WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-fossil reduction materials

  1. Non-fossil reduction materials in the silicon process - properties and behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myrhaug, Edin Henrik

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this work has been to clarify the effect of using biocarbon as a reduction material in the silicon process. It was decided to compare the biocarbon with fossil carbon and find possible differences both on process performance and eventually on product quality. The elements in the raw materials added to the silicon process goes into three different products: silicon metal, silica dust and into open air. Based on analysis of raw materials and of produced silicon metal and microsilica extensive material balances have been established. One important result from these are the distribution factors that indicate how much of the trace elements that goes into each medium. Another result is that the boiling point of an element or a compound gives a good indication of were it ends. A high boiling point indicates that the element ends up in the silicon metal, while a low boiling point indicates that the element goes with off-gas into air. With an intermediate boiling point, the element goes into the silica dust. The SiO-reactivity of the reduction materials are commonly acknowledged to affect strongly the productivity and consumption figures of the silicon process. Based on data from thermogravimetric experiments with chemical reaction between carbonaceous spheres and SiO-gas, kinetic parameters have been estimated from the shrinking core model for some selected reduction materials of various sizes and spanning a wide range of SiO-reactivity figures. This model describes the degree of conversion versus time for a single sphere where the chemical reaction progresses in a topochemical manner from the outer surface of the solid towards the centre forming a porous product layer around an unreacted shrinking core. This behaviour is for the selected reduction materials to a large extent supported by an investigation of cross section pictures of fully and 50% converted spheres obtained with a microprobe. The estimated kinetic parameters obtained from the

  2. Potential of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle for reduction of CO2 emission and role of non-fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Yamamoto, H.

    2009-01-01

    A method to analyze the demand of electricity and the reduction of CO 2 emission and oil consumption by PHEV is established. Using the performance of PHEV optimized by EPRI and an estimation on the pattern of driving and charging in Japan, the following results are obtained. The electric demand for PHEV60(which has 60mile EV range) and PHEV20(which has 20mile EV range) is evaluated at 79.3 billion kWh and 41.2 billion kWh, respectively, in case that all vehicles in Japan (80 million cars) would be replaced by PHEV. The load leveling effect on the Japanese grid, which is hypothetically considered as one electric grid system, is evaluated at about 30 million kW, in case that all vehicles in Japan are replaced by PHEV60 and charged in the midnight. However, when the charge of PHEVs starts in the evening, that effect is not obtained. The reduction of CO 2 emission results in 64 million ton by the averaged CO 2 emissions intensity (emissions per unit of user end electricity) in Japan, and 98 million ton by electricity from the non-fossil power plant such as nuclear energy or renewable one. Those values are equivalent to 25% and 38% of CO 2 emission from the transport sector in Japan in 2003. Hence, non-fossil power plant enhances the reduction of CO 2 emission by the PHEV introduction. (author)

  3. Role of non-fossil energy in meeting China's energy and climate target for 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sheng; Tong, Qing; Yu, Sha; Wang, Yu; Chai, Qimin; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitter in the world. The Chinese government faces growing challenges of ensuring energy security and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. To address these two issues, the Chinese government has announced two ambitious domestic indicative autonomous mitigation targets for 2020: increasing the ratio of non-fossil energy to 15% and reducing carbon dioxide emissions per unit of GDP by 40–45% from 2005 levels. To explore the role of non-fossil energy in achieving these two targets, this paper first provides an overview of current status of non-fossil energy development in China; then gives a brief review of GDP and primary energy consumption; next assesses in detail the role of the non-fossil energy in 2020, including the installed capacity and electricity generation of non-fossil energy sources, the share and role of non-fossil energy in the electricity structure, emissions reduction resulting from the shift to non-fossil energy, and challenges for accomplishing the mitigation targets in 2020; finally, conclusions and policy measures for non-fossil energy development are proposed.

  4. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  5. Reducing global warming through the provision of hydrogen from non-fossil fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Concern has increased in recent years regarding the rising atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and its potential effect on future global climate. One element of strategies for the reduction of CO 2 emissions would be to increase the proportion of energy derived from non-fossil energy sources. This option has led to renewed interest in the use of hydrogen as an energy vector which could facilitate the transfer of non-fossil energy into a wider range of end-use sectors. To assess, in this context, the potential role of non-fossil-fuel hydrogen (NFFH), published information on the costs and performance of technologies for the production, storage, distribution and utilisation of hydrogen has been reviewed in this study. These data have been used in a model of the UK energy system to investigate the potential contributions of the various hydrogen technologies, over a 50 year timeframe, and with different levels of constraint imposed on the rate of CO 2 release. Finally, to set these reduced CO 2 release rates in the context of the resultant reduction in global warming commitment, a further modelling study has been made to estimate the residual transient warming to 2050, assuming the world as a whole follows the same CO 2 emission profiles as modelled for the UK. This 259 page report of the study contains extensive tables of data and references, and a glossary of terms, units and conversion factors. (author)

  6. China's INDC and non-fossil energy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change promotes the energy system reform. Achieving a high proportion of renewable energy becomes the major countries' energy strategy. As proposed in its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC, China intends to raise the proportion of non-fossil energy in primary energy consumption to about 20% by 2030. That ambitious goal means the non-fossil energy supplies by 2030 will be 7–8 times that of 2005, and the annual increase rate is more than 8% within the 25 years. Besides, the capacity of wind power, solar power, hydropower and nuclear power reaches 400 GW, 350 GW, 450 GW, and 150 GW respectively, and China's non-fossil power capacity is even greater than the U.S.'s total power capacity. In addition, the scale of natural gas increases. Consequently, by 2030, the proportion of coal falls from the current 70% to below 50%, and the CO2 intensity of energy consumption decreases by 20% compared with the level of 2005, which play important roles in significantly reducing the CO2 intensity of GDP. Since China has confirmed to achieve the CO2 emissions peak around 2030, at that time, the newly added energy demand will be satisfied by non-fossil energy, and the consumption of fossil fuel will stop growing. By 2030, non-fossil energy accounts for 20%, and the large scale and sound momentum of new and renewable energy industry will support the growth of total energy demand, which plays a key role in CO2 emissions peaking and beginning to decline, and lays the foundation for establishing a new energy system dominated by new and renewable energy in the second half of the 21st century as well as finally achieving the CO2 zero-emission.

  7. Does Non-Fossil Energy Usage Lower CO2 Emissions? Empirical Evidence from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshan Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an autoregressive distributed lag model (ARDL to examine the dynamic impact of non-fossil energy consumption on carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions in China for a given level of economic growth, trade openness, and energy usage between 1965 and 2014. The results suggest that the variables are in a long-run equilibrium. ARDL estimation indicates that consumption of non-fossil energy plays a crucial role in curbing CO2 emissions in the long run but not in the short term. The results also suggest that, in both the long and short term, energy consumption and trade openness have a negative impact on the reduction of CO2 emissions, while gross domestic product (GDP per capita increases CO2 emissions only in the short term. Finally, the Granger causality test indicates a bidirectional causality between CO2 emissions and energy consumption. In addition, this study suggests that non-fossil energy is an effective solution to mitigate CO2 emissions, providing useful information for policy-makers wishing to reduce atmospheric CO2.

  8. Implications for global energy markets: implications for non-fossil energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubb, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This paper highlights the recent developments concerning non-fossil energy and examines the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on non-fossil energy sources, and the implications for non-fossil sources in the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. The current contributions of fossil and non-fossil fuels to electricity production, prospects for expansion of the established non-fossil sources, new renewables in Europe to date, renewables in Europe to 2010, and policy integration in the EU are discussed. Charts illustrating the generating capacity of renewable energy plant in Britain (1992-1966), wind energy capacity in Europe (1990-2000), and projected renewable energy contributions in the EU (wind, small hydro, photovoltaic, biomass and geothermal) are provided. (UK)

  9. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    of production in new (marginal) plants for substituting sources of energy, primarily.      A review of the production price per kWh of electricity according to statistics from OECD/IEA where substitution relationships between fossil and non-fossil energy are multiple gives the following results: (1) Sun...

  10. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2010-11-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO{sub 2} emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  11. Risoe energy report 9. Non-fossil energy technologies in 2050 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L.

    2010-11-01

    This Risoe Energy Report, the ninth in a series that began in 2002, analyses the long-term outlook for energy technologies in 2050 in a perspective where the dominating role of fossil fuels has been taken over by non-fossil fuels, and CO 2 emissions have been reduced to a minimum. Against this background, the report addresses issues like: 1) How much will today's non-fossil energy technologies have evolved up to 2050? 2) Which non-fossil energy technologies can we bring into play in 2050, including emerging technologies? 3) What are the implications for the energy system? Further, Volume 9 analyses other central issues for the future energy supply: 4) The role of non-fossil energy technologies in relation to security of supply and sustainability 5) System aspects in 2050 6) Examples of global and Danish energy scenarios in 2050 The report is based on the latest research results from Risoe DTU, together with available international literature and reports. (Author)

  12. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ‘Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital’ (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administra...

  13. Sustainable Development and the Relative Prices of Fossil and Non-fossil Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2007-01-01

      According to the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Change (IPCC) the actual international political measures within the Kyoto-group towards the Greenhouse-effect are quite insufficient to prevent serious climatic disturbances at the end of this Century. The study aims to evaluate the potential...... and wind are the most plentiful sources of non-fossil energy of which wind energy is the most economic. Large parks of mega-powered wind mills have been constructed both on- and offshore with better and better cost-effectiveness during the last decades (2) Actually, onshore wind mill parks...

  14. A comparative analysis of environmental impacts of non-fossil energy production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread proliferation of other then fossil based energy production methods is a development, which inevitable comes in the next future. It is proven that the photovoltaic conversion or the use of heat of Sun radiation, the water energy, the utilization of the wind, the biomass production, the use of geothermal energy can all produce big amounts of energy for human use. In addition, the nuclear energy from fission is a technology, which has already long history and is widely used. However, these all, like the fossil energy sources, have great impacts on the environment. Nevertheless, the comparison of the environmental effects of these alternative energy sources is not easy. The effects are of considerable different natures and their spatial and the time distributions vary on large scales. The present work overviews the principles and the methodological prerequisites of performing a comparative analysis of the environmental effects for the non-fossil energy production methods. After establishing the basic principles for comparison, we shall go through all the non-fossil energy sources and analyze the most important environmental impacts of each energy production method. In conclusion, the comparison of the environmental effects will be discussed.

  15. Dataset for analysing the relationships among economic growth, fossil fuel and non-fossil fuel consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjaye, John; Byrne, Dominic; Alvarez, Maximiliano

    2017-02-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled 'Economic Growth, Fossil Fuel and Non-Fossil Consumption: A Pooled Mean Group Analysis using Proxies for Capital' (J. Asafu-Adjaye, D. Byrne, M. Alvarez, 2016) [1]. This article describes data modified from three publicly available data sources: the World Bank׳s World Development Indicators (http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators), the U.S. Energy Information Administration׳s International Energy Statistics (http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/IEDIndex3.cfm?tid=44&pid=44&aid=2) and the Barro-Lee Educational Attainment Dataset (http://www.barrolee.com). These data can be used to examine the relationships between economic growth and different forms of energy consumption. The dataset is made publicly available to promote further analyses.

  16. Is trade openness good for environment in South Korea? The role of non-fossil electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shun

    2018-04-01

    The paper investigates the linkage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, per capita real output, share of non-fossil electricity consumption, and trade openness in South Korea from 1971 to 2013. The empirical results indicate that the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) is supported by autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) test. Both short- and long-run estimates indicate that increasing non-fossil electricity consumption can mitigate environmental degradation, and increasing trade aggravates carbon dioxide emissions. By Granger causality, long-run causalities are found in both equations of CO 2 emissions and trade openness, as well as exports and imports. In the short-run, evidence indicates feedback linkage between output and trade, unidirectional linkages from trade to emissions, from emissions to output, and from output to non-fossil electricity use. Therefore, South Korea should strengthen the sustainable economy, consume clean energy, and develop green trade.

  17. The Hailpad: Materials, Data Reduction and Calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Alexis B.; Matson, Richard J.; Crow, Edwin L.

    1980-11-01

    This paper reports on work carried out in the National Hail Research Experiment (NHRE) on hailpad materials, on procedures for reducing hailpad data, and on hailpad calibration. A recommendation is made for a pad constructed of 2.5 cm thick type-SI Styrofoam (manufactured by Dow Chemical USA) and sprayed with a 25-50 m coating of white latex paint for protection from the deteriorating effects of sun-light. Calibration of the hailpad provides a relation between the minor axis of a dent in the pad and the dimensions of the stone producing the dent. It is recommended that measurements of the minor axis be categorized in size intervals no wider than 4 mm.The NHRE laboratory technique for calibrating hailpads involves simulating a hailstone impact by dropping a steel sphere onto a pad from a height such that the impact kinetic energy achieved by the sphere equals that of a hailstone of equal diameter falling onto the pad in an environment with known horizontal wind. The pad is tilted to preserve the stone impact angle found in nature. A second-degree polynomial in sphere diameter D satisfactorily describes the calibration relation between D and the dent minor axis. Application of the calibration relation developed for the particular case of no wind to hailpads which have been hit by hail falling in a wind leads to an overestimate of hailstone diameter of approximately 0.5-1% per meter per second of wind speed. This effect of the wind is about twice as large as that found by others.A theoretical expression is developed that explicitly relates the minor axis of a dent produced by a sphere to the diameter of the sphere. Two controlling parameters in this expression are the impact kinetic energy of the sphere and a factor p, with dimensions of pressure, which quantitatively embodies the response of a pad to a sphere impact. The effect of variations in p on the sphere diameter derived from dent minor axis and information supplied by Dow Chemical USA on possible variability

  18. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  19. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Queiroz

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855 (on two skeletons, and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  20. Sources of non-fossil-fuel emissions in carbonaceous aerosols during early winter in Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Zhong, Guangcai; Zhu, Sanyuan; Ding, Ping; Shen, Chengde; Tian, Chongguo; Chen, Yingjun; Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Gan

    2017-09-01

    China experiences frequent and severe haze outbreaks from the beginning of winter. Carbonaceous aerosols are regarded as an essential factor in controlling the formation and evolution of haze episodes. To elucidate the carbon sources of air pollution, source apportionment was conducted using radiocarbon (14C) and unique molecular organic tracers. Daily 24 h PM2. 5 samples were collected continuously from October 2013 to November 2013 in 10 Chinese cities. The 14C results indicated that non-fossil-fuel (NF) emissions were predominant in total carbon (TC; average = 65 ± 7 %). Approximately half of the EC was derived primarily from biomass burning (BB) (average = 46 ± 11 %), while over half of the organic carbon (OC) fraction comprised NF (average = 68 ± 7 %). On average, the largest contributor to TC was NF-derived secondary OC (SOCnf), which accounted for 46 ± 7 % of TC, followed by SOC derived from fossil fuels (FF) (SOCf; 16 ± 3 %), BB-derived primary OC (POCbb; 13 ± 5 %), POC derived from FF (POCf; 12 ± 3 %), EC derived from FF (ECf; 7 ± 2 %) and EC derived from BB (ECbb; 6 ± 2 %). The regional background carbonaceous aerosol composition was characterized by NF sources; POCs played a major role in northern China, while SOCs contributed more in other regions. However, during haze episodes, there were no dramatic changes in the carbon source or composition in the cities under study, but the contribution of POC from both FF and NF increased significantly.

  1. First forensic records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz, R A; Soriano, E P; Carvalho, M V D; Caldas-Junior, A F; Souza, E H A; Coelho-Junior, L G T M; Campello, R I C; Almeida, A C; Farias, R C A P; Vasconcellos, A

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to describe the first records of termite activity on non-fossilized human bones in Brazil. The cases reported in this study resulted from forensic analysis of six human skeletons found in northeastern Brazil between 2012 and 2014. Traces of tunnels and nests commonly produced by termites were found on several human bone surfaces as well as the specimens and characteristic signs of osteophagic activity. In four cases, the species were identified: Amitermes amifer Silvestri, 1901, Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) (on two skeletons), and Microcerotermes indistinctus Mathews, 1977. In two other cases, the activity of termites on bone surfaces was evidenced by remains of nests and tunnels produced by these insects. At least in the samples of human remains available for this report, the number of termites collected was greater on bones found during autumn, the rainy season in the Northeast of Brazil. The human bones examined showed termites like insects with lots of strength at bone degradation, capable of continuing the process of decomposition of human remains even in completely skeletonized bodies.

  2. Analysis of Power Planning Deviation Influence on the Non-fossil Energy Development Goal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-ting; Li, Ting; Ye, Qiang; Mi, Zhu; Ying, Liu; Tao, Yu-xuan

    2017-05-01

    Due to the international circumstances changes and domestic economic restructuring, the policies and planning of energy development have been adjusting in recent years, especially in energy power industry. Under these influences, the Chinese energy development goal “non-fossil energy accounts for 15% of the primary energy consumption” which planned to be realized in 2020 becomes uncertain. To ensure the goal can be achieved, a new energy power planning scheme is provided. Based on this planning scheme, the sensitivity analysis method and the maximum deviation method are proposed to quantify the influence of planning deviation on the target percentage. At the same time, the energy replacement is provided to fill the deviation. Research results shows that the main influence factors of target percentage is the hydro and nuclear power develop scale and their output channel construction. If the hydro and nuclear power capacity can’t reach their target scale, wind and solar power capacity can fill the vacancy instead. But if the vacancy of hydropower exceeds 58GW, or vacancy of nuclear power exceeds 27GW, the “15% goal” would be very difficult to achieve. Accelerating the construction of the hydropower output transmission lines helps to guarantee the "15% goal".

  3. The Evaluation of Vehicle Mass Reduction and Material ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developments in the realm of lightweight materials for automotive use continue to be announced by the industry and by academia. This session will provide new and updated information on new generation of materials. Additionally, this session will focus on the key topics involved in Life-Cycle-Analysis of light-weight materials including practices and developments in material recyclability. This presentation will review key findings from recent LCAs for vehicle mass reduction. Presentation for panel session on advanced materials/lightweighting for light duty vehicles at the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Government/Industry Meeting, Washington, DC (January 25, 2017)

  4. Are prices enough? The economics of material demand reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidt, Toke; Jia, Lili; Low, Hamish

    2017-05-01

    Recent policy proposals to achieve carbon targets have emphasized material demand reduction strategies aimed at achieving material efficiency. We provide a bridge between the way economists and engineers think about efficiency. We use the tools of economics to think about policies directed at material efficiency and to evaluate the role and rationale for such policies. The analysis highlights when prices (or taxes) can be used to induce changes in material use and when taxes may not work. We argue that the role of taxes is limited by concerns about their distributional consequences, by international trade and the lack of international agreement on carbon prices, and by investment failures. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  5. Drag reduction through self-texturing compliant bionic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Eryong; Li, Longyang; Wang, Gang; Zeng, Zhixiang; Zhao, Wenjie; Xue, Qunji

    2017-01-01

    Compliant fish skin is effectively in reducing drag, thus the design and application of compliant bionic materials may be a good choice for drag reduction. Here we consider the drag reduction of compliant bionic materials. First, ZnO and PDMS mesh modified with n-octadecane were prepared, the drag reduction of self-texturing compliant n-octadecane were studied. The results show that the mesh modified by ZnO and PDMS possess excellent lipophilic and hydrophobic, thus n-octadecane at solid, semisolid and liquid state all have good adhesion with modified mesh. The states of n-octadecane changed with temperature, thus, the surface contact angle and adhesive force all varies obviously at different state. The contact angle decreases with temperature, the adhesive force shows a lower value at semisolid state. Furthermore, the drag testing results show that the compliant n-octadecane film is more effectively in drag reduction than superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS film, indicating that the drag reduction mechanism of n-octadecane is significantly different with superhydrophobic film. Further research shows that the water flow leads to self-texturing of semisolid state n-octadecane, which is similar with compliant fish skin. Therefore, the compliant bionic materials of semisolid state n-octadecane with regular bulge plays a major role in the drag reduction.

  6. Uncertainty aggregation and reduction in structure-material performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhen; Mahadevan, Sankaran; Ao, Dan

    2018-02-01

    An uncertainty aggregation and reduction framework is presented for structure-material performance prediction. Different types of uncertainty sources, structural analysis model, and material performance prediction model are connected through a Bayesian network for systematic uncertainty aggregation analysis. To reduce the uncertainty in the computational structure-material performance prediction model, Bayesian updating using experimental observation data is investigated based on the Bayesian network. It is observed that the Bayesian updating results will have large error if the model cannot accurately represent the actual physics, and that this error will be propagated to the predicted performance distribution. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel uncertainty reduction method by integrating Bayesian calibration with model validation adaptively. The observation domain of the quantity of interest is first discretized into multiple segments. An adaptive algorithm is then developed to perform model validation and Bayesian updating over these observation segments sequentially. Only information from observation segments where the model prediction is highly reliable is used for Bayesian updating; this is found to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of uncertainty reduction. A composite rotorcraft hub component fatigue life prediction model, which combines a finite element structural analysis model and a material damage model, is used to demonstrate the proposed method.

  7. Fossil and non-fossil source contributions to atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols during extreme spring grassland fires in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ulevicius

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In early spring the Baltic region is frequently affected by high-pollution events due to biomass burning in that area. Here we present a comprehensive study to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning (BB on the evolution and composition of aerosol in Preila, Lithuania, during springtime open fires. Non-refractory submicron particulate matter (NR-PM1 was measured by an Aerodyne aerosol chemical speciation monitor (ACSM and a source apportionment with the multilinear engine (ME-2 running the positive matrix factorization (PMF model was applied to the organic aerosol fraction to investigate the impact of biomass/grass burning. Satellite observations over regions of biomass burning activity supported the results and identification of air mass transport to the area of investigation. Sharp increases in biomass burning tracers, such as levoglucosan up to 683 ng m−3 and black carbon (BC up to 17 µg m−3 were observed during this period. A further separation between fossil and non-fossil primary and secondary contributions was obtained by coupling ACSM PMF results and radiocarbon (14C measurements of the elemental (EC and organic (OC carbon fractions. Non-fossil organic carbon (OCnf was the dominant fraction of PM1, with the primary (POCnf and secondary (SOCnf fractions contributing 26–44 % and 13–23 % to the total carbon (TC, respectively. 5–8 % of the TC had a primary fossil origin (POCf, whereas the contribution of fossil secondary organic carbon (SOCf was 4–13 %. Non-fossil EC (ECnf and fossil EC (ECf ranged from 13–24 and 7–13 %, respectively. Isotope ratios of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were used to distinguish aerosol particles associated with solid and liquid fossil fuel burning.

  8. Effect of hydrogen on reduction of burden materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooey, P.L. [Rautaruukki Oy, Raahe (Finland). Raahe Steel

    1996-12-31

    Efficient operation of iron blast furnaces requires that the iron bearing burden material have good reduction, softening and melting characteristics. These characteristics are determined by the physical operation of the blast furnace and the mineralogical composition of the agglomerate. Increasing oil injection rates will increase the hydrogen content of the reducing gas significantly. The aim of this work is to establish how different burden materials react to this change in gas environment, and develop sinters which have optimal properties. The testing of sinter and pellets is broken into two areas: development of the test methods; and determination of sinter and pellet characteristics. The test method requires development because recent testwork has shown that the reducibility of the sinter is now so high that the reduction under load test is no longer sensitive. A new control program and more realistic gas compositions are currently being tested. The softening and melting characteristics of sinters of varying composition, acid pellets and olivine pellets have been tested using the reduction under load test at Rautaruukki Oy Research Centre. The effect of hydrogen in the reducing gas on the different iron ore agglomerates has been evaluated SULA 2 Research Programme; 6 refs.

  9. Reduction reactions applied for synthesizing different nano-structured materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque Brocchi, Eduardo de; Correia de Siqueira, Rogério Navarro [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Motta, Marcelo Senna [Basck Ltd. (United Kingdom); Moura, Francisco José, E-mail: moura@puc-rio.br [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Solórzano-Naranjo, Ivan Guillermo [Department of Materials Engineering, PUC-Rio, Rua Marquês de São Vicente, 225, Gávea, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    Different materials have been synthesized by alternative routes: nitrates thermal decomposition to prepare oxide or co-formed oxides and reduction by hydrogen or graphite to obtain mixed oxides, composites or alloys. These chemical-based synthesis routes are described and thermodynamics studies and kinetics data are presented to support its feasibility. In addition, selective reduction reactions have been applied to successfully produce metal/ceramic composites, and alloys. Structural characterization has been carried out by X-ray Diffraction and, more extensively, Transmission Electron Microscopy operating in conventional diffraction contrast (CTEM) and high-resolution mode (HRTEM), indicated the possibility of obtaining oxide and alloy crystals of sizes ranging between 20 and 40 nm. - Highlights: • The viability in obtaining Ni–Co, Cu–Al, Mn–Al co-formed nano oxides was evaluated. • Partial and complete H{sub 2} reduction were used to produce alloy, composite and Spinel. • XRD, TEM and HREM techniques were used to characterize the obtained nanostructures.

  10. The effect of material productivity on scrap reduction on aluminum reduction pot process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, L. N.

    2018-02-01

    Scrap in the production process is defined as part of production that can not be accepted as the final product due to production failure. The amount of scarp occurring in the reduction pot production process of one of the aluminum smelting furnaces exceeds the acceptance standard of 5 to 10%. This affects the amount of production produced. The purpose of this study is to reduce the amount of scrap produced to increase the productivity of the materials used. The solution is carried-out by making improvements using Lean Six Sigma method. In the initial calculation, material productivity ranged from 0.88. Based on the study, the factors that cause the high amount of scrap produced is the use of Na2O which is inserted into the alumina is different in size and the influence of noise that occurs in pots that are difficult to control. The analysis base on Lean Six Sigma obtained process cycle efficiency (PCE) equal to 86,92% for actual condition. Process improvement is carried-out through define, measure, analyze, improve and control procedure on Na2O feeding process and PCE value decrease 6,05%. This indicates that increased process capability will reduce scrap. A decrease in scrap amount of about 6% will be able to increase material productivity by 0.05%. This indicates that continuous process control is needed to decrease the number of scraps and increase productivity.

  11. Friction Reduction in Powertrain Materials: Role of Tribolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Anindya

    This study aims at understanding the micromechanisms responsible for reduction in friction and wear in the engine cylinder bore/liner materials when tested under lubricated and unlubricated conditions. The tribolayers formed in-situ during sliding contact are unique to each tribosystem and a detailed study of these tribolayers will shed light on the friction reduction mechanisms in powertrain materials. Boundary lubricated tribological performance of grey cast iron (CI) tested against non-hydrogenated diamond-like carbon coating (NH-DLC) resulted in 21% lower coefficient of friction (COF) and an order of magnitude lower volumetric wear compared to CI and steel counterfaces. Dilution of the engine oil by ethanol containing E85 biofuel, consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, was beneficial as COF and volumetric wear losses were further reduced. TEM/EELS studies of the NH-DLC counterface provided evidence for OH adsorption of the dangling carbon bonds at the coating surface leading to low friction. Advantage of E85/engine oil blend was also evident during boundary lubricated sliding of eutectic Al-12.6% Si alloy against AISI 52100 steel. The oil residue layer (ORL) formed during boundary lubricated sliding incorporated nanocrystalline regions of Al, Si, ZnS, AlPO4 and ZnO surrounded by amorphous carbon regions. Higher proportions of Zn, S, and P antiwear compounds formed in the ORL when tested using the E85/oil (1:1) blend compared to the unmixed engine oil as the hydroxyl groups in ethanol molecules facilitated ZDDP degradation. Mico-Raman spectroscopy indicated two types of tribolayers formed during unlubricated sliding of thermally sprayed low carbon steel 1010 coating deposited on linerless Al 380 cylinder bore: i) Fe2O3 layer transformed from FeO during dry sliding and ii) Fe2O3 layer with a top amorphous carbon transfer layer when run against H-DLC coated TCR with COF of 0.18. The NH- and H-DLC coatings, that provide low friction under room temperature

  12. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on comparison of non-fossil options to Hinkley Point 'C'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, S.C.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. This evidence to the Inquiry sets out and explains the non-fossil fuel options, with particular reference to renewable energy sources and other PWR locations; gives feasibility, capital cost, performance and total resource estimates for the renewable sources; and shows that no other non-fossil fuel source is to be preferred to Hinkley Point ''C''. (author)

  13. Sources of non-fossil-fuel emissions in carbonaceous aerosols during early winter in Chinese cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China experiences frequent and severe haze outbreaks from the beginning of winter. Carbonaceous aerosols are regarded as an essential factor in controlling the formation and evolution of haze episodes. To elucidate the carbon sources of air pollution, source apportionment was conducted using radiocarbon (14C and unique molecular organic tracers. Daily 24 h PM2. 5 samples were collected continuously from October 2013 to November 2013 in 10 Chinese cities. The 14C results indicated that non-fossil-fuel (NF emissions were predominant in total carbon (TC; average  =  65 ± 7 %. Approximately half of the EC was derived primarily from biomass burning (BB (average  =  46 ± 11 %, while over half of the organic carbon (OC fraction comprised NF (average  =  68 ± 7 %. On average, the largest contributor to TC was NF-derived secondary OC (SOCnf, which accounted for 46 ± 7 % of TC, followed by SOC derived from fossil fuels (FF (SOCf; 16 ± 3 %, BB-derived primary OC (POCbb; 13 ± 5 %, POC derived from FF (POCf; 12 ± 3 %, EC derived from FF (ECf; 7 ± 2 % and EC derived from BB (ECbb; 6 ± 2 %. The regional background carbonaceous aerosol composition was characterized by NF sources; POCs played a major role in northern China, while SOCs contributed more in other regions. However, during haze episodes, there were no dramatic changes in the carbon source or composition in the cities under study, but the contribution of POC from both FF and NF increased significantly.

  14. Deflection of resilient materials for reduction of floor impact sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Jong-Mun

    2014-01-01

    Recently, many residents living in apartment buildings in Korea have been bothered by noise coming from the houses above. In order to reduce noise pollution, communities are increasingly imposing bylaws, including the limitation of floor impact sound, minimum thickness of floors, and floor soundproofing solutions. This research effort focused specifically on the deflection of resilient materials in the floor sound insulation systems of apartment houses. The experimental program involved conducting twenty-seven material tests and ten sound insulation floating concrete floor specimens. Two main parameters were considered in the experimental investigation: the seven types of resilient materials and the location of the loading point. The structural behavior of sound insulation floor floating was predicted using the Winkler method. The experimental and analytical results indicated that the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor significantly increased with increasing the tangent modulus of resilient material. The deflection of the floating concrete floor loaded at the side of the specimen was much greater than that of the floating concrete floor loaded at the center of the specimen. The Winkler model considering the effect of modulus of resilient materials was able to accurately predict the cracking strength of the floating concrete floor.

  15. Drag reduction and improvement of material transport in creeping films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholle, M.; Rund, A.; Aksel, N. [University of Bayreuth, Department of Applied Mechanics and Fluid Dynamics, Bayreuth (Germany)

    2006-01-01

    It is widely accepted that for bodies in turbulent flows a reduction of skin friction can be reached if the surface of the body is provided with small ridges aligned in the local flow direction. This surprising and counterintuitive phenomenon is called the shark-skin effect, motivated from the dermal surface morphology of sharks. In the present article we examine the possibility of resistance reduction due to a rippled surface topography in Stokes flow. We especially analyse the influence of wall riblets perpendicular to the flow direction on the mean transport velocity in gravity-driven creeping film flows following the idea that eddies generated in the valleys of the riblets act like fluid roller bearings and hence may reduce drag. Using a theoretical treatment of the Stokes equations with complex function theory, parameter studies with varying flow rate, bottom amplitude and bottom shape are presented. For the given bottom shapes the maximum enhancement of transport velocity is found by optimising the film thickness. (orig.)

  16. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  17. Development of Teaching Material Oxidation-Reduction Reactions through Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4S TMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamsuri, B. S.; Anwar, S.; Sumarna, O.

    2017-09-01

    This research aims to develop oxidation-reduction reactions (redox) teaching material used the Four Steps Teaching Material Development (4S TMD) method consists of four steps: selection, structuring, characterization and didactical reduction. This paper is the first part of the development of teaching material that includes selection and structuring steps. At the selection step, the development of teaching material begins with the development concept of redox based on curriculum demands, then the development of fundamental concepts sourced from the international textbook, and last is the development of values or skills can be integrated with redox concepts. The results of this selection step are the subject matter of the redox concept and values can be integrated with it. In the structuring step was developed concept map that provide on the relationship between redox concepts; Macro structure that guide systematic on the writing of teaching material; And multiple representations which are the development of teaching material that connection between macroscopic, submicroscopic, and symbolic level representations. The result of the two steps in this first part of the study produced a draft of teaching material. Evaluation of the draft of teaching material is done by an expert lecturer in the field of chemical education to assess the feasibility of teaching material.

  18. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M. Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An integrated framework is developed to optimize risk reduction. • A negative binomial regression model is developed to analyze accident-cause-specific railcar derailment probability. • A Pareto-optimality technique is applied to determine the lowest risk given any level of resource. • A multi-attribute decision model is developed to determine the optimal amount of investment for risk reduction. • The models could aid the government and rail industry in developing cost-efficient risk reduction policy and practice. -- Abstract: Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation

  19. Integrated risk reduction framework to improve railway hazardous materials transportation safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-09-15

    Rail transportation plays a critical role to safely and efficiently transport hazardous materials. A number of strategies have been implemented or are being developed to reduce the risk of hazardous materials release from train accidents. Each of these risk reduction strategies has its safety benefit and corresponding implementation cost. However, the cost effectiveness of the integration of different risk reduction strategies is not well understood. Meanwhile, there has been growing interest in the U.S. rail industry and government to best allocate resources for improving hazardous materials transportation safety. This paper presents an optimization model that considers the combination of two types of risk reduction strategies, broken rail prevention and tank car safety design enhancement. A Pareto-optimality technique is used to maximize risk reduction at a given level of investment. The framework presented in this paper can be adapted to address a broader set of risk reduction strategies and is intended to assist decision makers for local, regional and system-wide risk management of rail hazardous materials transportation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Broadband transmission noise reduction of smart panels featuring piezoelectric shunt circuits and sound-absorbing material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehwan; Lee, Joong-Kuen

    2002-09-01

    The possibility of a broadband noise reduction of piezoelectric smart panels is experimentally studied. A piezoelectric smart panel is basically a plate structure on which piezoelectric patches with electrical shunt circuits are mounted and sound-absorbing material is bonded on the surface of the structure. Sound-absorbing material can absorb the sound transmitted at the midfrequency region effectively while the use of piezoelectric shunt damping can reduce the transmission at resonance frequencies of the panel structure. To be able to reduce the sound transmission at low panel resonance frequencies, piezoelectric damping using the measured electrical impedance model is adopted. A resonant shunt circuit for piezoelectric shunt damping is composed of resistor and inductor in series, and they are determined by maximizing the dissipated energy through the circuit. The transmitted noise-reduction performance of smart panels is tested in an acoustic tunnel. The tunnel is a square cross-sectional tube and a loudspeaker is mounted at one side of the tube as a sound source. Panels are mounted in the middle of the tunnel and the transmitted sound pressure across panels is measured. When an absorbing material is bonded on a single plate, a remarkable transmitted noise reduction in the midfrequency region is observed except for the fundamental resonance frequency of the plate. By enabling the piezoelectric shunt damping, noise reduction is achieved at the resonance frequency as well. Piezoelectric smart panels incorporating passive absorbing material and piezoelectric shunt damping is a promising technology for noise reduction over a broadband of frequencies.

  1. Volume reduction technology of radioactive waste and clearance practice of contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chao

    2016-01-01

    • One of principles of RW management is minimization and reduction: - Advance process and facilities should be reasonably applied to reduce the waste generation (''Law of the People's Republic of China on Prevention and Control of Radioactive Pollution'', 2003); - Operator of RW storage facilities should dispose or clear up solid waste timely (''Regulations on the safety of RW management'', 2011); • Reduction principle: - Control of generation; - Use of volume reduction technique; - Clearance of slightly contaminated material

  2. Demonstration of remotely operated TRU waste size reduction and material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looper, M.G.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing remote size reduction and material handling equipment to prepare 238 Pu contaminated waste for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The waste is generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) from normal operation and decommissioning activity and is retrievably stored onsite. A Transuranic Waste Facility for preparing, size-reducing, and packaging this waste for disposal is scheduled for completion in 1995. A cold test facility for demonstrating the size reduction and material handling equipment was built, and testing began in January 1987. 9 figs., 1 tab

  3. Demonstration of remotely operated tru waste size reduction and material handling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looper, M.G.; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is developing remote size reduction and material handling equipment to prepare 238Pu and 239Pu contaminated waste for permanent disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. The waste is generated at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) from normal operation and decommissioning activity and is retrievably stored on-site. A Transuranic Waste Facility for preparing, size-reducing, and packaging this waste for disposal is scheduled for completion in 1995. A cold test facility for demonstrating the size reduction and material handling equipment was built, and testing began in January 1987

  4. A Mathematical Method for Determining Optimal Quantity of Backfill Materials Used for Grounding Resistance Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovan Trifunovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During installation of grounding system, which represents a significant part of any electrical power system, various backfill materials are used for grounding resistance reduction. The general mathematical method for determining an optimal quantity of backfill materials used for grounding resistance reduction, based on the mathematical tools, 3D FEM modeling, numerical analysis of the obtained results, and the “knee” of the curve concept, as well as on the engineering analysis based on the designer’s experience, is developed and offered in this paper. The proposed method has been tested by applying it to a square loop enveloped by a backfill material and buried in a 2-layer soil. The results obtained by the presented method showed a good correlation with the experimentally obtained data from literature. The proposed method can help the designers to avoid the saturation areas in order to maximize efficiency of backfill material usage.

  5. Composite Material Testing Data Reduction to Adjust for the Systematic 6-DOF Testing Machine Aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasios lliopoulos; John G. Michopoulos; John G. C. Hermanson

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a data reduction methodology for eliminating the systematic aberrations introduced by the unwanted behavior of a multiaxial testing machine, into the massive amounts of experimental data collected from testing of composite material coupons. The machine in reference is a custom made 6-DoF system called NRL66.3 and developed at the NAval...

  6. The New Graphene Family Materials: Synthesis and Applications in Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Graphene family materials, including graphene quantum dots (GQDs, graphene nanoribbons (GNRs and 3D graphene (3D-G, have attracted much research interest for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, due to their unique structural characteristics, such as abundant activate sites, edge effects and the interconnected network. In this review, we summarize recent developments in fabricating various new graphene family materials and their applications for use as ORR electrocatalysts. These new graphene family materials play an important role in improving the ORR performance, thus promoting the practical use in metal-air batteries and fuel cells.

  7. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: proof of evidence on the need for Hinkley Point 'C' to help meet capacity requirement and the non-fossil-fuel proportion economically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, F.P.

    1988-09-01

    A public inquiry has been set up to examine the planning application made by the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor power station at Hinkley Point (Hinkley Point ''C'') in the United Kingdom. The purpose of this evidence to the Inquiry is to show why there is a need now to go ahead with the construction of Hinkley Point ''C'' generating station to help meet the non-fossil-fuel proportion of generation economically and also to help meet future generating capacity requirement. The CEGB submits that it is appropriate to compare Hinkley Point ''C'' with other non-fossil-fuel alternatives under various bases. Those dealt with by this proof of evidence are as follows: i) ability to contribute to capacity need and in assisting the distribution companies to meet their duty to supply electricity; ii) ability to contribute to the non-fossil-fuel proportion; iii) relative economic merit. (author)

  8. Low activation material design methodology for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Satou, M.; Nogami, S.; Kakinuma, N.; Kinno, M.; Hayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the concrete shielding walls and pipes around a reactor pressure vessel of a light water reactor become low level radioactive waste at decommission phase because they contain radioactive nuclides by thermal-neutron irradiation during its operation. The radioactivity of some low level radioactive wastes is close to the clearance level. It is very desirable in terms of life cycle cost reduction that the radioactivity of those low level radioactive wastes is decreased below clearance level. In case of light water reactors, however, methodology of low activation design of a nuclear plant has not been established yet because the reactor is a large-scale facility and has various structural materials. The Objectives of this work are to develop low activation material design methodology and material fabrication for reduction of radio-active wastes of nuclear power plant such as reinforced concrete. To realize fabrication of reduced radioactive concrete, it is necessary to develop (1) the database of the chemical composition of raw materials to select low activation materials, (2) the tool for calculation of the neutron flux and the spectrum distribution of nuclear plants to evaluate radioactivity of reactor components, (3) optimization of material process conditions to produce the low activation cement and the low activation steels. Results of the data base development, calculation tools and trial production of low activation cements will be presented. (authors)

  9. Identification of catalytic sites in cobalt-nitrogen-carbon materials for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitolo, Andrea; Ranjbar-Sahraie, Nastaran; Mineva, Tzonka; Li, Jingkun; Jia, Qingying; Stamatin, Serban; Harrington, George F; Lyth, Stephen Mathew; Krtil, Petr; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Fonda, Emiliano; Jaouen, Frédéric

    2017-10-16

    Single-atom catalysts with full utilization of metal centers can bridge the gap between molecular and solid-state catalysis. Metal-nitrogen-carbon materials prepared via pyrolysis are promising single-atom catalysts but often also comprise metallic particles. Here, we pyrolytically synthesize a Co-N-C material only comprising atomically dispersed cobalt ions and identify with X-ray absorption spectroscopy, magnetic susceptibility measurements and density functional theory the structure and electronic state of three porphyrinic moieties, CoN 4 C 12 , CoN 3 C 10,porp and CoN 2 C 5 . The O 2 electro-reduction and operando X-ray absorption response are measured in acidic medium on Co-N-C and compared to those of a Fe-N-C catalyst prepared similarly. We show that cobalt moieties are unmodified from 0.0 to 1.0 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode, while Fe-based moieties experience structural and electronic-state changes. On the basis of density functional theory analysis and established relationships between redox potential and O 2 -adsorption strength, we conclude that cobalt-based moieties bind O 2 too weakly for efficient O 2 reduction.Nitrogen-doped carbon materials with atomically dispersed iron or cobalt are promising for catalytic use. Here, the authors show that cobalt moieties have a higher redox potential, bind oxygen more weakly and are less active toward oxygen reduction than their iron counterpart, despite similar coordination.

