WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-firm electricity tariff

  1. Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Management with Dynamic Distribution System Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    congestions in local distribution systems from the day-ahead planning perspective. Locational marginal pricing method was used to determine the dynamic distribution system tariff based on predicted day-ahead spot prices and predicted charging behaviors. Distribution grids of the Bornholm power system were......An electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule algorithm was proposed in this paper in order to charge EVs to meet EV users’ driving needs with the minimum EV charging cost and respect the local distribution system constraints. A day-ahead dynamic distribution system tariff scheme was proposed to avoid...

  2. Evaluation of evolving residential electricity tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Judy; DeForest, Nicholas; Kiliccote, Sila; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-05-15

    Residential customers in California's Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) territory have seen several electricity rate structure changes in the past decade. This poster: examines the history of the residential pricing structure and key milestones; summarizes and analyzes the usage between 2006 and 2009 for different baseline/climate areas; discusses the residential electricity Smart Meter roll out; and compares sample bills for customers in two climates under the current pricing structure and also the future time of use (TOU) structure.

  3. Effects of cost reflective electricity tariffs in Namibia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-04-15

    The power balance in Southern Africa is changing. Namibia faces the choice between increased reliance on imports of electricity or expanding domestic generation. One option is to build a gas fired power plant at Kudu. This plant will have an average generation cost well above the projected import cost. The changing power balance in the region may warrant that Namibia incurs substantial costs to ensure energy security. If Kudu is not built, we project that real end user tariffs will peak in 2010/11 at a level 22 percent higher than in 2006, but then gradually revert towards the 2006 level. The effects of this tariff scenario on the economy should not be dramatic, and we would not recommend to subsidise electricity in this case. This forecast is based on an assumed 67 percent increase the real price of imports. In this and all other scenarios we assume that the unit costs of distribution in Namibia and local surcharges will decline. Namibia has experienced temporary halts in imports of electricity. As the balance in the Southern African power market is changing, the risks of capacity shortages appear to have increased. Frequent power outages could be very costly to the economy, and one may thus argue that Namibia should accept the higher costs of electricity to ensure stable supply. Building Kudu could be one, and possibly the only, viable option to reduce the risks of capacity shortages. The cost of generation at Kudu, if it is built, is uncertain. We have assumed a cost at 44 c/kWh. This can be viewed as an upper bound of the cost range. If Kudu is built at this cost, the end user tariff would have to increase by 85 per cent in real terms over the 2006-2011 period to finance Kudu in full, having factored in projected exports earnings. The real tariff will decline slowly after 2011. This appears a risky scenario, not least for the effects on investments in exports sectors and businesses facing international competition in the Namibian market. If Kudu is built at

  4. Tariff regulation models of the electric sector; Modelos de regulacao tarifaria do setor eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires, Jose Claudio Linhares; Piccinini, Mauricio Serrao

    2003-07-01

    This article discusses the tariff regulation models adopted in the electricity utility sector, with a focus on the innovations introduced as a result of the liberalization of the sector that began in the 1980s. The principal tariff criteria are discussed: tariffs determined by the both the rate of return regulation and by marginal cost, and price-caps. Instruments complementary to tariffs are also examined. The main aim of the article is to contribute to a better understanding of the tariff rules adopted in the electricity sector. (author)

  5. Real-Time Tariffs for Electric Vehicles in Wind Power based Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago; Silva, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) will change significantly the planning and management of power systems in a near future. This paper proposes a real-time tariff strategy for the charge process of the EVs. The main objective is to evaluate the influence of real-time tariffs in the EVs owners...

  6. Electricity tariff systems for informatics system design regarding consumption optimization in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Vasilica OPREA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High volume of data is gathered via sensors and recorded by smart meters. These data are processed at the electricity consumer and grid operators' side by big data analytics. Electricity consumption optimization offers multiple advantages for both consumers and grid operators. At the electricity customer level, by optimizing electricity consumption savings are significant, but the main benefits will come from indirect aspects such as avoiding onerous grid investments, higher volume of renewable energy sources' integration, less polluted environment etc. In order to optimize electricity consumption, advanced tariff systems are essential due to the financial incentive they provide for electricity consumers' behaviour change. In this paper several advanced tariff systems are described in details. These systems are applied in England, Spain, Italy, France, Norway and Germany. These systems are compared from characteristics, advantages/disadvantages point of view. Then, different tariff systems applied in Romania are presented. Romanian tariff systems have been designed for various electricity consumers' types. Different tariff systems applied by grid operators or electricity suppliers will be included in the database model that is part of an informatics system for electricity consumption optimization.

  7. The electric tariff in the residential sector; Tarificacion electrica en el sector residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The main objective of this paper is to make an historical revision and analyze the current condition of the electric tariffs in the Mexican residential sector and ask ourselves if the equalization of tariffs generates the possibility that the entire population has access to the electricity service. The document is divided into three parts. The first one presents the history and the tendencies of the tariffs in the domestic sector in Mexico since 1973 until 1996 and the current tariff structure. The second one describes the characteristics of the residential users and mention is made of how the increment of the electric tariffs would affect the various population sectors. The last part of this paper presents some tariff criteria, that take into account energy conservation measures [Espanol] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es hacer una revision historica y analizar la situacion actual de las tarifas electricas en el sector residencial mexicano y preguntarnos si la igualdad de tarifas genera la posibilidad de que toda la poblacion tenga acceso al servicio electrico. El documento se divide en tres partes. La primera presenta la historia y tendencias de las tarifas del sector domestico en Mexico desde 1973 hasta 1996 y la estructura tarifaria actual. La segunda describe las caracteristicas de los usuarios residenciales y se menciona como afectaria el incremento de las tarifas electricas a los distintos sectores de la poblacion. La ultima parte de este trabajo presenta algunos criterios de tarificacion, que toman en cuenta medidas de ahorro de energia

  8. Cost Reduction Ability by Electricity Tariff Selection for Construction Facilities Located in Non-price Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makasheva Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available State of the art in the tariff type selection in the retail and the wholesale electricity market for construction or reconstruction facilities located at Far East are considered. As a management solution the electricity tariff’s selection for enterprises at stage of construction or reconstruction is accented.

  9. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  10. Effect of electricity tariffs and cooling technologies on dairy farm electricity consumption, related costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Shalloo, L.; Murphy, M.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide insight into the variations in dairy farm electricity costs across five electricity tariffs. The effect of four milk cooling scenarios is also simulated to illustrate the effect of technologies on the electricity consumption, related costs and CO2 emissions of a

  11. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  12. The analysis of Taiwan's residential electricity demand under the electricity tariff policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Jui

    In October 2013, the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower), the monopolized state utility service in Taiwan, implemented an electricity tariff adjustment policy to reduce residential electricity demand. Using bi-monthly billing data from 6,932 electricity consumers, this study examine how consumers respond to an increase in electricity prices. This study employs an empirical approach that takes advantage of quasi-random variation over a period of time when household bills were affected by a change in electricity price. The study found that this price increase caused a 1.78% decline in residential electricity consumption, implying a price elasticity of -0.19 for summer-season months and -0.15 for non-summer-season months. The demand for electricity is therefore relatively inelastic, likely because it is hard for people to change their electricity consumption behavior in the short-term. The results of this study highlight that demand-side management cannot be the only lever used to address Taiwan's forecasted decrease in electricity supply.

  13. 78 FR 17394 - Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Filing via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings; Revisions to Electric Quarterly Report Filing Process; Notice of Technical Conference Take notice that on April 16, 2013,...

  14. Day-ahead tariffs for the alleviation of distribution grid congestion from electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    An economically efficient day-ahead tariff (DT) is proposed with the purpose of preventing the distribution grid congestion resulting from electric vehicle (EV) charging scheduled on a dayahead basis. The DT concept developed herein is derived from the locational marginal price (LMP), in particular...

  15. Three fuzzy reasoning models as a decision suport aid, to find an electrical energy tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is a laboratory-work developed as an example of approximate (fuzzy reasoning for students, possible to be used as a decision – support to estimate an electrical energy (EE price for consumers. The three fuzzy tariff estimation models that are developed, integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A.-single-supplier rate position, but and some (social constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. Although is possible, the paper not refer to a partial-price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy, etc. This “laboratory-work-paper” shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A. and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model, until can obtain an acceptable and true price. In this aim, the three fuzzy models use different rules for pricing: conservative, aggressive, and different order of words concerning the rules respectively, finally doing a comparation among prices and models. The paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, with certitude, can create a discussion base, about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a modality to find and to refine an EE price.

  16. The transient regulated tariff of the electricity market adjustment called 'return tariff'; Le tarif reglemente transitoire d'ajustement du marche de l'electricite dit 'tarif de retour'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The transient electricity regulated tariff was implemented by the law of the 7 december 2006 relative to the energy sector. It offers an adapted response to the enterprises confronted with the electricity prices increase. The document details this regulated tariff, provides the corresponding order of the 3 january 2007 and an interpretative note on the implementation of the transient regulated tariff. (A.L.B.)

  17. Settlement Between Electric Transmission Companies under the Point of Connection Tariff or "Postal Stamp" System (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Hatta, Tatsuo

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how an electric transmission company in a pass-through area should settle the cost of a pass-through with the neighboring transmission companies under the point-of-connection tariff system. First, the paper shows that if the cost of the pass-through is settled based on the principle that determines the (metered) power transmission fares for ordinary customers (i.e. injectors and withdrawers) of the transmission companies, the fare receipts of the pass-through transmission...

  18. The Impact of Dynamic Electricity Tariff on Long-run Incremental Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Li, Yang; Pineda, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    infrastructure needs to be made in order to cope with this tremendous change in an efficient and effective manner. Long-run incremental cost (LRIC) pricing method is recognized as an economically efficient approach for pricing network charges, which provides forward-looking information for future investment cost......Electricity plays an important role in the future energy framework around the world. The foreseen high penetration of renewable energy resources and electric vehicles (EV) will change the way of understanding and operating power systems. Consequently, significant investment in network....... LRIC evaluation is usually conducted on the basis that demand is passive and uncontrollable. The impact of demand flexibility on LRIC has not been comprehensively studied. In this paper, the effect of dynamic electricity tariff and flexible demand on LRIC and network investment decisions is deeply...

  19. Tailored emails prompt electric vehicle owners to engage with tariff switching information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Moira; Huebner, Gesche M.; Shipworth, David; Elam, Simon

    2017-06-01

    The carbon intensity of the electricity used to charge an electric vehicle (EV) is dependent on when in the day charging occurs. However, persuading EV owners to adopt incentives to charge during off-peak hours is challenging. Here we show that governments could exploit the 'window of opportunity' created when people purchase their first EV to promote time-of-use tariffs. Email recipients (n = 7,038 EV owners) were more likely to click-through to an information webpage when the email emphasized specific reductions in home-charging costs versus general bill savings. However, the 'window of opportunity' for maximizing potential adoption is short; email open rates declined from over 70% immediately after purchase to 40% for recipients owning their EV for over three months. These results demonstrate the potential of prompts to change behaviours for which opt-out enrolment (where enrolment is automatic unless people explicitly opt out) would be unethical or less effective.

  20. Season custom tariff analysis for electric power use in an agro-industry; Analise da tarifa horo-sazonal no uso da energia eletrica em uma agroindustria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porto, L.G.C.

    1991-05-01

    An investigation about the season custom tariffs in Brazil, and the research to achieve the electric parameters involved in its utilization is shown, analyzing the change of the conventional custom tariff for the blue and green season custom tariffs. This analysis made in a agro-industry where manioc flour is produced, located in Garca, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. A comparison between the blue and green custom tariff was accomplished in order to the better advantage in the system introduction, considering the use schedule and electric parameters involved. (author). 26 refs, 31 figs, 41 tabs, 3 apps

  1. Electric energy tariffs - critical analysis and methodological proposition; Estrutura de tarifas de energia eletrica. Analise critica e proposicoes metodologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fugimoto, Sergio Kinya

    2010-07-01

    Currently, the electric energy sector is preparing for the third round of the distributors tariff revisions. Since the regulatory environment is more consolidated in terms of required revenue, the agents are turning their attention to the necessary adjustment and correction of the tariff structure. In fact, ANEEL (regulatory agency) set topics for R and D projects considered strategic for the development of national energy sector, among them, the Tariff Structure Project. Recently, the regulatory agency also announced public hearings dealing with the costs allocation, price signals and tariffs for low-voltage consumers. In line with this debate, the thesis finds to analyze the methodology for calculating tariffs, systematizing knowledge dispersed in various references. For this, it discusses the major aspects of peak pricing theory, including American, British and French approaches, and researches the connection between the logic built into the costs allocation by hour and the criteria for electricity distribution system planning. Aiming to reflect the costs of each customer type, indicating a better utilization of the distribution system, are proposed improvements and innovation whose highlights are: shifting the idea that expansion costs should be only allocated in peak time of the system, setting the periods after calculating the costs, changing how to derive the reference charges by average aggregation of the costs and applying the methodology on altered load curves. Finally, this thesis seeks to prove that the current methodology, although designed by the time in which the electricity sector was aggregated, can be adapted according to the proposed improvements and innovations, and thus applied to the current environment in which electric energy businesses and tariffs are separated in generation, transmission, and distribution and retail areas. (author)

  2. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: It’s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  3. Tariffs and investments at the Brazilian electric sector; Tarifas e investimentos no setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Almeida, Denizart do Rosario [ELETROBRAS - Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The objective of the work is to identify the impacts of the variations in the tariffs of the electricity on the standard of growth of the consumption of electric energy, and the role that these variations had exerted in the allocation of resources by the companies of the sector, in the period 1995-2004. In this period, changes in the habits of consumption of energy due the adopted during the rationing, explain, in part, the reduction of the income-elasticity of the consumption of electric energy, but the contribution of a significant effect-price was important for this reduction. Also are evidenced, in this work, the categories of use and the regions that had more contributed for this effect. For the allocation of resources, from 1998 a decline of the participation of the investments in the sector in the total of investments of the economy is observed, with the companies of the sector presenting differentiated behaviors visibly. The companies of distribution apparently more privileged for the formation of resources, have presented, in the recent years, a declining evolution in its rate of investments when compared with the others segments. Among the determinative factors of the decisions of investment of the companies of distribution, can be mentioned the change in the standard of growth of the consumption and the effect of the evolution of the opportunity cost of the inversions. (author)

  4. IFRIC 12, ICPC 01 and Regulatory Accounting: Influences on Formation of Tariffs in the Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natan Szuster

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate to what extent the IFRIC12 and ICPC01 accounting characteristics can influence in the formation of tariffs in the electricity sector in Brazil. The choice of this sector is justified by its economic relevance, its importance for the development of the country and mainly because it uses specific regulatory accounting rules. With a purely qualitative approach - justified by the incipient stage of the current research in this area – we conducted a theoretical study, focusing on qualitative information, through research of the literature and documents. The results show that the pricing model may change under the IFRIC 12 and ICPC 01 standards, which makes the effective application of these accounting standards in the environment regulated by the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL a difficult and complex task. The study also indicates that the main difference between the regulatory accounting system promoted by ANEEL and the international standards is the impossibility of recognizing regulatory assets and liabilities under the latter system. Therefore, the Brazilian electricity sector is one of those that may have its financial statements most affected by the convergence of Brazilian accounting standards to international standards.

  5. Design of grid tariffs in electricity systems with variable renewable energy and power to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Klaus; Bergaentzlé, Claire; Soysal, Emilie Rosenlund

    2017-01-01

    Large shares of variable renewable energy (VRE), requires flexibility solutions are developed. Considerable flexibility potentials exist from large consumers, e.g. power-to-heat (P2H) in district heating (DH). However, the existing grid tariffs obliterate the price signals from the wholesale...... designs that facilitate more flexible energy demand of DH operators. This is illustrated by a case study of Denmark that clearly demonstrates that the introduction of innovative tariffs will improve the business case for flexible P2H technologies and increase the value of VRE. In this way larger...... flexibility potentials can be induced and larger shares of VRE become integrated in the energy systems....

  6. Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power transmission tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de transmissao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Ricardo Henrique dos; Santos, Rosana Rodrigues dos; Sauer, Ildo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: rosana2@uol.com.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy transmission tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

  7. Time dependent tariff modell in the electricity sector; Tageszeitabhaengige Tarifmodelle im Sektor Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Susan [Westsaechsische Hochschule Zwickau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the mechanism of price formation on the German power supply market. From the standpoint of progressive liberalization of this market in particular possibilities for the design of dynamic tariff models are discussed. Theoretical foundations form the design of incentive systems linked to the economic model of price formation. Existing concepts are discussed, and a concept for implementing in the project Low Energy Living is outlined. Thus, an incentive shall be supplied for consumers in order to break their previous habits and to help that the utilities can smooth out their load profile. Power customers benefit from this form of significant energy savings.

  8. Hearing of Francois Loos, ministry delegated to the Industry, on the electricity tariffs; Audition de M. Francois Loos, ministre delegue a l'Industrie, sur les tarifs de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    The ministry answers questions relative to the electricity price: the position of the tariffs in Europe, the tariffs for the industry, the margins, EDF, the energy policy and the part of the nuclear, the fight against the CO{sub 2}. (A.L.B.)

  9. Tariff design for communication-capable metering systems in conjunction with time-variant electricity consumption rates; Gestaltung von Tarifen fuer kommunikationsfaehige Messsysteme im Verbund mit zeitvariablen Stromtarifen. Eine empirische Analyse von Praeferenzen privater Stromkunden in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerpott, Torsten J.; Paukert, Mathias [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Lehrstuhl Unternehmens- und Technologieplanung, Schwerpunkt Telekommunikationswirtschaft

    2013-06-15

    In Germany too, communication-capable electricity metering systems (CMS) together with time-based differentiation of kWh-rates for energy consumption are increasingly proliferated among household customers. Nevertheless, empirical evidence with respect to preferences of members of this customer group for the design of CMS tariff elements and of time-variant electricity consumption rates is still scarce. The present study captures such preferences by means of conjoint analysis of data obtained in an online survey of 754 German-speaking adults. Examined CMS tariff elements are a one-off installation fee and monthly recurring use charges. The studied characteristics of time-based rates are the number of time/tariff blocks, the maximum spread between kWh-rates for different time windows and the adaptability/predictability of kWh-rates. Most respondents judged multidimensional CMS and electricity consumption tariff offerings mainly in light of the CMS tariff characteristics. The vast majority of the participants perceived kWh-rates, which may change with a minimum lead time of one day as reducing the benefit of CMS and consumption tariff bundles. Tariff preferences on the one hand were only rarely significantly related to customers' socio-demographic and electricity procurement characteristics as well as their CMS-related expectations/assessments on the other. The willingness to accept CMS-related one-off installation and recurring service charges as well as the propensity to opt for time-dependent electricity consumption tariff variants differing clearly from non-differentiated electricity price schemes appear to be positively affected by customers' practical application experience with CMS and time-variant electricity consumption rates. Conclusions are drawn for energy suppliers seeking to propagate CMS-based time-variant tariffs among household customers in Germany and for future scholarly research. (orig.)

  10. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  11. Will we be heating with green electricity tomorrow? The large potential of load-variable private customer tariffs; Heizen wir kuenftig mit Oekostrom? Das grosse Potenzial lastvariabler Privatkundentarife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierdt, Tobias; Lang, Dirk [RWE Effizienz GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Momentous changes loom ahead for Germany's energy supply system as a result of the energy turnaround. One central question is how load peaks from renewable energy plants can be conveniently accommodated on the demand side. Two research projects are currently being carried out to examine the acceptance of time-variable and load-variable tariffs for private households. First results show that using green electricity for heat generation is significantly more attractive for both customers and energy suppliers than using it to cover day-to-day electricity demand at a later time.

  12. Natural monopolies regulation: the electric power distribution tariffs case; Regulacao dos monopolios naturais: o caso das tarifas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillo, Vicente Andreu; Sauer, Ildo Luis [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br

    1999-07-01

    The central issue of debate was the need to align the energy sector's options and organization with changing global patterns of economic and social development, characterized by the increasing role played by the private sector, greater integration in the world economy, and new economic and social priorities such as efficiency, decentralization, deregulation, and a closer attention to environmental issues. In this context, the aim of this work is to review the natural monopolies theory, regulation regimes, and the energy distribution tariffs of Brazilian electric power sector.

  13. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  14. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  15. Observed Temperature Effects on Hourly Residential Electric LoadReduction in Response to an Experimental Critical Peak PricingTariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen B.; McAuliffe, Patrick K.; Rosenfeld, Arthur H.

    2005-11-14

    The goal of this investigation was to characterize themanual and automated response of residential customers to high-price"critical" events dispatched under critical peak pricing tariffs testedin the 2003-2004 California Statewide Pricing Pilot. The 15-monthexperimental tariff gave customers a discounted two-price time-of-userate on 430 days in exchange for 27 critical days, during which the peakperiod price (2 p.m. to 7 p.m.) was increased to about three times thenormal time-of-use peak price. We calculated response by five-degreetemperature bins as the difference between peak usage on normal andcritical weekdays. Results indicatedthat manual response to criticalperiods reached -0.23 kW per home (-13 percent) in hot weather(95-104.9oF), -0.03 kW per home (-4 percent) in mild weather (60-94.9oF),and -0.07 kW per home (-9 percent) during cold weather (50-59.9oF).Separately, we analyzed response enhanced by programmable communicatingthermostats in high-use homes with air-conditioning. Between 90oF and94.9oF, the response of this group reached -0.56 kW per home (-25percent) for five-hour critical periods and -0.89 kW/home (-41 percent)for two-hour critical periods.

  16. Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

  17. A level playing field on the Dutch electricity market. A tariff structure for the use of the grid; Een level playing field op de Nederlandse elektriciteitsmarkt. Een tariefstructuur voor het netgebruik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Bressers, D.L.F.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Hoogendoorn, P.J.; De Klerk, S.C.

    1999-03-18

    In the first months of 1999 a bill to amend the Electricity Law 1998 is under discussion in the Dutch parliament. The amendment concerns the proposal for a new tariff structure for the transportation of electricity, the so-called cascade system. In a former issue of this magazine the advantages and disadvantages of the cascade system, compared to the so-called level playing field system, were discussed. However, a well-founded choice between the two systems can not be made without insight into the quantitative effects. In this report it is discussed to what extent the systems lead to different electricity transportation tariffs. In the cascade system costs are calculated for three types of consumers: high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage consumers. In a level playing field system the rule is that who causes the costs, pays the costs. 2 refs.

  18. The Tariff Analysis Project: A database and analysis platform forelectricity tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, K.; White, R.; Bolduc, C.; Fisher, D.; Rosenquist, G.

    2006-05-12

    Much of the work done in energy research involves ananalysis of the costs and benefits of energy-saving technologies andother measures from the perspective of the consumer. The economic valuein particular depends on the price of energy (electricity, gas or otherfuel), which varies significantly both for different types of consumers,and for different regions of the country. Ideally, to provide accurateinformation about the economic value of energy savings, prices should becomputed directly from real tariffs as defined by utility companies. Alarge number of utility tariffs are now available freely over the web,but the complexity and diversity of tariff structures presents aconsiderable barrier to using them in practice. The goal of the TariffAnalysis Project (TAP) is to collect andarchive a statistically completesample of real utility tariffs, and build a set of database and web toolsthat make this information relatively easy to use in cost-benefitanalysis. This report presentsa detailed picture of the current TAPdatabase structure and web interface. While TAP has been designed tohandle tariffs for any kind of utility service, the focus here is onelectric utilities withinthe United States. Electricity tariffs can bevery complicated, so the database structures that have been built toaccommodate them are quite flexible and can be easily generalized toother commodities.

  19. Steepest Ascent Tariff Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2006-01-01

    a theoretical concept where the focus is upon the size of welfare gains accruing from tariff reforms rather than simply with the direction of welfare effects that has been the concern of theliterature.JEL code: F15.Keywords: Steepest ascent tariff reforms; piecemeal tariff policy; welfare; market access; small......This paper introduces the concept of a steepest ascent tariff reform for a small open economy. By construction, it is locally optimal in that it yields the highest gain in utility of any feasible tariff reform vector of the same length. Accordingly, it provides a convenient benchmark...... existing reforms are locally optimal, provide geometric illustrations and compare welfare effectiveness of reforms using numerical examples. Moreover, being a general concept, we apply it to the issue of market access and examine its implications. Overall, the paper's contribution lies in presenting...

  20. The effects of the German feed-in tariffs for renewable electricity generation on the German energy system. An analysis with the energy system model TIMES-D; Die Auswirkungen des EEG auf das Energiesystem Deutschlands. Eine Betrachtung mit dem Energiesystemmodell TIMES-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Birgit; Voss, Alfred; Blesl, Markus; Fahl, Ulrich [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaft und Rationelle Energieanwendung

    2011-09-15

    In Germany, the electricity generation from renewable energy has been promoted since the year 2000 by a feed-in tariff system, the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). This article evaluates the long-term impact of the German feed-in tariffs on the development of the German energy system with the help of the energy system model TIMES-D. In the model-based analysis, both the payment side (i.e. the tariffs) and the cost side (i.e. the EEG apportionment) are taken into consideration. Through the promotion of the feed-in tariff system - in combination with the European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) - the use of renewable energies in electricity generation in Germany rises considerably such that renewable energy sources account for almost 40% of total gross electricity consumption in 2030. Accordingly, until 2020 total EEG fee payments as well as the EEG apportionment increase significantly. The impact of the feed-in tariff system on final electricity demand is, however, relatively small. Alternative scenario settings show that the expansion of the renewable electricity generation through the feed-in tariff system clearly exceeds the development which would occur when trying to reach the reduction targets of the ETS in a cost-efficient way. (orig.)

  1. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  2. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings on t...

  3. Tariffs Formation on oil transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyzina, T. S.; Kolbysheva, Yu. V.; Grivtsova, I. S.; Dmitrieva, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Oil transportation via trunk pipelines is an important part of the oil industry's activity. The main instrument of tariff regulation is the method of tariffs formation. Three methods of tariffs formation such as the method of economically justified costs (the Cost plus method), the method of economically justified return on investment capital (the RAB method), and the method of tariffs indexation were considered.

  4. Energy Prices, Tariffs, Taxes and Subsidies in Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd

    2007-04-01

    For many years, electricity, gas and district heating tariffs for residential consumers were very low in Ukraine; until recently, they were even lower than in neighbouring countries such as Russia. The increases in gas and electricity tariffs, implemented in 2006, are an important step toward sustainable pricing levels; however, electricity and natural gas (especially for households) are still priced below the long-run marginal cost. The problem seems even more serious in district heating and nuclear power. According to the Ministry of Construction, district heating tariffs, on average, cover about 80% of costs. Current electricity prices do not fully include the capital costs of power stations, which are particularly high for nuclear power. Although the tariff for nuclear electricity generation includes a small decommissioning charge, it has not been sufficient to accumulate necessary funds for nuclear plants decommissioning.

  5. An Inconvenient Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NICOLAS; LORIS

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to carbon tariffs, China shouldn’t buy what the United States is selling The current cap-and-trade debate is generating a lot of noise in the United States. Much of that noise is coming from the halls of Congress, where phone lines are ringing off the hook from citizens expressing their

  6. Market Access through Bound Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and long...

  7. Market access through bound tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sala, Davide; Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Yalcin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    on the risk that exporters face in destination markets. The present paper formalizes the underlying interaction of risk, fixed export costs and firms' market entry decisions based on techniques known from the real options literature; doing so we highlight the important role of bound tariffs at the extensive......WTO negotiations deal predominantly with bound - besides applied - tariff rates. But, how can reductions in tariffs ceilings, i.e. tariff rates that no exporter may ever actually be confronted with, generate market access? The answer to this question relates to the effects of tariff bindings...... margin of trade. We find that bound tariffs are more effective with higher risk destination markets, that a large binding overhang may still command substantial market access, and that reductions in bound tariffs generate effective market access even when bound rates are above current and longterm...

  8. Tariff-based analysis of commercial building electricityprices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Rosenquist, Greg J.; VanBuskirk, Robert D.; McMahon, James E.

    2008-03-28

    This paper presents the results of a survey and analysis ofelectricity tariffs and marginal electricity prices for commercialbuildings. The tariff data come from a survey of 90 utilities and 250tariffs for non-residential customers collected in 2004 as part of theTariff Analysis Project at LBNL. The goals of this analysis are toprovide useful summary data on the marginal electricity prices commercialcustomers actually see, and insight into the factors that are mostimportant in determining prices under different circumstances. We providea new, empirically-based definition of several marginal prices: theeffective marginal price and energy-only anddemand-only prices, andderive a simple formula that expresses the dependence of the effectivemarginal price on the marginal load factor. The latter is a variable thatcan be used to characterize the load impacts of a particular end-use orefficiency measure. We calculate all these prices for eleven regionswithin the continental U.S.

  9. Impacts of time variable electricity tariffs in the accounting for grid billing of household customers; Auswirkungen zeitvariabler Stromtarife in der Bilanzkreisabrechnung von Haushaltskunden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warweg, Oliver; Bretschneider, Peter [Fraunhofer IOSB, Ilmenau (Germany). Institutsteil Angewandte Systemtechnik (AST); Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Ifland, Mike; Westermann, Dirk [Technische Univ. Ilmenau (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    During the research project RESIDENS (moRe Efficient energy utiliSation through system oriented Integration of DomEstic eNd customerS), representing this work's basis, the consequences of private customer's Indirect Demand Side Management have been investigated. The work at hand comments on problems which were being raised due to different load shapes for system operators and retailers regarding accounting and balancing of shortages or excesses in yearly quantities and presents possible approaches to a successful roll out of variable tariffs.

  10. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  11. Import & Export Tariff Changes in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since January 1st, 2007, the Program for Implementation of Tariffs in 2007 has become effective. The Customs Tariff Commission of the State Council has made many modifications on the implementation of import and export tariffs as following:

  12. New Policy for Power Tariff Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guan Yongsheng; Jin Wen

    2007-01-01

    @@ The "Opinions on Deepening Power Institutional Reform in the 11th Five-Year Period" (referred to as "Opinions" below for short) finally unveiled and appeared clearly in the vision of the public on April 6th, 2007. Being the core of the power institutional reform, the "route map" of power tariff reform in the 11th Five-Year Plan period has also been clearly oriented. However, on the whole, the power tariff reform is no drastic as one imagines. With this doubt, the Journalist discussed this issue with Mr. Huang Shaozhong, deputy director of the Department of Price & Financial Supervision under the State Electricity Regulatory Commission, also a member of the Working Group of Power Institutional Reform.

