the capsid proteins of both AAV1 and AAV2. The use of these so-called chimeric vectors combines the benefits of both parental serotypes such as high titres stocks (AAV1) and purification by affinity chromatography (AAV2). These AAV serotypes are the best studied of all AAV serotypes, and individually have a broad infectivity pattern. The chimeric vectors described here should have the infectious properties of AAV1 and AAV2 and can thus be expected to infect a large range of tissues, including neurons, skeletal muscle, pancreas, kidney among others. The method described here uses heparin column purification, a method believed to give a higher viral titer and cleaner viral preparation than other purification methods, such as centrifugation through a caesium chloride gradient. Additionally, we describe how these vectors can be quickly and easily titered to give accurate reading of the number of infectious particles produced.

  8. Vaccination with dengue virus-like particles induces humoral and cellular immune responses in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Shuo; Liang, Mifang; Gu, Wen; Li, Chuan; Miao, Fang; Wang, Xiaofang; Jin, Cong; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Fushun; Zhang, Quanfu; Jiang, Lifang; Li, Mengfeng; Li, Dexin

    2011-01-01

    .... Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) has shown considerable promise for many viral diseases, but the effect of DENV VLPs to induce specific immune responses has not been adequately investigated...

  9. DNA vaccines for viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnelly J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA plasmids encoding foreign proteins may be used as immunogens by direct intramuscular injection alone, or with various adjuvants and excipients, or by delivery of DNA-coated gold particles to the epidermis through biolistic immunization. Antibody, helper T lymphocyte, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses have been induced in laboratory and domesticated animals by these methods. In a number of animal models, immune responses induced by DNA vaccination have been shown to be protective against challenge with various infectious agents. Immunization by injection of plasmids encoding foreign proteins has been used successfully as a research tool. This review summarizes the types of DNA vaccine vectors in common use, the immune responses and protective responses that have been obtained in animal models, the safety considerations pertinent to the evaluation of DNA vaccines in humans and the very limited information that is available from early clinical studies.

  10. Dynamics of viral abundance and diversity in a Sphagnum-dominated peatland: temporal fluctuations prevail over habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Charlotte Ballaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses impact microbial activity and carbon cycling in various environments, but their diversity and ecological importance in Sphagnum-peatlands are unknown. Abundances of viral particles and prokaryotes were monitored bi-monthly at a fen and a bog at two different depths. Viral particle abundance ranged from 1.7x106 to 5.6x108 particles mL-1, and did not differ between fen and bog but showed seasonal fluctuations. These fluctuations were positively correlated with prokaryote abundance and dissolved organic carbon, and negatively correlated with water-table height and dissolved oxygen. Using shotgun metagenomics we observed a shift in viral diversity between winter/spring and summer/autumn, indicating a seasonal succession of viral communities, mainly driven by weather-related environmental changes. Based on the seasonal asynchrony between viral and microbial diversity, we hypothesize a seasonal shift in the active microbial communities associated with a shift from lysogenic to lytic lifestyles. Our results suggest that temporal variations of environmental conditions rather than current habitat differences control the dynamics of virus-host interactions in Sphagnum-dominated peatlands.

  11. Carbon particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  12. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ding; Zhang, Zhi-Ping; Li, Feng; Men, Dong; Deng, Jiao-Yu; Wei, Hong-Ping; Zhang, Xian-En; Cui, Zong-Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs) are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs) can induce simian virus 40 (SV40) capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1) can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD=2.19E-10 M), which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles.

  13. Viral piracy: HIV-1 targets dendritic cells for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekkerkerker, Annemarie N; van Kooyk, Yvette; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B H

    2006-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs), the professional antigen presenting cells, are critical for host immunity by inducing specific immune responses against a broad variety of pathogens. Remarkably the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) subverts DC function leading to spread of the virus. At an early phase of HIV-1 transmission, DCs capture HIV-1 at mucosal surfaces and transmit the virus to T cells in secondary lymphoid tissues. Capture of the virus on DCs takes place via C-type lectins of which the dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3) grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is the best studied. DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles accumulate in CD81(+) multivesicular bodies (MVBs) in DCs and are subsequently transmitted to CD4+ T cells resulting in infection of T cells. The viral cell-to-cell transmission takes place at the DC-T cell interface termed the infectious synapse. Recent studies demonstrate that direct infection of DCs contributes to the transmission to T cells at a later phase. Moreover, the infected DCs may function as cellular reservoirs for HIV-1. This review discusses the different processes that govern viral piracy of DCs by HIV-1, emphasizing the intracellular routing of the virus from capture on the cell surface to egress in the infectious synapse.

  14. A Non-Symmetric Reconstruction Technique for Transcriptionally-Active Viral Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Amina; Varano, A Cameron; Demmert, Andrew C; Melanson, Linda A; McDonald, Sarah M; Kelly, Deborah F

    2015-08-01

    The molecular mechanisms by which RNA viruses coordinate their transcriptional activities are not fully understood. For rotavirus, an important pediatric gastroenteric pathogen, transcription occurs within a double-layered particle that encloses the viral genome. To date, there remains very little structural information available for actively-transcribing rotavirus double-layered particles, which could provide new insights for antiviral development. To improve our vision of these viral assemblies, we developed a new combinatorial strategy that utilizes currently available high-resolution image processing tools. First, we employed a 3D classification routine that allowed us to sort transcriptionally-active rotavirus assemblies on the basis of their internal density. Next, we implemented an additional 3D refinement procedure using the most active class of DLPs. For comparison, the refined structures were computed in parallel by (1) enforcing icosahedral symmetry, and by (2) using no symmetry operators. Comparing the resulting structures, we were able to visualize the continuum that exists between viral capsid proteins and the viral RNA for the first time.

  15. Peptides derived from HIV-1 integrase that bind Rev stimulate viral genome integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviad Levin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 integrase protein (IN, catalyzes the integration of viral DNA into the host cell genome. IN catalyzes the first step of the integration process, namely the 3'-end processing in which IN removes a pGT dinucleotide from the 3' end of each viral long terminal repeat (LTR. Following nuclear import of the viral preintegration complex, the host chromosomal DNA becomes accessible to the viral cDNA and the second step of the integration process, namely the strand-transfer step takes place. This ordered sequence of events, centered on integration, is mandatory for HIV replication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an integrase peptide library, we selected two peptides, designated INr-1 and INr-2, which interact with the Rev protein and probably mediate the Rev-integrase interaction. Using an in-vitro assay system, we show that INr-1 and INr-2 are able to abrogate the inhibitory effects exerted by Rev and Rev-derived peptides on integrase activity. Both INr-1 and INr-2 were found to be cell-permeable and nontoxic, allowing a study of their effect in HIV-1-infected cultured cells. Interestingly, both INr peptides stimulated virus infectivity as estimated by production of the viral P24 protein, as well as by determination of the appearance of newly formed virus particles. Furthermore, kinetics studies revealed that the cell-permeable INr peptides enhance the integration process, as was indeed confirmed by direct determination of viral DNA integration by real-time PCR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the present study raise the possibility that in HIV-infected cells, the Rev protein may be involved in the integration of proviral DNA by controlling/regulating the activity of the integrase. Release from such inhibition leads to stimulation of IN activity and multiple viral DNA integration events.

  16. A core viral protein binds host nucleosomes to sequester immune danger signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Herrmann, Christin; Kulej, Katarzyna; Pancholi, Neha J; Sekulic, Nikolina; Petrescu, Joana; Molden, Rosalynn C; Blumenthal, Daniel; Paris, Andrew J; Reyes, Emigdio D; Ostapchuk, Philomena; Hearing, Patrick; Seeholzer, Steven H; Worthen, G Scott; Black, Ben E; Garcia, Benjamin A; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    Viral proteins mimic host protein structure and function to redirect cellular processes and subvert innate defenses. Small basic proteins compact and regulate both viral and cellular DNA genomes. Nucleosomes are the repeating units of cellular chromatin and play an important part in innate immune responses. Viral-encoded core basic proteins compact viral genomes, but their impact on host chromatin structure and function remains unexplored. Adenoviruses encode a highly basic protein called protein VII that resembles cellular histones. Although protein VII binds viral DNA and is incorporated with viral genomes into virus particles, it is unknown whether protein VII affects cellular chromatin. Here we show that protein VII alters cellular chromatin, leading us to hypothesize that this has an impact on antiviral responses during adenovirus infection in human cells. We find that protein VII forms complexes with nucleosomes and limits DNA accessibility. We identified post-translational modifications on protein VII that are responsible for chromatin localization. Furthermore, proteomic analysis demonstrated that protein VII is sufficient to alter the protein composition of host chromatin. We found that protein VII is necessary and sufficient for retention in the chromatin of members of the high-mobility-group protein B family (HMGB1, HMGB2 and HMGB3). HMGB1 is actively released in response to inflammatory stimuli and functions as a danger signal to activate immune responses. We showed that protein VII can directly bind HMGB1 in vitro and further demonstrated that protein VII expression in mouse lungs is sufficient to decrease inflammation-induced HMGB1 content and neutrophil recruitment in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Together, our in vitro and in vivo results show that protein VII sequesters HMGB1 and can prevent its release. This study uncovers a viral strategy in which nucleosome binding is exploited to control extracellular immune signaling.

  17. A method for quantifying mechanical properties of tissue following viral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Lam

    Full Text Available Viral infection and replication involves the reorganization of the actin network within the host cell. Actin plays a central role in the mechanical properties of cells. We have demonstrated a method to quantify changes in mechanical properties of fabricated model three-dimensional (3D connective tissue following viral infection. Using this method, we have characterized the impact of infection by the human herpesvirus, cytomegalovirus (HCMV. HCMV is a member of the herpesvirus family and infects a variety of cell types including fibroblasts. In the body, fibroblasts are necessary for maintaining connective tissue and function by creating mechanical force. Using this 3D connective tissue model, we observed that infection disrupted the cell's ability to generate force and reduced the cumulative contractile force of the tissue. The addition of HCMV viral particles in the absence of both viral gene expression and DNA replication was sufficient to disrupt tissue function. We observed that alterations of the mechanical properties are, in part, due to a disruption of the underlying complex actin microfilament network established by the embedded fibroblasts. Finally, we were able to prevent HCMV-mediated disruption of tissue function by the addition of human immune globulin against HCMV. This study demonstrates a method to quantify the impact of viral infection on mechanical properties which are not evident using conventional cell culture systems.

  18. VirusMapper: open-source nanoscale mapping of viral architecture through super-resolution microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert D. M.; Beerli, Corina; Pereira, Pedro Matos; Scherer, Kathrin Maria; Samolej, Jerzy; Bleck, Christopher Karl Ernst; Mercer, Jason; Henriques, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The nanoscale molecular assembly of mammalian viruses during their infectious life cycle remains poorly understood. Their small dimensions, generally bellow the 300nm diffraction limit of light microscopes, has limited most imaging studies to electron microscopy. The recent development of super-resolution (SR) light microscopy now allows the visualisation of viral structures at resolutions of tens of nanometers. In addition, these techniques provide the added benefit of molecular specific labelling and the capacity to investigate viral structural dynamics using live-cell microscopy. However, there is a lack of robust analytical tools that allow for precise mapping of viral structure within the setting of infection. Here we present an open-source analytical framework that combines super-resolution imaging and naïve single-particle analysis to generate unbiased molecular models. This tool, VirusMapper, is a high-throughput, user-friendly, ImageJ-based software package allowing for automatic statistical mapping of conserved multi-molecular structures, such as viral substructures or intact viruses. We demonstrate the usability of VirusMapper by applying it to SIM and STED images of vaccinia virus in isolation and when engaged with host cells. VirusMapper allows for the generation of accurate, high-content, molecular specific virion models and detection of nanoscale changes in viral architecture. PMID:27374400

  19. Non-viral therapeutic approaches to ocular diseases: An overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulliger, Rahel; Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2015-12-10

    Currently there are no viable treatment options for patients with debilitating inherited retinal degeneration. The vast variability in disease-inducing mutations and resulting phenotypes has hampered the development of therapeutic interventions. Gene therapy is a logical approach, and recent work has focused on ways to optimize vector design and packaging to promote optimized expression and phenotypic rescue after intraocular delivery. In this review, we discuss ongoing ocular clinical trials, which currently use viral gene delivery, but focus primarily on new advancements in optimizing the efficacy of non-viral gene delivery for ocular diseases. Non-viral delivery systems are highly customizable, allowing functionalization to improve cellular and nuclear uptake, bypassing cellular degradative machinery, and improving gene expression in the nucleus. Non-viral vectors often yield transgene expression levels lower than viral counterparts, however their favorable safety/immune profiles and large DNA capacity (critical for the delivery of large ocular disease genes) make their further development a research priority. Recent work on particle coating and vector engineering presents exciting ways to overcome limitations of transient/low gene expression levels, but also highlights the fact that further refinements are needed before use in the clinic.

  20. Mechanical and assembly units of viral capsids identified via quasi-rigid domain decomposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Polles

    Full Text Available Key steps in a viral life-cycle, such as self-assembly of a protective protein container or in some cases also subsequent maturation events, are governed by the interplay of physico-chemical mechanisms involving various spatial and temporal scales. These salient aspects of a viral life cycle are hence well described and rationalised from a mesoscopic perspective. Accordingly, various experimental and computational efforts have been directed towards identifying the fundamental building blocks that are instrumental for the mechanical response, or constitute the assembly units, of a few specific viral shells. Motivated by these earlier studies we introduce and apply a general and efficient computational scheme for identifying the stable domains of a given viral capsid. The method is based on elastic network models and quasi-rigid domain decomposition. It is first applied to a heterogeneous set of well-characterized viruses (CCMV, MS2, STNV, STMV for which the known mechanical or assembly domains are correctly identified. The validated method is next applied to other viral particles such as L-A, Pariacoto and polyoma viruses, whose fundamental functional domains are still unknown or debated and for which we formulate verifiable predictions. The numerical code implementing the domain decomposition strategy is made freely available.

  1. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    An accessible and carefully structured introduction to Particle Physics, including important coverage of the Higgs Boson and recent progress in neutrino physics. Fourth edition of this successful title in the Manchester Physics series. Includes information on recent key discoveries including : An account of the discovery of exotic hadrons, beyond the simple quark model; Expanded treatments of neutrino physics and CP violation in B-decays; An updated account of ‘physics beyond the standard model’, including the interaction of particle physics with cosmology; Additional problems in all chapters, with solutions to selected problems available on the book’s website; Advanced material appears in optional starred sections.