  10. Two dimensional N-containing carbon materials for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yexin; Hu, Zhenpeng; Zhang, Lixin

    2013-03-01

    Seeking Pt replacement catalysts for cathode oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is very important for the application of some new energy technologies like fuel cells and lithium-air batteries. N-doped graphene and carbon nitride sheets are two kinds of promising materials. For the N-doped graphene, it is found that nitrogen clusters other than isolated substitutionals are the active sites for oxygen reduction. Clusters with three or four N atoms are found to be the most active. Codoping boron (or Fe, Co) can effectively stabilize these high energy clusters while keep the cluster's high activity. For the carbon nitride sheets, in the C:N ratio range of 2.0-3.0, they are stable enough and can potentially catalyze the oxygen reduction as efficiently as Pt. It is revealed that the concentration of nitrogen can tune the Fermi level of the material and thus the catalytic property. The catalytic sites are located at those carbon atoms with special configurations rather than the nitrogen atoms. These results are helpful in designing N-containing carbon materials for ORR.

  11. Numerical modeling of NOx reduction using pyrolysis products from biomass-based materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisupati, Sarma V.; Bhalla, Sumeet

    2008-01-01

    Pyrolysis products of biomass (bio-oils) have been shown to cause a reduction in NO x emissions when used as reburn fuel in combustion systems. When these bio-oils are processed with lime, calcium is ion-exchanged and the product is called BioLime TM . BioLime TM , when introduced into a combustion chamber, causes oils to pyrolyze and reduce NO x emissions through reburn mechanisms while simultaneously causing Ca to react with SO 2 . Thus NO x and SO 2 emissions are reduced at the same time. The devolatilization rates of two biomass-based materials were studied using TGA and were related to the yield of pyrolysis gases and char during flash pyrolysis. Numerical simulations using CHEMKIN to model NO reduction through homogeneous gas phase reactions were reported. The numerical predictions were then compared to NO x emission levels from experiments in a down-fired combustor (DFC) to validate the model. A difference in NO reduction was observed by use of different bio-oils under similar operating conditions. This is believed to be due to the difference in yield of flash pyrolysis products of bio-oils. Also, different pyrolysis gases have different NO x reduction potentials. Knowledge of the relative contribution of pyrolysis gases in NO reduction will help choose a feedstock of biomass that will aid in increasing the yield of the desired species. A parametric analysis was done using the model to study the effect of varying concentrations of hydrocarbons, CO 2 , CO, and H 2 , and the results were then verified using a flow reactor. The analysis showed that hydrocarbons were mainly responsible for causing reduction in emissions of NO, whereas CO 2 , CO, and H 2 have very little effect on NO reduction

  12. Numerical Model and Analysis of Peak Temperature Reduction in LiFePO4 Battery Packs Using Phase Change Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials......Numerical model and analysis of peak temperature reduction in LiFePO4 battery packs using phase change materials...

  13. Characterization of composite materials of electroconductive polymer and cobalt as electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Millan, W.; Toledano Thompson, T.; Smit, Mascha A. [Centro de Investigacion Cientifica de Yucatan (CICY), Unidad de Materiales, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo, 97200 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Arriaga, L.G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica S.C. (CIDETEQ), Parque Tecnologico Queretaro, 76700 Queretaro Sanfandila, Queretaro (Mexico)

    2009-01-15

    Platinum-free electrocatalysts based on electroconductive polymer, modified with cobalt, were prepared and characterized for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The carbon-supported materials were: carbon/polyaniline/cobalt, carbon/polypyrrole/cobalt and carbon/poly(3-methylthiophene)/cobalt. Also the corresponding cobalt-free precursors were studied. EDAX studies show that in cobalt-modified catalysts, significant percentages of cobalt, between 5 and 7% in weight, are present. FTIR, TGA, and EDAX studies confirmed that the addition of cobalt modifies the chemical structure of C-Pani, C-Ppy, and C-P3MT materials. Cyclic voltammetry shows reduction peaks corresponding to the ORR for all materials and kinetic parameters were calculated based on lineal voltammetry using RDE at different rotating speeds. It was found that C-P3MT-Co has highest exchange current densities, followed by C-Ppy and C-Ppy-Co. All samples have Tafel slopes between -110 and -120 V/dec, indicating that the first electron transfer is the decisive step in the global ORR. Potentiostatic tests showed an adequate stability of cobalt-modified samples in acid medium at ORR potentials. Based on the potential range at which ORR occurs, the exchange current density and stability tests, it is concluded that the best material for potential application as fuel cell cathode catalyst is C-Ppy-Co. (author)

  14. Design and operation of a remotely operated plutonium waste size reduction and material handling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.A. III; Charlesworth, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Non-combustible Pu-238 and Pu-239 waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant, and is being retrievably stored there. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste for permanent disposal, a remote size reduction and material handling process is being cold-tested at Savannah River Laboratory. The process consists of a large, low-speed shredder and material handling system, a remote worktable, a bagless transfer system, and a robotically controlled manipulator. Initial testing of the shredder and material handling system and a cycle test of the bagless transfer system has been completed. Fabrication and acceptance testing of the Telerobot, a robotically controlled manipulator, has been completed. Testing is scheduled to begin in 3/86. Design features maximizing the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated. Complete cold-testing of the equipment is scheduled to be completed in 987

  15. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantz, Frederic; Percebois, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of the odour reduction potential of alternative cover materials at a commercial landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solan, P J; Dodd, V A; Curran, T P

    2010-02-01

    The availability of virgin soils and traditional landfill covers are not only costly and increasingly becoming scarce, but they also reduce the storage capacity of landfill. The problem can be overcome by the utilisation of certain suitable waste streams as alternative landfill covers. The objective of this study was to assess the suitability of Construction & Demolition fines (C&D), Commercial & Industrial fines (C&I) and woodchip (WC) as potential landfill cover materials in terms of odour control. Background odour analysis was conducted to determine if any residual odour was emitted from the cover types. It was deemed negligible for the three materials. The odour reduction performance of each of the materials was also examined on an area of an active landfill site. A range of intermediate cover compositions were also studied to assess their performance. Odour emissions were sampled using a Jiang hood and analysed. Results indicate that the 200 mm deep combination layer of C&D and wood chip used on-site is adequate for odour abatement. The application of daily cover was found to result in effective reduction allowing for the background odour of woodchip.

  17. Active Vibration Reduction of Titanium Alloy Fan Blades (FAN1) Using Piezoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Benjamin; Kauffman, Jeffrey; Duffy, Kirsten; Provenza, Andrew; Morrison, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing smart adaptive structures to improve fan blade damping at resonances using piezoelectric (PE) transducers. In this paper, a digital resonant control technique emulating passive shunt circuits is used to demonstrate vibration reduction of FAN1 Ti real fan blade at the several target modes. Single-mode control and multi-mode control using one piezoelectric material are demonstrated. Also a conceptual study of how to implement this digital control system into the rotating fan blade is discussed.

  18. Railway noise reduction by the application of CHFC material on the rail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita ALTENBAHER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traffic is the most widespread source of environmental noise. Railway noise has become increasingly common in urban areas in the past few decades. Therefore environmental requirements for railway operations regarding noise are becoming very strict and will become even tighter in future. In the present paper we present actual track-based field test performed on Slovenian Railways. The significant noise reduction (up to 30dBA was achieved by the application of CHFC material on the rail using CL-E1 top anti noise system.

  19. Nano-Structured Bio-Inorganic Hybrid Material for High Performing Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rongzhong; Tran, Dat T; McClure, Joshua P; Chu, Deryn

    2015-08-26

    In this study, we demonstrate a non-Pt nanostructured bioinorganic hybrid (BIH) catalyst for catalytic oxygen reduction in alkaline media. This catalyst was synthesized through biomaterial hemin, nanostructured Ag-Co alloy, and graphene nano platelets (GNP) by heat-treatment and ultrasonically processing. This hybrid catalyst has the advantages of the combined features of these bio and inorganic materials. A 10-fold improvement in catalytic activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) is achieved in comparison of pure Ag nanoparticles (20-40 nm). The hybrid catalyst reaches 80% activity (at 0.8 V vs RHE) of the state-of-the-art catalyst (containing 40% Pt and 60% active carbon). Comparable catalytic stability for the hybrid catalyst with the Pt catalyst is observed by chronoamperometric experiment. The hybrid catalyst catalyzes 4-electron oxygen reduction to produce water with fast kinetic rate. The rate constant obtained from the hybrid catalyst (at 0.6 V vs RHE) is 4 times higher than that of pure Ag/GNP catalyst. A catalytic model is proposed to explain the oxygen reduction reaction at the BIH catalyst.

  20. Monte Carlo simulations of safeguards neutron counter for oxide reduction process feed material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Oh, Jong-Myeong; An, Su Jung; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe

    2016-10-01

    One of the options for spent-fuel management in Korea is pyroprocessing whose main process flow is the head-end process followed by oxide reduction, electrorefining, and electrowining. In the present study, a well-type passive neutron coincidence counter, namely, the ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) safeguards neutron counter (ASNC), was redesigned for safeguards of a hot-cell facility related to the oxide reduction process. To this end, first, the isotopic composition, gamma/neutron emission yield and energy spectrum of the feed material ( i.e., the UO2 porous pellet) were calculated using the OrigenARP code. Then, the proper thickness of the gammaray shield was determined, both by irradiation testing at a standard dosimetry laboratory and by MCNP6 simulations using the parameters obtained from the OrigenARP calculation. Finally, the neutron coincidence counter's calibration curve for 100- to 1000-g porous pellets, in consideration of the process batch size, was determined through simulations. Based on these simulation results, the neutron counter currently is under construction. In the near future, it will be installed in a hot cell and tested with spent fuel materials.

  1. Get SMART: the case for a strategic materials reduction treaty, and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numark, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    Inventories of weapons plutonium removed from nuclear warheads should be reduced as quickly as possible to prevent large-scale rearmament by the United States or Russia and to minimize the risk of theft or sabotage by a sub-national group. The U.S. and Russia should agree to a Strategic Materials Reduction Treaty (SMART) establishing an aggressive timetable for manual reduction of national security needs and schedule the final disposition of this material. An aggressive disarmament timetable will require an aggressive implementation program. This should take advantage of available resources within the U.S. and Russia as well as in third countries, including potentially both reactor and immobilization options, as long as stringent safeguards and security can be guaranteed at all participating facilities. Many existing light water reactors in the U.S. are well suited to the purpose, and several private operators of these plants have formally expressed interest to the U.S. government in providing such service. Russian fast and light water reactors appear to be less readily available to burn weapons plutonium. Russia, the United States and other G-7 countries should develop international programs to facilitate the most rapid possible reduction in weapons plutonium inventories, consistent with SMART. Such international co-operation would add credibility and transparency to the nuclear disarmament process in the spirit of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and could add momentum toward the conclusion of both a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and a Fissile Material Production Cut-off Treaty. This international program should take advantage of existing global infrastructure for the use of plutonium fuel as well as other capability (e.g., in the U.S. and Canada) that could supplement existing civilian Pu use plans, as well as vitrification or other immobilization facilities. In combination, it is reasonable to forecast a global capability to disposition at least 10 tons of weapons

  2. Materials selection of surface coatings in an advanced size reduction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.L.; Younger, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A materials selection test program was conducted to characterize optimum interior surface coatings for an advanced size reduction facility. The equipment to be processed by this facility consists of stainless steel apparatus (e.g., glove boxes, piping, and tanks) used for the chemical recovery of plutonium. Test results showed that a primary requirement for a satisfactory coating is ease of decontamination. A closely related concern is the resistance of paint films to nitric acid - plutonium environments. A vinyl copolymer base paint was the only coating, of eight paints tested, with properties that permitted satisfactory decontamination of plutonium and also performed equal to or better than the other paints in the chemical resistance, radiation stability, and impact tests

  3. Reduction of the thermal conductivity of the thermoelectric material ScN by Nb alloying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tureson, Nina; Van Nong, Ngo; Fournier, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    ) orientation. The crystal structure, morphology, thermal conductivity, and thermoelectric and electrical properties were investigated. The ScN reference film exhibited a Seebeck coefficient of −45 μV/K and a power factor of 6 × 10−4 W/m K2 at 750 K. Estimated from room temperature Hall measurements, all...... samples exhibit a high carrier density of the order of 1021 cm−3. Inclusion of heavy transition metals into ScN enables the reduction in thermal conductivity by an increase in phonon scattering. The Nb inserted ScN thin films exhibited a thermal conductivity lower than the value of the ScN reference (10.......5 W m−1 K−1) down to a minimum value of 2.2 Wm−1 K−1. Insertion of Nb into ScN thus resulted in a reduction in thermal conductivity by a factor of ∼5 due to the mass contrast in ScN, which increases the phonon scattering in the material....

  4. Reduction of cyanogenic glycosides by extrusion - influence of temperature and moisture content of the processed material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čolović Dušica S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Тhe paper presents results of the investigation of the influence of extrusion temperature and moisture content of treated material on the reduction of cyanogenic glycosides (CGs in linseed-based co-extrudate. CGs are the major limitation of the effective usage of linseed in animal nutrition. Hence, some technological process must be applied for detoxification of linseed before its application as a nutrient. Extrusion process has demonstrated several advantages in reducing the present CGs, since it combines the influences of heating, shearing, high pressure, mixing, etc. According to obtained results, the increase in both temperature and moisture content of the starting mixture decreased the content of CGs in the processed material. HCN content, as a measurement of GCs presence, ranged from 25.42 mg/kg, recorded at the moisture content of 11.5%, to 126 mg/kg, detected at the lowest moisture content of 7%. It seems that moisture content and temperature had the impact on HCN content of equal importance. However, the influence of extrusion parameters other than temperature and moisture content could not be neglected. Therefore, the impact of individual factors has to be tested together. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46012

  5. Possibility of material cost reduction toward development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Ataru; Horii, Shigeru; Doi, Toshiya

    2017-10-01

    Two approaches to reducing the material cost of second-generation superconducting wires are proposed in this paper: (1) instead of the electrical stabilizing layers of silver and copper presently used on the superconducting layer, a Nb-doped SrTiO3 conductive buffer layer and cube-textured Cu are proposed as an advanced architecture, and (2) the use of an electromagnetic (EM) steel tape as a metal substrate of coated conductors in a conventional architecture. In structures fabricated without using electrical stabilizing layers on the superconducting layer, the critical current density achieved at 77 K in a self-field was approximately 2.6 MA/cm2. On the other hand, in the case of using EM steel tapes, although the critical current density was far from practical at the current stage, the biaxial alignment of YBa2Cu3O y (YBCO) and buffer layers was realized without oxidation on the metal surface. In this study, the possibility of material cost reduction has been strongly indicated toward the development of low-cost second-generation superconducting wires in the near future.

  6. A novel approach to secondary defect reduction in separation by implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellingboe, S.L.; Ridgway, M.C. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Research School of Physical Sciences

    1993-12-31

    The formation of a buried SiO{sub 2} layer in Si for increased radiation hardness, dielectric isolation, and/or higher operating speeds in Si devices has been studied extensively. In the present report, a novel method for improving the final defect structure of SIMOX material is demonstrated for the first time. The concept of ion-beam defect-engineering (IBDE) introduced by Wang et al has been utilised. If defects are introduced at a depth R{sub 1} by irradiation with energetic ions into samples which were previously damaged at a depth R{sub 2}, it is possible to alter the properties of the defects at R{sub 2}, reduce or eliminate damage at R{sub 2}, and/or create gettering sites for defects at R{sub 1} . To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the secondary defect reduction in annealed SIMOX material, unannealed samples were implanted with Si ions at various energies, while keeping the nuclear energy deposition constant at two depths. It was observed that after annealing, even greater changes in the defect structure are evident. It has been demonstrated that pre-anneal Si irradiation in O-implanted Si can reduce secondary defect formation. Both the depth and amount of damage created are crucial to the success of the Si implantation. 5 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Effect of Start-Up Strategies and Electrode Materials on Carbon Dioxide Reduction on Biocathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheb-Alam, Soroush; Singh, Abhijeet; Hermansson, Malte; Persson, Frank; Schnürer, Anna; Wilén, Britt-Marie; Modin, Oskar

    2018-02-15

    The enrichment of CO 2 -reducing microbial biocathodes is challenging. Previous research has shown that a promising approach could be to first enrich bioanodes and then lower the potential so the electrodes are converted into biocathodes. However, the effect of such a transition on the microbial community on the electrode has not been studied. The goal of this study was thus to compare the start-up of biocathodes from preenriched anodes with direct start-up from bare electrodes and to investigate changes in microbial community composition. The effect of three electrode materials on the long-term performance of the biocathodes was also investigated. In this study, preenrichment of acetate-oxidizing bioanodes did not facilitate the start-up of biocathodes. It took about 170 days for the preenriched electrodes to generate substantial cathodic current, compared to 83 days for the bare electrodes. Graphite foil and carbon felt cathodes produced higher current at the beginning of the experiment than did graphite rods. However, all electrodes produced similar current densities at the end of the over 1-year-long study (2.5 A/m 2 ). Methane was the only product detected during operation of the biocathodes. Acetate was the only product detected after inhibition of the methanogens. Microbial community analysis showed that Geobacter sp. dominated the bioanodes. On the biocathodes, the Geobacter sp. was succeeded by Methanobacterium spp., which made up more than 80% of the population. After inhibition of the methanogens, Acetobacterium sp. became dominant on the electrodes (40% relative abundance). The results suggested that bioelectrochemically generated H 2 acted as an electron donor for CO 2 reduction. IMPORTANCE In microbial electrochemical systems, living microorganisms function as catalysts for reactions on the anode and/or the cathode. There is a variety of potential applications, ranging from wastewater treatment and biogas generation to production of chemicals. Systems

  8. Development of a new family of normalized modulus reduction and material damping curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darendeli, Mehmet Baris

    2001-12-01

    As part of various research projects [including the SRS (Savannah River Site) Project AA891070, EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) Project 3302, and ROSRINE (Resolution of Site Response Issues from the Northridge Earthquake) Project], numerous geotechnical sites were drilled and sampled. Intact soil samples over a depth range of several hundred meters were recovered from 20 of these sites. These soil samples were tested in the laboratory at The University of Texas at Austin (UTA) to characterize the materials dynamically. The presence of a database accumulated from testing these intact specimens motivated a re-evaluation of empirical curves employed in the state of practice. The weaknesses of empirical curves reported in the literature were identified and the necessity of developing an improved set of empirical curves was recognized. This study focused on developing the empirical framework that can be used to generate normalized modulus reduction and material damping curves. This framework is composed of simple equations, which incorporate the key parameters that control nonlinear soil behavior. The data collected over the past decade at The University of Texas at Austin are statistically analyzed using First-order, Second-moment Bayesian Method (FSBM). The effects of various parameters (such as confining pressure and soil plasticity) on dynamic soil properties are evaluated and quantified within this framework. One of the most important aspects of this study is estimating not only the mean values of the empirical curves but also estimating the uncertainty associated with these values. This study provides the opportunity to handle uncertainty in the empirical estimates of dynamic soil properties within the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis framework. A refinement in site-specific probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is expected to materialize in the near future by incorporating the results of this study into state of practice.

  9. Effect of hydrophobic paints coating for tritium reduction in concrete materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edao, Y.; Fukada, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Katayama, K.; Takeishi, T.; Hatano, Y.; Taguchi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effects of hydrophobic paint coating in tritium transport are investigated. ► Two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin and epoxy resin are used. ► The hydrophobic paints are effective to reduce tritium permeation. ► The effect of tritium reduction of epoxy paint is higher than that of silicon. - Abstract: The effects of hydrophobic paint coating on a concrete material of cement paste on the tritium transport are investigated. The cement paste is coated with two kinds of paints, acrylic-silicon resin paint and epoxy resin paint. We investigated the amount of tritium trapped in the samples exposed to tritiated water vapor by means of sorption and release. It was found that both the hydrophobic paints could reduce effectively tritium permeation during 50 days exposure of tritiated water vapor. The effect of tritium reduction of the epoxy paint was higher than that of silicon while the amount of tritium trapped in the epoxy paint was larger than that of silicon due to difference of the structure. Based on an analysis of a diffusion model, the rate-determining step of tritium migration through cement paste coated with the paints is diffusion through the paints respectively. It was found that tritium was easy to penetrate through silicon because there were many pores or voids in the silicon comparatively. In the case of tritium released from the epoxy paint, it is considered that tritium diffusion in epoxy is slow due to retardation by isotope exchange reaction to water included in epoxy paint.

  10. Residual monomer content determination in some acrylic denture base materials and possibilities of its reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Milena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Polymethyl methacrylate is used for producing a denture basis. It is a material made by the polymerization process of methyl methacrylate. Despite of the polymerization type, there is a certain amount of free methyl methacrylate (residual monomer incorporated in the denture, which can cause irritation of the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to determine the amount of residual monomer in four different denture base acrylic resins by liquid chromatography and the possibility of its reduction. Methods. After the polymerization, a postpolymerization treatment was performed in three different ways: in boiling water for thirty minutes, with 500 W microwaves for three minutes and in steam bath at 22º C for one to thirty days. Results. The obtained results showed that the amount of residual monomer is significantly higher in cold polymerizing acrylates (9.1-11%. The amount of residual monomer after hot polymerization was in the tolerance range (0.59- 0.86%. Conclusion. The obtained results denote a low content of residual monomer in the samples which have undergone postpolymerization treatment. A lower percent of residual monomer is established in samples undergone a hot polymerization.

  11. High Oxygen Reduction Reaction Performances of Cathode Materials Combining Polyoxometalates, Coordination Complexes, and Carboneous Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuangshuang; Oms, Olivier; Hao, Long; Liu, Rongji; Wang, Meng; Zhang, Yaqin; He, Hong-Yan; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Keita, Bineta; Zhi, Linjie; Mialane, Pierre; Li, Bin; Zhang, Guangjin

    2017-11-08

    A series of carbonaceous-supported precious-metal-free polyoxometalate (POM)-based composites which can be easily synthesized on a large scale was shown to act as efficient cathode materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in neutral or basic media via a four-electron mechanism with high durability. Moreover, exploiting the versatility of the considered system, its activity was optimized by the judicious choice of the 3d metals incorporated in the {(PW 9 ) 2 M 7 } (M = Co, Ni) POM core, the POM counterions and the support (thermalized triazine-based frameworks (TTFs), fluorine-doped TTF (TTF-F), reduced graphene oxide, or carbon Vulcan XC-72. In particular, for {(PW 9 ) 2 Ni 7 }/{Cu(ethylenediamine) 2 }/TTF-F, the overpotential required to drive the ORR compared well with those of Pt/C. This outstanding ORR electrocatalytic activity is linked with two synergistic effects due to the binary combination of the Cu and Ni centers and the strong interaction between the POM molecules and the porous and highly conducting TTF-F framework. To our knowledge, {(PW 9 ) 2 Ni 7 }/{Cu(ethylenediamine) 2 }/TTF-F represents the first example of POM-based noble-metal-free ORR electrocatalyst possessing both comparable ORR electrocatalytic activity and much higher stability than that of Pt/C in neutral medium.

  12. A sensitivity analysis of timing and costs of greenhouse gas emission reductions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerlagh, R.; van der Zwaan, B.C.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses the optimal timing and macro-economic costs of carbon emission reductions that mitigate the global average atmospheric temperature increase. We use a macro-economic model in which there are two competing energy sources, fossil-fuelled and non-fossil-fuelled. Technological change

  13. Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baribeau, A.; Bradley, R.; Brown, P.; Goodwin, J.; Kihm, U.; Lotero, E.; O' Connor, D.; Schuppers, M.; Taylor, D.

    2007-03-15

    This document presents a systematic survey of current knowledge about the risk to human and animal health posed by the processing of tissues from animals potentially infected with transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE, or 'prion disease') into biodiesel. It is organised into an introductory background section on TSE, followed by chapters treating the sequential stages of biodiesel production. The principal conclusions are: Animal tissue sources. The choice of geographic origin, based on published scientific evaluations of the risk of TSE to be present in a given country, can largely reduce or even eliminate the entry of contaminated tissue into the biodiesel feedstock. Further safeguards can be provided by selection of animal species not susceptible to TSE, and of tissues without any detectable infectivity even in susceptible species. None of these measures, however, would be applied to the biodiesel projects under consideration, which have the specific aim of using animals and tissues (including specified risk material, or SRM) considered to have sufficient potential risk to be unacceptable for use in food, feed, fertilisers, or pharmaceuticals (including biologicals and medical devices) and therefore are designated for other approved uses, or destruction. Tissue rendering to produce tallow. Experiments to test the survival of TSE infectivity in the products of rendering failed to detect any infectivity in the crude tallow fraction, even following processing methods that allowed survival of infectivity in the co-produced meat and bone meal fraction. It is therefore extremely unlikely that pure tallow originating from diseased animals would be infectious; however, lower grade tallow might contain infectious impurities. A requirement that tallow derived from SRM for use in biodiesel contain no detectable protein would reduce this possibility. Transesterification of tallow to biodiesel. Several steps in the manufacturing process have at least the

  14. Recent advances in the efficient reduction of graphene oxide and its application as energy storage electrode materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuila, Tapas; Mishra, Ananta Kumar; Khanra, Partha; Kim, Nam Hoon; Lee, Joong Hee

    2013-01-07

    Efficient reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by chemical, thermal, electrochemical, and photo-irradiation techniques has been reviewed. Particular emphasis has been directed towards the proposed reduction mechanisms of GO by different reducing agents and techniques. The advantages of using different kinds of reducing agents on the basis of their availability, cost-effectiveness, toxicity, and easy product isolation processes have also been studied extensively. We provide a detailed description of the improvement in physiochemical properties of reduced GO (RGO) compared to pure GO. For example, the electrical conductivity and electrochemical performance of electrochemically obtained RGO are much better than those of chemically or thermally RGO materials. We provide examples of how RGO has been used as supercapacitor electrode materials. Specific capacitance of GO increases after reduction and the value has been reported to be 100-300 F g(-1). We conclude by proposing new environmentally friendly types of reducing agents that can efficiently remove oxygen functionalities from the surface of GO.

  15. Designed Materials for Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysis in PEM Fuel Cells: Novel Materials and Next Generation Synchrotron Based in Situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-15

    fonnation at the electrocatalyst- ionomer interface in a PEM fuel cell context is especially important from the perspective ofattempts to develop alternative...Reduction in a Fully Hydrated Proton Exchange Membrane Interface : Problems and Prospects’, S. Mukerjee. Keynote speaker at International Fuel Cells , May 15th...Synchrotron XAS Investigation’S. Mukerjee, invited speaker at the Workshop on Theory and Surface Measurement of Fuel Cell Catalysts , Magleas Conference

  16. The National Shipbuilding Research Program: Producibility Cost Reductions through Alternative Materials and Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horsmon, Jr., Albert W; Johnson, Karl; Gans-Devney, Barbara

    1999-01-01

    This report describes research into the use of alternative materials and processes to reduce material and labor costs while also looking at the influence of these choices on the life cycle costs of the vessel...

  17. Reduction of minimum required weight of cementitious materials in WisDOT concrete mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    "This project was designed to explore the feasibility of lowering the cementitious materials content : (CMC) used in Wisconsin concrete pavement construction. The cementitious materials studied included : portland cement, fly ash, and ground granulat...

  18. Comparison Study of the Use of Absorbable and Nonabsorbable Materials as Internal Splints after Closed Reduction for Nasal Bone Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ryul Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The authors sought to compare the use of the nonabsorbable polyvinyl alcohol sponge (PVA, Merocel and absorbable synthetic polyurethane foam (SPF, Nasopore Forte plus as intranasal splints after closed reduction of fractured nasal bones during the hospitalization period. Methods The medical records of 111 patients who underwent closed reduction for nasal bone fracture at Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, from 2012 to 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. PVA (group A or SPF (group B was packed as an internal splint after closed reduction. The efficacy of the materials was compared and statistically analyzed. Results PVA was used in 82 patients, and SPF was used in 29 patients. The patients in group B complained significantly more of nasal pain on the first day after operation than the patients in group A. Headaches on the operation day were significantly more painful in group B than in group A. Bleeding on the fourth postoperative day was significantly reduced in group B as compared to group A. The patients in group B exhibited significantly more intensive nasal obstruction on the operation day and the following day than the patients in group A. However, on the third and fourth postoperative days, the nasal obstruction in group B was less than that in group A. The pain and bleeding related to the packing material was significantly reduced in group B as compared to group A. Conclusions The use of SPF as an absorbable packing material is a reasonable substitute for the traditional nonabsorbable material.

  19. Demonstration test results of organic materials' volumetric reduction using bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro; Watanabe, Masahisa

    2013-01-01

    To discover technologies that can be utilized for decontamination work and verify their effects, economic feasibility, safety, and other factors, the Ministry of the Environment launched the 'FY2011 Decontamination Technology Demonstrations Project' to publicly solicit decontamination technologies that would be verified in demonstration tests and adopted 22 candidates. JAEA was commissioned by the Ministry of the Environment to provide technical assistance related to these demonstrations. This paper describes the volume reduction due to bio-ethanol, thermal decomposition and burning of organic materials in this report. The purpose of this study is that to evaluate a technique that can be used as biomass energy source, while performing volume reduction of contamination organic matter generated by decontamination. An important point of volume reduction technology of contaminated organic matter, is to evaluate the mass balance in the system. Then, confirming the mass balance of radioactive material and where to stay is important. The things that are common to all technologies, are ensuring that the radioactive cesium is not released as exhaust gas, etc.. In addition, it evaluates the cost balance and energy balance in order to understand the applicability to the decontamination of volume reduction technology. The radioactive cesium remains in the carbides when organic materials are carbonized, and radioactive cesium does not transfer to bio-ethanol when organic materials are processed for bio-ethanol production. While plant operating costs are greater if radioactive materials need to be treated, if income is expected by business such as power generation, depreciation may be calculated over approximately 15 years. (authors)

  20. A New Porous Hybrid Material Derived From Silica Fume and Alginate for Sustainable Pollutants Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanoletti, Alessandra; Vassura, Ivano; Venturini, Elisa; Monai, Matteo; Montini, Tiziano; Federici, Stefania; Zacco, Annalisa; Treccani, Laura; Bontempi, Elza

    2018-01-01

    In this work a new mesoporous adsorbent material obtained from a natural, high abundant raw material and a high volume industrial by-product is presented. The material is consolidated by the gelling properties of alginate and by decomposition of sodium-bicarbonate controlled porosity at low temperatures (70-80°C) at different scale lengths. The structural, thermal, and morphological characterization shows that the material is a mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrid. The material is tested as adsorbent, showing high performances. Methylene blue, used as model pollutant, can be adsorbed and removed from aqueous solutions even at a high concentration with efficiency up to 94%. By coating the material with a 100 nm thin film of titania, good photodegradation performance (more than 20%) can be imparted. Based on embodied energy and carbon footprint of its primary production, the sustainability of the new obtained material is evaluated and quantified in respect to activated carbon as well. It is shown that the new proposed material has an embodied energy lower than one order of magnitude in respect to the one of activated carbon, which represents the gold standards. The versatility of the new material is also demonstrated in terms of its design and manufacturing possibilities In addition, this material can be printed in 3D. Finally, preliminary results about its ability to capture diesel exhaust particulate matter are reported. The sample exposed to diesel contains a large amount of carbon in its surface. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that hybrid porous materials are proposed as a new class of sustainable materials, produced to reduce pollutants in the wastewaters and in the atmosphere.

  1. Critical factors affecting life cycle assessments of material choice for vehicle mass reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review examines the use of life-cycle assessments (LCAs) to compare different lightweight materials being developed to improve light-duty vehicle fuel economy. Vehicle manufacturers are designing passenger cars and light-duty trucks using lighter weight materials and design ...

  2. Research of ecological non-inflammable absorptive materials for noise reduction and measurement of their properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žikovský, J.; Kolář, František

    8(115) (2000), s. 111-114 ISSN 1212-1576 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/98/1263 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3046908 Keywords : acoustic materials * epoxy resins Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass

  3. Reduction of surface subsidence risk by fly ash exploitation as filling material in deep mining areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trčková, Jiřina; Šperl, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2010), s. 251-258 ISSN 0921-030X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : undermining * subsidence of the surface * impact reduction Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2010 www.springerlink.com/content/y8257893528lp56w/

  4. Abiotic reduction of aquifer materials by dithionite: A promising in-situ remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amonette, J.E.; Szecsody, J.E.; Schaef, H.T.; Gorby, Y.A.; Fruchter, J.S.; Templeton, J.C.

    1994-11-01

    Laboratory batch and column experiments were conducted with Hanford sediments to develop the capability to predict (1) the longevity of dithionite in these systems, (2) its efficiency as a reductant of structural iron, and (3) the longevity and reactivity of the reduced iron with soluble inorganic and organic species. After an initial induction period, the loss of dithionite by disproportionation and oxidation could be described by pseudo-first-order (PFO) kinetics. Other than the initial reaction with ferric iron, the primary factor promoting loss of dithionite in this system was disproportion nation via heterogeneous catalysis at mineral surfaces. The efficiency of the reduction of structural iron was nearly 100% for the first fourth of the ferric iron, but declined exponentially with higher degrees of reduction so that 75% of the ferric iron could be reduced. This decrease in reduction efficiency probably was related to differences in the accessibility of ferric iron in the mineral particles, with iron in clay-sized particles being the most accessible and that in silt- and sand-sized particles less accessible. Flow-through column studies showed that a reduced-sediment barrier created in this manner could maintain a reducing environment

  5. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: Food Waste Reduction Alliance, a Unique Industry Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  6. Development of corrosion resistant materials for an electrolytic reduction process of a spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong-Hyeon Lee; Soo-Haeng Cho; Jeong-Gook Oh; Eung-Ho Kim

    2008-01-01

    New alloys were designed and prepared to improve their corrosion resistance in an electrolytic reduction environment for a spent oxide fuel on the basis of a thermodynamical assessment. A considerable solubility of Si was confirmed in the Ni alloys and their corrosion resistance was drastically increased with the addition of Si. It was confirmed that a protective oxide layer was formed during a corrosion test due to a reaction among the alloying elements such as Cr, Al and Si. (authors)

  7. Raman spectroscopic study of phosphogypsum thermal reduction with the carbonaceous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msila, Xolani; Barnard, Werner; Billing, Dave G

    2015-10-05

    Elemental sulphur (S) can be produced from hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in a PiPco or Iron process. In turn H2S can be stripped with carbon dioxide (CO2) from calcium sulphide (CaS) obtained from the thermal reduction of phosphogypsum with carbon. The reaction pathway for the thermal reduction of the phosphogypsum with graphite was studied using thermogravimetric analysis and in situ Raman spectroscopy. The dehydration of the phosphogypsum to anhydrite was completed at about 142 °C. The dehydration was followed by the formation of the intermediate compound at about 860 °C which is characterised by a mass loss of about 11%. The intermediate compound, identified using the in situ Raman spectroscopy to be a dehydrated orschallite-type compound (Ca3[SO4][SO3]2), converted to CaS at about 935 °C. The presence of the metal impurities in the phosphogypsum: Ni(2+)(4 mg kg(-1)); Co(2+)(2 mg kg(-1)); Mn(2+)(5 mg kg(-1)); Cu(2+)(14 mg kg(-1)); Fe(2+)(200 mg kg(-1)) and Mg(2+)(300 mg kg(-1)) showed no influence the onset temperature for the reduction reaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Material-Dependent Implant Artifact Reduction Using SEMAC-VAT and MAVRIC: A Prospective MRI Phantom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filli, Lukas; Jud, Lukas; Luechinger, Roger; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Runge, Val M; Kozerke, Sebastian; Farshad-Amacker, Nadja A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degree of artifact reduction in magnetic resonance imaging achieved with slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) in combination with view angle tilting (VAT) and multiacquisition variable resonance image combination (MAVRIC) for standard contrast weightings and different metallic materials. Four identically shaped rods made of the most commonly used prosthetic materials (stainless steel, SS; titanium, Ti; cobalt-chromium-molybdenum, CoCr; and oxidized zirconium, oxZi) were scanned at 3 T. In addition to conventional fast spin-echo sequences, metal artifact reduction sequences (SEMAC-VAT and MAVRIC) with varying degrees of artifact suppression were applied at different contrast weightings (T1w, T2w, PDw). Two independent readers measured in-plane and through-plane artifacts in a standardized manner. In addition, theoretical frequency-offset and frequency-offset-gradient maps were calculated. Interobserver agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient. Interobserver agreement was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.86-0.99). Stainless steel caused the greatest artifacts, followed by CoCr, Ti, and oxZi regardless of the imaging sequence. While for Ti and oxZi rods scanning with weak SEMAC-VAT showed some advantage, for SS and CoCr, higher modes of SEMAC-VAT or MAVRIC were necessary to achieve artifact reduction. MAVRIC achieved better artifact reduction than SEMAC-VAT at the cost of longer acquisition times. Simulations matched well with the apparent geometry of the frequency-offset maps. For Ti and oxZi implants, weak SEMAC-VAT may be preferred as it is faster and produces less artifact than conventional fast spin-echo. Medium or strong SEMAC-VAT or MAVRIC modes are necessary for significant artifact reduction for SS and CoCr implants.

  9. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. METHOD OF DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION IN CONTACT MECHANICS AND FRICTION: A USER'S HANDBOOK. II. POWER-LAW GRADED MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, the only way of solving contact problems was to applythree-dimensional contact theories. However, this presupposes higher mathematical and numerical knowledge, which usually only research groups possess. This has changed drastically with the development of the method of dimensionality reduction (MDR, which allows every practically oriented engineer an access to the solution of contact problems. The simple and contact-type dependent rules are summarized in the first part of the user manual; they require contacts between elastically homogeneous materials. The present paper forms the second part of the user handbook and is dedicated to the solution of contact problems between power-law graded materials. All the MDR-rules are listed with which normal, tangential and adhesive contacts between such high-performance materials can be calculated in a simple manner.