  13. Analysis of Power Supply Contracts (Electricity Tariff)Dispute Processing%浅析供用电合同(电费电价)的纠纷处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高莉; 马宏斌

    2014-01-01

    The power supply contract is not only basic information for the management of power supply,but also is most important basis for the electricity dispute processing.In the power supply contract dispute,electricity tariff dispute resides in the dispute first place.This article elaborated the dispute reasons of electricity prices,proposed the obj ective fea-sible processing methods,to protect the legitimate rights and interests between the parties,urging the power supply enter-prise healthy development.%供用电合同既是供用电管理的基础资料,又是处理供用电纠纷最重要的依据。在供用电合同纠纷中,电费电价纠纷居于纠纷首位。文中阐述了电价产生纠纷的原因,提出了客观可行的处理方法,以保护供用电双方合法权益为目的,促使供电企业健康发展。

  14. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  15. Aluminum Production Cost Drops to 375 Yuan/Tonne After On-Grid Power Tariff Cut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    Following the cut of coal-fired on-grid power tariff in April 2015,in 2016 the coal-fired ongrid power tariff experienced another cut.The average nationwide cut was about0.03yuan/k Wh,the reduced amount will be used to lower general industrial and commercial electricity sales price by the same

  16. Tariff Basic Calculation. A program for the calculation of the National Basic Tariff. Tarief Basis Calculatie. Een programma voor de berekening van het LBT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, L.

    1988-12-01

    Within the framework of the project 'Tariff systems and price forming of electric power', a spread-sheet program has been developed to calculate the costs of the electric power supply. The name of this program, written in Symphony 2.0 (English), is Tariff Basic Calculation (TBC). Based on the production data of the public power supply this program calculates the costs of the supply and derivative National Basic Tariffs elements. The program fits in with the Chronological Simulation Model (CSM) of the Energy Study Centre of the Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. All necessary data can be calculated with CSM. 8 figs.

  17. Limits to tariff policies in the reformation of the Brazilian electric sector; Limites da politica tarifaria na reforma do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunetti, Jose L.; Guerra, Sinclair M.-G. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    Since 1977 the Brazilian electric sector has experienced an institutional and economic crisis.The new regulations for this sector and particularly the proposal for restructuring the electric utilities in Sao Paulo are presented 3 refs., 3 tabs.; e-mail: sguerra at fem.unicamp.br

  18. Analysis of the use of 'standard of housing' criterion in the concession of the social tariff of electric power; Analise do emprego do criterio 'padrao de moradia' na concessao da tarifa social de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Mauricio Lopes; Ferreira, Elnatan Chagas; Dias, Jose Antonio Siqueira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMIC/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Eletronica e Microeletronica], Email: siqueira@demic.fee.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    The question of the electricity's price policy, referred as social tariff, is usually analyzed in terms of the economic sustainability of its application by the concessionaires of public utilities, responsible for its implementation, vis a vis the biggest possible benefit in social terms. To satisfy both of these conditions, it is necessary to definite the criteria that allows to clearly identify the target population who will receive the benefit. This paper analyzes the use of the criterion of 'housing standard' as a criterion for the implementation of the Social Tariff, contributing for the debate on the definition of the social benefits policy for the low-income consumers of electrical energy, currently under revision. (author)

  19. Tariff system with the wrong incentives; Tariefsysteem met verkeerde prikkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalbers, R.F.T.; Bressers, D.L.F.; Dijkgraaf, E.; Hoogendoorn, P.J.; De Klerk, S.C. [Research Centre for Economic Policy OCFEB, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-03-26

    In the first months of 1999 a bill to amend the Electricity Law 1998 is under discussion in the Dutch parliament. The amendment concerns the proposal for a new tariff structure for the transportation of electricity, the so-called cascade system. In a former issue of this magazine the advantages and disadvantages of the cascade system, compared to the so-called level playing field system, were discussed. However, a well-founded choice between the two systems can not be made without insight into the quantitative effects. In this report it is discussed to what extent the systems lead to different electricity transportation tariffs. In the cascade system costs are calculated for three types of consumers: high voltage, medium voltage and low voltage consumers. In a level playing field system the rule is that who causes the costs, pays the costs. 30 refs.

  20. On tariffs of the transport and electricity distribution network. Stage report of the economic analysis group; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite. Rapport d'etape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-17

    This report contains an Introduction, seven Sections, Conclusions and Summary of Recommendations, a Glossary and three Appendices. In the Introduction the work of the group is presented, the question of the access to the network is outlined and the approach adopted by the group is explained. The Section 1 is titled 'The electricity market and the questions raised by the access to network. The following issues are exposed: - Institutional and regulation context; - Transposition of the directive 96/92/CE within member states; - The effects of offer expected by France; - Expected effects for electricity consumers; - Abroad experience in organizing the access; - The role of the Electricity Regulation Commission and the objectives of tariffing and rules of access to transport network. The second section presents the characteristics of the Management of Distribution Network (GRT) and identification of the costs. The following items are treated: - Definition and description of the transport network; - Network development; - European interconnections; - Technical constraint; - Organization of GRT; - Calculation of transport; - Remuneration of capital; - Distribution, the transport's end-of-the-road; - Costs to recover: definition, problems of measurement and verification; - Transitory tariffs. The third section is titled 'Introduction to an economic approach' and it presents the nodal tariffing and an outlook of practical solutions. The forth section tackles with the main options in tariffing. Six issues are exposed: - The main choices to do; - Choosing between postal stamp and distant tariffing; - Sharing between producer and consumers; - Economic relevance of the postal stamp type formulas; - Sharing between energy and power; - A proposal of tariff structure. The Section 5 is devoted to tariffs for international transports. The following issues are exposed: - Specific questions posed by transfrontier contracts; - European Union frame; - Connection

  1. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula......WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....

  2. The Impact of Utility Tariff Evolution on Behind-the-Meter PV Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Wesley J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Frew, Bethany A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-18

    This analysis uses a new method to link the NREL Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) capacity expansion model with the NREL distributed generation market demand model (dGen) to explore the impact that the evolution of retail electricity tariffs can have on the adoption of distributed photovoltaics (DPV). The evolution most notably takes the form of decreased mid-day electricity costs, as low-cost PV reduces the marginal cost of electricity during those hours and the changes are subsequently communicated to electricity consumers through tariffs. We find that even under the low PV prices of the new SunShot targets the financial performance of DPV under evolved tariffs still motivates behind-the-meter adoption, despite significant reduction in the costs of electricity during afternoon periods driven by deployment of cheap utility-scale PV. The amount of DPV in 2050 in these low-cost futures ranged from 206 GW to 263 GW, a 13-fold and 16-fold increase over 2016 adoption levels respectively. From a utility planner's perspective, the representation of tariff evolution has noteworthy impacts on forecasted DPV adoption in scenarios with widespread time-of-use tariffs. Scenarios that projected adoption under a portfolio of time-of-use tariffs, but did not represent the evolution of those tariffs, predicted up to 36 percent more DPV in 2050, compared to scenarios that did not represent that evolution. Lastly, we find that a reduction in DPV deployment resulting from evolved tariffs had a negligible impact on the total generation from PV - both utility-scale and distributed - in the scenarios we examined. Any reduction in DPV generation was replaced with utility-scale PV generation, to arrive at the quantity that makes up the least-cost portfolio.

  3. Probable cases which gives ICMS credit in electric power tariffs; Estudo de casos passiveis de credito de ICMS em tarifas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira; Oliveira, Angelo Rocha de

    2006-07-01

    There are laws and many forms of using them that are ignored by a great part of the population. In this work one of those laws is emphasised, the complementary law n. 102/2000 of 11/07/2000 (that changed the C.L. 87/1996), that concerns the credit of ICMS in electric power taxes. The main focus of the work is the way the law is put into practice, how it can be used , who is able to receive the support of this law and who is not, ways of decisions that justifies the validation and two studies of real cases of companies that already process credits in his bill. In those two studies of accomplished cases they will be demonstrated in an emphatic way as you accomplish them and its importance. One of the cases is a consumer of small load, of the tax group B, where there is only a way of accomplishing the study, in case it is framed in the debit regime and credit. Already the second study of cases is of a consumer of the tax group A, of blue seasonal hour tax. As a last proposal of this work is the one of verifying, with those two accomplished cases, the difference of the decision evidentiary between the two companies and in that consumer kind (of the group A or B), it is usually the largest index of restitution of ICMS. (author)

  4. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, of environment and of the territory about the proposal of law, adopted by the Senate, relative to electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee par le Senat, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.238)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-12-15

    This report aims at filling up some gaps in the French legislation relative to the determination of electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs and to the beneficiaries of these tariffs. It makes a synthesis of four proposals of law dealing with: the possibility for end-users and small companies to benefit again of the regulated electricity prices (proposals no 369 and 149), the permission of reversibility in the exercise of the rights relative to the eligibility for the purchase of electric power (proposal no 427), and the preservation of households' purchasing power by keeping up the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas (proposal no 462). The different articles are examined and some amendments are proposed by the commission. (J.S.)

  5. Feed-in tariff outlook in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Shing Chyi; Oh, Tick Hui [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Goh, Wei Wei [Foundation Studies and Extension Education, Multimedia University, Bukit Beruang, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    This paper aims to present the feed-in tariff (FiT) outlook in Malaysia, which is in the process of being enacted through a Renewable Energy (RE) Policy by the Government of Malaysia (GoM). A brief in policies leading towards the RE policy and the potential of each RE sources under FiT mechanism have been discussed. The successful utilisation of RE source in electricity generation and the FiT implementation globally are positive indicators to implement FiT in Malaysia. Potentials of FiT on biomass, biogas and solid waste energy are currently very promising in Malaysia, but it is solar energy which is predicted to be the main RE of the future, surpassing all other REs. (author)

  6. From tariffs to prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baena, D. Eduardo Martin [Endesa, Principe de Vergara 187, Madrid (Spain)

    1998-07-01

    It looks like that all over the World things are changing. Many countries, Spain among them, where electricity regulations were usual, are changing their regulatory mainframe. Since January 1, 1998, electricity production is a deregulated activity in Spain. There has to be open market competition. Prices that are very important for the time coming, have to cover the production cost plus some profits in order to maintain the company profitability. This cultural change applies to all our production facilities, including nuclear power plants. Taking into account this new situation and the nuclear competitiveness, it is important for all of us to understand this issue. As it is well known, nuclear energy is capital intensive, that means it has to compete as base load units due to their low operating costs and their large capital ones. For that reason it is important to reduce as much as possible the operating and maintenance cost as well as the fuel one, which will allow nuclear plants to compete in marginal costs with others units. Nuclear energy, in Spain, is not going to fix the pool price but it has to recover some depreciation through it, the remaining being recovered by the recognition of an important part of the stranded cost. (author)

  7. No way around green tariffs; Oekotarife sind nicht mehr wegzudenken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briese, Dirk [trend:research GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Just like green electricity, meanwhile a classic, so too now does newcomer ''green gas'' offer energy suppliers with an appropriate marketing mix far-reaching opportunities for improving their corporate image, securing customer loyalty and increasing turnover. However the only beneficiaries of this trend to date have been green-only suppliers which specialise in this market. Although most traditional suppliers have now added green tariffs to their product portfolio, this has given them little commercial success, since eco-minded consumers often consider green-only suppliers to be more credible. A recent study shows that the market volume of green electricity and green gas tariffs will grow markedly over the next five years. Energy suppliers should therefore turn their attention to the question of how they can best exploit this potential.

  8. 计及负荷率分档的峰谷分时电价定价模型%Pricing model of time-of-use electricity tariff considering customers classified by load factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海涛; 吴洁晶; 顾丹珍; 蔚芳

    2016-01-01

    There is coordination problem between load factor price and peak-valley time-of-use price (TOU) of large and medium industrial and commercial users. Therefore, combining with the electricity power system and environment in China, this paper bases on the users demand and supply cost otherness to build the power consumption market segment and demand-price elastic model of load factor classification. Time-of-use electricity pricing model considering customers classified by load factor is settled applying the marginal cost pricing theory. The model adopts the method of hierarchical coordination optimization. The first layer applies the density clustering and two-part price theory to analyze the marginal electricity and capacity cost of each load factor block, and formulate the method for load factor classification and pricing average price for each one. The second layer takes the average price level of each block as constraint and cutting peak load to fill valley as the goal, then sets coordination optimization model of TOU tariff with load factor block based on the electric price elasticity matrix. This model coordinates multiple targets such as efficiency, fairness and peak load shifting. Its rationality and validity are validated by one case.%针对大中工商业用户负荷率电价与峰谷电价的配合问题,结合我国电力体制和电价制度环境,基于消费者需求和供电成本异质性,构造了负荷率分档用户的用电消费细分市场,建立了各档用户的边际供电成本模型及需求价格弹性模型。应用边际成本定价理论,构建了计及负荷率分档的峰谷分时电价模型。该模型采用分层协调优化的方法:第一层深入分析每一负荷率档位用户的边际电量成本和边际容量成本,应用密度聚类技术及两部制定价理论,建立了每一负荷率档位及其两部制平均电价水平的制定方法。第二层以各档平均电度电价水平为约束,以

  9. China Cut Tariffs on Refined Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China has cut import tariffs on gasoline, diesel, aviation kerosene, and fuel oil significantly since July 1 this year. According to the information released by the Ministry of Finance, the rate of import tariffs on motor gasoline and aviation gasoline was reduced from 5% to 1%; the rates of import tariffs on aviation kerosene and light diesel were reduced from 9% and 6% to 0 separately; the rate of import tariffs on 5"-7" fuel oil was reduced from 6% to 1%.

  10. 14 CFR 221.94 - Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... applicable to the balance of the system, such matter, insofar as it applies over the balance of the system... changes and new matter in tariffs. 221.94 Section 221.94 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY... With Department § 221.94 Explanation and data supporting tariff changes and new matter in tariffs....

  11. Power Tariff Reform and Energy Constraint in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Power tariff reform and power restructuring should be coordinately advanced. In the period of the power tariff reform, attention should be fully given to possible demand growth, investment characteristics and environment pressure when taking transitional measures. In the stage, focal point of the reform is to establish a rational system of sales price to power network. Moreover, it is necessary to raise the electricity price for household consumption. The highly-centralized system of state-owned power enterprises is the root-cause of some basic problems in the power industry. The system would cause a great power overproduction, squeeze out private and foreign investment and constrain efficiency improvement. Effective energy strategy and planning are a crux of dealing with crises of energy security. China needs a state-class energy administration body and should make massive research on energy economics.

  12. Industry faced with a new tariff system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyatos, M.

    1986-10-01

    EDF has been offering a new tariff to its industrial customers since December 1982. Most of them have chosen it, taking best advantage of opportunities given them to minimize their expenses by adjusting their means of operation to the new tariff structure. This paper explains the overall outcome and illustrates, by means of examples, customer behavior.

  13. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula...

  14. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the proposal of law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the Senate, relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated tariffs; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Economiques, de l'Environnement et du Territoire sur la proposition de loi, adoptee avec modifications par le Senat en deuxieme lecture, relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel (n.565)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This text is the conclusion of a long parliamentary procedure with several debates about electricity and natural gas prices, for both individual users and companies. The first article of the proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, is the only one that remains to be discussed, and concerns the households and the companies with a low power consumption. Examined first at the Senate on October 1, 2007, this proposal of law was debated at the House of Commons on December 11, 2007 and modified for one important point: the possibility for households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. The adoption of this amendment has led to make some adjustments in the proposal of law which are presented in this document. (J.S.)

  15. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  16. Tariff-Tax Reforms and Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreickemeier, Udo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2006-01-01

    paper examines whether the country that implements such a reform ends up opening up its markets to international trade, i.e. whether its market access improves. It is shown that this is not necessarily so. We also show that, comparing to the reform of only tariffs, the tariff-tax reform is a less......Reducing tariffs and increasing consumption taxes is a standard IMF advice to countries that want to open up their economy without hurting government finances. Indeed, theoretical analysis of such a tariff-tax reform shows an unambiguous increase in welfare and government revenues. The present...... efficient proposal to follow both as far as it concerns market access and welfare.JEL code: F13, H20.Keywords: Market access; tariff reform, consumption tax reform....

  17. Optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer programm......This paper presents an optimal reconfiguration-based dynamic tariff (DT) method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks with high penetration of electric vehicles. In the proposed DT concept, feeder reconfiguration (FR) is employed through mixed integer...... manner through the DT framework. Three case studies were conducted to validate the optimal reconfiguration-based DT method for congestion management and line loss reduction in distribution networks....

  18. Tariffication Strategy in Telecommunication Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The tariff policy of a telecommunication operator has a strategic importance on achieving of optimal revenues and a fundamental impact on its position in the competition with another operators on the liberalised telecommunication market. The payment for a connection through a telecommunication network is determined by a rate for one call unit, by the duration of the call unit and their count during a call. An operator derives the rate and the duration of the call unit from a detailed analysis of large databases that contain statistical data on counts and duration of particular calls depending on the call type. Only the operator knows these data files and it keeps them confidential. It will be shown in the paper how it is possible to come to an estimation of revenues from telecommunication traffic only knowing a pair of basic parameters. The first considerations handling with this topic can be found in [1], [2],[3].

  19. Long Term Incentives for Residential Customers Using Dynamic Tariff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews several grid tariff schemes, including flat tariff, time-of-use, time-varying tariff, demand charge and dynamic tariff (DT), from the perspective of the long term incentives. The long term incentives can motivate the owners of flexible demands to change their energy consumption...

  20. 46 CFR 520.5 - Standard tariff terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard tariff terminology. 520.5 Section 520.5... AUTOMATED TARIFFS § 520.5 Standard tariff terminology. (a) Approved codes. The Standard Terminology Appendix.... They are intended to provide a standard terminology baseline for tariffs to facilitate...

  1. Net metering and net feed-in tariff for embedded solar PV in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bischof-Niemz, T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available and maintaining the distribution grid, as well as cost of metering and billing. The CSIR Energy Centre therefore developed a Net Feed-in Tariff (NETFIT) concept in which electricity distributors are made financially indifferent to embedded PV, and in which...

  2. Tariffs Ranking in Mixed Oligopoly with Revenue Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard F. S. Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing linear mixed oligopoly model, this paper explores the magnitude of the maximum-revenue tariff, optimum-welfare tariff, and revenue-constrained optimal tariff that is especially designed for the consideration of the bureaucratic inefficiency. In particular, the tariff ranking issue is examined under both cases of Cournot competition and domestic public leadership. We found that, under Cournot competition, the optimum-welfare tariff is the highest and it is followed by the revenue-constrained optimal tariff while the maximum-revenue tariff is the lowest. But, under Stackelberg public leadership, if the domestic private firms are fewer than the foreign firms, the maximum-revenue tariff becomes the highest and the optimum-welfare exceeds the revenue-constrained optimal tariff.

  3. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...... on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both...... the tariff and the fixed export barrier. Tariff revenue falls for an increase in fixed exporting costs whereas we have a Laffer curve effect for the tariff. Finally, we establish that welfare falls with fixed export costs and large tariffs but increases for small tariffs, i.e. there exist a welfare...

  4. Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (2015) - Revision 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    US International Trade Commission — This dataset is the 2015 Harmonized Tariff Schedule Revision 1 effective July 1, 2015. It provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all...

  5. From Wellhead to Market. Oil Pipeline Tariffs and Tariff Methodologies in Selected Energy Charter Member Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    Freedom of energy transit is an important element of the Energy Charter process. The Energy Charter Treaty obliges its member countries to facilitate energy transit on a nondiscriminatory basis, and to refrain from imposing unreasonable delays, restrictions or charges on energy in transit. A main focus for the Energy Charter process has been the conditions for transit of natural gas. Tariffs, along with access to energy transit infrastructure, are the basis of free transit. To examine gas transit flows and tariff methodologies, the Energy Charter Secretariat published a study on gas transit tariffs in selected Energy Charter member countries in January 2006. This report follows on from the gas tariff study and examines oil transit flows and oil transit tariffs. The Energy Charter constituency in the land-locked part of the Eurasian continent has the world's largest oil pipeline system, which was originally built during the Soviet era. After collapse of the Soviet Union the pipeline system was divided into separate parts by emergence of new borders, and oil transported by the pipeline now has to cross multiple borders before it reaches its destination. The main objectives of this study are; to review transit tariff methodologies for existing and new oil transit pipeline systems across selected member countries of the Energy Charter; to compare transit tariff regimes with those for domestic transport; and to assess the overall consistency of these transit tariffs vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Charter Treaty and draft Transit Protocol. Geographically, this study covers the following key oil transit countries; in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus and Central Asia: the Russian Federation, Belarus, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Georgia; and in Western Europe: France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, Italy, Norway and the UK. Chapter 3 gives a brief review on main domestic and cross-border oil flows in the countries examined. Chapter 4 describes essential

  6. Study on Theory and Methods of Telecommunication Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The pricing of telecommunication services is quite important aswell as complicated. This paper strengthens the research of theories and implementation of telecommunication tariff in China. It is helpful for the government authorities and enterprises to unify and standardize the regulatory methods, to guide the deciding of the structure and level of telecommunication tariff by implementing scientific theories, to further develop and optimize the tariff system. This paper conducts a systematic, in-depth and creative research on some of the most popular and most difficult problems in the area of telecommunication tariff research, such as the regulation of telecommunication tariff, the theories of telecommunication tariff, the systematic pricing theory, the interconnection charge, the model cost evaluation theory, the long-run incremental cost theory, and the international telecommunication tariff. After studying the foreign methods on telecommunication tariff regulation, basing on the current situation of China's tariff regulation, the scope and methods for China's telecommunication tariff regulation are suggested. Aimed at the weakness of pricing theory for enterprises to set up telecommunication tariffs, an overall frame work of telecommunication tariff theories is proposed. The systematic pricing theory and model cost evaluation theory of telecommunication services are put forward from a brand new perspective. A front topic, the LRIC theory, is probed. In addition, the pricing practices of network interconnection charge and international telecommunication tariff, which are currently very attractive to the theorists, are discussed. Basing on these studies, this paper improves the structure of telecommunication tariff theory. It provides the Chinese government authorities with practical methods and helpful supports to regulate the telecommunication tariffs; in the mean time, it also provides the enterprises with scientific pricing theories and methods to set up

  7. 76 FR 43206 - Electronic Tariff Filing System (ETFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... public reviewing the tariff by including some descriptive information on the Title page of the tariff... nondominant carriers to research their previously filed tariff revisions to include different transmittal... by revising paragraphs (b) and (e) to read as follows: Sec. 61.14 Method of filing...

  8. China Cancelled Export Tariff for Nine Kinds of Raw Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>In the recently promulgated "Tariff Execution Plan for 2013", among new tariffs implemented since January 1, 2013, tariffs of nine kinds of raw material products including bauxite, coke,yellow phosphorus, fluorite, magnesium, manganese, silicon metal, silicon carbide and zinc exported by China will be lifted.

  9. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs: Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, S.; Elefant, C.; Cory, K.; Porter, K.

    2010-01-01

    State legislatures and state utility commissions trying to attract renewable energy projects are considering feed-in tariffs, which obligate retail utilities to purchase electricity from renewable producers under standard arrangements specifying prices, terms, and conditions. The use of feed-in tariffs simplifies the purchase process, provides revenue certainty to generators, and reduces the cost of financing generating projects. However, some argue that federal law--including the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA) and the Federal Power Act of 1935 (FPA)--constrain state-level feed-in tariffs. This report seeks to reduce the legal uncertainties for states contemplating feed-in tariffs by explaining the constraints imposed by federal statutes. It describes the federal constraints, identifies transaction categories that are free of those constraints, and offers ways for state and federal policymakers to interpret or modify existing law to remove or reduce these constraints. This report proposes ways to revise these federal statutes. It creates a broad working definition of a state-level feed-in tariff. Given this definition, this report concludes there are paths to non-preempted, state-level feed-in tariffs under current federal law.

  10. Reducing Tariffs According to WTO Accession Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosse, Henrik Barslund; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis

    2012-01-01

    When Vietnam joined the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2007 it was granted an accession period up to 2014. During this period tariffs would have to fall according to the accession agreement. This paper evaluates this 2007–2014 trade liberalization by building an applied general equilibrium model...

  11. Individual Mobile Communication Services and Tariffs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIndividual services and tariffs existed briefly in the beginning of telecommunications history 150 years ago but faded away over time. Service provisioning evolved into the current supplier-centric situation which has many limitations and disadvantages. This thesis re-embraces the user-c

  12. IMPROVING MARKET ACCESS: THE ROLE OF AUCTIONS IN CONVERTING TARIFF-RATE QUOTAS INTO SINGLE TARIFFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joerin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the conversion of TRQs into single tariffs under perfect and imperfect competition. Based on experiences from Switzerland, auctions allow the determination of the equivalent tariffs. Results from auctions of TRQs of dried meat products under perfect competition show that the observed auction prices would lead to tariffs which are below the equivalent tariffs. Hence, if the ‘new tariffs’ would be determined through auctions, market access would be improved, but also farm prices would lower. However, under imperfect competition, based on Bhagwati’s theorem of the non-equivalence of tariffs and quotas, market access could be improved by converting TRQs into single tariffs even if farm prices are held constant. In order to ensure that auctions are competitive and collusion among bidders is prevented, the ‘variable supply’ auction format which re¬sists collusion needs to be adopted in the event of high buyer’s concentration. Despite the various benefits of auctions, quota holders’ persisting rent-seeking behaviour hinders that auctions are mainstreamed in allocating TRQs.

  13. Tariffs In Apparel And Footwear: A Gender Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uros Andrejevic

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of tariffs is very different from the reality of tariffs. Most of the literature on protectionism is too theoretical and, more importantly, too aggregate. In practice, tariffs greatly differ among products and affect consumers differently based on their income and gender. In this paper we use a gender approach to study US tariffs on selected apparel and footwear products. The scope of this study is to examine whether gender plays a role in evaluating the cost of tariffs on consumers and to suggest policies to end a possible discriminatory conduct.

  14. Congestion management of distribution networks with day-ahead dynamic grid tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei

    vehicles (EV) and heat pumps (HP), will be largely deployed in electrical distribution networks. Congestion management will be important in the future active distribution networks. In the IDE4L project, work package 5 is dedicated to develop different kinds of congestion management methods. Demand response......In order to reduce CO2 emissions and alleviate the global warming issue, many countries are setting goals to increase the percentage of renewable energy in the total energy consumption. In this process, a large number of distributed energy resources (DER), distributed generation (DG), electric...... (DR) is one of the important methods. In this report, as one task of work package 5, the day-ahead dynamic tariff (DADT) method for congestion management in distribution networks is presented. The dynamic tariff (DT) can motivate the flexible demands (EV and HP) to shift their energy consumption...

  15. Impact of Large Scale Energy Efficiency Programs On Consumer Tariffs and Utility Finances in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abhyankar, Nikit; Phadke, Amol

    2011-01-20

    Large-scale EE programs would modestly increase tariffs but reduce consumers' electricity bills significantly. However, the primary benefit of EE programs is a significant reduction in power shortages, which might make these programs politically acceptable even if tariffs increase. To increase political support, utilities could pursue programs that would result in minimal tariff increases. This can be achieved in four ways: (a) focus only on low-cost programs (such as replacing electric water heaters with gas water heaters); (b) sell power conserved through the EE program to the market at a price higher than the cost of peak power purchase; (c) focus on programs where a partial utility subsidy of incremental capital cost might work and (d) increase the number of participant consumers by offering a basket of EE programs to fit all consumer subcategories and tariff tiers. Large scale EE programs can result in consistently negative cash flows and significantly erode the utility's overall profitability. In case the utility is facing shortages, the cash flow is very sensitive to the marginal tariff of the unmet demand. This will have an important bearing on the choice of EE programs in Indian states where low-paying rural and agricultural consumers form the majority of the unmet demand. These findings clearly call for a flexible, sustainable solution to the cash-flow management issue. One option is to include a mechanism like FAC in the utility incentive mechanism. Another sustainable solution might be to have the net program cost and revenue loss built into utility's revenue requirement and thus into consumer tariffs up front. However, the latter approach requires institutionalization of EE as a resource. The utility incentive mechanisms would be able to address the utility disincentive of forgone long-run return but have a minor impact on consumer benefits. Fundamentally, providing incentives for EE programs to make them comparable to supply

  16. Regulation of the electricity sector in Russia: regional aspects (in Russian)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Yudashkina; Sergey Pobochy

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the influence of interests of regional energy companies, consumers and governors on electricity regulation policy in Russian regions. We use panel data on electricity tariffs and electricity consumption in 77 regions during 1998-2003. We find evidence that governors tended to "freeze" the tariffs during governor elections, and that energy-intensive enterprises prefer buying electricity at the federal wholesale market to bargaining over lower tariffs with regional regulators. We co...

  17. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    on the number of firms, firm profits, tariff revenue and consumer welfare. We show that both types of trade barriers reduce (increase) the number of exporting (pure domestic) firms. However, the sum of available home and foreign varieties may actually increase for small tariffs. Firm profits fall for both......This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with bilateral ad valorem tariffs and fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms. In this model not all firms will choose to export. We examine the effects of reciprocal changes in the tariff and the fixed export barrier...

  18. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  19. 19 CFR 10.778 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.778 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... under § 10.770 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under...

  20. 19 CFR 10.818 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.818 Filing of claim for tariff preference level. A... originating good under § 10.810 of this subpart may nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff...

  1. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Tufon, Christopher [Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Isemonger, Alan [California Independent System Operator

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would

  2. Setting prices for tariff and volume risks of power acquisition in consideration of portfolio aspects of industrial customers in the electricity market; Bepreisen von Preis- und Mengenrisiken der Strombeschaffung unter Beruecksichtigung von Portfolioaspekten bei Grosskunden im Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohbuecker, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    Against the background of increasing price pressure and competition for industrial customers in the market, utilities find it a challenge to offer interesting electricity rates that will also cover the cost and risk involved. The author investigates inhowfar portfolio effects affect risk premiums of customers in the portfolio, and how existing effects may be used for pricing. The methods are derived from risk assessment and capital allocation methods of the banking and insurance sector. This is followed by and exemplary analysis of risks and the portfolio effect using a concrete portfolio as an example.