  2. Disassembly of structurally modified viral nanoparticles: characterization by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivola, Jouni; Gilbert, Leona; Michel, Patrik; White, Daniel; Vuento, Matti; Oker-Blom, Christian

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of the breakdown products of engineered viral particles can give useful information on the particle structure. We used various methods to breakdown both a recombinant enveloped virus and virus-like particles (VLPs) from two non-enveloped viruses and analysed the resulting subunits by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Analysis of the enveloped baculovirus, Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV), displaying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to its envelope protein gp64 was performed in the presence and absence of 5 mM SDS and 25 mM DTT. Without treatment, the viral particle showed a diffusion time of 3.3 ms. In the presence of SDS, fluorescent subunits with diffusion times of 0.2 ms were observed. Additional treatment with DTT caused a drop in the diffusion time to 0.1 ms. Changes in the amplitude of the autocorrelation function suggested a 3-fold increase in fluorescent particle number when viral particles were treated with SDS, and a further 1.5-fold increase with additional treatment with DTT. Thus, the data showed that an average of 4.5 molecules of gp64-GFP was incorporated in the membrane of the modified baculovirus. Further, this suggests that each fluorescent gp64 trimer carries on average 1.5 fluorescent units. Similar experiments were carried out with two non-enveloped fluorescent virus-like particles (fVLPs) that displayed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). These, fVLPs of canine and human B19 parvoviruses were treated with 6 M urea and 5 mM SDS, respectively. Correspondingly, the original hydrodynamic radii of 17 and 14 nm were reduced to 9 and 5 nm after treatment. Here, the change in the amplitude of the autocorrelation curve suggested a 10-fold increase in particle number when viral particles of CPV were treated with 6 M urea at 50 degrees C for 10 min. For EGFP-B19, there was a decrease in the amplitude, accompanied by a 9-fold increase in the number of fluorescent units with SDS treatment

  3. Curcumin modulates the inflammatory response and inhibits subsequent fibrosis in a mouse model of viral-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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    Sreedevi Avasarala

    Full Text Available Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS is a clinical syndrome characterized by diffuse alveolar damage usually secondary to an intense host inflammatory response of the lung to a pulmonary or extrapulmonary infectious or non-infectious insult often leading to the development of intra-alveolar and interstitial fibrosis. Curcumin, the principal curcumoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, has been demonstrated as an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in a broad spectrum of diseases. Using our well-established model of reovirus 1/L-induced acute viral pneumonia, which displays many of the characteristics of the human ALI/ARDS, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of curcumin. Female CBA/J mice were treated with curcumin (50 mg/kg 5 days prior to intranasal inoculation with 10(7pfu reovirus 1/L and daily, thereafter. Mice were evaluated for key features associated with ALI/ARDS. Administration of curcumin significantly modulated inflammation and fibrosis, as revealed by histological and biochemical analysis. The expression of IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, and MCP-1, key chemokines/cytokines implicated in the development of ALI/ARDS, from both the inflammatory infiltrate and whole lung tissue were modulated by curcumin potentially through a reduction in the phosphorylated form of NFκB p65. While the expression of TGFß1 was not modulated by curcumin, TGFß Receptor II, which is required for TGFß signaling, was significantly reduced. In addition, curcumin also significantly inhibited the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and Tenascin-C, key markers of myofibroblast activation. This data strongly supports a role for curcumin in modulating the pathogenesis of viral-induced ALI/ARDS in a pre-clinical model potentially manifested through the alteration of inflammation and myofibroblast differentiation.

  4. Dicer-2 processes diverse viral RNA species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah R Sabin

    Full Text Available RNA silencing pathways play critical roles in gene regulation, virus infection, and transposon control. RNA interference (RNAi is mediated by small interfering RNAs (siRNAs, which are liberated from double-stranded (dsRNA precursors by Dicer and guide the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC to targets. Although principles governing small RNA sorting into RISC have been uncovered, the spectrum of RNA species that can be targeted by Dicer proteins, particularly the viral RNAs present during an infection, are poorly understood. Dicer-2 potently restricts viral infection in insects by generating virus-derived siRNAs from viral RNA. To better characterize the substrates of Dicer-2, we examined the virus-derived siRNAs produced during the Drosophila antiviral RNAi response to four different viruses using high-throughput sequencing. We found that each virus was uniquely targeted by the RNAi pathway; dicing substrates included dsRNA replication intermediates and intramolecular RNA stem loops. For instance, a putative intergenic RNA hairpin encoded by Rift Valley Fever virus generates abundant small RNAs in both Drosophila and mosquito cells, while repetitive sequences within the genomic termini of Vaccinia virus, which give rise to abundant small RNAs in Drosophila, were found to be transcribed in both insect and mammalian cells. Moreover, we provide evidence that the RNA species targeted by Dicer-2 can be modulated by the presence of a viral suppressor of RNAi. This study uncovered several novel, heavily targeted features within viral genomes, offering insight into viral replication, viral immune evasion strategies, and the mechanism of antiviral RNAi.

  5. Prospects for cannabinoid therapies in viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbrig, Marylou V; Fan, Yijun; Hazelton, Paul

    2013-11-06

    Cannabinoids are promising therapies to support neurogenesis and decelerate disease progression in neuroinflammatory and degenerative disorders. Whether neuroprotective effects of cannabinoids are sustainable during persistent viral infection of the CNS is not known. Using a rodent model of chronic viral encephalitis based on Borna Disease (BD) virus, in which 1 week treatment with the general cannabinoid WIN 55,212-2 has been shown to be neuroprotective (Solbrig et al., 2010), we examine longer term (2 week treatment) effects of a general (CB1 and CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (1mg/kg ip twice per day) or a specific (CB2) cannabinoid receptor agonist HU-308 (5mg/kg ip once daily) on histopathology, measures of frontostriatal neurogenesis and gliogenesis, and viral load. We find that WIN and HU-308 differ in their ability to protect new BrdU(+) cells. The selective CB2 agonist HU increases BrdU(+) cells in prefrontal cortex (PFC), significantly increases BrdU(+) cells in striatum, differentially regulates polydendrocytes vs. microglia/macrophages, and reduces immune activation at a time WIN-treated rats appear tolerant to the anti-inflammatory effect of their cannabinoid treatment. WIN and HU had little direct viral effect in PFC and striatum, yet reduced viral signal in hippocampus. Thus, HU-308 action on CB2 receptors, receptors known to be renewed during microglia proliferation and action, is a nontolerizing mechanism of controlling CNS inflammation during viral encephalitis by reducing microglia activation, as well as partially limiting viral infection, and uses a nonpsychotropic cannabinoid agonist.

  6. Molecular piracy: the viral link to carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaitz, C M; Hicks, M J

    1998-11-01

    The vast majority of the human experience with viral infections is associated with acute symptoms, such as malaise, fever, chills, rhinitis and diarrhea. With this acute or lytic phase, the immune system mounts a response and eliminates the viral agent while acquiring antibodies to that specific viral subtype. With latent or chronic infections, the viral agent becomes incorporated into the human genome. Viral agents capable of integration into the host's genetic material are particularly dangerous and may commandeer the host's ability to regulate normal cell growth and proliferation. The oncogenic viruses may immortalize the host cell, and facilitate malignant transformation. Cell growth and proliferation may be enhanced by viral interference with tumor suppressor gene function (p53 and pRb). Viruses may act as vectors for mutated proto-oncogenes (oncogenes). Overexpression of these oncogenes in viral-infected cells interferes with normal cell function and allows unregulated cell growth and proliferation, which may lead to malignant transformation and tumour formation. Development of oral neoplasms, both benign and malignant, has been linked to several viruses. Epstein-Barr virus is associated with oral hairy leukoplakia, lymphoproliferative disease, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, B-cell lymphomas, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Human herpesvirus-8 has been implicated in all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphomas, multiple myeloma, angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy, and Castleman's disease. Human herpesvirus-6 has been detected in lymphoproliferative disease, lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The role of human papillomavirus in benign (squamous papilloma, focal epithelial hyperplasia, condyloma acuminatum, verruca vulgaris), premalignant (oral epithelial dysplasia), and malignant (squamous cell carcinoma) neoplasms within the oral cavity is well recognized. Herpes simplex virus may participate as a cofactor in oral squamous

  7. 慢性非传染性疾病的防治管理现状和中医药的应用优势%Current situation of preventive and therapeutic management about chronic non-infectious disease and application advantage of TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝丽娜; 胡镜清; 刘保延; 张伯礼

    2013-01-01

    随着社会的发展,慢性非传染性疾病(简称“慢病”)带来的威胁日渐严重,慢病管理越来越受到重视.本文通过对国内慢病现状进行分析,针对慢病管理中存在的主要问题,着重讨论了中医药在慢病防治管理中的应用优势,提出中医学倡导的整体平衡协调的健康观有助于完善适合新的医学模式下的慢病防治管理理念,以患者为中心的健康维护模式有助于充分发挥慢病患者的自我主观能动性,丰富且有效的干预技术为慢病管理提供了可靠的手段.提出应该充分发挥中医药的自身特点和优势,自觉将中医药融入到慢病的健康管理和防治工作中去,采取更加积极和科学的疗效评价方法来确认中医药的疗效和作用优势环节,更加科学合理应用中医药,走出一条中西医共同参与的具有中国特色的慢病防治管理道路,满足我国慢病防治和管理的需要.%With the development of society,the treatment of chronic non-infectious disease is becoming serious and the management of chronic disease has been paid more and more attention. Based on the analysis of the current situation of the chronic diseases,aiming at the problems of chronic disease management,this article discussed the application advantages of traditional Chinese medicine in the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases and suggested that the health concept of overall balance and coordination advocated by traditional Chinese medicine was helpful to perfect the concept of preventing and controlling chronic diseases met with new medical mode. The health maintenance mode as patient as the center can help the patients suffering from chronic diseases to give full playing of their subjective initiative ability and the abundant and effective intervention technique can provide some reliable measures for the management of chronic disease. It was also put forward that we should expand their own characteristics and advantages

  8. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  9. Molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Haddad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic viruses have made their mark on the cancer world as a potential therapeutic option, with the possible advantages of reduced side effects and strengthened treatment efficacy due to higher tumor selectivity. Results have been so promising, that oncolytic viral treatments have now been approved for clinical trials in several countries. However, clinical studies may benefit from the ability to noninvasively and serially identify sites of viral targeting via molecular imaging in order to provide safety, efficacy, and toxicity information. Furthermore, molecular imaging of oncolytic viral therapy may provide a more sensitive and specific diagnostic technique to detect tumor origin and, more importantly, presence of metastases. Several strategies have been investigated for molecular imaging of viral replication broadly categorized into optical and deep tissue imaging, utilizing several reporter genes encoding for fluorescence proteins, conditional enzymes, and membrane protein and transporters. Various imaging methods facilitate molecular imaging, including computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, single photon emission CT, gamma-scintigraphy, and photoacoustic imaging. In addition, several molecular probes are used for medical imaging, which act as targeting moieties or signaling agents. This review will explore the preclinical and clinical use of in vivo molecular imaging of replication-competent oncolytic viral therapy.

  10. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiki Katakura; Hiroshi Yotsuyanagi; Kiyoe Hashizume; Chiaki Okuse; Noriaki Okuse; Kohji Nishikawa; Michihiro Suzuki; Shiro Iino; Fumio Itoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%).CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis.

  11. Bacterial coinfections in children with viral wheezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtinen, P; Jartti, T; Virkki, R; Vuorinen, T; Leinonen, M; Peltola, V; Ruohola, A; Ruuskanen, O

    2006-07-01

    Bacterial coinfections occur in respiratory viral infections, but the attack rates and the clinical profile are not clear. The aim of this study was to determine bacterial coinfections in children hospitalized for acute expiratory wheezing with defined viral etiology. A total of 220 children aged 3 months to 16 years were investigated. The viral etiology of wheezing was confirmed by viral culture, antigen detection, serologic investigation, and/or PCR. Specific antibodies to common respiratory bacteria were measured from acute and convalescent serum samples. All children were examined clinically for acute otitis media, and subgroups of children were examined radiologically for sinusitis and pneumonia. Rhinovirus (32%), respiratory syncytial virus (31%), and enteroviruses (31%) were the most common causative viruses. Serologic evidence of bacterial coinfection was found in 18% of the children. Streptococcus pneumoniae (8%) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (5%) were the most common causative bacteria. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 44% of the children. Chest radiographs showed alveolar infiltrates in 10%, and paranasal radiographs and clinical signs showed sinusitis in 17% of the older children studied. Leukocyte counts and serum C-reactive protein levels were low in a great majority of patients. Viral lower respiratory tract infection in children is often associated with bacterial-type upper respiratory tract infections. However, coexisting bacterial lower respiratory tract infections that induce systemic inflammatory response are seldom detected.

  12. Regulatory T cells in viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Billerbeck; Tobias B(o)ttler; Robert Thimme

    2007-01-01

    The pathogenesis and outcome of viral infections are significantly influenced by the host immune response.The immune system is able to eliminate many viruses in the acute phase of infection. However, some viruses,like hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV),can evade the host immune responses and establish a persistent infection. HCV and HBV persistence is caused by various mechanisms, like subversion of innate immune responses by viral factors, the emergence of T cell escape mutations, or T cell dysfunction and suppression.Recently, it has become evident that regulatory T cells may contribute to the pathogenesis and outcome of viral infections by suppressing antiviral immune responses.Indeed, the control of HCV and HBV specific immune responses mediated by regulatory T cells may be one mechanism that favors viral persistence, but it may also prevent the host from overwhelming T cell activity and liver damage. This review will focus on the role of regulatory T cells in viral hepatitis.

  13. Viral genome sequencing by random priming methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinsheng

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most emerging health threats are of zoonotic origin. For the overwhelming majority, their causative agents are RNA viruses which include but are not limited to HIV, Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Dengue, and Hantavirus. Of increasing importance therefore is a better understanding of global viral diversity to enable better surveillance and prediction of pandemic threats; this will require rapid and flexible methods for complete viral genome sequencing. Results We have adapted the SISPA methodology 123 to genome sequencing of RNA and DNA viruses. We have demonstrated the utility of the method on various types and sources of viruses, obtaining near complete genome sequence of viruses ranging in size from 3,000–15,000 kb with a median depth of coverage of 14.33. We used this technique to generate full viral genome sequence in the presence of host contaminants, using viral preparations from cell culture supernatant, allantoic fluid and fecal matter. Conclusion The method described is of great utility in generating whole genome assemblies for viruses with little or no available sequence information, viruses from greatly divergent families, previously uncharacterized viruses, or to more fully describe mixed viral infections.

  14. Pancreatic involvement in chronic viral hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Yoshiki; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Kiyoe; Okuse, Chiaki; Okuse, Noriaki; Nishikawa, Kohji; Suzuki, Michihiro; Iino, Shiro; Itoh, Fumio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic disorders in the course of chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: We prospectively assessed the serum pancreatic enzyme levels and imaging findings in patients with chronic viral hepatitis and healthy control subjects. RESULTS: Serum amylase (t-Amy), salivary amylase (s-Amy), pancreatic amylase (p-Amy) and serum lipase levels were higher in hepatitis patients in comparison to control subjects. However, in asymptomatic viral carriers, only the serum t-Amy levels were higher than those of the controls. The levels of each enzyme rose with the progression of liver disease in patients with hepatitis B or C; whereas the levels of each enzyme within the same clinical stage of the disease did not differ between patients diagnosed with either hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus. Imaging findings demonstrated chronic pancreatitis in only 1 out of 202 patients (0.5%). CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that serum levels of pancreatic enzymes increase with the progression of liver disease in patients diagnosed with viral hepatitis. Pancreatic disease, asymptomatic in most cases, may represent an extrahepatic manifestation of chronic viral hepatitis. PMID:15962364

  15. 双歧杆菌四联活菌片联合用药治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的效果及对血清IL-6、IL-17表达的影响%Effect of combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacil-lus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in chil-dren and influence study on serum IL-6,IL 17 expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周慧恩; 梁斐; 周运南; 黎惠章

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in children and influence on serum IL-6,IL 17 expression. Methods 120 children with non-infectious diarrhea in our hospital from February 2013 to June 2014 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group,each group of 60 cases.Conventional method was used in control group,combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live were applied in observation group on the basis of control group.Total effective rate,diarrhea stopped time,hospital admission time,level of IL-6 and IL-17 in two groups were compared. Results Total effective rate in observation group was 96.67%,higher than that in control group(85.00%),with statistical difference(P<0.05).Diarrhea stopped time,hospital ad-mission time in observation group was shorter than that in control group respectively,with statistical difference(P<0.05). After treatment of 72 hours,level of IL-6 and IL-17 was lower than that in control group respectively (P<0.05). Con-clusion Combined Bifidobacterium,Lactobacillus,Enterococcus and Bacillus cereus tablets,live in the treatment of non-infectious diarrhea in children can shorten diarrhea stopped time,hospital admission time,reduce level of IL-6 and IL-17,has a substantial clinical curative effect and is worthy of promotion and application.%目的:探讨双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗小儿非感染性腹泻的临床效果及对血清IL-6、IL-17表达的影响。方法选取2013年2月~2014年6月本院收治的120例非感染性腹泻小儿,将其随机分为观察组和对照组,各60例,对照组采用常规方法治疗,观察组在对照组基础上采用双歧杆菌四联活菌片治疗,比较两组的总有效率、腹泻停止时间、住院时间和IL-6、IL-17水平。结果观察组总有效率为96.67%,

  16. Changes in viral and bacterial communities during the ice-melting season in the coastal Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Ny-Ålesund).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Corte, Daniele; Sintes, Eva; Yokokawa, Taichi; Herndl, Gerhard J

    2011-07-01

    Microbial communities in Arctic coastal waters experience dramatic changes in environmental conditions during the spring to summer transition period, potentially leading to major variations in the relationship between viral and prokaryotic communities. To document these variations, a number of physico-chemical and biological parameters were determined during the ice-melting season in the coastal Arctic (Kongsfjorden, Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen). The bacterial and viral abundance increased during the spring to summer transition period, probably associated to the increase in temperature and the development of a phytoplankton bloom. The increase in viral abundance was less pronounced than the increase in prokaryotic abundance; consequently, the viral to prokaryotic abundance ratio decreased. The bacterial and viral communities were stratified as determined by Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis and Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-PCR respectively. Both the bacterial and viral communities were characterized by a relatively low number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs). Despite the apparent low complexity of the bacterial and viral communities, the link between these two communities was weak over the melting season, as suggested by the different trends of prokaryotic and viral abundance during the sampling period. This weak relationship between the two communities might be explained by UV radiation and suspended particles differently affecting the viruses and prokaryotes in the coastal Arctic during this period. Based on our results, we conclude that the viral and bacterial communities in the Arctic were strongly affected by the variability of the environmental conditions during the transition period between spring and summer.