  11. Reduction of beta-interference in gamma-spectrometric measurements of neutron-irradiated geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmann, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    The analytical technique for INAA, when applied to geological materials, is improved by introducing an electromagnetic field between sample and detector. This field lowers the bremsstrahlung background intensity in the gamma-spectrum by reducing the number of beta-particles reaching the detector. Thus precision, accuracy and lower detection limit are improved. The technique was used on alkalisyenite and on meteoritic material, rocks containing high quantities of sodium and iron, respectively. After neutron irradiation, the induced nuclides sup(24)Na and sup(59)Fe are responsible for high bremsstrahlung interference, which under normal analyitical conditions would mask any x-ray or gamma-ray peaks of interest. The technique is easily applied to multielement analysis of geological and biological materials. It can be combined with sophisticated spectrum-treating techniques such as spectrum stripping and spectrum smoothing, or coincidence-anticoincidence circuits. (author)

  12. Self-assembled monolayers coatings on nanostencils for the reduction of materials adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolbel, M.; Tjerkstra, R.W.; Kim, G.M.; Brugger, J.P.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Reinhoudt, David

    2003-01-01

    Nanostencils (shadow masks with submicrometer apertures in a thin silicon nitride membrane) are promising tools for the facile one-step generation of nanopatterns of various materials by physical vapor deposition. Evaporation through a shadow mask is accompanied by gradual clogging of the apertures

  13. Cask size and weight reduction through the use of depleted uranium dioxide-concrete material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, S.Yu.; Haire, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Newly developed depleted uranium (DU) composite materials enable fabrication of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) transport and storage casks that are smaller and lighter in weight than casks made with conventional materials. One such material is DU dioxide (DUO2)-concrete, so-called DUCRETE TM . This paper examines the radiation shielding efficiency of DUCRETE as compared with that of a conventional concrete cask that holds 32 pressurized-water-reactor SNF assemblies. In this analysis, conventional concrete shielding material is replaced with DUCRETE. The thickness of the DUCRETE shielding is adjusted to give the same radiation surface dose, 200 mrem/h (2 mSv/hr), as the conventional concrete cask. It was found that the concrete shielding thickness decreased from 71 to 20 cm and that the cask radial cross-section shielding area was reduced approx 50 %. The weight was reduced approx 21 %, from 154 to approx 127 tons. Should one choose to add an extra outer ring of SNF assemblies, the number of such assemblies would increase from 32 to 52. In this case, the outside cask diameter would still decrease, from 169 to 137 cm. However, the weight would increase somewhat from 156 to 177 tons. Neutron cask surface dose is only approx 10 % of the gamma dose. These reduced sizes and weights will significantly influence the design of next-generation SNF casks

  14. Magnetic field shielding by vacuum chambers of magnetic material for beam loss reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiya, Junichiro; Ogiwara, Norio; Hayashi, Naoki; Hotchi, Hideaki; Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Kinsho, Michikazu

    2012-01-01

    One of the reasons of a beam loss in a high power accelerator is leakage magnetic field from a magnet at a close beam line, which distorts the beam orbit and makes the beam hit the wall of the beam pipe. The most effective way to shield such leakage field is to cover the beam by the magnetic materials at the nearest space. This means that beam pipes and bellows be made of the magnetic materials. We plan to apply this method to the vacuum chambers of the beam extraction section of the J-PARC 3 GeV synchrotron, where the effect of the leakage magnetic field to the beam orbit is evident. However, there is few proven evidence of the vacuum chambers made of magnetic materials. Therefore we clarify the problems in producing beam pipes and bellows, which satisfy the magnetic and vacuum performance. In this article, we deliver the over view of the magnetic shielding project and our approaches to the problems in producing the vacuum chambers of magnetic materials. (author)

  15. Novelties in Material Development for Massive Concrete Structures: Reduction in Heat of Hydration Observed in Ternary Replacement Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Hamid

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the size of modern infrastructure increases, novelties related to mass concrete mixtures including supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs become critical. The effects of binary and ternary cement replacement mixtures including metakaolin, silica fume, ground calcium carbonate, granulated blast furnace slag, and fly ash on the rate and amount of heat generated in concrete mixtures are investigated. Twenty three binary and ternary mixtures with a water-to-cementitious binder ratio of 0.43 are evaluated. Between 15% and 45% cement replacement by weight is considered. Results indicate that binary mixtures containing metakaolin or silica fume offer no advantage in reducing the amount of heat but increase compressive strength by 20%. On contrary, ternary mixtures, including two pozzolanic materials, provide 15% reduction in the amount of heat evolution without compromising strength. This reduction is observed regardless of alumina (Al or silica (Si content in pozzolanic materials when 45% cement is replaced with a combination of slag and metakaolin, or slag and silica fume. Furthermore, the effect of increased calcium (Ca content is investigated. It is concluded that ternary mixtures with decreased Ca/(Al+Si ratio reduce internal temperature in mass concrete structures and are less likely to be exposed to the threshold temperature for delayed ettringite formation.

  16. Nanostructured Materials for Heterogeneous Electrocatalytic CO2 Reduction and their Related Reaction Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Zhi-Jian; Gong, Jinlong

    2017-09-11

    The gradually increased concentration of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in the atmosphere has been recognized as the primary culprit for the rise of the global mean temperature. In recent years, development of routes for highly efficient conversion of CO 2 has received much attention. This Review describes recent progress on the design and synthesis of solid-state catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 . The significance of this catalytic conversion is presented, followed by the general parameters for CO 2 electroreduction and a summary of the reaction apparatus. We also discuss various types of solid catalysts based on their CO 2 conversion mechanisms. We summarize the crucial factors (particle size, surface structure, composition, etc.) determining the performance for electroreduction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Possibilities of bio-based materials in reduction applications/use - Bioreducer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suopajarvi, H. [Oulu Univ. (Finland), Laboratory of Process Metallurgy], email: hannu.suopajarvi@oulu.fi

    2012-07-01

    The metallurgical industry worldwide relies heavily on the use fossil fuels. Use of fossil fuels result in the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is said to accelerate greenhouse effect and climate change. Different measures have been proposed to mitigate fossil CO{sub 2} emissions, especially in blast furnace (BF) ironmaking, which is the dominant technology to produce raw material for steelmaking from virgin raw materials. In BF ironmaking coke and other injected reducing agents (e.g. coal, oil and natural gas) are needed to reduce and melt the iron oxides into hot metal. One of the possibilities towards more sustainable steelmaking could be the partial replacement of fossil fuels with biomass-based energy sources. Before the introduction of biomass-based energy sources in metallurgical processes, several factors need to be evaluated. For Bioreducer project the following objectives were set : (1) Evaluate the availability and metallurgical properties of bio-based and alternative raw materials in Finland for use in metallurgical processes (2) Evaluate the thermochemical conversion technologies to produce bio-based reducing agents (solid, liquid and gaseous) from various biomass feedstock (3) Investigate the gate-to-gate (plant-wide) system impacts of biomass introduction to integrated steelworks (4) Assess the sustainability of biomass use in iron and steelmaking including environmental, economic and social aspects. Methods and tools used in the research include literature studies, laboratory studies to determine reactivity and gasification behaviour of charcoals (TGA, DSC), economic calculations, plant level modelling and simulations and life cycle assessments (HSC Chemistry, GaBi and Factory simulation tool)

  18. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiyat, Nattaporn; Kiatsiriroat, Tanongkiat

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM) for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified wi...

  19. Density functional studies of functionalized graphitic materials with late transition metals for oxygen reduction reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallejo, Federico Calle; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Reaction (OER). Spin analyses suggest that the oxidation state of those elements in the active sites should in general be +2. Moreover, our results verify that the adsorption behavior of transition metals is not intrinsic, since it can be severely altered by changes in the local geometry of the active site......) at the cathode. In this contribution, on the basis of Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations, we show that graphitic materials with active sites composed of 4 nitrogen atoms and transition metal atoms belonging to groups 7 to 9 in the periodic table are active towards ORR, and also towards Oxygen Evolution...

  20. Embedded Si/Graphene Composite Fabricated by Magnesium-Thermal Reduction as Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiangliu; Ren, Yurong; Yang, Bo; Chen, Wenkai; Ding, Jianning

    2017-12-01

    Embedded Si/graphene composite was fabricated by a novel method, which was in situ generated SiO2 particles on graphene sheets followed by magnesium-thermal reduction. The tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and flake graphite was used as original materials. On the one hand, the unique structure of as-obtained composite accommodated the large volume change to some extent. Simultaneously, it enhanced electronic conductivity during Li-ion insertion/extraction. The MR-Si/G composite is used as the anode material for lithium ion batteries, which shows high reversible capacity and ascendant cycling stability reach to 950 mAh·g-1 at a current density of 50 mA·g-1 after 60 cycles. These may be conducive to the further advancement of Si-based composite anode design.

  1. Using phase information to enhance speckle noise reduction in the ultrasonic NDE of coarse grain materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardner, Timothy; Li, Minghui; Gachagan, Anthony

    2014-02-01

    Materials with a coarse grain structure are becoming increasingly prevalent in industry due to their resilience to stress and corrosion. These materials are difficult to inspect with ultrasound because reflections from the grains lead to high noise levels which hinder the echoes of interest. Spatially Averaged Sub-Aperture Correlation Imaging (SASACI) is an advanced array beamforming technique that uses the cross-correlation between images from array sub-apertures to generate an image weighting matrix, in order to reduce noise levels. This paper presents a method inspired by SASACI to further improve imaging using phase information to refine focusing and reduce noise. A-scans from adjacent array elements are cross-correlated using both signal amplitude and phase to refine delay laws and minimize phase aberration. The phase-based and amplitude-based corrected images are used as inputs to a two-dimensional cross-correlation algorithm that will output a weighting matrix that can be applied to any conventional image. This approach was validated experimentally using a 5MHz array a coarse grained Inconel 625 step wedge, and compared to the Total Focusing Method (TFM). Initial results have seen SNR improvements of over 20dB compared to TFM, and a resolution that is much higher.

  2. Cobalt-manganese-based spinels as multifunctional materials that unify catalytic water oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Prashanth W; Indra, Arindam; Sahraie, Nastaran Ranjbar; Bergmann, Arno; Strasser, Peter; Driess, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been much interest in the design and development of affordable and highly efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts that can resolve the pivotal issues that concern solar fuels, fuel cells, and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Here we present the synthesis and application of porous CoMn2 O4 and MnCo2 O4 spinel microspheres as highly efficient multifunctional catalysts that unify the electrochemical OER with oxidant-driven and photocatalytic water oxidation as well as the ORR. The porous materials were prepared by the thermal degradation of the respective carbonate precursors at 400 °C. The as-prepared spinels display excellent performances in electrochemical OER for the cubic MnCo2 O4 phase in comparison to the tetragonal CoMn2 O4 material in an alkaline medium. Moreover, the oxidant-driven and photocatalytic water oxidations were performed and they exhibited a similar trend in activity to that of the electrochemical OER. Remarkably, the situation is reversed in ORR catalysis, that is, the oxygen reduction activity and stability of the tetragonal CoMn2 O4 catalyst outperformed that of cubic MnCo2 O4 and rivals that of benchmark Pt catalysts. The superior catalytic performance and the remarkable stability of the unifying materials are attributed to their unique porous and robust microspherical morphology and the intrinsic structural features of the spinels. Moreover, the facile access to these high-performance materials enables a reliable and cost-effective production on a large scale for industrial applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Review of backscatter measurement in kilovoltage radiotherapy using novel detectors and reduction from lack of underlying scattering material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, David J; Doolan, Paul J

    2013-11-08

    Lack of underlying material can lead to dose reduction in kilovoltage radiotherapy treatments because of backscatter reduction. Conversely, the use of lead shielding can lead to large dose enhancement close to the lead interface. GAFCHROMIC film has been shown to be of use in verification of local backscatter factors compared to reference data in codes of practice, but careful handling and multiple readings are required to reduce systematic uncertainties to between 3% and 4%. Monte Carlo modeling of the specific treatment unit should be performed in cases which are found to differ from reference values before alternative values are adopted clinically, but these cases are expected to be few. GAFCHROMIC film may also be used to estimate backscatter reduction more readily than customized ionization chambers, for a range of beam qualities, applicator sizes and depth, with and without lead shielding. Differences were found between different studies, and it is not clear to what extent these are due to variation in equipment and/or technique. However, a layer of wax around lead shielding of 1 mm thickness should be sufficient to eliminate lead enhancement effects for all kilovoltage energies from 40 kV to 300 kV.

  4. Review of backscatter measurement in kilovoltage radiotherapy using novel detectors and reduction from lack of underlying scattering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Lack of underlying material can lead to dose reduction in kilovoltage radiotherapy treatments because of backscatter reduction. Conversely, the use of lead shielding can lead to large dose enhancement close to the lead interface. GAFCHROMIC film has been shown to be of use in verification of local backscatter factors compared to reference data in codes of practice, but careful handling and multiple readings are required to reduce systematic uncertainties to between 3% and 4%. Monte Carlo modeling of the specific treatment unit should be performed in cases which are found to differ from reference values before alternative values are adopted clinically, but these cases are expected to be few. GAFCHROMIC film may also be used to estimate backscatter reduction more readily than customized ionization chambers, for a range of beam qualities, applicator sizes and depth, with and without lead shielding. Differences were found between different studies, and it is not clear to what extent these are due to variation in equipment and/or technique. However, a layer of wax around lead shielding of 1 mm thickness should be sufficient to eliminate lead enhancement effects for all kilovoltage energies from 40 kV to 300 kV PACS numbers: 87.55.Qr, 87.56.jk PMID:24257277

  5. An Integrated Carbon Policy-Based Interactive Strategy for Carbon Reduction and Economic Development in a Construction Material Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon emissions from the construction material industry have become of increasing concern due to increasingly urbanization and extensive infrastructure. Faced with serious atmospheric deterioration, governments have been seeking to reduce carbon emissions, with carbon trading and carbon taxes being considered the most effective regulatory policies. Over time, there has been a global consensus that integrated carbon trading/carbon tax policies are more effective in reducing carbon emissions. However, in an integrated carbon reduction policy framework, balancing the relationship between emission reductions and low-carbon benefits has been found to be a critical issue for governments and enterprises in both theoretical research and carbon emission reduction practices. As few papers have sought to address these issues, this paper seeks to reach a trade-off between economic development and environmental protection involving various stakeholders: regional governments which aim to maximize social benefits, and producers who seek economic profit maximization. An iterative interactive algorithmic method with fuzzy random variables (FRVs is proposed to determine the satisfactory equilibrium between these decision-makers. This methodology is then applied to a real-world case to demonstrate its practicality and efficiency.

  6. Carbohydrazide-dependent reductant for preparing nitrogen-doped graphene hydrogels as electrode materials in supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Man [Resources and Environmental Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Xing, Ling-Bao, E-mail: lbxing@sdut.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Zhang, Jing-Li; Hou, Shu-Fen; Zhou, Jin; Si, Weijiang; Cui, Hongyou [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Zhuo, Shuping, E-mail: zhuosp_academic@yahoo.com [School of Chemical Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene hydrogels (NGHs) were prepared. • Carbohydrazide was used as reducing and doping agents. • NGHs exhibited relatively good electrochemical properties in supercapacitor. • NGHs with different doping of N demonstrated different performances in supercapacitors. - Abstract: Three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen-doped graphene hydrogels (NGHs) are designed and synthesized in an efficient and fast way by using a strong reductant of carbohydrazide as reducing and doping agent in an aqueous solution of graphene oxide (GO). The transformation of GO suspension to the hydrogels can be completed in 1 h, which can be confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). With adding different amounts of carbohydrazide, the obtained NGHs behave different doping of N and unlike performances in supercapacitors, which can be demonstrated by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), N{sub 2} sorption experiments, and electrochemical measurements, respectively. According to the network architectures, the NGHs all exhibited high specific capacitance, NGHs-1, NGHs-2, NGHs-5 and NGHs-10 showed specific capacitance at 167.7, 156.8, 140.4 and 119.3 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} in KOH electrolyte. The specific capacitance can still be maintained for 80.5, 79.5, 80.3 and 78.6% with an increase of the discharging current density of 10 A g{sup −1}, respectively. More interestingly, the NGHs-1 based supercapacitor also exhibited good electrochemical stability and high degree of reversibility in the long-term cycling test (81.5% retention after 4000 cycles).

  7. Demonstration of improved vehicle fuel efficiency through innovative tire design, materials, and weight reduction technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donley, Tim [Cooper Tire & Rubber Company Incorporated, Findlay, OH (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Cooper completed an investigation into new tire technology using a novel approach to develop and demonstrate a new class of fuel efficient tires using innovative materials technology and tire design concepts. The objective of this work was to develop a new class of fuel efficient tires, focused on the “replacement market” that would improve overall passenger vehicle fuel efficiency by 3% while lowering the overall tire weight by 20%. A further goal of this project was to accomplish the objectives while maintaining the traction and wear performance of the control tire. This program was designed to build on what has already been accomplished in the tire industry for rolling resistance based on the knowledge and general principles developed over the past decades. Cooper’s CS4 (Figure #1) premium broadline tire was chosen as the control tire for this program. For Cooper to achieve the goals of this project, the development of multiple technologies was necessary. Six technologies were chosen that are not currently being used in the tire industry at any significant level, but that showed excellent prospects in preliminary research. This development was divided into two phases. Phase I investigated six different technologies as individual components. Phase II then took a holistic approach by combining all the technologies that showed positive results during phase one development.

  8. Phase Change Materials-Assisted Heat Flux Reduction: Experiment and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein J. Akeiber

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCM in the construction industry became attractive because of several interesting attributes, such as thermo-physical parameters, open air atmospheric condition usage, cost and the duty structure requirement. Thermal performance optimization of PCMs in terms of proficient storage of a large amount of heat or cold in a finite volume remains a challenging task. Implementation of PCMs in buildings to achieve thermal comfort for a specific climatic condition in Iraq is our main focus. From this standpoint, the present paper reports the experimental and numerical results on the lowering of heat flux inside a residential building using PCM, which is composed of oil (40% and wax (60%. This PCM (paraffin, being plentiful and cost-effective, is extracted locally from waste petroleum products in Iraq. Experiments are performed with two rooms of identical internal dimensions in the presence and absence of PCM. A two-dimensional numerical transient heat transfer model is developed and solved using the finite difference method. A relatively simple geometry is chosen to initially verify the numerical solution procedure by incorporating in the computer program two-dimensional elliptic flows. It is demonstrated that the heat flux inside the room containing PCM is remarkably lower than the one devoid of PCM.

  9. Energy reduction of building air-conditioner with phase change material in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattaporn Chaiyat

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a concept of using phase change material (PCM for improving cooling efficiency of an air-conditioner had been presented under Thai climate. Paraffin waxes melting point at around 20 °C was selected to evaluate the thermal performance by reducing the air temperature entering the evaporating coil. The model of PCM celluloid balls had been performed with the air-conditioner. Moreover, the mathematical model of the air-conditioner with the PCM storage was developed and verified with the testing results. From the study results, it could be seen that the simulated data agreed quite well with the experimental result at the discrepant around 2–4%. Finally, the model was used to analyze the economic result which was found that the electrical consumption of the modified air-conditioner could be decreased 3.09 kW h/d. The electrical power consumption of the modified unit was 36.27 kW h/d at the operating time 15 h/d compared with 39.36 kW h/d of the normal unit at the operating time 12 h/d. The saving cost of the PCM bed could be 9.10% or 170.03 USD and the payback period was 4.15 y.

  10. A Bayesian approach for the stochastic modeling error reduction of magnetic material identification of an electromagnetic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A; Crevecoeur, G; Dupré, L

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic material properties of an electromagnetic device can be recovered by solving an inverse problem where measurements are adequately interpreted by a mathematical forward model. The accuracy of these forward models dramatically affects the accuracy of the material properties recovered by the inverse problem. The more accurate the forward model is, the more accurate recovered data are. However, the more accurate ‘fine’ models demand a high computational time and memory storage. Alternatively, less accurate ‘coarse’ models can be used with a demerit of the high expected recovery errors. This paper uses the Bayesian approximation error approach for improving the inverse problem results when coarse models are utilized. The proposed approach adapts the objective function to be minimized with the a priori misfit between fine and coarse forward model responses. In this paper, two different electromagnetic devices, namely a switched reluctance motor and an EI core inductor, are used as case studies. The proposed methodology is validated on both purely numerical and real experimental results. The results show a significant reduction in the recovery error within an acceptable computational time. (paper)

  11. A Bayesian approach for the stochastic modeling error reduction of magnetic material identification of an electromagnetic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallh, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic material properties of an electromagnetic device can be recovered by solving an inverse problem where measurements are adequately interpreted by a mathematical forward model. The accuracy of these forward models dramatically affects the accuracy of the material properties recovered by the inverse problem. The more accurate the forward model is, the more accurate recovered data are. However, the more accurate ‘fine’ models demand a high computational time and memory storage. Alternatively, less accurate ‘coarse’ models can be used with a demerit of the high expected recovery errors. This paper uses the Bayesian approximation error approach for improving the inverse problem results when coarse models are utilized. The proposed approach adapts the objective function to be minimized with the a priori misfit between fine and coarse forward model responses. In this paper, two different electromagnetic devices, namely a switched reluctance motor and an EI core inductor, are used as case studies. The proposed methodology is validated on both purely numerical and real experimental results. The results show a significant reduction in the recovery error within an acceptable computational time.

  12. Nanostructured p-Type Semiconductor Electrodes and Photoelectrochemistry of Their Reduction Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Bonomo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the properties of p-type semiconductors with nanostructured features employed as photocathodes in photoelectrochemical cells (PECs. Light absorption is crucial for the activation of the reduction processes occurring at the p-type electrode either in the pristine or in a modified/sensitized state. Beside thermodynamics, the kinetics of the electron transfer (ET process from photocathode to a redox shuttle in the oxidized form are also crucial since the flow of electrons will take place correctly if the ET rate will overcome that one of recombination and trapping events which impede the charge separation produced by the absorption of light. Depending on the nature of the chromophore, i.e., if the semiconductor itself or the chemisorbed dye-sensitizer, different energy levels will be involved in the cathodic ET process. An analysis of the general properties and requirements of electrodic materials of p-type for being efficient photoelectrocatalysts of reduction processes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC will be given. The working principle of p-type DSCs will be described and extended to other p-type PECs conceived and developed for the conversion of the solar radiation into chemical products of energetic/chemical interest like non fossil fuels or derivatives of carbon dioxide.

  13. Experimental studies of the mechanisms and the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the uranium reduction by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin under diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, S.

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports experimental studies of fixation and reduction of the uranyl cation by sedimentary organic materials from ligneous origin in order to understand the mechanisms and quantitative aspects of these processes in diagenetic or hydrothermal conditions. Two fixation mechanisms have been identified. Reduction appears to be governed by the oxidation of hydroxyl functions and the dehydrogenation of aliphatic hydro-carbonated entities. A kinetic study of this reduction process is reported, as well as a simulation of these processes by simple organic compounds (alcohols, aliphatic hydrocarbons). The assessment of thermodynamic parameters of the reduction process is discussed, and the obtained thermodynamic data show that almost the totality of uranium present in natural waters precipitates under the form of uraninite in presence of lignite. The extension of the obtained results to all sedimentary organic materials is finally discussed [fr

  14. The effect of the thermal reduction temperature on the structure and sorption capacity of reduced graphene oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolbin, Alexandr V., E-mail: dolbin@ilt.kharkov.ua [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Khlistyuck, Maria V.; Esel' son, Valentin B.; Gavrilko, Viktor G.; Vinnikov, Nikolay A.; Basnukaeva, Razet M. [B. Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 47 Lenin Ave., Kharkov 61103 (Ukraine); Maluenda, Irene; Maser, Wolfgang K.; Benito, Ana M. [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán, 4, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: The influence of reduction temperatures on the structure and the sorption capacity of thermally reduced graphene (TRGO) has been investigated systematically. A set of TRGO materials were prepared by thermal treatment of parent graphene oxide (GO) at five temperatures (T = 200, 300, 500, 700, and 900 °C). Investigations of these materials by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy methods have shown that both the structure and the residual oxygen functional groups on the TRGO surface can be controlled by varying the temperature of the thermal treatment. The data on the sorption and desorption of {sup 4}He, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ne and Kr gases in the temperature interval T = 2–290 K clearly demonstrate that the sorption capacity of TRGO is closely related to the structural changes induced by the treatment temperatures. It is important that the sorption capacities of TRGOs treated at 300 °C and at 900 °C significantly increase for all the gases used. The prominent increase in the sorption capacity at 300 °C is attributed to the structural disorder and liberation of the pores caused by the removal of intercalated water and labile oxygen functional groups (oFGs) favored at this temperature. At 900 °C the sorption capacity increases due to the generation of new defects on the TRGO surface, which provide additional access to the internal space between the folds and sheets of the TRGO structure. By tailoring the structural properties we emphasize the potential of TRGO as a highly efficient sorbent.

  15. Decommissioning decontamination- a comparative study of the compatibility of materials and magnetite powder dissolution kinetics in oxidative and reductive formulations without pre-treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Gokhale, A.S.; Venkateswaran, G.

    2000-01-01

    Decontaminating a system or a sub-system for decommissioning involves reducing the radioactivity levels to background values so that these materials may be disposed off as scrap. In this respect the use of oxidative formulation containing Ce 4+ and mineral acids like HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 for stainless steels is reported. However, the nature of the container material to carry out component decontamination for decommissioning using these strong formulations needs evaluation. This paper brings out the compatibility studies of Stainless Steel and HDPE carried out in these oxidative formulations and compares them with those carried out in organic acid based reductive formulation like CEA. The results of magnetite powder dissolution kinetics in both oxidative and reductive types of formulations are also given. The studies show that HDPE is a more compatible container material than others with the oxidative formulations while dissolution rate constant is 10-50 times higher in reductive than in oxidative formulations. (author)

  16. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y.; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored. PMID:28029116

  17. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Y. Sawant

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR. Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  18. Metal-Free Carbon-Based Materials: Promising Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction in Microbial Fuel Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawant, Sandesh Y; Han, Thi Hiep; Cho, Moo Hwan

    2016-12-24

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a promising green approach for wastewater treatment with the simultaneous advantage of energy production. Among the various limiting factors, the cathodic limitation, with respect to performance and cost, is one of the main obstacles to the practical applications of MFCs. Despite the high performance of platinum and other metal-based cathodes, their practical use is limited by their high cost, low stability, and environmental toxicity. Oxygen is the most favorable electron acceptor in the case of MFCs, which reduces to water through a complicated oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Carbon-based ORR catalysts possessing high surface area and good electrical conductivity improve the ORR kinetics by lowering the cathodic overpotential. Recently, a range of carbon-based materials have attracted attention for their exceptional ORR catalytic activity and high stability. Doping the carbon texture with a heteroatom improved their ORR activity remarkably through the favorable adsorption of oxygen and weaker molecular bonding. This review provides better insight into ORR catalysis for MFCs and the properties, performance, and applicability of various metal-free carbon-based electrocatalysts in MFCs to find the most appropriate cathodic catalyst for the practical applications. The approaches for improvement, key challenges, and future opportunities in this field are also explored.

  19. Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Te-Ag-Ge-Sb (TAGS) Materials Obtained by Reduction of Melted Oxide Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusz, B.; Miruszewski, T.; Bochentyn, B.; Łapiński, M.; Karczewski, J.

    2016-02-01

    Ge0.77Ag0.1Sb0.13Te1 alloy was fabricated by a novel two-step route. Firstly, oxide reagents were melted at high temperature and quenched into pellets. The pellets were milled to powder and then reduced in hydrogen at various temperatures for various periods of time. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis indicated the possibility of successful fabrication of stoichiometric thermoelectric materials from the Te-Ag-Ge-Sb system. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient have been determined over the temperature range from 20°C to 340°C in argon atmosphere. It was also shown that, for most of the fabricated samples, the crystallite size as well as electrical parameters such as the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and figure of merit ( ZT) increased with increasing reduction time. The highest value of ZT (˜1.0 at 340°C) was obtained for samples reduced in hydrogen atmosphere at 400°C for 20 h and 40 h.

  20. Numerical analysis on reduction of radioactive actinides by recycling of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balboa L, H. E.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, human growth has reached unparalleled levels historically, this implies a need for more energy, and just in 2007 was consumed in the USA 4157 x 10 9 kWh of electricity and there were 6 x 10 9 metric tons of carbon dioxide, which causes a devastating effect on our environment. To this problem, a solution to the demand for non-fossil energy is nuclear energy, which is one of the least polluting and the cheapest among non-fossil energy; however, a problem remains unresolved the waste generation of nuclear fuels. In this work the option of a possible transmutation of actinides in a nuclear reactor of BWR was analyzed, an example of this are the nuclear reactors at the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, which have generated spent fuel stored in pools awaiting a decision for final disposal or any other existing alternative. Assuming that the spent fuel was reprocessed to separate useful materials and actinides such as plutonium and uranium remaining, could take these actinides and to recycle them inside the same reactor that produced them, so il will be reduced the radiotoxicity of spent fuel. The main idea of this paper is to evaluate by means of numeric simulation (using the Core Management System (CMS)) the reduction of minor actinides in the case of being recycled in fresh fuel of the type BWR. The actinides were introduced hypothetically in the fuel pellets to 6% by weight, and then use a burned in the range of 0-65 G Wd/Tm, in order to have a better panorama of their behavior and thus know which it is the best choice for maximum reduction of actinides. Several cases were studied, that is to say were used as fuels; the UO 2 and MOX. Six different cases were also studied to see the behavior of actinides in different situations. The CMS platform calculation was used for the analysis of the cases presented. Favorable results were obtained, having decreased from a range of 35% to 65% of minor actinides initially introduced in the fuel rods, reducing the

  1. Dramatic effect of pore size reduction on the dynamics of hydrogen adsorbed in metal–organic materials

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Patrick

    2014-07-21

    The effects of pore size reduction on the dynamics of hydrogen sorption in metal-organic materials (MOMs) were elucidated by studying SIFSIX-2-Cu and its doubly interpenetrated polymorph SIFSIX-2-Cu-i by means of sorption, inelastic neutron scattering (INS), and computational modeling. SIFSIX-2-Cu-i exhibits much smaller pore sizes, which possess high H2 sorption affinity at low loadings. Experimental H2 sorption measurements revealed that the isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) for H2 in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i is nearly two times higher than that for SIFSIX-2-Cu (8.6 vs. 4.6 kJ mol-1). The INS spectrum for H2 in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i is rather unique for a porous material, as only one broad peak appears at low energies near 6 meV, which simply increases in intensity with loading until the pores are filled. The value for this rotational transition is lower than that in most neutral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), including those with open Cu sites (8-9 meV), which is indicative of a higher barrier to rotation and stronger interaction in the channels of SIFSIX-2-Cu-i than the open Cu sites in MOFs. Simulations of H2 sorption in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i revealed two hydrogen sorption sites in the MOM: direct interaction with the equatorial fluorine atom (site 1) and between two equatorial fluorine atoms on opposite walls (site 2). The calculated rotational energy levels and rotational barriers for the two sites in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i are in good agreement with INS data. Furthermore, the rotational barriers and binding energies for site 2 are slightly higher than that for site 1, which is consistent with INS results. The lowest calculated transition for the primary site in SIFSIX-2-Cu is also in good agreement with INS data. In addition, this transition in the non-interpenetrating material is higher than any of the sites in SIFSIX-2-Cu-i, which indicates a significantly weaker interaction with the host as a result of the larger pore size. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  2. Mexico city aerosol analysis during MILAGRO using high resolution aerosol mass spectrometry at the urban supersite (T0 – Part 2: Analysis of the biomass burning contribution and the non-fossil carbon fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Aiken

    2010-06-01

    does not show an increase during the fire periods or a correlation with fire counts, FLEXPART-predicted FIFs or fire tracers, indicating that it is dominated by urban and/or regional sources and not by the fires near the MCMA.

    A new 14C aerosol dataset is presented. Both this new and a previously published dataset of 14C analysis suggest a similar BBOA contribution as the AMS and chemical mass balance (CMB, resulting in 13% higher non-fossil carbon during the high vs. low regional fire periods. The new dataset has ~15% more fossil carbon on average than the previously published one, and possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. During the low regional fire period, 38% of organic carbon (OC and 28% total carbon (TC are from non-fossil sources, suggesting the importance of urban and regional non-fossil carbon sources other than the fires, such as food cooking and regional biogenic SOA. The ambient BBOA/ΔCH3CN ratio is much higher in the afternoon when the wildfires are most intense than during the rest of the day. Also, there are large differences in the contributions of the different OA components to the surface concentrations vs. the integrated column amounts. Both facts may explain some apparent disagreements between BB impacts estimated from afternoon aircraft flights vs. those from 24-h ground measurements.

    We show that by properly accounting for the non-BB sources of K, all of the BB PM estimates from MILAGRO can be reconciled. Overall, the fires from the region near the MCMA are estimated to contribute 15–23% of the OA and 7–9% of the fine PM at T0 during MILAGRO, and 2–3% of the fine PM as an annual average. The 2006 MCMA emissions inventory contains a substantially lower impact of the forest fire emissions, although a fraction of these emissions occur just outside of the MCMA inventory area.

  3. Effect of pH, temperature, humic acid and coexisting anions on reduction of Cr(Ⅵ) in the soil leachate by nZVI/Ni bimetal material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; Li, Luwei; Ren, Wentao; Deng, Xiaoqiang; Liu, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Nano zero valent iron/Ni bimetal materials (nZVI/Ni) were prepared by borohydride reduction method to remediate toxic Cr(Ⅵ) contaminated in soil leachate. nZVI/Ni was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Different factors including pH value of soil leachate, reaction time, temperature, humic acid and coexisting anions (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - , HCO 3 - , CO 3 2- ) were studied to analyze the reduction rate. Results showed that the reduction rate of Cr(Ⅵ) could reach 99.84% under the condition of pH of 5 and temperature of 303 K. pH values and temperature of soil leachate had a significant effect on the reduction efficiency, while humic acid had inhibition effect for the reduction reaction. SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- had inhibition effect for reduction rate, while NO 3 - barely influenced the reduction process of nZVI/Ni. Moreover, Langumir-Hinshelwood first order kinetic model was studied and could describe the reduction process well. The thermodynamic studies indicated that the reaction process was endothermic and spontaneous. Activation energy was 143.80 kJ mol -1 , showing that the reaction occurred easily. Therefore, the study provides an idea for nZVI/Ni further research and practical application of nZVI/Ni in soil remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available community. The construction industry is a significantly consumer of materials, using 50 per cent of all products produced globally. Building materials is any material which is used for a construction purpose. Many of these materials are sources from natural...

  5. A rationally designed amino-borane complex in a metal organic framework: A novel reusable hydrogen storage and size-selective reduction material

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xinbo

    2015-01-01

    A novel amino-borane complex inside a stable metal organic framework was synthesized for the first time. It releases hydrogen at a temperature of 78 °C with no volatile contaminants and can be well reused. Its application as a size-selective reduction material in organic synthesis was also demonstrated. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

  6. Porous yolk-shell microspheres as N-doped carbon matrix for motivating the oxygen reduction activity of oxygen evolution oriented materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jinqiu; Wang, Mengfan; Qian, Tao; Liu, Sisi; Cao, Xuecheng; Yang, Tingzhou; Yang, Ruizhi; Yan, Chenglin

    2017-09-01

    It is highly challenging to explore high-performance bi-functional oxygen electrode catalysts for their practical application in next-generation energy storage and conversion devices. In this work, we synthesize hierarchical N-doped carbon microspheres with porous yolk-shell structure (NCYS) as a metal-free electrocatalyst toward efficient oxygen reduction through a template-free route. The enhanced oxygen reduction performances in both alkaline and acid media profit well from the porous yolk-shell structure as well as abundant nitrogen functional groups. Furthermore, such yolk-shell microspheres can be used as precursor materials to motivate the oxygen reduction activity of oxygen evolution oriented materials to obtain a desirable bi-functional electrocatalyst. To verify its practical utility, Zn-air battery tests are conducted and exhibit satisfactory performance, indicating that this constructed concept for preparation of bi-functional catalyst will afford a promising strategy for exploring novel metal-air battery electrocatalysts.

  7. Sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding: Effectiveness of organic carbon addition and pH increase depends on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chaolei; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Mosley, Luke M; Marschner, Petra

    2015-11-15

    Sulfuric material is formed upon oxidation of sulfidic material; it is extremely acidic, and therefore, an environmental hazard. One option for increasing pH of sulfuric material may be stimulation of bacterial sulfate reduction. We investigated the effects of organic carbon addition and pH increase on sulfate reduction after re-flooding in ten sulfuric materials with four treatments: control, pH increase to 5.5 (+pH), organic carbon addition with 2% w/w finely ground wheat straw (+C), and organic carbon addition and pH increase (+C+pH). After 36 weeks, in five of the ten soils, only treatment +C+pH significantly increased the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) compared to the control and increased the soil pore water pH compared to treatment+pH. In four other soils, pH increase or/and organic carbon addition had no significant effect on RIS concentration compared to the control. The RIS concentration in treatment +C+pH as percentage of the control was negatively correlated with soil clay content and initial nitrate concentration. The results suggest that organic carbon addition and pH increase can stimulate sulfate reduction after re-flooding, but the effectiveness of this treatment depends on soil properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. The Evaluation of Vehicle Mass Reduction and Material Choice in Life Cycle Assessments: Key Factors and Dynamic Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developments in the realm of lightweight materials for automotive use continue to be announced by the industry and by academia. This session will provide new and updated information on new generation of materials. Additionally, this session will focus on the key topics involved i...

  10. Development of structural materials to enable the electrochemical reduction of spent oxide nuclear fuel in a molten salt electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, J. M.; Cho, S. H.; Lim, J. H.; Seo, C. S.; Park, S. W

    2006-02-15

    For the development of the advanced spent fuel management process based on the molten salt technology, it is essential to choose the optimum material for the process equipment handling a molten salt. In this study, corrosion behavior of Fe-base superalloy, Ni-base superalloy, non-metallic material and surface modified superalloy were investigated in the hot molten salt under oxidation atmosphere. These experimental data will suggest a guideline for the selection of corrosion resistant materials and help to find the operation criteria of each equipment in aspects of high temperature characteristics and corrosion retardation.

  11. A modal-based reduction method for sound absorbing porous materials in poro-acoustic finite element models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumpler, Romain; Deü, Jean-François; Göransson, Peter

    2012-11-01

    Structural-acoustic finite element models including three-dimensional (3D) modeling of porous media are generally computationally costly. While being the most commonly used predictive tool in the context of noise reduction applications, efficient solution strategies are required. In this work, an original modal reduction technique, involving real-valued modes computed from a classical eigenvalue solver is proposed to reduce the size of the problem associated with the porous media. In the form presented in this contribution, the method is suited for homogeneous porous layers. It is validated on a 1D poro-acoustic academic problem and tested for its performance on a 3D application, using a subdomain decomposition strategy. The performance of the proposed method is estimated in terms of degrees of freedom downsizing, computational time enhancement, as well as matrix sparsity of the reduced system.

  12. Noise and vibration level reduction by covering metal structures with layers of damping materials. [considering viscoelastic insulation layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugina, I.; Paven, H. T. O.

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important methods of reducing the noise and vibration level is the damping of the secondary sources, such as metal plates, often used in vehicle structures, by means of covering materials with high internal viscosity. Damping layers are chosen at an optimum thickness corresponding to the frequency and temperature range in which a certain structure works. The structure's response corresponding to various real situations is analyzed by means of a measuring chain including electroacoustical or electromechanical transducers. The experimental results provide the dependence of the loss factor and damping transmission coefficient as a function of the damping layer thickness or of the frequency for various viscoelastic covering materials.

  13. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bozec, N.

    2000-01-01

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  14. Reduction of radiation damage on organic material at very low object temperatures in an electron microscope with supraconductive lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapek, E.

    1981-01-01

    As a result of this study, the increase in structure conservation by cooling the object to very low temperatures (cryoprotection) as compared with the conditions at room temperature was higher than the values at low temperatures reached so far by one to two orders of magnitude. The experiments carried out with an electron microscope with supraconductive lenses (SLEM) showed, depending of the organic substance, that in tests with an electron diffraction of about 4.2 K the reduction of radiation damage as compared with room temperature was by a factor between 30 and 350. (orig./PW) [de

  15. One-pot syntheses of Li3V2(PO4)3/C cathode material for lithium ion batteries via ascorbic acid reduction approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.S.; Yang, L.; Liu, K.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ascorbic acid (C 6 H 8 O 6 ) was used as reducing agent and organic carbon source. → The strategy shortened the period of material preparation and lowered energy cost. → Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C was obtained with enhanced electrochemical performance. → Effects of reagents on electrochemical performance of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 were evaluated. - Abstract: Monoclinic Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C composite synthesized by ascorbic acid reduction method is examined as a cathode material for Li-ion batteries. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the nano-size particles are obtained. The reversible capacity of Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C prepared with LiOH and H 3 PO 4 is 141.2 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles at 1C discharge rate between 3 V and 4.8 V, and the retention rates of discharge capacity is 93.4%. Ascorbic acid plays not only as reduction reagent, but also as carbon sources. This strategy shortens the time of solid state reaction and facilitates the procedure of synthesis. Effects of different precursors materials on the performance of the Li 3 V 2 (PO 4 ) 3 /C are investigated.

  16. Model for the reduction of denials of expeditions of radioactive material in the region of the America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, Mario; Bruno, Natanael

    2013-01-01

    The denials, restraints and delays of shipments of radioactive material likely to have occurred and continue to occur. Reducing them to acceptable levels can be a tangible goal that senders and recipients can anticipate and get. The basis for resolving cases of denials and delays should consider not only the participation of the competent national nuclear authorities but also other government authorities. Carriers, shippers, transport companies and recipients should consider in their queries all the wide range of authorities apparently have no involvement but they really have. This paper describes the experience gained in the country of Brazil and provides the basis of a model that could prove useful to other countries and regions, including America, if we adopt and adapt, to reduce the incidence of denials and delays of shipments of radioactive material, according to its own conditions and characteristics

  17. A Technological Comparison of Six Processes for the Production of Reduction-Grade Alumina from Non-Bauxitic Raw Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, K. B.