  3. Welfare-maximizing and revenue-maximizing tariffs with a few domestic firms

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Larue; Jean-Philippe Gervais

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we compare the orthodox optimal tariff formula with the appropriate welfare-maximizing tariff when there are a few producing or importing firms. The welfare-maximizing tariff can be very low, voire negative in some cases, while in others it can even exceed the maximum-revenue tariff. The relationship between the welfare-maximizing tariff and the number of firms need not be monotonically increasing, because the tariff is not strictly used to internalize terms of trade externality...

  4. Tariff based value of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raekkoelaeinen, J.; Vilkko, M.; Antila, H.; Lautala, P. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    In this article an approach for determining a value of wind energy is presented. Calculation is based on wholesale tariffs, i.e. the value of wind energy is defined in comparison with other purchase. This approach can be utilised as an aid in the investment planning in defining the benefits of new wind generation capacity. Linear programming optimization method is used. A case study is presented for different wind scenarios. The value of wind energy can vary remarkably depending on timing of power output. (author)

  5. Impact of Battery Energy Storage System Operation Strategy on Power System: An Urban Railway Load Case under a Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeongig Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer-owned battery energy storage systems (BESS have been used to reduce electricity costs of energy storage owners (ESOs under a time-of-use (TOU tariff in Korea. However, the current TOU tariff can unintentionally induce customer’s electricity usage to have a negative impact on power systems. This paper verifies the impact of different BESS operation strategies on power systems under a TOU tariff by analyzing the TOU tariff structure and the customer’s load pattern. First, several BESS operation strategies of ESO are proposed to reduce the electricity cost. In addition, a degradation cost calculation method for lithium ion batteries is considered for the ESO to determine the optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes both electricity cost and annual investment cost. The optimal BESS operation strategy that maximizes ESO’s net benefit is illustrated by simulation using an urban railway load data from Namgwangju Station, Korea. The results show that BESS connected to urban railway loads can negative impact power system operation. This is due to the high BESS degradation costs and lack of incentive of differential rates in TOU tariff that can effectively induce proper demand response.

  6. Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bettendorf, LJH; Heijdra, BJ

    2001-01-01

    A dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff shock has sig

  7. Intergenerational welfare effects of a tariff under monopolistic competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.H. Bettendorf (Leon); B.J. Heijdra (Ben)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA dynamic overlapping-generations model of a semi-small open economy with monopolistic competition in the goods market is constructed. A tariff increase reduces real output and employment and improves the terms of trade, both in the impact period and in the new steady state. The tariff s

  8. 14 CFR 221.212 - Special tariff permission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... in the Government Filing File and the Filing Advice Status File, and shall be referenced in such a... in the Government Filing File and the Filing Advice Status File. (d) When the paper portion of a...) When a filer submits an electronic tariff or an amendment to an electronic tariff for which authority...

  9. 7 CFR 735.107 - Warehouse charges and tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Warehouse charges and tariffs. 735.107 Section 735.107... AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS FOR WAREHOUSES REGULATIONS FOR THE UNITED STATES WAREHOUSE ACT Warehouse Licensing § 735.107 Warehouse charges and tariffs. (a) A warehouse operator must not make any unreasonable...

  10. A Comparison Between Chinese and Foreign Power Tariffs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    @@ With deepened reform of power system and marketization, power tariff has more and more become a topic of discussion, and furthermore, that the power tariff in China is high or low, reasonable or unreasonable is a top hot spot of the society.

  11. INCIDENTAL PROTECTION: AN EXAMINATION OF THE MORRILL TARIFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Flaherty

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historians refer to the Morrill Tariff as the first statement of the nascent Republican party’s protectionist agenda, yet an analysis of the measure reveals that this enduring icon of historiography needs modification. Implemented as a direct response to the fiscal crisis created by the Buchanan administration, the Morrill Tariff represents a bipartisan effort to augment federal revenue for a depleted Treasury. Both President James Buchanan and many of his Democratic colleagues in Congress urged revising the Tariff of 1857 to arrest the growth of the federal deficit. However, the bitter rhetoric that accompanied the secession crisis has obscured the true nature of this short-lived, but important, revenue measure. An examination of the Morrill Tariff and the circumstances surrounding its passage demonstrate that it re-established the rates from the free trade Tariff of 1846 while providing incidental protection for select industries, a practice accepted, even advocated, by the Democratic party for over a decade.

  12. The Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Feizabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i high average tariffs, ii the existence of tariff escalation, iii dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed patterns of tariff protection in developing countries: i escalation of nominal tariff rates with the degree of processing, ii higher average tariffs in the agricultural sector compared to agriculture in developed countries, and iii higher non-agricultural than agricultural tariff protection. Here the Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in developing countries is described. This theory allows us to identify two sets of products. Agricultural products for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values, therefore, tariff cuts should occur in a long period of time and for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values therefore tariff reductions would not be politically costly.

  13. Overall review of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard policy: A perspective of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Q. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Yang, L.; Wang, X.

    2016-08-01

    A major share of China's total carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is from the electric power sector. To solve this problem, Chinese government has implemented many renewable energy policies in the electric power sector. In China, the most popular renewable energy policies are Feed-in tariff (FIT) and renewable portfolio standard (RPS). This paper first introduces the current development of renewable electricity generation. Second the design plan and implement of FIT and RPS in China's thermal electricity generation sector are summarized in this paper. Third this paper establishes a complementary mode of FIT and RPS which can provide a stable environment to make the FIT and RPS work together. Finally, based on the above analysis, this paper proposes relative suggestions for the implementation of FIT and RPS in China making recommendation for the development of electricity generation from renewable energy.

  14. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the end-users to get back to the regulated power supply tariff, about the proposal of law aiming at authorizing the reversibility of the use of eligibility rights for the purchase of electric power, and about the proposal of law aiming at preserving the purchasing power of households by maintaining the regulated prices of electricity and natural gas; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur la proposition de loi tendant a autoriser les consommateurs particuliers a retourner au tarif reglemente d'electricite, la proposition de loi reversibilite de l'exercice des droits relatifs a l'eligibilite pour l'achat d'energie electrique et la proposition de loi tendant a preserver le pouvoir d'achat des menages en maintenant les tarifs reglementes de vente d'electricite et de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report concerns the examination of three proposals of law in relation with the regulated prices of electricity and gas. Since July 1, 2007, the French households can freely quit their historical energy supplier and subscribe to other suppliers with de-regulated energy prices. In front of the rise of free energy prices observed during the last years, some households who made the choice of free tariffs have encountered serious financial problems. For this reason, a law is proposed by the commission of economic affairs which aims at allowing the end-users to get back to the regulated tariffs of electricity and gas. (J.S.)

  15. Indirect Load Control for Energy Storage Systems Using Incentive Pricing under Time-of-Use Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Gu Jeong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Indirect load control (ILC is a method by which the customer determines load reduction of electricity by using a price signal. One of the ILCs is a time-of-use (TOU tariff, which is the most commonly used time-varying retail pricing. Under the TOU tariff, the customer can reduce the energy cost through an energy storage system (ESS. However, because this tariff is fixed for several months, the ESS operation does not truly reflect the wholesale market price, which could widely fluctuate. To overcome this limitation, this paper proposes an incentive pricing method in which the load-serving entity (LSE gives the incentive pricing signal to the customers with ESSs. Because the ESS charging schedule is determined by the customer through ILC, a bilevel optimization problem that includes the customer optimization problem is utilized to determine the incentive pricing signal. Further, the bilevel optimization problem is reformulated into a one-level problem to be solved by an interior point method. In the proposed incentive scheme: (1 the social welfare increases and (2 the increased social welfare can be equitably divided between the LSE and the customer; and (3 the proposed incentive scheme leads the customer to voluntarily follow the pricing signal.

  16. ECONOMIC-POLITICAL DETERMINANTS OF IMPORT TARIFF UNIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Afontsev

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The economic-political determinants of the Russian import tariff reform in 2000 − 2001 years, leading up to partial unification of the import customs duties, are considered a With this purpose the model of tariff policy definition which considers the aspiration of the government to minimize the losses of tariff incomes caused by incorrect declaring of the goods by importers is constructed in the work. It is revealed, that reception of tariff incomes was the main motive at the development of tariff policy; the following on a degree of importance were the motives connected with increase of citizens well-being and attraction of support from business lobbies. As a whole, the government has established lower rates of the tariff for the goods with higher probability of incorrect declaring, and higher rates - for the goods which otherwise could be used as a "screen" for incorrectly declared goods. At the same time significant opportunities for the further unification of import duties which can serve as perspective strategy of tariff policy during a transition period after Russian connection to WTO are kept.

  17. Non-tariff Protectionism in EU Countries and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnyk Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article assesses positions of the European Union as an integration association in international trade, studies the system of non-tariff regulation in EU countries and identifies key problems of harmonisation of the Ukrainian legislation to the European one in the sphere of non-tariff regulation of international trade. In order to assess scales of application of non-tariff measures in foreign trade, the article analyses the index of coverage and frequency of use of non-tariff restrictions, dynamics of initiated non-tariff measures and trade structure of their distribution, and also detects reasons of application of non-tariff restrictions. The article characterises the system of technical regulation of EU and assesses main steps of Ukraine on the way of bringing the domestic standards in correspondence with the European ones as a necessary condition for increase of export of domestic products and increase of its competitiveness. The prospect of further scientific studies in this direction lies in forecasting influence of non-tariff restrictions upon volumes of import and export flows in foreign trade.

  18. 19 CFR 10.421 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.421 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... to 5516) that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the US-CFTA... conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the US-CFTA other than the condition that they...

  19. 19 CFR 10.779 - Goods eligible for tariff preference claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.779 Goods eligible for tariff preference claims. The... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that they... for preferential tariff treatment under the MFTA, other than the condition that they are...

  20. 19 CFR 10.521 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.521 Goods eligible for tariff... United States, and that meet the applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the SFTA, other than the condition that they are originating goods. The preferential tariff treatment is...

  1. Global effects of accelerated tariff liberalization in the forest products sector to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushuai Zhu; Joseph Buongiorno; David J. Brooks

    2002-01-01

    This study projects the effects of tariff elimination on the world sector. Projections were done for two scenarios: (1) progressive tariff elimination according to the schedule agreed to under the current General Agreement on Tariff or Trade (GATT) and (2) complete elimination of tariff on wood products as proposed within the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)...

  2. Tariff discrimination on Brazil's soluble coffee: an economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marislei Nishijima

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the impacts of the imposition of tariffs on the Brazilian soluble coffee mainly by European countries as of the 1990s. More particularly, it verifies whether the imposition of discriminatory trade tariffs by the European Union and of non-discriminatory ones by some Eastern European countries reflects on the international demand for this commodity. For this purpose, dynamic models of global demand for Brazilian soluble coffee were estimated for the 1995-2003 period using data from the International Coffee Organization. Findings suggest that existing tariffs significantly account for the reduction of Brazilian share of soluble in the world market.

  3. Utility Green Tariff Programs: Considerations for Federal Agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, Jenny

    2017-05-08

    This FEMP First Thursday presentation will explain the concept of a utility green tariff, how it differs from a green pricing program, and what questions federal agencies should have about participating.

  4. INNOVATIVE APPROACH IN THE COMPULSORY HEALTH INSURANCE TARIFF SETTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Zasypkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of a single channel financing in the health system of the Russian Federation based on the standards of the compulsory health insurance (CHI requires a single channel financing of the health system through the CHI as one of the main direction using payment of the medical services in the form of so-called «full» tariff [1-12].It is not a secret that for many years the medical services tariff in the CHI system contained from only five items of expenditures (salary, charges on payroll, soft goods and clothing, medicines, bandages, other medical expenses, and food. On one hand, such defective tariff was based on the parallel government financing of the medical institutions (MIs, on the other hand, because of this tariff, the manager was hoppled in the control of the financial flows.

  5. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. García-Rubio

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the capacity of urban water tariffs to recover service costs and to promote efficiency, sustainability, affordability, and equity. Although it has made significant progress in recent years, the Spanish urban water tariff system still faces many challenges. Many of these challenges would be better addressed by a national independent regulatory body.

  6. Tariff-Mediated Network Effects Versus Strategic Disounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zucchini, Leon; Claussen, Jörg; Trüg, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    . Alternatively, research on strategic discounting suggests that small operators use on-net discounts to advertise with low on-net prices. We test the relative strength of these effects using data on tariff setting in German mobile telecommunications between 2001 and 2009. We find that large operators are more......Mobile telecommunication operators routinely charge subscribers lower prices for calls on their own network than for calls to other networks (on-net discounts). Studies on tariff-mediated network effects suggest this is due to large operators using on-net discounts to damage smaller rivals...... likely to offer tariffs with on-net discounts but there is no consistently significant difference in the magnitude of discounts. Our results suggest that tariff-mediated network effects are the main cause of on-net discounts....

  7. Current Electric Distribution Network Operation and Grid Tariffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    The aim of EcoGridEU task 1.4 is to extend the real‐time price approach with an integrated optimization of the distribution system operation. This will be achieved by extending the basic real‐time market concept with local location‐dependant prices that reflect the grid operation, especially...

  8. Desirable role in an international duopoly model with tariffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we study an international market model in which the home government imposes a tariff on the imported goods. The model has two stages. In the first stage, the home government chooses an import tariff to maximize a function that cares about the home firm's profit and the total revenue. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot or in a Stackelberg competition. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  9. Tariffs and the adoption of clean technology under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Ludema; Taizo Takeno

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of import tariffs on the decision of a foreign monopolist to adopt "clean" technology - technology that reduces the flow of a negative cross-border externality per unit of exports. The clean technology is assumed to increase the marginal cost of production relative to the dirty technology, but only the firm knows the extent of the increase. Under complete information, we show that, despite its protectionist motivation, the importing country's optimal tariff indu...

  10. Urban Water Tariffs in Spain: What Needs to Be Done?

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel A. García-Rubio; Alberto Ruiz-Villaverde; Francisco González-Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, in the context of the Integrated Water Resources Management, demand policies are playing a more important role as opposed to traditional supply policies based on the construction of large hydraulic infrastructures. In this new context, water tariffs have become an important tool in achieving economic efficiency, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This paper reviews the situation of urban water tariffs in Spain, a country subject to high water stress. It analyzes the ca...

  11. Farther Export Tariff Laid on Some RE Metallic Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ To further regulate the export of high-energy-consumption and high-pollution products and resources products, promote the import of energy products, resource products and key components and facilitate the trade balance, and approved by the 9th Meeting of Tariff Regulations Commission of the State Council, China would adjust the import and export tariff rate of some commodities since June 1st, 2007.

  12. Firm Type, Feed-in Tariff, and Wind Energy Investment in Germany : An Investigation of Decision Making Factors of Energy Producers Regarding Investing in Wind Energy Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lone; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    The development of renewable and sustainable energy is advanced by public financial support. This is particularly so in the German Energiewende, which seeks to replace nuclear and fossil electricity generation with wind, sun, and biomass. We study the impact of the (changes in the) feed-in tariff

  13. Firm Type, Feed-in Tariff, and Wind Energy Investment in Germany : An Investigation of Decision Making Factors of Energy Producers Regarding Investing in Wind Energy Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Lone; Scholtens, Lambertus

    2017-01-01

    The development of renewable and sustainable energy is advanced by public financial support. This is particularly so in the German Energiewende, which seeks to replace nuclear and fossil electricity generation with wind, sun, and biomass. We study the impact of the (changes in the) feed-in tariff (F

  14. Assessing the impact of changes in the electricity price structure on dairy farm energy costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upton, J.R.; Murphy, M.; Shalloo, L.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to provide information on the changes in electricity consumption and costs on dairy farms, through the simulation of various electricity tariffs that may exist in the future and how these tariffs interact with changes in farm management (i.e. shifting the milking operation to an earl

  15. The Ecuador electric wholesaler market: the financial equilibrium problems; O mercado eletrico atacadista equatoriano: a problematica de equilibrio financeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irrazabal Bohorquez, Washington Orlando; Azevedo, Erick Menezes de [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)]. E-mails: wirraz@yahoo.com; erickazevedo@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    The paper presents the established debt among the different actors of the Ecuadorian Electric Wholesaler Market, the tariff deficit by the application of the tariffs that established prices below the objective tariffs, the un accomplish with the times predicted and the maintenance and the expansion plans for the generation, transmission and distribution systems. An attempt was made for proposal medium and long terms for the stimulation of new inversions guaranteeing the supply the Ecuadorian electric demand and to get the market financial equilibrium.

  16. Efficient determination of distribution tariffs for the prevention of congestion from EV Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Wu, Qiuwei; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding into the ......A dual objective electric vehicle (EV) charging schedule optimisation is proposed here whereby both consumer driving requirements and grid constraints are respected. A day-ahead dynamic tariff (DT) for distribution systems is proposed as a price signal to EV fleet operators (FO) bidding...... into the day-ahead market. The DT acts to disperse charging at congested periods and locations, thereby preventing congestion on a day-ahead basis. The magnitude of the DT is determined from a simulated locational marginal prices (LMPs), and the time extent of the DT is determined from analysis of the system...... loading curve prior to the application of the DT. Case studies were performed using a sample distribution network modelled on a network from the Danish island of Bornholm. A variety of price profiles were used to illustrate the efficacy of this approach. The case study results show that this approach...

  17. Policy of Tariff Protection in the Light of WTO Accession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Burim Gashi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Tariff rates are crucial instrument of trade policy. This paper covers several important issues related to the reforms of this area. First part of the paper explains the key features of tariffs as protection instrument: different policy takers and opposite economic interests; benefits and adverse effects; alternative measures of protection; dependence of tariff policy on the development priorities and the welfare effects, etc. This document explains main World Trade Organization requirements concerning protection policy such as primary role of tariffs, restricted set of non-tariff instruments, limited scope of safeguard measures, comparison on the legal development in the field until now, and an indication of further legislation changes necessary in the period of adjustment. It also gives main elements of the customs-reform strategy: choice and concentration of goals and priorities; criteria for preparation of the alternative scenarios; solving convergence problems; defining conditionality for alternative solutions and interdependence of relevant externalities. The goal of the paper is to give recommendation for trade policy reform in our country necessarily to become member of World Trade Organization.

  18. Climate change : the case for a carbon tariff/tax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J.; Allan, J.R. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Inst. of Intergovernmental Relations

    2008-03-15

    Canada's ratification of the Kyoto Protocol will not adequately address the country's contribution to global climatic change. This paper proposed a 2-tier system consisting of internationally imposed carbon import tariffs combined with an equivalent domestic carbon tax. The approach was designed to engage global exporters and importers, while also involving governments and policy commitments related to emissions and cap-and-trade systems. Although a carbon tax on emissions is preferable to an opting-in approach, Canadian government has rejected carbon taxes due to the suspicion that Canadian companies will easily circumvent regulations. It is anticipated that many companies in carbon tax compliant countries will outsource production to non-compliant countries. The proposed approach required that carbon taxes will be applied to all domestically produced and consumed products, while tariffs will be levied against products from exporting firms. Outsourcing to take advantage of lax environmental policies in pollution havens will be subject to a carbon footprint tariff. The tariff will also serve to reduce the carbon content of exports. Proceeds of the tax can be used in a variety of ways to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. It was concluded that Canada will need to supplement domestic carbon taxes with a proposed carbon import tariff. 1 fig.

  19. A Reasonable Price for Electricity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pront-van Bommel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, consumers’ electricity costs have risen disproportionally compared with the average inflation rate, mostly as the result of increased network tariffs and taxes. This development appears to be at odds with the stated purpose of introducing competition into the electricity sector

  20. 19 CFR 10.606 - Filing of claim for tariff preference level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.606 Filing of claim for... nevertheless be entitled to preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR under an applicable...

  1. Tariffs and Firm-Level Heterogeneous Fixed Export Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  2. 18 CFR 341.1 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a) General rule. Filings of tariff publications and... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 341.1 Section 341.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  3. 18 CFR 154.4 - Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TARIFFS General Provisions and Conditions § 154.4 Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. (a... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic filing of tariffs and related materials. 154.4 Section 154.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources...

  4. 18 CFR 154.208 - Service of tariff filings on customers and other parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.208 Service of tariff filings on customers and... customers and state regulatory commissions that have made a standing request for such service. (c) Within... section, service upon the designated recipient will be deemed service upon the customer or other party. (e...

  5. 19 CFR 132.15 - Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.15 Export certificate for beef subject to tariff-rate quota. (a) Requirement. In order to claim the in-quota tariff rate of duty on...

  6. What Is the Impact After the Change of Copper Custom Tariff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Commission of Customs Tariff of the State Council issued"The notice from the Commis- sion of Customs Tariff of the State Council of the proposals on the implementation of customs tariff in 2008"numbered 25(2007)of the Commission,which was approved by the State Council and will take effort from Jan 1,2008.

  7. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...

  8. 19 CFR 10.763 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Morocco Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.763 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for MFTA preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  9. 19 CFR 10.607 - Goods eligible for tariff preference level claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Tariff Preference Level § 10.607 Goods eligible... applicable conditions for preferential tariff treatment under the CAFTA-DR, other than the condition that they are originating goods. The preferential tariff treatment is limited to the quantities specified...

  10. 19 CFR 10.803 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Bahrain Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.803 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. An importer may make a claim for BFTA preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  11. 19 CFR 181.71 - Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent on origin verification and determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Origin Verifications and Determinations § 181.71 Denial of preferential tariff... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Denial of preferential tariff treatment dependent...) of this part, Customs shall deny preferential tariff treatment on an imported good, or shall deny...

  12. 19 CFR 10.703 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.703 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment. An importer may make a claim for US-JFTA preferential tariff treatment by including on the entry... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  13. 18 CFR 35.10 - Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs and service agreements. 35.10 Section 35.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources... OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Application § 35.10 Form and style of rate schedules, tariffs...

  14. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    the number of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  15. Factor analysis of the electricity cost for retailers of petroleum products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Галина Володимирівна Мулінська

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The main factors of the electricity cost for retailers of petroleum products are defined. The features of the three tariff system of metering and electricity accounting and payment are investigated. It is compared the electricity cost for filling station calculated for single and differentiated tariff. An influence of seasonal fluctuations in electricity consumption at a filling station for a year is analyzed

  16. Coordinated Tax-Tariff Reforms, Informality, and Welfare Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, J.E.; van der Meijden, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    The paper studies the revenue, efficiency, and distributional implications of a simple strategy of offsetting tariff reductions with increases in destination-based consumption taxes so as to leave consumer prices unchanged. We employ a dynamic micro-founded macroeconomic model of a small open develo

  17. Feed-in Tariffs: Good Practices and Design Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-02

    In recent years, feed-in tariff (FIT) activity has focused primarily on revisions to current policies, underscoring the need for stable and predictable, yet flexible, policy environments. This policy brief provides a primer on key FIT design elements, lessons from country experience, and support resources to enable more detailed and country-specific FIT policy design.

  18. Impact of Russian Log Export Tariffs on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of the Sino-Russian timber trade and the history about timber export in Russia,the paper gives the reasons for the adjustment in Russian timber export and its influence on timber import in China.Finally countermeasures against Russian adjustment in timber export tariffs are proposed.

  19. 19 CFR 10.100 - Entry, examination, and tariff status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions United States Government Importations § 10.100 Entry, examination, and tariff status. Except as otherwise..., importations made by or for the account of any agency or office of the United States Government are subject...

  20. Real versus tariff liberalization: a welfare comparison under monopolistic competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    A distinction between real trade costs (e.g. administration, border formalities, transport costs) and tariff costs is introduced into a standard monopolistic competition trade model. Driven by the number of firms, welfare under real trade barriers turns out to be lower than under an equivalent ta...

  1. 47 CFR 69.3 - Filing of access service tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... telephone companies involved in a merger or acquisition. (1) Notwithstanding the requirements of § 69.3(e)(9... resulting from the merger or acquisition of telephone properties are to be made effective on the next annual access tariff filing effective date following consummation of the merger or acquisition transaction,...

  2. A Study of Methods of Telecommunication Tariff Decision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An in-depth exploration has been made of telecommunication tariffand its decision support system. It is the first attempt to conduct such a study by the integrated use of econometrics, system emulation and system dynamics. A practically-demanded cost model of the telecommunication tariff decision is proposed. The system has been verified with real data.

  3. Technical Barriers, Licenses and Tariffs as Means of Limiting Market Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    2006-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market access of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. We find that, if protection focuses predominantly on the number of foreign firms...... accessing the domestic market, a technical barrier (an import license) may dominate a tariff (tariff and a tech- nical barrier) in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. However, if protection pays su±cient focus on limiting the total import volume, then tariffs...

  4. Research on Replacing Effects & Examination System of TBT against Tariff Impediment to Textile and Apparel Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional non-tariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO, Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) has gradually replaced tariff and general non-tariff Barriers to Trade and become an important measurement in new trade protectionism. This article analyzes the replacement of TBT on tariff barrier for exporting countries, as well as the trading pattern of TBT in its maturing period through the discussion of macro strategies of surpassing TBT; meanwhile it also probes into the examination and supervision policies of governmental functional departments.

  5. Feed-in tariffs for promotion of energy storage technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajacic, Goran, E-mail: Goran.Krajacic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Duic, Neven, E-mail: Neven.Duic@fsb.h [University of Zagreb, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, Ivana Lucica 5, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal); Tsikalakis, Antonis, E-mail: atsikal@corfu.power.ece.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Zoulias, Manos, E-mail: mzoulias@cres.g [Centre for Renewable Energy Sources and Savings (CRES), Pikermi (Greece); Caralis, George, E-mail: gcaralis@central.ntua.g [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Panteri, Eirini, E-mail: panteri@rae.g [Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE), Athens (Greece); Carvalho, Maria da Graca, E-mail: mariadagraca.carvalho@europarl.europa.e [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-03-15

    Faster market integration of new energy technologies can be achieved by use of proper support mechanisms that will create favourable market conditions for such technologies. The best examples of support mechanisms presented in the last two decades have been the various schemes for the promotion of renewable energy sources (RES). In the EU, the most successful supporting schemes are feed-in tariffs which have significantly increased utilisation of renewable energy sources in Germany, Spain, Portugal, Denmark and many other EU countries. Despite the successful feed-in tariffs for RES promotion, in many cases RES penetration is limited by power system requirements linked to the intermittency of RES sources and technical capabilities of grids. These problems can be solved by implementation of energy storage technologies like reversible or pumped hydro, hydrogen, batteries or any other technology that can be used for balancing or dump load. In this paper, feed-in tariffs for various energy storage technologies are discussed along with a proposal for their application in more appropriate regions. After successful application on islands and outermost regions, energy storage tariffs should be also applied in mainland power systems. Increased use of energy storage could optimise existing assets on the market. - Research highlights: {yields} Feed-in tariffs will promote development and use of energy storage technologies. {yields} Energy storage effectively increases RES penetration. {yields} Pumped Hydro Storage: an efficient solution for RES integration in islands. {yields} Remuneration of Batteries and Inverters as a service can increase RES Penetration. {yields} Desalination, apart from water can help in more efficient RES integration.

  6. An initial analysis of options for a UK feed-in tariff for photovoltaic energy, from an array owner's viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plater, Steve

    2009-10-01

    The UK government has announced the introduction from April 2010 of a feed-in tariff (FIT) for renewable energy, and initiated a consultation on its design. This paper compares three possible variants of a UK FIT for rooftop photovoltaic (PV) arrays, on the basis of calculated income and array cost payback time, and for three locations (north, central and southern England) and various levels of household electricity consumption. This modelling is based on an FIT rate equivalent to Germany's. It concludes that an FIT which paid only for PV electricity surplus to on-site needs, and exported to the grid, would mean a simple payback time too long to make array purchase appealing. Preferable would be either export to the grid of all PV electricity for FIT payment; or a lower FIT rate for electricity used on-site, plus full FIT for any surplus exported. The latter would involve significantly lower costs in feed-in tariff payments. Finally, the effect of the UK government's illustrative FIT rate for consultation is examined for the same locations and annual consumption levels.

  7. The Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Sari [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); Rogers, Jennifer [Exeter Associates, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15–20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  8. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  9. Definition of Distribution Network Tariffs Considering Distribution Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Tiago; Faria, Pedro; Vale, Zita

    2014-01-01

    The use of distribution networks in the current scenario of high penetration of Distributed Generation (DG) is a problem of great importance. In the competitive environment of electricity markets and smart grids, Demand Response (DR) is also gaining notable impact with several benefits for the wh...... the determination of topological distribution factors, and consequent application of the MW-mile method. The application of the proposed tariffs definition methodology is illustrated in a distribution network with 33 buses, 66 DG units, and 32 consumers with DR capacity...... for the whole system. The work presented in this paper comprises a methodology able to define the cost allocation in distribution networks considering large integration of DG and DR resources. The proposed methodology is divided into three phases and it is based on an AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF) including...

  10. Impacts of Tariff and Non-tariff Trade Barriers on Global Forest Products Trade: An Application of the Global Forest Products Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, L.; Bogdanski, B.; Stennes, B.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Although there has been considerable analysis on the effects of trade measures on forest product markets, these have tended to focus on tariffs. There is growing concern about the impact of non-tariff trade measures on the global forest product sector. The objective of this study is to fill a gap an

  11. Electrical applications 2

    CERN Document Server

    Tyler, David W

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Applications 2 covers the BTEC NII level objectives in Electrical Applications U86/330. To understand the applications, a knowledge of the underlying principles is needed and these are covered briefly in the text. Key topics discussed are: the transmission and distribution of electrical energy; safety and regulations; tariffs and power factor correction; materials and their applications in the electrical industry; transformers; DC machines; illumination; and fuse protection. Included in each chapter are worked examples which should be carefully worked through before progressing to t

  12. 电费回收的策略与对策%Tariff Recovery Strategies and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娟

    2011-01-01

    In the process of electricity market reform, how to solve the problem of tariff recovery is an important issue of the power sector. The power marketing is the core business of power supply company, and has far meaning for the efficiency of electricity charges recovery, in particular, the effective recovery of long-overdue electricity charges. In this paper, problems in the electricity charges recovery process in the new situation are elaborated, and then appropriate strategies and countenneasures are proposed.%在电力市场化改革的过程中如何解决电费回收难问题是电力部门的重要课题.而电力营销是供电企业的核心业务,对提高电费回收的力度及效率,尤其的有效回收陈欠电费,其意义深远.本文就新形势下电费回收过程中存在的问题进行阐述,进而提出相应的策略和对策.