  17. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation.

  18. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  19. Strongly correlated electrostatics of viral genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Toan T

    2013-03-01

    The problem of viral packaging (condensation) and ejection from viral capsid in the presence of multivalent counterions is considered. Experiments show divalent counterions strongly influence the amount of DNA ejected from bacteriophage. In this paper, the strong electrostatic interactions between DNA molecules in the presence of multivalent counterions is investigated. It is shown that experiment results agree reasonably well with the phenomenon of DNA reentrant condensation. This phenomenon is known to cause DNA condensation in the presence of tri- or tetra-valent counterions. For divalent counterions, the viral capsid confinement strongly suppresses DNA configurational entropy, therefore the correlation between divalent counterions is strongly enhanced causing similar effect. Computational studies also agree well with theoretical calculations.

  20. Hepatitis viral load correlates to glutathione levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Several recent scientific articles have found a direct correlation between Glutathione levels and viral activity for hepatitis B and C. When viral load increases, Glutathione decreases. Researchers from Germany report that adding NAC (N-acetyl cysteine) to HBV producing cells lines can reduce hepatitis viral load 50 fold. Glutathione is used by the liver to help break down toxins. Patients who have chronic infection for more than 90 days should ask their physicians to check their Glutathione levels. A test kit is available from ImmunoSciences Labs; contact information is included. An amino acid, L-Glutamine, can be used with Alpha Lipoic Acid and NAC to increase Glutathione levels. Chlorophyll also offers benefits to people with hepatitis and other infections. Instructions on how to use a special retention enema containing chlorophyll, water, and apple cider vinegar are provided.

  1. V-GAP: Viral genome assembly pipeline

    KAUST Repository

    Nakamura, Yoji

    2015-10-22

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the rapid determination of the complete genomes of many organisms. Although shotgun sequences from large genome organisms are still difficult to reconstruct perfect contigs each of which represents a full chromosome, those from small genomes have been assembled successfully into a very small number of contigs. In this study, we show that shotgun reads from phage genomes can be reconstructed into a single contig by controlling the number of read sequences used in de novo assembly. We have developed a pipeline to assemble small viral genomes with good reliability using a resampling method from shotgun data. This pipeline, named V-GAP (Viral Genome Assembly Pipeline), will contribute to the rapid genome typing of viruses, which are highly divergent, and thus will meet the increasing need for viral genome comparisons in metagenomic studies.

  2. Viral markers in HIV infection and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A L; Dwyer, D E; Dowton, D N

    1993-01-01

    Viral and immune markers are used for monitoring either progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease or response to antiviral therapy. Ideal properties of viral markers are that they are present in all HIV-infected persons at all stages of disease, that they are related to disease pathogenesis, that they can be easily quantitated, that this quantitation correlates rapidly and predictably with both disease stage and response to antivirals, and that they can be developed into rapid, reproducible automated tests. Currently available viral markers include HIV p24 antigenemia (after acid glycine dissociation), anti-p24 antibody titres, quantitative DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction performed on cells and plasma, and HIV isolate phenotype. In Australia, these markers have been studied in acute HIV seroconversion, in neonatal infection, in body fluids other than blood, and in monitoring of response to antiviral drug therapy.

  3. The fecal viral flora of wild rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tung G Phan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequent interactions of rodents with humans make them a common source of zoonotic infections. To obtain an initial unbiased measure of the viral diversity in the enteric tract of wild rodents we sequenced partially purified, randomly amplified viral RNA and DNA in the feces of 105 wild rodents (mouse, vole, and rat collected in California and Virginia. We identified in decreasing frequency sequences related to the mammalian viruses families Circoviridae, Picobirnaviridae, Picornaviridae, Astroviridae, Parvoviridae, Papillomaviridae, Adenoviridae, and Coronaviridae. Seventeen small circular DNA genomes containing one or two replicase genes distantly related to the Circoviridae representing several potentially new viral families were characterized. In the Picornaviridae family two new candidate genera as well as a close genetic relative of the human pathogen Aichi virus were characterized. Fragments of the first mouse sapelovirus and picobirnaviruses were identified and the first murine astrovirus genome was characterized. A mouse papillomavirus genome and fragments of a novel adenovirus and adenovirus-associated virus were also sequenced. The next largest fraction of the rodent fecal virome was related to insect viruses of the Densoviridae, Iridoviridae, Polydnaviridae, Dicistroviriade, Bromoviridae, and Virgaviridae families followed by plant virus-related sequences in the Nanoviridae, Geminiviridae, Phycodnaviridae, Secoviridae, Partitiviridae, Tymoviridae, Alphaflexiviridae, and Tombusviridae families reflecting the largely insect and plant rodent diet. Phylogenetic analyses of full and partial viral genomes therefore revealed many previously unreported viral species, genera, and families. The close genetic similarities noted between some rodent and human viruses might reflect past zoonoses. This study increases our understanding of the viral diversity in wild rodents and highlights the large number of still uncharacterized viruses in

  4. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  5. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.

    2008-01-01

    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  6. Particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated by the Large Hadron Collider and the search for the elusive Higgs Boson, interest in particle physics continues at a high level among scientists and the general public. This book includes theoretical aspects, with chapters outlining the generation model and a charged Higgs boson model as alternative scenarios to the Standard Model. An introduction is provided to postulated axion photon interactions and associated photon dispersion in magnetized media. The complexity of particle physics research requiring the synergistic combination of theory, hardware and computation is described in terms of the e-science paradigm. The book concludes with a chapter tackling potential radiation hazards associated with extremely weakly interacting neutrinos if produced in copious amounts with future high-energy muon-collider facilities.

  7. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  8. Particle astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, Lawrence M

    1997-01-01

    Astrophysics and cosmology provide fundamental testing grounds for many ideas in elementary particle physics, and include potential probes which are well beyond the range of current or even planned accelerators. In this series of 3 lectures, I will give and overview of existing constraints, and a discussion of the potential for the future. I will attempt whenever possible to demonstrate the connection between accelerator-based physics and astrophysicas/cosmology. The format of the kectures will be to examine observables from astrophysics, and explore how these can be used to constrain particle physics. Tentatively, lecture 1 will focus on the age and mass density of the universe and galaxy. Lecture 2 will focus on stars, stellar evolution, and the abundance of light elements. Lecture 3 will focus on various cosmic diffuse backgrounds, including possibly matter, photons, neutrinos and gravitational waves.

  9. Arrhythmias in viral myocarditis and pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baksi, A John; Kanaganayagam, G Sunthar; Prasad, Sanjay K

    2015-06-01

    Acute viral myocarditis and acute pericarditis are self-limiting conditions that run a benign course and that may not involve symptoms that lead to medical assessment. However, ventricular arrhythmia is frequent in viral myocarditis. Myocarditis is thought to account for a large proportion of sudden cardiac deaths in young people without prior structural heart disease. Identification of acute myocarditis either with or without pericarditis is therefore important. However, therapeutic interventions are limited and nonspecific. Identifying those at greatest risk of a life-threatening arrhythmia is critical to reducing the mortality. This review summarizes current understanding of this challenging area in which many questions remain.

  10. Viral diseases in honey bee queens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew

    Honey bees are important insects for human welfare, due to pollination as well as honey production. Viral diseases strongly impact honey bee health, especially since the spread of varroa mites. This dissertation deals with the interactions between honey bees, viruses and varroa mites. A new tool...... was developed to diagnose three viruses in honey bees. Quantitative PCR was used to investigate the distribution of two popular viruses in five different tissues of 86 honey bee queens. Seasonal variation of viral infection in honey bee workers and varroa mites were determined by sampling 23 colonies under...

  11. Structure of viral hepatitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Sorokman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many current studies are devoted to the study of hepatitis caused by viral infections, which are qualified as TORCH-infection. In infants TORCH-induced lesions prevail in the structure of viral hepatitis, the largest proportion is hepatitis of cytomegalovirus etiology. The purpose was to study the structure of viral hepatitis in infants. Materials and methods. The study included sixty-two children (mean age 1.8 ± 0.9 years born in 2007–2016 treated in Chernivtsi Regional Children’s Clinical Hospital. The comparison group consisted of 36 healthy children of the same age. The pathogens of viral hepatitis B, C, TORCH infections were verified by enzyme immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction. The results of the research were analyzed using computer package Statistica StatSoft Inc. and Excel XP for Windows for a personal computer. Results. The results of the analysis of the liver diseases structure in 62 young children, according to hospital statistics, determined that the overwhelming majority (38 children; 61.3 % had viral hepatitis (VH, the other 24 (38.7 % patients were divided by the etiological structure of liver damage as follows: 8 (12.9 % patients had prolonged conjunctive jaundice, 7 (11.3 % patients had congenital metabolic disorders, 9 (14.5 % patients had congenital hepatobiliary abnomalities. 16.6 % of young children had hepatitis B and C viruses. In 5.8 % of cases VH was caused by viruses of the TORCH group of infections. Conclusions. In the structure of hepatobiliary diseases in infants, viral hepatitis (68.4 % is on the first ranked place. Among the viral hepatitis in children in the first year of life, CMV-hepatitis (68.4 % is most common, in children over 1 year old chronic hepatitis B and C. Severe obstetrical anamnesis, violations of pregnancy, placental infection are rather significant in the group of children with viral hepatitis. The main clinical signs of CMV-hepatitis are prolonged jaundice, cholestasis

  12. Temporary divergence paralysis in viral meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Stef L M; Gan, Ivan M

    2008-06-01

    A 43-year-old woman who reported diplopia and headache was found to have comitant esotropia at distance fixation and normal alignment at reading distance (divergence paralysis). Eye movement, including abduction, was normal as was the rest of the neurologic examination. Brain MRI was normal. Lumbar puncture showed an elevated opening pressure and a cerebrospinal fluid formula consistent with viral meningitis. The patient was treated with intravenous fluids and analgesics and with a temporary prism to alleviate diplopia. Within 3 weeks, she had fully recovered. This is the first report of divergence palsy in viral meningitis.

  13. Particle encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Xiaobin

    2000-01-01

    Several engineering processes are powder based, ranging from food processing to engineering ceramic and composite production. In most of these processes, powders of different composition are mixed together in order to produce the final product, and this combining of powders of different density, shape, and surface properties is often very difficult. Mixtures may be quite inhomogeneous. This research focuses on a method of avoiding such problems, by coating individual particles of one material...

  14. Martian Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image of Martian soil was taken by the Phoenix Lander's atomic force microscope on Sol 74 of the mission, which began on May 25, 2008. This image of a flat, smooth-surfaced particle is consistent with the appearance of soil from Earth containing the mineral phyllosilicate. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. ViralORFeome: an integrated database to generate a versatile collection of viral ORFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellet, J; Tafforeau, L; Lucas-Hourani, M; Navratil, V; Meyniel, L; Achaz, G; Guironnet-Paquet, A; Aublin-Gex, A; Caignard, G; Cassonnet, P; Chaboud, A; Chantier, T; Deloire, A; Demeret, C; Le Breton, M; Neveu, G; Jacotot, L; Vaglio, P; Delmotte, S; Gautier, C; Combet, C; Deleage, G; Favre, M; Tangy, F; Jacob, Y; Andre, P; Lotteau, V; Rabourdin-Combe, C; Vidalain, P O

    2010-01-01

    Large collections of protein-encoding open reading frames (ORFs) established in a versatile recombination-based cloning system have been instrumental to study protein functions in high-throughput assays. Such 'ORFeome' resources have been developed for several organisms but in virology, plasmid collections covering a significant fraction of the virosphere are still needed. In this perspective, we present ViralORFeome 1.0 (http://www.viralorfeome.com), an open-access database and management system that provides an integrated set of bioinformatic tools to clone viral ORFs in the Gateway(R) system. ViralORFeome provides a convenient interface to navigate through virus genome sequences, to design ORF-specific cloning primers, to validate the sequence of generated constructs and to browse established collections of virus ORFs. Most importantly, ViralORFeome has been designed to manage all possible variants or mutants of a given ORF so that the cloning procedure can be applied to any emerging virus strain. A subset of plasmid constructs generated with ViralORFeome platform has been tested with success for heterologous protein expression in different expression systems at proteome scale. ViralORFeome should provide our community with a framework to establish a large collection of virus ORF clones, an instrumental resource to determine functions, activities and binding partners of viral proteins.

  16. Low pH is required for avian sarcoma and leukosis virus Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Richard J O; Narayan, Shakti; Dornadula, Geethanjali; Miller, Michael D; Young, John A T

    2004-10-01

    A novel entry mechanism has been proposed for the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus (ASLV), whereby interaction with specific cell surface receptors activates or primes the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env), rendering it sensitive to subsequent low-pH-dependent fusion triggering in acidic intracellular organelles. However, ASLV fusion seems to proceed to a lipid mixing stage at neutral pH, leading to the suggestion that low pH might instead be required for a later stage of viral entry such as uncoating (L. J. Earp, S. E. Delos, R. C. Netter, P. Bates, and J. M. White. J. Virol. 77:3058-3066, 2003). To address this possibility, hybrid virus particles were generated with the core of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), a known pH-independent virus, and with subgroups A or B ASLV Env proteins. Infection of cells by these pseudotyped virions was blocked by lysosomotropic agents, as judged by inhibition of HIV-1 DNA synthesis. Furthermore, by using HIV-1 cores that contain a Vpr-beta-lactamase fusion protein (Vpr-BlaM) to monitor viral penetration into the cytosol, we demonstrated that virions bearing ASLV Env, but not HIV-1 Env, enter the cytosol in a low-pH-dependent manner. This effect was independent of the presence of the cytoplasmic tail of ASLV Env. These studies provide strong support for the model, indicating that low pH is required for ASLV Env-dependent viral penetration into the cytosol and not for viral uncoating.

  17. Good Friends, Bad News - Affect and Virality in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Arvidsson, Adam; Nielsen, Finn Årup

    2011-01-01

    The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter is the prob......The link between affect, defined as the capacity for sentimental arousal on the part of a message, and virality, defined as the probability that it be sent along, is of significant theoretical and practical importance, e.g. for viral marketing. The basic measure of virality in Twitter...