    The U. S. Bureau of Mines, by means of a contract with Kaiser Engineers and with Kaiser Aluminum & Chemical Corporation as a subcontractor, has sponsored a technological and an economic evaluation of six candidate processes for the manufacture of alumina from certain U. S. raw materials other than bauxite. This paper describes each process. Flow diagrams and the total energy requirement for each process are included. Important characteristics affecting the economics of producing alumina by each process are discussed, and some presently unsolved technical problems are identified. The extraction of alumina from clay via hydrochloric acid with iron separation by solvent extraction, and the crystallization of intermediate AlCl3·6H2O through the introduction of HCl gas into the pregnant mother liquor, appears to be technically feasible and the most attractive of the six raw material/process combinations.

  18. Impact reduction of the uncertain geometrical parameters on magnetic material identification of an EI electromagnetic inductor using an adaptive inverse algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallh, A.; Crevecoeur, G.; Dupré, L.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic characteristics of the electromagnetic devices' core materials can be recovered by solving an inverse problem, where sets of measurements need to be properly interpreted using a forward numerical model of the device. However, the uncertainties of the geometrical parameter values in the forward model lead to appreciable recovery errors in the recovered values of the material parameters. In this paper, we propose an effective inverse approach technique, in which the influences of the uncertainties in the geometrical model parameters are minimized. In this proposed approach, the cost function that needs to be minimized is adapted with respect to the uncertain geometrical model parameters. The proposed methodology is applied onto the identification of the magnetizing B–H curve of the magnetic material of an EI core inductor. The numerical results show a significant reduction of the recovery errors in the identified magnetic material parameter values. Moreover, the proposed methodology is validated by solving an inverse problem starting from real magnetic measurements. - Highlights: ► A new method to minimize the influence of the uncertain parameters in inverse problems is proposed. ► The technique is based on adapting iteratively the objective function that needs to be minimized. ► The objective function is adapted by the model response sensitivity to the uncertain parameters. ► The proposed technique is applied for recovering the B–H curve of an EI core inductor material. ► The error in the inverse problem solution is dramatically reduced using the proposed methodology.

  19. High-quality reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum hybrid materials prepared by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide and chloroplatinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yinjie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Reduced graphene oxide-nanocrystalline platinum (RGO-Pt hybrid materials were synthesized by simultaneous co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO and chloroplatinic acid with sodium citrate in water at 80°C, of pH 7 and 10. The resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Platinum (Pt nanoparticles were anchored randomly onto the reduced GO (RGO sheets with average mean diameters of 1.76 (pH 7 and 1.93 nm (pH 10. The significant Pt diffraction peaks and the decreased intensity of (002 peak in the XRD patterns of RGO-Pt hybrid materials confirmed that the Pt nanoparticles were anchored onto the RGO sheets and intercalated into the stacked RGO layers at these two pH values. The Pt loadings for the hybrid materials were determined as 36.83 (pH 7 and 49.18% (pH 10 by mass using XPS analysis. With the assistance of oleylamine, the resultant RGO-Pt hybrid materials were soluble in the nonpolar organic solvents, and the dispersion could remain stable for several months.

  20. Comparative study to evaluate the accuracy of polyether occlusal bite registration material and occlusal registration wax as a guide for occlusal reduction during tooth preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niranjan Joshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the reliability of the most commonly used occlusal registration wax that with polyether bite registration material as a guide for occlusal reduction required during tooth preparations. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of this study, 25 abutment teeth requiring tooth preparation for fixed prosthesis were selected and tooth preparations carried out. Modeling wax strips of specific dimensions were placed onto the cast of prepared tooth, which was mounted on maximum intercuspation on the articulator and the articulator was closed. The thickness of the wax registration was measured at three zones namely two functional cusps and central fossa. Similar measurements were made using the polyether bite registration material and prosthesis at the same zones. The data was tabulated and was subjected to statistical analysis using anova test and Tukey honestly significant difference test. Results: The differences in thickness between wax record and prosthesis by 0.1346 mm, whereas the difference between polyether and prosthesis was 0.02 mm with a P value of 0.042, which is statistically significant. This means that the wax record was 8.25% larger than the prosthesis while polyether was just 1.27% larger than the prosthesis. Conclusion: The clinical significance of the above analysis is that Ramitec polyether bite registration material is most suitable material when compared with commonly used modeling wax during the tooth preparation.

  1. Effectiveness of a Lactobacillus sakei starter culture in the reduction of biogenic amine accumulation as a function of the raw material quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, S; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2001-03-01

    The effectiveness of an amine-negative starter culture (Lactobacillus sakei CTC494) in the reduction of biogenic amine production during the ripening of fermented sausages was examined. Four batches were manufactured in parallel: spontaneously fermented and starter-mediated sausages were manufactured from two lots of raw materials of different hygienic quality. Besides the biogenic amine contents, changes in the microbial counts, nitrogenous fractions, pH, and water content were measured at several sampling points during the ripening process. In sausages manufactured from good quality meat, the starter strain of L. sakei reduced and even inhibited biogenic amine accumulation during sausage fermentation, the end products showing extremely low biogenic amine contents (tyramine levels less than 15 mg/kg of dry matter and putrescine and cadaverine levels less than 5 mg/kg of dry matter). Nevertheless, starter-mediated sausages made from poorer-quality raw materials showed much higher amine contents (308, 223, and 36 mg/kg of dry matter of cadaverine, tyramine, and putrescine, respectively), which were only slightly lower than those of the spontaneously fermented sausages made from the same raw materials. The relatively high bacterial numbers of raw materials of poorer-hygienic quality diminished the beneficial effect of the starter strain. Therefore, the effectiveness of the starter was strongly dependent on the hygienic quality of the raw materials used.

  2. Simulation of sound transmission through the porous material, determining the parameters of acoustic absorption and sound reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvolenský Peter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the quality of structural design of a railway coach is evaluated by so called acoustic comfort, which is characterized by achieved levels of internal noise. Therefore, acoustic parameters of car body are being developed purposely. The paper presents the results of the computer simulation of noise transmission through the wagon walls and the use of noise tests from the train running. The acoustic properties of the original and new materials in the care body are compared.

  3. NiCr (x) Fe2-x O-4 as cathode materials for electrochemical reduction of NO (x)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bræstrup, Frantz Radzik; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2010-01-01

    the electrochemical behavior in 1% NO, 1% NO2, and 10% O2. NiCr2O4 shows high activity in NO and NO2 relative to O2 and can therefore be considered as a possible electrode material. Peaks were detected in the voltammograms recorded on NiCr2O4 in 1% NO. The origin of the peaks seems to be related to the oxidation...

  4. Nitrogen oxides reduction by carbonaceous materials and carbon dioxide separation using regenerative metal oxides from fossil fuel based flue gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Himanshu

    The ever-growing energy demands due to rising global population and continuing lifestyle improvements has placed indispensable emphasis on fossil fuels. Combustion of fossil fuels leads to the emission of harmful gaseous pollutants such as oxides of sulfur (SOx) and nitrogen (NOx), carbon dioxide (CO2), mercury, particulate matter, etc. Documented evidence has proved that this air pollution leads to adverse environmental health. This dissertation focuses on the development of technologies for the control of NOx and CO2 emissions. The first part of the thesis (Chapters 2--6) deals with the development of carbon based post combustion NOx reduction technology called CARBONOX process. High temperature combustion oxidizes both atmospheric nitrogen and organic nitrogen in coal to nitric oxide (NO). The reaction rate between graphite and NO is slow and requires high temperature (>900°C). The presence of metallic species in coal char catalyzes the reaction. The reaction temperature is lowered in the presence of oxygen to about 600--850°C. Chemical impregnation, specifically sodium compounds, further lowers the reaction temperature to 350--600°C. Activated high sodium lignite char (HSLC) provided the best performance for NO reduction. The requirement of char for NOx reduction is about 8--12 g carbon/g NO reduced in the presence of 2% oxygen in the inlet gas. The second part of this dissertation (chapter 7--8) focuses on the development of a reaction-based process for the separation of CO2 from combustion flue gas. Certain metal oxides react with CO2 forming metal carbonates under flue gas conditions. They can be calcined separately to yield CO2. Calcium oxide (CaO) has been identified as a viable metal oxide for the carbonation-calcination reaction (CCR) scheme. CaO synthesized from naturally occurring precursors (limestone and dolomite) attained 45--55% of their stoichiometric conversion due to the susceptibility of their microporous structure. High surface area

  5. Ni-O4 species anchored on N-doped graphene-based materials as molecular entities and electrocatalytic performances for oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dawoon; Lee, Seungjun; Shin, Yunseok; Ohn, Saerom; Park, Sunghee; Lim, Donggyu; Park, Gilsoo; Park, Sungjin

    2017-12-01

    The generation of molecular active species on the surface of nano-materials has become promising routes to produce efficient electrocatalysts. Development of cost-effective catalysts with high performances for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is an important challenge for fuel cell and metal-air battery applications. In this work, we report a novel hybrid produced by room-temperature solution processes using Ni-based organometallic molecules and N-doped graphene-based materials. Chemical and structural characterizations reveal that Ni-containing species are well-dispersed on the surface of graphene network as molecular entity. The hybrid shows excellent electrocatalytic performances for ORR in basic medium with an onset potential of 0.87 V (vs. RHE), superior durability and good methanol tolerance.

  6. High-performance oxygen reduction catalysts in both alkaline and acidic fuel cells based on pre-treating carbon material and iron precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ping; Barkholtz, Heather M.; Wang, Ying; Xu, Weilin; Liu, Dijia; Zhuang, Lin

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a new and simple method for pre-treating the carbon material and iron precursor to prepare oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts, which can produce super-high performance and stability in alkaline solution, with high performance in acid solution. This strategy using cheap materials is simply controllable. Moreover, it has achieved smaller uniform nanoparticles to exhibit high stability, and the synergetic effect of Fe and N offered much higher performance in ORR than commercial Pt/C, with high maximum power density in alkaline and acid fuel cell test. So it can make this kind of catalysts be the most promising alternatives of Pt-based catalysts with best performance/price.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of toe board energy-absorbing material for foot, ankle, and lower leg injury reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2018-02-17

    Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.

  8. Bio-reduction of graphene oxide using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) and its application as energy storage electrode material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovation Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Khanra, Partha [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Srivastava, Suneel Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research-Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green reduction of GO using mung bean soaked water has been demonstrated. • The isolation of reduced is very simple and precludes extra purification process. • The specific capacitance of rGO is 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. • The retention in specific capacitance is ∼98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Abstract: Green reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using drained water from soaked mung beans (Phaseolus aureus L.) has been demonstrated. In comparison to the toxic and hazardous reducing chemicals, the drained water from soaked mung beans (P. aureus L.) is completely green reducing agent, the reduction process is very simple and cost effective. The removal of oxygen containing functional groups of GO has been confirmed by UV–vis, Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Morphological characterization of rGO has been performed by atomic force and transmission electron microscopy analysis. Electrochemical performances of rGO have been evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. The specific capacitance (SC) of rGO has been found to be 137 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 1.3 A g{sup −1}. The retention in SC is more than 98% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles suggesting long-term electrochemical cyclic stability as supercapacitor electrode materials.

  9. Na(+) doping induced changes in the reduction and charge transport characteristics of Al2O3-stabilized, CuO-based materials for CO2 capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imtiaz, Q; Abdala, P M; Kierzkowska, A M; van Beek, W; Schweiger, S; Rupp, J L M; Müller, C R

    2016-04-28

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) and chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) are emerging CO2 capture technologies that could reduce appreciably the costs associated with the capture of CO2. In CLC and CLOU, the oxygen required to combust a hydrocarbon is provided by a solid oxygen carrier. Among the transition metal oxides typically considered for CLC and CLOU, copper oxide (CuO) stands out owing to its high oxygen carrying capacity, exothermic reduction reactions and fast reduction kinetics. However, the low Tammann (sintering) temperature of CuO is a serious drawback. In this context, it has been proposed to support CuO on high Tammann temperature and low cost alumina (Al2O3), thus, reducing the morphological changes occurring over multiple CLC or CLOU redox cycles and stabilizing, in turn, the high activity of CuO. However, in CuO-Al2O3 systems, phase stabilization and avoiding the formation of the CuAl2O4 spinel is key to obtaining a material with a high redox stability and activity. Here, we report a Na(+) doping strategy to phase stabilize Al2O3-supported CuO, yielding in turn an inexpensive material with a high redox stability and CO2 capture efficiency. We also demonstrate that doping CuO-Al2O3 with Na(+) improves the oxygen uncoupling characteristics and coke resistance of the oxygen carriers. Utilizing in situ and ex situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), the local structure of Cu and the reduction pathways of CuO were determined as a function of the Na(+) content and cycle number. Finally, using 4-point conductivity measurements, we confirm that doping of Al2O3-supported CuO with Na(+) lowers the activation energy for charge transport explaining conclusively the improved redox characteristics of the new oxygen carriers developed.

  10. Reduction of sludge generation by the addition of support material in a cyclic activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Moacir Messias de; Lermontov, André; Araujo, Philippe Lopes da Silva; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    An innovative biomass carrier (Biobob®) was tested for municipal wastewater treatment in an activated sludge system to evaluate the pollutant removal performance and the sludge generation for different carrier volumes. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale cyclic activated sludge system (CASS®) built with three cylindrical tanks in a series: an anoxic selector (2.1 m(3)), an aerobic selector (2.5 m(3)) and the main aerobic reactor (25.1 m(3)). The results showed that by adding the Biobob® carrier decreased the MLVSS concentration, which consequently reduced the waste sludge production of the system. Having 7% and 18% (v/v) support material in the aerobic reactor, the observed biomass yield decreased 18% and 36%, respectively, relative to the reactor operated with suspended biomass. The addition of media did not affect the system's performance for COD and TSS removal. However, TKN and TN removal were improved by 24% and 14%, respectively, using 18% (v/v) carrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of mixed based membrane technology from component materials bintaro, zeolite and bentonite to reduction of songket waste liquid cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, Muhammad Hatta; Saleh, Abdullah; Asip, Faisol; Makmun, Akbar; Defi

    2017-11-01

    Application of membrane technology based on clay mixture, Activated Carbon from Bintaro, Zeolite and Bentonit to process the waste water of Songket cloth is Palembang traditionally cloth. The applied research is into the superior field of industrial and household waste processing with membrane ceramic technology. The objective of this research is to design the liquid waste separation tool of jumputan cloth using better and simpler ceramic membrane so that it can help the artisans of Palembang songket or songket in processing the waste in accordance with the standard of environmental quality standard (BML) and Pergub Sumsel no. 16 in 2005. The specific target to be achieved can decrease the waste of cloth jumputan in accordance with applicable environmental quality standards the method used in achieving the objectives of this study using 2 processes namely the adsorption process using activated carbon and the separation process using a ceramic membrane based on the composition of the mixture. The activated carbon from bintaro seeds is expected to decrease the concentration of liquid waste of Songket cloth. Bintaro seeds are non-edible fruits where the composition contains organic ingredients that can absorb because contains dyes and filler metals. The process of membranization in the processing is expected to decrease the concentration of waste better and clear water that can be used as recycled water for household use. With the composition of a mixture of clay-based materials: zeolite, bentonit, activated carbon from bintaro seeds are expected Find the solution and get the novelty value in the form of patent in this research

  12. One-step synthesis of metal@titania core-shell materials for visible-light photocatalysis and catalytic reduction reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhigang; Zhang, Luhong; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2014-11-03

    Metal@TiO2 composites with a core-shell structure possess multifunctional properties. The demonstrated protocols for synthesizing such materials involve multiple steps, requiring precise control over the particle uniformity of the core and shell thickness, as well as complex surface modification. A simple approach to synthesizing metal@TiO2 hybrid nanostructures remains a great challenge. Herein, we report on a one-step method for the preparation of metal@TiO2 core-shell nanospheres, which exhibited excellent performance in photocatalytic degradation of recalcitrant organic pollutants under visible light irradiation, and in catalytic reduction of nitrophenol in water. The simple method described here represents a sustainable approach to preparing core-shell materials at low cost, involving fewer chemicals, and requiring less energy, which will make a significant contribution toward large-scale synthesis of high-performance hybrid materials for photocatalytic applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Functional polyester materials with tunable degradability: Investigations into the use of reductive amination, ketoxime ether, and hydrazone linkages for functionalization, covalent stabilization and crosslinking of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Horn, Brooke Angela

    Aliphatic polyesters represent one class of degradable, polymeric materials that is receiving significant attention in the search for, and design of, biocompatible and bioresorbable synthetic substances. Functional and crosslinked polyesters, having potential biomedical value, are the target of many avenues of current research. This dissertation work expands the utility of a specific aliphatic polyester, poly(epsilon-caprolactone-co-2-oxepane-1,5-dione) (P(CL-co-OPD)), which contains backbone ketone units that can be reacted with various functional, nucleophilic agents. Results presented in this dissertation convey both the successes had and the challenges encountered in the employment of different "iminyl" chemistries for the synthesis of functional and crosslinked materials. Specifically, the ketone-functionalized polyester was investigated as a general substrate designed to undergo solution-state intramolecular crosslinking and functionalization upon reductive amination with 1,6-hexanediamine and hexylamine, respectively, in the presence of NaCNBH3. Through detailed analysis of the products from these reactions, and simpler systems including small molecule model compounds, the polymeric gamma-keto ester functionality was determined to be incompatible with the reductive amination chemistry, resulting in chain cleavage via intramolecular lactam formation. Subsequent investigation of ketoxime ether formation using synthetic model hydroxylamines, 1-aminooxydodecane and 1,6-bis(aminooxy)hexane, in solution and in the presence of an acid catalyst, resulted in the targeted graft and crosslinked particulate/gel materials, respectively. With the significant interest in the development of synthetic polymer materials of increasing degrees of complexity, attention has been focused on the efficient and high-yielding conversion of polyesters into multi-functional materials. Facile conjugation of aminooxy- and sulfonyl hydrazide model ligands with P(CL-co-OPD) were also

  14. Development of Waste Reduction System of Wastewater Treatment Process Using a Moss: Production of Useful Materials from Remainder of a Moss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumihisa, Kobayashi

    Landfill leachate pollution presents a serious environmental problem. It would be valuable to develop a sustainable method, one that is inexpensive and requires little energy, to eliminate the pollution and dispose of the waste. In a previous study, we reported the results of a leachate treatment for landfills in which we relied on the moss, Scopelophia cataractae, to support a sustainable method of waste reduction. In this study, for the development of a waste reduction system of landfill leachate treatment, we attempted to produce zinc as useful metal and ethanol as fuel from the remainder of moss after wastewater treatment. Steam explosions, which were used as physicochemical pretreatments to expose the raw material to saturated steam under high pressure and temperature, were used to pretreat the moss. By electrolysis, zinc recovered, and the maximum zinc recovery after wastewater treatment was 0.504 at 2.0 MPa steam pressure (211 °C) and 5 min steaming time. After that time, by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using a Meicelase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae AM12, 0.42 g dm-3 of the maximum ethanol concentration was produced from 10 g dm-3 of exploded moss at 2.5 MPa steam pressure (223 °C) and 1 min steaming time.

  15. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Sun, Lingtao; Liao, Wenli; Li, Zhongbin

    2015-12-23

    The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900) as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V ( versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE) and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  16. The Use of an Edible Mushroom-Derived Renewable Carbon Material as a Highly Stable Electrocatalyst towards Four-Electron Oxygen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhong Guo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of highly stable and efficient electrocatalysts for sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR is exceedingly significant for the commercialization of fuel cells but remains a challenge. We here synthesize a new nitrogen-doped biocarbon composite material (N-BC@CNP-900 as a nitrogen-containing carbon-based electrocatalyst for the ORR via facile all-solid-state multi-step pyrolysis of bioprotein-enriched enoki mushroom as a starting material, and inexpensive carbon nanoparticles as the inserting matrix and conducting agent at controlled temperatures. Results show that the N-BC@CNP-900 catalyst exhibits the best ORR electrocatalytic activity with an onset potential of 0.94 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode, RHE and high stability. Meanwhile, this catalyst significantly exhibits good selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway in an alkaline electrolyte. It is notable that pyridinic- and graphtic-nitrogen groups that play a key role in the enhancement of the ORR activity may be the catalytically active structures for the ORR. We further propose that the pyridinic-nitrogen species can mainly stabilize the ORR activity and the graphitic-nitrogen species can largely enhance the ORR activity. Besides, the addition of carbon support also plays an important role in the pyrolysis process, promoting the ORR electrocatalytic activity.

  17. Development of hydrocarbon adsorbents, oxygen storage materials for three-way catalysts and NO{sub x} storage-reduction catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanazawa, Takaaki [Material Engineering Division 1, Toyota Motor Corporation, 1 Toyota-cyo, Toyota, Aichi 471-8572 (Japan)

    2004-10-05

    Hydrocarbon adsorbents, three-way catalysts and NO{sub x} storage-reduction catalysts for application in gasoline engines have been studied at Toyota in order to meet more stringent environmental regulations.The hydrocarbon adsorption capacity of zeolites has been studied. Hydrocarbon adsorption increased with decreasing aluminum content. Zeolites with a pore size approximately 0.1nm greater than the diameter of the hydrocarbon molecules showed the best performance. Two zeolites with different pore size were mixed, and this strategy succeeded in adsorbing hydrocarbons of carbon number 3 and above. Silver (Ag) ion-exchanged zeolite was used to increase the adsorption of exhaust gas hydrocarbons, including those of carbon number 2.To optimize the performance of three-way catalysts, another development project focused on the heat resistance of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} solid solutions (CZ) with oxygen storage capacity (OSC). We devised a new method of inhibiting the coagulation of the primary CZ particles by placing diffusion barrier layers made of alumina among the primary CZ particles. This material is called 'ACZ'. The OSC and the light-off temperature of the ACZ-added catalyst are improved. For the improvement of NO{sub x} storage-reduction catalysts (NSR catalysts), we focused on the performance deterioration at high temperature via sulfur-poisoning and thermal degradation. A new zirconia-titania complex metal oxide was developed which improves the high-temperature performance and to promotes desorption of sulfur from the supports after aging.

  18. Reduction - competitive tomorrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worley, L.; Bargerstock, S.

    1995-01-01

    Inventory reduction is one of the few initiatives that represent significant cost-reduction potential that does not result in personnel reduction. Centerior Energy's Perry nuclear power plant has embarked on an aggressive program to reduce inventory while maintaining plant material availability. Material availability to the plant was above 98%, but at an unacceptable 1994 inventory book value of $47 million with inventory carrying costs calculated at 30% annually

  19. Alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction: a Bayesian Network meta-analysis of grafting materials efficacy on prevention of bone height and width reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iocca, Oreste; Farcomeni, Alessio; Pardiñas Lopez, Simon; Talib, Huzefa S

    2017-01-01

    To conduct a traditional meta-analysis and a Bayesian Network meta-analysis to synthesize the information coming from randomized controlled trials on different socket grafting materials and combine the resulting indirect evidence in order to make inferences on treatments that have not been compared directly. RCTs were identified for inclusion in the systematic review and subsequent statistical analysis. Bone height and width remodelling were selected as the chosen summary measures for comparison. First, a series of pairwise meta-analyses were performed and overall mean difference (MD) in mm with 95% CI was calculated between grafted versus non-grafted sockets. Then, a Bayesian Network meta-analysis was performed to draw indirect conclusions on which grafting materials can be considered most likely the best compared to the others. From the six included studies, seven comparisons were obtained. Traditional meta-analysis showed statistically significant results in favour of grafting the socket compared to no-graft both for height (MD 1.02, 95% CI 0.44-1.59, p value meta-analysis allowed to obtain a rank of intervention efficacy. On the basis of the results of the present analysis, socket grafting seems to be more favourable than unassisted socket healing. Moreover, Bayesian Network meta-analysis indicates that freeze-dried bone graft plus membrane is the most likely effective in the reduction of bone height remodelling. Autologous bone marrow resulted the most likely effective when width remodelling was considered. Studies with larger samples and less risk of bias should be conducted in the future in order to further strengthen the results of this analysis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Australia's uranium - greenhouse friendly fuel for an energy hungry world: a case study into the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources for the inquiry into developing Australia's non-fossil fuel energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The terms of reference for the case study were to inquire into and report on the strategic importance of Australia's uranium resources. The Committee was asked to give particular attention to the: global demand for Australia's uranium resources and associated supply issues; potential implications for global greenhouse emission reductions from the further development and export of Australia's uranium resources; and the current regulatory environment of the uranium mining sector. The Committee indicated in its letters inviting submissions that it would also welcome comments in relation to six additional issues, relating to: whole of life cycle waste management; adequacy of social impact assessment, consultation and approval processes with traditional owners; health risks to workers and to the public from exposure to radiation; adequacy of regulation of uranium mining by the Commonwealth; the extent of federal subsidies and other mechanisms to facilitate uranium mining; and the effectiveness of safeguards regimes in addressing proliferation. These matters are addressed in the Committee's report, which consists of 12 chapters. The contents, findings and recommendations of each chapter are summarised as follows. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations are also summarised in a key messages section at the beginning of each chapter and in the conclusions section at the end of each chapter

  1. Co-reduction self-assembly of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets coated Cu2O sub-microspheres core-shell composites as lithium ion battery anode materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yi-Tao; Guo, Ying; Song, Le-Xin; Zhang, Kai; Yuen, Matthew M.F.; Xu, Jian-Bin; Fu, Xian-Zhu; Sun, Rong; Wong, Ching-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) sub-microspheres @ reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets core-shell composites with 3D architecture are successfully fabricated by a one-step method through co-reduction of irregular cupric citrate and graphene oxide nanosheets at room temperature. Comparing to the bare Cu 2 O sub-microspheres and the simple physical mixture of Cu 2 O and rGO (Cu 2 O-rGO-M), the Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes demonstrate dramatically improved capacity, cyclic stability and rate capability as anode materials for lithium ion batteries. At a low current density of 100 mA∙g −1 , Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes deliver a discharge capacity of 534 mAh∙g −1 after 50 cycles, retaining 94% of the initial capacity. Under a higher current density of 1000 mA∙g −1 , Cu 2 O@rGO electrodes exhibit a discharge capacity of 181 mAh∙g −1 after 200 cycles, approximately 4 times larger than that of bare Cu 2 O sub-microsphere electrodes. The rate capacity retention of Cu 2 O@rGO electrode is 74% at 200 mA∙g −1 and 38% at 1000 mA∙g −1 relative to 100 mA∙g −1 , much better than that for Cu 2 O-rGO-M (52% and 34%) and bare Cu 2 O electrodes (13% and 3%,). The enhanced electrochemical performance for Cu 2 O@rGO might be ascribed to the rGO coating and 3D architecture. The outer coated rGO nanosheets could provide additional 3D conductive networks as well as serve as the buffer layers for accommodating the large volume change of the inner Cu 2 O sub-microspheres during the charge-discharge cycling

  2. Radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    During a radon gas screening program, elevated levels of radon gas were detected in homes on Mackinac Island, Mich. Six homes on foundations with crawl spaces were selected for a research project aimed at reducing radon gas concentrations, which ranged from 12.9 to 82.3 pCi/l. Using isolation and ventilation techniques, and variations thereof, radon concentrations were reduced to less than 1 pCi/l. This paper reports that these reductions were achieved using 3.5 mil cross laminated or 10 mil high density polyethylene plastic as a barrier without sealing to the foundation or support piers, solid and/or perforated plastic pipe and mechanical fans. Wind turbines were found to be ineffective at reducing concentrations to acceptable levels. Homeowners themselves installed all materials

  3. Risk Reduction from Minimization of Persistent, Bioaccumulative, and Toxic Waste Materials Within the U.S. Industrial Solid Waste Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study addressed three questions of interest in national-scale solid and hazardous waste management decision-making within the United States: 1) can we quantify the reduction in risk to human and ecological receptors resulting from the reduction of certain industrial waste s...

  4. Croatian non-fossil energy programme (NFE Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenski, M.; Potocnik, V.

    1996-01-01

    Proposed NFE Program (rational energy use and renewable energy) takes into account European Union experience and the facts of scarce fossil fuel reserves and relatively low energy efficiency in Croatia. Implementation of the NFE Program is expected to reduce fossil fuels import growth and environmental pollution, to improve import-export trade balance and to contribute to the new local jobs. (author)

  5. Carbothermic reduction of pyrolusite for obtaining carbon bearing ferromanganese and slags, adequated to the development of welding materials; Reduccion carbotermica de pirolusita para la obtencion de ferromanganeso y escoria, adecuados al desarrollo de materiales de soldadura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz-Crespo, A.; Garcia-Sanchez, L. L.; Quintana-Puchol, R.; Perdomo Gonzalez, L.; Gomez-Perez, C. R.; Jimenez-Vielsa, G. E.; Cores-Sanchez, A.

    2004-07-01

    The high carbon ferromanganese obtained by means of carbothermic reduction in an electric arc furnace of direct current is proposed. the ideal composition of slag oxides to achieve a flux to be used in the submerged arc welding (SAW) is established. Calculation for charge components (pyrolusite, coke, steel wool, lime, rutile and fluorite) for no fluxes technology for FeMn is carried out taking into account the welding fluxes characteristics of the SiO{sub 2}-MnO-CaO system. Change materials reduction experiments to obtain FeMn and slag are used to develop a SAW flux. (Author) 21 refs.

  6. New self-assembled material based on Ru nanoparticles and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene as an efficient and recyclable catalyst for reduction of brilliant yellow azo dye in water: a new model catalytic reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rambabu, Darsi; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Dhir, Abhimanew, E-mail: abhimanew@iitmandi.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology (India)

    2016-12-15

    New self-assembled material (Ru@SC) with ruthenium nanoparticles (Ru NPs) and 4-sulfocalix[4]arene (SC) is synthesized in water at room temperature. Ru@SC is characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis, FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, TEM and SEM analysis. The size of Ru nanoparticles in the self-assembly is approximately 5 nm. The self-assembled material Ru@SC shows an efficient catalytic reduction of toxic ‘brilliant yellow’ (BY) azo dye. The reduced amine products were successfully separated and confirmed by single-crystal XRD, NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Ru@SC showed a better catalytic activity in comparison with commercial catalysts Ru/C (ruthenium on charcoal 5 %) and Pd/C (palladium on charcoal 5 and 10 %). The catalyst also showed a promising recyclability and heterogeneous nature as a catalyst for reduction of ‘BY’ azo dye.

  7. Electrochemical reduction of graphited materials in LiClO{sub 4}-EC and LiClO{sub 4}-PC media: characterization of interface products by transmission electron microscopy; Reduction electrochimique de materiaux graphites en milieux LiCIO{sub 4}-EC et LiCIO{sub 4}-PC: caracterisation des produits d`interface par microscopie electronique a transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billaud, D.; Naji, A.; Ghanbaja, J. [Universite Henri Poincare Nancy, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Willmann, P. [Centre National d`Etudes Spatiales (CNES), 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    The electrochemical intercalation of non-solvated lithium in different graphited materials has been performed in LiClO{sub 4}-ethylene carbonate (EC) medium. The irreversible capacity observed during the first output is mainly due to the formation of a passivation layer made of electrolyte reduction products. These products have been characterized for different electrode reduction potentials using transmission electron microscopy (image, diffraction) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). EC reduction on the electrode surface in presence of LiClO{sub 4} leads to the formation of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for potentials close to 0.8 V vs Li{sup +}/Li. For lower potentials, the electrolyte reduction reaction goes on with the formation of different lithium alkyl-carbonates. In LiClO{sub 4}-propylene carbonate (PC) medium, the interface phenomena are different. The reduction of a graphite electrode is characterized by the exfoliation phenomenon which hinders lithium intercalation. On the contrary, the formation of the passivation layer by graphite reduction in LiClO{sub 4}-EC medium allows the cycling of the electrode in the LiClO{sub 4}-PC electrolyte. In this case, the irreversible capacity observed during the first output depends on the experimental conditions of formation of the passivation layer. Abstract only. (J.S.)

  8. Fatigue strength reduction model: RANDOM3 and RANDOM4 user manual. Appendix 2: Development of advanced methodologies for probabilistic constitutive relationships of material strength models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Lola; Lovelace, Thomas B.

    1989-01-01

    FORTRAN programs RANDOM3 and RANDOM4 are documented in the form of a user's manual. Both programs are based on fatigue strength reduction, using a probabilistic constitutive model. The programs predict the random lifetime of an engine component to reach a given fatigue strength. The theoretical backgrounds, input data instructions, and sample problems illustrating the use of the programs are included.

  9. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  10. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  11. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Web Academy Webinar: How to Reduce Wasted Food: EPA’s Food Waste Reduction Tools for Food Services & Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a webinar page for the Sustainable Management of Materials (SMM) Web Academy webinar titled Let’s WRAP (Wrap Recycling Action Program): Best Practices to Boost Plastic Film Recycling in Your Community

  12. Coal materials for the reduction of SO{sub 2}-NO{sub x}; Derivados del carbon para la reduccion de SO{sub 2}-No{sub x}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    The project was divided in two well-differentiated parts: SO{sub 2} removal and NO{sub x} reduction. In both cases, carbon materials play a unique role in the processes, either as calcium sorbent suppor (SO{sub 2} removal) or as catalyst support and reducing agent (NO{sub x} reduction). Removal of SO{sub 2}. This process was carried out by calcium sorbents at relatively low temperature (T<300 degree centigree), forming CaSO{sub 3} (instead of CaSO{sub 4}) that decomposos at lower temperatures, making regeneration easier. High dispersion of the active species, CaO, has been obtained using carbon materials (activated carbons, chars, etc.) and other inorganic compounds as supports. The effect of oxygen, carbon dioxide and steam in the reaction atmosphere and the regeneration process have been also investigated. Thermal regeneration is possible for several cycles, however, carbon gasification also takes place. To control, and to void that effect, the reaction and regeneration temperatures should be carefully controlled and carbons with low reactivity should be selected. The process was scaled (100-2000) using briquete samples obtained by physical mixture of char and Ca(oh){sub 2}. The SO{sub 2} removal levels were similar to those found in the laboratory scale. NO{sub x} reduction. The possibility of using potassium containing coal-briquettes for NO and NO{sub x} reduction has been investigated. The preparation method of briquettes presents the advantage of using a binder agent (humic acid) which contains the catalyst (potassium). The system catalyst-binder-coal stays intimately joined by a moulding stage and subsequent pyrolysis, providing proper mechanical resistance to the coal-briquettes. With the purpose to improve the briquettesactivity, different variables of the preparation process have been investigated (potassium content-added with the binder and/or KOH-, rank and mineral matter content of the coal precursor, pyrolysis temperature and pressure of the moulding

  13. Onion-derived N, S self-doped carbon materials as highly efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuting; Mao, Xinxin; Cao, Zhaoxia; Yin, Yanhong; Wang, Zhichao; Shi, Mengjiao; Dong, Hongyu

    2018-01-01

    Onion-derived nitrogen, sulfur self-doped nanoporous carbon spheres (NSC) as efficient metal-free electrocatalyst were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal and subsequent pyrolysis process. The typical NSC with a high BET specific surface area of 1558 m2 g-1, contains 6.23 at.% N and 0.36 at.% S, and possesses high concentration of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen species. Experimentally, the best performance was the NSC-A2 which showed excellent catalytic activity to oxygen reduction reaction via a 4 electron mechanism with an onset potential of 0.88 V (vs. RHE), and a superior stability comparable to commercial Pt/C catalyst. The high electrocatalytic activity is attributed to not only the synergistic effect of N and S dual doping in carbon and the sufficient active sites, but also its high BET specific surface area and suitable microporous structure. The results demonstrate that it is a simple and scalable approach for preparing efficient and low-cost carbon-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction.

  14. Addition of rejected industrial materials into ceramic masses for the reduction of energy consumption; Adicao de residuos industriais a massa ceramica para reducao de consumo de combustivel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermeier, H.F.; Vieira, V.N. [PETROBRAS, Sao Mateus do Sul, PR (Brazil). Sup. de Industrializacao do Xisto

    1998-07-01

    The required energy for frying ceramic products by conventional energy is very high. Therefore new technology and raw materials are to improve in order to reduce the energy costs. By addition of sub products of the PETROBRAS Process like retorted shale, fine oil spent shale, filter products, we found out that 80-90% of the required energy in a round kiln could be saved. A lot of other waste materials can be used as well by addition into the ceramic mass, like seeds, waste of the Soya oil production or paper industry, and more. Industrial and agricultural wastes can reduce firing energy of ceramic products by their contents of energy, if they would be added into the ceramic mass. (author)

  15. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  16. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO₂ Emission Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Min; Kim, Jang-Ho Jay; Kim, Sung-Bae; Mun, Sungho

    2014-08-19

    In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC) specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers) possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco-friendly Hwangtoh concrete

  17. Material and Structural Performance Evaluations of Hwangtoh Admixtures and Recycled PET Fiber-Added Eco-Friendly Concrete for CO2 Emission Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bon-Min Koo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions and produce an eco-friendly construction material, a type of concrete that uses a minimal amount of cement, yet still retains equivalent properties to ordinary cement concrete, has been developed and studied all over the world. Hwangtoh, a type of red clay broadly deposited around the world, has traditionally been considered an eco-friendly construction material, with bonus advantages of having health and cost benefits. Presently, Hwangtoh is not commonly used as a modern construction material due to properties such as low strength and high rates of shrinkage cracking. Recent studies, however, have shown that Hwangtoh can be used as a mineral admixture to improve the strength of concrete. In addition, polyethylene terephthalate (PET fibers recycled from PET bottle waste can be used to control shrinkage cracks in Hwangtoh concrete. Therefore, in this study, performance verification is conducted on newly developed Hwangtoh concrete mixed with short recycled PET fibers. The results show that Hwangtoh concrete has compressive strength, elastic modulus, and pH properties that are similar to these features in ordinary cement concrete. The properties of carbonation depth and creep strain of Hwangtoh concrete, however, are larger and smaller, respectively, than in ordinary cement concrete. According to flexural tests, reinforced concrete (RC specimens cast with Hwangtoh admixtures (with and without PET fibers possess similar or better capacities than ordinary RC specimens. The addition of PET fibers significantly improves the structural ductility of RC specimens under normal environmental conditions. However, the implementations of the concrete in aggressive environment must be carefully considered, since a previous study result indicates degradation of its durability performance in aggressive environments, such as seawater [1]. The results of this study validate the possibility of using eco

  18. The NiFe2O4-MgFe2O4 series as electrode materials for electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bræstrup, Frantz Radzik; Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2009-01-01

    Solid solutions of spinel-type oxides with the composition (x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6, 1.0) were prepared with the glycine-nitrate combustion synthesis (x = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.6) and the citric-acid combustion synthesis (x = 1.0). The oxides were used as electrode materials in a pseudo-three-electrode...

  19. Simultaneous reduction of NOx, N{sub 2}O, SO{sub 2} emissions from a fluidized bed coal combustor using alternative bed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Asazuma, J.; Shinkai, M.; Matsunaga, S.; Yamagiwa, K.; Fujiwara, N. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan). Dept. of Chemistry & Chemical Engienering

    2003-07-01

    A kind of porous alumina was employed as bed material of bubbling fluidized bed coal combustion instead of non-porous silica sand. The effect of the bed material on emissions of N{sub 2}O and NOx was evaluated using a bench-scale combustor. The present porous alumina suppressed N{sub 2}O emission. This result is explained by the catalytic activity of porous alumina to decompose N{sub 2}O. In addition, NOx emission with porous bed material was nearly the same as or lower than that for the sand bed. Thus the decrease in N{sub 2}O without increasing NOx was attained. A modification of desulfurization by limestone was proposed. Fine limestone particles were employed as sorbent in order to conduct SO{sub 2} capture in the freeboard. By employing fine particles, the contact between volatile matter and limestone, which is known to increase the emission of NOx, was avoided. Thus the increase in NOx emission during limestone feed was avoided.

  20. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  1. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... corresponding to the time domain of the reduction variation....