  13. District Heating Systems Performance Analyses. Heat Energy Tariff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemele, Jelena; Vigants, Girts; Vitolins, Valdis; Blumberga, Dagnija; Veidenbergs, Ivars

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an important element of the European energy sector: the evaluation of district heating (DH) system operations from the standpoint of increasing energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energy resources. This has been done by developing a new methodology for the evaluation of the heat tariff. The paper presents an algorithm of this methodology, which includes not only a data base and calculation equation systems, but also an integrated multi-criteria analysis module using MADM/MCDM (Multi-Attribute Decision Making / Multi-Criteria Decision Making) based on TOPSIS (Technique for Order Performance by Similarity to Ideal Solution). The results of the multi-criteria analysis are used to set the tariff benchmarks. The evaluation methodology has been tested for Latvian heat tariffs, and the obtained results show that only half of heating companies reach a benchmark value equal to 0.5 for the efficiency closeness to the ideal solution indicator. This means that the proposed evaluation methodology would not only allow companies to determine how they perform with regard to the proposed benchmark, but also to identify their need to restructure so that they may reach the level of a low-carbon business.

  14. Double Dividend from Tariff Differentiation of Reforestation Fund

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Distortionary levy applied uniformly to all diameter classes of logs from logging natural forest can lead to inefficiencies; certain diameter should be left in the field because it is not economical to be used. Win-win or Pareto improving solution can be achieved if the government is more flexible. Social welfare is higher because of the waste that can be utilized to create employment, production and additional benefits for employers, as well as revenue for the state. Even if the levy rates are forced to zero for small-diameter timber, governments is actually not harmed at all because from the beginning the government does not get any revenue from small timber that is left in the field as waste. In scarcity situations of timber from natural forests, it is desirable if the government is considering differentiating charges in order to reduce or possibly eliminate the volume of waste generated by the levy. In general, tariff differentiation done in the form of higher tariffs for higher diameter logs. If possible, the lowest diameter limit of logs is forced down to its technical limits. That is, the processing tool that will determine how the minimum diameter logs can be processed profitably.Keywords: tariff differentiation, efficiency, timber utilization, government revenue, win-win solutionDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.163

  15. Optimal decisions of countries with carbon tax and carbon tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Hou

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reducing carbon emission has been the core problem of controlling global warming and climate deterioration recently. This paper focuses on the optimal carbon taxation policy levied by countries and the impact on firms’ optimal production decisions. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses a two-stage game theory model to analyze the impact of carbon tariff and tax. Numerical simulation is used to supplement the theoretical analysis. Findings: Results derived from the paper indicate that the demand in an unstable market is significantly affected by environmental damage level. Carbon tariff is a policy-oriented tax while the carbon tax is a market-oriented one. Comprehensive carbon taxation policy benefit developed countries and basic policy is more suitable for developing countries. Research limitations/implications: In this research, we do not consider random demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suited the reality. Originality/value: This work provides a different perspective in analyzing the impact of carbon tax and tariff. It is the first study to consider two consuming market and the strategic game between two countries. Different international status of countries considered in the paper is also a unique point.

  16. Tariff Impact on the Domestic Price of Vegetable Oil in Iran and the Associated Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    omid gilanpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study uses vector error correction model to examine the effects of oilseeds, crude oil and vegetable oil tariffs on vegetable oil consumer price. Monthly data sets for the years 2004-2013 and VAR and VECM models were applied for this study. Research findings indicates only a long term equilibrium relation between the study variables .The effect of vegetable oil tariffs on consumer and producer price index are 0.4 and 0.07, respectively. Furthermore, one percent increase in the oil seeds and crude oil tariff, will increase consumer prices by 2.35, 0.19percent. The huge gap between the impacts of the two tariffs –e.g. oilseeds and crude oil tariffs- on consumer price shows that oil industries work with low efficiency. This practically doubles the impact of tariff on consumers. Accordingly, structural reform in the oil industry can develop oil production and prevent additional burden upon the consumer price.

  17. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade costs. This paper introduces, apart from real variable (i.e. iceberg) and fixed export costs, two partially redistributed tariffs into a Melitz (2003) model. We present comparable results for welfare effects and changes...... to the most preferred mode of liberalization as the fraction of tariffs wasted moves from zero to unity. Apart from a situation with no tariff redistribution, reductions in iceberg trade costs are preferred to reductions in real fixed trade costs which again are preferred to cuts in unit tariffs....

  18. Reductions in real versus tariff barriers: the impact on industry concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Guldager; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    as a reduction of trade barriers) may exert opposing forces on industry concentration, depending on whether the barrier consists of real (frictional) or tariff costs. In particular, the Herfindahl index of industry concentration falls for a reduction in real costs, but rises for a reduction in tariff costs....... The reason is that real barriers burn up resources, such that industry profitability is reduced, reducing entry, and resulting in fewer firms and a correspondingly higher concentration. Under a tariff barrier, the redistributed tariff revenue stabilises industry profitability, resulting in more firms...

  19. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels......Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...

  20. Technical barriers, import licenses and tariffs as means of limiting market access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    Technical barriers (standards), import licenses and tariffs may be deployed as means of limiting the market entry of foreign firms. The present paper examines these measures in a setting of monopolistic competition. It is established that -- contrary to what one would expect -- a technical barrier...... to trade can dominate a tariff in terms of consumer welfare, even when tariff revenues are fully redistributed. This case occurs for high levels of protection. Furthermore, an import license with full redistribution of revenues dominates both the technical barrier and the tariff for all levels...

  1. Goal and Progress of Power Tariff Reform——An interview with Liu Zhenqiu, Vice Director of Department of Price, NDRC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sha Yiqiang

    2008-01-01

    @@ Power tariff reform has made many important and many importan and substantial progresses in respect of marketization The benchmark tariff is a revolutionary progress made in China's power tariff reform

  2. PREDICTABLE TRENDS OF EU TARIFF POLICY IN GLOBALIZATION'S CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caba Stefan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper consists of information regarding current situation of international trade relations, in particular those pertaining to EU, concerning to preferential trade agreements, the trend towards globalization and custom policies. The importance of this document is given by the identification of strategy trends in respect to EU tariff policy in the context of changes at commercial exchange level, as a consequence of international trade globalization's trend. The tariff policy, as a component of the trade one, represents a factor which influences companies behavior and, consequently the structure of import-export interstates relations. Specialty literature has lately identified a less natural phenomenon: starting with adoption by WTO states members of some measures and principles that emphasize the trade globalization tendency, a significant number of preferential agreements were settled in the meanwhile, many of them being bilateral, fact at least at first view is opposite to globalization phenomenon. The causes of this phenomenon have not been yet completely identified by economic analysts, so that these preferential trade agreements can be translated as a an impediment in the way of globalization and, on the contrary an intermediate phase and an accelerator of global extension trade exchange phenomenon. The present work ideas are based on analysis by bibliographic guide that link to historical GATT/WTO and principles which sustain its operation and to dynamic of international trade. Also, there have been studied data related to strategies of trade policy adopted by EU. The results consist of information about tariff policy elements adopted or forecasted by EU in general strategic context of participation to international trade. Particularly, it is emphasized the new competencies that must be achieved by custom personnel because of changes in trade exchanges. The main idea is represented by the necessity of custom authorities responsibility

  3. Environmental and international tariffs in a mixed duopoly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Fernanda A.; Ferreira, Flávio

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of environmental and trade policies in an international mixed duopoly serving two markets, in which the public firm maximizes the sum of consumer surplus and its profit. We also analyse the effects of privatization. The model has two stages. In the first stage, governments choose environmental taxes and import tariffs, simultaneously. Then, the firms engage in a Cournot competition, choosing output levels for the domestic market and to export. We compare the results obtained in the three different ways of moving on the decision make of the firms.

  4. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent policy used globally to reduce development risks, cut financing costs, and grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control. Using case studies and market-focused analysis, this report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) examines strengths and weaknesses of three cost-containment tools: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report provides useful insights on containing costs for policymakers and regulators in the United States and other areas where FIT policies are in development.

  5. The economy-wide impact of multilateral NAMA tariff reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Baltzer, Kenneth; Babula, Ronald

    The Non-Agricultural Market Access (NAMA) negotiations were a key area in the Doha development round, which was suspended indefinitely in July 2006. In this paper, we model and estimate the economic effects on the world and Danish economies of some of the more important proposals that will likely...... tariff reductions with flexibility would generate modest increases in Danish trade and produce a slight improvement in the trade balance. They would also shift Danish trade patterns from EU and EFTA markets towards other world markets. The removal of the developing country flexibility rule would increase...

  6. Analysis of the methodology coherence of the new tariffs reviewing at ANEEL; Analise da coerencia da metodologia de revisao tarifaria da ANEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peano, Claudia De Rosa [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: cpeano@superig.com.br; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia e Administracao. Dept. de Economia]. E-mail: fanuatti@usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This work analyses the methodology adopted by ANEEL in electricity distribution companies' tariff revision. The theoretical approach assumes that the institutional endowment and existing regulatory framework restricts the regulators choice of tariff revision mechanism design. Regulators choice of methodology can contribute to the creation of a good reputation, reducing uncertainties and promoting efficiency. We evaluate how the chosen methods satisfy the aspect of internal coherence among them and with the commitments found in the basic legal framework of the industry. We conclude that the adoption of a Reference Firm as a benchmark presents some coherency and transparency, but the methodology has consistency problems and is not suitable to the maturity level and administrative capacity of the regulatory system. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 1312.10 - Notification of tariff changes and nature of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification of tariff changes and nature of... WATER CARRIER IN NONCONTIGUOUS DOMESTIC TRADE § 1312.10 Notification of tariff changes and nature of... changes and their nature (whether an increase or decrease in service, rates or transportation charges)....

  8. 18 CFR 35.28 - Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Non-discriminatory open... AND TARIFFS Other Filing Requirements § 35.28 Non-discriminatory open access transmission tariff. (a... available supply falls short ofdemand plus the operating reserve requirement. (7) Market Monitoring...

  9. EFFECT OF TARIFF ESCALATION ON GHANAIAN COCOA EXPORTS: AN EMPIRICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdul Aziz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyses the effects of tariff escalation on Ghanaian cocoa exports in four importing markets: USA, EU, Japan and Malaysia. The study estimates nominal and effective protection coefficients in these markets based on ad-valorem equivalent of applied and bound specific tariffs. Results revealed that, effective protection exists in the Japanese and Malaysian cocoa industries at different stages of processing on both bound and applied tariffs. In contrast, the USA and the EU do not effectively protect their cocoa industries, thus, no tariff escalation on applied tariffs against cocoa imports from Ghana. This study concludes that from a static effect, higher tariffs do have a negative consequence on Ghanaian cocoa exports in these importing countries. From a dynamic perspective however, the relationship between tariff structures in these importing countries and Ghanaian cocoa exports is somewhat ambiguous and each situation has to be viewed on their own merit. A complete elimination of tariffs as a form of trade barrier on Ghanaian cocoa exports does not necessarily imply that Ghana could easily increase its exports of value added cocoa.

  10. 76 FR 61074 - USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... Office of the Secretary USDA Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota for Refined Sugar AGENCY... increase in the fiscal year (FY) 2011 refined sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) of 136,078 metric tons raw... MTRV for sugars, syrups, and molasses (collectively referred to as refined sugar) described in...

  11. 76 FR 61472 - Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Revised Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Refined Sugar AGENCY... the fiscal year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported refined sugar... imports of refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (19 U.S.C. 3601(d)(3...

  12. 14 CFR 221.180 - Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... defined in this subpart. (12) The filer must provide a field in the Government Filing File for the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for electronic filing of... Requirements for electronic filing of tariffs. (a) No carrier or filing agent shall file an electronic tariff...

  13. 78 FR 8434 - Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service 7 CFR Part 6 RIN 0551-AA82 Dairy Tariff-Rate Import... rulemaking. SUMMARY: Request for public comment on the Dairy Tariff-Rate Import Quota Licensing Program..., Agricultural Marketing Specialist, Sugar and Dairy Branch, Import Programs and Export Reporting...

  14. A global survey of urban water tariffs: are they sustainable, efficient and fair?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.; Gasson, C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the relations between tariffs and sustainability, efficiency and equity, using a unique data-set for 308 cities in 102 countries. Higher water tariffs are correlated with lower per capita consumption, smaller local populations, lower water availability, higher demand and a lower

  15. 19 CFR 10.410 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Chile Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.410 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Declaration. In connection with a claim for preferential... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  16. 19 CFR 10.510 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. United States-Singapore Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.510 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Claim. An importer may make a claim for SFTA... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  17. 19 CFR 10.583 - Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Import Requirements § 10.583 Filing of claim for preferential tariff treatment upon importation. (a) Basis of claim. An... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of claim for preferential tariff...

  18. 19 CFR 10.712 - Verification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States-Jordan Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications § 10.712 Verification of claim for preferential tariff treatment. A claim for preferential tariff treatment made under § 10.703 of this subpart... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Verification of claim for preferential...

  19. 19 CFR 10.616 - Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RATE, ETC. Dominican Republic-Central America-United States Free Trade Agreement Origin Verifications and Determinations § 10.616 Verification and justification of claim for preferential tariff treatment... preferential tariff treatment. 10.616 Section 10.616 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER...

  20. Analysis of carbon mitigation policies. Feed-in tariffs, energy and carbon price interactions and competitive distortions on carbon markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichenbach, Johanna

    2011-07-19

    I study several policy instruments for carbon mitigation with a focus on subsidies for renewable energies, emission taxes and emission allowances. In Chapter 1, I analyze the optimal design and the welfare implications of two policies consisting of an emission tax for conventional fossil-fuel utilities combined with a subsidy for the producers of renewable energy equipment and an emission tax combined with a feed-in tariff for renewable electricity. In Chapter 2 I study the empirical interrelationships between European emission allowance prices and prices for electricity, hard coal and natural gas with an application to portfolio allocation. In Chapters 3 and 4, I discuss several policy-related issues of emissions trading, in particular the potential for market manipulations by firms holding a dominant position in the emission market, the output market or both, and competitive distortions and leakage due to unequal emission regulations across industries, sectors, regions, or countries. (orig.)

  1. Photovoltaics: reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and changing PV efficiencies and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H L; Van Gerven, T; Baeyens, J; Degrève, J

    2014-01-01

    Feed-in-Tariff (FiT) mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i) briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii) describes the developments of PV, (iii) applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium); and finally (iv) predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  2. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  3. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...... preferential tariffs imposed by a number of developed countries on African LDCs. These are shown to be higher than the TWPTs aggregated from the same disaggregated tariff data set. Numerical simulations conducted with the two sets of aggregated tariffs confirm the two claims and suggest that TWPTs may lead...

  4. 新形势下电力企业电费回收管控措施与手段%Tariff Recovery Control Measures for Power Enterprise under the New Situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑛

    2016-01-01

    Tariff recovery is an important link in electric power enterprise capital turnover. In the current economic downturn, there is increasing electricity charge risk. Combined with the tariff recovery management status in the current situation, this paper has carried out in-depth analysis and discussion, and puts forward measures and means to prevent tariff risk management, to dissolve the tariff recovery problem quickly, and reduce operating losses.%电费回收是电力企业资金周转的一个重要环节,在当前市场经济不景气的情况下,电费风险日益突显。结合电费回收管理现状,就当前的严峻形势,本文开展了深入分析,探讨、提出防范电费风险管理措施及手段,以迅速化解电费回收难题,减少经营损失。

  5. Poverty and environmental impacts of electricity price reforms in Montenegro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia [Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Studiestraede 6, DK-1455 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Klytchnikova, Irina [The World Bank, Poverty Reduction and Economic Management Department (ECSPE) (United States); Radevic, Dragana [Center for Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (ME)

    2009-03-15

    The creation of the Energy Community of South Eastern Europe in 2005 committed countries in South Eastern Europe to liberalize their energy markets in accordance to EU regulations. The Government of Montenegro is thus in the process of reforming its energy sector, which includes an electricity tariff reform. This paper analyzes the environmental and social impacts of an increase in residential electricity tariffs contemplated - which is expected to range anywhere from 40 to over 100% increase. As this analysis shows, such a significant price rise will impose a heavy burden on the poor households and it may adversely affect the environment. In an ex ante investigation of the welfare impact of this price increase on households in Montenegro, we show that the anticipated price increase will result in a very significant increase in households' energy expenditures. A simulation of alternative policy measures analyzes the impact of different tariff levels and structures, focusing on the poor and vulnerable households. Higher electricity prices could also significantly increase the proportion of households using fuelwood for space heating. Thus the level of fuelwood consumption should be carefully monitored under the electricity tariff reforms and the Government of Montenegro should combine the tariff reforms with a carefully evaluated set of policy measures to mitigate the effect of the electricity price increase on the poor. (author)

  6. WTO UpholdsU.S.Tariffs on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lesley Cui

    2011-01-01

    The World Trade Organization on September 5released the ruling of its Appellate Body,upholding President Obama's decision to impose three-year punitive tariffs on Chinese passenger and light truck tires.The Obama administration in September 2009placed a 35 percent safeguard duty on tires for cars and light trucks that Chinese manufacturers exported to the US,after the United Steelworkers (USW) complained that surging imports hurt home producers.Chinese tire imports were shown to have surged to record levels in the five years prior to the filing of the petition,causing significant market disruption.According to the USW,Chinese tire imports by volume grew 215%from 2004 until 2008,reaching a volume of 46 million tires.

  7. Supporting Effective Feed-in Tariff Development in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-04-01

    Since 2011, Malaysia's overarching policy framework for clean energy development, the New Energy Policy, has led to significant deployment of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Building on the New Energy Policy, Malaysia mandated adoption of a renewable energy feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism under the 2011 Renewable Energy Act. In 2013, Malaysia's Sustainable Energy Development Authority partnered with the Clean Energy Solutions Center and the Clean Energy Regulators Initiative (CERI), via the Ask an Expert service, to implement FiT policies and expand renewable energy development. Through collaboration between the government of Malaysia and the Clean Energy Solutions Center, concrete policy action was supported and implemented, building a strong framework to expand and catalyze clean energy development.

  8. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  9. Economic assessment group on power transmission and distribution networks tariffs; Groupe d'expertise economique sur la tarification des reseaux de transport et de distribution de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-06-01

    Facing the new law on the electric power market liberalization, the french government created an experts group to analyze solutions and assessment methods of the electrical networks costs and tariffs and to control their efficiency. This report presents the analysis and the conclusions of the group. It concerns the three main subjects: the regulation context, the tariffing of the electric power transmission and distribution (the cost and efficiency of the various options) and the tariffing of the electric power supply to the eligible consumers. The authors provide a guideline for a tariffing policy. (A.L.B.)

  10. Local CHP Plants between the Natural Gas and Electricity Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Lars; Schaumburg-Müller, Camilla

    2005-01-01

    that are expected to be in force in Denmark during 2005, where a large part of the local CHP plants will change from being paid for electricity production according to a feed-in tariff, to a situation where the electricity is to be sold on market conditions. The results will highlight the CHP plant as the link...

  11. Notice no.02-A-05 of the 18 april 2002 relative to the tariffs of the electric power transport and distribution public networks utilization; Avis no.02-A-05 du 18 avril 2002 relatif aux tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux publics de transport et de distribution d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This notice gives the juridical framework of the future decree concerning the access to the public network of electric power transport and distribution, the principles of the regulation and the project description. It gives also opinions on the competition analysis and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  12. Sectoral electricity elasticities in South Africa: Before and after the supply crisis of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Blignaut

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the price elasticity of electricity for various industrial sectors of the South African economy from 2002 to 2011. The data used include sectoral electricity consumption data and electricity tariff data, both courtesy of Eskom as well as output data based on national statistics. The most important contribution this paper makes is that it includes the period after the sharp rises in electricity tariffs in 2007/2008 following a period of load-shedding and insecurity in electricity supply. Previous studies have included data only until 2007 and, for the most part, have found statistically insignificant, positive elasticities. However, for the period post-2007, we found statistically significant and negative elasticities for 9 of the 11 sectors considered. Our results show that the majority of industrial sectors have become much more sensitive to changes in the price of electricity following 2007/2008, indicating to policymakers that tariff restructuring might influence consumer behaviour significantly.

  13. 75 FR 57293 - Certain Festive Articles: Recommendations for Modifying the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... investigation and opportunity to present written views on proposed recommendations. SUMMARY: Following receipt... of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTS) relating to certain utilitarian articles... filing written views relating to the Commission's proposed recommendations. November 29,...

  14. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level...

  15. Researches on the Model of Telecommunication Service with Variable Input Tariff Rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper sets up and studies the model of the telecommunication queue servicing system with variable input tariff rates, which can relieve the crowding system traffic flows during the busy hour to enhance the utilizing rate of the telecom's resources.

  16. Open Access Transmission Tariff: Effective December 18, 1998 (Revised June 16, 1999).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-06-16

    Bonneville will provide Network Integration Transmission Service pursuant to the terms and conditions contained in this Tariff and Service Agreement. The service that Bonneville will provide under this Tariff allows a Transmission Customer to integrate, economically dispatch and regulate its current and planned Network Resources to serve its Network Load. Network Integration Transmission Service also may be used by the Transmission Customer to deliver nonfirm energy purchases to its Network Load without additional charge. To the extent that the transmission path for moving power from a Network Resource to a Network Load includes the Eastern and Southern Interties, the terms and conditions for service over such intertie facilities are provided under Part 2 of this Tariff. Also, transmission service for third-party sales which are not designated as Network Load will be provided under Bonneville's Point-to-Point Transmission Service (Part 2 of this Tariff).

  17. Does achieving the best practice tariff improve outcomes in hip fracture patients? An observational cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oakley, B; Nightingale, J; Moran, CG; Moppett, IK

    2017-01-01

      Objectives To determine if the introduction of the best practice tariff (BPT) has improved survival of the elderly hip fracture population, or if achieving BPT results in improved survival for an individual...

  18. Welfare Effects of Tariff Peak Conversion: The Case of Monopolistic Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Jørgensen, Jan Guldager

    WTO negotiations have introduced formula approaches to reduce protection and improve market access. It has been argued that formula approaches are needed even more in current and future negotiations to secure success due to the large number of countries involved in the negotiations, the wider dis...... tariffs are analyzed. It is established that reduction in the trade restriction using three formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula leads to non-trivial impacts on the welfare....... dispersion in initial tariffs (tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates. This paper presents a general equilibrium model with monopolistic competition to examine the welfare effects of different formulas in a process of improving market access. Products with initially high and low...

  19. Welfare effects of unilateral changes in tariffs: the case of Motor vehicles and parts in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Peter B. Dixon; Maureen T. Rimmer

    2008-01-01

    We derive formulas for the optimal tariff rate in four theoretical models. We start with a model in which industries are competitive and then successively allow for: monopoly pricing by export industries; revenue-replacement costs; and cold-shower effects. The theoretical formulas accurately explain results from MONASH, a detailed CGE model. A critical parameter in determining the optimal tariff is the export-demand elasticity. Modellers are often reluctant to adopt empirically justifiable va...

  20. Tariffs, Employment and the Current Account: Real Wage Resistance and the Macroeconomics of Protectionism

    OpenAIRE

    Sweder van Wijnbergen

    1987-01-01

    Using a standard complete specialization model of a small open economy within a rigorous intertemporal optimization framework with contract- based wage rigidity, we show that permanent tariffs may lead to a current account deterioration and a fall in employment, contradicting most of the literature of macro-economic effects of import tariffs. I show that this will always be the case if the economy is small enough. The crucial factor in this complete reversal of standard results is the impact ...

  1. Implications of WTO Tariff Reductions for EU and US Dairy Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pajic, Mirjana; Blandford, David; Bailey, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the impact of proposed Doha Round tariff reductions on the global dairy industry and dairy policy. We examine how proposed tariff reductions affect global trade and prices, and the implications for the European Union and the United States. Since international market conditions can vary, we examine the implications of liberalization under two sets of market conditions. The first corresponds to the year 2004 in which there was a global surplus of dairy ...

  2. Valuation-Based Framework for Considering Distributed Generation Photovoltaic Tariff Design: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinaman, O. R.; Darghouth, N. R.

    2015-02-01

    While an export tariff is only one element of a larger regulatory framework for distributed generation, we choose to focus on tariff design because of the significant impact this program design component has on the various flows of value among power sector stakeholders. In that context, this paper is organized into a series of steps that can be taken during the design of a DGPV export tariff design. To that end this paper outlines a holistic, high-level approach to the complex undertaking of DGPV tariff design, the crux of which is an iterative cost-benefit analysis process. We propose a multi-step progression that aims to promote transparent, focused, and informed dialogue on CBA study methodologies and assumptions. When studies are completed, the long-run marginal avoided cost of the DGPV program should be compared against the costs imposed on utilities and non-participating customers, recognizing that these can be defined differently depending on program objectives. The results of this comparison can then be weighed against other program objectives to formulate tariff options. Potential changes to tariff structures can be iteratively fed back into established analytical tools to inform further discussions.

  3. Electricity Surcharges: Defects and Suggestions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since 1980s, the government has decided to levy certain surcharges attached to electricity tariff collected by power grid corporations as government revenue for specific social public welfare purposes. These surcharges presently include the Three Gorges construction fund, urban construction surcharge, rural power grid debt service fund, as well as the newly-added post supporting fund for water reservoirs immigrants and renewable energy surcharge, etc. Yet the legal defects on surcharge policy have brought about operational risks on power grid enterprises.

  4. European industrial policy as a non-tariff barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the contradictions between the EU and EU national states industrial policies and the Single Market program of elimination of NTBs (non-tariff barriers. The scope of NTBs connected to European industrial policy is divided into two spheres: the first are barriers on the level of Member States and the second are barriers on the EU level. On the national level, after the 1992 programme, the EU Member States continued to adopt many technical national regulations. On the EU level measures such as new standards, environment and anti-dumping rules, as well as Community expenditures in the different funds constitute new NTBs. Moreover, external competitors have to face other NTBs, such as VERs (Voluntary export restrictions, biased rules on public procurement, ecolabeling, and limitations on ownership, among other barriers. In this essay I demonstrate that the EU and the European national states run an active, unofficial industrial policy that distort the internal and external competition. The paper concludes that the EU industrial policy is not harmonized with the Single Market.

  5. Innovative Feed-In Tariff Designs that Limit Policy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreycik, C.; Couture, T. D.; Cory, K. S.

    2011-06-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most prevalent renewable energy policy used globally to date, and there are many benefits to the certainty offered in the marketplace to reduce development risks and associated financing costs and to grow the renewable energy industry. However, concerns over escalating costs in jurisdictions with FIT policies have led to increased attention on cost control in renewable energy policy design. In recent years, policy mechanisms for containing FIT costs have become more refined, allowing policymakers to exert greater control on policy outcomes and on the resulting costs to ratepayers. As policymakers and regulators in the United States begin to explore the use of FITs, careful consideration must be given to the ways in which policy design can be used to balance the policies' advantages while bounding its costs. This report explores mechanisms that policymakers have implemented to limit FIT policy costs. If designed clearly and transparently, such mechanisms can align policymaker and market expectations for project deployment. Three different policy tools are evaluated: (1) caps, (2) payment level adjustment mechanisms, and (3) auction-based designs. The report employs case studies to explore the strengths and weaknesses of these three cost containment tools. These tools are then evaluated with a set of criteria including predictability for policymakers and the marketplace and the potential for unintended consequences.

  6. 经验分析电价与电费管理的稽查%An Empirical Analysis of Price and Tariff Management Audit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董娜; 邓驭; 唐靖; 姚新芹

    2014-01-01

    为进一步提升电价与电费管理的工作质量,采取有效措施、深入落实各管理环节的稽查工作是非常必要的。结合自身的工作经验,以电价稽查、电费账务处理等内容为切入点,对电价与电费管理的稽查作一综述,以供业内同行参考。%In order to further improve the quality of electricity and electricity management, and to take effective measures to further the implementation of the various management aspects of inspection work is necessary. With their own work experience, price checks, electricity accounts processing and other content as the starting point for price and tariff management audit reviewed for industry peers reference.

  7. Non-Tariff Barriers and Factors that influence The Indonesian Cocoa Export to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Anggoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study are: first, to analyse the competitiveness of Indonesian cocoa in the European Unio market; second, to analyse the competitiveness and the factors that influence the Indonesian cocoa exports to the EU market; third, to calculate the non-tariff barriers imposed by the European Union market for Indonesian cocoa. Methods used are the RCA index and gravity models. The differences between actual and potential trade flows are indicated as non-tariff barriers. Results of the calculation RCA is showed that all destinations of a cocoa export have a high competitiveness (RCA> 1 but tend to decrease. Results of the estimate gravity models show the factors influencing the Indonesian cocoa exports are the real per capita GDP of Indonesia and the destination country, CPI of destination countries, the economic distance, exchange rates, and tariff. The result of non-tariff barriers indicated that the Netherlands is the state which has the largest non-tariff barriers among the most other EU countriesDOI:  10.15408/sjie.v5i1.3131 

  8. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  9. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  10. 75 FR 38764 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate... announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane sugar allotments of 300,000 short tons raw value (STRV) to imports, and increased the fiscal year (FY) 2010 raw sugar tariff-rate quota (TRQ) by...

  11. 76 FR 21418 - Fiscal Year 2011 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 15, 2011. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  12. 77 FR 25012 - Fiscal Year 2012 Allocation of Additional Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... Sugar and Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar AGENCY... Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar and of... raw cane sugar. DATES: Effective Date: April 26, 2012. ADDRESSES: Inquiries may be mailed or delivered...