  18. Morphology and Molecular Composition of Purified Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Callens

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The family Flaviviridae includes viruses that have different virion structures and morphogenesis mechanisms. Most cellular and molecular studies have been so far performed with viruses of the Hepacivirus and Flavivirus genera. Here, we studied bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV, a member of the Pestivirus genus. We set up a method to purify BVDV virions and analyzed their morphology by electron microscopy and their protein and lipid composition by mass spectrometry. Cryo-electron microscopy showed near spherical viral particles displaying an electron-dense capsid surrounded by a phospholipid bilayer with no visible spikes. Most particles had a diameter of 50 nm and about 2% were larger with a diameter of up to 65 nm, suggesting some size flexibility during BVDV morphogenesis. Morphological and biochemical data suggested a low envelope glycoprotein content of BVDV particles, E1 and E2 being apparently less abundant than Erns. Lipid content of BVDV particles displayed a ~2.3 to 3.5-fold enrichment in cholesterol, sphingomyelin and hexosyl-ceramide, concomitant with a 1.5 to 5-fold reduction of all glycerophospholipid classes, as compared to lipid content of MDBK cells. Although BVDV buds in the endoplasmic reticulum, its lipid content differs from a typical endoplasmic reticulum membrane composition. This suggests that BVDV morphogenesis includes a mechanism of lipid sorting. Functional analyses confirmed the importance of cholesterol and sphingomyelin for BVDV entry. Surprisingly, despite a high cholesterol and sphingolipid content of BVDV envelope, E2 was not found in detergent-resistant membranes. Our results indicate that there are differences between the structure and molecular composition of viral particles of Flaviviruses, Pestiviruses and Hepaciviruses within the Flaviviridae family.

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Viral Zoonoses in Wildlife

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Zoonoses are a worldwide public health concern, accounting for approximately 75% of human infectious diseases. In addition, zoonoses adversely affect agricultural production and wildlife. We review some mathematical models developed for the study of viral zoonoses in wildlife and identify areas where further modeling efforts are needed.

  20. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few

  1. Viral infections in asthma and COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Koichiro; Inoue, Hiromasa

    2014-03-01

    Airway viral infections are associated with the pathogenesis of asthma and COPD. It has been argued that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in infancy is a probable causal factor in the development of pediatric asthma. RSV infections tend to induce Th2-biased immune responses in the host airways. RSV infection, atopy, and low pulmonary function in neonates may work synergistically toward the development of pediatric asthma. Human rhinovirus (HRV) is a representative virus associated with the exacerbation of asthma in both children and adults. Viral infections trigger innate immune responses including granulocytic inflammation and worsen the underlying inflammation due to asthma and COPD. The innate immune responses involve type-I and -III interferon (IFN) production, which plays an important role in anti-viral responses, and the airway epithelia of asthmatics reportedly exhibit defects in the virus-induced IFN responses, which renders these individuals more susceptible to viral infection. A similarly impaired IFN response is seen in COPD, and several investigators propose that latent adenoviral infection may be involved in COPD development. Persistent RSV infections were detected in a sub-population of patients with COPD and were associated with the accelerated decline of lung function. The virus-induced upregulation of co-inhibitory molecules in the airway epithelium partly accounts for the persistent infections. Experimental animal models for virus-asthma/COPD interactions have shed light on the underlying immune mechanisms and are expected to help develop novel approaches to treat respiratory diseases.

  2. Vaccination of cattle against bovine viral diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oirschot, van J.T.; Bruschke, C.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.

    1999-01-01

    This brief review describes types and quality (efficacy and safety) of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines that are in the market or under development. Both conventional live and killed vaccines are available. The primary aim of vaccination is to prevent congenital infection, but the few va

  3. Viral neuroinvasion : causes, mechanisms and potential consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sips, George

    2014-01-01

    Meer inzicht in ontstaan virale ziekten van het centrale zenuwstelsel Over het ontstaan van ernstige neurologische ziekten zoals de ziekte van Alzheimer, Multiple Sclerose (MS) en de ziekte van Parkinson, is nog veel onduidelijk. Wel vermoeden wetenschappers dat er een verband zou kunnen bestaan

  4. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  5. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  6. Recombinant viruses as vaccines against viral diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.D. Souza

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine approaches to infectious diseases are widely applied and appreciated. Amongst them, vectors based on recombinant viruses have shown great promise and play an important role in the development of new vaccines. Many viruses have been investigated for their ability to express proteins from foreign pathogens and induce specific immunological responses against these antigens in vivo. Generally, gene-based vaccines can stimulate potent humoral and cellular immune responses and viral vectors might be an effective strategy for both the delivery of antigen-encoding genes and the facilitation and enhancement of antigen presentation. In order to be utilized as a vaccine carrier, the ideal viral vector should be safe and enable efficient presentation of required pathogen-specific antigens to the immune system. It should also exhibit low intrinsic immunogenicity to allow for its re-administration in order to boost relevant specific immune responses. Furthermore, the vector system must meet criteria that enable its production on a large-scale basis. Several viral vaccine vectors have thus emerged to date, all of them having relative advantages and limits depending on the proposed application, and thus far none of them have proven to be ideal vaccine carriers. In this review we describe the potential, as well as some of the foreseeable obstacles associated with viral vaccine vectors and their use in preventive medicine.

  7. Sanitation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    A sanitation programme for stamping-out viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) was implemented in Denmark in 1965. The programme has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the number of infected rainbow trout farms, from approximate to 400 to 26. The programme is carried out on a voluntary basis...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  9. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  10. Viral O-GalNAc peptide epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olofsson, Sigvard; Blixt, Klas Ola; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    on a novel three-step procedure that identifies any reactive viral O-glycosyl peptide epitope with respect to (i) relevant peptide sequence, (ii) the reactive glycoform out of several possible glycopeptide isomers of that peptide sequence, and (iii) possibly tolerated carbohydrate or peptide structural...

  11. Optimal cytoplasmic transport in viral infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R D'Orsogna

    Full Text Available For many viruses, the ability to infect eukaryotic cells depends on their transport through the cytoplasm and across the nuclear membrane of the host cell. During this journey, viral contents are biochemically processed into complexes capable of both nuclear penetration and genomic integration. We develop a stochastic model of viral entry that incorporates all relevant aspects of transport, including convection along microtubules, biochemical conversion, degradation, and nuclear entry. Analysis of the nuclear infection probabilities in terms of the transport velocity, degradation, and biochemical conversion rates shows how certain values of key parameters can maximize the nuclear entry probability of the viral material. The existence of such "optimal" infection scenarios depends on the details of the biochemical conversion process and implies potentially counterintuitive effects in viral infection, suggesting new avenues for antiviral treatment. Such optimal parameter values provide a plausible transport-based explanation of the action of restriction factors and of experimentally observed optimal capsid stability. Finally, we propose a new interpretation of how genetic mutations unrelated to the mechanism of drug action may nonetheless confer novel types of overall drug resistance.

  12. Viral skin diseases of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Anna L

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the viral skin diseases affecting the domestic rabbit, the most important being myxomatosis. Transmission and pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and control are described and the article will be of interest to veterinary practitioners who treat rabbits. Shope fibroma virus, Shope papilloma virus, and rabbitpox are also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tissue interactions of avian viral attachment proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambepitiya Wickramasinghe, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    Viruses can infect a wide range of hosts; varying from bacteria and plants to animals and humans. While many viral infections may pass unnoticed, some are of major importance due to their implications on health and welfare of plants, animals and/or humans. In particular, viruses that can infect avia

  14. Viral genome sequencing bt random priming methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most emerging health threats are of zoonotic origin. For the overwhelming majority, their causative agents are viruses which include but are not limited to HIV, Influenza, SARS, Ebola, Dengue, and Hantavirus. Of increasing importance therefore is an understanding of the viral diversity to enable b...

  15. 3D rotating wall vessel and 2D cell culture of four veterinary virus pathogens: A comparison of virus yields, portions of infectious particles and virus growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malenovská, Hana

    2016-02-01

    Only very few comparative studies have been performed that evaluate general trends of virus growth under 3D in comparison with 2D cell culture conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate differences when four animal viruses are cultured in 2D and 3D. Suid herpesvirus 1 (SuHV-1), Vesicular stomatitis virus (VSIV), Bovine adenovirus (BAdV) and Bovine parainfluenza 3 virus (BPIV-3) were cultivated in 3D rotating wall vessels (RWVs) and conventional 2D cultures. The production of virus particles, the portion of infectious particles, and the infectious growth curves were compared. For all viruses, the production of virus particles (related to cell density), including the non-infectious ones, was lower in 3D than in 2D culture. The production of only infectious particles was significantly lower in BAdV and BPIV-3 in 3D cultures in relation to cell density. The two cultivation approaches resulted in significantly different virus particle-to-TCID50 ratios in three of the four viruses: lower in SuHV-1 and BPIV-3 and higher in BAdV in 3D culture. The infectious virus growth rates were not significantly different in all viruses. Although 3D RWV culture resulted in lower production of virus particles compared to 2D systems, the portion of infectious particles was higher for some viruses.

  16. Particle Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Collinson, Chris

    1995-01-01

    * Assumes no prior knowledge* Adopts a modelling approach* Numerous tutorial problems, worked examples and exercises included* Elementary topics augmented by planetary motion and rotating framesThis text provides an invaluable introduction to mechanicsm confining attention to the motion of a particle. It begins with a full discussion of the foundations of the subject within the context of mathematical modelling before covering more advanced topics including the theory of planetary orbits and the use of rotating frames of reference. Truly introductory , the style adoped is perfect for those u

  17. Contagious Content: Viral Video Ads Identification of Content Characteristics that Help Online Video Advertisements Go Viral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yentl Knossenburg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some online video advertisements go viral while others remain unnoticed? What kind of video content keeps the viewer interested and motivated to share? Many companies have realized the need to innovate their marketing strategies and have embraced the newest ways of using technology, as the Internet, to their advantage as in the example of virality. Yet few marketers actually understand how, and academic literature on this topic is still in development. This study investigated which content characteristics distinguish successful from non-successful online viral video advertisements by analyzing 641 cases using Structural Equation Modeling. Results show that Engagement and Surprise are two main content characteristics that significantly increase the chance of online video advertisements to go viral.  

  18. 某军队院校师职以上干部慢性病危险因素综合健康干预效果%Effect of Comprehensive Health Intervention on Risk Factors of Chronic Non-infectious Diseases Among Military College Cadres Senior than Division Commander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向大; 羊志辉; 郑素贞; 罗纲; 王晓园

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究综合健康干预措施对军队院校师职以上干部慢性病危险因素的干预效果. 方法 选取某军队院校师职以上干部509例作为干预组,于2009-2011年采取综合健康干预措施.2009-2011年同地区在该院行健康体检的部分公务员425例作为对照组,常规进行健康体检.通过问卷调查和健康体检评价健康干预前后慢病危险因素暴露水平,比较生活方式危险因素和生理指标危险因素发生率的变化,分析综合健康干预措施效果. 结果 基线水平干预组慢病危险因素暴露水平与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).干预组干预后高盐高脂饮食、运动量不足、过度饮酒、精神压力过大、肥胖、脂肪肝、血压异常率显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),而对照组血脂异常率显著增高(P<0.05),其他指标前后对比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).干预组高盐饮食、过度饮酒、运动量不足、肥胖、脂肪肝和血脂异常率均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 生物、心理及个体生活方式等多方面综合健康干预措施能有效降低军队院校师以上干部慢病危险因素暴露水平,进而控制慢病的发生和发展,提高其整体健康水平.%Objective To study the effect of comprehensive health intervention on the risk factors of chronic non - infectious diseases (CND) among cadres senior than division commander in a military college. Methods A total of 509 cadres senior than division commander were selected as intervention group and received comprehensive health intervention from 2009 to 2011. At the same time, 425 civil servants examined by routine physical examination were selected as control group. The level of exposure to the risk factors of CND was evaluated before and after health intervention with questionnaire and physical examination. The effect of comprehensive health intervention was studied by analyzing the risk

  19. 近10年4种常见的非感染性肝病患者临床特征及变化趋势分析%Clinical features and changing trend in spectrum of patients with non-infectious liver diseases over the past decade in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹正升; 李保森; 黄昂; 滕光菊; 孙颖; 王晓霞; 常彬霞; 李进

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features of inpatients with top four kinds of non-infectious liver diseases (NILD) and changing trend of the disease spectrums over the past decade. Methods The clinical data of 12508 of inpatients with NILD in our hospital in the past decade were collected and analyzed with SPSS18.0. The clinical features and changing trend in disease spectrum were explored. Results Patients with alcoholic liver diseases and autoimmune liver diseases accounted for 35.0% and 32.1%,respectively;the ratio of inpatients with alcoholic liver diseases,drug-induced liver injury and autoimmune liver diseases to total inpatients with liver diseases increased 2.4,2.3 and 2.1 -fold,respectively over the past decade;the percentage of male patients with alcoholic liver diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases accounted for 97.7% and 77.7% , respectively,while the percentage of female patients accounted for 84.3% and 57.9% ,respectively (P<0.01)in patients with autoimmune liver diseases and drug -induced liver injury;the average age of patients with autoimmune liver diseases was(47.6±10.6)years,while it was [(35.9±14.1) years,P<0.01)in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases;the patients in the age range of 40 to 49 years accounted for 37.1% and 25.0%, respectively,in patients with alcoholic liver diseases and drug-induced liver disease,while the patients in the age range of 50 to 59 years and 30 to 39 years accounted for 33.7% and 25.3%,respectively (P<0.01)in patients with autoimmune liver diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. Conclusions The ratio of patients with NILD to total patients with liver diseases is increasing gradually over the past decade and more attention should be paid for the management of those patients.%目的:对比分析住院的4种常见非感染性肝病患者的临床特征及近10年来的变化趋势。方法采用 SPSS18.0软件对近10年收治的12508例各种非感染性肝病患者的临床特征

  20. Particle Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Necia Grant; West, Geoffrey B.

    1988-06-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Theoretical Framework: 1. Scale and dimension - From animals to quarks Geoffrey B. West; 2. Particle physics and the standard model Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky and Geoffrey B. West; QCD on a Cray: the masses of elementary particles Gerald Guralnik, Tony Warnock and Charles Zemach; Lecture Notes - From simple field theories to the standard model; 3. Toward a unified theory: an essay on the role of supergravity in the search for unification Richard C. Slansky; 4. Supersymmetry at 100 GeV Stuart Raby; 5. The family problem T. Goldman and Michael Martin Nieto; Part II. Experimental Developments: 6. Experiments to test unification schemes Gary H. Sanders; 7. The march toward higher energies S. Peter Rosen; LAMPF II and the High-Intensity Frontier Henry A. Thiessen; The SSC - An engineering challenge Mahlon T. Wilson; 8. Science underground - the search for rare events L. M. Simmons, Jr; Part III. Personal Perspectives: 9. Quarks and quirks among friends Peter A. Carruthers, Stuart Raby, Richard C. Slansky, Geoffrey B. West and George Zweig; Index.

  1. Viral immunoblotting: a sensitive method for detecting viral-specific oliogoclonal bands in unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, S; Keir, G; Thompson, E J

    1984-06-01

    A new method for detecting viral antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid is described. The technique has many advantages over previously published methods in that it is highly sensitive eliminating the need to concentrate the CSF, takes 5 h to complete, avoids the use of radionucleides, and most importantly circumvents problems associated with prozone effects which occur in immunoprecipitation reaction since the viral antigen is immobilized on nitrocellulose membranes.

  2. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  3. Viral perturbations of host networks reflect disease etiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natali Gulbahce

    Full Text Available Many human diseases, arising from mutations of disease susceptibility genes (genetic diseases, are also associated with viral infections (virally implicated diseases, either in a directly causal manner or by indirect associations. Here we examine whether viral perturbations of host interactome may underlie such virally implicated disease relationships. Using as models two different human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and human papillomavirus (HPV, we find that host targets of viral proteins reside in network proximity to products of disease susceptibility genes. Expression changes in virally implicated disease tissues and comorbidity patterns cluster significantly in the network vicinity of viral targets. The topological proximity found between cellular targets of viral proteins and disease genes was exploited to uncover a novel pathway linking HPV to Fanconi anemia.

  4. Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Health Disparities in HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STDs, and TB Note: Javascript is disabled or ... Other Pacific Islanders MMWR Publications HIV and AIDS Viral Hepatitis STDs Tuberculosis Training and Networking Resources Call for ...