  2. Study of the oxygen reduction reaction on stainless steel materials in natural seawater. Influence of the bio-film on corrosion processes; Reaction de reduction de l'oxygene sur les aciers inoxydables en eau de mer naturelle. Influence du biofilm sur les processus de corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Bozec, N

    2000-01-15

    Bio-film development on stainless steels immersed in natural seawater can have prejudicial consequences on the resistance of these materials to corrosion. The goal of the present study was to get more precise information on the corrosion processes, and especially on the oxygen reduction reaction. As the reaction is linked to the stainless steel surface state, the characterisation of the oxides films (composition, structure, thickness...) is essential to understand the mechanisms and the oxygen reduction kinetic. The first aim of the study has been to correlate the oxygen reduction processes with the characteristics of the oxides layer as a function of the alloy surface treatment (mechanical polishing, electrochemical passivation and pre-reduction, chemical treatment with some acids or with hydrogen peroxide). The second stage has consisted in following the evolution of the oxygen reduction processes and of the characteristics of the oxides layer with the aging of stainless steels in natural and artificial sea-waters. One major bio-film effect appears to be the production of hydrogen peroxide at a concentration level which induces modifications of the oxides layers and, consequently, of the evolution of the oxygen reduction kinetics as well as of the open circuit potential. Electrochemical techniques (voltammetric analysis at rotating disk and ring-disk electrodes, coulometry) combined with a surface analytical method by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy have been used. The characterisation of the bio-film required the use of microscopy (scanning electronic microscopy, epi-fluorescence microscopy) and microbiological methods (cultures). The in-situ detection of hydrogen peroxide formed inside the bio-film has been performed with a micro-electrode and the results were confirmed with enzymatic methods. (author)

  3. Biomass to energy : GHG reduction quantification protocols and case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusing, G.; Taylor, C.; Nolan, W.; Kerr, G.

    2009-01-01

    With the growing concerns over greenhouses gases and their contribution to climate change, it is necessary to find ways of reducing environmental impacts by diversifying energy sources to include non-fossil fuel energy sources. Among the fastest growing green energy sources is energy from waste facilities that use biomass that would otherwise be landfilled or stockpiled. The quantification of greenhouse gas reductions through the use of biomass to energy systems can be calculated using various protocols and methodologies. This paper described each of these methodologies and presented a case study comparing some of these quantification methodologies. A summary and comparison of biomass to energy greenhouse gas reduction protocols in use or under development by the United Nations, the European Union, the Province of Alberta and Environment Canada was presented. It was concluded that regulatory, environmental pressures, and public policy will continue to impact the practices associated with biomass processing or landfill operations, such as composting, or in the case of landfills, gas collection systems, thus reducing the amount of potential credit available for biomass to energy facility offset projects. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  4. Reduction of intergranular exchange coupling and grain size for high Ku CoPt-based granular media: Metal-oxide buffer layer and multiple oxide boundary materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Kim Kong; Kushibiki, Ryosuke; Kamada, Tomonari; Hinata, Shintaro; Saito, Shin

    2018-05-01

    Investigation of magnetic properties and microstructure of granular media with various multiple oxides as the grain boundary material is reported. Saturation magnetization (Ms), uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku), and magnetic grain diameter (GD) of the granular media show linear correlation with volume weighted average for melting point (Tm) of each oxides (Tmave). Ku of magnetic grains (Kugrain) shows a trade-off relation with GD that it is a big challenge to satisfy both high Kugrain and small GD by only controlling Tmave. To obtain a granular medium with appropriate Kugrain, GD, and low degree of intergranular exchange coupling, the combination of Tmave control of grain boundary material by mixing oxides and employment of a buffer layer are required. Here the degree of intergranular exchange coupling is estimated from the slope of M-H loop at around coercivity (α). By applying this technique, a typical granular medium with Kugrain of 1.0×107 erg/cm3, GD of 5.1 nm, and α of 1.2 is realized.

  5. Harm reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Normand, Jacques; Li, Jih-Heng; Thomson, Nicholas; Jarlais, Don Des

    2013-01-01

    The “Harm Reduction” session was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The three presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (High Coverage Needle/Syringe Programs for People Who Inject Drugs in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic Review), Dr. Nicholas Thomson (Harm Reduction History, Response, and Current Trends in Asia), and Dr. Jih-Heng Li (Harm Reduction Strategies in Taiwan).

  6. Identification of catalytic sites for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution in N-doped graphene materials: Development of highly efficient metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong Bin; Miao, Jianwei; Hung, Sung-Fu; Chen, Jiazang; Tao, Hua Bing; Wang, Xizu; Zhang, Liping; Chen, Rong; Gao, Jiajian; Chen, Hao Ming; Dai, Liming; Liu, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are critical to renewable energy conversion and storage technologies. Heteroatom-doped carbon nanomaterials have been reported to be efficient metal-free electrocatalysts for ORR in fuel cells for energy conversion, as well as ORR and OER in metal-air batteries for energy storage. We reported that metal-free three-dimensional (3D) graphene nanoribbon networks (N-GRW) doped with nitrogen exhibited superb bifunctional electrocatalytic activities for both ORR and OER, with an excellent stability in alkaline electrolytes (for example, KOH). For the first time, it was experimentally demonstrated that the electron-donating quaternary N sites were responsible for ORR, whereas the electron-withdrawing pyridinic N moieties in N-GRW served as active sites for OER. The unique 3D nanoarchitecture provided a high density of the ORR and OER active sites and facilitated the electrolyte and electron transports. As a result, the as-prepared N-GRW holds great potential as a low-cost, highly efficient air cathode in rechargeable metal-air batteries. Rechargeable zinc-air batteries with the N-GRW air electrode in a two-electrode configuration exhibited an open-circuit voltage of 1.46 V, a specific capacity of 873 mAh g(-1), and a peak power density of 65 mW cm(-2), which could be continuously charged and discharged with an excellent cycling stability. Our work should open up new avenues for the development of various carbon-based metal-free bifunctional electrocatalysts of practical significance.

  7. Preliminary investigation on the reduction of plantar loading pressure with different insole materials (SRP--Slow Recovery Poron, P--Poron, PPF--Poron +Plastazote, firm and PPS--Poron+Plastazote, soft).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jasper W K; Ng, Eddie Y K

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the amount of pressure reduction for different padding and insole materials commonly used in the podiatry clinic. Plantar pressure were taken for 5 subjects without insoles fitted (BF) in their daily sports shoes, and thereafter with 4 pairs of simple insoles (6.4 mm thick) each as follow: SRP - Slow Recovery Poron, P - Poron, PPF - Poron+Plastazote (firm) and PPS - Poron+Plastazote (soft). In addition, subjects were also tested with semi-compressed felt (SCF) padding with a 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) aperture cut-out bilaterally. Minimum, maximum, mean pressure and peak pressure at the hallux, 1st, 2nd, 3rd/4th and 5th MTPJ across both feet were analysed. Repeated measures ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni paired wise comparison was used to test for any statistical significance at the 95% confidence level for all pressure data. PPF was significant in reducing the minimum (p<0.005) and mean pressure (p<0.03) when compared to BF. This accounted for approximately 28% and 27% pressure reduction in minimum and mean pressure respectively. Peak pressure on the 1st MTPJ locality showed significant reduction of 37% and 29% with the use of SCF (p<0.004) and PPF (p<0.004), respectively. All 4 commonly used insole materials were able to reduce pressure across the whole foot with PPF achieving significance. Off-loading the 1st MTPJ would still be best achieved with the commonly used plantar metatarsal pad of SCF with the aperture cut-out design. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Roadmap for Achieving Sustainable Energy Conversion and Storage: Graphene-Based Composites Used Both as an Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reactions and an Electrode Material for a Supercapacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipei Huo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on its unique features including 2D planar geometry, high specific surface area and electron conductivity, graphene has been intensively studied as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR electrocatalyst and supercapacitor material. On the one hand, graphene possesses standalone electrocatalytic activity. It can also provide a good support for combining with other materials to generate graphene-based electrocatalysts, where the catalyst-support structure improves the stability and performance of electrocatalysts for ORR. On the other hand, graphene itself and its derivatives demonstrate a promising electrochemical capability as supercapacitors including electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs and pseudosupercapacitors. A hybrid supercapacitor (HS is underlined and the advantages are elaborated. Graphene endows many materials that are capable of faradaic redox reactions with an outstanding pseudocapacitance behavior. In addition, the characteristics of graphene-based composite are also utilized in many respects to provide a porous 3D structure, formulate a novel supercapacitor with innovative design, and construct a flexible and tailorable device. In this review, we will present an overview of the use of graphene-based composites for sustainable energy conversion and storage.

  9. New Materials for Oxygen Reduction Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tobias Peter

    indicated a 1:88 x 1:88 R30 degree structure compared to Pt(111). CO TPD measurements showed a distinct peak at 295 K and a general weaker bonding of CO (on the order of 120 K) compared to Pt(111). The ORR activity of the annealed Y/Pt(111) was measured to be comparable to that of sputter cleaned bulk...... polycrystalline Pt3Y. The angle resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) depth profile after the electrochemical measurements showed the formation of a thick Pt overlayer. Finally, the possible changes in the surface morphology of Pt nanoparticles by annealing in high pressures of CO was correlated...... with measurements done on a sputtered Pt(111) crystal. For the Pt(111), crystal high pressures of CO was seen to enhance the annealing of the defect sites, whereas for nanoparticles a slight roughening was observed....

  10. Noise reduction by wavelet thresholding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Maarten

    2001-01-01

    .... I rather present new material and own insights in the que stions involved with wavelet based noise reduction . On the other hand , the presented material does cover a whole range of methodologies, and in that sense, the book may serve as an introduction into the domain of wavelet smoothing. Throughout the text, three main properties show up ever again: spar...

  11. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckthorpe, Derek

    2010-01-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO 2 emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  12. Material challenges for the next generation of fission reactor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckthorpe, Derek [AMEC, Knutsford, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The new generation of fission reactor systems wil require the deployment and construction of a series of advanced water cooled reactors as part of a package of measures to meet UK and European energy needs and to provide a near term non-fossil fuel power solution that addresses CO{sub 2} emission limits. In addition new longer term Generation IV reactor tye systems are being developed and evaluated to enhance safety, reliability, sustainability economics and proliferation resistance requirements and to meet alternative energy applications (outside of electricity generation) such as process heat and large scale hydrogen generation. New fission systems will impose significant challenges on materials supply and development. In the near term, because of the need to 'gear up' to large scale construction after decades of industrial hibernation/contraction and, in the longer term, because of the need for materials to operate under more challenging environments requiring the deployment and development of new alternative materials not yet established to an industrial stage. This paper investigates the materials challenges imposed by the new Generation III+ and Generation IV systems. These include supply and fabrication issues, development of new high temperature alloys and non-metallic materials, the use of new methods of manufacture and the best use of currently available resources and minerals. Recommendations are made as to how these materials challenges might be met and how governments, industry, manufacturers and researchers can all play their part. (orig.)

  13. INEL waste reduction: summary paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southeastern Idaho. Located at the INEL are a Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) which processes low level radioactive waste (LLW) materials and a Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) which provides for disposal of radioactive waste materials. There are currently 9 active facilities (waste generators) at the INEL which produce an average total volume of about 5000 cubic meters of solid LLW annually. This boxed or bulk waste is ultimately disposed of at the RWMC Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA). The SDA is currently the only active LLW disposal site at the INEL, and the prospects for opening another shallow land burial disposal facility are uncertain. Therefore, it has become imperative that EG and G Idaho Waste Management Department make every reasonable effort to extend the disposal life of the SDA. Among Waste Management Department's principal efforts to extend the SDA disposal life are operation of the Waste Experimental Reduction Facility (WERF) and administration of the INEL Waste Reduction Program. The INEL Waste Reduction Program is charged with providing assistance to all INEL facilities in reducing LLW generation rates to the lowest practical levels while at the same time encouraging optimum utilization of the volume reduction capabilities of WERF. Both waste volume and waste generation reductions are discussed

  14. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  15. Reduction of gaseous pollutants and particulate materials by using fuels derived from vegetable in substitution to diesel oil; Reducao de poluentes gasosos e de material particulado por meio do uso de combustiveis a base de oleos vegetais como substitutos ao oleo diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazaki, Carlos Kazuaki [General Motors do Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil). Engenharia de Chassis e Integracao Powertrain]. E-mail: carlos.yazaki@gm.com; Trielli, Mauricio Assumpcao [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: trielli@ipt.br

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this article is to present the contribution allowed by fuels derived from vegetable oils in substitution for the diesel oil. It especially emphasizes the vegetable oil esters potential as gaseous exhaust pollutant and particulate matter reduction produced by ignition compression engines, such a conclusion has been achieved through systematization and analysis of results of experimental tests performed by several researchers that applied natural vegetable oils and their esters to this class of engines. Once the vegetable oils are the base of formation of these fuels, their direct application in these engines is also analyzed showing the advantages and disadvantages of this alternative route. This article also includes an analysis of their physical and chemical properties which help the understanding of their performance in the engines. Due to better results obtained from esters use, their industrial processing, the special characteristics of the engineering materials which they will have contact in engine, principally those used in injection systems, as well as aspects related to their storages are discussed too. (author)

  16. Dose Reduction Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program

  17. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  18. Model Reduction in Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yan

    The mechanical characteristic of the cell is primarily performed by the cytoskeleton. Microtubules, actin, and intermediate filaments are the three main cytoskeletal polymers. Of these, microtubules are the stiffest and have multiple functions within a cell that include: providing tracks for intracellular transport, transmitting the mechanical force necessary for cell division during mitosis, and providing sufficient stiffness for propulsion in flagella and cilia. Microtubule mechanics has been studied by a variety of methods: detailed molecular dynamics (MD), coarse-grained models, engineering type models, and elastic continuum models. In principle, atomistic MD simulations should be able to predict all desired mechanical properties of a single molecule, however, in practice the large computational resources are required to carry out a simulation of larger biomolecular system. Due to the limited accessibility using even the most ambitious all-atom models and the demand for the multiscale molecular modeling and simulation, the emergence of the reduced models is critically important to provide the capability for investigating the biomolecular dynamics that are critical to many biological processes. Then the coarse-grained models, such as elastic network models and anisotropic network models, have been shown to bequite accurate in predicting microtubule mechanical response, but still requires significant computational resources. On the other hand, the microtubule is treated as comprising materials with certain continuum material properties. Such continuum models, especially Euler-Bernoulli beam models, are often used to extract mechanical parameters from experimental results. The microtubule is treated as comprising materials with certain continuum material properties. Such continuum models, especially Euler-Bernoulli beam models in which the biomolecular system is assumed as homogeneous isotropic materials with solid cross-sections, are often used to extract

  19. Light Duty Truck Weight Reduction Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    The objectives of this program were to identify the weight reduction potential of pickup trucks, vans, and utility vehicles less than or equal to 8500 lb. gross vehicle weight through design modification, redesign, and material substitution; and more...

  20. Hopf-reductions, fluxes and branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minasian, Ruben; Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2001-01-01

    We use a series of reductions, T-dualities and liftings to construct connections between fractional brane solutions in IIA, IIB and M-theory. We find a number of phantom branes that are not supported by the geometry, however materialize upon untwisting and/or Hopf-reduction

  1. Rapid reduction of titanium dioxide nano-particles by reduction with a calcium reductant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Masumi; Matsuura, Shiki; Natsui, Shungo; Tsuji, Etsuji; Habazaki, Hiroki; Suzuki, Ryosuke O.

    2014-09-01

    Micro-, submicron-, and nano-scale titanium dioxide particles were reduced by reduction with a metallic calcium reductant in calcium chloride molten salt at 1173 K, and the reduction mechanism of the oxides by the calcium reductant was explored. These oxide particles, metallic calcium as a reducing agent, and calcium chloride as a molten salt were placed in a titanium crucible and heated under an argon atmosphere. Titanium dioxide was reduced to metallic titanium through a calcium titanate and lower titanium oxide, and the materials were sintered together to form a micro-porous titanium structure in molten salt at high temperature. The reduction rate of titanium dioxide was observed to increase with decreasing particle size; accordingly, the residual oxygen content in the reduced titanium decreases. The obtained micro-porous titanium appeared dark gray in color because of its low surface reflection. Micro-porous metallic titanium with a low oxygen content (0.42 wt%) and a large surface area (1.794 m2 g-1) can be successfully obtained by reduction under optimal conditions.

  2. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in

  3. Material monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotter, W.; Zirker, L.; Hancock, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Waste Reduction Operations Complex (WROC) facilities are located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The overall goal for the Pollution Prevention/Waste Minimization Unit is to identify and establish the correct amount of waste generated so that it can be reduced. Quarterly, the INEL Pollution Prevention (P2) Unit compares the projected amount of waste generated per process with the actual amount generated. Examples of waste streams that would be addresses for our facility would include be are not limited to: Maintenance, Upgrades, Office and Scrap Metal. There are three potential sources of this variance: inaccurate identification of those who generate the waste; inaccurate identification of the process that generates the waste; and inaccurate measurement of the actual amount generated. The Materials Monitoring Program was proposed to identify the sources of variance and reduce the variance to an acceptable level. Prior to the implementation of the Material Monitoring Program, all information that was gathered and recorded was done so through an informal estimation of waste generated by various personnel concerned with each processes. Due to the inaccuracy of the prior information gathering system, the Material Monitoring Program was established. The heart of this program consists of two main parts. In the first part potential waste generators provide information on projected waste generation process. In the second part, Maintenance, Office, Scrap Metal and Facility Upgrade wastes from given processes is disposed within the appropriate bin dedicated to that process. The Material Monitoring Program allows for the more accurate gathering of information on the various waste types that are being generated quarterly

  4. CO2 reduction by dematerialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekkert, M.P. [Department of Innovation Studies, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2002-04-01

    Current policy for the reduction of greenhouse gases is mainly concerned with a number of types of solutions: energy saving, shifting to the use of low-carbon fuels and the implementation of sustainable energy technologies. Recent research has shown that a strategy directed at a more efficient use of materials could make a considerable contribution to reducing CO2 emissions. Moreover, the costs to society as a whole of such a measure appear to be very low.

  5. Dictionary materials engineering, materials testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This dictionary contains about 9,500 entries in each part of the following fields: 1) Materials using and selection; 2) Mechanical engineering materials -Metallic materials - Non-metallic inorganic materials - Plastics - Composites -Materials damage and protection; 3) Electrical and electronics materials -Conductor materials - Semiconductors - magnetic materials - Dielectric materials - non-conducting materials; 4) Materials testing - Mechanical methods - Analytical methods - Structure investigation - Complex methods - Measurement of physical properties - Non-destructive testing. (orig.) [de

  6. Drag Reduction Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Truong, V

    2001-01-01

    ...% drag reduction with only a few parts per million of polymer. Ionic and non-ionic surfactants can also offer similar drag reduction as polymer solutions but at a high concentration of few percent...

  7. Stable nickel-substituted spinel cathode material (LiMn1.9Ni0.1O4) for lithium-ion batteries obtained by using a low temperature aqueous reduction technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunjuzwa, Niki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A nickel substituted spinel cathode material (LiMn1.9Ni0.1O4) with enhanced electrochemical performance was successfully synthesized by using a locally-sourced, low-cost manganese precursor, electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD), and NiSO4·6H2O as a...

  8. Dimensionality reduction methods:

    OpenAIRE

    Amenta, Pietro; D'Ambra, Luigi; Gallo, Michele

    2005-01-01

    In case one or more sets of variables are available, the use of dimensional reduction methods could be necessary. In this contest, after a review on the link between the Shrinkage Regression Methods and Dimensional Reduction Methods, authors provide a different multivariate extension of the Garthwaite's PLS approach (1994) where a simple linear regression coefficients framework could be given for several dimensional reduction methods.

  9. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  10. MCNP variance reduction overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, J.S.; Booth, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    The MCNP code is rich in variance reduction features. Standard variance reduction methods found in most Monte Carlo codes are available as well as a number of methods unique to MCNP. We discuss the variance reduction features presently in MCNP as well as new ones under study for possible inclusion in future versions of the code

  11. On the road : non-fossil fuel deployment for the public bus fleet of Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Xylia, Maria; Silveira, Semida

    2015-01-01

    The public transport sector in Sweden has set a target to run 90% of its total vehicle-kilometers on renewable fuels by 2020, and double its market share in the long term. The focus of this paper is the adoption of renewable fuels in public bus fleets. Data for all 21 Swedish counties were gathered and analyzed, mapping the bus fleets’ condition in relation to renewable fuel deployment, CO2 emissions and energy efficiency. The main factors affecting fuel choices in the bus fleets were investi...

  12. System design methodology of non-fossil fuel fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, J.A.; Guven, H.M.

    1992-01-01

    In most thermal system designs, economic and thermodynamic aspects of the design are not studied simultaneously early on in the design process. As a result, the economic ramification of thermodynamic changes to the system configuration, and vice versa, are not immediately apparent to the designer or the performance, involving both thermal and economic aspects of the plant. In this study, a rational approach is presented to formalize the design process of small power plants, typically, burning non-conventional fuel sources such as wood residues, tires, biofuels, etc. The method presented in this paper allows for handling of process information, both qualitative and quantitative, to enable the designer to change his design in an optimal manner. A two-level design structure (macro-level and micro-level), is introduced to enable the designer to adapt his design in an efficient manner to the available (or required) technology-level, type of application, economic factors, O and M requirements, etc. At the macro-level of design, economic feasibility (business) decisions are made, while at the micro-level of design, technical feasibility (engineering) decisions are made

  13. Optimisation of energy flows and material flows at the waste processing plan Chemnitz. Cost reduction of the waste treatment by improving the climatic changes and by improving the flexibility of the waste processing plant for a commercialization of the output flows; Energie- und Stoffstromoptimierung an der Restabfallbehandlungsanlage Chemnitz. Behandlungskostensenkung bei Verbesserung der Klimaauswirkungen und der Anlagenflexibilitaet fuer eine Vermarktung der Outputstroeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gollub, Marcus [WasteTec GmbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    The waste processing plant Chemnitz (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) operates in accordance with a mechanical-physical waste treatment. Mainly municipal household wastes from the territories of the AWVC association were utilized. The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an optimization of the energy flow and material flow at the waste processing plant Chemnitz under consideration of the cost reduction of the waste treatment by improving the climatic changes and by improving the flexibility of the waste processing plant for a commercialization of the output flows.

  14. Concrete waste reduction of 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, R.M. de; Van der Wagt, K.M.; Van der Kruk, E.; Meeussen, H.W.

    2016-01-01

    During decommissioning quite a volume of concrete waste is produced. The degree of activation of the waste can range from clearly activated material to slightly activated or contaminated concrete. The degree of activation influences the applicable waste management processes that can be applied. The subsequent waste management processes can be identified for concrete waste are; disposal, segregation, re-use, conditional release and release. With each of these steps, the footprint of radioactive decommissioning waste is reduced. Future developments for concrete waste reduction can be achieved by applying smart materials in new build facilities (i.e. fast decaying materials). NRG (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group) has investigated distinctive waste management processes to reduce the foot-print of concrete waste streams resulting from decommissioning. We have investigated which processes can be applied in the Netherlands, both under current legislation and with small changes in legislation. We have also investigated the separation process in more detail. Pilot tests with a newly patented process have been started in 2015. We expect that our separation methods will reduce the footprint reduction of concrete waste by approximately 50% due to release or re-use in the nuclear sector or in the conventional industry. (authors)

  15. Dimensionality Reduction Ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, Colleen M.

    2017-01-01

    Ensemble learning has had many successes in supervised learning, but it has been rare in unsupervised learning and dimensionality reduction. This study explores dimensionality reduction ensembles, using principal component analysis and manifold learning techniques to capture linear, nonlinear, local, and global features in the original dataset. Dimensionality reduction ensembles are tested first on simulation data and then on two real medical datasets using random forest classifiers; results ...

  16. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  17. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  18. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on aud...

  19. Active3 noise reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzfuss, J.

    1996-01-01

    Noise reduction is a problem being encountered in a variety of applications, such as environmental noise cancellation, signal recovery and separation. Passive noise reduction is done with the help of absorbers. Active noise reduction includes the transmission of phase inverted signals for the cancellation. This paper is about a threefold active approach to noise reduction. It includes the separation of a combined source, which consists of both a noise and a signal part. With the help of interaction with the source by scanning it and recording its response, modeling as a nonlinear dynamical system is achieved. The analysis includes phase space analysis and global radial basis functions as tools for the prediction used in a subsequent cancellation procedure. Examples are given which include noise reduction of speech. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönen, Mehmet

    2013-12-01

    Dimensionality reduction is commonly used as a preprocessing step before training a supervised learner. However, coupled training of dimensionality reduction and supervised learning steps may improve the prediction performance. In this paper, we introduce a simple and novel Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction method that combines linear dimensionality reduction and linear supervised learning in a principled way. We present both Gibbs sampling and variational approximation approaches to learn the proposed probabilistic model for multiclass classification. We also extend our formulation toward model selection using automatic relevance determination in order to find the intrinsic dimensionality. Classification experiments on three benchmark data sets show that the new model significantly outperforms seven baseline linear dimensionality reduction algorithms on very low dimensions in terms of generalization performance on test data. The proposed model also obtains the best results on an image recognition task in terms of classification and retrieval performances.

  1. EDTA-Reduction of Water to Molecular Hydrogen Catalyzed by Visible-Light-Response TiO2-Based Materials Sensitized by Dawson- and Keggin-Type Rhenium(V-Containing Polyoxotungstates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kataoka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis and characterization of a Keggin-type mono-rhenium(V-substituted polyoxotungstate are described. The dimethylammonium salt [Me2NH2]4[PW11ReVO40] was obtained as analytically pure homogeneous black-purple crystals by reacting mono-lacunary Keggin polyoxotungstate with [ReIVCl6]2- in water, followed by crystallization from acetone at ca. 5 °C. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis of [PW11ReVO40]4- revealed a monomeric structure with overall Td symmetry. Characterization of [Me2NH2]4[PW11ReVO40] was also accomplished by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, TG/DTA, FTIR, UV-vis, diffuse reflectance (DR UV-vis, and solution 31P-NMR spectroscopy. Furthermore, [PW11ReVO40]4- and the Dawson-type dirhenium(V-oxido-bridged polyoxotungstate [O{ReV(OH(α2-P2W17O61}2]14- were supported onto anatase TiO2 surface by the precipitation methods using CsCl and Pt(NH34Cl2. With these materials, hydrogen evolution from water in the presence of EDTA⋅2Na (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid disodium salt under visible light irradiation (≥400 nm was achieved.

  2. Strategic Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buhler, Carl; Burke, Adrian; Davis, Kirk; Gerhard, Michelle; Heil, Valerie; Hulse, Richard; Kwong, Ralph; Mahoney, Michael; Moran, Scott; Peek, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Some materials possess greater value than others. Materials that provide essential support for the nation's economic viability or enable critical military capabilities warrant special attention in security studies...

  3. Medical Errors Reduction Initiative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mutter, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    The Valley Hospital of Ridgewood, New Jersey, is proposing to extend a limited but highly successful specimen management and medication administration medical errors reduction initiative on a hospital-wide basis...

  4. Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100189.htm Breast reduction (mammoplasty) - series—Indications To use the sharing features ... Lickstein, MD, FACS, specializing in cosmetic and reconstructive plastic surgery, Palm Beach Gardens, FL. Review provided by ...

  5. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast reduction surgery might also help improve your self-image and your ability to participate in physical activities. ... under the breasts Nerve pain Restricted activity Poor self-image related to large breasts Difficulty fitting into bras ...

  6. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  7. Classification Constrained Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Raich, Raviv; Costa, Jose A.; Damelin, Steven B.; Hero III, Alfred O.

    2008-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is a topic of recent interest. In this paper, we present the classification constrained dimensionality reduction (CCDR) algorithm to account for label information. The algorithm can account for multiple classes as well as the semi-supervised setting. We present an out-of-sample expressions for both labeled and unlabeled data. For unlabeled data, we introduce a method of embedding a new point as preprocessing to a classifier. For labeled data, we introduce a method tha...

  8. Thermochemical reduction of pelletized gypsum mixed with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This can facilitate recovery of treatment costs and prevention of environmental pollution from gypsum waste-dumps. Thermal reduction using rotary kilns to recover valuable materials from waste gypsum remains a critical and controversial process because of waste gypsum handling problems, environmental pollution due to ...

  9. F4U production by electrolytic reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban Duque, A.; Gispert Benach, M.; Hernandez Arroyo, F.; Montes Ponce de Leon, M.; Rojas de Diego, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the nuclear fuel cycle program developed at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission it has been studied the electrolytic reduction of U-VI to U-IV. The effect of the materials, electrolyte concentration, pH, current density, cell size and laboratory scale production is studied. The Pilot Plant and the production data are also described. (Author) 18 refs

  10. Materials Chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Fahlman, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    The 2nd edition of Materials Chemistry builds on the strengths that were recognized by a 2008 Textbook Excellence Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association (TAA). Materials Chemistry addresses inorganic-, organic-, and nano-based materials from a structure vs. property treatment, providing a suitable breadth and depth coverage of the rapidly evolving materials field. The 2nd edition continues to offer innovative coverage and practical perspective throughout. After briefly defining materials chemistry and its history, seven chapters discuss solid-state chemistry, metals, semiconducting materials, organic "soft" materials, nanomaterials, and materials characterization. All chapters have been thoroughly updated and expanded with, for example, new sections on ‘soft lithographic’ patterning, ‘click chemistry’ polymerization, nanotoxicity, graphene, as well as many biomaterials applications. The polymer and ‘soft’ materials chapter represents the largest expansion for the 2nd edition. Each ch...

  11. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... effect and anion adsorption on the performance of Pt based electrocatalysts. The anion adsorption is additionally studied by in situ electrochemical infrared spectroscopy during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). For this purpose an in situ FTIR setup in attenuated total refection (ATR) configuration....... The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...

  12. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  13. Electrochemical reduction of O2 and NO on Ni, Pt and Au

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer Hansen, Kent

    2008-01-01

    the reduction of oxygen. This implies that the triple-phase boundary (3PB) catalyses the reduction of oxygen but not the reduction of nitric oxide, as Au is a catalytic inactive metal. All the materials were more active towards oxidation than towards reduction that is evolution of oxygen or oxidation of nitric......The electrochemical reduction of oxygen and nitric oxide was studied using cyclic voltammetry on point electrodes of Ni, Pt and Au in the temperature range 400-600 degrees C. All the materials were more active towards the reduction of oxygen than towards the reduction of nitric oxide, except Pt...... at 400 degrees C. As a general trend it was observed that the activity of the materials towards the reduction of oxygen increases more than the activity of the materials towards the reduction of nitric oxide with increasing temperature. The Ni wire was covered with a layer of NiO. The NiO layer inhibits...

  14. Mechanical Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gap Yong; Jang, Gun Ik; Kim, Dung Jung; Kim, Ui Do

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces characteristics of metal with crystal structure and plastic deformation of metal, equilibrium diagram of alloy, steel such as constitutional diagram and structure of carbon steel, and heat treatment of steel, structural alloy steel, tool material, corrosion and anticorrosion of steel and stainless steel, heat resisting material and properties of steel against high temperature, strengthening of surface of steel, cast iron, nonferrous metal material and materials test.

  15. Magnetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaldin, Nicola A.

    2003-04-01

    Magnetic materials are the foundation of multi-billion dollar industries and the focus of intensive research across many disciplines. This book covers the fundamentals, basic theories and applications of magnetism and conventional magnetic materials. Based on a lecture course given by Nicola Spaldin in the Materials Department at University of California, Santa Barbara, the book is ideal for a one- semester course in magnetic materials. It contains numerous homework problems and solutions.

  16. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  17. Time, Chance, and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Gerhard; Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    List of contributors; 1. Introduction Gerhard Ernst and Andreas Hütteman; Part I. The Arrows of Time: 2. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? Mathias Frisch; 3. The part hypothesis meets gravity Craig Callender; 4. Quantum gravity and the arrow of time Claus Kiefer; Part II. Probability and Chance: 5. The natural-range conception of probability Jacob Rosenthal; 6. Probability in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics Roman Frigg; 7. Humean mechanics versus a metaphysics of powers Michael Esfeld; Part III. Reduction: 8. The crystallisation of Clausius's phenomenological thermodynamics C. Ulises Moulines; 9. Reduction and renormalization Robert W. Batterman; 10. Irreversibility in stochastic dynamics Jos Uffink; Index.

  18. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  19. Material Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Boer, Laurens; Tsaknaki, Vasiliki

    2017-01-01

    In the near future every other smart material will have computational power embedded in the form of graphene transistors or nanotubes. These will be the ultimate computational composites: materials that hold classic material qualities, such as structural durability, flexibility, texture, weight, ...

  20. Carbothermic reduction of refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.N.; Parlee, N.A.D.

    1976-01-01

    The reduction of stable refractory metal oxides by carbon is generally unacceptable since the product is usually contaminated with carbides. The carbide formation may be avoided by selecting a solvent metal to dissolve the reactive metal as it is produced and reduce its chemical activity below that required for carbide formation. This approach has been successfully applied to the oxides of Si, Zr, Ti, Al, Mg, and U. In the case where a volatile suboxide, a carbonyl reaction, or a volatile metal occur, the use of the solvent metal appears satisfactory to limit the loss of material at low pressures. In several solute--solvent systems, vacuum evaporation is used to strip the solvent metal from the alloy to give the pure metal

  1. Filter materials for dose reduction in screen-film radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koedooder, K.; Venema, H. W.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program was developed to calculate both integral absorbed dose in a water phantom and entrance exposure, for the imaging of iodine contrast with x-ray intensifying screens. The effect of filtration of the x-ray beam on integral absorbed dose and entrance exposure was studied for 27

  2. High Temperature Acoustic Noise Reduction Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is to use combustion synthesis techniques to manufacture ceramic-based acoustic liners capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2500?C....

  3. Fissile materials from nuclear arms reductions: A question of disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This Session, 35T-2, of the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) was held on February 18, 1991. The papers presented during this session covered a variety of issues and technologies concerning the disposition of the highly enriched uranium and plutonium salvaged from retired nuclear warheads. However, circumstances, including the amount of time available for the session, imposed limitations on the number and breadth of these papers. A comprehensive study of this topic should include a broader range of papers. This session included a paper on molten salt reactors designed to use highly enriched uranium or plutonium as fuel. Other options for the disposal of plutonium, such as transmutation using accelerators and underground vitrification using nuclear explosions, were not discussed during this session, but need to be considered. Individual papers are indexed separately

  4. 78 FR 23503 - Hazardous Materials; Temporary Reduction of Registration Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... funds actually utilized, as grantees adjust to the changes, which has led to slightly higher than usual... the associated regulatory text. J. Privacy Act Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all...

  5. Survey of Traffic Noise Reduction Products, Materials, and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Noise is one of the most pervasive forms of environmental pollution. It is everywhere and affects our lives at : home, work and play. By definition, noise is any unwanted or excessive sound. Highway traffic noise is a : major issue for transportation...

  6. Green polymerization methods: renewable starting materials, catalysis and waste reduction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mathers, Robert T; Meier, Michael A. R

    2011-01-01

    ... Introduction 29 First Generation Furans and their Conversion into Monomers 30 Furfural and Derivatives 30 Monomers from Furfural 31 Hydroxymethylfurfural 35 Green Polymerization Methods : Renewable...

  7. Efficiency of deodorant materials for ammonia reduction in indoor air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Mizutani, Chiyomi; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    A comparative study about the removability of ammonia gas in the air by activated carbon fiber (ACF) felt chemically treated with acid and a cotton fabric processed with iron phthalocyanine with copper (Cu) was performed in small-scale experiments. The test rig consisted of a heated plate and its...

  8. Reduction of Bridge Deck Cracking through Alternative Material Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ODOT routinely deploys a large number of continuous span structural slab bridges. Despite being designed to strictly satisfy all the relevant AASHTO and ODOT BDM requirements, many such bridge decks show transverse cracks, with widths greater than th...

  9. Trends in Navy Waste Reduction and Materials Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    WASTE COMPONENTS AND TYPICAL GENERATORS Functional Components Typical Generators Family housing Military family residences Support Barracks Motels ...the 8ol14 Waste Disposal Act of tiou due to economic Impracticablity. bate that was limited to 30 minutes. Af- 1365 (Pub. L 80-272) as amended byi

  10. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    This book deals with the mechanical and physical behavior of composites as influenced by composite geometry. "Composite Materials" provides a comprehensive introduction for researchers and students to modern composite materials research with a special emphasis on the significance of phase geometry....... The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  11. Galactorrhea after reduction mammaplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, A. H.; Assies, J.; van der Horst, C. M.; Bos, K. E.

    1993-01-01

    A case of extremely painful swelling of the breasts following a reduction mammaplasty is presented. There were no signs of an abscess or hematoma. A milky white fluid due to galactorrhea was evacuated at operation, and further galactorrhea was inhibited by medication. The pathogenesis of

  12. Dimensionality Reduction Mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of powerful dimensionality reduction methods has been established which can be used for data visualization and preprocessing. These are accompanied by formal evaluation schemes, which allow a quantitative evaluation along general principles and which even lead to further visualization

  13. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, John A

    2007-01-01

    Methods of dimensionality reduction provide a way to understand and visualize the structure of complex data sets. This book describes the methods to reduce the dimensionality of numerical databases. For each method, the description starts from intuitive ideas, develops the mathematical details, and ends by outlining the algorithmic implementation.

  14. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  15. Prejudice Reduction: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbutt, Richard

    Social Science Research of the past several decades provides valuable insight into the processes of prejudice acquisition and reduction. This paper lists and briefly describes the following 15 findings based on this research and their implications regarding prejudice and what works to reduce it: (1) attitudes about interpersonal differences begin…

  16. Streaming Reduction Circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Kuper, Jan; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Molenkamp, Egbert

    2009-01-01

    Reduction circuits are used to reduce rows of floating point values to single values. Binary floating point operators often have deep pipelines, which may cause hazards when many consecutive rows have to be reduced. We present an algorithm by which any number of consecutive rows of arbitrary lengths

  17. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, J.; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary $\\lambda$-calculus are special cases. Furthermore, we generalise a

  18. Aerospace materials and material technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Wanhill, R

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive compilation of chapters on materials (both established and evolving) and material technologies that are important for aerospace systems. It considers aerospace materials in three Parts. Part I covers Metallic Materials (Mg, Al, Al-Li, Ti, aero steels, Ni, intermetallics, bronzes and Nb alloys); Part II deals with Composites (GLARE, PMCs, CMCs and Carbon based CMCs); and Part III considers Special Materials. This compilation has ensured that no important aerospace material system is ignored. Emphasis is laid in each chapter on the underlying scientific principles as well as basic and fundamental mechanisms leading to processing, characterization, property evaluation and applications. A considerable amount of materials data is compiled and presented in appendices at the end of the book. This book will be useful to students, researchers and professionals working in the domain of aerospace materials.

  19. Large Scale Reduction of Graphite Oxide Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Mackey, Paul; Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction methods are expensive, time-consuming or restricted to small, limited formats. Graphene has potential uses in ultracapacitors, energy storage, solar cells, flexible and light-weight circuits, touch screens, and chemical sensors. In addition, graphite oxide is a sustainable material that can be produced from any form of carbon, making this method environmentally friendly and adaptable for in-situ reduction.

  20. Continuous Strip Reduction Test Simulating Tribological Conditions in Ironing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Üstünyagiz, Esmeray; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Christiansen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    materials, surface roughnesses, normal pressure, sliding length, sliding speed, interface temperature and lubrication. This paper proposes a new Strip Reduction Test (SRT) for industrial ironing processes that is capable of replicating the highly severe tribological conditions that are experienced during...

  1. Nano Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu; and others

    2006-02-15

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  2. Nano Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, In Ju; Lee, Ik Mo; Kwon, Yeung Gu

    2006-02-01

    This book introduces background of nano science such as summary, plenty room at the bottom, access way to nano technique, nanoparticles using bottom-up method which are a marvel of nature, and modern alchemy : chemical synthesis of artificial nano structure, understanding of quantum mechanics, STM/AFM, nano metal powder, ceramic nanoparticles, nano structure film, manufacture of nanoparticles using reverse micelle method, carbon nano tube, sol-gel material, nano energy material, nano catalyst nano bio material technology and spintronics.

  3. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  4. Material focus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokoler, Tomas; Vallgårda, Anna K. A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we build on the notion of computational composites, which hold a material perspective on computational technology. We argue that a focus on the material aspects of the technology could be a fruitful approach to achieve new expressions and to gain a new view on the technology's role...... in design. We study two of the computer's material properties: computed causality and connectability and through developing two computational composites that utilize these properties we begin to explore their potential expressions....

  5. Materials characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azali Muhammad

    2005-01-01

    Various nuclear techniques have been developed and employed by technologies and scientists worldwide to physically and chemically characterise the material particularly those that have applications in industry. These include small angle neutron scattering (SANS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) for the internal structural study of material, whereas, the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) for the chemical analysis, while the Moessbauer spectroscopy for the study on the magnetic properties and structural identity of material. Basic principle and instrumentations of the techniques are discussed in this chapter. Example of their applications in various disciplines particularly in characterisation of industrial materials also described

  6. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  7. Adaptive Metric Dimensionality Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Lee-Ad; Kontorovich, Aryeh; Krauthgamer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We study adaptive data-dependent dimensionality reduction in the context of supervised learning in general metric spaces. Our main statistical contribution is a generalization bound for Lipschitz functions in metric spaces that are doubling, or nearly doubling. On the algorithmic front, we describe an analogue of PCA for metric spaces: namely an efficient procedure that approximates the data's intrinsic dimension, which is often much lower than the ambient dimension. Our approach thus leverag...