  13. 75 FR 14479 - Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Reallocation of Unused Fiscal Year 2010 Tariff-Rate Quota Volume for Raw Cane Sugar... fiscal year (FY) 2010 in-quota quantity of the tariff-rate quota (TRQ) for imported raw cane sugar. DATES... maintains TRQs for imports of raw cane and refined sugar. Section 404(d)(3) of the Uruguay Round Agreements...

  14. In the name of legal certainty? Comparison of advance ruling for tariff classification in the European Union, China and Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.

    2016-01-01

    In many jurisdictions, international traders can apply to customs authorities for an advance ruling for tariff classification before they import or export their goods. The advance ruling system for tariff classification is expected to grant more legal certainty to international traders because they

  15. Effect of A-Level Subject Choice and Entry Tariff on Final Degree and Level 1 Performance in Biosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicola C.; Aves, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Following the publication of the higher education white paper increasing entry tariff and widening participation have become even more important issues for universities. This report examines the relationship between entry tariff and undergraduate achievement in Biosciences at the University of Exeter. We show that, whilst there is a significant…

  16. 76 FR 46267 - Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ..., 2012. The second, third, fourth, and fifth tranches will be reserved for organic sugar and other... Office of the Secretary Increase in Fiscal Year 2011 Specialty Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota; Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups...

  17. The tariff for fire and theft car insurance: analysis with a Cox model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Scarpa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the problem of identification of a tariff for a Fire & Theft Car policy for Insurance Companies. Usually companies obtain this tariff by empirical estimate of the pure rate by evaluating the impact of some personalization variables. In this paper we propose the usage of a semi-parametric Cox model, where the response variable is not the waiting time until an event, but the degree of damage because of theft or fire of a car. The proposed model allows to easily tackle typical problems in data available to the companies, like the presence of franchises, which are treated as censored data.

  18. Schemes for aggregating preferential tariffs in agriculture,export volume effects and African LDCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Wusheng

    Trade-weighted aggregated tariffs (TWPT) are often used in analyzing the issues of erosion of non-reciprocal preferences. This paper argues that commonly used TWPTs under-estimate the true protection on imports originated from preference-receiving countries, including LDCs. When used in numerical...... simulations of preference erosion and expansion scenarios, the TWPTs tend to incorrectly downplay preference erosion effect of MFN tariff cuts, and understate the export promotion effect of expanding preferences. In light of these claims, an alternative aggregation scheme is developed to calculate aggregated...

  19. STUDY ON THE MAIN THEORETICAL ASPECTS RELATING TO THE PREMIUM TARIFFS IN THE PROPERTY INSURANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaduva Maria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the insurance market of goods, most of the first levied by the insurer is used for payment of damages due insured. The element mainly depending on which he fixes the level of share premium pricing is likely to size claims the insurer will pay insured. Part of the quota tariff intended for the first payment of damages is called net or share of first base. Adding to the addition cover expenditure on lodging and administering the fund insurance and financing of measures to prevent the damage, formation of the reserve fund and achieve the insurer has a specific benefit, get the first tariff or first gross.

  20. Dispatchable hydrogen production at the forecourt for electricity grid balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahil, Abdulla; Gammon, Rupert; Brown, Neil

    2017-02-01

    The rapid growth of renewable energy (RE) generation and its integration into electricity grids has been motivated by environmental issues and the depletion of fossil fuels. For the same reasons, an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels is needed for vehicles; hence the anticipated uptake of electric and fuel cell vehicles. High penetrations of RE generators with variable and intermittent output threaten to destabilise electricity networks by reducing the ability to balance electricity supply and demand. This can be greatly mitigated by the use of energy storage and demand-side response (DSR) techniques. Hydrogen production by electrolysis is a promising option for providing DSR as well as an emission-free vehicle fuel. Tariff structures can be used to incentivise the operating of electrolysers as controllable (dispatchable) loads. This paper compares the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts under both dispatchable and continuous operation, while ensuring no interruption of fuel supply to fuel cell vehicles. An optimisation algorithm is applied to investigate a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation. Three scenarios are tested to see whether a reduced off-peak electricity price could lower the cost of electrolytic hydrogen. These scenarios are: 1) "Standard Continuous", where the electrolyser is operated continuously on a standard all-day tariff of 12p/kWh; 2) "Off-peak Only", where it runs only during off-peak periods in a 2-tier tariff system at the lower price of 5p/kWh; and 3) "2-Tier Continuous", operating continuously and paying a low tariff at off- peak times and a high tariff at other times. This study uses the Libyan coastal city of Derna as a case study. The cheapest electricity cost per kg of hydrogen produced was £2.8, which occurred in Scenario 2. The next cheapest, at £5.8 - £6.3, was in Scenario 3, and the most expensive was £6.8/kg in Scenario 1.

  1. Network investments and the integration of distributed generation: Regulatory recommendations for the Dutch electricity industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesten, E.M.M.I.

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the distributed generation of electricity necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments, average benchmarking and a frontier shift in the x-factor, del

  2. Three Players Nash Equilibrium Game Concerning the Charging Time and Place of Employee Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Tscharaktschiew, Stefan

    and when the labor tax is high; ii) employers pay less electricity tariff than households do; iii) the employment contract duration is long; iv) recharging electric vehicles (EVs) takes longer time and the value of time is higher. Accessibility of cheaper charging facility at workplace, while saves...

  3. Uncertainty Management of Dynamic Tariff Method for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamic tariff (DT) method is designed for the distribution system operator (DSO) to alleviate congestions that might occur in a distribution network with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). Uncertainty management is required for the decentralized DT method because the DT...

  4. Real Time Emulation of Dynamic Tariff for Congestion Management in Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Theis Bo; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the real time evaluation of the dynamic tariff (DT) method for alleviating congestion in a distribution networks with high penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs). The DT method is implemented in a real time digital testing platform that emulates a real distribution...

  5. Environmental, economic, and social impacts of feed-in tariffs : A Portuguese perspective 2000–2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, P.A.; Rodrigues, J.D.F.; Bras, T.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many countries have used aggressive policies such as feed-in tariffs and power purchase agreements to promote renewable energy. These policies have been very successful in several countries, initiating large changes in the structure of energy sectors, and conferring large

  6. On the Effectiveness of Feed-in Tariffs in the Development of Photovoltaic Solar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); T. van Dorp (Tom); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Growing concern for climate change and rising scarcity of fossil fuels prompted governments to stimulate the development of renewables. This paper empirically tests whether feed-in tariff (FIT) policies have been effective in the development of photovoltaic solar

  7. On the Effectiveness of Feed-in Tariffs in the Development of Photovoltaic Solar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); T. van Dorp (Tom); E. Maasland (Emiel)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Growing concern for climate change and rising scarcity of fossil fuels prompted governments to stimulate the development of renewables. This paper empirically tests whether feed-in tariff (FIT) policies have been effective in the development of photovoltaic solar (PV),

  8. 75 FR 420 - Receipt of Domestic Interested Party Petition Concerning the Tariff Classification of Wickless...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jean-Rene Broussard, Tariff Classification and Marking Branch, Regulations... contain a wick. Item 4 is a blue and white colored solid wax molded hexagon that measures approximately 1...\\'' in height and 2\\3/ 4\\'' wide. The block is blue and white colored and does not have a hole...

  9. General Agreement on Tariff and Trade Negotiations: A Computer-Based Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Gabriel G.

    This paper recommends the use of a computer simulation about trade and tariff negotiations to reinforce and apply principles learned in undergraduate international trade courses and to provide students with an opportunity to use the advanced features of Symphony, a computer spreadsheet. This simulation is a game in which both the class and…

  10. 19 CFR 181.52 - Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Restrictions on Drawback and Duty-Deferral Programs § 181.52 Subsequent claims for preferential tariff treatment. If a... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subsequent claims for preferential...

  11. Individual Tariffs for Mobile Services: Analysis of Operator Business and Risk Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA design approach is offered for individual tariffs for mass customized mobile service products, whereby operators can determine their contract acceptance rules to guarantee with a set probability their minimum profit and risk levels. It uses realistic improvements to earlier reported ne

  12. Preparation of building technology for ''Internet of the energy''. Claim on price variable tariffs from 30th December, 2010; Gebaeudetechnik fuer ''Internet der Energie'' vorbereiten. Anspruch auf preisvariable Tarife ab 30. Dezember 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brickmann, Ullrich [Siemens-Division Building Technologies, Frankfurt a. M. (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Starting from 30 December 2010, power suppliers are obligated to offer time-variable or load-variable electricity rates to their end customers. Thus renewably produced electricity is to be used better. Furthermore, an additional incentive for an energy-saving operation of buildings is given. In the future, every building has to keep its maximum electricity supply as low as possible by means of an automation system, to react on time-variable and load-variable tariff offers, to store free low-priced energy offers and to store surplus decentralized produced electricity 'on demand' into the supply network.

  13. Bill for a new organization of the electricity market. Final Text; Projet de Loi portant nouvelle organisation du marche de l'electricite. Texte definitif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This text contains the new arrangements introduced to organize the concurrence and the competitiveness in the distribution of the electricity produced in France notably that produced by EDF in the French nuclear power plants. It defines the legal framework for agreements between EDF and electricity providers, i.e. prices and quantities of electricity, purchase obligations. It also defines obligations of the providers with respect to users. It addresses the relationship between local communities and these providers, tariffs, works realized on the network. It also addresses the purchase price of hydroelectricity and of electricity produced from biomass, gas tariff

  14. Proposal of law relative to the electricity and natural gas regulated prices; Proposition de loi relative aux tarifs reglementes d'electricite et de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-01-15

    This proposal of law relative to regulated electricity and gas tariffs, concerns one important modification of the article 66 from the law no 2005-781 of July 13, 2005 about the main guidelines of the French energy policy. This modification allows the households who have made the choice of a de-regulated energy supplier to change back and benefit again of the regulated tariffs. This document presents the items added in this way to the article 66. (J.S.)

  15. Plug in electric vehicles in smart grids energy management

    CERN Document Server

    Rajakaruna, Sumedha; Ghosh, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    This book highlights the cutting-edge research on energy management within smart grids with significant deployment of Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEV). These vehicles not only can be a significant electrical power consumer during Grid to Vehicle (G2V) charging mode, they can also be smartly utilized as a controlled source of electrical power when they are used in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operating mode. Electricity Price, Time of Use Tariffs, Quality of Service, Social Welfare as well as electrical parameters of the network are all different criteria considered by the researchers when developing

  16. 77 FR 45599 - CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market-Based Rate Tariff Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...-2546-000; ER02-2546-001] CED Rock Springs, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Revised Market- Based Rate... above-referenced proceeding of CED Rock Springs, Inc.'s tariff revision filing, noting that such...

  17. 47 CFR 61.49 - Supporting information to be submitted with letters of transmittal for tariffs of carriers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... estimates. (i) A study containing a projection of costs for a representative 12 month period; and (ii... previously offered, the Chief, Tariff and Pricing Analysis Branch must be provided two sets of working...

  18. CUSTOMS AND TARIFF REGULATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SUPPORT FOR THE AGRICULTURAL COMPLEX OF THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zielinskaya M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the measures of indirect state support for domestic agricultural producer is a tariff policy, which is a key factor determining the national trade regimes and the conditions of admission of foreign products to domestic sales. The study agricultural imports in the Krasnodar region in the article are encouraged to use the weighted and substantiated by the specificity of the current state of the domestic economy tariff quotas and duties on imports of agricultural products

  19. Better integration of wind power. Analysis of Danish legislation on tariffs, taxes and other significant conditions. Summary report and 3 appendix reports.; Denmark; Bedre integration af vind. Analyse af elpatronloven, treledstariffen for mindre kraftvarmeanlaeg, afgifter og andre vaesentlige rammebetingelser. Sammenfatning samt 3 bilagsrapporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togeby, M.; Werling, J.; Hethey, J. (and others)

    2009-06-15

    For the Danish Energy Agency and the Danish Ministry of Taxation, Ea Energianalyse and Risoe DTU have analysed how wind power can be better integrated into Danish the energy system so that economic and environmental impact of wind power improves. As a particular task, it is assessed whether the pilot scheme of reduced tariffs for electricity for heat and the payment for electricity for small cogeneration plants are appropriate. A number of framework conditions and technical solutions are evaluated and prioritized as part of the general assessment of options for better integration of wind power in the Danish power system. Besides the synthesis report, the publication contains three sub reports, which provide an analysis of the issues on integration of wind power, an analysis of the various options, and an analysis of the socioeconomic consequences by changing the taxes and tariffs. (ln)

  20. Feed-in Tariff Policy: Design, Implementation, and RPS Policy Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cory, K.; Couture, T.; Kreycik, C.

    2009-03-01

    Feed-in tariff (FIT) policies are implemented in more than 40 countries around the world and are cited as the primary reason for the success of the German and Spanish renewable energy markets. As a result of that success, FIT policy proposals are starting to gain traction in several U.S. states and municipalities. Experience from Europe is also beginning to demonstrate that properly designed FITs may be more cost-effective than renewable portfolio standards (RPS), which make use of competitive solicitations. This article explores the design and operation of feed-in tariff policies, including a FIT policy definition, payment-structure options, and payment differentiation. The article also touches on the potential interactions between FIT policies and RPS policies at the state level.

  1. Studying the Effects of Non-Tariff Barriers on the Export of the Main Agricultural Products of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ardakani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: As trade agreements decrease tariffs throughout the world, other barriers to trade emerge. These Non-Tariff Barriers (NTBs can be just as troublesome as tariffs for exporting countries. NTBs include any of a number of hindrances that restrict the ability of companies to export. NTBs may now have a greater impact on trade than tariffs. Approach: In contrast with previous research, we used a gravity model to estimate the trade effect of non-tariff barriers imposed by importer countries on pistachios, raisins and shrimp exported by Iran. Results: NTBs had a negative impact on pistachio and shrimp exports and their effect was greater than that of tariffs; raisin exports were unaffected by NTBs. Conclusion/Recommendations: The export and the world demand for agricultural products increasing focusing on quality, packaging, labeling and standards of products. Policy makers in countries that export agricultural products, such as Iran, must consider these characteristics when designing their programs. Therefore, if Iran builds up-to-date production systems, it will increase its exports of agricultural products.

  2. On a Strategy to Develop Robust and Simple Tariffs from Motor Vehicle Insurance Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andreas Christmann

    2005-01-01

    The goals of this paper are twofold: we describe common features in data sets from motor vehicle insurance companies and we investigate a general strategy which exploits the knowledge of such features. The results of the strategy are a basis to develop insurance tariffs. We use a nonparametric approach based on a combination of kernel logistic regression and ε-support vector regression which both have good robustness properties. The strategy is applied to a data set from motor vehicle insurance companies.

  3. The impact of further tariff reduction on the EU sugar sector in the forthcoming multilateral round

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. HUAN-NIEMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates the need for reform in the EU sugar sector due to the erosion of "border protection" in the view of further reduction in import tariffs for sugar. Three tariff reduction methods are assessed to project the "border protection" for EU sugar: Swiss formula proposed by the Cairns Group, "Harbinson" Proposal by the World Trade Organization and Uruguay Round formula proposed by the EU. In the assumed forthcoming multilateral round for agriculture, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by 67%, if the Cairns Group tariff reduction method is used. However, if the "Harbinson" method is used, the EU would need to lower the support price for sugar by at least 35%. On the contrary, the EU may avoid lowering the support price for sugar with three conditions occurring simultaneously: 1 the Uruguay Round formula is used as the reduction method in the assumed new WTO round and the EU can use the minimum reduction rate of 15% for sugar

  4. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Matthias

    2012-08-30

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the "one hospital" approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the "one hospital" model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital's cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level.

  5. Assessing DRG cost accounting with respect to resource allocation and tariff calculation: the case of Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the German diagnosis related groups (G-DRG) cost accounting scheme by assessing its resource allocation at hospital level and its tariff calculation at national level. First, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in the G-DRG resource allocation scheme at hospital level: (1) the groundwork; (2) cost-center accounting; and (3) patient-level costing. Second, the paper reviews and assesses the three steps in G-DRG national tariff calculation: (1) plausibility checks; (2) inlier calculation; and (3) the “one hospital” approach. The assessment is based on the two main goals of G-DRG introduction: improving transparency and efficiency. A further empirical assessment attests high costing quality. The G-DRG cost accounting scheme shows high system quality in resource allocation at hospital level, with limitations concerning a managerially relevant full cost approach and limitations in terms of advanced activity-based costing at patient-level. However, the scheme has serious flaws in national tariff calculation: inlier calculation is normative, and the “one hospital” model causes cost bias, adjustment and representativeness issues. The G-DRG system was designed for reimbursement calculation, but developed to a standard with strategic management implications, generalized by the idea of adapting a hospital’s cost structures to DRG revenues. This combination causes problems in actual hospital financing, although resource allocation is advanced at hospital level. PMID:22935314

  6. FUZZY MODELS AS DECISION-SUPPORT APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY TARIFFING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela GHINITA

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a decision – support application which design and use two fuzzy models to estimation an electrical energy tariff, as it to be sell at consumers. The fuzzy tariff estimation model integrate not only the S.C Electrica S.A. rate position, but and some constraints/ compulsions of National Authority of Settlements from Energy (NASE, beginning with 1999, in this transition period from Romania. The paper not refer to a price concrete case (internal tariff used in certain year, production price, transport price, distribution price, spot price, or an external price to be sold electrical energy – EE, etc. The paper shows how, by changing the parameters of S.C Electrica S.A and NASE, it is possible to can perform sensitivity tests on the tariff function model until we obtain an acceptable price. Much more: the two fuzzy models use different rules (conservative and aggressive, with hedge operators, respectively for pricing. Finally, the paper not finished all fuzzy possibilities (rules which can influences the expected value of a some EE tariff but, can create a discussion base about the way of approximate/ fuzzy reasoning, as a decision-support application to find a new EE price.

  7. Economic evaluation of photovoltaic electric power generation connected to the grid in deregulated electric power markets; Avaliacao economica da geracao de energia eletrica fotovoltaica conectada a rede em mercados eletricos desregulados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumaran, David Richard Orosco

    2000-12-01

    This work presents an analysis of economic, tariff and regulating issues related to the introduction of Grid Connected Photovoltaic Systems in a deregulated electric market context; a case study for the peruvian electric market is realized. Based on the pricing system of the electric market, it is developed an economic assessment model that can be used by institutions interested in promoting this technology for generating electricity. (author)

  8. Opening up to the private sector for electric power supply; Uma reabertura a iniciativa privada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alqueres, Jose Luiz [ELETROBRAS, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    A summary of the electric power policy adopted by the Brazilian government in the last sixty years is presented. Due to this policy all the electric power producers became state-owned and the tariff levels applied were below the average levels in the developed countries. A new legislation recently voted will permit the participation of private enterprises in the sector and the necessary growth in electricity production 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Quantifying price risk of electricity retailer based on CAPM and RAROC methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2007-12-15

    In restructured electricity markets, electricity retailers set up contracts with generation companies (GENCOs) and with end users to meet their load requirements at agreed upon tariff. The retailers invest consumer payments as capital in the volatile competitive market. In this paper, a model for quantifying price risk of electricity retailer is proposed. An IEEE 30 Bus test system is used to demonstrate the model. The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) is demonstrated to determine the retail electricity price for the end users. The factor Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC) is used to quantify the price risk involved. The methodology proposed in this paper can be used by retailer while submitting proposal for electricity tariff to the regulatory authority. (author)

  10. The electric power market, one year after the law vote; Le marche de l'electricite, un an apres le vote de la loi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-02-20

    This paper presents a first evaluation of the electric power market, one year after the the law of the 15 february 2000. To justify the good results, this paper analyses the following sectors of the market: the competition, the european market, the public information, the cost control of the electricity transport, the tariffs and the marketers of the french market. (A.L.B.)

  11. Peculiarities of non-tariff restrictions adjustment in foreign trade between the U.S. and EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohdan Tustanivskyy

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is the theoretical evaluation of the non-tariff trading conditions essence, determination of their place and importance in the trade between the U.S. and the EU, the assessment of possible effects due to its reduction or complete freezing. The paper takes into consideration the subject-matter and importance of non-tariff methods of foreign trade regulation, finds their place and distinguishes their specific use in the foreign trade relations between the U.S. and the EU. Accordingly, the trading terms between the above-mentioned trading partners are found to be mostly liberal, and major restrictions have non-tariff character. The estimation of the rationality of the existing non-tariff trade barriers is given, and the possible effects after their adjustment, shown up in the GDP growth, imports and exports volume, population higher incomes and wages, are evaluated. The importance of the non-tariff restrictions adjustment in the context of prospects for the transatlantic free trade area creation is emphasized.

  12. DISCRIMINATING BETWEEN TARIFF BILL-BASED THEORIES OF THE STOCK MARKET CRASH OF 1929 USING EVENT STUDY DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard C. Beaudreau

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Jude Wanniski (1978 argued that the Smoot-Hawley Tariff Bill was a key factor in the Stock Market Crash of October 1929 and the Great Depression. The specter of higher tariffs and lower foreign trade, he argued, depressed share prices, leading ultimately to the Stock Market Crash. Bernard Beaudreau (1996, 2005, on the other hand, made the reverse argument, namely that the specter of higher tariffs from November 1928 to October 1929 fueled the Stock Market Boom as investors anticipated higher revenues and profits from the anticipated increase in sales and revenues. The Stock Market Crash, he argued, came on the heels of the defeat of the Thomas Recommittal Plan which foretold of lower, not higher as Wanniski contended, tariffs on manufactures. Using Event Study data from January 14, 1929 to October 29, 1929, this paper attempts to discriminate between these two hypotheses. The results show that “good” tariff bill news as reported in the New York Times contributed to stock price appreciation, and vice-versa, supporting the latter theory.

  13. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  14. Tackling fuel poverty through facilitating energy tariff switching: a participatory action research study in vulnerable groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, A; Pedro, L; Badesha, B; Dize, C; Fernow, I; Dias, L

    2013-10-01

    A fifth of UK households live in fuel poverty, with significant health risks. Recent government strategy integrates public health with local government. This study examined barriers to switching energy tariffs and the impact of an energy tariff switching 'intervention' on vulnerable peoples' likelihood to, success in, switching tariffs. Participatory Action Research (PAR), conducted in West London. Community researchers from three voluntary/community organisations (VCOs) collaborated in recruitment, study design, data collection and analysis. VCOs recruited 151 participants from existing service users in three groups: Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) communities, older people (>75 yrs) and families with young children. Researchers conducted two semi-structured interviews with each participant, a week apart. The first interview asked about demographics, current energy supplier, financial situation, previous experience of tariff-switching and barriers to switching. Researchers then provided the 'intervention' - advice on tariff-switching, printed materials, access to websites. The second interview explored usefulness of the 'intervention', other information used, remaining barriers and information needs. Researchers kept case notes and a reflective log. Data was analysed thematically and collaboratively between the research coordinator and researchers. Quantitative data was analysed using SPSS, with descriptive statistics and Chi-squared tests. A total of 151 people were interviewed: 47 older people over 75 years, 51 families with young children, 51 BME (two were missing demographics). The majority were not White British or UK-born. Average household weekly income was £230. Around half described 'difficult' financial situations, 94% were receiving state benefits and 62% were in debt. Less than a third had tried to find a better energy deal; knowledge was the main barrier. After the intervention 19 people tried to switch, 13 did. Young families were most likely to

  15. New era / new solutions: The role of alternative tariff structures in water supply projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, F Silva; Marques, R Cunha

    2017-09-13

    Water utilities face different challenges that may force them to seek prioritized objectives. When doing so, particular projects may have to be developed, being important to understand their impact on water tariffs, and thus, on customers. Such consequences may bear an increased relevance in cases stressed with, e.g., resource scarcity, poverty, and the need for infrastructure investments. The resulting cost and revenue variability demand a comprehensive study. If the first may require a stochastic modeling (in major cost components) in order to consider its inherent uncertainty, the second needs to be modeled following context-specific objectives set by the relevant stakeholders. The solutions achieved will likely promote distinct revenue sources, as well as diversified water tariff structures. A multi-objective optimization model (i.e., a Framework for Suitable Prices) is built to deal with those diversified requirements (e.g., stochastic energy costs, affordability, cost recovery, or administrative simplicity). The model is solved through achievement scalarizing functions with several weighting coefficients for a reference point, so as to provide a significant perception of possible revenue options (and their impact) to the decision makers. The proposed method is applied to a case study, Boa Vista Island in Cabo Verde, in which the background characteristics, namely water sources availability (e.g., the adoption of desalination technologies), economic development and other contextual factors were considered. The key role of tariff structure selection is displayed, instead of assuming it a priori, giving important insights regarding project feasibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Research on Replacing Effects & Examination System of TBT against Tariff Impediment to Textile and Apparel Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjianbing; Lvjianming; Chengpeng Jiang

    2010-01-01

    @@ With the cutoff and limitation of tariff and traditional nontariff Barriers to Trade by GATT/WTO,the changes of income level and customers' preference in importing countries might bring more requirements for product quality,safety and environmental protection,under the rule of sustainable protection.When looking into the cases of Rapex Circular of EU and CPSC Recall of USA,we can find that TBT on Textile and Apparel has increasingly been leading into a heated issue of discussion among international trade policies.

  17. A welfare ranking of multilateral reductions in real and tariff trade barriers when firms are heterogenous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp; Sørensen, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Trade liberalization comes about through reductions in various types of trade barriers. This paper introduces, apart from the customary real trade costs (i.e. iceberg and fixed export costs), two revenue generating trade barriers (i.e. an ad valorem tariff and a trade license) into a standard...... heterogeneous-firms-trade model with Pareto distributed productivities. We derive analytical welfare rankings of all four liberalization channels for an equal effect on two openness measures, for any trade cost level and while all four barriers are simultaneously present, i.e. for any initial equilibrium. We...

  18. Individual Telecommunications Tariffs in Chinese Communities: History as a Mirror of the Future, and Relevance for Mobile Service Development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Chen (Hong); L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper addresses the mobile service pricing and affordability issues in China. Taking history as a mirror, it shows individual tariffs existed at the dawn of telephony. A vision of future mobile services with individual tariffs are formalized which will suit specially well the

  19. Commission in charge of a reflexion on the gas tariffs; Commission chargee d'une mission de reflexion sur les tarifs du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brochard, B. [Maire de Cannes, 06 (France); Durieux, B. [Inspection General des Finances, 75 - Paris (France); Chevalier, J.M

    2006-03-15

    The presentation covered the recommendations and the major conclusions of the commission. The commission proposes a new method of tariffs fixing, asks a better answer to consumers expectations by the implementing of commercial offers, proposes more stable and open tariffs fixing rules and recommends an increase of the prices of 5,8%. (A.L.B.)

  20. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...

  1. Regional aspects of electricity sector regulations in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Pobochy Serguey; Yudashkina Galina

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates regional features of the electricity sector regulation in Russia. We use panel data for 77 Russian regions during 1998–2003. Our analysis is based on the interest-group theory of regulation. The objective of the project is to estimate the influence of regional energy company, consumers, and governor on regulation policy in the region. Empirical analysis shows that governors' elections are accompanied by tariffs' decrease. We found that during 1999–2001 there was a gap bet...

  2. Concept and measure of improved equity: attempt of implementation to the 'blue-white-red' tariff option of EDF; Concept et mesure d'equite amelioree: tentative d'application a l'option tarifaire ''bleu-blanc-rouge'' d'EDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezzina, J. [Montpellier-1 Unirv. Faculte des Sciences Economiques, Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l' Energie - ATER - CREDEN, 34 (France)

    1997-12-01

    The issue of cross-subsidies and cost allocation practices concerns a large part of debates facing the deregulation of electric public utilities. The first aim of this paper is to deal with the regulation of an electric multi-product monopoly in association with equity and efficiency dimensions. To this end, we develop a concept and measure of improved equity. From a practical point of view, we also try to compute improved equity measurement considering the case of EDF tariff for domestic customers. (author)

  3. International LTE Tariff Trends and Enlightenments%国际LTE的资费趋势与启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽贤; 李继兵; 王刚刚

    2013-01-01

    Based on the summarization of international LTE tariff trends and characteristics, it explores the reasons of the tariff innovation, gains enlightenments and provides a valuable reference for domestic operators who are going to carry out LTE business in the very near future.%在跟踪总结国际LTE资费特征的基础上,深入探讨了LTE资费变革的深层次原因与对国内运营商的启示,为国内运营商未来开展LTE业务提供了有益借鉴。

  4. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging using Dynamic Price Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Pedersen, Anders Bro; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    With yearly increases in Electric Vehicle (EV) sales, the future for electric mobility continues to brighten, and with more vehicles hitting the roads every day, the energy requirements on the grid will increase, potentially causing low-voltage distribution grid congestion. This problem can...... proposed in this paper, involves a real-time control strategy for charging the EV using a dynamic price tariff, with the objective of minimizing the charging cost. Two different charging scenario are investigated, and the results are verified by experiments on a real Electric Vehicle. Finally, the costs...

  5. The effect of the water tariff structures on the water consumption in Mallorcan hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyà-Tortella, Bartolomé; Garcia, Celso; Nilsson, William; Tirado, Dolores

    2016-08-01

    Tourism increases water demand, especially in coastal areas and on islands, and can also cause water shortages during the dry season and the degradation of the water supply. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of water price structures on hotel water consumption on the island of Mallorca (Spain). All tourist municipalities on the island use different pricing structures, such as flat or block rates, and different tariffs. This exogenous variation is used to evaluate the effect of prices on water consumption for a sample of 134 hotels. The discontinuity of the water tariff structure and the fixed rate, which depends on the number of hotel beds, generate endogeneity problems. We propose an econometric model, an instrumental variable quantile regression for within artificial blocks transformed data, to solve both problems. The coefficients corresponding to the price variables are not found to be significantly different from zero. The sign of the effect is negative, but the magnitude is negligible: a 1% increase in all prices would reduce consumption by an average of only 0.024%. This result is probably due to the small share of water costs with respect to the total hotel operational costs (around 4%). Our regression model concludes that the introduction of water-saving initiatives constitutes an effective way to reduce consumption.