  5. Virus-Like Particles of mRNA with Artificial Minimal Coat Proteins: Particle Formation, Stability, and Transfection Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jekhmane, S.; Haas, R. de; Paulino da Silva Filho, O.; Asbeck, A.H. van; Favretto, M.E.; Garcia, A.; Brock, R.E.; Vries, R. de

    2017-01-01

    RNA has enormous potential as a therapeutic, yet, the successful application depends on efficient delivery strategies. In this study, we demonstrate that a designed artificial viral coat protein, which self-assembles with DNA to form rod-shaped virus-like particles (VLPs), also encapsulates and

  6. Carbohydrate-Based Ice Recrystallization Inhibitors Increase Infectivity and Thermostability of Viral Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M.; Balcerzak, Anna K.; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Mironov, Gleb G.; Capicciotti, Chantelle J.; Briard, Jennie G.; Ben, Robert N.; Berezovski, Maxim V.

    2014-07-01

    The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log10 PFU mL-1 during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log10 PFU mL-1 after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.

  7. Carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors increase infectivity and thermostability of viral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobadloo, Shahrokh M; Balcerzak, Anna K; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Mironov, Gleb G; Capicciotti, Chantelle J; Briard, Jennie G; Ben, Robert N; Berezovski, Maxim V

    2014-07-31

    The inability of vaccines to retain sufficient thermostability has been an obstacle to global vaccination programs. To address this major limitation, we utilized carbohydrate-based ice recrystallization inhibitors (IRIs) to eliminate the cold chain and stabilize the potency of Vaccinia virus (VV), Vesicular Stomatitis virus (VSV) and Herpes virus-1 (HSV-1). The impact of these IRIs was tested on the potency of the viral vectors using a plaque forming unit assay following room temperature storage, cryopreservation with successive freeze-thaw cycles and lyophilization. Viral potency after storage with all three conditions demonstrated that N-octyl-gluconamide (NOGlc) recovered the infectivity of shelf stored VV, 5.6 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) during 40 days, and HSV-1, 2.7 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) during 9 days. Carbon-linked antifreeze glycoprotein analogue ornithine-glycine-glycine-galactose (OGG-Gal) increases the recovery of VV and VSV more than 1 Log₁₀ PFU mL(-1) after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. In VSV, cryostorage with OGG-Gal maintains high infectivity and reduces temperature-induced aggregation of viral particles by 2 times that of the control. In total, OGG-Gal and NOGlc preserve virus potency during cryostorage. Remarkably, NOGlc has potential to eliminate the cold chain and permit room temperature storage of viral vectors.

  8. Ultrastructural organization of thrombocytes in normal monkeys (Macaca arctoides) and in those with experimental viral malignant lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvirov, G N; Fomenko, V N

    1978-01-01

    Data on platelet ultrastructure of 6 M. arctoides monkeys investigated before and during experimental viral malignant lymphoma are presented. It has been established that the inner structure of thrombocytes in healthy monkeys was almost similar to that of man. In experimental malignant lymphoma, irrespective of the clinical period of the disease, a decrease of alpha-, beta- and sigma-granules, a decrease of the functional activity of thrombocytes and an increase of delta-granules and glycogen granulation content were observed. The above mentioned disturbances can be a result of changes of megakaryocytes in malignant lymphoma. No viral particles in thrombocytes of neither healthy nor sick monkeys have been revealed.

  9. Plaques Formed by Mutagenized Viral Populations Have Elevated Coinfection Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Elizabeth R.; Erickson, Andrea K.; Jesudhasan, Palmy R.; Robinson, Christopher M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The plaque assay is a common technique used to measure virus concentrations and is based upon the principle that each plaque represents a single infectious unit. As such, the number of plaques is expected to correlate linearly with the virus dilution plated, and each plaque should be formed by a single founder virus. Here, we examined whether more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation. By using genetic and phenotypic assays with genetically marked polioviruses, we found that multiple parental viruses are present in 5 to 7% of plaques, even at an extremely low multiplicity of infection. We demonstrated through visual and biophysical assays that, like many viral stocks, our viral stocks contain both single particles and aggregates. These data suggest that aggregated virions are capable of inducing coinfection and chimeric plaque formation. In fact, inducing virion aggregation via exposure to low pH increased coinfection in a flow cytometry-based assay. We hypothesized that plaques generated by viruses with high mutation loads may have higher coinfection frequencies due to processes restoring fitness, such as complementation and recombination. Indeed, we found that coinfection frequency correlated with mutation load, with 17% chimeric plaque formation for heavily mutagenized viruses. Importantly, the frequency of chimeric plaques may be underestimated by up to threefold, since coinfection with the same parental virus cannot be scored in our assay. This work indicates that more than one virus can contribute to plaque formation and that coinfection may assist plaque formation in situations where the amount of genome damage is high. PMID:28292984

  10. Quantum dot-induced viral capsid assembling in dissociation buffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ding Gao,1,2 Zhi-Ping Zhang,1 Feng Li,3 Dong Men,1 Jiao-Yu Deng,1 Hong-Ping Wei,1 Xian-En Zhang,1 Zong-Qiang Cui1 1State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of Virology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, 2Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 3Division of Nanobiomedicine and i-Lab, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, People's Republic of China Abstract: Viruses encapsulating inorganic nanoparticles are a novel type of nanostructure with applications in biomedicine and biosensors. However, the encapsulation and assembly mechanisms of these hybridized virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs are still unknown. In this article, it was found that quantum dots (QDs can induce simian virus 40 (SV40 capsid assembly in dissociation buffer, where viral capsids should be disassembled. The analysis of the transmission electron microscope, dynamic light scattering, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and cryo-electron microscopy single particle reconstruction experimental results showed that the SV40 major capsid protein 1 (VP1 can be assembled into ≈25 nm capsids in the dissociation buffer when QDs are present and that the QDs are encapsulated in the SV40 capsids. Moreover, it was determined that there is a strong affinity between QDs and the SV40 VP1 proteins (KD = 2.19E-10 M, which should play an important role in QD encapsulation in the SV40 viral capsids. This study provides a new understanding of the assembly mechanism of SV40 virus-based nanoparticles with QDs, which may help in the design and construction of other similar virus-based nanoparticles. Keywords: quantum dots, simian virus 40, self-assembly, encapsulation, virus-based nanoparticles

  11. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  12. Viral DNA in horses infected with equine infectious anemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, N R; Lequarré, Anne-Sophie; Casey, J W; Lahn, S; Stephens, R. M.; Edwards, J.

    1989-01-01

    The amount and distribution of viral DNA were established in a horse acutely infected with the Wyoming strain of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). The highest concentration of viral DNA were found in the liver, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and spleen. The kidney, choroid plexus, and peripheral blood leukocytes also contained viral DNA, but at a lower level. It is estimated that at day 16 postinoculation, almost all of the viral DNA was located in the tissues, with the liver alone containing...

  13. Evidence that viral RNAs have evolved for efficient, two-stage packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodavka, Alexander; Tuma, Roman; Stockley, Peter G

    2012-09-25

    Genome packaging is an essential step in virus replication and a potential drug target. Single-stranded RNA viruses have been thought to encapsidate their genomes by gradual co-assembly with capsid subunits. In contrast, using a single molecule fluorescence assay to monitor RNA conformation and virus assembly in real time, with two viruses from differing structural families, we have discovered that packaging is a two-stage process. Initially, the genomic RNAs undergo rapid and dramatic (approximately 20-30%) collapse of their solution conformations upon addition of cognate coat proteins. The collapse occurs with a substoichiometric ratio of coat protein subunits and is followed by a gradual increase in particle size, consistent with the recruitment of additional subunits to complete a growing capsid. Equivalently sized nonviral RNAs, including high copy potential in vivo competitor mRNAs, do not collapse. They do support particle assembly, however, but yield many aberrant structures in contrast to viral RNAs that make only capsids of the correct size. The collapse is specific to viral RNA fragments, implying that it depends on a series of specific RNA-protein interactions. For bacteriophage MS2, we have shown that collapse is driven by subsequent protein-protein interactions, consistent with the RNA-protein contacts occurring in defined spatial locations. Conformational collapse appears to be a distinct feature of viral RNA that has evolved to facilitate assembly. Aspects of this process mimic those seen in ribosome assembly.

  14. Anti-Viral Prophylaxis Target Product Profile Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    or emerging viral diseases, as medical countermeasures to viral biowarfare threats are limited. • Objective: avian influenza (oseltamavir) • Threshold...to viral biowarfare threats are limited. • Objective: hepatitis A (immune serum globulin) • Threshold: HIV postexposure prophylaxis). Route of...administration: • Objective: modeled from influenza (oseltamavir); • Threshold modeled from hepatitis A, rabies (immune serum globulin, rabies immune

  15. [Clinical aspects of viral hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is defined as virus infections that usually cause pyrexia and hemorrhagic symptoms with multiple organ failure. VHF includes following viral infections: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Lassa fever. In particular, the causative agents of EHF, MHF, CCHF, and Lassa fever are Ebola, Marburg, CCHF, Lassa viruses, respectively, and regarded as biosafety level-4 pathogens because of their high virulence to humans. Recently, relatively large outbreaks of EHF and MHF have occurred in Africa, and areas of EHF- and MHF-outbreaks seem to be expanding. Although outbreaks of VHF have not been reported in Japan, there is a possibility that the deadly hemorrhagic fever viruses would be introduced to Japan in future. Therefore, preparedness for possible future outbreaks of VHF is necessary in areas without VHF outbreaks.

  16. Potential Pitfalls in Estimating Viral Load Heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Gabriel E; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    In HIV patients, the set-point viral load (SPVL) is the most widely used predictor of disease severity. Yet SPVL varies over several orders of magnitude between patients. The heritability of SPVL quantifies how much of the variation in SPVL is due to transmissible viral genetics. There is currently no clear consensus on the value of SPVL heritability, as multiple studies have reported apparently discrepant estimates. Here we illustrate that the discrepancies in estimates are most likely due to differences in the estimation methods, rather than the study populations. Importantly, phylogenetic estimates run the risk of being strongly confounded by unrealistic model assumptions. Care must be taken when interpreting and comparing the different estimates to each other.

  17. ASTHMA AND VIRAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sh. Macharadze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the most common pathogens of acute respiratory diseases — most often causing mild symptoms of common cold: cough, runny nose, temperature increases. At the same time, 1/3 of children have the following symptoms of lower respiratory tract disorders: shortness of breath, wheezing, coughing, respiratory failure. Virus-induced wheezing are risk factors for development of asthma in childhood. Recent clinical and scientific data suggest: the more difficult are viral respiratory infections in young children, the higher their risk of asthma later on. Another feature is that children with allergic diseases are much more likely to have viral respiratory infections(and with longer clinical course, compared with children without atopy. The use of ibuprofen is safe for children over 3 months, including suffering from bronchial asthma.

  18. Zoonotic Viral Deseases and Virus Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel

    Viruses are the most abundant organisms on earth and are ubiquitous in all environments where life is present. They are capable of infecting all cellular forms of life, sometimes causing disease in the infected host. This thesis is broadly divided into two main sections with three projects...... representing work on viruses that are transmitted between humans and animals, and 3 three projects describing the search for (novel) viruses or a viral association in human diseases with no known cause. Common for all projects was the need for employing a range of different molecular tools examples...... program of wildlife, and with the purpose of preventing the next disease emerging from these animals. Numerous viruses were detected of which many were novel variants, thus reaffirming the notion that attention should be focused at these animals. Near-complete viral genome sequencing was performed...

  19. Annotation of selection strengths in viral genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCauley, Stephen; de Groot, Saskia; Mailund, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Motivation: Viral genomes tend to code in overlapping reading frames to maximize information content. This may result in atypical codon bias and particular evolutionary constraints. Due to the fast mutation rate of viruses, there is additional strong evidence for varying selection between intra......- and intergenomic regions. The presence of multiple coding regions complicates the concept of Ka/Ks ratio, and thus begs for an alternative approach when investigating selection strengths. Building on the paper by McCauley & Hein (2006), we develop a method for annotating a viral genome coding in overlapping...... may thus achieve an annotation both of coding regions as well as selection strengths, allowing us to investigate different selection patterns and hypotheses. Results: We illustrate our method by applying it to a multiple alignment of four HIV2 sequences, as well as four Hepatitis B sequences. We...

  20. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Viral Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara; Kaufman, James

    Using methods drawn from physics we study the life cycle of viruses. We analyze a model of viral infection and evolution using the ``grand canonical ensemble'' and formalisms from statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Using this approach we determine possible genetic states of a model virus and host as a function of two independent pressures-immune response and system temperature. We show the system has a real thermodynamic temperature, and discover a new phase transition between a positive temperature regime of normal replication and a negative temperature ``disordered'' phase of the virus. We distinguish this from previous observations of a phase transition that arises as a function of mutation rate. From an evolutionary biology point of view, at steady state the viruses naturally evolve to distinct quasispecies. The approach used here could be refined to apply to real biological systems, perhaps providing insight into immune escape, the emergence of novel pathogens and other results of viral evolution.

  1. Infección viral respiratoria nosocomial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. March Rosselló

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Las infecciones virales nosocomiales han sido objeto de pocos estudios. En este contexto, el objetivo de este trabajo es revisar los datos epidemiológicos y terapéuticos publicados sobre los principales agentes virales productores de infección nosocomial respiratoria. De este modo se pretende ampliar el conocimiento sobre el comportamiento de estos agentes en las infecciones nosocomiales y proporcionar información para mejorar la aplicación de las medidas de prevención. De manera pormenorizada se exponen conceptos relativos a los mimivirus, virus herpes simple, virus varicela-zóster, citomegalovirus, virus respiratorio sincitial, virus parainfluenza, virus de la gripe, adenovirus, metapneumovirus y virus del sarampión.

  2. Multiplexing Short Primers for Viral Family PCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S N; Hiddessen, A L; Hara, C A; Williams, P L; Wagner, M; Colston, B W

    2008-06-26

    We describe a Multiplex Primer Prediction (MPP) algorithm to build multiplex compatible primer sets for large, diverse, and unalignable sets of target sequences. The MPP algorithm is scalable to larger target sets than other available software, and it does not require a multiple sequence alignment. We applied it to questions in viral detection, and demonstrated that there are no universally conserved priming sequences among viruses and that it could require an unfeasibly large number of primers ({approx}3700 18-mers or {approx}2000 10-mers) to generate amplicons from all sequenced viruses. We then designed primer sets separately for each viral family, and for several diverse species such as foot-and-mouth disease virus, hemagglutinin and neuraminidase segments of influenza A virus, Norwalk virus, and HIV-1.

  3. Crosslinking in viral capsids via tiling theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twarock, R; Hendrix, R W

    2006-06-07

    A vital part of a virus is its protein shell, called the viral capsid, that encapsulates and hence protects the viral genome. It has been shown in Twarock [2004. A tiling approach to vius capsids assembly explaining a structural puzzle in virology. J. Theor. Biol. 226, 477-482] that the surface structures of viruses with icosahedrally symmetric capsids can be modelled in terms of tilings that encode the locations of the protein subunits. This theory is extended here to multi-level tilings in order to model crosslinking structures. The new framework is demonstrated for the case of bacteriophage HK97, and it is shown, how the theory can be used in general to decide if crosslinking, and what type of crosslinking, is compatible from a mathematical point of view with the geometrical surface structure of a virus.

  4. Cell-Free versus Cell-to-Cell Infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: Exploring the Link among Viral Source, Viral Trafficking, and Viral Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutartre, Hélène; Clavière, Mathieu; Journo, Chloé; Mahieux, Renaud

    2016-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) are complex retroviruses mainly infecting CD4(+) T lymphocytes. In addition, antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are targeted in vivo by both viruses, although to a lesser extent. Interaction of HIV-1 with DCs plays a key role in viral dissemination from the mucosa to CD4(+) T lymphocytes present in lymphoid organs. While similar mechanisms may occur for HTLV-1 as well, most HTLV-1 data were obtained from T-cell studies, and little is known regarding the trafficking of this virus in DCs. We first compared the efficiency of cell-free versus cell-associated viral sources of both retroviruses at infecting DCs. We showed that both HIV-1 and HTLV-1 cell-free particles are poorly efficient at productively infecting DCs, except when DC-SIGN has been engaged. Furthermore, while SAMHD-1 accounts for restriction of cell-free HIV-1 infection, it is not involved in HTLV-1 restriction. In addition, cell-free viruses lead mainly to a nonproductive DC infection, leading to trans-infection of T-cells, a process important for HIV-1 spread but not for that of HTLV-1. Finally, we show that T-DC cell-to-cell transfer implies viral trafficking in vesicles that may both increase productive infection of DCs ("cis-infection") and allow viral escape from immune surveillance. Altogether, these observations allowed us to draw a model of HTLV-1 and HIV-1 trafficking in DCs.