  8. Dimensionality Reduction Mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of powerful dimensionality reduction methods has been established which can be used for data visualization and preprocessing. These are accompanied by formal evaluation schemes, which allow a quantitative evaluation along general principles and which even lead to further visualization schemes based on these objectives. Most methods, however, provide a mapping of a priorly given finite set of points only, requiring additional steps for out-of-sample extensions. We propose a general vi...

  9. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, T.M.; Tresham, J.; Fritschi, L.; Wylie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  10. New materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, S.K.; Rao, C.N.R.; Tsuruta, T.

    1992-01-01

    The book contains the state-of-the art lectures delivered at the discussion meeting on new materials, a field in which rapid advances are taking place. The main objective of the meeting was to bring active scientists in this area from Japan and India together. The topics covered diverse aspects of modern materials including high temperature superconducting compounds. (M.G.B.)

  11. Materializing ideas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandvad, Sara Malou

    2011-01-01

    Based on a qualitative study of development processes in the Danish film industry, this article sketches a socio-material perspective for analysing the production of culture. Whereas previous studies of cultural production have identified social factors in cultural production, this article sets out...... it is becoming materialized....

  12. Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    . The book enables the reader to a better understanding of the behavior of natural composites, improvement of such materials, and design of new materials with prescribed properties. A number of examples are presented: Special composite properties considered are stiffness, shrinkage, hygro-thermal behavior......, viscoelastic behavior, and internal stress states. Other physical properties considered are thermal and electrical conductivities, diffusion coefficients, dielectric constants and magnetic permeability. Special attention is given to the effect of pore shape on the mechanical and physical behavior of porous...... materials. Numerical procedures are outlined which facilitate the practical analysis of any feature considered in this book. Examples are presented which illustrate the analysis of well-known materials such as concrete, hardening cement paste, ceramics, tile, wood, impregnated and reinforced materials...

  13. Touching Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2012-01-01

    Dripping ink pens, colourful paint on skin, vegetables pots on a school roof. In interviews with three generations of former school pupils, memories of material objects bore a relation to everyday school life in the past. Interwoven, these objects entered the memorising processes, taking...... the interviewer and interviewee beyond an exclusively linguistic understanding of memory. This article analyses how the shifting objects of materiality in personal and generational school memories connects to material as well as sensuous experiences of everyday school life and its complex processes of learning....... Drawing on anthropological writings, the article argues that the objects of materiality are part of important but non-verbalised memories of schooling. The Dutch philosopher Eelco Runia’s notions of presence and metonymy are incorporated as tools for approaching objects of materiality in memory studies....

  14. Composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O' Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  15. Composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Stacy A [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Solihull, GB; Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-07

    A composite biocompatible hydrogel material includes a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa. A calcium comprising salt is disposed in at least some of the pores. The porous polymer matrix can comprise cellulose, including bacterial cellulose. The composite can be used as a bone graft material. A method of tissue repair within the body of animals includes the steps of providing a composite biocompatible hydrogel material including a porous polymer matrix, the polymer matrix including a plurality of pores and providing a Young's modulus of at least 10 GPa, and inserting the hydrogel material into cartilage or bone tissue of an animal, wherein the hydrogel material supports cell colonization in vitro for autologous cell seeding.

  16. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  17. Convenient Reduction of Carbonyl Compounds to their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Evaporation of the solvent and a short-column chromatography of the resulting crude material over silica gel (eluent; CCl4:Et2O. = 5:3) afforded the pure liquid benzyl alcohol (0.102 g, 94 %,. Table 3, entry 1). 2.3. Typical Procedure for Reduction of Ketones to Alcohols with the NaBH4/(NH4)2C2O4 System.

  18. Dolochar as a reductant in the reduction roasting of iron ore slimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Swagat S.; Rao, Danda Srinivas

    2017-12-01

    The present investigation examines the viability of dolochar, a sponge iron industry waste material, as a reductant in the reduction roasting of iron ore slimes, which are another waste generated by iron ore beneficiation plants. Under statistically determined optimum conditions, which include a temperature of 900°C, a reductant-to-feed mass ratio of 0.35, and a reduction time of 30-45 min, the roasted mass, after being subjected to low-intensity magnetic separation, yielded an iron ore concentrate of approximately 64wt% Fe at a mass recovery of approximately 71% from the feed iron ore slime assaying 56.2wt% Fe. X-ray diffraction analyses indicated that the magnetic products contain magnetite and hematite as the major phases, whereas the nonmagnetic fractions contain quartz and hematite.

  19. Discrete Routh reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalnapurkar, Sameer M; Leok, Melvin; Marsden, Jerrold E; West, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops the theory of Abelian Routh reduction for discrete mechanical systems and applies it to the variational integration of mechanical systems with Abelian symmetry. The reduction of variational Runge-Kutta discretizations is considered, as well as the extent to which symmetry reduction and discretization commute. These reduced methods allow the direct simulation of dynamical features such as relative equilibria and relative periodic orbits that can be obscured or difficult to identify in the unreduced dynamics. The methods are demonstrated for the dynamics of an Earth orbiting satellite with a non-spherical J 2 correction, as well as the double spherical pendulum. The J 2 problem is interesting because in the unreduced picture, geometric phases inherent in the model and those due to numerical discretization can be hard to distinguish, but this issue does not appear in the reduced algorithm, where one can directly observe interesting dynamical structures in the reduced phase space (the cotangent bundle of shape space), in which the geometric phases have been removed. The main feature of the double spherical pendulum example is that it has a non-trivial magnetic term in its reduced symplectic form. Our method is still efficient as it can directly handle the essential non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure. In contrast, a traditional symplectic method for canonical systems could require repeated coordinate changes if one is evoking Darboux' theorem to transform the symplectic structure into canonical form, thereby incurring additional computational cost. Our method allows one to design reduced symplectic integrators in a natural way, despite the non-canonical nature of the symplectic structure

  20. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... bands are observed on the Pt/C layer: bands arising from the functional groups of the carbon support, bands related to water and hydronium, and bands related to the sulfur anion interaction with the catalyst. The correlation of the anion absorption to the ORR current leads to the proposition that anion...

  1. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    of knownresults fromfirst-order infinitary rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus to iCRSs. In particular, for fully-extended, left-linear iCRSs we prove the well-known compression property, and for orthogonal iCRSs we prove that (1) if a set of redexes U has a complete development, then all complete developments......We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus are special cases. Furthermore,we generalise a number...

  2. Influence of temperature and voltage on electrochemical reduction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    629. Influence of temperature and voltage on electrochemical reduction of graphene oxide. XIUQIANG LI, DONG ZHANG*, PEIYING ZHU and CHAO YANG. Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 4800 CaoAn Road, ...

  3. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, G.; Pedersen, K.; Tullborg, E.L.; Wallin, B.; Wikberg, P.

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl - concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs

  4. UCAC3: ASTROMETRIC REDUCTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Wycoff, Gary L.

    2010-01-01

    Presented here are the details of the astrometric reductions from the x, y data to mean right ascension (R.A.), declination (decl.) coordinates of the third U.S. Naval Observatory CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). For these new reductions we used over 216,000 CCD exposures. The Two-Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) data are used extensively to probe for coordinate and coma-like systematic errors in UCAC data mainly caused by the poor charge transfer efficiency of the 4K CCD. Errors up to about 200 mas have been corrected using complex look-up tables handling multiple dependences derived from the residuals. Similarly, field distortions and sub-pixel phase errors have also been evaluated using the residuals with respect to 2MASS. The overall magnitude equation is derived from UCAC calibration field observations alone, independent of external catalogs. Systematic errors of positions at the UCAC observing epoch as presented in UCAC3 are better corrected than in the previous catalogs for most stars. The Tycho-2 catalog is used to obtain final positions on the International Celestial Reference Frame. Residuals of the Tycho-2 reference stars show a small magnitude equation (depending on declination zone) that might be inherent in the Tycho-2 catalog.

  5. LOFT data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, N.L.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). LOFT will be used to run loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs) and to acquire the necessary data required ''to evaluate the adequacy and improve the analytical methods currently used to predict the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) response of LPWRs'' and ''to identify and investigate any unexpected event(s) or threshold(s) in the response of either the plant or the engineered safety features and develop analytical techniques that adequately describe and account for the unexpected behavior(s)''. During the LOCE this required data will be acquired and recorded in both analog and digital modes. Subsequent to the test the analog data will also be converted to the raw digital mode. This raw digital data will be converted to the desired engineering units using the LOFT Data Reduction System. This system is implemented on the IBM 360/75 and is a part of a commercially available data processing program called MAC/RAN III. The theory of reducing LOFT data to engineering units and the application of the MAC/ RAN III system to accomplish this reduction is given. (auth)

  6. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective......In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...

  8. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DO NOT put the material in the normal trash. DO NOT let it get into the air. ... Accessed February 21, 2018. Occupational Safety and Health Administration website. Healthcare. www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthcarefacilities/index. ...

  9. CURRICULUM MATERIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton.

    MATERIALS ARE LISTED BY 36 TOPICS ARRANGED IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER. TOPICS INCLUDE APPRENTICE TRAINING, BAKING, DRAFTING, ENGLISH, GLASSBLOWING, HOME ECONOMICS, INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY, MACHINE SHOP, NEEDLE TRADES, REFRIGERATION, AND UPHOLSTERY. PRICES ARE GIVEN FOR EACH ITEM. (EL)

  10. Utopian Materialities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgaard-Jensen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    In various ways, this paper makes the counter-intuitive claim that the utopian and the material are thoroughlyinterdependent, rather than worlds apart. First, through a reading of Thomas More's Utopia, it is argued thatUtopia is the product of particular kinds of relations, rather than merely...... a detachment from the known world.Second, the utopianism of a new economy firm is examined. It is argued that the physical set-up of the firm -in particular the distribution of tables and chairs - evoke a number of alternatives to ordinary work practice.In this way the materialities of the firm are crucial...... to its persuasive image of being the office of the future.The notion that utopia is achieved through material arrangements is finally related to the analysis of facts andfictions in ANT. It is argued, that even though Utopias are neither fact nor fiction, they are both material andeffective...

  11. Propulsion materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Edward J. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Sullivan, Rogelio A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, D.C. (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) is pleased to introduce the FY 2007 Annual Progress Report for the Propulsion Materials Research and Development Program. Together with DOE national laboratories and in partnership with private industry and universities across the United States, the program continues to engage in research and development (R&D) that provides enabling materials technology for fuel-efficient and environmentally friendly commercial and passenger vehicles.

  12. Encountering Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016.......DHT researcher Connie Svabo and artist Charlotte Grum did a joint performance presentation titled Becoming Sheep, Becoming Animal at the international conference Encountering Materiality – Transdisciplinary Conversations, held in Geneve, Schwitzerland, June 23-25 2016....

  13. Nano Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    AlOOH Argonide www.argonide.com Perovskite Fuel Cell Materials www.fuelcellmaterials.com Metal rubber Nanosonic www.nanosonic.com ZnO , optical layer... perovskites are being discussed as electrode materials for use as cathodes. Specifically the high surface area and the high ionic conductivity of the...Nanoparticles • Perovskites • Metal rubber • Nanoclays • Nanoshells & quatum dots • Nanopores • Molecular nanotechnology • Software • Conclusion 3

  14. Background Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Saraiva, Sofia

    This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders.......This document serves as a background material to the BONUS Pilot Scenario Workshop, which aims to develop harmonised regional storylines of socio-ecological futures in the Baltic Sea region in a collaborative effort together with other BONUS projects and stakeholders....

  15. Alternative geochemical barrier materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    Previous investigations of the effects of neutralization and reduction on uranium mill tailings pore fluids by the Technical Support Contractor indicated that arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum continue to remain in solution in all but reducing conditions. These hazardous constituents are present in groundwaters as oxyanions and, therefore, are not expected to be removed by adsorption into clays and most other soil constituents. It was decided to investigate the attenuation capacity of two commonly available crystalline iron oxides, taconite and scoria, and a zeolite, a network aluminosilicate with a cage structure. Columns of the candidate materials were exposed to solutions of individual constituents, including arsenic, molybdenum, selenium, and, uranium, and to the spiked tailings pore fluid from the Bodo Canyon disposal cell near Durango, Colorado. In addition to the single material columns, a homogeneous blend of the three materials and layers of the materials were exposed to spiked tailings pore fluids. The results of these experiments indicate that with the exception of molybdenum, the constituents of concern are attenuated by the taconite; however, they are not sufficiently attenuated to meet the groundwater protection standards applicable to the UMTRA Project. Therefore, the candidate barrier materials did not prove to be useful to the UMTRA Project for the cleanup of groundwaters

  16. Microgravity particle reduction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Vanessa; Joslin, Michelle; Mateo, Lili; Tubbs, Tracey

    1988-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project, sponsored by NASA, is assembling the knowledge required to design, construct, and operate a system which will grow and process higher plants in space for the consumption by crew members of a space station on a long term space mission. The problem of processing dry granular organic materials in microgravity is discussed. For the purpose of research and testing, wheat was chosen as the granular material to be ground into flour. Possible systems which were devised to transport wheat grains into the food processor, mill the wheat into flour, and transport the flour to the food preparation system are described. The systems were analyzed and compared and two satisfactory systems were chosen. Prototypes of the two preferred systems are to be fabricated next semester. They will be tested under simulated microgravity conditions and revised for maximum effectiveness.

  17. Graphite materials for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oku, Tatsuo

    1991-01-01

    Graphite materials have been used in the nuclear fission reactors from the beginning of the reactor development for the speed reduction and reflection of neutron. Graphite materials are used both as a moderator and as a reflector in the core of high temperature gas-cooled reactors, and both as a radiation shielding material and as a reflector in the surrounding of the core for the fast breeder reactor. On the other hand, graphite materials are being positively used as a first wall of plasma as it is known that low Z materials are useful for holding high temperature plasma in the nuclear fusion devices. In this paper the present status of the application of graphite materials to the nuclear fission reactors and fusion devices (reactors) is presented. In addition, a part of results on the related properties to the structural design and safety evaluation and results examined on the subjects that should be done in the future are also described. (author)

  18. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Protection Agency Search Search Radon Contact Us Share Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  19. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) Information 6 Things You ... Disease and Dementia (12/20/13) Research Spotlights Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Shown To ...

  20. Volume reduction by oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Koshiba, Y.; Yamanaka, A.

    1984-01-01

    JGC Corporation has been actively investigating the treatment of various combustible and organic wastes generated at nuclear power stations and reprocessing plants. In particular, JGC has analyzed three new technologies which produce dramatic volume reductions and complete conversion of wastes into inorganic substances for durable storage and disposal. Those technologies are; Incineration, Wet oxidation and Photooxidation. Incineration is an excellent volume reducer for combustible wastes, and wet oxidation, using hydrogen peroxide, is also a good way for reducing spent ion-exchange resins without any off-gas problems. Photooxidation is a new technology to purify polluted water for recycled use in the stations without th release of contaminated water to the environment. Polluted water may include NH4+, detergents, chelating agents and other organic decontamination agents. These VR technologies are all based on ''Oxidation'' from which the title of this paper comes

  1. Dimensional-reduction anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, V.; Sutton, P.; Zelnikov, A.

    2000-01-01

    In a wide class of D-dimensional spacetimes which are direct or semi-direct sums of a (D-n)-dimensional space and an n-dimensional homogeneous ``internal'' space, a field can be decomposed into modes. As a result of this mode decomposition, the main objects which characterize the free quantum field, such as Green functions and heat kernels, can effectively be reduced to objects in a (D-n)-dimensional spacetime with an external dilaton field. We study the problem of the dimensional reduction of the effective action for such spacetimes. While before renormalization the original D-dimensional effective action can be presented as a ``sum over modes'' of (D-n)-dimensional effective actions, this property is violated after renormalization. We calculate the corresponding anomalous terms explicitly, illustrating the effect with some simple examples.

  2. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  3. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  4. Electrochemical Reduction of Zinc Phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Lee, Jung Hyun; Shin, Woon Sup

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated first that the electrochemical reduction of zinc phosphate in neutral phosphate buffer is possible and potentially applicable to bio-compatible rechargeable battery. The actual redox component is Zn(s)/Zn phosphate(s) and the future research about the control of crystal formation for the better cyclability is required. In lead-acid battery, the electrochemical redox reaction of Pb (s) /PbSO 4(s) is used by reducing Pb(II) and oxidizing Pb(0) in sulfate rich solution. Since both reduced form and oxidized form are insoluble, they cannot diffuse to the opposite electrodes and react. It is a very common strategy to make a stable battery electrode that a metal element is reduced and oxidized in solution containing an abundance of anion readily precipitating with the metal ion. For the application of this strategy to construction of rechargeable battery using bio-compatible electrode materials and electrolytes, the use of phosphate ion can be considered as anion readily precipitating with metal ions. If phosphate buffer with neutral pH is used as electrolyte, the better bio-compatibility will be achieved than most of rechargeable battery using strong acid, strong base or organic solvent as electrolyte solution. There are many metal ions readily precipitating with phos-phate ion, and zinc is one of them

  5. Dimension Reduction Techniques in Morhpometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Kratochvíl, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    This thesis centers around dimensionality reduction and its usage on landmark-type data which are often used in anthropology and morphometrics. In particular we focus on non-linear dimensionality reduction methods - locally linear embedding and multidimensional scaling. We introduce a new approach to dimensionality reduction called multipass dimensionality reduction and show that improves the quality of classification as well as requiring less dimensions for successful classification than the...

  6. Bulletin of Materials Science | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The synthesized silver nanoparticles are anticipated to be a promising material for pollution abatement. pp 667-671. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets using caffeine · Thu Ha Thi Vu Thanh Thuy Thi Tran Hong Ngan Thi Le Phuong Hoa Thi Nguyen Ngoc Quynh Bui Nadine Essayem.

  7. Bulletin of Materials Science | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 2. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 38, Issue 2. April 2015, pages 283-582. pp 283-290. Enhanced thermo-mechanical performance and strain-induced band gap reduction of TiO2@PVC nanocomposite films · Mudassir Hasan Arghya Narayan Banerjee ...

  8. Materials at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the physics, chemistry, and metallurgy of materials has been a primary focus of Los Alamos National Laboratory since its inception. In the early 1940s, very little was known or understood about plutonium, uranium, or their alloys. In addition, several new ionic, polymeric, and energetic materials with unique properties were needed in the development of nuclear weapons. As the Laboratory has evolved, and as missions in threat reduction, defense, energy, and meeting other emerging national challenges have been added, the role of materials science has expanded with the need for continued improvement in our understanding of the structure and properties of materials and in our ability to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. Materials science and engineering continues to be central to this Laboratory's success, and the materials capability truly spans the entire laboratory - touching upon numerous divisions and directorates and estimated to include >1/3 of the lab's technical staff. In 2006, Los Alamos and LANS LLC began to redefine our future, building upon the laboratory's established strengths and promoted by strongly interdependent science, technology and engineering capabilities. Eight Grand Challenges for Science were set forth as a technical framework for bridging across capabilities. Two of these grand challenges, Fundamental Understanding of Materials and Superconductivity and Actinide Science. were clearly materials-centric and were led out of our organizations. The complexity of these scientific thrusts was fleshed out through workshops involving cross-disciplinary teams. These teams refined the grand challenge concepts into actionable descriptions to be used as guidance for decisions like our LDRD strategic investment strategies and as the organizing basis for our external review process. In 2008, the Laboratory published 'Building the Future of Los Alamos. The Premier National Security Science Laboratory

  9. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  10. Atmospheric materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wieczorek, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    A disjunction between the material and the immaterial has been at the heart of the architectural debate for decades. In this dialectic tension, the notion of atmosphere which increasingly claims attention in architectural discourse seems to be parallactic, leading to the re-evaluation of perceptual...... experience and, consequently, to the conceptual and methodological shifts in the production of space, and hence in the way we think about materiality. In this context, architectural space is understood as a contingent construction – a space of engagement that appears to us as a result of continuous...... and complex interferences revealed through our perception; ‘the atmospheric’ is explored as a spatial and affective quality as well as a sensory background, and materiality as a powerful and almost magical agency in shaping of atmosphere. Challenging existing dichotomies and unraveling intrinsic...

  11. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  12. Material Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkmann, Mads Nygaard

    2018-01-01

    As a mass medium of modern culture, design sets the frame for human imaginative interaction with the world. In its many appearances, design can be seen as kind of material imagination where concepts and sensual appearances meet in different constellations. In this process something is made present...... as the product of a series of constructive factors related to schematization. Second, I discuss in two examples of design, how these factors operate and how the process of imagination is conditioned by the specific materiality of the design....

  13. Telling materials.

    OpenAIRE

    Crang, M.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter asks us to think carefully about what we do with material we have created out in the field. The way it is going to approach this is by thinking about the actions involved in analysis making sense out of the material you have so painstakingly gathered. However, I am not going to present a discussion of the criteria of a ‘good’ or ‘valid’ analysis, since there are many types of epistemological theories that underlie different sorts of analysis. That is, there are theories about how...

  14. Dose Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Waggoner, L O

    2000-01-01

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the sm...

  15. Ferroic Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For many ferro- electrics, this response function becomes particularly large when the material is at or near the temperature of the ferroelectric phase transition. An analogy from sociology may help explain why this should be so. When things are in a state of flux (say, when there a revolution under way, or a war is going on), ...

  16. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  17. Materials development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The main thrust of the materials program is the development of a structural material for the MSBR primary circuit which has adequate resistance to embrittlement by neutron irradiation and to shallow intergranular attack by fission product penetration. A modified Hastelloy N containing 2 percent Ti has good resistance to irradiation embrittlement; however, it remains to be shown that the alloy has sufficient resistance to shallow intergranular cracking. Numerous laboratory tests are in progress to answer this important question. Laboratory programs to study Hastelloy N--salt--tellurium interactions are being established, including the development of methods for exposing test materials under simulated reactor operating conditions. The procurement of products from two commercial heats (8000 and 10,000 lb) of 2 percent Ti--modified Hastelloy N continued. All products except seamless tubing were received, and much experience was gained in the fabrication of the new alloy. The work on chemical processing materials is concentrated on graphite. Capsule tests are in progress to study possible chemical interactions between graphite and bismuth-lithium solutions and to evaluate the mechanical intrusion of these solutions into the graphite

  18. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  19. Size reduction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-01-01

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users

  20. Friction Material Composites Materials Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Sundarkrishnaa, K L

    2012-01-01

    Friction Material Composites is the first of the five volumes which strongly educates and updates engineers and other professionals in braking industries, research and test labs. It explains besides the formulation of design processes and its complete manufacturing input. This book gives an idea of mechanisms of friction and how to control them by designing .The book is  useful for designers  of automotive, rail and aero industries for designing the brake systems effectively with the integration of friction material composite design which is critical. It clearly  emphasizes the driving  safety and how serious designers should  select the design input. The significance of friction material component like brake pad or a liner as an integral part of the brake system of vehicles is explained. AFM pictures at nanolevel illustrate broadly the explanations given.

  1. Advanced Materials for Automotive Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisza, M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper some recent material developments will be overviewed mainly from the point of view of automotive industry. In car industry, metal forming is one of the most important manufacturing processes imposing severe restrictions on materials; these are often contradictory requirements, e.g. high strength simultaneously with good formability, etc. Due to these challenges and the ever increasing demand new material classes have been developed; however, the more and more wide application of high strength materials meeting the requirements stated by the mass reduction lead to increasing difficulties concerning the formability which requires significant technological developments as well. In this paper, the recent materials developments will be overviewed from the point of view of the automotive industry

  2. Solar Thermal Reactor Materials Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichty, P. R.; Scott, A. M.; Perkins, C. M.; Bingham, C.; Weimer, A. W.

    2008-03-01

    Current research into hydrogen production through high temperature metal oxide water splitting cycles has created a need for robust high temperature materials. Such cycles are further enhanced by the use of concentrated solar energy as a power source. However, samples subjected to concentrated solar radiation exhibited lifetimes much shorter than expected. Characterization of the power and flux distributions representative of the High Flux Solar Furnace(HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) were compared to ray trace modeling of the facility. In addition, samples of candidate reactor materials were thermally cycled at the HFSF and tensile failure testing was performed to quantify material degradation. Thermal cycling tests have been completed on super alloy Haynes 214 samples and results indicate that maximum temperature plays a significant role in reduction of strength. The number of cycles was too small to establish long term failure trends for this material due to the high ductility of the material.

  3. Principal Components as a Data Reduction and Noise Reduction Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Campbell, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The potential of principal components as a pipeline data reduction technique for thematic mapper data was assessed and principal components analysis and its transformation as a noise reduction technique was examined. Two primary factors were considered: (1) how might data reduction and noise reduction using the principal components transformation affect the extraction of accurate spectral classifications; and (2) what are the real savings in terms of computer processing and storage costs of using reduced data over the full 7-band TM complement. An area in central Pennsylvania was chosen for a study area. The image data for the project were collected using the Earth Resources Laboratory's thematic mapper simulator (TMS) instrument.

  4. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  5. NOx reduction in Opole power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, B.; Gong, B.; Pozzobon, E.; Kinal, E.; Pilipionek, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 PGE Elektrownia Opole ordered a 'turn-key' retrofit execution of the combustion system to reduce NO x emission at BP-1150 boiler. The project includes modifications of burners as a first stage, and then ROFA system installation for combustion optimization and primary reduction of NO x , and Rotamix system installation for the further, secondary NO x reduction. The condition to install ROFA and Rotamix systems was keeping the same parameters of the power unit operation, in particular CO emission level, fly ash LOI and bottom ash LOI, ammonia slip, ambient noise, boiler availability and efficiency, material wastage rate, steam flow rate and temperature, as well as consumption of urea, water, electricity and compressed air. The work for this project was performed by a consortium that included Nalco Mobotec, Remak-Rozruch (a Consortium Leader) and SEFAKO

  6. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  7. Dynamic dimensionality reduction for hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi, Haleh; Liu, Keng-Hao; Chang, Chein-I.

    2011-06-01

    Data dimensionality (DR) is generally performed by first fixing size of DR at a certain number, say p and then finding a technique to reduce an original data space to a low dimensional data space with dimensionality specified by p. This paper introduces a new concept of dynamic dimensionality reduction (DDR) which considers the parameter p as a variable by varying the value of p to make p adaptive compared to the commonly used DR, referred to as static dimensionality reduction (SDR) with the parameter p fixed at a constant value. In order to materialize the DDR another new concept, referred to as progressive DR (PDR) is also developed so that the DR can be performed progressively to adapt the variable size of data dimensionality determined by varying the value of p. The advantages of the DDR over SDR are demonstrated through experiments conducted for hyperspectral image classification.

  8. Magnetocaloric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeppesen, Stinus

    2008-10-15

    New and improved magnetocaloric materials are one of the cornerstones in the development of room temperature magnetic refrigeration. Magnetic refrigeration has been used since the 1930ies in cryogenic applications, but has since the discovery of room temperature refrigerants received enormous attention. This Ph.D. work has been mainly concerned with developing a new technique to characterize the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and using this technique in the investigations on new and improved magnetocaloric materials. For this purpose a novel differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) with applied magnetic fields was developed for measuring heat capacity as function of magnetic field. Measurements using the developed DSC demonstrate a very high sensitivity, fast measurements and good agreement with results obtained by other techniques. Furthermore, two material systems have been described in this work. Both systems take basis in the mixed-valence manganite system La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x}MnO{sub 3} well known from research on colossal magnetoresistance (CMR). The mixed-valence manganite crystallizes in the perovskite structure of general formula ABO{sub 3}. The first material system is designed to investigate the influence of low level Cu doping on the B-site. Six different samples were prepared with over-stoichiometric compositions La{sub 0.67}Ca{sub 0.33}Mn{sub 1.05}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3}, x=0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. All compositions crystallized well in the same perovskite structure, but the morphology of the samples changed drastically with doping. Investigation on the magnetocaloric properties revealed that small levels of Cu up to around 3% could improve the magnetocaloric performance of the materials. Furthermore, Cu could be used to tune the temperature interval without deteriorating the MCE, which is a much desired characteristic for potential use in magnetic refrigerators. A less comprehensive part of the work has been concerned with the investigation of doping on the A

  9. Size dependent reduction-oxidation-reduction behaviour of cobalt oxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivan, Sajanikumari; Bellabarba, Ronan M.; Tooze, Robert P.

    2013-10-01

    Morphologically similar cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4) of four different sizes (3 nm, 6 nm, 11 nm and 29 nm) with narrow size distribution were prepared by subtle variation of synthesis conditions. These nanoparticles were used as model materials to understand the structural and morphological changes that occur to cobalt oxide during sequential reduction, oxidation and further re-reduction process as a function of the initial size of cobalt oxide. On reduction, spherical cobalt nanoparticles were obtained independent of the original size of cobalt oxide. In contrast, subsequent oxidation of the metal particles led to solid spheres, hollow spheres or core-shell structures depending on the size of the initial metal particle. Further re-reduction of the oxidized structures was also observed to be size dependent. The hollow oxide shells formed by the large particles (29 nm) fragmented into smaller particles on reduction, while the hollow shells of the medium sized particles (11 nm) did not re-disperse on further reduction. Similarly, no re-dispersion was observed in the case of the small particles (6 nm). This model study provides useful insights into the size dependent behavior of metal/metal oxide particles during oxidation/reduction. This has important implications in petrochemical industry where cobalt is used as a catalyst in the Fischer-Tropsch process.Morphologically similar cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4) of four different sizes (3 nm, 6 nm, 11 nm and 29 nm) with narrow size distribution were prepared by subtle variation of synthesis conditions. These nanoparticles were used as model materials to understand the structural and morphological changes that occur to cobalt oxide during sequential reduction, oxidation and further re-reduction process as a function of the initial size of cobalt oxide. On reduction, spherical cobalt nanoparticles were obtained independent of the original size of cobalt oxide. In contrast, subsequent oxidation of the metal

  10. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  11. Heliostat cost reduction study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Scott A.; Lumia, Ronald. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Davenport, Roger (Science Applications International Corporation, San Diego, CA); Thomas, Robert C. (Advanced Thermal Systems, Centennial, CO); Gorman, David (Advanced Thermal Systems, Larkspur, CO); Kolb, Gregory J.; Donnelly, Matthew W.

    2007-06-01

    Power towers are capable of producing solar-generated electricity and hydrogen on a large scale. Heliostats are the most important cost element of a solar power tower plant. Since they constitute {approx} 50% of the capital cost of the plant it is important to reduce heliostat cost as much as possible to improve the economic performance of power towers. In this study we evaluate current heliostat technology and estimate a price of $126/m{sup 2} given year-2006 materials and labor costs for a deployment of {approx}600 MW of power towers per year. This 2006 price yields electricity at $0.067/kWh and hydrogen at $3.20/kg. We propose research and development that should ultimately lead to a price as low as $90/m{sup 2}, which equates to $0.056/kWh and $2.75/kg H{sup 2}. Approximately 30 heliostat and manufacturing experts from the United States, Europe, and Australia contributed to the content of this report during two separate workshops conducted at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility.

  12. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  13. Supracondylar fractures in children-closed reduction vs open reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boparai RPS

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Supracondylar fracture is the most common fracture around the elbow in children of the age group 5-10 yrs. The issue of open reduction in such fractures is always a matter of debate as even closed reduction gives satisfactory results. However the present study of 50 cases aims to highlight the benefits of open reduction over closed reduction in such cases. Methods: Patients were divided into two groups, 25 cases (group I were treated by ORIF using K-wires while 25 cases (group II were treated by closed reduction and P.O.P. splint in pronation. Group I patients were treated under G/A by two mini incisions medial and lateral and fragments fixed with K-wires. Post-operatively P.O.P. back splint was given. In both groups, the back splint was discarded after three weeks and active exercises encouraged. Results: Minor complications as superficial infections and pin tract infection were observed in group I patients. However variation of carrying angle (cubitus varus was more in group II. Limitation of movement was more in group II due to mal-rotation and anterior ledge formation, not seen with open reduction group. Conclusion: We conclude from above series that ORIF of supracondylar fracture is better than closed reduction as incidence of malunion is less and range of motion near normal as compared to closed reduction.

  14. Effect of Calcination and Reduction Temperatures on the Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of calcination and reduction temperatures on the reducibility, dispersion and Fischer-Tropsch activity of 10 wt% cobalt supported on titania catalyst modified by 0.1 wt% boron has been studied. The percentage reduction and percentage dispersion were found to decrease with increasing calcination temperature.

  15. Volume reduction of contaminated filter wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buttedahl, O.I.; Terada, K.

    1976-01-01

    Reported are details of a pilot project to design and construct a compactor to reduce the handling of high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters used in air filtration systems at facilities where radioactive materials are processed. In such systems at Rocky Flats Plant, filters require frequent change and removal. Large quantities are used and will be increased for future operations. With the completion of the pilot model, it has been demonstrated that volume reductions of more than 80% can be achieved and cost savings will be realized also

  16. Aspects of reduction clorination of pyrochlore concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gameiro, D.H.; Brocchi, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction chlorination experiments were carried out with two different Brazilian pyrochlore concentrates in order to evaluate the effects of some variables on the extent of niobium pentoxide gaseification as well as to compare the behavior of concentrate under the same chlorination conditions. The pyrochlore concentrates from Araxa (MG) and Catalao (GO), Brazil, were submitted to X ray diffraction and X ray fluorescence analysis for determining their chemical compositions. Kinetic curves were obtained with the main variables being temperature and percentage of reducing agent. Analysis of the condensed material in terms of Nb 2 O 5 indicated that chlorination can be used to produce niobium pentoxide. (Author) [pt

  17. Reduction of a Ship's Magnetic Field Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Holmes, John

    2008-01-01

    Decreasing the magnetic field signature of a naval vessel will reduce its susceptibility to detonating naval influence mines and the probability of a submarine being detected by underwater barriers and maritime patrol aircraft. Both passive and active techniques for reducing the magnetic signatures produced by a vessel's ferromagnetism, roll-induced eddy currents, corrosion-related sources, and stray fields are presented. Mathematical models of simple hull shapes are used to predict the levels of signature reduction that might be achieved through the use of alternate construction materials. Al

  18. Emerging Materials Technologies That Matter to Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.

    2015-01-01

    A brief overview of emerging materials technologies. Exploring the weight reduction benefit of replacing Carbon Fiber with Carbon Nanotube (CNT) in Polymer Composites. Review of the benign purification method developed for CNT sheets. The future of manufacturing will include the integration of computational material design and big data analytics, along with Nanomaterials as building blocks.

  19. Structure and thermal stability of nanocrystalline materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Taking a cubic unit cell or a regular polyhedron unit cell of nanocrystalline material, the volume fraction of each ... The present article reviews the present states of understanding in these aspects of nanocrystalline materials. ..... Calculations based on the equation of state show 37% reduction in tetragonal shear modulus of ...

  20. FY2009 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-01-16

    The Propulsion Materials program focuses on enabling and innovative materials technologies that are critical in improving the efficiency of advanced engines. Projects within the Propulsion Materials Program address materials concerns that directly impact the critical technical barriers in each of these programs—barriers such as fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, and reduced manufacturing costs.

  1. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R&D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R&D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R&D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  2. Waste Reduction plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development (R D) facility owned and operated by the Department of Energy (DOE) and managed under subcontract by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems), Inc. ORNL R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. In the hazardous waste category alone, over 300 streams of a diverse nature exist. Generation avoidance, reduction or recycling of wastes is an important goal in maintaining efficiency of ORNL R D activities and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes or eliminates the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution and inventory management, process modification, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction activities.

  3. Energy materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Duncan W; Walton, Richard I

    2011-01-01

    In an age of global industrialisation and population growth, the area of energy is one that is very much in the public consciousness. Fundamental scientific research is recognised as being crucial to delivering solutions to these issues, particularly to yield novel means of providing efficient, ideally recyclable, ways of converting, transporting and delivering energy. This volume considers a selection of the state-of-the-art materials that are being designed to meet some of the energy challenges we face today. Topics are carefully chosen that show how the skill of the synthetic chemist can

  4. Casting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Anil R [Xenia, OH; Dzugan, Robert [Cincinnati, OH; Harrington, Richard M [Cincinnati, OH; Neece, Faurice D [Lyndurst, OH; Singh, Nipendra P [Pepper Pike, OH

    2011-06-14

    A foam material comprises a liquid polymer and a liquid isocyanate which is mixed to make a solution that is poured, injected or otherwise deposited into a corresponding mold. A reaction from the mixture of the liquid polymer and liquid isocyanate inside the mold forms a thermally collapsible foam structure having a shape that corresponds to the inside surface configuration of the mold and a skin that is continuous and unbroken. Once the reaction is complete, the foam pattern is removed from the mold and may be used as a pattern in any number of conventional casting processes.

  5. Alloy materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Thieme, Cornelis Leo (Westborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Fritzemeier, Leslie G. (Acton, MA); Cameron, Robert D. (Franklin, MA); Siegal, Edward J. (Malden, MA)

    2002-01-01

    An alloy that contains at least two metals and can be used as a substrate for a superconductor is disclosed. The alloy can contain an oxide former. The alloy can have a biaxial or cube texture. The substrate can be used in a multilayer superconductor, which can further include one or more buffer layers disposed between the substrate and the superconductor material. The alloys can be made a by process that involves first rolling the alloy then annealing the alloy. A relatively large volume percentage of the alloy can be formed of grains having a biaxial or cube texture.

  6. Construction material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S [Orland Park, IL; Antink, Allison L [Bolingbrook, IL

    2008-07-22

    A structural material of a polystyrene base and the reaction product of the polystyrene base and a solid phosphate ceramic is applied as a slurry which includes one or more of a metal oxide or a metal hydroxide with a source of phosphate to produce a phosphate ceramic and a poly (acrylic acid or acrylate) or combinations or salts thereof and polystyrene or MgO applied to the polystyrene base and allowed to cure so that the dried aqueous slurry chemically bonds to the polystyrene base. A method is also disclosed of applying the slurry to the polystyrene base.

  7. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamieson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. The film material is comprised of a base having at least one layer of a photographic silver halide emulsion and a yellow filter dye screening the emulsion from visible radiation. The silver halide emulsion contains 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The nature and properties of the yellow filter dye are described. When recording an X-ray image, the film is loaded into the camera under white safelight conditions from which light of wavelength shorter than 400 nm is excluded. The film is in contact with one or more phosphor screens capable when struck by X-rays of emitting ultraviolet radiation, the screens having a peak ultraviolet emission within the wavelength range of 250-380 nm. After X-ray exposure, the film is removed and developed. Two examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  8. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition having properties as good as thermosetting acrylic or amino alkid resins is provided by employing active energy irradiation, particularly electron beams, using a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A) (hereafter called an oligomer) containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. This oligomer is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with alpha-, beta-ethylene unsaturated carboxylic acids or their anhydrides. The composition (I) contains 10% - 100% of this oligomer. In embodiments, an oligomer having a fiberous trivinyl construction is produced by reacting 180 parts by weight of glycidyl methacrylate ester with 130 parts of itaconic acid in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and an addition reaction catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours. In practice, the coating material compositions (1), consist of the whole oligomer [I-1]; (2), consist of 10-90% of (A) component and 90%-10% of vinyl monomers containing at least 30% (meth) acrylic monomer [I-2]; (3), 10%-90% of component (A) and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals [I-3]; (4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3), [I-4]; and (5), consist of 50% or less unsaturated polyester of 500-5,000 molecular weight range or drying oil, or alkyd resin of 500-5,000 molecular weight range modified by drying oil, [I-5]. As a catalyst a tertiary amino vinyl compound is preferred. Five examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  10. Confluence reduction for probabilistic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette

    In this presentation we introduce a novel technique for state space reduction of probabilistic specifications, based on a newly developed notion of confluence for probabilistic automata. We proved that this reduction preserves branching probabilistic bisimulation and can be applied on-the-fly. To

  11. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background: Harm reduction is commonly regarded as complementary to other drug problem responses - as the fourth tier. Yet even core examples of harm reduction such as the provision of injection equipment and methadone treatment has over and over encountered considerable opposition, and harm...

  12. Reduction of chemical reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconcile the different terminologies pertaining to reduction of chemical reaction models. The approaches considered include global modeling, response modeling, detailed reduction, chemical lumping, and statistical lumping. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these methods are pointed out.

  13. Many Faces of Dimensional Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, A. T.

    2006-06-01

    After a brief discussion of dimensional reductions leading to the 1+1 dimensional dilaton gravity theory we consider general properties of these theories and identify problems that arise in its further reductions to one dimensional theories - cosmological models, static states (in particular, black holes) and gravity-matter waves. To bypass shortcomings of the standard ('naive') reduction we propose to exploit more general ideas: 1. separating the space and time variables in generic models, 2. reductions of the moduli spaces in integrable models that may also be viewed as dimensional reductions. This allows us to clearly see a duality between static and cosmological solutions (that we call 'SC-duality') and to demonstrate a close relation of these objects to gravity-matter waves.