  6. The precautionary principle and other non-tariff barriers to free and fair international food trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, John R

    2002-07-01

    International food trade and world population are growing rapidly. National legislation has been enacted and implemented in many countries to assure good quality and safe foods to meet increased demand. No country is fully self-sufficient in domestic food production to meet population demands, and all require some food imports. Current international food trade agreements call for free and fair food trade between all countries, developed and developing. National food legislation and food production, processing and marketing systems have evolved in most countries to ensure better quality and safer foods. At the international level the work of the FAO/ WHO Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the World Trade Organization Agreements on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) and on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) and related Uruguay Round agreements have been agreed to by over 140 countries with the aim to promoting the free and fair trade of good quality and safe foods between all countries. The SPS and TBT agreements rely on science-based Codex standards, guidelines, and recommendations as benchmarks for judging international food trade disputes. A number of non-tariff barriers to trade, often related to agricultural subsidies and other food trade payments in developed countries, continue to give rise to complaints to WTO. They also continue to prevent free and fair trade, particularly for developing countries in international food trade. A number of these non-tariff barriers to trade are briefly examined, along with other domestic and international food trade problems, and recommendations for improvements are made.

  7. 新一轮电价改革破题%New Power Tariff Reform Break the Silence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树杰

    2004-01-01

    ·2003年是我国新一轮电价改革的起点.·我国电价分布"东高西低"有其合理性.但分类电价中商业电价定价最高,属于价格歧视.·评价我国电价水平高低,一定要看投资回报率,并重视成本监管与成本完善. ·电价决策权的配置,横向过于分散,纵向过于集中. ·参与电价决策的相关主体中,居民消费者力量太弱,但在电价上并不吃亏;而作为"非居民消费者"的发电公司力量也太弱.·即使不搞电力市场化,我国的电价体制和电力监管体制也需要改革.·电价改革方向--非自然垄断环节的市场化与自然垄断环节的监管现代化.·当前急需研究解决的问题:一是电网公司投资回收过低如何解决?二是大用户"直购"后,搁浅成本与普遍服务责任如何负担?三是"公平负担系统成本"与"抑制高耗电产业迅猛发展"如何协调?%· In 2003 a new round of power tariff reform was initiated.· Though power tariff differentiated high in east and low in west is reasonable, the commercial tariff being the highest in tariff category is discriminating.· The evaluation of power tariff level shall be based on the rate of return of investment and also on supervision and perfection of cost.·The disposition of power tariff decision right is too dispersed transversally and too concentrated longitudinally.· Among the participants in power tariff decision-making, residential consumers are on weak side but favorable on tariff level, Being non-residential consumers, the generation companies are also too weak.· Even without power market, power tariff system and regulation shall be reformed.· The orientation of power tariff reform tends to be market-driven for unnatural monopoly sector and regulatory modernization of natural monopoly sector.·Some problems to be urgently solved in the new round of power tariff reform include: the rate of return on investment is too low for power grid corporations; after large

  8. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  9. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  10. 19 CFR 132.18 - License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... consumption (Customs Form 7501, column 34), or its electronic equivalent (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false License for certain worsted wool fabric subject to tariff-rate quota. 132.18 Section 132.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT...

  11. 76 FR 50285 - Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2012 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  12. 75 FR 47258 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ) as required under the U.S. World Trade Organization (WTO) commitments. The FY 2011 raw cane sugar TRQ is established at 1,117,195 metric...

  13. 75 FR 22095 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2010 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  14. 77 FR 57180 - Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES: Effective Date...

  15. 75 FR 50796 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-Rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-Containing Products AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative... quotas for imported raw cane sugar, refined and specialty sugar, and sugar-containing products. DATES...

  16. 76 FR 20305 - USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary USDA Reassigns Domestic Cane Sugar Allotments and Increases the Fiscal Year 2011 Raw Sugar Tariff-Rate Quota AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Agriculture today announced a reassignment of surplus sugar under domestic cane...

  17. 75 FR 53013 - Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Fiscal Year 2011 Tariff-rate Quota Allocations for Raw Cane Sugar, Refined and Specialty Sugar, and Sugar-containing Products; Revision AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... allocations of raw cane sugar, refined and special sugar, and sugar-containing products. USTR is revising the...

  18. 77 FR 55451 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2013 Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-10

    ...-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses; and the Fiscal Year 2013 Overall Allotment Quantity Under the Sugar Marketing Allotment Program AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... quantity of the raw, as well as, refined and specialty sugar Tariff-Rate Quotas (TRQ). The FY 2013 raw cane...

  19. 49 CFR 1319.1 - Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemption of freight forwarders in the... (CONTINUED) CARRIER RATES AND SERVICE TERMS EXEMPTIONS § 1319.1 Exemption of freight forwarders in the noncontiguous domestic trade from tariff filing requirements. Freight forwarders subject to the Board's...

  20. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development... INFORMATION: Background: Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, as amended by the Trade Act of 2002...--New York, NY Saint Laurie Ltd.--New York, NY Tom James Co.--Franklin, TN Warren Sewell Clothing Co...

  1. 77 FR 24759 - Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Implementation of United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate...-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement will be administered using certificates of quota eligibility. DATES..., the United States entered into the United States-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (the...

  2. 19 CFR 132.17 - Export certificate for sugar-containing products subject to tariff-rate quota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Export certificate for sugar-containing products..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY QUOTAS Administration of Quotas § 132.17 Export...), the importer must possess a valid export certificate in order to claim the in-quota tariff rate...

  3. 75 FR 38805 - Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 128 (Tuesday, July 6, 2010)] [Notices] [Page 38805] [FR Doc No: 2010-16284] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RM07-16-000; RM01-5-000] Filing Via the Internet; Electronic Tariff Filings Notice of Display of Time on...

  4. The Effect of Tariff Reduction in Agricultural Sector on Macroeconomic Variables: Using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Economic effects of membership in the WTO in recent years, has been one of the most important issues for Iranian economy. If Iran joins the WTO, in this process, tariff reduction in agricultural sector will be one of the policies which has to be employed. Therefore, investigating economic effects of tariff reduction or even its elimination in this sector will be necessary in running effective policies to minimize the probabilistic losses of accession. Tariffs on agricultural products in Iran are determined merely on the basis of annual country economy, and have no long term strategy. Government is just obliged to impose effective tariffs on agricultural products imports, in order to protect local productions. On the other hand, according to the census of population and housing, the share of agricultural sector in employment has reduced during the past decade. Moreover, Iran central bank information indicated the reduction in the share of agricultural sector in GDP for the past decade. Declining the share of agriculture in production and employment, considering the high number of university graduates in the field of agriculture along with rising unemployment rate of this group, motivated this study to investigate the effect of tariff reduction in this sector on macroeconomic variables. Materials and Methods: This study analyzed the welfare effects of import tariffs reduction in agricultural sector from Iran most important commercial partners and vice versa, using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP, based on computable general equilibrium (CGE model. Moreover, the effects of tariffs reduction, is investigated on output, price level and transfer of production factors between different economic sectors. In order to simulate the above model, we used GTAP version 8 which covers 57 commodities and 113 regions with economic information of these regions. This model uses Social Accounting Matrix of countries as data information. Our

  5. Renewable Energy Prices in State-Level Feed-in Tariffs. Federal Law Constraints and Possible Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hempling, Scott [National Regulatory Research Inst., Silver Spring, MD (United States); Elefant, Carolyn [Law Offices of Carolyn Elefant, Washington, DC (United States); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porter, Kevin [Exeter Associates, Inc., Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report details how state feed-in tariff (FIT) programs can be legally implemented and how they can comply with federal requirements. The report describes the federal constraints on FIT programs and identifies legal methods that are free of those constrains.

  6. Analysis of the electrical bills of residential consumers: tax and economic aspects; Analise da fatura de energia eletrica de consumidores residenciais: aspectos economicos e tributarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Lindemberg Nunes; Pinto, Danilo Pereira [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], e-mail: lnunesreis@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: danilo.pinto@ufjf.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    Residential consumers represent a significant part of the market of electric energy and are increasing by deriving tributes of the tariff of energy. These consumers are uninformed about the abuses that happen to them. This work has as objective to analyze and to argue the behavior of the tariffs of energy in the period of 2002 the 2006, demonstrating the occurred increases and pointing a relation enters the rise of the price of this energy and the increase of the number of clandestine linkings and difficulty to hold the basics statements of actually electrical regiments. ANEEL's data show that in 1995 the tariff for class residential was R$ 76.26 and industrial was R$ 43.59; in 2003 passed respectively to R$ 236.34 and R$ 110.48. This analysis is directly related to the difficulty of obtaining a national energy management totally sustainable. (author)

  7. The Problems of the Non-Tariff Regulation of Foreign Trade Activities in the Conditions of Free Trade Zone between Ukraine and the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Рanaseyko Irina M.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at generalizing the results of establishing the free trade zone between Ukraine and the EU in 2016, and developing measures to improve the system of non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activities. The substance, objectives, and tools of the non-tariff regulation of foreign trade activity, as used in the EU and in Ukraine, were considered. The major attention was paid to the tariff quotas for Ukraine in the terms of the free-trade zone with the European Union. The tariff quotas for different goods were analyzed from the view of their adequacy and uniformity of use. Reasons for partial use or non-use of the tariff quotas were identified. Issues of effectiveness of implementation of the restrictive function of tariff quotas, as well as their influence on Ukrainian exporters, were considered. A comparative characterization of the tariff quotas, which were applied within the terms of the free trade zone for Ukraine and for the EU, was carried out. The article specifies the necessity for compliance by Ukraine with technical reglaments, environmental regulations, sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures, marketing standards. The major obstacles to the Ukrainian products’ entering the European markets were identified.

  8. Tariffing of energy measured consumers in the distribution network; Tariffering av energimaalte kunder i distribusjonsnettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-12-20

    Criteria for socio-economic effective tariffing of energy-measured clients in the distribution network are discussed (i.e. households, leisure homes and smaller business clients), this means consumers that do not have hourly measurements or effect measurements. The tariffs should be based on variable segments that reflect short-term marginal costs in the network (in practice loss of transfer) and fixed segments that to the least extent possible influence the consumers' decisions in the choice of energy solutions, both in short term and long term. High-priced energy segments and effect based fixed segments may give unfortunate socio-economic price signals compared to the marginal long-term network costs. A fixed segment per measurement unit is in principle completely neutral, but it is to some extent vulnerable to strategic adjustments if the consumers choose collective measurement. This is not necessarily a big problem in practice (author)

  9. Unintended consequences of increasing block tariffs pricing policy in urban water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Momi; Nisan, Udi

    2007-03-01

    We exploit a unique data set to estimate the degree of economies of scale in water consumption, controlling for the standard demand factors. We found a linear Engel curve in water consumption: each additional household member consumes the same water quantity regardless of household size, except for a single-person household. Our evidence suggests that the increasing block tariffs (IBT) structure, which is indifferent to household size, has unintended consequences. Large households, which are also likely to be poor given the negative correlation between income and household size, are charged a higher price for water. The degree of economies of scale found here erodes the effectiveness of IBT price structure as a way to introduce an equity consideration. This implication is important in view of the global trend toward the use of IBT.

  10. Energy study of railroad freight transportation. Volume 3. Regulation and tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Volume 1 described the history of the railroad industry and pointed out that the number of separate companies, their monopoly power, and their trade and labor practices invited regulation by outsiders from the early days. Even though new regulations have been added over the years, few have been removed. Tariffs have been modified to fit a number of needs, not all of them economic. The effects of government regulation on the energy efficiency of railroad operations are examined. The development of railroad regulation is examined and the governmental legislation, policies, and procedures that make up the regulatory environment within which the railroads must operate are briefly described. The relationship among regulations, energy usage, and costs in three specific areas of regulation: long-haul rates, empty car distribution, and rates on low-density rail traffic are examined.

  11. The challenge of product development and tariff migration; Herausforderung Produktentwicklung und Tarifmigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, Thomas [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Strategy und Marketing Consults, Wien (Austria); Stiller, Michael [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Bonn (Germany); Cerna, Daniela [Simon-Kucher und Partners, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Power supply companies in German-speaking countries expect a marked shortening of product life cycles over the next five years. This means that new products will need to be developed at ever shorter time intervals. However, opinions on the success of newly introduced products are mediocre. While there is an understanding that the product portfolio should meet customers' needs, the importance of the conceptualisation phase in developing suitable products is systematically underestimated. A study performed by a reputed strategic consultancy firm has shown that at least when it comes to tariff migration there is a failure to address customers in a differentiated manner. A rethink in conceptualising product portfolios is needed if the success of new product launches is to be driven by other criteria than merely the price.

  12. A comparative analysis of renewable electricity support mechanisms for Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [National University of Singapore, Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-04-15

    This study evaluates the applicability of eight renewable electricity policy mechanisms for Southeast Asian electricity markets. It begins by describing the methodology behind 90 research interviews of stakeholders in the electricity industry. It then outlines four justifications given by respondents for government intervention to support renewables in Southeast Asia: unpriced negative externalities, counteracting subsidies for conventional energy sources, the public goods aspect of renewable energy, and the presence of non-technical barriers. The article develops an analytical framework to evaluate renewable portfolio standards, green power programs, public research and development expenditures, systems benefits charges, investment tax credits, production tax credits, tendering, and feed-in tariffs in Southeast Asia. It assesses each of these mechanisms according to the criteria of efficacy, cost effectiveness, dynamic efficiency, equity, and fiscal responsibility. The study concludes that one mechanism, feed-in tariffs, is both the most preferred by respondents and the only one that meets all criteria. (author)

  13. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  14. Estimating elasticity for residential electricity demand in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Zheng, X; Song, F

    2012-01-01

    Residential demand for electricity is estimated for China using a unique household level dataset. Household electricity demand is specified as a function of local electricity price, household income, and a number of social-economic variables at household level. We find that the residential demand for electricity responds rather sensitively to its own price in China, which implies that there is significant potential to use the price instrument to conserve electricity consumption. Electricity elasticities across different heterogeneous household groups (e.g., rich versus poor and rural versus urban) are also estimated. The results show that the high income group is more price elastic than the low income group, while rural families are more price elastic than urban families. These results have important policy implications for designing an increasing block tariff.

  15. Macroeconomic context of economic reforms in electricity sector of transition countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Galović

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of macroeconomic environment and its impact on economic reforms in electricity sector of CEE countries that have become new EU Member States and SEE countries. The research is based on the thesis that macroeconomic drivers and macroeconomic context of the economic reforms in electricity sector considerably differ between developed and transition countries. The analysis aimed to test the broadly accepted assumption that regulatory reforms and liberalized environment should generally result in cost reflective prices and better quality of services. Our analysis shows that the reform results in CEE and SEE transition countries have been significantly different. Most of new EU Member States have recorded high increase in electricity prices as the result of cost re-flective tariffs level and gradual phase-out of direct and indirect electricity price subsidies. Though these cost-based tariffs have had a positive impact on efficiency improvements, they have also harmed social welfare and competitiveness in CEECs. On the other hand, most of the SEECs (except Croatia are faced with low collection rates and still have low tariffs that do not reflect costs of supply. The other objective of the reform - quality of services has been perceived high in all CEECs, while in most SEE countries the quality of the electricity is still the obstacle to business environment

  16. 'Tropicalisation' of feed-in tariffs. A custom-made support scheme for hybrid PV/diesel systems in isolated regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solano-Peralta, Mauricio; Van Sark, Wilfried G.J.H.M. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Moner-Girona, Magda [Renewable Energies Unit, Institute for Energy, European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Via E. Fermi 2749 - TP 450 I-21027 Ispra (Italy); Vallve, Xavier [Trama Tecnoambiental, Ripolles 46, 08026 Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    The interest and actions towards introducing renewables for off-grid regions has increased due to their ostensible cost-effectiveness, eco-friendliness and quality services provided. Nevertheless, in many isolated areas diesel generators appear as a common option, confirming that there is a need for financial support mechanisms that aid the introduction of renewables due to their higher initial investment costs. This paper proposes a so-called 'tropicalisation' of the Feed-in Tariff scheme to promote the introduction of hybrid systems in isolated communities based on the idea of awarding for each kWh produced by renewable energies a premium value during a guaranteed period of time. The proposed Renewable Energy Premium Tariff (RPT) scheme is an alternative mechanism to the usual initial investment donation for off-grid energy development projects by recognising the production of renewable electricity and opting for a long-term sustainability of the projects. Ecuador presents ideal conditions to study the introduction of such a 'tropicalised' scheme since a Feed-in Law including off-grid projects was established in 2002 and since there are governmental and local efforts for the introduction of renewable hybrids in isolated regions. Modelling of the introduction of photovoltaics (PVs) into diesel systems for several mini-grids located in isolated regions of Ecuador has been performed, and included a detailed financial analysis for optimisation of RPT values and a comparison with existing stand-alone diesel systems. The results show the cost-effectiveness of PV/diesel hybrids over diesel gensets, taking into account present and future diesel prices. To obtain long-term sustainability of the project, the RPT values are set at 0.70-1.20$kWh covering the operability of the whole system for 20 years, where the renewable fraction should have the largest share in the hybrid system. The proposed mechanism is expected to aid the introduction of renewable

  17. PRICING POLICY‟ CONTROL AT THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamira Anvarovna Daudova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considered one of the most important indica-tors characterizing the state of affairs at the electric pow-er sector, i.e. the price set for heat and electricity supply. The rate should stay at a moderate level. However, the rates have been steadily increasing nowadays. The paper gave a description of the price setting machinery in the electric power sector, with the ways capable of enhanc-ing efficiency in price making. The study suggested that the per capita consumption should be shortened round the country, in order to fix the rate of consumption per person that further would entail the rate‟ decrease in the tariffs for heat and electricity supply.Producing heat and electricity at the combined heat and power plant (CHPP in most cases has proven to be more efficient than the separate stations; that is why great attention was given now to developing approaches to breakdown the production cost for heat and electricity in the combined production figures. Efficient application of the combined production of heat and electric power should outline the prices and tariffs understandable by reasons of technology and economy being set for both types of energy, while keeping production profitable for both the separate and combined schemes. During transi-tion to adjusted tariffs under the RAB technique (proce-dure, a company shall start earning income exactly re-ferred to their cost of setting up assets. The effective rate figure should not exceed the limits acceptable that should be consistent with the regional executive power authority representing public interests and consumers at the region. For checking properly networks‟ operational reliability in computing tariffs for electricity supply under RAB technique, the provider should regularly refer (at least once in three years to the study outcomes concern-ing the rate correlation with increase in reliability of net-works (to the optimal level, with the adjustments made to investment programs

  18. "THE GROSSEST AND MOST UNJUST SPECIES OF FAVORITISM” COMPETING VIEWS OF REPUBLICAN POLITICAL ECONOMY: THE TARIFF DEBATES OF 1841 AND 1842

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Moore

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Historians have long examined the causes of the American Civil War. Frequently, they identify three explanatory factors: slavery, states’ rights and tariffs. This paper assesses the Tariffs of 1841 and 1842, asserting that arguments attributing the tariff as a causal factor of the Civil War are exaggerated and deserve reconsideration. Upon close examination, these tariff debates represent a continuation of a long-standing discourse as to whether American foreign trade policy should embrace free trade or protectionist characteristics. Consequently, these debates, which occurred only nineteen years before Fort Sumter, are more closely aligned with late 18th century debates over political economy than they are as a prelude cause to Civil War.

  19. An investigation into the variability of primary care oral surgery contracts and tariffs in England and Wales (2014/2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierons, R J; Gerrard, G; Jones, R

    2017-06-09

    Primary care oral surgery services vary markedly throughout the country but until now there has been a paucity of data on these services. The British Association of Oral Surgeons (BAOS) primary care group (the authors) were tasked to gather data around primary care oral surgery contracts and tariffs and provide evidence-based recommendations on the commissioning of these services. Following a freedom of information (FOI) request, data were obtained for 27 English local area teams and seven Welsh local health boards. The data demonstrated both regional and national variability with respect to primary care oral surgery contracts, concerning both contract type and level of remuneration. These differences are discussed and the authors make recommendations for standardising oral surgery contracts and tariffs.

  20. Achieving best practice tariff may not reflect improved survival after hip fracture treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan SK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sameer K Khan,1 Mark DF Shirley,2 Clare Glennie,1 Paul V Fearon,1 David J Deehan1 1The Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, 2School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Objective: The best practice tariff (BPT incentivizes hospitals in the England and Wales National Health Service to provide multiprofessional care to patients with hip fractures. The initial six targets included: 1 admission under consultant-led joint orthopedic–geriatric care, 2 multidisciplinary assessment protocol on admission, 3 surgery within 36 hours, 4 geriatrician review within 72 hours, 5 multiprofessional rehabilitation, and 6 assessment for falls and bone protection. We aimed to examine the relationship between BPT achievement and important patient outcomes and whether the BPT could predict these independently of other validated predictors.Materials and methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 516 patient episodes. Four outcomes were defined: 1 30-day mortality, 2 365-day mortality, 3 postoperative length of stay on trauma ward (LOS-T, and 4 total post-operative hospital LOS (LOS-H. Patient episodes were grouped as follows: 1 group 1, pre-BPT, 2 group 2, BPT achievers, 3 group 3, BPT fails. These were compared for mortality (χ2 test and for LOS (Kruskal–Wallis test. Event analysis was done for groups 2 and 3 using generalized linear modeling, with age, sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade, hemoglobin, albumin, creatinine, and BPT achievement evaluated as predictors.Results: The three groups did not differ significantly in baseline characteristics or outcomes. In the event analysis, the risk of 30-day mortality was related only to abnormal creatinine (P=0.025; mortality at 365 days was related significantly to low albumin (P=0.023 and weakly to abnormal creatinine (P=0.089. The risks of both increased LOS-T and LOS-H were related to age only (P=0.052, P<0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Achieving BPT does not

  1. "Extreme" or tariff sports: their injuries and their prevention (with particular reference to diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E C; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    The interface between sports medicine and performing arts medicine is closest for "tariff" sports, where the sportsperson can select their own programme of varying difficulty with the more complex skills carrying potential for higher marks. Inevitably, some performers over-reach themselves. Examples of injuries and prevention strategies to avoid such injuries are discussed in a preliminary analysis of four sports: diving, cheerleading, gymnastics, and figure skating.

  2. Impact of WTO Accession and the Customs Union on the Bound and Applied Tariff Rates of the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Shepotylo, Oleksandr; Tarr, David G.

    2012-01-01

    After 18 years of negotiations, Russia has joined the World Trade Organization. This paper assesses how the tariff structure of the Russian Federation will change as a result of the phased implementation of its World Trade Organization commitments between 2012 and 2020 and how it has changed as a result of its agreement to participate in a Customs Union with Kazakhstan and Belarus. The an...

  3. Decision from the Commission of Electricity Regulation (CRE) dated from December 12, 2002 about a disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company and the Power transportation Network (RTE), as manager of the public power transportation grid, relative to the tariffing of public networks use applicable to the consumers connected in 42 kV voltage; Decision de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite (CRE) en date du 12 decembre 2002 sur un different qui oppose la societe PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) a Reseau de Transport d'Electricite (RTE), en tant que gestionnaire du reseau public de transport d'electricite, relatif a la tarification d'utilisation des reseaux publics applicable aux consommateurs raccordes en tension 42 kV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    This document presents the analysis made by the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) about a high voltage tariff disagreement between PEM Abrasif Refractaires (PEMAR) company (La Defense, Courbevoie France) and RTE, the French manager of the power transportation grid. PEMAR company claims for a contract of power supply tariff conformable with the application of the decree from July 19, 2002 which, after comparison with the previous decrees, contains a mistake in the definition of voltage classes. (J.S.)

  4. A Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, Toby D. [E3 Analytics, Berlin (Germany); Cory, Karlynn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Williams, Emily [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker’s guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation.

  5. Policymaker's Guide to Feed-in Tariff Policy Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T. D.; Cory, K.; Kreycik, C.; Williams, E.

    2010-07-01

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) are the most widely used renewable energy policy in the world for driving accelerating renewable energy (RE) deployment, accounting for a greater share of RE development than either tax incentives or renewable portfolio standard (RPS) policies. FITs have generated significant RE deployment, helping bring the countries that have implemented them successfully to the forefront of the global RE industry. In the European Union (EU), FIT policies have led to the deployment of more than 15,000 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) power and more than 55,000 MW of wind power between 2000 and the end of 2009. In total, FITs are responsible for approximately 75% of global PV and 45% of global wind deployment. Countries such as Germany, in particular, have demonstrated that FITs can be used as a powerful policy tool to drive RE deployment and help meet combined energy security and emissions reductions objectives. This policymaker's guide provides a detailed analysis of FIT policy design and implementation and identifies a set of best practices that have been effective at quickly stimulating the deployment of large amounts of RE generation. Although the discussion is aimed primarily at decision makers who have decided that a FIT policy best suits their needs, exploration of FIT policies can also help inform a choice among alternative renewable energy policies.

  6. Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-30

    The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)

  7. Energy use in the marine transportation industry: Task II. Regulations and Tariffs. Final report, Volume III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    The evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs is structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the 7 existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. Energy impacts of the state of Washington's tanker regulations, of tanker segregated ballast requirements, of inland waterway user charges, of cargo pooling and service rationalization, of the availability of intermodal container transportation services, of capacity limitations at lock and dam 26 on the Mississippi River and the energy implications of the transportation alternatives available for the West Coast crude oil supplies are discussed. (MCW)

  8. Orderly Discharging Strategy for Electric Vehicles at Workplace Based on Time-of-Use Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the parking features of electric vehicles (EVs and load of production unit, a power supply system including EVs charging station was established, and an orderly discharging strategy for EVs was proposed as well to reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging. Based on the target of maximizing the annual income of producer, considering the total benefits of EV discharging, the electric vehicle aggregator (EVA and time-of-use (TOU price were introduced to establish the optimization scheduling model of EVs discharging. Furthermore, an improved artificial fish swarm algorithm (IAFSA combined with the penalty function methods was applied to solve the model. It can be shown from the simulation results that the optimal solution obtained by IAFSA is regarded as the orderly discharging strategy for EVs, which could reduce the basic tariff of producer and improve the total benefits of EV discharging.

  9. Optimal Day-Time Charging Strategies for Electric Vehicles considering Photovoltaic Power System and Distribution Grid Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles (EVs charging stations with a photovoltaic (PV system for day-time charging have been studied. This paper investigates the issues such as how to coordinate the EVs customers for coordinated charging, maximize photovoltaic utilization, and reduce customers cost of EVs charging and operator electricity. Firstly, an ideal charging load curve was built through using the linear programming algorithm. This optimal curve, which realized maximum photovoltaic power and minimum electricity cost, was used as the objective curve. Secondly, a customer response model was utilized, to propose an optimization method and strategy for charging service tariffs. Particle swarm optimization algorithm was used for time-of-use tariffs and peak-flat-valley time division so that the charging load after price regulation was adjusted to best fit the objective curve, and both the EVs customers and the operator benefit from this. Finally, the proposed model and method have been verified by two cases.

  10. Peeling the Energy Pickle: Expert Perceptions on Overcoming Nepal’s Electricity Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sovacool, Benjamin; Dhakal, Saroj; Gippner, Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Underinvestment, low levels of electricity access, natural disasters, topography and hydrology make Nepal’s electricity crisis akin to ‘peeling a pickle’: difficult to pin down and hard to manage. Based primarily on the perceptions of a sample of experts, this article lays out a roadmap for how......; political instability resulting from the aftermath of the Maoist insurgency; poverty and corruption; lack of financing and investment; constrained technological and human resources; and, finally, aid dependency and political manoeuvring. We conclude by calling on Nepali policymakers to invest in distributed...... generation, transmission upgrades, seasonal hydroelectric storage and industrial energy efficiency practices, and to introduce electricity tariff reforms, among other measures....

  11. User-Aware Electricity Price Optimization for the Competitive Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allegra De Filippo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Demand response mechanisms and load control in the electricity market represent an important area of research at the international level: the trend towards competition and market liberalization has led to the development of methodologies and tools to support energy providers. Demand side management helps energy suppliers to reduce the peak demand and remodel load profiles. This work is intended to support energy suppliers and policy makers in developing strategies to act on the behavior of energy consumers, with the aim to make a more efficient use of energy. We develop a non-linear optimization model for the dynamics of the electricity market, which can be used to obtain tariff recommendations or for setting the goals of a sensibilization campaign. The model comes in two variants: a stochastic version, designed for residential electricity consumption, and a deterministic version, suitable for large electricity users (e.g., public buildings, industrial users. We have tested our model on data from the Italian energy market and performed an extensive analysis of different scenarios. We also tested the optimization model in a real setting in the context of the FP7 DAREED project (http://www.dareed.eu/, where the model has been employed to provide tariff recommendations or to help the identification of goals for local policies.

  12. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel, E-mail: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of under investment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  13. Consumer free: tariffs of use of the distribution system and the commercialization of energy; Consumidor livre: as tarifas de uso do sistema de distribuicao e a comercializacao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdiz, Lauro Daniel Beisl; Sousa, Eduardo F. de; Flor, Ricardo Antonio Maciel [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], email: eng_edsousa@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Brazil has gone through its worst crisis in electricity supply in the past fifty years. The justifications for the current crisis are found in the eighties, when there was a long period of underinvestment in the sector, until then controlled and managed exclusively by the state, especially in the expansion of generation and power transmission network. The lack of financial resources by the state led to the delay or suspension of expansion projects. Consumption, meanwhile, increased when the economy grew and continued to increase even when the economy stagnated, as more people gained access to electricity. It became imperative, then implode the model that barely functioned at that time under the command of the state and devise a new model for the electricity sector, which should have as main goals: to attract the participation of private investment coupled with gradual tariff reduction the State, in addition to increased competition among agents in the chain, to enable the pricing more affordable to society, and better quality services. (author)

  14. Analysis of Competitiveness and Support Instruments for Heat and Electricity Production from Wood Biomass in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Kudrenickis, I.; Kundzina, A.