  5. Benign Testis Mass After Viral Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbie Hurtt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We present two cases of viral associated orchitis and subsequent testis masses concerning for malignancy both on physical exam and scrotal ultrasound. In both cases, the patients underwent radical orchiectomy after a discussion of management options. Both pathologic analyses were negative for malignancy, and our literature search revealed no other similar case reports. We review our two cases specifically, as well as briefly review orchitis and discuss possible management strategies of similar cases.

  6. Benign Testis Mass After Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtt, Robbie; Pound, Charles; Bean, Christopher

    2017-05-01

    We present two cases of viral associated orchitis and subsequent testis masses concerning for malignancy both on physical exam and scrotal ultrasound. In both cases, the patients underwent radical orchiectomy after a discussion of management options. Both pathologic analyses were negative for malignancy, and our literature search revealed no other similar case reports. We review our two cases specifically, as well as briefly review orchitis and discuss possible management strategies of similar cases.

  7. Respiratory Viral Infections in Chronic Lung Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Brady, Virginia; Lee, Seiwon; Dela Cruz, Charles S

    2017-03-01

    Chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, cystic fibrosis (CF) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD), affect many individuals worldwide. Patients with these chronic lung diseases are susceptible to respiratory lung infections and some of these viral infections can contribute to disease pathogenesis. This review highlights the associations of lung infections and the respective chronic lung diseases and how infection in the different lung diseases affects disease exacerbation and progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Faces of contemporary literature: the viral poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Roberto do Prado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at discussing an aspect of contemporary literature, the viral poetry in Brazilian fanpages on Facebook, in perspective from a lyrical demand of literary modernity: the need for concentration of poetic language and critical exercise. In addition, we discuss some reasons for the resistance that still can be felt by literature teachers and researchers, with focus on the problem of value.

  9. Viral Oncolytic Therapeutics for Neoplastic Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the rat model. The therapeutic effect of HSV-1 oncolysis on meningeal metastases was presented ( oral ) at the annual meeting of the World Molecular...Abstracts, and Presentations Presentations & Abstracts: 1. Oral Presentation at WMIC, Seoul. “Novel oncolytic HSV-1 therapeutics for breast cancer...tomography of herpes simplex virus 1 oncolysis. Cancer Research. 2007; 67(7): 3295. 3. Kuruppu D, Tanabe KK. Viral oncolysis by herpes simplex virus and

  10. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  11. Viral Evasion of Natural Killer Cell Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Ma; Xiaojuan Li; Ersheng Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a key role in antiviral innate defenses because of their abilities to kill infected cells and secrete regulatory cytokines. Additionally, NK cells exhibit adaptive memory-like antigen-specific responses, which represent a novel antiviral NK cell defense mechanism. Viruses have evolved various strategies to evade the recognition and destruction by NK cells through the downregulation of the NK cell activating receptors. Here, we review the recent findings on viral...

  12. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bener Abdulbari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis is a major public health problem in many countries all over the world and especially in Middle East, Asia, East-Europe, and Africa. The aim of our study was to assess the incidence of viral hepatitis A, B and C in Qatar and compare it with other countries. This is a retrospective cohort study, which was conducted at Hamad General Hospital, State of Qatar from 2002-2006. Patients who were screened and diagnosed with viral hepatitis were included in this study. The diagnostic classification of definite viral hepatitis was made in accordance with criteria based on the International Classification of Disease tenth revision (ICD-10. A total of 527 cases of hepatitis C, 396 cases of hepatitis B, 162 cases of hepatitis A and 108 cases of unspecified were reported during the year 2006. Reported incidence rate per 10,000 populations during the year 2006 for hepatitis A was 1.9, hepatitis B 4.7, and Hepatitis C 6.3. The proportion of hepatitis B and C was significantly higher in male population than females across the years (2002-2006. Hepatitis A was more prevalent in children below 15 years (72.3%, hepatitis B in adults aged above 15 years, and hepatitis C in the population above 35 years of age. The incidence of hepatitis A has been declining in Qataris and increasing in expatriates. There was a significant relationship in gender and age group of the patients with hepatitis A, B and C. We conclude that hepatitis has become a national health issue in Qatar. The incidence rate of hepatitis in Qatar is comparable to its neighboring countries, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia. There is a need for further research on hepatitis and the associated risk factors.

  13. Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töpfer, Armin; Marschall, Tobias; Bull, Rowena A; Luciani, Fabio; Schönhuth, Alexander; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2014-03-01

    Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  14. Endogenous viral elements in algal genomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liang; YU Jun; WU Shuangxiu; LIU Tao; SUN Jing; CHI Shan; LIU Cui; LI Xingang; YIN Jinlong; WANG Xumin

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous viral elements (EVEs) are host-genomic fragments originated from viral genomes. They have been found universally in animal and plant genomes. Here we carried out a systematic screening and analy-sis of EVEs in algal genomes and found that EVEs commonly exist in algal genomes. We classified the EVE fragments into three categories according to the length of EVE fragments. Due to the probability of sequence similarity by chance, we ignored the potential function of medium-length EVE fragments. However, long-length EVE fragments probably had capability to encode protein domains or even entire proteins, and some short-length EVE fragments had high similarity with host's siRNA sequences and possibly served functions of small RNAs. Therefore, short and long EVE fragments might provide regulomic and proteomic novelty to the host's metabolism and adaptation. We also found several EVE fragments shared by more than 3 algal genomes. By phylogenetic analysis of the shared EVEs and their corresponding species, we found that the integration of viral fragments into host genomes was an ancient event, possibly before the divergence of Chlorophytes and Ochrophytes. Our findings show that there is a frequent genetic flow from viruses to algal genomes. Moreover, study on algal EVEs shed light on the virus-host interaction in large timescale and could also help us understand the balance of marine ecosystems.

  15. Viral quasispecies assembly via maximal clique enumeration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Töpfer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Virus populations can display high genetic diversity within individual hosts. The intra-host collection of viral haplotypes, called viral quasispecies, is an important determinant of virulence, pathogenesis, and treatment outcome. We present HaploClique, a computational approach to reconstruct the structure of a viral quasispecies from next-generation sequencing data as obtained from bulk sequencing of mixed virus samples. We develop a statistical model for paired-end reads accounting for mutations, insertions, and deletions. Using an iterative maximal clique enumeration approach, read pairs are assembled into haplotypes of increasing length, eventually enabling global haplotype assembly. The performance of our quasispecies assembly method is assessed on simulated data for varying population characteristics and sequencing technology parameters. Owing to its paired-end handling, HaploClique compares favorably to state-of-the-art haplotype inference methods. It can reconstruct error-free full-length haplotypes from low coverage samples and detect large insertions and deletions at low frequencies. We applied HaploClique to sequencing data derived from a clinical hepatitis C virus population of an infected patient and discovered a novel deletion of length 357±167 bp that was validated by two independent long-read sequencing experiments. HaploClique is available at https://github.com/armintoepfer/haploclique. A summary of this paper appears in the proceedings of the RECOMB 2014 conference, April 2-5.

  16. Inferring the Clonal Structure of Viral Populations from Time Series Sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatien F Chedom

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available RNA virus populations will undergo processes of mutation and selection resulting in a mixed population of viral particles. High throughput sequencing of a viral population subsequently contains a mixed signal of the underlying clones. We would like to identify the underlying evolutionary structures. We utilize two sources of information to attempt this; within segment linkage information, and mutation prevalence. We demonstrate that clone haplotypes, their prevalence, and maximum parsimony reticulate evolutionary structures can be identified, although the solutions may not be unique, even for complete sets of information. This is applied to a chain of influenza infection, where we infer evolutionary structures, including reassortment, and demonstrate some of the difficulties of interpretation that arise from deep sequencing due to artifacts such as template switching during PCR amplification.

  17. Viral contamination of a mosquito cell line, Aedes albopictus, associated with syncytium formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirumi, H; Hirumi, K; Speyer, G; Yunker, C E; Thomas, L A; Cory, J; Sweet, B H

    1976-02-01

    Viral contamination associated with syncytium formation in two sbulines of Singh's Aedes albopictus cell cultures was investigated. Electron microscopy of the syncytia revealed the presence of five different types of virus-like particles, which morphologically resembled the parvo-, picorna-, toga-, and orbi-, and bacterial viruses. When a virus-free subline of the A. albopictus cells (SL3) was inoculated with extracts of the syncytium-forming A. albopictus cells, the parvo-, toga-, and orbi-type viral agents were consistently observed. Among these three agents, the togavirus-type agent is most likely responsible for the syncytium induction. Serological examination of the infected cell extract indicated that at least one of three virus-like agents, presumably the togavirus-type agent, was related to Chikungunya. O'nyong-nyong, and Western equine encephalomyelitis viruses (alphaviruses of the Togaviridae), but separable from these.

  18. Viral Vectors for in Vivo Gene Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenot, E.; Dufour, N.; Déglon, N.

    The transfer of DNA into the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell (gene transfer) is a central theme of modern biology. The transfer is said to be somatic when it refers to non-germline organs of a developed individual, and germline when it concerns gametes or the fertilised egg of an animal, with the aim of transmitting the relevant genetic modification to its descendents [1]. The efficient introduction of genetic material into a somatic or germline cell and the control of its expression over time have led to major advances in understanding how genes work in vivo, i.e., in living organisms (functional genomics), but also to the development of innovative therapeutic methods (gene therapy). The efficiency of gene transfer is conditioned by the vehicle used, called the vector. Desirable features for a vector are as follows: Easy to produce high titer stocks of the vector in a reproducible way. Absence of toxicity related to transduction (transfer of genetic material into the target cell, and its expression there) and no immune reaction of the organism against the vector and/or therapeutic protein. Stability in the expression of the relevant gene over time, and the possibility of regulation, e.g., to control expression of the therapeutic protein on the physiological level, or to end expression at the end of treatment. Transduction of quiescent cells should be as efficient as transduction of dividing cells. Vectors currently used fall into two categories: non-viral and viral vectors. In non-viral vectors, the DNA is complexed with polymers, lipids, or cationic detergents (described in Chap. 3). These vectors have a low risk of toxicity and immune reaction. However, they are less efficient in vivo than viral vectors when it comes to the number of cells transduced and long-term transgene expression. (Naked DNA transfer or electroporation is rather inefficient in the organism. This type of gene transfer will not be discussed here, and the interested reader is referred to the

  19. Particle kickers

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    These devices are designed to provide a current pulse of 5000 Amps which will in turn generate a fast magnetic pulse that steers the incoming beam into the LHC. Today, the comprehensive upgrade of the LHC injection kicker system is entering its final stages. The upgraded system will ensure the LHC can be refilled without needing to wait for the kicker magnets to cool, thus enhancing the performance of the whole accelerator.   An upgraded kicker magnet in its vacuum tank, with an upgraded beam screen. The LHC is equipped with two kicker systems installed at the injection points (near points 2 and 8, see schematic diagram) where the particle beams coming from the SPS are injected into the accelerator’s orbit. Each system comprises four magnets and four pulse generators in which the field rises to 0.12 Tesla in less than 900 nanoseconds and for a duration of approximately 8 microseconds. Although the injection kickers only pulse 12 times to fill the LHC up with beam, the LHC beam circ...

  20. Constrained pattern of viral evolution in acute and early HCV infection limits viral plasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pfafferott

    Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.

  1. An assembly model of Rice dwarf virus particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Boxiong; Don Allen Roth; ZHU Yafeng; Toshihiro Omura

    2004-01-01

    The Phytoreovirus rice dwarf virus (RDV) has a complex nucleocapsid architecture composed of multiple proteins and RNAs. However, specific RNA-protein and protein-protein interactions involved in virion packaging have not been entirely elucidated. In order to define mechanisms governing RDV particle assembly, interactions between individual components were analyzed both in vivo and in vitro. The P7 core protein binds specifically and with high affinity to all 12 genomic RDV dsRNAs. P1, a putative RNA polymerase, P5, a putative guanyltransferase and P7 are encapsidated within the virion and also bind viral transcripts based upon in vitro binding assays. P1, P5, P7 and genomic dsRNAs were lacking in empty particles purified from infected tissues that also yielded fractions containing intact, infectious particles. In addition, P7 forms complexes with P1 and P3, a core capsid protein, in viral particles. These results indicate the possibility that core proteins and dsRNAs interact as one unit suggesting a mechanism for assortment of viral RNAs and subsequent packaging into core particles.

  2. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.

  3. Next Generation Respiratory Viral Vaccine System: Advanced and Emerging Bioengineered Human Lung Epithelia Model (HLEM) Organoid Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Schneider, Sandra L.; MacIntosh, Victor; Gibbons, Thomas F.

    2010-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections, including pneumonia and influenza, are the S t" leading cause of United States and worldwide deaths. Newly emerging pathogens signaled the need for an advanced generation of vaccine technology.. Human bronchial-tracheal epithelial tissue was bioengineered to detect, identify, host and study the pathogenesis of acute respiratory viral disease. The 3-dimensional (3D) human lung epithelio-mesechymal tissue-like assemblies (HLEM TLAs) share characteristics with human respiratory epithelium: tight junctions, desmosomes, microvilli, functional markers villin, keratins and production of tissue mucin. Respiratory Syntial Virus (RSV) studies demonstrate viral growth kinetics and membrane bound glycoproteins up to day 20 post infection in the human lung-orgainoid infected cell system. Peak replication of RSV occurred on day 10 at 7 log10 particles forming units per ml/day. HLEM is an advanced virus vaccine model and biosentinel system for emergent viral infectious diseases to support DoD global surveillance and military readiness.

  4. Advances in Non-Viral DNA Vectors for Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnamon L. Hardee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Uses of viral vectors have thus far eclipsed uses of non-viral vectors for gene therapy delivery in the clinic. Viral vectors, however, have certain issues involving genome integration, the inability to be delivered repeatedly, and possible host rejection. Fortunately, development of non-viral DNA vectors has progressed steadily, especially in plasmid vector length reduction, now allowing these tools to fill in specifically where viral or other non-viral vectors may not be the best options. In this review, we examine the improvements made to non-viral DNA gene therapy vectors, highlight opportunities for their further development, address therapeutic needs for which their use is the logical choice, and discuss their future expansion into the clinic

  5. [Kunjin virus replicon--a novel viral vector].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shihua; Li, Xiaofeng; Qin, E'de; Qin, Chengfeng

    2011-02-01

    Viral replicon is a kind of self-replicating viral RNA sourced from viral genome, which contains viral non-structural genes that are critical for viral genome replication with structural proteins deleted or replaced by foreign genes. Kunjin virus is a member of the Flavivirida family, Flavivirus genus, and Kunjin virus replicon is the first and the clearly defined flavivirus replicon. Kunjun virus replicon has been regarded as an excellent viral vector on account of its high expression, lower cytotoxicity and genetic stability. These unique characteristics of kunjin virus replicons make them suitable for the study of viral genome replication, recombinant proteins production, vaccine development and gene therapy. In this article, recent progress in the development, properties and applications of kunjin virus replicon system was briefly reviewed.