  14. Waste reduction options for manufacturers of copper indium diselenide photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DePhillips, M.P.; Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1994-03-01

    This paper identifies general waste reduction concepts and specific waste reduction options to be used in the production of copper indium diselenide (CIS) photovoltaic cells. A general discussion of manufacturing processes used for the production of photovoltaic cells is followed by a description of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines for waste reduction (i.e., waste minimization through pollution prevention). A more specific discussion of manufacturing CIS cells is accompanied by detailed suggestions regarding waste minimization options for both inputs and outputs for ten stages of this process. Waste reduction from inputs focuses on source reduction and process changes, and reduction from outputs focuses on material reuse and recycling.

  15. Determination of reduction yield of lithium metal reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, In Kyu; Cho, Young Hwan; Kim, Taek Jin; Jee, Kwang Young

    2004-01-01

    Metal reduction of spent oxide fuel is the first step for the effective storage of spent fuel in Korea as well as transmutation purpose of long-lived radio-nuclides. During the reduction of uranium oxide by lithium metal to uranium metal, lithium oxide is stoichiometrically produced. By determining the concentration of lithium oxide in lithium chloride, we can estimate that how much uranium oxide is converted to uranium metal. Previous method to determine the lithium oxide concentration in lithium chloride is tedious and timing consuming. This paper describe the on-line monitoring method of lithium oxide during the reduction process

  16. Paving materials for heat island mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerantz, M.; Akbari, H.; Chen, A.; Taha, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Rosenfeld, A.H. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes paving materials suitable for urban streets, driveways, parking lots and walkways. The authors evaluate materials for their abilities to reflect sunlight, which will reduce their temperatures. This in turn reduces the excess air temperature of cities (the heat island effect). The report presents the compositions of the materials, their suitability for particular applications, and their approximate costs (in 1996). Both new and resurfacing are described. They conclude that, although light-colored materials may be more expensive than conventional black materials, a thin layer of light-colored pavement may produce energy savings and smog reductions whose long-term worth is greater than the extra cost.

  17. Isotope specific arbitrary material sorter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Christopher P.J.

    2015-12-08

    A laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide a rapid and unique, isotope specific method for sorting materials. The objects to be sorted are passed on a conveyor in front of a MEGa-ray beam which has been tuned to the nuclear resonance fluorescence transition of the desired material. As the material containing the desired isotope traverses the beam, a reduction in the transmitted MEGa-ray beam occurs. Alternately, the laser-based mono-energetic gamma-ray source is used to provide non-destructive and non-intrusive, quantitative determination of the absolute amount of a specific isotope contained within pipe as part of a moving fluid or quasi-fluid material stream.

  18. Construction materials and Radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine Nicolosi; Loriane, Fior; Schelin, Hugo R.; Pottker, Fabiana; Paula Melo, Vicente de

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Current studies have been performed with the aim to find the correlation of radon concentration in the air and used construction materials. At the first stage of the measurements different samples of materials used in civil construction were studied as a source of radon in the air and at the second step it was studied the radon infiltration insulation using different samples of finishing materials. For 222 Rn concentration measurements related to different construction materials as well as for the studies of radon emanation and its reduction, the sealed cell chambers, of approximately 60 x 60cm 2 , have been built using the ceramic and concrete blocks. This construction has been performed within protected and isolated laboratory environment to maintain the air humidity and temperature stable. These long term measurements have been performed using polycarbonate alpha track passive detectors. The exposure time was set about 15 days considering previous calibration performed at the Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN), where the efficiency of 70% was obtained for the density of alpha particle tracks about 13.8 cm -2 per exposure day and per kBq/m 3 of radon activity concentration. The chemical development of alpha tracks has been achieved by electrochemical etching. The track identification and counting have been done using a code based on the MATLAB Image Processing Toolbox. The cell chambers have been built following four principle steps: 1) Assembling the walls using the blocks and mortar; 2) Plaster installation; 3) Wall surface finishing using the lime; 4) Wall surface insulation by paint. Making the comparison between three layers installed at the masonry walls from concrete and ceramic blocks, it could be concluded that only wall painting with acrylic varnish attended the expectation and reduced the radon emanation flow by the factor of 2.5 approximately. Studied construction materials have been submitted the instant

  19. Photographic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic films based on silver halides are normally handled under red or orange safelights to prevent fogging due to their sensitivity to white light. The present invention relates to ultraviolet radiation sensitive material which can be handled under virtually white light without significant fogging. A photographic, chemically sensitised silver halide emulsion is described, containing 50-100 mole % of silver chloride, the higher the silver chloride content, the lower the visible light sensitivity. The remaining silver halide, if any, is silver bromide and/or silver iodide. The silver halide grains are grown in the presence of ammonia, an excess of chloride ions and tetraazaindene growth controller. Examples illustrating the invention are given. (U.K.)

  20. Photovoltaic Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, C.; Angelini, J.; Armstrong, B.; Bennett, C.; Evans, B.; Jellison, G. E.; Joshi, P.; List, F.; Paranthaman, P.; Parish, C.; Wereszczak, A.

    2012-10-15

    The goal of the current project was to help make the US solar industry a world leader in the manufacture of thin film photovoltaics. The overall approach was to leverage ORNL’s unique characterization and processing technologies to gain a better understanding of the fundamental challenges for solar cell processing and apply that knowledge to targeted projects with industry members. ORNL has the capabilities in place and the expertise required to understand how basic material properties including defects, impurities, and grain boundaries affect the solar cell performance. ORNL also has unique processing capabilities to optimize the manufacturing process for fabrication of high efficiency and low cost solar cells. ORNL recently established the Center for Advanced Thin-film Systems (CATS), which contains a suite of optical and electrical characterization equipment specifically focused on solar cell research. Under this project, ORNL made these facilities available to industrial partners who were interested in pursuing collaborative research toward the improvement of their product or manufacturing process. Four specific projects were pursued with industrial partners: Global Solar Energy is a solar industry leader in full scale production manufacturing highly-efficient Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS) thin film solar material, cells and products. ORNL worked with GSE to develop a scalable, non-vacuum, solution technique to deposit amorphous or nanocrystalline conducting barrier layers on untextured stainless steel substrates for fabricating high efficiency flexible CIGS PV. Ferro Corporation’s Electronic, Color and Glass Materials (“ECGM”) business unit is currently the world’s largest supplier of metallic contact materials in the crystalline solar cell marketplace. Ferro’s ECGM business unit has been the world's leading supplier of thick film metal pastes to the crystalline silicon PV industry for more than 30 years, and has had operational

  1. Harm reduction through a social justice lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Bernadette

    2008-02-01

    People who are street involved such as those experiencing homelessness and drug use face multiple inequities in health and access to health care. Morbidity and mortality are significantly increased among those who are street involved. Incorporation of a harm reduction philosophy in health care has the potential to shift the moral context of health care delivery and enhance access to health care services. However, harm reduction with a primary focus on reducing the harms of drug use fails focus on the harms associated with the context of drug use such as homelessness, violence and poverty. Ethical analysis of the underlying values of harm reduction and examination of different conceptions of justice are discussed as a basis for action that addresses a broad range of harms associated with drug use. Theories of distributive justice that focus primarily on the distribution of material goods are limited as theoretical frameworks for addressing the root causes of harm associated with drug use. Social justice, reconceptualised and interpreted through a critical lens as described by Iris Marion Young, is presented as a promising alternative ethical framework. A critical reinterpretation of social justice leads to insights that can illuminate structural inequities that contribute to the harms associated with the context of drug use. Such an approach provides promise as means of informing policy that aims to reduce a broad range of harms associated with drug use such as homelessness and poverty.

  2. Reduction of radar cross-section of a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jacob Jeremiah; Brock, Billy C.; Clem, Paul G.; Loui, Hung; Allen, Steven E.

    2016-08-02

    The various technologies presented herein relate to formation of a wind turbine blade having a reduced radar signature in comparison with a turbine blade fabricated using conventional techniques. Various techniques and materials are presented to facilitate reduction in radar signature of a wind turbine blade, where such techniques and materials are amenable for incorporation into existing manufacturing techniques without degradation in mechanical or physical performance of the blade or major alteration of the blade profile.

  3. Plutonium contaminated materials research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    The paper is a progress report for 1985 from the Plutonium Contaminated Materials Working Party (PCMWP). The PCMWP co-ordinates research and development on a national basis in the areas of management, treatment and immobilisation of plutonium contaminated materials, for the purpose of waste management. The progress report contains a review of the development work carried out in eight areas, including: reduction of arisings, plutonium measurement, sorting and packaging, washing of shredded combustible PCM, decommissioning and non-combustible PCM treatment, PCM immobilisation, treatment of alpha bearing liquid wastes, and engineering objectives. (UK)

  4. Innovative materials in winemaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luchian Camelia Elena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wineries have been trying to reduce metallic content of wines by adding various substances. The most used treatment with potassium ferrocyanide causes the elimination of the majority of iron content, together with a significant reduction in the content of other metals. Potassium ferrocyanide also leads to the formation of undesirable hazes. White wines composition and organoleptic properties are influenced by many and diverse factors corresponding to the specific production area, such as grape variety, soil and climate, culture, yeast, winemaking practices and storage. The aim of this research was to investigate variations in metals and volatiles content of Feteasca regală wine samples treated with SBA-15, AlMCM-41, KIT-6 and Clinoptilolite materials with GS-MS and MP-AES.

  5. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i

  6. Wire EDM for Refractory Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellars, G. R.; Harris, F. E.; Lowell, C. E.; Pollman, W. M.; Rys, V. J.; Wills, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce fabrication time and costs, Wire Electrical Discharge Machine (Wire EDM) method was investigated as tool for fabricating matched blade roots and disk slots. Eight high-strength nickel-base superalloys were used. Computer-controlled Wire EDM technique provided high quality surfaces with excellent dimensional tolerances. Wire EDM method offers potential for substantial reductions in fabrication costs for "hard to machine" alloys and electrically conductive materials in specific high-precision applications.

  7. Cost reduction through system integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helsing, P.

    1994-01-01

    In resent years cost reduction has been a key issue in the petroleum industry. Several findings are not economically attractive at the current cost level, and for this and other reasons some of the major oil companies require the suppliers to have implemented a cost reduction programme to prequalify for projects. The present paper addresses cost reduction through system design and integration in both product development and working methods. This is to be obtained by the combination of contracts by reducing unnecessary coordination and allow re-use of proven interface designs, improve subsystem integration by ''top down'' system design, and improve communication and exchange of experience. 3 figs

  8. Drugs, prisons, and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rhidian

    2003-01-01

    The use of drugs in society raises important considerations for health and social policy. Critical health and social care issues arise when drugs are used inside prisons. This paper argues that there is an urgent need for prison drug policies to adopt the principles of harm reduction. However, current policy orthodoxy emphasises the control of drugs and punishment for drug taking. Key components of harm reduction are operationalised in this article by exploring the potential for harm reduction in prison within the context of English drug policy. Whilst the focus is on English policy debates, the discussion will have wider international resonance. Copyright 2003 The Haworth Press, Inc.

  9. The new materialism: A matter of policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.

    The material cost of a human life is astronomically more than that of the substances the body contains. The residents of industrial societies are voracious consumers of chemicals, metals, paper, and other materials. Those materials in term may take thousands of times their weight in raw materials and vast quantities of energy to produce. This article describes the problem of a society based on the policy of materialism and discusses the following topics: the need for huge reduction in materials consumption; Turning incentives around so prices tell the ecological truth; Investment in smarter designs including the first step of economic incentives for efficient use of materials; Truth in labeling about the environmental costs; the money to make a start and where it can come from; beyond the virgin materials addiction.

  10. Acute IPPS - Readmissions Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act added section 1886(q) to the Social Security Act establishing the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which requires CMS...

  11. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project will enable a mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle...

  12. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  13. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  14. Dimensionality Reduction with Adaptive Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kokiopoulou, Effrosyni; Frossard, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of (adaptive) nonlinear approximation for dimensionality reduction. In particular, we propose a dimensionality reduction method for learning a parts based representation of signals using redundant dictionaries. A redundant dictionary is an overcomplete set of basis vectors that spans the signal space. The signals are jointly represented in a common subspace extracted from the redundant dictionary, using greedy pursuit algorithms for simultaneous sparse approx...

  15. Dimensionality reduction in complex models

    OpenAIRE

    Boukouvalas, Alexis; Maniyar, Dharmesh M.; Cornford, Dan

    2007-01-01

    As a part of the Managing Uncertainty in Complex Models (MUCM) project, research at Aston University will develop methods for dimensionality reduction of the input and/or output spaces of models, as seen within the emulator framework. Towards this end this report describes a framework for generating toy datasets, whose underlying structure is understood, to facilitate early investigations of dimensionality reduction methods and to gain a deeper understanding of the algorithms employed, both i...

  16. Reduction of Dimensionality for Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas-Covarrubias, Carlos; Riccomagno, Eva

    2017-01-01

    We present an algorithm for the reduction of dimensionality useful in statistical classification problems where observations from two multivariate normal distributions are discriminated. It is based on Principal Components Analysis and consists of a simultaneous diagonalization of two covariance matrices. The criterion for reduction of dimensionality is given by the contribution of each principal component to the area under the ROC curve of a discriminant function. Linear and quadratic scores...

  17. 2dfdr: Data reduction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAO software Team

    2015-05-01

    2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

  18. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib

    2016-01-05

    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  19. Speckle Reduction in Projection Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Riechert, Falko

    2009-01-01

    A speckle pattern is a quasi-random interference pattern which typically emerges when lasers are used as illumination sources in projection applications and which severely degrades the image quality. Since in most projection applications high speckle disturbance is not tolerable, speckle reduction is a major issue. This work gives an introduction into the theoretical description of speckle and investigates different practical methods for speckle reduction in laser projection systems.

  20. Effect of Fe Loading Condition and Reductants on CO2 Reduction Performance with Fe/TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nishimura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fe-doped TiO2 (Fe/TiO2 film photocatalyst was prepared by sol-gel and dip-coating process and pulse arc plasma method. The effect of pulse number on the CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 was investigated in this study. In addition, the effect of reductants such as H2O, H2, and NH3/H2O on the CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 photocatalyst was also investigated. The characteristics of the prepared Fe/TiO2 film coated on a netlike glass fiber which is a base material were analyzed by SEM, EPMA, EDX, and EPMA. Furthermore, the CO2 reduction performance of the Fe/TiO2 film was tested under a Xe lamp with or without ultraviolet (UV light. The results show that the CO2 reduction performance with the pulse number of 100 is the best with H2O and/or H2 as reductant under UV light illumination, while that with the pulse number of 500 is the best when NH3/H2O is used as reductant. On the other hand, the CO2 reduction performance with the pulse number of 500 is the best under every reductant condition without UV light illumination. The highest CO2 reduction performance with the Fe/TiO2 is obtained under H2 + H2O/CO2 condition, and the best moral ratio of total reductants to CO2 is 1.5 : 1.

  1. Low temperature plasma metallurgy. Reduction of metals in plasma reactors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Eliáš, M.; Frgala, Z.; Kudrle, V.; Janča, J.; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2004), s. 91-97 ISSN 1203-8407 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : plasmachemistry reduction, tungsten, hydrogen plasma Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.451, year: 2002

  2. Application of chaotic noise reduction techniques to chaotic data ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a novel method of combining artificial neural networks (ANNs) with chaotic noise reduction techniques that captures the metric and dynamic invariants of a ... Computational Materials Science, Unit-I,Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR) Thiruvananthapuram 695 019, India; Department of Computer Science, ...

  3. 29 CFR 1919.76 - Safe working load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.76 Safe working load reduction. (a) If the operation in which equipment is engaged never utilizes more than a fraction of the safe working load rating, the owner of such equipment may, at his option, have the crane or...

  4. Reduction mechanism of Ni2+ into Ni nanoparticles prepared from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a precursor compound with weaker metal–ligand (M–L) bond as starting material since it can be decomposed easily to give well-dispersed metal nanoparticles at low temperature with a short duration of heat treatment. The reduction mechanism for the conversion of metal ions (Mn+) to metal nanoparticles (M0) from three ...

  5. Metal artefact reduction for accurate tumour delineation in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, David Gergely; Rechner, Laura A; Appelt, Ane L

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Two techniques for metal artefact reduction for computed tomography were studied in order to identify their impact on tumour delineation in radiotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using specially designed phantoms containing metal implants (dental, spine and hip) as well...

  6. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 38; Issue 3. A new green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide nanosheets using caffeine. Thu Ha Thi Vu Thanh Thuy Thi Tran Hong Ngan Thi Le Phuong Hoa Thi Nguyen Ngoc Quynh Bui Nadine Essayem. Volume 38 Issue 3 June 2015 pp 667-671 ...

  7. External caps: An approach to stress reduction in balloons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlewood, K. H.

    Recent findings of the catastrophic balloon failures investigation in the U.S.A. indicate that very large gross inflations, in balloons using present design philosophy, over-stress currently available materials. External caps are proposed as an economic approach to reducting those stresses to an acceptable level.

  8. Oxygen reduction on nanocrystalline ruthenia-local structure effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Daniel F.; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Petrykin, Valery

    2015-01-01

    Nanocrystalline ruthenium dioxide and doped ruthenia of the composition Ru1-xMxO2 (M = Co, Ni, Zn) with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.2 were prepared by the spray-freezing freeze-drying technique. The oxygen reduction activity and selectivity of the prepared materials were evaluated in alkaline media using the RRDE ...

  9. Electrochemical reduction of dilute chromate solutions on carbon felt electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, Hans; Barmashenko, Vladimir; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Carbon felt is a potential material for electrochemical reduction of chromates. Very dilute solutions may be efficiently treated due to its large specific surface area and high porosity. In this work, the up-scaling of this technology is investigated using a new type of separated cell and

  10. In situ studies of NO reduction by H

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roobol, S. B.; Onderwaater, W. G.; van Spronsen, M. A.; Carla, F; Balmes, O; Navarro-Paredes, V; Vendelbo, S.B.; Kooyman, P.J.; Elkjær, C. F.; Helveg, S; Felici, R; Frenken, J. W.M.; Groot, I.M.N.

    2017-01-01

    In situ surface X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy at 1 bar show massive material transport of platinum during high-temperature NO reduction with H2. A Pt(110) single-crystal surface shows a wide variety of surface reconstructions and extensive faceting of the

  11. [Evolution of disposable diapers and reduction of diaper dermatitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G-N; Merlay, I; Romain, C

    2007-05-01

    Keeping babies skin dry in the diaper environment, reducing leaking while increasing absorbency and preventing skin pH increase lead to provide better skin tolerance disposable diapers. During 80's, basic cellulose diapers were replaced by the introduction of absorbent gelling materials (AGM) and since 90's by microbreatheable diapers. These advances in diaper technology have contributed to the reduction of diaper dermatitis.

  12. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  13. 48 CFR 52.223-10 - Waste Reduction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recovered from the solid waste stream for use in the form of raw materials in the manufacture of products... promote cost-effective waste reduction in all operations and facilities covered by this contract. The Contractor's programs shall comply with applicable Federal, State, and local requirements, specifically...

  14. Alternative Anodes for the Electrolytic Reduction of Uranium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, Augustus

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is an essential step in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. In order to consume current stockpiles, ceramic uranium dioxide spent nuclear fuel will be subjected to an electrolytic reduction process. The current reduction process employs a platinum anode and a stainless steel alloy 316 cathode in a molten salt bath consisting of LiCl-2wt% Li 2O and occurs at 700°C. A major shortcoming of the existing process is the degradation of the platinum anode under the severely oxidizing conditions encountered during electrolytic reduction. This work investigates alternative anode materials for the electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide. The high temperature and extreme oxidizing conditions encountered in these studies necessitated a unique set of design constraints on the system. Thus, a customized experimental apparatus was designed and constructed. The electrochemical experiments were performed in an electrochemical reactor placed inside a furnace. This entire setup was housed inside a glove box, in order to maintain an inert atmosphere. This study investigates alternative anode materials through accelerated corrosion testing. Surface morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy. Surface chemistry was characterized using energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Electrochemical behavior of candidate materials was evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization characteristics. After narrowing the number of candidate electrode materials, ferrous stainless steel alloy 316, nickel based Inconel 718 and elemental tungsten were chosen for further investigation. Of these materials only tungsten was found to be sufficiently stable at the anodic potential required for electrolysis of uranium dioxide in molten salt. The tungsten anode and stainless steel alloy 316 cathode electrode system was studied at the required reduction potential for UO2 with varying lithium oxide concentrations. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

  15. Coating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, Takao; Kimura, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Juichi; Maeda, Yutaka; Nakamoto, Hideo.

    1969-01-01

    A non-solvent type coating material composition is provided which can be hardened by irradiation with active energy, particularly electron beams, using a composition which contains 10%-100% of a radically polymerizable low molecular compound (A), (hereafter called an oligomer), having at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule. These compositions have a high degree of polymerization and characteristics equivalent to thermosetting acrylic or amino alkyd resin. The oligomer (A) is produced by reacting an epoxy-containing vinyl monomer with saturated polycarboxylic acids or anhydrides. In one embodiment, 146 parts by weight of adipic acid and 280 parts of glycidyl methacrylate ester undergo addition reaction in the presence of a polymerization-inhibitor and a catalyst at 90 0 C for 6 hours to produce an oligomer having a fiberous divinyl construction. The coating composition utilizes this oligomer in the forms of (I-1), a whole oligomer; (I-2), 0%-90% of this oligomer and 90%-10% of a vinyl monomer containing at least 30% of (meth) acrylic monomer; (I-3), 10%-90% of such oligomer and 90%-10% of other monomers containing at least two vinyl radicals in one molecule; (I-4), a mixture of (I-2) and (I-3) in proportion of 1/9 to 9/1, and (I-5), above four compositions each containing 50% or less unsaturated polyester or drying oil having 500-5,000 molecules or a drying oil-modified alkyd resin having 500-5,000 molecules. Four examples are given. (Iwakiri, K.)

  16. Comparative study of synthesis and reduction methods for graphene oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Alazmi, Amira

    2016-05-14

    Graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have congregated much interest as promising active materials for a variety of applications such as electrodes for supercapacitors. Yet, partially given the absence of comparative studies in synthesis methodologies, a lack of understanding persists on how to best tailor these materials. In this work, the effect of using different graphene oxidation-reduction strategies in the structure and chemistry of rGOs is systematically discussed. Two of the most popular oxidation routes in the literature were used to obtain GO. Subsequently, two sets of rGO powders were synthesised employing three different reduction routes, totalling six separate products. It is shown that the extension of the structural rearrangement in rGOs is not just dependent on the reduction step but also on the approach followed for the initial graphite oxidation.

  17. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  18. The Newest Machine Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yeong Seop; Choe, Byeong Do; Bang, Meong Sung

    2005-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of machine material with classification of machine material and selection of machine material, structure and connection of material, coagulation of metal and crystal structure, equilibrium diagram, properties of metal material, elasticity and plasticity, biopsy of metal, material test and nondestructive test. It also explains steel material such as heat treatment of steel, cast iron and cast steel, nonferrous metal materials, non metallic materials, and new materials.

  19. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2018-01-09

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer material, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  20. Packaging tomorrow : modelling the material input for European packaging in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, M.P.; Joosten, L.A.J.; Worrell, E.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a result of the MATTER project (MATerials Technology for CO2 Emission Reduction). The project focuses on CO2 emission reductions that are related to the Western European materials system. The total impact of the reduction options for different scenario's will be modeled in MARKAL

  1. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  2. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  3. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R ampersand D) facility. These R ampersand D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  6. Manual reduction in acute haemorrhoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaj, F; Candeloro, L; Biviano, I

    2016-01-01

    In prolapsed internal hemorrhoids exposed outside the anus, manually reducing the prolapse with 48 hours of commencement of anal pain, decreased the progression of thrombosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of manual reduction of the inflamed piles hemorrhoids. Eleven patients, 7 males and 4 pregnant females (in early post partum) with an average age of 34 years ± 8 (range 23- 52) were enrolled with anal pain cause by haemorrhoidal congestion, but prior to full blown thrombosis. Patients underwent a manual reduction of the external prolapsed haemorrhoidal plexus. In the 48 hours following the procedure, patients were instructed on how to insert any prolapsed hemorrhoid (piles) themselves. Pain intensity was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at time of consultation and then 10 days after the reduction. At day 10 following treatment we observed a statistically significant reduction in anal swelling (11 vs 1, n° pzt; p = 0.001), anal pain (11 vs 2, n° pzt; p = 0.001) and VAS score (8.6 ± 0.7 vs 0.4 ± 1.2; p = 0.001). Two patients (18%) underwent surgical haemorrhoidectomy sec. Milligan Morgan and 1 patient (9%) underwent excision of thrombosed external hemorrhoids. 73% of patients did not require surgery. Manual reduction of the prolapsed piles outside the anus decreased pain immediately and it also allows postponement of surgery or any other treatment.

  7. Removal of PCB from indoor air and surface materials by introduction of additional sorbing materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Lyng, Nadja; Kolarik, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Alleviation of indoor PCB contamination is extremely expensive because PCB from old primary sources has redistributed to most other surfaces over time. This study investigates the introduction of new removable sorbing materials as a method instantly lowering the concentration of PCB in indoor air...... and slowly decontaminating old surface materials. In three bedrooms of a contaminated apartment respectively new painted gypsum boards, sheets of flexible polyurethane foam and activated carbon fabric were introduced. The PCB concentrations in room air were monitored before the intervention and several times...... during the following 10 months. The PCB concentrations in the old surface materials as well as the new materials were also measured. An immediate reduction of PCB concentration in indoor air, a gradual increase of PCB in new material and as well a gradual reduction in old surface materials were...

  8. Geopolymer resin materials, geopolymer materials, and materials produced thereby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Kyun; Medpelli, Dinesh; Ladd, Danielle; Mesgar, Milad

    2016-03-29

    A product formed from a first material including a geopolymer resin material, a geopolymer resin, or a combination thereof by contacting the first material with a fluid and removing at least some of the fluid to yield a product. The first material may be formed by heating and/or aging an initial geopolymer resin material to yield the first material before contacting the first material with the fluid. In some cases, contacting the first material with the fluid breaks up or disintegrates the first material (e.g., in response to contact with the fluid and in the absence of external mechanical stress), thereby forming particles having an external dimension in a range between 1 nm and 2 cm.

  9. Current trends in breast reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roje, Zdravko; Roje, Zeljka; Milosević, Milan; Varvodić, Josip; Mance, Marko

    2012-06-01

    Results of our study describe the long term effects of reduction mammaplasty. Many women with excessively small or large breasts have an altered personal self-image and often suffer from low self-esteem and other psychological stresses. This procedure is designed to reduce and reshape large breasts, and since the size, shape, and symmetry of a woman's breasts can have a profound effect on her mental and physical well-being it is important to observe the patient's long-term outcome. Currently, breast reduction surgery is safe, effective and beneficial to the patient. In Croatia, reduction mammoplasty is often excluded from the general health care plan. The distinction between "reconstructive" versus "cosmetic" breast surgery is very well defined by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons Board of Directors. Unfortunately, the Croatian Health Society has yet to standardize such a distinction. There is an imperative need for evidence-based selection criteria. We retrospectively analyzed data of 59 female patients suffering from symptomatic macromastia who underwent reduction mammaplasty over a 16 year period (1995 until 2011). Our aim was to compare and contrast the various techniques available for reduction mammaplasty and to determine, based on patient outcome and satisfaction, which technique is most suited for each patient. The results of our study generally reinforce the observation that reduction mammaplasty significantly provides improvements in health status, long-term quality of life, postsurgical breast appearance and significantly decrease physical symptoms of pain. A number of 59 consecutive cases were initially treated with the four different breast reduction techniques: inverted-T scat or Wisa pattern breast reduction, vertical reduction mammaplasty, simplified vertical reduction mammaplasty, inferior pedicle and free nipple graft techniques. The average clinical follow-up period was 6-months, and included 48 patients. The statistical analysis of the

  10. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  11. Morphologisation or Reduction by Context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård Petersen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    of regression analysis which shows that also a following sound or pause, word form frequency and social class are factors that contribute significantly to the reduction pattern of the variable (te). The study cannot find any effects of clitizisation or n-gram based contextual predictability, factors...... that are often mentioned in the literature as causing phonetic reduction. The article discusses whether preterite verb forms can be said to be more grammatical than adjectives, or whether the high frequency schwa elided variant of verbal te is a sign of morphologisation, an allomorph,-t, of the preterite...

  12. On the dimensional reduction procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognola, Guido; Zerbini, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    The issue related to the so-called dimensional reduction procedure is revisited within the Euclidean formalism. First, it is shown that for symmetric spaces, the local exact heat-kernel density is equal to the reduced one, once the harmonic sum has been successfully performed. In the general case, due to the impossibility to deal with exact results, the short t heat-kernel asymptotics is considered. It is found that the exact heat-kernel and the dimensionally reduced one coincide up to two non-trivial leading contributions in the short t expansion. Implications of these results with regard to dimensional-reduction anomaly are discussed.

  13. Catalytic reduction of ruthenium tetroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhutin, I.E.; Polyakov, A.S.; Ananyan, O.S.; Blinnikov, S.A.; Kulakov, A.I.; Takmazyan, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    RuO 4 removal from the gaseous phase by reduction to solid RuO 2 with carbon oxide has been investigated. The reaction has been shown to be autocatalytic. A catalyst (RuO 2 on Al 2 O 3 ) for the reduction has been developed. There have been determined the region of reaction RuO 4 +CO on the catalyst containing RuO 2 , the temperature dependence of the decontamination factor and the reaction order in RuO 4 . The feasibility of RuO 4 thermal decomposition on the catalyst has been shown. A number of other metal oxides that can catalyze the process is listed

  14. Instructional control of sleep reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noles, K O; Epstein, L H; Jones, H T

    1976-10-01

    Nightly sleep of 8 college students was gradually reduced from baseline levels by instructions implemented in a multiple baseline, changing criterion design. The reduction phases were 5%, 15%, and 30% decreases. Performance, academic, and sleepiness measures were collected. Consistent reductions occurred for all subjects from mean daily sleep times of 7.71 to 6.20 hr. per night, a 20% decrease. No negative side-effects were observed and subjects reported they enjoyed the additional free time afforded by reducing their sleep.

  15. Bohm's theory versus dynamical reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.; Grassi, R.

    1995-10-01

    This essay begins with a comparison between Bohm's theory and the dynamical reduction program. While there are similarities (e.g., the preferred basis), there are also important differences (e.g., the type of nonlocality or of Lorentz invariance). In particular, it is made plausible that theories which exhibit parameter dependence effects cannot be ''genuinely Lorentz invariant''. For the two approaches under consideration, this analysis provides a comparison that can produce a richer understanding both of the pilot wave and of the dynamical reduction mechanism. (author). 33 refs, 1 fig

  16. Towards Materials Sustainability through Materials Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials sustainability requires a concerted change in philosophy across the entire materials lifecycle, orienting around the theme of materials stewardship. In this paper, we address the opportunities for improved materials conservation through dematerialization, durability, design for second life, and diversion of waste streams through industrial symbiosis.

  17. Digital chest radiography: collimation and dose reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debess, Jeanne; Johnsen, Karen Kirstine; Vejle-Sørensen, Jens Kristian

    Purpose: Quality improvement of basic radiography focusing on collimation and dose reduction in digital chest radiography Methods and Materials:A retrospective study of digital chest radiography is performed to evaluate the primary x-ray tube collimation of the PA and lateral radiographs. Data from...... one hundred fifty self-reliant female patients between 15 and 55 years of age are included in the study. The clinical research is performed between September and November 2014 where 3rd year Radiography students collect data on four Danish x-ray departments using identical procedures under guidance...... at the conference. Conclusion: Collimation improvement in basic chest radiography can reduce the radiation to female patients at chest x-ray examinations....

  18. Reduction of Graphene Oxide Thin Films by Cobaltocene and Decamethylcobaltocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnes, Molly M; Hlynchuk, Sofiya; Acharya, Saurabh; Lehnert, Nicolai; Maldonado, Stephen

    2018-01-17

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) films have been prepared by immersion of graphene oxide (GO) films at room temperature in nonaqueous solutions containing simple, outer-sphere metallocene reductants. Specifically, solutions of cobaltocene, cobaltocene and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), and decamethylcobaltocene each showed activity for the rapid reduction of GO films cast on a wide variety of substrates. Each reactant increased the conductivity of the films by several orders of magnitude, with RGO films prepared with either decamethylcobaltocene or cobaltocene and TFA possessing the highest conductivities (∼10 4 S m -1 ). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that while all three reagents lowered the content of carbon-oxygen functionalities, solutions of cobaltocene and TFA were the most effective at reducing the material to sp 2 carbon. Separately, Raman spectra and atomic force micrographs indicated that RGO films prepared with decamethylcobaltocene consisted of the largest graphitic domains and lowest macroscopic roughness. Cumulatively, the data suggest that the outer-sphere reductants can affect the conversion to RGO but the reactivity and mechanism depend on the standard potential of the reductant and the availability of protons. This work both demonstrates a new way to prepare high-quality RGO films on a wide range of substrate materials without annealing and motivates future work to elucidate the chemistry of RGO synthesis through the tunability of outer-sphere reductants such as metallocenes.

  19. Chrysanthemum extract assisted green reduction of graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Dandan, E-mail: houdandan114@163.com; Liu, Qinfu, E-mail: lqf@cumtb.edu.cn; Cheng, Hongfei, E-mail: h.cheng@cumtb.edu.cn; Li, Kuo, E-mail: cumtblk@163.com; Wang, Ding, E-mail: wangding0313@163.com; Zhang, Hao, E-mail: 1073261516@qq.com

    2016-11-01

    The chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) usually involves highly toxic reducing agents which are injurious to the environment and human health. In the present study, chrysanthemum extract, as a natural and harmless reductant, mediated facile and green approach for the preparation of reduced GO (RGO) was reported for the first time. The reduction experiments of GO were conducted at room temperature, and the obtained RGO was few layered and exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio (4.96) as demonstrated by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), respectively. The mechanism for removing of oxygen-containing functional groups from GO with chrysanthemum extract was proposed. The features of environmentally friendly and cost-effectively endow this approach with great promise in the preparation of various graphene-based materials, especially for biomaterials. - Highlights: • The chrysanthemum extract was used for the reduction of graphene oxide. • The obtained few layered graphene exhibited high carbon to oxygen ratio. • The mechanism for reduction of graphene oxide with chrysanthemum was proposed. • This approach can be applied in the preparation of graphene-based bio-materials.

  20. Recycle operations as a methodology for radioactive waste volume reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    The costs for packaging, transportation and burial of low-level radioactive metallic waste have become so expensive that an alternate method of decontamination for volume reduction prior to disposal can now be justified. The operation of a large-scale centralized recycle center for decontamination of selected low level radioactive waste has been proven to be an effective method for waste volume reduction and for retrieving valuable materials for unlimited use. The centralized recycle center concept allows application of state-of-the-art decontamination technology resulting in a reduction in utility disposal costs and a reduction in overall net amount of material being buried. Examples of specific decontamination process activities at the centralized facility will be reviewed along with a discussion of the economic impact of decontamination for recycling and volume reduction. Based on almost two years of operation of a centralized decontamination facility, a demonstrated capability exists. The concept has been cost effective and proves that valuable resources can be recycled

  1. Reduction experiment of iron scale by adding waste plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongmin; Chen, Shuwen; Miao, Xincheng; Yuan, Hao

    2009-01-01

    The special features of waste plastics in China are huge in total amount, various in type and dispersive in deposition. Therefore, it is necessary to try some new ways that are fit to Chinese situation for disposing waste plastics as metallurgical raw materials more effectively and flexibly. Owing to its high ferrous content and less impurity, the iron scale became ideal raw material to produce pure iron powder. One of the methods to produce pure iron powder is Hoganas Method, by which, after one or multistage of reduction steps, the iron scale can be reduced pure iron powder. However, combining utilization of waste plastics and iron powder production, a series of reduction experiments were arranged and investigated, which is hoped to take use of both thermal and chemical energy contained in waste plastics as well as to improve the reducing condition of iron scale, and hence to develop a new metallurgical way of disposing waste plastics. The results show that under these experimental conditions, the thermal-decomposition of water plastics can conduce to an increase of porosity in the reduction systems. Moreover, better thermodynamics and kinetics conditions for the reduction of scale can be reached. As a result, the reduction rate is increased.

  2. FY2016 Propulsion Materials Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-05-01

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines and Fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  3. FY2015 Propulsion Materials Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-12-30

    The Propulsion Materials Program actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of VTO by investigating and identifying the materials properties that are most essential for continued development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light-duty powertrains. The technical approaches available to enhance propulsion systems focus on improvements in both vehicle efficiency and fuel substitution, both of which must overcome the performance limitations of the materials currently in use. Propulsion Materials Program activities work with national laboratories, industry experts, and VTO powertrain systems (e.g., Advanced Combustion Engines [ACE], Advanced Power Electronics and Electrical Machines [APEEM], and fuels) teams to develop strategies that overcome materials limitations in future powertrain performance. The technical maturity of the portfolio of funded projects ranges from basic science to subsystem prototype validation. Projects within a Propulsion Materials Program activity address materials concerns that directly impact critical technology barriers within each of the above programs, including barriers that impact fuel efficiency, thermal management, emissions reduction, improved reliability, and reduced manufacturing costs. The program engages only the barriers that result from material property limitations and represent fundamental, high-risk materials issues.

  4. The materials physics companion

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer-Cripps, Anthony C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Materials Physics: Structure of matter. Solid state physics. Dynamic properties of solids. Dielectric Properties of Materials: Dielectric properties. Ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials. Dielectric breakdown. Applications of dielectrics. Magnetic Properties of Materials: Magnetic properties. Magnetic moment. Spontaneous magnetization. Superconductivity.

  5. Dose reduction - the radiologist's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.G.B.

    1984-01-01

    The magnitude of the exposure to ionising radiation dominates radiological practice in only three fields, i.e. foetal radiography, mammography and computed tomography. The balance between risk and benefit are briefly examined. The types of hazard considered are carcinogenesis, genetic injury and organogenesis. Ways of achieving a reduction of the dose to the patient are also briefly discussed. (U.K.)

  6. Randomized Local Model Order Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhr, Andreas; Smetana, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose local approximation spaces for localized model order reduction procedures such as domain decomposition and multiscale methods. Those spaces are constructed from local solutions of the partial differential equation (PDE) with random boundary conditions, yield an approximation

  7. Turbulent drag reduction by additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulmatova, D.

    2013-01-01

    Drag reduction involves many subjects of interest such as polymer science, fluid mechanics and applied mathematics. The use of additives to enhance flow in petroleum pipelines has received the greatest attention due to a significant commercial success. In this study, we study the effect of the

  8. Enrichment reduction for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, W.

    1982-01-01

    The worldwide activities on enrichment reduction for research reactors are reviewed and the national and international programs are described. Especially the following points are discussed: Benchmark calculations, reactor safety, fuel element development, irradiation tests, post irradiation examinations, full core demonstrations, activities of the GKSS and economical questions. (orig.) [de

  9. Sex-work harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekart, Michael L

    2005-12-17

    Sex work is an extremely dangerous profession. The use of harm-reduction principles can help to safeguard sex workers' lives in the same way that drug users have benefited from drug-use harm reduction. Sex workers are exposed to serious harms: drug use, disease, violence, discrimination, debt, criminalisation, and exploitation (child prostitution, trafficking for sex work, and exploitation of migrants). Successful and promising harm-reduction strategies are available: education, empowerment, prevention, care, occupational health and safety, decriminalisation of sex workers, and human-rights-based approaches. Successful interventions include peer education, training in condom-negotiating skills, safety tips for street-based sex workers, male and female condoms, the prevention-care synergy, occupational health and safety guidelines for brothels, self-help organisations, and community-based child protection networks. Straightforward and achievable steps are available to improve the day-to-day lives of sex workers while they continue to work. Conceptualising and debating sex-work harm reduction as a new paradigm can hasten this process.

  10. Dimensionality reduction with image data

    OpenAIRE

    Peña, Daniel; Benito, Mónica

    2004-01-01

    A common objective in image analysis is dimensionality reduction. The most common often used data-exploratory technique with this objective is principal component analysis. We propose a new method based on the projection of the images as matrices after a Procrustes rotation and show that it leads to a better reconstruction of images.

  11. Dimensional Reduction Near the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haba, Z.

    2008-11-01

    In the Euclidean formulation of functional integration we discuss a dimensional reduction of quantum field theory near the horizon in terms of Green functions. We show that a massless scalar quantum field in D dimensions can be approximated near the bifurcate Killing horizon by a massless two-dimensional conformal field.