    2012-01-01

    Utilisation of renewable energy sources is one of the key factors in a search for efficient ways of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases and improving the energy supply security. So far, the district heating supply in Latvia has been based on natural gas, with the wood fuel playing a minor role; the same is true for decentralised combined heat-power (CHP) production. The paper describes a method for evaluation of the economic feasibility of heat and electricity production from wood biomass under the competition between different fuel types and taking into account the electricity market. For the simulation, a cost estimation model is applied. The results demonstrate that wood biomass can successfully be utilised for competitive heat production by boiler houses, while for electricity production by CHP utilities it cannot compete on the market (even despite the low prices on wood biomass fuel) unless particular financial support instruments are applied. The authors evaluate the necessary support level and the impact of two main support instruments - the investment subsidies and the feed-in tariff - on the economic viability of wood-fuelled CHP plants, and show that the feed-in tariff could be considered as an instrument strongly affecting the competitiveness of such type CHP. Regarding the feed-in tariff determination, a compromise should be found between the economy-dictated requirement to develop CHP projects concerning capacities above 5 MWel - on the one hand, and the relatively small heat loads in many Latvian towns - on the other.

  15. The Impact of the AFTA Tariff Reduction on Districs Economic Growth in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiwan Fahlan Aritenang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Saat ini telah banyak upaya pertumbuhan ekonomi melalui liberalisasi perdagangan dan integrasi ekonomi. Melalui kedua upaya ini diharapkan dapat mendorong pembangunan daerah melalui peningkatan keterkaitan ekonomi lokal dengan perdagangan global. Dalam dua dekade terakhir, Indonesia telah terlibat aktif dalam perdagangan bebas ASEAN (ASEAN Free Trade Area/AFTA sebagai perjanjian perdagangan multilateral antar negara-negara Asia Tenggara. Artikel ini mengkaji dampak liberalisasi perdagangan AFTA terhadap inklusifitas pembangunan ekonomi kabupaten/kota pada era otonomi daerah. Artikel ini menganalisis dampak AFTA terhadap pembangunan kabupaten/kota di Indonesia. Artikel ini menunjukkan bahwa dampak AFTA masih pada pusat kegiatan industri manufaktur dan daerah maju. Selanjutnya, artikel ini berpendapat bahwa peran dominan pemerintah pusat tetap diperlukan untuk menjamin manfaat AFTA bagi pembangunan daerah.Kata kunci. ASEAN FTA, konvergensi wilayah, Tarif CEPTAbstract. Trade liberalization and economic integration have been globally adopted to accelerate the collective economic growth. Specifically trade liberalization is viewed as a crucial economic factor that promotes local economic development through promoting local economy into the global trade. This phenomenon is also found in Indonesia with its involvement in the ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA as a multilateral agreement that selected specific industry sectors for trade inclusion. This article reviews the impact of AFTA trade liberalization on districts economic growth in the context of Indonesia’s decentralised domestic political system. The article argues that the persistent dominant role of central government is still needed to ensure the AFTA’s benefits for the district development.Keywords. ASEAN FTA, regional convergence, tariff CEPT

  16. A more effective use of clean energy. Decentralized power supply: EEG promotes the personal use of electricity; Saubere Energie effektiver nutzen. Dezentrale Stromversorgung: EEG foerdert die Eigenstromnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-05-15

    Despite cutbacks in the feed-in tariff in the most cases PV systems remain viable in the future. However, the system operator has to deal with the achievement and securing a maximum revenue more intensively. It is recommendable not to feed electricity to 100% but to use as much energy as possible. Since the Renewable Energy Law promotes the personal use of electricity in particular, and thus increases the profitability of the plant.

  17. Wind power feed-in-tariff price of consumptive%风电上网电价机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周莹; 张娜; 董振; 张婷

    2012-01-01

    随着能源与环境问题的日益突出,风力发电作为技术最成熟、最具开发条件和商业化前景的新发电方式越来越受到重视.目前国内风电发展仍停留在小规模发展或完全由政府投资的阶段,其中既有技术问题也有政策问题,而最核心的问题之一是风电上网电价的问题.风电上网电价的居高不下导致售电电价高于其他能源类型电价,进而导致风电利用率较低.从国内外风电上网电价机制入手,通过分析影响风电上网电价的自然、经济、技术、政策四个方面的风险因素,提出了基于风险的风电上网电价调整机制和激励电网风电消纳的风电上网补贴机制,并结合案例分析了新机制带来的电网公司、政府、风电厂商、用户各主体利益的变化,为合理制定风电上网电价机制提供了理论支持.%With the energy and environmental issues becoming more prominent, wind power generation receives more and more attention as the most mature technology, development conditions and promising new commercial power generation. At present, wind power development is still at the small-scale development or the stage fully funded by government, there is not only technical issues but also policy issues, however, one of the most central issue is the issue of wind power feed-in-tariff price. Because of high wind power feed-in tariff, the sales price is higher than other types of energy, which led to the low utilization of wind power. In this paper, from domestic and international wind power feed-in tariff mechanism to start, by analyzing the impact four risk factors of wind power feed-in-tariff price, including natural, economic, technical and policy aspects, the risk-based wind power feed-in-tariff price adjustment mechanism and incentive wind power consumptive subsidy mechanism are both proposed, combined with case studies of the new mechanism , that brings change of power grid companies, governments, wind

  18. An Optimum Solution for Electric Power Theft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Hussain Memon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric power theft is a problem that continues to plague power sector across the whole country. Every year, the electricity companies face the line losses at an average 20-30% and according to power ministry estimation WAPDA companies lose more than Rs. 125 billion. Significantly, it is enough to destroy the entire power sector of country. According to sources 20% losses means the masses would have to pay extra 20% in terms of electricity tariffs. In other words, the innocent consumers pay the bills of those who steal electricity. For all that, no any permanent solution for this major issue has ever been proposed. We propose an applicable and optimum solution for this impassable problem. In our research, we propose an Electric power theft solution based on three stages; Transmission stage, Distribution stage, and User stage. Without synchronization among all, the complete solution can not be achieved. The proposed solution is simulated on NI (National Instruments Circuit Design Suite Multisim v.10.0. Our research work is an implicit and a workable approach towards the Electric power theft, as for conditions in Pakistan, which is bearing the brunt of power crises already

  19. Comparison of the Ministry of Health's tariffs with the cost of radiology services using the activity-based costing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila

    2016-02-01

    Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital's information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services.

  20. Rule-based Energy Management System in an Experimental Microgrid with the Presence of Time of Use Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moghimi Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate a method of peak load shaving through the utilization of solar PV and battery energy storage whilst creating a cost effective Energy Management System (EMS. This is achieved by utilizing a rule-sets to manage and optimize a scheduling system with a forecasting algorithm. As Time of Use (ToU tariffs change throughout the day, a cost benefit can be achieved when a smart energy storage system is appropriately employed. The EMS operation is tested on an experimental microgrid with commercial load considering payback period calculation.

  1. The Brazilian experience of incentive of renewable sources expansion by means of electric power auctions; A experiencia brasileira de incentivo a expansao das fontes renovaveis por meio de leiloes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Alexandre Guedes [Camara de Comercializacao de Energia Eletrica (CCEE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the Brazilian experience to encourage renewable sources of power generation through the auctions into the Regulated Environment of Contracting. These auctions are subdivided into auctions of existing plants, new plants, alternative sources and structural plants. In this process we observe the structure of the mechanism for contracting new projects of renewable sources without neglecting the low tariffs issues. Thus, the auctions of electricity in Brazil is an alternative to be considered in an attempt to group market mechanisms, low tariffs and incentives to renewable sources of generation. (author)

  2. Dispatchable Hydrogen Production at the Forecourt for Electricity Demand Shaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulla Rahil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues and concerns about depletion of fossil fuels have driven rapid growth in the generation of renewable energy (RE and its use in electricity grids. Similarly, the need for an alternative to hydrocarbon fuels means that the number of fuel cell vehicles is also expected to increase. The ability of electricity networks to balance supply and demand is greatly affected by the variable, intermittent output of RE generators; however, this could be relieved using energy storage and demand-side response (DSR techniques. One option would be production of hydrogen by electrolysis powered from wind and solar sources. The use of tariff structures would provide an incentive to operate electrolysers as dispatchable loads. The aim of this paper is to compare the cost of hydrogen production by electrolysis at garage forecourts in Libya, for both dispatchable and continuous operation, without interruption of fuel supply to vehicles. The coastal city of Derna was chosen as a case study, with the renewable energy being produced via a wind turbine farm. Wind speed was analysed in order to determine a suitable turbine, then the capacity was calculated to estimate how many turbines would be needed to meet demand. Finally, the excess power was calculated, based on the discrepancy between supply and demand. The study looked at a hydrogen refueling station in both dispatchable and continuous operation, using an optimisation algorithm. The following three scenarios were considered to determine whether the cost of electrolytic hydrogen could be reduced by a lower off-peak electricity price. These scenarios are: Standard Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a standard tariff of 12 p/kWh; Off-peak Only, in which the electrolyser operates only during off-peak periods at the lower price of 5 p/kWh; and 2-Tier Continuous, in which the electrolyser operates continuously on a low tariff at off-peak times and a high tariff at other

  3. Sustainable water use in cities: water tariff as tool for consumption control; El uso sostenible del agua en nucleos urbanos: las tarifas como herramienta de control del consumo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Garcia, V.E.; Blanco Jimenez, F.J.

    2012-07-01

    The Water Framework Directive requires the adoption of a tariff system that recovers the costs of water resources and the establishment of national water-pricing policies that help to achieve a sustainable water use. Water rates (tariffs) should be used as an auxiliary tool for consumption control, seeking for efficiency and a sustainable resource use. In this research, we studied the characteristics of the existing rates in seven Spanish cities, analyzing the behavior of consumption of domestic water during the period 2003-2010, in order to check whether the current Spanish rates conforms to the state of resources and the objectives of the Directive. The main conclusion of our work is that the current system has lost its effectiveness as a control consumption tool, making it necessary to rethink the pricing policy and a new tariff system in Spain. (Author)

  4. 电费回收风险项目绩效评价研究%Research on the Performance Evaluation of Tariff Recovery Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓艳

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce the risk of tariff recovery, improve the efficiency of tariff recovery, and increase the profitability of the power companies, this article established the performance evaluation index system and evaluation process, analyzed the method of evaluation in detail, finally, summarized the benefit of tariff recovery from economic, social, management and other aspects.%为降低电费回收风险,提高电费回收的效率,增加电力企业的盈利能力。本文通过建立绩效评价指标体系和评价的流程,并且详细分析了评价的方法,最后对电费回收的经济、社会、管理等方面的效益进行了总结。

  5. Europe’s electricity regime: restoration or thorough transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviel Verbruggen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change, diminishing social acceptance of traditional fuels, and technological innovations have led several countries to pursue energy transition strategies, typically by massive diffusion of renewable electricity supplies. The German ‘Energiewende’ has been successful so far in terms of deploying renewable power, mainly by applying particular feed-in tariffs, and by bundling public, academic, industrial and political support. So far though, only few EU member states proceed with a similar transition. In March 2014 CEOs of Europe’s major energy companies publicly opposed a fast and thorough transformation of electricity supplies to become fully renewable. In April 2014 the European Commission published new state aid guidelines, generally mandating renewable energy support mechanisms (premiums, tenders of lesser performance than regularly adjusted, specific feed-in tariffs. The new guidelines are likely to be pernicious for the fast deployment of renewable electricity supplies. In light of these challenges, this position paper highlights two implications of power sector transitions. First, the engineering-economics theory of power generation systems needs fundamental revision, mainly since a growing share of power sources no longer function on command. Second, and based on the experience in Germany, the paper sketches out a strategy for a thorough transition of the power sector, which, in the end, also entails normative judgements. Deep changes in energy systems and associated ways of living require societal consensus building based on ethical considerations.

  6. MODERN SITUATION AND FORECASTS OF ELECTRICAL POWER ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT IN THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS AND RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kravchenko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of systematic analysis of scientific, statistical and economic data the paper compares modern situation and forecasts of electrical power engineering development in the Republic of Belarus and Russian Federation. The paper carries out an analysis of integrated structure of fuel balances of both countries till 2015. The paper notes the fact that thermal power stations (TPS will remain a main generating source till 2020 and gas will continue to be the main type of fuel in the structure of fuel balances. The paper investigates development of technological structures in the electrical power engineering. It has been revealed that one of the main factors that hinders development of the Belarussian power system is the absence of the required financial  mechanisms for obtaining additional investment possibilities. In connection with this fact a special attention should be given to the problems that are directed on improvement of tariff policy and mechanisms of tariff formation.

  7. IMPACT OF MAIZE IMPORT TARIFF POLICY CHANGES ON PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN INDONESIA: A MULTIMARKET MODEL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintya Jummoni Krissanty Umboh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study is at analyzing the impact of maize import tariff policy changes on production and consumption in Indonesia. Three groups of households were assessed in this studi, namely: (1 large scale broiler farming, (2 small scale broiler farming, and (3 other households. Employed data in this study were classified into 3 types: (1 production and input, consumption, and household income, (2 inputs and outputs, and (3 elasticities. The abolishment of the import tariff policy on maize had an impact on increased maize imported and decreased maize price. Decreased domestic maize price was responded by maize farmer through lessing maize planted area and fertilizer input uses that had impact on the declining in maize production. On the other hand, this policy had positive impact on production of rice, chicken meat, and eggs which led to increase incomes of small scale broiler farming and agricultural sector, as well as national. It furthermore increased the consumption for maize, chicken meat, and eggs in Indonesia.

  8. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  9. Russian electricity reform. Emerging challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The Russian Government is pursuing a strategy of very high economic growth, with the objective of doubling gross domestic product in ten years. It recognises the central role the electricity sector has to play to achieve this target and has embarked on a highly ambitious program of electricity reform. If it is to succeed, the reform program will have to create market structures, market rules and a regulatory framework that will foster competitive wholesale and retail electricity markets. At the same time, it will have to deal with sensitive social issues related to tariff rebalancing and the removal of cross subsidies. Only competitive markets based on transparent prices that reflect costs can deliver the efficient, reliable and internationally competitive performance needed to meet the government's economic targets. Such markets are essential to attract new investment that will be required to ensure security of electricity supply after 2010. This book focuses on key aspects of the proposed reform that could have an important bearing on its success. It also raises concerns as to the pace of reform in related areas, such as the need for complementary reforms in the Russian natural gas sector. The IEA commends the Russian Government on its efforts to embrace this electricity reform - a key element critical to meeting the challenges ahead in terms of its economic growth and energy security. 17 figs., 10 tabs., 3 maps.

  10. Direct participation of electrical loads in the California independent system operator markets during the Summer of 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Hamachi, Kristina S.; Khavkin, Mark; Siddiqui, Afzal S.

    2001-04-01

    California's restructured electricity markets opened on 1 April 1998. The former investor-owned utilities were functionally divided into generation, transmission, and distribution activities, all of their gas-fired generating capacity was divested, and the retail market was opened to competition. To ensure that small customers shared in the expected benefit of lower prices, the enabling legislation mandated a 10% rate cut for all customers, which was implemented in a simplistic way that fossilized 1996 tariff structures. Rising fuel and environmental compliance costs, together with a reduced ability to import electricity, numerous plant outages, and exercise of market power by generators drove up wholesale electricity prices steeply in 2000, while retail tariffs remained unchanged. One of the distribution/supply companies entered bankruptcy in April 2001, and another was insolvent. During this period, two sets of interruptible load programs were in place, longstanding ones organized as special tariffs by the distribution/supply companies and hastily established ones run directly by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO). The distribution/supply company programs were effective at reducing load during the summer of 2000, but because of the high frequency of outages required by a system on the brink of failure, customer response declined and many left the tariff. The CAISO programs failed to attract enough participation to make a significant difference to the California supply demand imbalance. The poor performance of direct load participation in California's markets reinforces the argument for accurate pricing of electricity as a stimulus to energy efficiency investment and as a constraint on market volatility.

  11. The Brazilian electric sector regulation as reference for the hydrogen regulation as energetic vector; A regulacao do setor eletrico brasileiro como referencia para regulacao do hidrogenio como vetor energetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paternostro, Andre de Goes [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia (FAPSB), Salvador, BA (Brazil)]. E-mail: apater@hotmail.com

    2008-07-01

    This paper is based on the Brazilian electric sector to outline parallels for introduction of hydrogen as energetic vector in Brazilian matrix. For this purpose it was achieved an analysis of regulation theory, of electric sector reorganization, the new model of energy trade and the NOS role. In face of this analysis, hydrogen regulation may be established through a mix of four models: tariff model by return tax; tariff by marginal cost; regulation by performance and price cap. This new industrial sector should start vertical and with its maturity become non vertical as electric sector after its reorganization. Regarding the market, advanced purchase of hydrogen should be established enabling the reduction of incertitude in trade as well as reduction of implantation costs. NOS should pursue electric energy generation from hydrogen as this may carry impacts in transmission networks as well as in distribution network depending on how hydrogen was generated, whether in large scale or for local consumption supply. (author)

  12. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page discusses key sectors and how they use electricity. Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity.

  13. 78 FR 56646 - Determination of Total Amounts of Fiscal Year 2014 WTO Tariff-Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Tariff- Rate Quotas for Raw Cane Sugar and Certain Sugars, Syrups and Molasses AGENCY: Office of the...-quota aggregate quantity of raw cane sugar at 1,117,195 metric tons raw value (MTRV). The Secretary also announces the establishment of the FY 2014 in-quota aggregate quantity of certain sugars, syrups, and...

  14. Risk implications of renewable support instruments: Comparative analysis of feed-in tariffs and premiums using a mean-variance approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    2014-01-01

    . Using cash flow analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and mean-variance analysis, we quantify risk-return relationships for an exemplary offshore wind park in a simplified setting. We show that feedin tariffs systematically require lower direct support levels than feed-in premiums while providing the same...

  15. THE ANALYSIS OF THE COSTS AND THE CORRELATION BETWEEN TARIFF AND COST IN THE SECTOR OF CLEAN WATER AND SEWERAGE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÜLÖP ÁRPÁD-ZOLTÁN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the costs and of the structure of tariffs for operators in the sector of water and sewage system in Romania are a real challenge. Through this analysis we can form an overview of the costs which may involve in the service of providing clean water and the sewage and wastewater treatment. The costs is analysed both in the cost structure at the enterprise level and in comparison with the income made from the activity (supply of drinking water or treatment of wastewater. In the article we study the cost structure at the level of sector of activity and the correlation between the tariff applied to water and sewer services and size of enterprise, number of employees, wage costs, maintenance and repair costs, energy cost and other variables. The correlations results helps us to make the first steps for the realization of an equation of the cost at the level of the sector of water and sewage system. Another correlation study will be between the applied tariff and the size of the investments made with european co-financing in the framework of the SOP Environment. Through this correlation we determine if the size of the tariffs applied in this sector correlate to the size of the investments made in the SOP Environment.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart A of... - Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commodity Codes From the Harmonized Tariff Schedule for Controlled Substances and Used Controlled Substances K Appendix K to Subpart A of...) PROTECTION OF STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. K Appendix K to...

  17. 国家经贸委公布部分产品进口配额及税率%SETC announces quotas and tariff rates on imported goods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ In accordance with"The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on the Administration of Import and Export of Goods"as well as China's pledges upon its accession to the World Trade Organisation, China's State Economics and Trade Commission(SETC)recently published quotas and tariff rates for some imported goods for 2002.

  18. A reversal in the historical role of tariffs in economic growth? The cases of Brazil and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugénia Mata

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the comparative role of protectionism on Brazilian and Portuguese economic growth for the period 1860-1950 in the context of the available theoretical approaches from international economics. Although the role of tariffs has long been debated in the historiography of both countries, this paper provides the first exercise that uses a methodology based on a macro-econometric approach for long-run time-series. Given Clemens' and Williamson's conclusion that the world environment matters, we test their claim for two countries on the tariff reversal paradox. The Brazilian and the Portuguese experiences confirm that protection was correlated with growth in the period before World War I, and it is unlikely that freer trade would have increased Portuguese growth, contrary to the established thesis. The First World War, however, was a turning point for Brazil. In carrying out this study, we have used the best data available to us, occasionally departing from those used by Clemens and Williamson. Our conclusions hold for alternative data sets.Este artigo discute o papel comparativo do protecionismo sobre o crescimento econômico brasileiro e português no período 1860-1950 no contexto das aproximações teóricas disponíveis da Economia Internacional. Embora o papel das tarifas tenha sido longamente discutido na historiografia dos dois países, este artigo fornece o primeiro exercício que usa a metodologia baseada na aproximação macroeconométrica para sucessões cronológicas de longa duração. Dada a conclusão de Clemens e Williamson de que o enquadramento mundial conta, testamos para os dois países a sua pretensão do tariff reversal paradox. As experiências brasileira e portuguesa confirmam que a proteção esteve correlacionada com o crescimento no período anterior à Primeira Guerra Mundial, e não é provável que comércio mais livre tivesse aumentado o crescimento econômico português, contrariamente à tese

  19. Analysis of the Impact of Including Tariff Revision Procedures in Transmission Concessions Contracts Auctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulo, Goret

    2010-09-15

    The growing global need for investments to expand infrastructure in the electricity sector has prompted a theoretical debate over the various regulatory models applicable to this sector, particularly those seeking to attain efficient level of investment and pricing in natural monopoly segments, such as electricity transmission or distribution. In this article we analyze the regulatory model adopted for expansion of transmission segment in Brazil. The combination of franchise bidding with revenue cap rules seems to be more efficient than only the use of competitive bidding for long-term contracts.

  20. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  1. Overview of the Spanish electricity supply industry model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, J.B.; Collado, R.J. (ENDESA (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The Spanish Electricity Supply Industry (ESI) is a fairly large, well diversified industry which has undergone substantial changes during the last decade, aimed at achieving three distinct objectives: maximum economic efficiency; maintenance of the ESI as a national energy policy tool; and flexibility vis-a-vis a changing environment. The changes have affected the three structural elements of the system: industrial and business structure, tending towards a greater horizontalization of the industry and consolidation of the companies involved; system management and operation, under the perspective of an integrated system with regard to key decisions both in the long-term (i.e. capacity planning) and short-term (i.e. energy dispatching system); and tariff and price regulation in the context of a country-wide single tariff, aimed at promoting system efficiency and 'yardstick' competition through the use of 'standard costs' for all cost items in all parts of the system. Beyond these initial changes, there are new elements under consideration and developed in a new Law for the Structuring of the Electric System, blocked at present by the impending elections. This new Law would maintain the perspective of the integrated system while allowing for competition in certain areas (i.e. new generation, 'energy sellers') and promoting greater transparency with the segregation of activities (Generation, Transmission, Distribution, and 'Energy Sales').

  2. Drug price regulation under consumer moral hazard. Two-part tariffs, uniform price or third-degree price discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan

    2004-12-01

    Drug price differences across national markets as they exist in the EU are often justified by the concept of Ramsey prices: with fixed costs for R&D, the optimal mark-ups on marginal costs are inversely related to the price elasticity in the individual markets. This well-known result prevails if consumer moral hazard is taken into account. Contrary to the situation without moral hazard, the uniform price does not necessarily dominate discriminatory pricing in welfare terms. The two-part tariff is a better alternative as it allows governments to address moral hazard. A uniform price combined with lump-payments reflecting differences in the willingness to pay and the moral hazard in member states appears to be an attractive option for a common EU drug market.

  3. Equal tariffs in the new market model of the gas industry; Die Gleichpreisigkeit im neuen Marktmodell der Gaswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peper, F.; Huegging, T.; Fest, C. [viavera GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The new Energy Industry Act (Energiewirtschaftsgesetz - EnWG) will have consequences for the German gas industry, i.e. unbundling requirements and enforced cooperation and restructuring of grid operators. There is a controversial discussion going on between the gas industry, the grid users and the regulation authority, the focus of which is on the development and definition of a new network access model for the gas industry, especially the formation of new market zones and the resulting consequences for the processes of the market partners concerned. The contribution discusses the system of equal tariffs within a market zone, which is one aspect of the market model under discussion. Selected example are to illustrate the underlying systematics. (orig.)

  4. A method for short term electricity spot price forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koreneff, G.; Seppaelae, A.; Lehtonen, M.; Kekkonen, V. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, E.; Haekli, J. [Vaasa Univ. (Finland); Antila, E. [ABB Transmit Oy (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In Finland, the electricity market was de-regulated in November 1995. For the electricity purchase of power companies this has caused big changes, since the old tariff based contracts of bulk power supply have been replaced by negotiated bilateral short term contracts and by power purchase from the spot market. In the spot market, in turn, there are at the present two strong actors: The electricity exchange of Finland and the Nordic power pool which is run by the Swedish and Norwegian companies. Today, the power companies in Finland have short term trade with both of the electricity exchanges. The aim of this chapter is to present methods for spot price forecasting in the electricity exchange. The main focus is given to the Finnish circumstances. In the beginning of the presentation, the practices of the electricity exchange of Finland are described, and a brief presentation is given on the different contracts, or electricity products, available in the spot market. For comparison, the practices of the Nordic electricity exchange are also outlined. A time series technique for spot price forecasting is presented. The structure of the model is presented, and its validity is tested using real case data obtained from the Finnish power market. The spot price forecasting model is a part of a computer system for distribution energy management (DEM) in a de-regulated power market

  5. Electric power energy strategic management - GEEE; Gestao estrategica de energia eletrica - GEEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagattoli, Sandro Geraldo; Deschamps, Eduardo [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil)]. E-mails: sandrogb@furb.br; edudes@furb.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper introduces and explains the concept and the applications of the Strategical Management of Electric Energy - SMEE, in terms of a energy management philosophy or a model for electric energy consumers, whose theoretical basis is oriented by principles of strategic management and has by eventual purpose to increase the enterprise competitiveness. In its holistic and systemic character, SMEE connects several areas and processes of a company and integrates many electric energy acquisition and use optimization approaches, including the analysis of the external environment by considering a strategical positioning in the face of the electric energy market. Key-words . strategical management, competitiveness, electric energy conservation, load management, tariffs and supply legislation, technical-economic composition of power sources. (author)

  6. A mechanistic model for electricity consumption on dairy farms: definition, validation, and demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; Shalloo, L; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; De Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to define and demonstrate a mechanistic model that enables dairy farmers to explore the impact of a technical or managerial innovation on electricity consumption, associated CO2 emissions, and electricity costs. We, therefore, (1) defined a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms (MECD) capable of simulating total electricity consumption along with related CO2 emissions and electricity costs on dairy farms on a monthly basis; (2) validated the MECD using empirical data of 1yr on commercial spring calving, grass-based dairy farms with 45, 88, and 195 milking cows; and (3) demonstrated the functionality of the model by applying 2 electricity tariffs to the electricity consumption data and examining the effect on total dairy farm electricity costs. The MECD was developed using a mechanistic modeling approach and required the key inputs of milk production, cow number, and details relating to the milk-cooling system, milking machine system, water-heating system, lighting systems, water pump systems, and the winter housing facilities as well as details relating to the management of the farm (e.g., season of calving). Model validation showed an overall relative prediction error (RPE) of less than 10% for total electricity consumption. More than 87% of the mean square prediction error of total electricity consumption was accounted for by random variation. The RPE values of the milk-cooling systems, water-heating systems, and milking machine systems were less than 20%. The RPE values for automatic scraper systems, lighting systems, and water pump systems varied from 18 to 113%, indicating a poor prediction for these metrics. However, automatic scrapers, lighting, and water pumps made up only 14% of total electricity consumption across all farms, reducing the overall impact of these poor predictions. Demonstration of the model showed that total farm electricity costs increased by between 29 and 38% by moving from a day and night tariff to a flat

  7. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], emails: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, vparente@iee.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  8. CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) and regulation in Brazilian electric distribution sector; CAPM (Capital Asset Pricing Model) e regulacao no segmento de distribuicao do setor eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Rinaldo Caldeira; Parente, Virginia, E-mail: rinaldo@iee.usp.br, E-mail: vparente@iee.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the use of Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM) Beta in the Brazilian electric distribution sector tariffs review. The betas applied by the Regulatory Agency are defined using data from the American, English and Brazilian markets. These betas will then be compared to the betas obtained in the domestic market. The betas were directly obtained from an economic-financial databank largely employed by the market. The sample is composed of companies' shares, priced at Sao Paulo Stock Market. Their main activity is the distribution of electric energy between July 2002 and July 2007. The results of mean betas obtained for the distribution segment, with values close to the ones applied by the regulatory agency for the cycle of tariff reviews between 2007-2010. (author)

  9. Optimal Coordinated Management of a Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station under a Flexible Penalty Contract for Voltage Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jip Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The increasing penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs may cause a low-voltage problem in the distribution network. In particular, the introduction of charging stations where multiple PEVs are simultaneously charged at the same bus can aggravate the low-voltage problem. Unlike a distribution network operator (DNO who has the overall responsibility for stable and reliable network operation, a charging station operator (CSO may schedule PEV charging without consideration for the resulting severe voltage drop. Therefore, there is a need for the DNO to impose a coordination measure to induce the CSO to adjust its charging schedule to help mitigate the voltage problem. Although the current time-of-use (TOU tariff is an indirect coordination measure that can motivate the CSO to shift its charging demand to off-peak time by imposing a high rate at the peak time, it is limited by its rigidity in that the network voltage condition cannot be flexibly reflected in the tariff. Therefore, a flexible penalty contract (FPC for voltage security to be used as a direct coordination measure is proposed. In addition, the optimal coordinated management is formulated. Using the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E 69-bus test distribution network, the effectiveness of the coordination was verified by comparison with the current TOU tariff.

  10. Utilisation of rice residues for decentralised electricity generation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, face large challenges to achieve universal electrification. Using the case of Ghana, this study explores the role that rice residues can play to help developing countries meet their electrification needs. In Ghana, Levelised Electricity Costs...... (LEC) of a grid-connected 5 MWe straw combustion plant ranged between 11.6 and 13.0 UScents/kWh, based on region of implementation. Rice straw combustion is a viable grid-connected option in all regions, as the bioenergy Feed-in-Tariff is 29.5 UScents/kWh in Ghana. Residue supply cost contributes...... the average LEC of grid extension diesel mini-grids and off-grid solar systems for remote communities in Ghana. Electricity produced from husk gasification has the potential to cater to 7% of the needs of un-electrified communities in Ghana. The methodology and analysis of this study can support policymakers...