  6. Advances in Non-Viral DNA Vectors for Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Arévalo-Soliz, Lirio Milenka; Hornstein, Benjamin D.; Zechiedrich, Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Uses of viral vectors have thus far eclipsed uses of non-viral vectors for gene therapy delivery in the clinic. Viral vectors, however, have certain issues involving genome integration, the inability to be delivered repeatedly, and possible host rejection. Fortunately, development of non-viral DNA vectors has progressed steadily, especially in plasmid vector length reduction, now allowing these tools to fill in specifically where viral or other non-viral vectors may not be the best options. In this review, we examine the improvements made to non-viral DNA gene therapy vectors, highlight opportunities for their further development, address therapeutic needs for which their use is the logical choice, and discuss their future expansion into the clinic. PMID:28208635

  7. New Viral Vector for Superproduction of Epitopes of Vaccine Proteins in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyulkina, L.G.; Skurat, E.V.; Frolova, O.Yu.; Komarova, T.V.; Karger, E.M.; Atabekov, I.G.

    2011-01-01

    The novel viral vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV are superexpressors of the capsid protein (CP). These viral vectors were constructed on the basis of the potato virus X (PVX) genome andAlternantheramosaic virus (AltMV) CP gene. The expression, based on the hybrid viral vectors, is genetically safe, since the systemic transport and formation of infective viral particles are blocked. CP AltMV can self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) in the absence of genomic RNA. The vectors can be used for the presentation of foreign peptides (including epitopes of human pathogens) on the surface of the VLP. The N-terminal extracellular domain (M2e) of the influenza virus A M2 protein and its truncated variant (ΔM2e) were used as model heterologous peptides for the construction of the chimeric CP AltMV. Chimeric CP AltMV retains its ability to self-assemble into VLP. The epitopes of the M2 influenza virus protein were not eliminated during the process of accumulation, polymerization and purification of chimeric VLP AltMV, providing evidence of the stability of chimeric VLP with C-terminal heterologous epitopes. It appears that VLP produced by the vectors PVX-CP AltMV and PVXdt-CP AltMV can be used in the field of biotechnology for the presentation of the epitopes of vaccine proteins on their surfaces. The chimeric VLP AltMV with the presented foreign epitopes can be used as candidate vaccines. PMID:22649706

  8. Potential of RNAi applications to control viral diseases of farmed shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma; Thitamadee, Siripong; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2017-07-01

    Viral pathogens pose a primary threat to global shrimp aquaculture. Despite the urgent industry need for them, practical anti-viral control methods are unavailable due, in part, to lack of an adaptive immune response in crustaceans that renders conventional vaccination methods ineffective. One currently studied method of high interest for protecting shrimp against viral infection relies on the post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi) that is induced by gene-specific constructs of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although this approach was first described for successful protection of shrimp against white spot disease (WSD) by injecting dsRNA specific to genes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) into shrimp in the laboratory in 2005 no practical method for use of dsRNA in shrimp farms has been developed to date. The apparent bottleneck for farm-scale applications of RNAi-mediated viral control in shrimp aquaculture is the lack of simple and cost-effective delivery methods. This review summarizes recent studies on use and delivery of dsRNA to shrimp via injection and oral routes in hatcheries and on farms and it discusses the research directions that might lead to development of practical methods for applications with farmed shrimp. Oral delivery methods tested so far include use of dsRNA-expressing bacteria as a component of dry feed pellets or use of living brine shrimp (Artemia) pre-fed with dsRNA before they are fed to shrimp. Also tested have been dsRNA enclosed in nanocontainers including chitosan, liposomes and viral-like particles (VLP) before direct injection or use as components of feed pellets for hatchery or pond-reared shrimp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Generation of high-titer viral preparations by concentration using successive rounds of ultracentrifugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichim Christine V

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viral vectors provide a method of stably introducing exogenous DNA into cells that are not easily transfectable allowing for the ectopic expression or silencing of genes for therapeutic or experimental purposes. However, some cell types, in particular bone marrow cells, dendritic cells and neurons are difficult to transduce with viral vectors. Successful transduction of such cells requires preparation of highly concentrated viral stocks, which permit a high virus concentration and multiplicity of infection (MOI during transduction. Pseudotyping with the vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G envelope protein is common practice for both lentiviral and retroviral vectors. The VSV-G glycoprotein adds physical stability to retroviral particles, allowing concentration of virus by high-speed ultracentrifugation. Here we describe a method report for concentration of virus from large volumes of culture supernatant by means of successive rounds of ultracentrifugation into the same ultracentrifuge tube. Method Stable retrovirus producer cell lines were generated and large volumes of virus-containing supernatant were produced. We then tested the transduction ability of virus following varying rounds of concentration by ultra-centrifugation. In a second series of experiments lentivirus-containing supernatant was produced by transient transfection of 297T/17 cells and again we tested the transduction ability of virus following multiple rounds of ultra-centrifugation. Results We report being able to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus for as many as four rounds of ultracentrifugation while observing an additive increase in viral titer. Even after four rounds of ultracentrifugation we did not reach a plateau in viral titer relative to viral supernatant concentrated to indicate that we had reached the maximum tolerated centrifugation time, implying that it may be possible to centrifuge VSV-G coated retrovirus even further should it be necessary

  10. Viral immunity. Transkingdom control of viral infection and immunity in the mammalian intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Julie K; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-01-15

    Viruses that infect the intestine include major human pathogens (retroviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses, astroviruses, picornaviruses, adenoviruses, herpesviruses) that constitute a serious public health problem worldwide. These viral pathogens are members of a large, complex viral community inhabiting the intestine termed "the enteric virome." Enteric viruses have intimate functional and genetic relationships with both the host and other microbial constituents that inhabit the intestine, such as the bacterial microbiota, their associated phages, helminthes, and fungi, which together constitute the microbiome. Emerging data indicate that enteric viruses regulate, and are in turn regulated by, these other microbes through a series of processes termed "transkingdom interactions." This represents a changing paradigm in intestinal immunity to viral infection. Here we review recent advances in the field and propose new ways in which to conceptualize this important area.

  11. Underreporting of viral encephalitis and viral meningitis, Ireland, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Tara A; O'Lorcain, Piaras; Moran, Joanne; Garvey, Patricia; McKeown, Paul; Connell, Jeff; Cotter, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Viral encephalitis (VE) and viral meningitis (VM) have been notifiable infectious diseases under surveillance in the Republic of Ireland since 1981. Laboratories have reported confirmed cases by detection of viral nucleic acid in cerebrospinal fluid since 2004. To determine the prevalence of these diseases in Ireland during 2005-2008, we analyzed 3 data sources: Hospital In-patient Enquiry data (from hospitalized following patients discharge) accessed through Health Intelligence Ireland, laboratory confirmations from the National Virus Reference Laboratory, and events from the Computerised Infectious Disease Reporting surveillance system. We found that the national surveillance system underestimates the incidence of these diseases in Ireland with a 10-fold higher VE hospitalization rate and 3-fold higher VM hospitalization rate than the reporting rate. Herpesviruses were responsible for most specified VE and enteroviruses for most specified VM from all 3 sources. Recommendations from this study have been implemented to improve the surveillance of these diseases in Ireland.

  12. Viral dependence on cellular ion channels - an emerging anti-viral target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hover, Samantha; Foster, Becky; Barr, John; Mankouri, Jamel

    2017-01-22

    The broad range of cellular functions governed by ion channels represents an attractive target for viral manipulation. Indeed, modulation of host cell ion channel activity by viral proteins is being increasingly identified as an important virus-host interaction. Recent examples have demonstrated that virion entry, virus-egress and the maintenance of a cellular environment conducive to virus persistence are in part, dependent on virus manipulation of ion channel activity. Most excitingly, evidence has emerged that targeting ion channels pharmacologically can impede virus lifecycles. Here we discuss current examples of virus-ion channel interactions and the potential of targeting ion channel function as a new, pharmacologically safe and broad ranging anti-viral therapeutic strategy.

  13. Viral exploitation of actin:force-generation and scaffolding functions in viral infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Spear; Yuntao Wu

    2014-01-01

    As a fundamental component of the host cellular cytoskeleton, actin is routinely engaged by infecting viruses. Furthermore, viruses from diverse groups, and infecting diverse hosts, have convergently evolved an array of mechanisms for manipulating the actin cytoskeleton for efifcacious infection. An ongoing chorus of research now indicates that the actin cytoskeleton is critical for viral replication at many stages of the viral life cycle, including binding, entry, nuclear localization, genomic transcription and reverse transcription, assembly, and egress/dissemination. Speciifcally, viruses subvert the force-generating and macromolecular scaffolding properties of the actin cytoskeleton to propel viral surifng, internalization, and migration within the cell. Additionally, viruses utilize the actin cytoskeleton to support and organize assembly sites, and eject budding virions for cell-to-cell transmission. It is the purpose of this review to provide an overview of current research, focusing on the various mechanisms and themes of virus-mediated actin modulation described therein.

  14. Proteomic analyses of human cytomegalovirus strain AD169 derivatives reveal highly conserved patterns of viral and cellular proteins in infected fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyda, Sabine; Büscher, Nicole; Tenzer, Stefan; Plachter, Bodo

    2014-01-07

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) particle morphogenesis in infected cells is an orchestrated process that eventually results in the release of enveloped virions. Proteomic analysis has been employed to reveal the complexity in the protein composition of these extracellular particles. Only limited information is however available regarding the proteome of infected cells preceding the release of HCMV virions. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to address the pattern of viral and cellular proteins in cells, infected with derivatives of the AD169 laboratory strain. Our analyses revealed a remarkable conservation in the patterns of viral and of abundant cellular proteins in cells, infected for 2 hours, 2 days, or 4 days. Most viral proteins increased in abundance as the infection progressed over time. Of the proteins that were reliably detectable by mass spectrometry, only IE1 (pUL123), pTRS1, and pIRS1 were downregulated at 4 days after infection. In addition, little variation of viral proteins in the virions of the different viruses was detectable, independent of the expression of the major tegument protein pp65. Taken together these data suggest that there is little variation in the expression program of viral and cellular proteins in cells infected with related HCMVs, resulting in a conserved pattern of viral proteins ultimately associated with extracellular virions.

  15. Viral impacts on bacterial communities in Arctic cryoconite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellas, Christopher M.; Anesio, Alexandre M.; Telling, Jon

    2013-01-01

    The surfaces of glaciers are extreme ecosystems dominated by microbial communities. Viruses are found in abundance here, with a high frequency of bacteria displaying visible virus infection. In this study, viral and bacterial production was measured in Arctic cryoconite holes to address the control...... that viruses play in these highly truncated ecosystems. Mean bacterial carbon production in the sediments of cryoconite holes was found to be 57.8 +/- 12.9 ng C g(-1) dry wt. h(-1), which predicted a mean of 1.89-5.41 x 10(6) cells g(-1) dry wt. h(-1) based on a range of conversion factors. Relative to this......, virus production was found to be high, up to 8.98 x 10(7) virus like particles g(-1) dry wt. h(-1) were produced, which is comparable to virus production in sediments around the globe. The virus burst size was assessed by transmission electron microscopy and found to be amongst the lowest recorded...

  16. Ultrastructural insights into tomato infections caused by three different pathotypes of Pepino mosaic virus and immunolocalization of viral coat proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicka, Julia; Otulak, Katarzyna; Garbaczewska, Grażyna; Pospieszny, Henryk; Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents studies on an ultrastructural analysis of plant tissue infected with different pathotypes of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) and the immunolocalization of viral coat proteins. Because the PepMV virus replicates with a high mutation rate and exhibits significant genetic diversity, therefore, isolates of PepMV display a wide range of symptoms on infected plants. In this work, tomato plants of the Beta Lux cultivar were inoculated mechanically with three pathotypes representing the Chilean 2 (CH2) genotype: mild (PepMV-P22), necrotic (PepMV-P19) and yellowing (PepMV-P5-IY). The presence of viral particles in all infected plants in the different compartments of various cell types (i.e. spongy and palisade mesophyll, sieve elements and xylem vessels) was revealed via ultrastructural analyses. For the first time, it was possible to demonstrate the presence of crystalline inclusions, composed of virus-like particles. In the later stage of PepMV infection (14 dpi) various pathotype-dependent changes in the structure of the individual organelles (i.e. mitochondria, chloroplasts) were found. The strongest immunogold labeling of the viral coat proteins was also observed in plants infected by necrotic isolates. A large number of viral coat proteins were marked in the plant conductive elements, both xylem and phloem.

  17. Endogenous type C viral gene expression in cultures of fetal diploid baboon cells treated with 5'-bromodeoxyuridine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavelle, G.; Kennel, S.J.; Foote, L.J.

    1981-04-30

    Cultures of fetal diploid baboon fibroblasts treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine synthesized protein antigenically related to baboon endogenous type C viral gag gene product, p28. Radioimmunoassays detected p28 antigenic specificities indistinguishable from those of purified virus. However, viral RNA-dependent DNA polymerase was not detected in culture fluids, and infectious virus was rarely recovered by cocultivation with susceptible heterologous cells. Extracellular particles containing p28 were not readily detected, further indicating that viral gag gene-coded proteins were synthesized independently of whole virus. Normal cultures of the same baboon cells exhibited endogenous expression of a glycoprotein antigenically related to BEV gp70, suggesting differential regulation of the endogenous gag and env gene-coded products. Baboon cell cultures exogenously infected with BEV produced extracellular particles having viral p28 and gp70 as measured by radioimmunoassays of culture fluids. Since induced cultures have about 10% positive cells versus close to 100% for infected culture, the amount of p28 per producing cell was about the same in both cell populations.

  18. Content Recommendation for Viral Social Influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivanov, Sergei; Theocharidis, Konstantinos; Terrovitis, Manolis

    2017-01-01

    How do we create content that will become viral in a whole network after we share it with friends or followers? Significant research activity has been dedicated to the problem of strategically selecting a seed set of initial adopters so as to maximize a meme’s spread in a network. This line of work...... assumes that the success of such a campaign depends solely on the choice of a tunable seed set of adopters, while the way users perceive the propagated meme is fixed. Yet, in many real-world settings, the opposite holds: a meme’s propagation depends on users’ perceptions of its tunable characteristics...

  19. Viral leads for chemokine-modulatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Morten; Lüttichau, Hans Rudolf; Schwartz, Thue W

    2003-01-01

    of years of experience in manipulating this system. For example, virally encoded "biopharmaceuticals"--chemokines and chemokine binding proteins--demonstrate the effectiveness of blocking a carefully selected group of chemokine receptors and how the local immune response can be changed from one dominated...... by Th1 cells to one dominated by Th2 cells by targeting specific chemokine receptors. The crucial importance of the binding of chemokines to glycosaminoglycans to produce their effects is also highlighted by viruses that produce binding proteins to disrupt the gradient of chemokines, which guides...

  20. Anti-Viral Drugs for Human Adenoviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Wing Sing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many stages in the development of a new drug for viral infection and such processes are even further complicated for adenovirus by the fact that there are at least 51 serotypes, forming six distinct groups (A–F, with different degree of infectivity. This review attempts to address the importance of developing pharmaceuticals for adenovirus and also review recent development in drug discovery for adenovirus, including newer strategies such as microRNA approaches. Different drug screening strategies will also be discussed.

  1. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andre Antunes; Intikhab Alam; Marta Filipa Simoes; Camille Daniels; Ari JS Ferreira; Rania Siam; Hamza El-Dorry; Vladimir B Bajic

    2015-01-01

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique envi-ronments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine–seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine–seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  2. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre

    2015-10-31

    The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine-seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine-seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  3. Sequence- and interactome-based prediction of viral protein hotspots targeting host proteins: a case study for HIV Nef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available Virus proteins alter protein pathways of the host toward the synthesis of viral particles by breaking and making edges via binding to host proteins. In this study, we developed a computational approach to predict viral sequence hotspots for binding to host proteins based on sequences of viral and host proteins and literature-curated virus-host protein interactome data. We use a motif discovery algorithm repeatedly on collections of sequences of viral proteins and immediate binding partners of their host targets and choose only those motifs that are conserved on viral sequences and highly statistically enriched among binding partners of virus protein targeted host proteins. Our results match experimental data on binding sites of Nef to host proteins such as MAPK1, VAV1, LCK, HCK, HLA-A, CD4, FYN, and GNB2L1 with high statistical significance but is a poor predictor of Nef binding sites on highly flexible, hoop-like regions. Predicted hotspots recapture CD8 cell epitopes of HIV Nef highlighting their importance in modulating virus-host interactions. Host proteins potentially targeted or outcompeted by Nef appear crowding the T cell receptor, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity, and neurotrophin signaling pathways. Scanning of HIV Nef motifs on multiple alignments of hepatitis C protein NS5A produces results consistent with literature, indicating the potential value of the hotspot discovery in advancing our understanding of virus-host crosstalk.