  12. Dimensional Reduction and Hadronic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signer, Adrian; Stöckinger, Dominik

    2008-11-01

    We consider the application of regularization by dimensional reduction to NLO corrections of hadronic processes. The general collinear singularity structure is discussed, the origin of the regularization-scheme dependence is identified and transition rules to other regularization schemes are derived.

  13. Reduction axioms for epistemic actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, Barteld; van Benthem, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Current dynamic epistemic logics often become cumbersome and opaque when common knowledge is added. In this paper we propose new versions that extend the underlying static epistemic language in such a way that dynamic completeness proofs can be obtained by perspicuous reduction axioms.

  14. Isometries, dimensional reduction, and superunification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansouri, F.; Witten, L.

    1984-01-01

    Dimensional reduction is carried out for space-times, with or without torsion, which admit a group, G, of isometries. The spectrum and the field equations are derived directly from the higher dimensional theory. A method of probing the extra dimensions is suggested

  15. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  16. GumTree: Data reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-01-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation

  17. semen by MTT reduction assay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the concentration of sperm in each semen sample, sperm motility, plasma integrity of sperm in terms of hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) test, live and dead ratio of sperm and MTT reduction assay of each ejaculate were determined. Plasma membrane integrity of fresh sperm was assessed using a hypo-osmotic swelling (HOS) ...

  18. Basis reduction for layered lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L. Torreão Dassen (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractWe develop the theory of layered Euclidean spaces and layered lattices. With this new theory certain problems that usually are solved by using classical lattices with a "weighting" gain a new, more natural form. Using the layered lattice basis reduction algorithms introduced here these

  19. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-01-01

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO 4 2- concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 μM. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 μM h -1 while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 μM h -1 , respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 μg d -1 g -1 ) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 μg d -1 g -1 ) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 μg d -1 g -1 ) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m -2 d -1 , while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m -2 d -1 , respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination paper. 67 refs, 6 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Boron carbide synthesis by carbothermic reduction of boron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.R.M. de; Paschoal, J.O.A.

    1988-01-01

    Boron carbide (B 4 C) is a ceramic material of technological applications due to its extreme hardness and high chemical as well as thermal stability. Some parameters of the process for obtaining B 4 C by carbothermic reduction of B 2 O 3 have been determined. The starting powders and the final products have been analysed by chemical, spectrographic and X-ray diffraction methods. The results show that the B 4 C obtained by the carbothermic reduction process is suitable for applications with a definite determination of the free carbon content. (author) [pt

  1. Near Term Weight Reduction Potential in a 1977 General Motors B Body Vehicle : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    The report presents an analysis of the potential for weight reduction through lightweight material and component substitutions in a 1977 General Motors Corporation B body vehicle. The changes were limited to those that appeared producible in the 1980...

  2. Electronmicroscopic examination of white cell reduction by four white cell-reduction filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steneker, I; van Luyn, M J; van Wachem, P B; Biewenga, J

    1992-06-01

    The mechanisms of white cell (WBC) reduction in 16-hour-old CPDA-1 red cell (RBC) concentrates by filtration on a column filter and on three different flatbed filters were studied by electron microscopy, with special emphasis on cell-to-cell interaction, cell damage, and interaction of blood cells with the material. Generally, lymphocytes were removed by mechanical sieving and monocytes by adherence and mechanical sieving. Granulocyte depletion occurred by mechanical sieving, direct adhesion to the fibers, and indirect adhesion to activated and spread platelets. In the column filter, most granulocytes were captured by adhesion. In the coarse layers of two of the flatbed filters, indirect adhesion was most prominent, whereas direct adhesion was most prominent in the other flatbed filter. For the most part, granulocytes were captured by direct adhesion in the fine layers, but in one flatbed filter, capture apparently occurred by mechanical sieving. The results of this study suggest that the efficiency and the mechanism of WBC reduction depend on the physicochemical characteristics of the non-woven materials in the filters as well as the cellular composition of the RBC concentrates.

  3. Recursions of Symmetry Orbits and Reduction without Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Malykh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider a four-dimensional PDE possessing partner symmetries mainly on the example of complex Monge-Ampère equation (CMA. We use simultaneously two pairs of symmetries related by a recursion relation, which are mutually complex conjugate for CMA. For both pairs of partner symmetries, using Lie equations, we introduce explicitly group parameters as additional variables, replacing symmetry characteristics and their complex conjugates by derivatives of the unknown with respect to group parameters. We study the resulting system of six equations in the eight-dimensional space, that includes CMA, four equations of the recursion between partner symmetries and one integrability condition of this system. We use point symmetries of this extended system for performing its symmetry reduction with respect to group parameters that facilitates solving the extended system. This procedure does not imply a reduction in the number of physical variables and hence we end up with orbits of non-invariant solutions of CMA, generated by one partner symmetry, not used in the reduction. These solutions are determined by six linear equations with constant coefficients in the five-dimensional space which are obtained by a three-dimensional Legendre transformation of the reduced extended system. We present algebraic and exponential examples of such solutions that govern Legendre-transformed Ricci-flat Kähler metrics with no Killing vectors. A similar procedure is briefly outlined for Husain equation.

  4. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes. Unraveling the Relationship Between Structure, Surface Chemistry and Oxygen Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopalan, Srikanth [Boston Univ., MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    In this work we have considered oxygen reduction reaction on LSM and LSCF cathode materials. In particular we have used various spectroscopic techniques to explore the surface composition, transition metal oxidation state, and the bonding environment of oxygen to understand the changes that occur to the surface during the oxygen reduction process. In a parallel study we have employed patterned cathodes of both LSM and LSCF cathodes to extract transport and kinetic parameters associated with the oxygen reduction process.

  5. Reflectivity reduction of retro-reflector installed in LHD due to plasma surface interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, N.; Ohtawa, Y.; Ebihara, A.; Akiyama, T.; Tokitani, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Kawahata, K.

    2008-10-01

    Optical reflectivity of the retro-reflector installed in LHD as the first mirror was reduced seriously by plasma wall interaction. In order to understand the mechanism of the reflectivity reduction, optical and material properties of the mirror surfaces have been examined extensively. It was found that the deposited impurity layers caused the serious reduction of the reflectivity. Formation of iron oxide, bulges structure and He bubbles are the major factors for the reflectivity reduction in the wide wave length range. (author)

  6. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2 Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Günter, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 2: Materials is the second of three volumes within the Springer Series in Optical Sciences. The book gives a comprehensive review of the most important photorefractive materials and discusses the physical properties of organic and inorganic crystals as well as poled polymers. In this volume, photorefractive effects have been investigated at wavelengths covering the UV, visible and near infrared. Researchers in the field and graduate students of solid-state physics and engineering will gain a thorough understanding of the properties of materials in photorefractive applications. The other two volumes are: Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 1: Basic Effects. Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications 3: Applications.

  7. Lessons learned from community-based approaches to sodium reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Heather; Strazza, Karen; Losby, Jan L; Lane, Rashon; Mugavero, Kristy; Anater, Andrea S; Frost, Corey; Margolis, Marjorie; Hersey, James

    2015-01-01

    This article describes lessons from a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention initiative encompassing sodium reduction interventions in six communities. A multiple case study design was used. This evaluation examined data from programs implemented in six communities located in New York (Broome County, Schenectady County, and New York City); California (Los Angeles County and Shasta County); and Kansas (Shawnee County). Participants (n = 80) included program staff, program directors, state-level staff, and partners. Measures for this evaluation included challenges, facilitators, and lessons learned from implementing sodium reduction strategies. The project team conducted a document review of program materials and semistructured interviews 12 to 14 months after implementation. The team coded and analyzed data deductively and inductively. Five lessons for implementing community-based sodium reduction approaches emerged: (1) build relationships with partners to understand their concerns, (2) involve individuals knowledgeable about specific venues early, (3) incorporate sodium reduction efforts and messaging into broader nutrition efforts, (4) design the program to reduce sodium gradually to take into account consumer preferences and taste transitions, and (5) identify ways to address the cost of lower-sodium products. The experiences of the six communities may assist practitioners in planning community-based sodium reduction interventions. Addressing sodium reduction using a community-based approach can foster meaningful change in dietary sodium consumption.

  8. Laminar flow drag reduction on a soft porous media surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenxing; Tambasco, Michael; Mirbod, Parisa

    2017-11-01

    The ability to control flow reduction in microchannels could significantly advance microfluidic-based devices in a wide range of industrial applications including biomedical fields. The aim of this work is to understand the fundamental physics of the laminar skin friction coefficient and the related drag reduction due to the existence of porous media in the pressure-driven flow. We conducted an analytical framework to predict a laminar Newtonian fluid flow and corresponding drag reduction in a rectangular microchannel which coated with various soft random porous media. Specifically, we present predictions of the laminar skin friction coefficient, and drag reduction for pressure-driven flows. We found the laminar drag reduction is strongly depended on the Darcy permeability of porous medium, the thickness of the permeable layer, and the height of the microchannel. To verify the accuracy of our analytical predictions, several pressure-drop experiments were conducted. We chose various combinations of porous material and the morphology of the fibers to achieve a unique height ratio, between the height of two domains, and permeability parameter of porous media for each experiment. We found a good agreement between the experiments and analytical predictions of laminar drag reduction. Supported by NSF Grant CBET#1706766.

  9. Noise Reduction Potential of Cellular Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Hinze

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Rising numbers of flights and aircrafts cause increasing aircraft noise, resulting in the development of various approaches to change this trend. One approach is the application of metallic liners in the hot gas path of aero-engines. At temperatures of up to 600 °C only metallic or ceramic structures can be used. Due to fatigue loading and the notch effect of the pores, mechanical properties of porous metals are superior to the ones of ceramic structures. Consequently, cellular metals like metallic foams, sintered metals, or sintered metal felts are most promising materials. However, acoustic absorption depends highly on pore morphology and porosity. Therefore, both parameters must be characterized precisely to analyze the correlation between morphology and noise reduction performance. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between pore morphology and acoustic absorption performance. The absorber materials are characterized using image processing based on two dimensional microscopy images. The sound absorption properties are measured using an impedance tube. Finally, the correlation of acoustic behavior, pore morphology, and porosity is outlined.

  10. Review of the logging residue problem and its reduction through marketing practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Adams; Richard C. Smith

    1976-01-01

    This study notes the increasing concern over logging residue in forest land management and describes the various administrative and technological means for accomplishing reductions of logging residue. Alternative sales arrangements can include such things as reduction of stumpage charges for low quality logs or required yarding of unutilized material to the landing or...

  11. Pulsed laser deposition-induced reduction of SrTiO3 crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scullin, Matthew L.; Ravichandran, Jayakanth; Yu, Choongho; Huijben, Mark; Seidel, Jan; Majumdar, Arun; Ramesh, R.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-01-01

    We report a generic method for fast and efficient reduction of strontium titanate (SrTiO3, STO) single crystals by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of thin-films. The reduction was largely independent of the thin-film material deposited on the crystals. It is shown that thermodynamic conditions (450

  12. Degradation of materials and passivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, W.

    1997-01-01

    Demanding for a reduction in materials degradation is a serious problem all over the world. Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) is, among others, a very valuable tool to follow many degradation processes. Evidently, Fe is the most important Moessbauer element considering the overall presence of iron in everyday life. MS may contribute to our knowledge about nearly all fields of materials degradation, chemical, mechanical, thermal, irradiative, etc. Following some general lines, corrosion is considered in particular. MS is applicable to investigate the bulk of materials as well as their surface layers with an information depth of ca. 250 nm. In general, it has to be applied as a surface sensitive method in combination with other relevant methods in order to get a detailed insight into ongoing processes. Some examples have been selected to elucidate the application of MS in this field. Another class of examples concerns attempts to prevent corrosion, i.e., the application of coatings and transforming chemicals. A very effective and most natural way to reduce corrosion is the passivation of materials. The effect of passive layers and their destruction by environmental influences are discussed using results of MS and related methods. It is outlined that passivity is not restricted to chemically treated metals but can be considered as a general concept for preventing different kinds of materials from degradation. (orig.)

  13. Nuclear Concrete Materials Database Phase I Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Weiju; Naus, Dan J.

    2012-01-01

    The FY 2011 accomplishments in Phase I development of the Nuclear Concrete Materials Database to support the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program are summarized. The database has been developed using the ORNL materials database infrastructure established for the Gen IV Materials Handbook to achieve cost reduction and development efficiency. In this Phase I development, the database has been successfully designed and constructed to manage documents in the Portable Document Format generated from the Structural Materials Handbook that contains nuclear concrete materials data and related information. The completion of the Phase I database has established a solid foundation for Phase II development, in which a digital database will be designed and constructed to manage nuclear concrete materials data in various digitized formats to facilitate electronic and mathematical processing for analysis, modeling, and design applications.

  14. Dimensional reduction of Dirac operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolov, Petko A.; Ruseva, Gergana R.

    2006-07-01

    We construct an explicit example of dimensional reduction of the free massless Dirac operator with an internal SU(3) symmetry, defined on a 12-dimensional manifold that is the total space of a principal SU(3)-bundle over a four-dimensional (nonflat) pseudo-Riemannian manifold. Upon dimensional reduction the free 12-dimensional Dirac equation is transformed into a rather nontrivial four-dimensional one: a pair of massive Lorentz spinor SU(3)-octets interacting with an SU(3)-gauge field with a source term depending on the curvature tensor of the gauge field. The SU(3) group is complicated enough to illustrate features of the general case. It should not be confused with the color SU(3) of quantum chromodynamics where the fundamental spinors, the quark fields, are SU(3) triplets rather than octets.

  15. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    for model reduction of switched systems is based on the switching generalized gramians. The reduced order switched system is guaranteed to be stable for all switching signal in this method. This framework uses stability conditions which are based on switching quadratic Lyapunov functions which are less...... conservative than the stability conditions based on common quadratic Lyapunov functions. The stability conditions which are used for this method are very useful in model reduction and design problems because they have slack variables in the conditions. Similar conditions for a class of switched nonlinear......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...

  16. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  17. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  18. Error reduction in surgical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhleh, Raouf E

    2006-05-01

    Because of its complex nature, surgical pathology practice is inherently error prone. Currently, there is pressure to reduce errors in medicine, including pathology. To review factors that contribute to errors and to discuss error-reduction strategies. Literature review. Multiple factors contribute to errors in medicine, including variable input, complexity, inconsistency, tight coupling, human intervention, time constraints, and a hierarchical culture. Strategies that may reduce errors include reducing reliance on memory, improving information access, error-proofing processes, decreasing reliance on vigilance, standardizing tasks and language, reducing the number of handoffs, simplifying processes, adjusting work schedules and environment, providing adequate training, and placing the correct people in the correct jobs. Surgical pathology is a complex system with ample opportunity for error. Significant error reduction is unlikely to occur without a sustained comprehensive program of quality control and quality assurance. Incremental adoption of information technology and automation along with improved training in patient safety and quality management can help reduce errors.

  19. Reduction of LNG FOB cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1997-01-01

    To achieve a competitive LNG price for the consumers against other energy sources, reduction of LNG FOB (Free on Board) cost i.e. LNG cost at LNG ship flange, will be the key item. It is necessary to perform a many optimization studies (or value engineering) for each stage of the LNG project. These stages are: Feasibility study; Conceptual design - FEED (Front End Engineering and Design); EPC (Engineering, Procurement and Construction); Operation and maintenance. Since the LNG plant forms one part of the LNG chain, starting from gas production to LNG receiving, and requires several billion US dollar of investment, the consequences of a plant shut down on the LNG chain are clear, it is, therefore, important to get high availability which will also contribute the reduction of LNG FOB cost. (au) 25 refs

  20. Governance, Growth and Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mushtaq H. Khan

    2009-01-01

    Poverty reduction is a function of economic growth, income distribution and distribution changes. Governance can impact both growth and income distribution. The dominant market-enhancing governance paradigm seeks to enhance the efficiency of markets through ‘good governance’ reforms, ostensibly to trigger or sustain growth. ‘Pro-poor’ good governance reforms purport to enhance the scale and efficiency of service delivery to the poor. The good governance approach to enhancing growth is dispute...

  1. Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    volcanically active nations in the world with nearly 70 active or potentially active volcanoes .13 During the 20th century, volcanic eruptions in...Grand Challenges for Disaster Reduction deformation, gravity changes, gas emissions, magma move- ment, and other parameters to distinguish between mag...address the interdependencies of these lifelines at a systems level (e.g., communications, electricity, financial, gas , sewage, transportation, and

  2. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....

  3. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  4. An alternative dimensional reduction prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, J.D.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Nunez, C.; Schaposnik, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    We propose an alternative dimensional reduction prescription which in respect with Green functions corresponds to drop the extra spatial coordinate. From this, we construct the dimensionally reduced Lagrangians both for scalars and fermions, discussing bosonization and supersymmetry in the particular 2-dimensional case. We argue that our proposal is in some situations more physical in the sense that it maintains the form of the interactions between particles thus preserving the dynamics corresponding to the higher dimensional space. (author). 12 refs

  5. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Yanning; Traganitis, Panagiotis A.; Giannakis, Georgios B.

    2018-01-01

    In this era of data deluge, many signal processing and machine learning tasks are faced with high-dimensional datasets, including images, videos, as well as time series generated from social, commercial and brain network interactions. Their efficient processing calls for dimensionality reduction techniques capable of properly compressing the data while preserving task-related characteristics, going beyond pairwise data correlations. The present paper puts forth a nonlinear dimensionality redu...

  6. Dimensional reduction in anomaly mediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyda, Ed; Murayama, Hitoshi; Pierce, Aaron

    2002-04-01

    We offer a guide to dimensional reduction in theories with anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking. Evanescent operators proportional to ɛ arise in the bare Lagrangian when it is reduced from d=4 to d=4-2ɛ dimensions. In the course of a detailed diagrammatic calculation, we show that inclusion of these operators is crucial. The evanescent operators conspire to drive the supersymmetry-breaking parameters along anomaly-mediation trajectories across heavy particle thresholds, guaranteeing the ultraviolet insensitivity.

  7. Dimensional reduction for conformal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-09-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO( d + 1 , 1) up into multiplets of SO( d, 1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d - 1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3 d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2 F 1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  8. Reduction of mesqa improvement costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Saad ElFetyany

    2017-10-01

    Results show that using the revised approach brings down the cost of mesqa improvement from nearly 10,000LE/fed at present to about 6000LE/fed. These reductions based on the analyses of different mesqa modelling through the adoption of certain parameters such as feasibility of the revised design, effective application of continuous flow for water distribution, and downsizing of the capacity of improved mesqas.

  9. Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yuhui

    2017-04-05

    Increasing regulatory, environmental, and customer pressure in recent years led to substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, including the remarkable breakthroughs demonstrated through the Super Truck program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). On the other hand, these improvements have translated into a reduction of exhaust gas temperatures, thus further complicating the task of controlling NOx emissions, especially in low power duty cycles. The need for improved NOx conversion over these low temperature duty cycles is also observed as requirements tighten with in-use emissions testing. Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200oC range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining a 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150oC. The project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015. Through this collaboration, we are exploring catalyst formulations and catalyst architectures with enhanced catalytic activity at 150°C; opportunities to approach the desirable ratio of NO and NO2 in the SCR feed gas; options for robust low-temperature reductant delivery; and the requirements for overall system integration. The program is expected to deliver an on-engine demonstration of the technical solution and an assessment of its commercial potential. In the SAE meeting, we will share the initial performance data on engine to

  10. Gear materials, properties, and manufacture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, J. R

    2005-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Gear Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  11. Modelling Hospital Materials Management Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Iannone

    2013-06-01

    integrated and detailed analysis and description model for hospital materials management data and tasks, which is able to tackle information from patient requirements to usage, from replenishment requests to supplying and handling activities. The model takes account of medical risk reduction, traceability and streamlined processes perspectives. Second, the paper translates this information into a business process model and mathematical formalization.The study provides a useful guide to the various relevant technology‐related, management and business issues, laying the foundations of an efficient reengineering of the supply chain to reduce healthcare costs and improve the quality of care.

  12. Lung volume reduction for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Pallav L; Herth, Felix J; van Geffen, Wouter H; Deslee, Gaetan; Slebos, Dirk-Jan

    2017-02-01

    Advanced emphysema is a lung disease in which alveolar capillary units are destroyed and supporting tissue is lost. The combined effect of reduced gas exchange and changes in airway dynamics impairs expiratory airflow and leads to progressive air trapping. Pharmacological therapies have limited effects. Surgical resection of the most destroyed sections of the lung can improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity but its benefit is tempered by significant morbidity. This issue stimulated a search for novel approaches to lung volume reduction. Alternative minimally invasive approaches using bronchoscopic techniques including valves, coils, vapour thermal ablation, and sclerosant agents have been at the forefront of these developments. Insertion of endobronchial valves in selected patients could have benefits that are comparable with lung volume reduction surgery. Endobronchial coils might have a role in the treatment of patients with emphysema with severe hyperinflation and less parenchymal destruction. Use of vapour thermal energy or a sclerosant might allow focal treatment but the unpredictability of the inflammatory response limits their current use. In this Review, we aim to summarise clinical trial evidence on lung volume reduction and provide guidance on patient selection for available therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Rotational Invariant Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Shen, Linlin; Zhang, David

    2017-11-01

    A common intrinsic limitation of the traditional subspace learning methods is the sensitivity to the outliers and the image variations of the object since they use the norm as the metric. In this paper, a series of methods based on the -norm are proposed for linear dimensionality reduction. Since the -norm based objective function is robust to the image variations, the proposed algorithms can perform robust image feature extraction for classification. We use different ideas to design different algorithms and obtain a unified rotational invariant (RI) dimensionality reduction framework, which extends the well-known graph embedding algorithm framework to a more generalized form. We provide the comprehensive analyses to show the essential properties of the proposed algorithm framework. This paper indicates that the optimization problems have global optimal solutions when all the orthogonal projections of the data space are computed and used. Experimental results on popular image datasets indicate that the proposed RI dimensionality reduction algorithms can obtain competitive performance compared with the previous norm based subspace learning algorithms.

  14. Confining membranes and dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, Dmitri

    2001-11-01

    The dual theory describing the 4D Coulomb gas of point-like magnetically charged objects, which confines closed electric strings, is considered. The respective generalization of the theory of confining strings to confining membranes is further constructed. The same is done for the analogous SU(3)-inspired model. We then consider a combined model which confines both electric charges and closed strings. Such a model is a mixture of the above-mentioned Coulomb gas with the condensate of the dual Higgs field, where the latter one is described by the dual abelian Higgs model. It is demonstrated that in a certain limit of this dual abelian Higgs model, the system under study undergoes naively the dimensional reduction and becomes described by the (completely integrable) 2D sine-Gordon theory. In particular, at finite temperature, this fact leads to the phase transition of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless type with the respective critical temperature expressed in terms of the parameters of the dual abelian Higgs model. However, it is finally discussed that the dimensional reduction is rigorously valid only in the strong coupling limit of the original 4D Coulomb gas. In such a limit, this reduction transforms the combined model into the 2D free bosonic theory.

  15. Dimension Reduction Regression in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanford Weisberg

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Regression is the study of the dependence of a response variable y on a collection predictors p collected in x. In dimension reduction regression, we seek to find a few linear combinations β1x,...,βdx, such that all the information about the regression is contained in these linear combinations. If d is very small, perhaps one or two, then the regression problem can be summarized using simple graphics; for example, for d=1, the plot of y versus β1x contains all the regression information. When d=2, a 3D plot contains all the information. Several methods for estimating d and relevant functions of β1,..., βdhave been suggested in the literature. In this paper, we describe an R package for three important dimension reduction methods: sliced inverse regression or sir, sliced average variance estimates, or save, and principal Hessian directions, or phd. The package is very general and flexible, and can be easily extended to include other methods of dimension reduction. It includes tests and estimates of the dimension , estimates of the relevant information including β1,..., βd, and some useful graphical summaries as well.

  16. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  17. Photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1993-10-20

    The photochemical reduction of uranyl nitrate solutions to tetravalent uranium was investigated as a means of producing uranium dioxide feed for the saltless direct oxide reduction (SDOR) process. At high uranium concentrations, reoxidation of U{sup +4} occurs rapidly. The kinetics of the nitric oxidation of tetravalent uranium depend on the concentrations of hydrogen ion, nitrate ion, nitrous acid, and tetravalent uranium in the same manner as was reported elsewhere for the nitrate oxidation of PU{sup +3}. Reaction rate data were successfully correlated with a mechanism in which nitrogen dioxide is the reactive intermediate. Addition of a nitrous acid scavenger suppresses the reoxidation reaction. An immersion reactor employing a mercury vapor lamp gave reduction times fast enough for routine production usage. Precipitation techniques for conversion of aqueous U(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} to hydrous UO{sub 2} were evaluated. Prolonged dewatering times tended to make the process time consuming. Use of 3- to 4-M aqueous NaOH gave the best dewatering times observed. Reoxidation of the UO{sub 2} by water of hydration was encountered, which required the drying process to be carried out under a reducing atmosphere.

  18. FEATURES OF RESTORATION OF DISPERSE POROUS MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research recycling of dispersed materials in rotary furnaces. Has been received new data on the of heat and mass transfer processes and carry out intensive and continuous process of solid- liquid-phase reduction of oxides in a single unit.

  19. Thermochemically active iron titanium oxide materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coker, Eric Nicholas; Miller, James E.

    2018-01-16

    A thermal oxidation-reduction cycle is disclosed that uses iron titanium oxide as the reactive material. The cycle may be used for the thermal splitting of water and/or carbon dioxide to form hydrogen and/or carbon monoxide. The formed compounds may be used as syngas precursors to form fuels.

  20. Oxygen reduction and evolution at single-metal active sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, F.; Martínez, J.I.; García Lastra, Juan Maria

    2013-01-01

    overpotentials and is made of precious materials. A possible solution is the use of non-noble electrocatalysts with single-metal active sites. Here, on the basis of DFT calculations of adsorbed intermediates and a thermodynamic analysis, we compare the oxygen reduction (ORR) and evolution (OER) activities...... of functionalized graphitic materials and gas-phase porphyrins with late transition metals. We find that both kinds of materials follow approximately the same activity trends, and active sites with transition metals from groups 7 to 9 may be good ORR and OER electrocatalysts. However, spin analyses show more...... flexibility in the possible oxidation states of the metal atoms in solid electrocatalysts, while in porphyrins they must be +2. These observations reveal that the catalytic activity of these materials is mainly due to nearest-neighbor interactions. Based on this, we propose that this class of electrocatalysts...

  1. FY2010 Annual Progress Report for Propulsion Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Patrick B. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Schutte, Carol L. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Gibbs, Jerry L. [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Materials Technology actively supports the energy security and reduction of greenhouse emissions goals of the Vehicle Technologies Program by developing advanced materials that enable development of higher efficiency powertrains for ground transportation. Propulsion Materials works closely with the other disciplines within the VT Program to identify the materials properties essential for the development of cost-effective, highly efficient, and environmentally friendly next-generation heavy and light duty powertrains.

  2. Advanced Multifunctional Materials for High Speed Combatant Hulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    enhanced ballistic protection . Specifically, we explored the use of additive manufacturing methodologies to develop new multifunctional materials...matrix. We employed two different methods for synthesizing the magnetic nanoparticles. Namely, polyol reduction and a solid-state ceramic method

  3. Finding optimal HBr reduction of inkjet printed graphene oxide for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlasny, I., E-mail: igor.wlasny@fuw.edu.pl [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Institute of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02 093, Warsaw (Poland); Rogala, M.; Dabrowski, P.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Busiakiewicz, A.; Kozlowski, W. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland); Lipinska, L.; Jagiello, J.; Aksienionek, M. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919, Warsaw (Poland); Sieradzki, Z. [Electrotechnological Company QWERTY Ltd., Siewna 21, 94-250, Lodz (Poland); Krucinska, I.; Puchalski, M.; Skrzetuska, E.; Draczynski, Z. [Department of Material and Commodity Sciences and Textile Metrology, Lodz University of Technology, Zeromskiego 116, 90-924, Lodz (Poland); Klusek, Z. [Department of Solid State Physics, Faculty of Physics and Applied Informatics, University of Lodz, Pomorska 149/153, 90-236, Lodz (Poland)

    2016-09-15

    In this article we present the results of our investigations of reduction of graphene oxide overprints, deposited by ink-jet method, by hydrobromic acid. Our study presents impact of different parameters of reduction, such as a temperature and time of the process on the chemical composition and electrical conductivity of the resulting material – reduced graphene oxide. Our results show the outstanding potential of this method for use in the production of flexible and elastic electronics and indicate the optimal parameters of reduction, which allow producing the optimal product. - Highlights: • The process of reduction of graphene oxide inkjet printouts by HBr is investigated. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the chemical structure of printout is studied. • Impact of parameters of reduction on the sheet resistance of printout is studied. • Optimal parameters of reduction are proposed.

  4. SOFC anode reduction studied by in situ TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal; Hansen, Thomas Willum

    for studying these nanoscale structures, but only few SOFC studies have applied in situ TEM to observe the ceramic nanostructures in a reactive gas environment at elevated temperatures. The present contribution focuses on the reduction of an SOFC anode which is a necessary process to form the catalytically......The Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is a promising part of future energy approaches due to a relatively high energy conversion efficiency and low environmental pollution. SOFCs are typically composed of ceramic materials which are highly complex at the nanoscale. TEM is routinely applied ex situ...... active Ni surface before operating the fuel cells. The reduction process was followed in the TEM while exposing a NiO/YSZ (YSZ = Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2) model anode to H2 at T = 250-1000⁰C. Pure NiO was used in reference experiments. Previous studies have shown that the reduction of pure Ni...

  5. Reduction chlorination of slag containing niobium, tantalum and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, F.J.; Brocchi, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Reduction chlorination experiments were carried out with slag containing niobium, tantalum in order to evaluate the effects of some variables on the behaviour of the material. Kinetic curves were obtained with the main variables being temperature and percentage of reducing agent. The results showed a greater effect of temperature as well as indicated the formation of the non-volatile chlorides (CaCl 2 ) as a factor reducing the reaction rate. Quantitative analyses of the material collected in the condenser indicated the viability of the method to recover the valuable metals. (Author) [pt

  6. Apparatus for Screening Multiple Oxygen-Reduction Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay; Narayanan, Sekharipuram

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus that includes an array of multiple electrodes has been invented as a means of simultaneously testing multiple materials for their utility as oxygen-reduction catalysts in fuel cells. The apparatus ensures comparability of test results by exposing all the catalyst-material specimens to the same electrolytic test solution at the same potential. Heretofore, it has been possible to test only one specimen at a time, using a precise rotating disk electrode that provides a controlled flux of solution to the surface of the specimen.

  7. Transporting particulate material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Derek Leslie [North Hollywood, CA; Rader, Jeffrey A [North Hollywood, CA; Saunders, Timothy W [North Hollywood, CA

    2011-08-30

    A material transporting system comprises a material transporting apparatus (100) including a material transporting apparatus hopper structure (200, 202), which comprises at least one rotary transporting apparatus; a stationary hub structure (900) constraining and assisting the at least one rotary transporting apparatus; an outlet duct configuration (700) configured to permit material to exit therefrom and comprising at least one diverging portion (702, 702'); an outlet abutment configuration (800) configured to direct material to the outlet duct configuration; an outlet valve assembly from the material transporting system venting the material transporting system; and a moving wall configuration in the material transporting apparatus capable of assisting the material transporting apparatus in transporting material in the material transporting system. Material can be moved from the material transporting apparatus hopper structure to the outlet duct configuration through the at least one rotary transporting apparatus, the outlet abutment configuration, and the outlet valve assembly.

  8. Thermochromic and thermotropic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Seeboth, Arno

    2013-01-01

    Thermochromic materials based on reflectionThermochromic materials based on light absorptionThermochrmic and thermotropic materials based on light scatteringApplication of thermochromic and thermotropic materialsActive triggering and energetic characterization of thermotropic and of thermochromic materialsConcluding remarks. All chapters by Dr. Arno Seeboth and Dr. Detlef Lötzsch.

  9. Nanocrystalline ceramic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Richard W.; Nieman, G. William; Weertman, Julia R.

    1994-01-01

    A method for preparing a treated nanocrystalline metallic material. The method of preparation includes providing a starting nanocrystalline metallic material with a grain size less than about 35 nm, compacting the starting nanocrystalline metallic material in an inert atmosphere and annealing the compacted metallic material at a temperature less than about one-half the melting point of the metallic material.

  10. Earthquake consequences and measures for reduction of seismic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurukovski, D

    1997-09-01

    Earthquakes are one of the most destructive of all natural disasters. This article discusses the consequences of earthquakes on material property. In addition, measures for the control and reduction of the consequences of earthquakes are described. Emphasis is placed on appropriate preparation by the general population and the need for a rapid and efficient response of governmental agencies. Finally, the experience of the staff of the Institute of Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Seismology in minimizing the consequences of earthquakes is described.

  11. Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    This monography is about the Dose reduction using Bismuth protectors in chest CT. The radiation protection of specific areas is necessary when the tissues or radiosensitive organs are near the path of light beam. The correct use of protection represents a challenge for the radiologist because of the time and materials required. The method used was a prospective investigatio in CHPR (TC service) and the doses was measured with TLD dosimeters. It is important to use these protectors in children hospitals.

  12. Investigation of Biodentine as dentine replacement material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette

    2013-07-01

    Biodentine was compared to glass ionomer and resin modified cements in an "open sandwich" restoration. Fuji IX, Vitrebond and Biodentine were characterised using various techniques. The effect of etching with 35% phosphoric acid was investigated by assessment of surface topography, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, surface micro-hardness and micro-leakage using tagged carboxylated-modified fluorescent microspheres and tracing the presence of these particles with a confocal microscope. Acid etching resulted in erosion of the material surface with exposure of the glass particles in the glass ionomer-based materials. Biodentine exhibited a reduction in the chlorine peak and the calcium-silicon ratio. There was no difference in the micro-hardness in etched and un-etched materials. The FT-IR plots did not show any chemical changes caused by etching for all the materials investigated. Both Vitrebond and Fuji IX exhibited no leakage at the dentine to material interface while Biodentine exhibited leakage both when it was etched and also when the surface was left unprepared. The sandwich technique was effective and prevented micro-leakage with glass ionomer-based materials but micro-leakage occurred with Biodentine. Biodentine demonstrated both structural and chemical changes when etched with 37% phosphoric acid. Biodentine exhibited a lower calcium to silicon ratio and a reduction in the chloride peak height when etched. When used as a dentine replacement material in the sandwich technique overlayed with composite, significant leakage occurred at the dentine to material interface. On the other hand materials based on glass ionomer cement were etched successfully and no chemical and physical changes or micro-leakage were detected when the materials were used as bases under composite restorations. The micro-hardness of all the materials was unaffected by etching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Center for BioBased Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Jerry [Univ. of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Funding will support the continuation of the Center for Advanced Bio-based Binders and Pollution Reduction Technology Center (CABB) in the development of bio-based polymers and emission reduction technologies for the metal casting industry. Since the formation of the center several new polymers based on agricultural materials have been developed. These new materials have show decreases in hazardous air pollutants, phenol and formaldehyde as much as 50 to 80% respectively. The polymers termed bio-polymers show a great potential to utilize current renewable agricultural resources to replace petroleum based products and reduce our dependence on importing of foreign oil. The agricultural technology has shown drastic reductions in the emission of hazardous air pollutants and volatile organic compounds and requires further development to maintain competitive costs and productivity. The project will also research new and improved inorganic binders that promise to eliminate hazardous emissions from foundry casting operations and allow for the beneficial reuse of the materials and avoiding the burdening of overcrowded landfills.

  14. Dimensional reduction at a quantum critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, S. E.; Harrison, N.; Batista, C. D.; Balicas, L.; Jaime, M.; Sharma, P. A.; Kawashima, N.; Fisher, I. R.

    2006-06-01

    Competition between electronic ground states near a quantum critical point (QCP)-the location of a zero-temperature phase transition driven solely by quantum-mechanical fluctuations-is expected to lead to unconventional behaviour in low-dimensional systems. New electronic phases of matter have been predicted to occur in the vicinity of a QCP by two-dimensional theories, and explanations based on these ideas have been proposed for significant unsolved problems in condensed-matter physics, such as non-Fermi-liquid behaviour and high-temperature superconductivity. But the real materials to which these ideas have been applied are usually rendered three-dimensional by a finite electronic coupling between their component layers; a two-dimensional QCP has not been experimentally observed in any bulk three-dimensional system, and mechanisms for dimensional reduction have remained the subject of theoretical conjecture. Here we show evidence that the Bose-Einstein condensate of spin triplets in the three-dimensional Mott insulator BaCuSi2O6 (refs 12-16) provides an experimentally verifiable example of dimensional reduction at a QCP. The interplay of correlations on a geometrically frustrated lattice causes the individual two-dimensional layers of spin-½ Cu2+ pairs (spin dimers) to become decoupled at the QCP, giving rise to a two-dimensional QCP characterized by linear power law scaling distinctly different from that of its three-dimensional counterpart. Thus the very notion of dimensionality can be said to acquire an `emergent' nature: although the individual particles move on a three-dimensional lattice, their collective behaviour occurs in lower-dimensional space.

  15. Strain expansion-reduction approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqersad, Javad; Bharadwaj, Kedar

    2018-02-01

    Validating numerical models are one of the main aspects of engineering design. However, correlating million degrees of freedom of numerical models to the few degrees of freedom of test models is challenging. Reduction/expansion approaches have been traditionally used to match these degrees of freedom. However, the conventional reduction/expansion approaches are only limited to displacement, velocity or acceleration data. While in many cases only strain data are accessible (e.g. when a structure is monitored using strain-gages), the conventional approaches are not capable of expanding strain data. To bridge this gap, the current paper outlines a reduction/expansion technique to reduce/expand strain data. In the proposed approach, strain mode shapes of a structure are extracted using the finite element method or the digital image correlation technique. The strain mode shapes are used to generate a transformation matrix that can expand the limited set of measurement data. The proposed approach can be used to correlate experimental and analytical strain data. Furthermore, the proposed technique can be used to expand real-time operating data for structural health monitoring (SHM). In order to verify the accuracy of the approach, the proposed technique was used to expand the limited set of real-time operating data in a numerical model of a cantilever beam subjected to various types of excitations. The proposed technique was also applied to expand real-time operating data measured using a few strain gages mounted to an aluminum beam. It was shown that the proposed approach can effectively expand the strain data at limited locations to accurately predict the strain at locations where no sensors were placed.

  16. Nanoscale thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failamani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials directly convert thermal energy to electrical energy when subjected to a temperature gradient, whereas if electricity is applied to thermoelectric materials, a temperature gradient is formed. The performance of thermoelectric materials is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT = S2T/ρλ), which consists of three parameters, Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal conductivity (λ). To achieve good performance of thermoelectric power generation and cooling, ZT's of thermoelectric materials must be as high as possible, preferably above unity. This thesis comprises three main parts, which are distributed into six chapters: (i) nanostructuring to improve TE performance of trivalent rare earth-filled skutterudites (chapter 1 and 2), (ii) interactions of skutterudite thermolectrics with group V metals as potential electrode or diffusion barrier for TE devices (chapter 3 and 4), and (iii) search for new materials for TE application (chapter 5 and 6). Addition of secondary phases, especially nano sized phases can cause additional reduction of the thermal conductivity of a filled skutterudite which improves the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials. In chapter 1 we investigated the effect of various types of secondary phases (silicides, borides, etc.) on the TE properties of trivalent rare earth filled Sb-based skutterudites as commercially potential TE materials. In this context the possibilty to introduce borides as nano-particles (via ball-milling in terms of a skutterudite/boride composite) is also elucidated in chapter 2. As a preliminary study, crystal structure of novel high temperature FeB-type phases found in the ternary Ta-{Ti,Zr,Hf,}-B systems were investigated. In case of Ti and Hf this phase is the high temperature stabilization of binary group IV metal monoborides, whereas single crystal study of (Ta,Zr)B proves that it is a true ternary phase as no stable monoboride exist in

  17. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  18. Dimensional reduction and moment maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatomo, Yasuyuki

    2002-03-01

    We give a unified viewpoint of moment maps in the case of symplectic, hyper-Kähler, quaternion-Kähler and holomorphic contact manifolds. The Higgs field can be regarded as a moment map under some additional conditions in each case. Using dimensional reductions and moment maps, we reduce the standard 1 instanton on HP 1≅S 4 to an SO(3) instanton on CP 1× CP 1 and the standard 1 instanton on HP n to the standard 1 instanton on Gr 2( Cn+1) .

  19. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  20. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Warren H. [Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS), Warrendale, PA (United States); Brindle, Ross [Nexight Group, LLC, Silver Spring, MD (United States); James, Mallory [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Justiniano, Mauricio [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Sabouni, Ridah [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Seader, Melanie [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Ruch, Jennifer [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Andres, Howard [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Zafar, Muhammad [Energetics Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.