  4. First Insights into the Viral Communities of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brines of the Red Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Antunes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The deep-sea brines of the Red Sea include some of the most extreme and unique environments on Earth. They combine high salinities with increases in temperature, heavy metals, hydrostatic pressure, and anoxic conditions, creating unique settings for thriving populations of novel extremophiles. Despite a recent increase of studies focusing on these unusual biotopes, their viral communities remain unexplored. The current survey explores four metagenomic datasets obtained from different brine–seawater interface samples, focusing specifically on the diversity of their viral communities. Data analysis confirmed that the particle-attached viral communities present in the brine–seawater interfaces were diverse and generally dominated by Caudovirales, yet appearing distinct from sample to sample. With a level of caution, we report the unexpected finding of Phycodnaviridae, which infects algae and plants, and trace amounts of insect-infecting Iridoviridae. Results from Kebrit Deep revealed stratification in the viral communities present in the interface: the upper-interface was enriched with viruses associated with typical marine bacteria, while the lower-interface was enriched with haloviruses and halophages. These results provide first insights into the unexplored viral communities present in deep-sea brines of the Red Sea, representing one of the first steps for ongoing and future sampling efforts and studies.

  5. Protective Effect of Surfactant Protein D in Pulmonary Vaccinia Virus Infection: Implication of A27 Viral Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Perino

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV was used as a surrogate of variola virus (VARV (genus Orthopoxvirus, the causative agent of smallpox, to study Orthopoxvirus infection. VARV is principally transmitted between humans by aerosol droplets. Once inhaled, VARV first infects the respiratory tract where it could encounter surfactant components, such as soluble pattern recognition receptors. Surfactant protein D (SP-D, constitutively present in the lining fluids of the respiratory tract, plays important roles in innate host defense against virus infection. We investigated the role of SP-D in VACV infection and studied the A27 viral protein involvement in the interaction with SP-D. Interaction between SP-D and VACV caused viral inhibition in a lung cell model. Interaction of SP-D with VACV was mediated by the A27 viral protein. Binding required Ca2+ and interactions were blocked in the presence of excess of SP-D saccharide ligands. A27, which lacks glycosylation, directly interacted with SP-D. The interaction between SP-D and the viral particle was also observed using electron microscopy. Infection of mice lacking SP-D (SP-D-/- resulted in increased mortality compared to SP-D+/+ mice. Altogether, our data show that SP-D participates in host defense against the vaccinia virus infection and that the interaction occurs with the viral surface protein A27.

  6. A Novel Mechanism Underlying the Innate Immune Response Induction upon Viral-Dependent Replication of Host Cell mRNA: A Mistake of +sRNA Viruses' Replicases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgui, Laura R.; Colombo, María I.

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are lifeless particles designed for setting virus-host interactome assuring a new generation of virions for dissemination. This interactome generates a pressure on host organisms evolving mechanisms to neutralize viral infection, which places the pressure back onto virus, a process known as virus-host cell co-evolution. Positive-single stranded RNA (+sRNA) viruses are an important group of viral agents illustrating this interesting phenomenon. During replication, their genomic +sRNA is employed as template for translation of viral proteins; among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) is responsible of viral genome replication originating double-strand RNA molecules (dsRNA) as intermediates, which accumulate representing a potent threat for cellular dsRNA receptors to initiate an antiviral response. A common feature shared by these viruses is their ability to rearrange cellular membranes to serve as platforms for genome replication and assembly of new virions, supporting replication efficiency increase by concentrating critical factors and protecting the viral genome from host anti-viral systems. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding cellular dsRNA receptors and describes prototype viruses developing replication niches inside rearranged membranes. However, for several viral agents it's been observed both, a complex rearrangement of cellular membranes and a strong innate immune antiviral response induction. So, we have included recent data explaining the mechanism by, even though viruses have evolved elegant hideouts, host cells are still able to develop dsRNA receptors-dependent antiviral response. PMID:28164038

  7. Study of particle swarm optimization particle trajectories

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van den Bergh, F

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available provides a formal proof that each particle converges to a stable point. An empirical analysis of multidimensional stochastic particles is also presented. Experimental results are provided to support the conclusions drawn from the theoretical findings...

  8. Orthoretroviral-like prototype foamy virus gag-pol expression is compatible with viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reh Juliane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foamy viruses (FVs unlike orthoretroviruses express Pol as a separate precursor protein and not as a Gag-Pol fusion protein. A unique packaging strategy, involving recognition of briding viral RNA by both Pol precursor and Gag as well as potential Gag-Pol protein interactions, ensures Pol particle encapsidation. Results Several Prototype FV (PFV Gag-Pol fusion protein constructs were generated to examine whether PFV replication is compatible with an orthoretroviral-like Pol expression. During their analysis, non-particle-associated secreted Pol precursor protein was discovered in extracellular wild type PFV particle preparations of different origin, copurifying in simple virion enrichment protocols. Different analysis methods suggest that extracellular wild type PFV particles contain predominantly mature p85PR-RT and p40IN Pol subunits. Characterization of various PFV Gag-Pol fusion constructs revealed that PFV Pol expression in an orthoretroviral manner is compatible with PFV replication as long as a proteolytic processing between Gag and Pol proteins is possible. PFV Gag-Pol translation by a HIV-1 like ribosomal frameshift signal resulted in production of replication-competent virions, although cell- and particle-associated Pol levels were reduced in comparison to wild type. In-frame fusion of PFV Gag and Pol ORFs led to increased cellular Pol levels, but particle incorporation was only marginally elevated. Unlike that reported for similar orthoretroviral constructs, a full-length in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion construct showed wildtype-like particle release and infectivity characteristics. In contrast, in-frame PFV Gag-Pol fusion with C-terminal Gag ORF truncations or non-removable Gag peptide addition to Pol displayed wildtype particle release, but reduced particle infectivity. PFV Gag-Pol precursor fusion proteins with inactivated protease were highly deficient in regular particle release, although coexpression of p71Gag

  9. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    particle for some), the haemorrhagic fever (HF)-causing viruses have to be handled .... The filoviruses. The filoviruses, EVD and MVD viruses, are known to cause highly .... attributed to a previously unknown arenavirus, dubbed the Lujo virus.

  10. Plant-derived vaccine protects target animals against a viral disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Kristian; Uttenthal, Åse; Jones, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    The successful expression of animal or human virus epitopes on the surface of plant viruses has recently been demonstrated. These chimeric virus particles (CVPs) could represent a cost-effective and safe alternative to conventional animal cell-based vaccines. We report the insertion of oligonucle....... The epitope used occurs in three different virus species-MEV, canine parvovirus, and feline panleukopenia virus-and thus the same vaccine could be used in three economically important viral hosts-mink, dogs, and cats, respectively....

  11. Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Viral Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barbara A; Lessler, Justin; Bianco, Simone; Kaufman, James H

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses methods drawn from physics to study the life cycle of viruses. The paper analyzes a model of viral infection and evolution using the "grand canonical ensemble" and formalisms from statistical mechanics and thermodynamics. Using this approach we enumerate all possible genetic states of a model virus and host as a function of two independent pressures-immune response and system temperature. We prove the system has a real thermodynamic temperature, and discover a new phase transition between a positive temperature regime of normal replication and a negative temperature "disordered" phase of the virus. We distinguish this from previous observations of a phase transition that arises as a function of mutation rate. From an evolutionary biology point of view, at steady state the viruses naturally evolve to distinct quasispecies. This paper also reveals a universal relationship that relates the order parameter (as a measure of mutational robustness) to evolvability in agreement with recent experimental and theoretical work. Given that real viruses have finite length RNA segments that encode proteins which determine virus fitness, the approach used here could be refined to apply to real biological systems, perhaps providing insight into immune escape, the emergence of novel pathogens and other results of viral evolution.

  12. Detection of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, James; Kurath, Gael; Batts, William

    2007-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is considered to be one of the most important viral pathogens of finfish and is listed as reportable by many nations and international organizations (Office International des Epizooties 2006). Prior to 1988, VHSV was thought to be limited to Europe (Wolf 1988; Smail 1999). Subsequently, it was shown that the virus is endemic among many marine and anadromous fish species in both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans (Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005). Genetic analysis reveals that isolates of VHSV can be divided into four genotypes that generally correlate with geographic location with the North American isolates generally falling into VHSV Genotype IV (Snow et al. 2004). In 2005-2006, reports from the Great Lakes region indicated that wild fish had experienced disease or, in some cases, very large die-offs from VHSV (Elsayed et al. 2006, Lumsden et al. 2007). The new strain from the Great Lakes, now identified as VHSV Genotype IVb, appears most closely related to isolates of VHSV from mortalities that occurred during 2000-2004 in rivers and near-shore areas of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, Canada (Gagne et al. 2007). The type IVb isolate found in the Great Lakes region is the only strain outside of Europe that has been associated with significant mortality in freshwater species.

  13. Ribozymes:an anti-viral agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asad U.Khan; Shahper N.Khan

    2008-01-01

    The discovery that RNA can act as an enzyme led Thomas Cech to win the Nobel Prize in Chemistry and led immediately to the next wave of attempts to find an effective RNA-based therapy.The tantalizing idea that RNA enzymes called trans-cleaving ribozymes enables them to act as potential antiviral and powerful tool for functional genomic studies.The efficacy of ribozyme function in a complex intracellular environment is depend-ent on the intracellular fate of the RNA that is being targeted.Recently,ribozymes have been used successfully to inhibit gene expression in a variety of biological systems in vitro and in vivo.Ribozyme has also been used successfully to combat many cases of viral infection,as clinical trial.Despite it needs to be investigated and explored as far as its structural and functional aspects are concern.In view of the significance of ribozyme in modern medicine,we reviewed the recent literature on general approach to control viral infection.

  14. Branching dynamics of viral information spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iribarren, José Luis; Moro, Esteban

    2011-10-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking, or marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants’ decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real viral marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31 000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris branching process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the “tipping point” and can be used for prediction and management of viral information spreading processes.

  15. Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquart, François; Wymant, Chris; Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ong, Swee Hoe; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle J; Grabowski, M Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Vanham, Guido; Berkhout, Ben; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    HIV-1 set-point viral load-the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection-is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%-43%). Specifically, heritability was measured using models of character evolution describing how viral load evolves on the phylogeny of whole-genome viral sequences. In contrast to previous studies, (i) we measured viral loads using standardized assays on a sample collected in a strict time window of 6 to 24 months after infection, from which the viral genome was also sequenced; (ii) we compared 2 models of character evolution, the classical "Brownian motion" model and another model ("Ornstein-Uhlenbeck") that includes stabilising selection on viral load; (iii) we controlled for covariates, including age and sex, which may inflate estimates of heritability; and (iv) we developed a goodness of fit test based on the correlation of viral loads in cherries of the phylogenetic tree, showing that both models of character evolution fit the data well. An overall heritability of 31% (CI 15%-43%) is consistent with other studies based on regression of viral load in donor-recipient pairs. Thus, about a third of variation in HIV-1 virulence is attributable to viral genetic variation.

  16. Viral genetic variation accounts for a third of variability in HIV-1 set-point viral load in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymant, Chris; Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ong, Swee Hoe; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle J.; Grabowski, M. Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Vanham, Guido; Berkhout, Ben; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1 set-point viral load—the approximately stable value of viraemia in the first years of chronic infection—is a strong predictor of clinical outcome and is highly variable across infected individuals. To better understand HIV-1 pathogenesis and the evolution of the viral population, we must quantify the heritability of set-point viral load, which is the fraction of variation in this phenotype attributable to viral genetic variation. However, current estimates of heritability vary widely, from 6% to 59%. Here we used a dataset of 2,028 seroconverters infected between 1985 and 2013 from 5 European countries (Belgium, Switzerland, France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and estimated the heritability of set-point viral load at 31% (CI 15%–43%). Specifically, heritability was measured using models of character evolution describing how viral load evolves on the phylogeny of whole-genome viral sequences. In contrast to previous studies, (i) we measured viral loads using standardized assays on a sample collected in a strict time window of 6 to 24 months after infection, from which the viral genome was also sequenced; (ii) we compared 2 models of character evolution, the classical “Brownian motion” model and another model (“Ornstein–Uhlenbeck”) that includes stabilising selection on viral load; (iii) we controlled for covariates, including age and sex, which may inflate estimates of heritability; and (iv) we developed a goodness of fit test based on the correlation of viral loads in cherries of the phylogenetic tree, showing that both models of character evolution fit the data well. An overall heritability of 31% (CI 15%–43%) is consistent with other studies based on regression of viral load in donor–recipient pairs. Thus, about a third of variation in HIV-1 virulence is attributable to viral genetic variation. PMID:28604782

  17. Studying the immune response to human viral infections using zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goody, Michelle F; Sullivan, Con; Kim, Carol H

    2014-09-01

    Humans and viruses have a long co-evolutionary history. Viral illnesses have and will continue to shape human history: from smallpox, to influenza, to HIV, and beyond. Animal models of human viral illnesses are needed in order to generate safe and effective antiviral medicines, adjuvant therapies, and vaccines. These animal models must support the replication of human viruses, recapitulate aspects of human viral illnesses, and respond with conserved immune signaling cascades. The zebrafish is perhaps the simplest, most commonly used laboratory model organism in which innate and/or adaptive immunity can be studied. Herein, we will discuss the current zebrafish models of human viral illnesses and the insights they have provided. We will highlight advantages of early life stage zebrafish and the importance of innate immunity in human viral illnesses. We will also discuss viral characteristics to consider before infecting zebrafish with human viruses as well as predict other human viruses that may be able to infect zebrafish.

  18. Viral Evasion and Manipulation of Host RNA Quality Control Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, J Robert

    2016-08-15

    Viruses have evolved diverse strategies to maximize the functional and coding capacities of their genetic material. Individual viral RNAs are often used as substrates for both replication and translation and can contain multiple, sometimes overlapping open reading frames. Further, viral RNAs engage in a wide variety of interactions with both host and viral proteins to modify the activities of important cellular factors and direct their own trafficking, packaging, localization, stability, and translation. However, adaptations increasing the information density of small viral genomes can have unintended consequences. In particular, viral RNAs have developed features that mark them as potential targets of host RNA quality control pathways. This minireview focuses on ways in which viral RNAs run afoul of the cellular mRNA quality control and decay machinery, as well as on strategies developed by viruses to circumvent or exploit cellular mRNA surveillance.

  19. Effects of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Alireza; Tavakoli-Yaraki, Masoumeh; Rygiel, Tomasz P; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat; Salimi, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active ingredient in marijuana, and their derivatives have received remarkable attention in the last two decades because they can affect tumor growth and metastasis. There is a large body of evidence from in vivo and in vitro models showing that cannabinoids and their receptors influence the immune system, viral pathogenesis, and viral replication. The present study reviews current insights into the role of cannabinoids and their receptors on viral infections. The results reported here indicate that cannabinoids and their receptors have different sequels for viral infection. Although activation or inhibition of cannabinoid receptors in the majority of viral infections are proper targets for development of safe and effective treatments, caution is required before using pharmaceutical cannabinoids as a treatment agent for patients with viral infections.

  20. Molecular mechanisms of neuroinflammation and injury during acute viral encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shives, Katherine D; Tyler, Kenneth L; Beckham, J David

    2017-03-11

    Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury. By understanding the role of specific inflammatory responses to viral infections in the CNS, targeted therapeutic approaches can be developed to maximize control of acute viral infection while minimizing neuronal injury in the CNS.