  11. OPTIMAL TARIFF SETTING AND ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE STRATEGIC DETERMINATION%最优关税制定及国际贸易战略决定分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙麒圣; 李克强

    2012-01-01

    International trade is wide spread today, therefore interactions in tariffs strategy among countries are quite common in the international market. This paper discussed the problem of government tariff setting in international trade by establishing asymmetric quartet two-stage nested game model. Theoretical analysis showed that developing national trade was better than seclusion and there was an optimal tariff in trade which was superior to that of non-tariff, which would damage interest of others. In an asymmetric model of two countries and a single product with tariff barriers, free trade was not a rational choice under normal circumstances. The Nash equilibrium solution of two countries were both adopting optimal tariff policy, forming Prisoner's Dilemma, which could explain the prevalence of trade protection policy in reality.%当今世界国际贸易关系广泛存在,在不完全竞争的国际市场中充满了国家之间贸易政策的关税战略互动.本文建立了非对称的四方两阶段嵌套博弈模型,讨论了国际贸易中的政府关税设定.理论分析结果表明,对任意贸易国而言,开展国际贸易都优于闭关锁国;且存在一个最优关税优于无关税的自由贸易,但这将会损害他国利益.在具有关税壁垒的非对称的两国单一产品贸易模型中,自由贸易在通常情况下并非各国的理性选择,博弈中两国的纳什均衡解是双方均采用最优关税政策,形成囚徒困境,这解释了现实中贸易保护政策盛行的原因.

  12. Electric Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Council for the Promotion of International Trade Electric Power Industry Office (CCPIT Electric Power), one of the pro-fessional industrial branches of China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT), was established in 2006.

  13. Electricity economics

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Zhaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Systematically analyzing for the first time the production output from electricity consumption for enterprises, sectors, and industries, this study uses the function of EAI (electricity as input), and includes national E-GDP figures for more than 20 countries.

  14. Direct marketing of electricity from biogas plants; Direktvermarktung von Strom aus Biogasanlagen. Chancen und Risiken aus rechtlicher Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falke, Iris; Schlichting, Julia [Schnutenhaus und Kollegen, Rechtsanwaelte, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    The German Renewable Energy Sources Act of January, 1{sup st} 2012 contains new possibilities of direct selling electricity to the market, to promote and to improve market integration of electricity generated from renewable energies. The core is the introduction of a market premium for electricity which has actually been fed into the grid system and purchased by a third party. In addition to his market revenues, the installation operator receives the market premium. The market premium replaces the guaranteed EEG feed-in tariff. The market premium should cover the difference between the proceeds from direct selling and the EEG feed-in tariff. In addition, installation operators receive a management premium to compensate their transaction costs. As a supplement to the market premium model the EEG 2012 introduces a flexibility premium to create an economic incentive for providing additional capacities and encourage a demand-oriented electricity production. Further possibilities of direct marketing are the ''green electricity privilege'' and the non-subsided direct marketing. This article provides an over-view of the different forms of direct-marketing that are included in EEG 2012 with a focus on the market premium and the flexibility premium. These two instruments are of high importance to operators of installations generating electricity from biogas. A further emphasis is put on risks and chances in contract negotiation in the context of direct marketing. (orig.)

  15. Free Trade and Tariffs: Level III, Unit 2, Lesson 1; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism: Lesson 2; Nationalism vs. Internationalism: Lesson 3. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Free Trade and Tariffs; Capitalism, Communism, Socialism; and Nationalism vs. Internationalism. Each of the lessons concludes with a Mastery Test to be completed by the student. (DB)

  16. Economic assessment of electric energy storage for load shifting in positive energy building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Do Carmo, Carolina Madeira Ramos; Georges, Emeline

    2017-01-01

    Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the buildin...... and a 3.7 kWh battery. Finally, simple correlations (based on the feed-in tariff, the annual electrical consumption and production) to predict the optimal size of battery and the lowest payback period are proposed.......Net zero energy buildings and positive energy buildings are gaining more and more interest. This paper evaluates the impact of the integration of a battery in a positive energy building used to increase its self-consumption of electricity. Parametric studies are carried out by varying the building...... envelope characteristics, the power supply system, the climate, the lighting and appliances profiles, the roof tilt angle, the battery size and the electricity tariffs, leading to 3200 cases. The analysis is performed on an annual basis in terms of self-consumption and self-production rate and payback...

  17. Asset life and pricing the use of electricity transmission infrastructure in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raineri, Ricardo [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-01-15

    Beyond the different approaches to set regulated prices for the use of infrastructure, a key parameter to determine regulated tariffs is the concept of asset life and how it changes with changes in the economic and regulatory context, which determines the optimal infrastructure investment and replacement policies. In this paper we look at the effects that changes in demand, the presence of substitutes and complements, the regulatory framework - both a pro or an anticompetitive framework -, scale economies, and the investment planning horizon, have on the economic service life of an asset and the tariffs for its use. We find that as the electric industry becomes more competitive, a negative effect on the economic service life of electric electricity transmission should be expected. Also, numerical experiments illustrate an inverse relation between scale economies on investment and the ESL of electricity transmission infrastructure. Further, we look at the biases on optimal investment that happen when optimal plans do not observe the life cycle of the investments and the ESL of the equipment, as well as the inconsistency and biases on optimal investment and replacement policies that might result when the Social Planner optimal investment plan lacks of a long-term commitment. (author)

  18. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  19. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  20. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF CUSTOMS TARIFF POLICY IN FOREST FOR THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION FORESTRY DEVELOPMENT BORDER TO CHINA REGION (FOR EXAMPLE ZABAYKALSKY KRAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Vladimirovna Kolesnikovа

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of large amounts of forest resources in Russian Federation, as well as existence of the general border between Russia and China causes export orientation in the development of timber industry in regions of Russia, which have borders with China. On the basis of the actual material is considered the impact of ongoing customs and tariff policy on the development of the forestry sector toChina's border regions (for example, Zabaykalsky Kray.During the studies it was concluded that despite the ongoing customs and tariff policy in the Russian Federation is now forestry development of border regions is at an early stage. In addition, despite the existing flow of investment, including foreign investment it is by far not sufficient to change the current export-oriented raw timber industry complex border regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-23

  1. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  2. Farmers’ Comparative Use Assessment Of Wind And Electric Pump For Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaba Kwasi Selassie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keta District provides one of the best wind regimes in Ghana and farming is the main occupation of most people in the communities of the district, notably the anloga community. A small size wind pump (1.6m rotor diameter is currently in operation in Anloga in the Keta District on pilot bases to verify its cost effectiveness compared with the hydro electric power technology. The high electricity tariff paid every month for power consumption deterred majority of the farmers using hydro electricity technology for pumping. A survey conducted revealed that out of about 50 farmers, only 29% engaged in the use of electric power for pumping whilst 69% still use the manual method. 2% of the farmers are using wind energy technology on pilot bases. Farmers in these coastal communities may have engaged in the use of wind energy for water pumping but for its high initial cost.

  3. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  4. Research on Estimates of Xi’an City Life Garbage Pay-As-You-Throw Based on Two-part Tariff method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaobo, Shi; Xinxin, Zhao; Fuli, Zheng

    2017-05-01

    Domestic waste whose pricing can’t be separated from the pricing of public economics category is quasi public goods. Based on Two-part Tariff method on urban public utilities, this paper designs the pricing model in order to match the charging method and estimates the standard of pay-as-you-throw using data of the past five years in Xi’an. Finally, this paper summarizes the main results and proposes corresponding policy recommendations.

  5. Legal aspects of Brazilian ethanol and non-tariff barriers to import; Aspectos juridicos relativos ao etanol brasileiro e as barreiras nao-tarifarias a sua importacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavalcante, Hellen Priscilla Marinho

    2010-01-15

    This article presents the main socioeconomic and legal aspects that affect Brazilian ethanol, exposing the context in which the production appeared in the country. Then will discuss the main non-tariff protectionist measures that affect the market for biofuels, explaining about its merits. After exposure of the panorama of the application of protectionist measures on Brazilian ethanol will be presented to the role played by the World Trade Organization - WTO, and its understanding of the classification of ethanol in international trade.

  6. Evaluation of the energy component in the main grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates; Evaluering av energileddet i sentralnettstariffen og bruk av marginaltapssatser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Endre; Bjoerndal, Mette

    2010-11-15

    In this report, we make an evaluation of the energy component of the central grid tariff and the use of marginal loss rates. We will first review the theory of optimum transmission tariffs and describes how the marginal loss rates are calculated and how these are used in combination with the system price in the current transmission costs. We describe the trend in the Swedish marginal loss schedule, and we refer the very short development in the PJM area (U.S. east coast). As the Swedish and the Norwegian system is apparently based on the same principles, we problematize the lack of harmonization, since the systems actually are now very different. There is little doubt that Statnett has refined and improved methods for calculating the marginal loss rates, while ensuring that bottlenecks are still handled fairly easy by a few large price areas on Nord Pool Spot. We discuss the relationship between loss-tariff and congestion management, and we recommend that Statnett considering using the area price as the settlement price. This will make it much easier for operators to take account of losses. (Author)

  7. Cost of electric energy in irrigated dry bean for center pivot, affected by the irrigation management and tillage systems; Custo de energia eletrica em cultura do feijoeiro irrigado por pivo central, afetado pelo manejo da irrigacao e sistemas de cultivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turco, Jose E.P.; Rizzatti, Gilcileia dos S.; Pavani, Luiz C. [UNESP/FCAV, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    2009-04-15

    The objective of this work was to analyze the consumption and cost of electric energy in dry bean crop, IAC-Carioca, irrigated by center pivot, submitted to two irrigation managements: tensiometry and climatological water balance with Class A pan, under conventional and no-tillage systems, grown in Oxisol, in the year of 2002. The research was developed at the Demonstrative and Experimental Area of Irrigation - ADEI, of FCAV/UNESP, Campus of Jaboticabal - SP, Brazil. The irrigation system electric energy consumption was monitored for two tariff groups: A and B. The prices of kWh of the tariff systems of electric energy had been gotten in the CPFL (Sao Paulo Company of Force and Light). The treatments where the irrigation management was carried through the method of the Class A pan showed higher consumption and cost of electric energy, in relation to the treatments where the management was carried through tensiometry; for the tillage systems it had not been observed differences. The green and/or blue tariff with discount was the best option for the four treatments. (author)

  8. Reverse Revenue Sharing Contract versus Two-Part Tariff Contract under a Closed-Loop Supply Chain System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zunya Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of remanufacturing has been recognized in research and practice. The integrated system, combining the forward and reverse activities of supply chains, is called closed-loop supply chain (CLSC system. By coordination in the CLSC system, players will get economic improvement. This paper studies different coordination performances of two types of contracts, two-part tariff (TTC and reverse revenue sharing contract (RRSC, in a closed-loop system. Through mathematical analysis based on Stackelberg Game Theory, we find that it is easy for manufacturer to improve more profits and retailer’s collection effects by adjusting the ratio of transfer collection price through RRSC, and we also give the function to calculate the best ratio of transfer collection price, which may be a valuable reference for the decision maker in practice. Besides, our results also suggest that although the profits of the coordinated CLSC system are always higher than the contradictory scenario, the RRSC is more favorable to the manufacturer than to the retailer, as results show that the manufacturer will share more profits from the system through RRSC. Therefore, RRSC has attracted the manufacturers more to closing the supply chain for economic consideration.

  9. The hip fracture best practice tariff: early surgery and the implications for MRSA screening and antibiotic prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, David J; Gulihar, Abhinav; Aujla, Randeep S; Taylor, Grahame J S

    2015-01-01

    In April 2010, the Department of Health introduced the hip fracture best practice. Among the clinical criteria required to earn remuneration is surgery within 36 h of admission. However, early surgery may mean that methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation status is not known before surgery, and therefore, appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis may not be administered. In view of this, our department's policy is to administer an additional dose of teicoplanin to patients with unknown MRSA status along with routine antimicrobial prophylaxis. The purpose of this study was to provide a safe and effective antimicrobial prophylaxis for hip fracture patients. We prospectively collected details of demographics and antimicrobial prophylaxis for all patients admitted with a hip fracture in November 2011. This was repeated in February 2012 after an educational and advertising drive to improve compliance with departmental antimicrobial policy. Microbiology results were obtained from the hospital microbiology database. A cost-benefit analysis was undertaken to assess this regime. A total of 144 hip fracture patients were admitted during the 2 months. The average admission to surgery time was 32 h, and the average MRSA swab processing time was 35 h. 86 % of patients reached theatre with unknown MRSA status. Compliance with the departmental antimicrobial policy improved from 25 % in November 2011 to 76 % in February 2012. Potential savings of £ 40,000 were calculated. With best practice tariff resulting in 86 % of patients reaching theatre with unknown MRSA status, we advocate an additional single dose of teicoplanin to cover against possible MRSA colonisation.

  10. Price freezes, durables and residential electricity demand - Evidence from the Greater Buenos Aires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casarin, Ariel; Delfino, Maria Eugenia

    2010-09-15

    This paper examines the determinants of residential electricity demand in the Greater Buenos Aires between 1997 and 2006. During the second half of this period, residential tariffs remained nominally fixed, while an income boom boosted up the sales of durables. This study differs from previous works in that it explicitly considers the impact of the stock of air-conditioners on residential demand. The paper reports short- and long-run elasticities and examines the contribution of prices and durables to recent demand growth. Simulations illustrate the impact of prices and durables on future demand.

  11. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  12. Electrical stator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, Alan W.; Olich, Eugene E.

    1994-01-01

    An electrical stator of an electromagnetic pump includes first and second spaced apart coils each having input and output terminals for carrying electrical current. An elongate electrical connector extends between the first and second coils and has first and second opposite ends. The connector ends include respective slots receiving therein respective ones of the coil terminals to define respective first and second joints. Each of the joints includes a braze filler fixedly joining the connector ends to the respective coil terminals for carrying electrical current therethrough.

  13. 碳关税对中国出口贸易的影响及应对策略%Influences of Carbon Tariffs on Chinese Export and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘辉

    2012-01-01

    Carbon tariffs are new green trade barriers put forward by the United States to be imposed on energy-intensive products imported. It seems that the purpose of introducing carbon tariffs is to reduce global warming effects and to guarantee fair competition in global business transactions. But the fact is that the purpose of carbon tariffs is to dominate the speech right and contain the developing countries including China. Carbon tariffs influence China' s export-oriented businesses in two ways. First, it will make the cost of production become bigger which will in turn reduce exportation and make the export countries suffer from welfare losses. Second, carbon tariffs' environment regulations will force export-oriented enterprises to take reformation and enhance their efficiency and make them become more competitive in the long run. However, in the short run, as China does not have the prerequisite for "Porter Hypothesis" , carbon tariffs will lead to rising costs and declining competitiveness of export products. This paper systematically analyzes composition of China's export and direction of China' s export, points out that the introduction of carbon tariffs will impose a severe challenge on China's exportation in the present and better the market structure, the industrial structure and export structure in the long run. To deal with this situation, China' s government should take countermeasures such as taking "environment diplomacy" , imposing gradually carbon tax, and constructing green manufacturing system, etc.%碳关税是美国提出的针对国际贸易中高能耗进口产品征税的一种新型绿色贸易壁垒.从表面上看,碳关税的提出是为了缓解全球气候变暖的现实,促进全球贸易的公平竞争.实质上,碳关税的提出是美国国内政治经济博弈的结果,其目的是为了夺取世界经济新的话语权,同时也是为了制衡中国在内的发展中国家.碳关税对我国出口的影响机制有二:第一,碳

  14. Regulation of consumer participation on the electricity market; Anreizregulierung der Teilnahme von Kunden am Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahner, Michaela [NTB Technoservice Berlin (Germany); Buchholz, Bernd Michael [VDE, Pyrbaum (Germany). ETG; Ruhland, Johannes [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    One of the functions of Smart Grids is the seamless integration of significant shares of renewable and volatile energy sources into the reliable grid operations. In this context, the slogan ''The load follows the generation'' is frequently used. However, this sentence insinuates that we will lose the current convenience of an unlimited supply of electricity whenever requested. The concent is thus better described by ''Incentives to the market participation of the electricity consumers'' which may happen through three channels: - in-house generation by the consumer; - direct load control through remote switching with compensation paid as Reserve Power (Demand side management - DSM); - indirect influence on demand through highly dynamic tariffs and on-line visualization of tariff forecasts, demand and costs (Demand side response - DSR). In Germany high legal barriers hamper a real market participation of the consumers. Many studies have proposed recommendations on how to adapt the regulations. They will be considered in detail. A successful impact on market participation requires the simultaneous adaptation of many acts and regulations, without which Smart Grids will not have any chance of market success. This paper closes with a vision of the electricity market in 2030 with 50% renewable energy shares per annum. (orig.)

  15. PRICING ELECTRIC POWER UNDER A HYBRID WHOLESALE MECHANISM: EVALUATING THE TURKISH ELECTRICITY MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Karahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the restructuring process, Turkish electricity sector has gone through significant changes both in wholesale and retail markets. In this framework, the Market Financial Settlement Mechanism established for handling market imbalances has become a spot market in time. So, it can be claimed that the wholesale electricity market in Turkey is a hybrid mechanism composed of bilateral contracts and the balancing market. On the other hand, the main target of liberalization program is providing consumers with affordable electric power. Hence, this study attempts to explore the link between retail tariffs for ineligible consumers and prices in the two wholesale mechanisms, in the period after the launch of the day-ahead market. Findings suggest that regulated wholesale prices are more effective in the determination of end-user prices, whereas unregulated ones might have a price reduction effect in case the free market dominates. However, the volatility in spot market prices implies that the sector would better continue with the hybrid mechanism for quite some time.

  16. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  17. Investment appraisal of technology innovations on dairy farm electricity consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, J; Murphy, M; De Boer, I J M; Groot Koerkamp, P W G; Berentsen, P B M; Shalloo, L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct an investment appraisal for milk-cooling, water-heating, and milk-harvesting technologies on a range of farm sizes in 2 different electricity-pricing environments. This was achieved by using a model for electricity consumption on dairy farms. The model simulated the effect of 6 technology investment scenarios on the electricity consumption and electricity costs of the 3 largest electricity-consuming systems within the dairy farm (i.e., milk-cooling, water-heating, and milking machine systems). The technology investment scenarios were direct expansion milk-cooling, ice bank milk-cooling, milk precooling, solar water-heating, and variable speed drive vacuum pump-milking systems. A dairy farm profitability calculator was combined with the electricity consumption model to assess the effect of each investment scenario on the total discounted net income over a 10-yr period subsequent to the investment taking place. Included in the calculation were the initial investments, which were depreciated to zero over the 10-yr period. The return on additional investment for 5 investment scenarios compared with a base scenario was computed as the investment appraisal metric. The results of this study showed that the highest return on investment figures were realized by using a direct expansion milk-cooling system with precooling of milk to 15°C with water before milk entry to the storage tank, heating water with an electrical water-heating system, and using standard vacuum pump control on the milking system. Return on investment figures did not exceed the suggested hurdle rate of 10% for any of the ice bank scenarios, making the ice bank system reliant on a grant aid framework to reduce the initial capital investment and improve the return on investment. The solar water-heating and variable speed drive vacuum pump scenarios failed to produce positive return on investment figures on any of the 3 farm sizes considered on either the day and night

  18. Electric heating systems - Measures and options for the reduction of electricity consumption; Elektroheizungen Massnahmen und Vorgehensoptionen zur Reduktion des Stromverbrauchs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nipkow, J.; Togni, G.

    2009-10-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at how electricity consumption for electrical heating systems can be reduced. The authors state that electric space heating consumes roughly 6% to 12% of Swiss electricity consumption, depending on the source of data. Important reduction potentials obtainable through the implementation of efficiency measures and substitution are well known. The results of two surveys on hardware installations and heating users' and utility companies' preferences are presented and discussed. The user survey yielded more than 900 evaluable answers. The main focus was on conditions considered necessary for changing a heating system. The utilities' survey was carried out by means of letters posted to 62 utilities, half of whom sent back evaluable answers. The main focus was on the number of dwellings supplied with electric space heating, current and past tariffs and utility activities to motivate customers to change their heating systems. The results showed that high investments necessary for a new heating system and additional thermal insulation of the building are the main obstacles for making changes. On the basis of the project's findings, a catalogue of measures was developed, whereby financial aspects and general conditions were taken into account.

  19. Analysing the impact of renewable electricity support schemes on power prices: The case of wind electricity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz de Miera, Gonzalo [Department of Public Economics, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Campus de Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); del Rio Gonzalez, Pablo [Institute for Public Policies, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C/Albasanz 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain); Vizcaino, Ignacio [Iberdrola, C/Tomas Redondo, 1, Madrid 28033 (Spain)

    2008-09-15

    It is sometimes argued that renewables are 'expensive'. However, although it is generally true that the private costs of renewable electricity generation are certainly above those of conventional electricity, that statement fails to consider the social benefits provided by electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E), including environmental and socioeconomic ones. This paper empirically analyses an additional albeit usually neglected benefit: the reduction in the wholesale price of electricity as a result of more RES-E generation being fed into the grid. The case of wind generation in Spain shows that this reduction is greater than the increase in the costs for the consumers arising from the RES-E support scheme (the feed-in tariffs), which are charged to the final consumer. Therefore, a net reduction in the retail electricity price results, which is positive from a consumer point of view. This provides an additional argument for RES-E support and contradicts one of the usual arguments against RES-E deployment: the excessive burden on the consumer. (author)

  20. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  1. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  2. Electrical Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can pass through your body and cause injuries. These electrical injuries can be external or internal. You may have one or both types. External injuries are skin burns. Internal injuries include damage to ...

  3. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  4. Comparison of the Ministry of Health’s tariffs with the cost of radiology services using the activity-based costing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhor, Rohollah; Amini, Saeed; Emami, Majid; Kakasoltani, Keivan; Rhamani, Nasim; Kalhor, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Efficient use of resources in organizations is one of the most important duties of managers. Appropriate allocation of resources can help managers to do this well. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of radiology services and to compare it with governmental tariffs (introduced by the Ministry of Health in Iran). Methods This was a descriptive and applied study that was conducted using the retrospective approach. First, activity centers were identified on the basis of five main groups of hospital activities. Then, resources and resource drivers, activities, and hospital activity drivers were identified. At the next step, the activities related to the delivery of radiology process were identified. Last, through allocation of activities cost to the cost objects, the cost price of 66 services that were delivered in the radiology department were calculated. The data were collected by making checklists, using the hospital’s information system, observations, and interviews. Finally, the data were analyzed using the non-parametric Wilcoxon test, Microsoft Excel, and SPSS software, version 18. Results The findings showed that from the total cost of wages, materials, and overhead obtained, the unit cost of the 66 cost objects (delivered services) in the Radiology Department were calculated using the ABC method (Price of each unit of Nephrostogram obtained $15.8 and Cystogram obtained $18.4). The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test indicated that the distribution of data of cost price using the ABC method was not normal (p = 0.000). The Wilcoxon test showed that there was a significant difference between the cost of services and the tariff of radiology services (p = 0.000). Conclusions The cost of delivered services in radiology departments was significantly higher than approved tariffs of the Ministry of Health, which can have a negative impact on the quality of services. PMID:27054013

  5. Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs; Tuntinen tilaustehon ja -vesivirran maeaeritys ja tariffien vaatimukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hippinen, I.; Pirhonen, J.; Ahtila, P. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Maekelae, V.M. [Komartek Oy, Lappeenranta (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    This is the final report of the research project 'Determination of hourly contract heat and water flow and demand of the tariffs', which was carried out by the Helsinki University of Technology and Komartek Oy. The report consists of two parts. Part A presents the study of the Helsinki University of Technology, in which the consumption of domestic hot water in different size houses were clarified. Part B presents the tariff calculations carried out by Komartek Oy. In the part of the Helsinki University of Technology, the consumption of hot household water has been measured in different sized houses in order to determine their real demand of district heat and heat exhanger capacity. Including earlier measurements, measurements were carried out in 35 buildings. The size of the houses varied from a two-family house to a house of 204 flats. The domestic hot water flows and water temperatures to and from the heat exchanger were measured continuously during periods of a day and a week. To find out the congruence between reality and the dimensioning standards, the measurement results have been compared with the current dimensioning standards. It became evident in the study, that the current dimensioning standards are considerably oversized. Measured maximum heat consumptions were in general less than half of the dimensioned maximums. Operation times for the maximum loads were very short timed, ranging from some tens of seconds to a couple of minutes. The maximum peak loads were either in the mornings or in the evenings. However, no special week-days with clear maximum loads were found during week measurements. In second part was studied how the domestic hot water consumption will influence on the incomes of a DH company and payments of different kinds of customers. Domestic hot water was calculated as a one hour maximum. It was found out that there were outstanding differences in payments of different sizes of customers between different tariffs when the total

  6. Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes. Part 6: The Costs of Global Tariff Barriers on Wool Products; Conclusion

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This is Chapters 6 & 7 of my PhD thesis Understanding the World Wool Market: Trade, Productivity and Grower Incomes, UWA, 2006. The full thesis is available as Discussion Papers 06.19 to 06.24. The WOOLGEM model is applied to estimate the distortionary effects on prices, output, trade and regional welfare of wool tariff barriers. The estimates are simulated under long-run conditions where each region faces a trade balance constraint and capital is free to accumulate or depreciate within each ...

  7. Non-tariff Trade Barrier and Agricultural Products Trade%非关税贸易壁垒与农产品贸易

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秉龙; 王可山

    2004-01-01

    1.非关税壁垒的含义。非关税壁垒(Non—Tariff Barriers,NTB s)是指一国政府采取除关税外的各种办法来对本国的对外贸易活动进行调节、管理和控制的一切政策和手段的综合。战后随着GATY和WTO所推动的多轮贸易谈判的不断深入,世界关税水平得以大幅度降低,

  8. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA) Project: An Analysis of Renewable Energy Feed-in Tariffs in the United States (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, T.; Cory, K.

    2009-06-01

    This report analyzes renewable energy feed-in tariff (FIT) policies and explores the different FIT policies currently implemented in the United States. It also discusses of a few proposed policies, the best practices in FIT policy design, and examines how FITs can be used to target state policy goals. The report covers current and potential future interactions between FITs and other state and federal energy policies while also providing an overview of the impacts FIT policies have in terms of renewable energy deployment, job creation, and economic development.

  9. Powering China: Reforming the electric power industry in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi-Chong Xu

    2002-07-01

    The book reports on the rapidly changing face of the electricity business in China. Reforms by the central government and the need for more and more electric power have pushed the electricity sector from a central planned economy to a markets-based system. The international ramifications of China's reform programme are discussed. The author describes electricity industry reform in other countries including the USA and UK. The author points out that in China after 1998 there was a move to recentralise control but by then it was too late to reverse the reforms. The problems of tariff policies, pricing, and sources of new investments, including from foreign countries, are discussed. The final section of the book deals with problems arising from the need for massive retrenchment of power-section workers, cross-subsidies, and triangular debts. The book is said to provide a sound description of the political economy of power reform in China without getting bogged down in economic modelling.

  10. An incentive mechanism for electricity transmission expansion in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosellon, Juan [Division de Economia, Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Carret. Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, C.P. 01210, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2007-05-15

    This study proposes an incentive regulatory framework for expanding electricity transmission in Mexico. A two-part pricing model is implemented within a combined merchant-regulatory structure. Three cases are considered. In the first, a monopolist with ''postage stamp tariffs'' serves the whole country using uniform prices. In the second case, one firm holds a regional monopoly in each of the five electricity areas. In the third, a monopolist operates in all areas of the national electricity system and discriminates in the prices it charges in each of the regions. This approach is described and then applied to the Mexican electricity transmission network. Using real data, the study compares all three cases in terms of profits, capacity increases, and network expansion. The results are found to depend on two effects: the ''economies-of-scale effect'', in which the maximum level is reached with a single network; and the ''discriminatory effect'' that results when a firm can discriminate among types of consumers. The economies-of-scale effect produces greater capacity and network expansion, whereas the discriminatory effect increases profits. (author)

  11. The promotion of green electricity in Europe: present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rio, Pablo del [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Facultad de Ciencias Juridicas y Sociales, Toledo (Spain); Gual, Miguel [Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Sevilla (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Public support schemes for electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) are undergoing a period of change. Two interrelated processes can be discerned at both the EU and member state (MS) levels. On the one hand, the RES-E Directive sets targets for consumption of renewable electricity for the year 2010 and opens the possibility that the European Commission sets a community support framework for RES-E promotion in the future. On the other hand, different types of support scheme have been and are used by countries in order to promote the deployment of renewable electricity. A move from tendering/bidding systems and feed-in tariffs to tradable green certificates can be observed in some MSs. This move may take place in the future in some other MSs while others will certainly continue to rely on their current scheme. This paper provides an overview and assessment of the instruments currently used to promote renewable electricity in Europe and considers some possible trends in the choice of support schemes in the future. (Author)

  12. An innovation and policy agenda for commercially competitive plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemoine, D M; Kammen, D M; Farrell, A E [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-3050 (United States)], E-mail: dlemoine@berkeley.edu, E-mail: kammen@berkeley.edu, E-mail: aef@berkeley.edu

    2008-01-15

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can use both grid-supplied electricity and liquid fuels. We show that under recent conditions, millions of PHEVs could have charged economically in California during both peak and off-peak hours even with modest gasoline prices and real-time electricity pricing. Special electricity rate tariffs already in place for electric vehicles could successfully render on-peak charging uneconomical and off-peak charging very attractive. However, unless battery prices fall by at least a factor of two, or gasoline prices double, the present value of fuel savings is smaller than the marginal vehicle costs, likely slowing PHEV market penetration in California. We also find that assumptions about how PHEVs are charged strongly influence the number of PHEVs that can be charged before the electric power system must be expanded. If most PHEVs are charged after the workday, and thus after the time of peak electricity demand, our forecasts suggest that several million PHEVs could be deployed in California without requiring new generation capacity, and we also find that the state's PHEV fleet is unlikely to reach into the millions within the current electricity sector planning cycle. To ensure desirable outcomes, appropriate technologies and incentives for PHEV charging will be needed if PHEV adoption becomes mainstream.

  13. Employment effects of regional climate policy. The case of renewable energy promotion by feed-in tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heindl, Peter; Voigt, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    This paper examines the local impacts of renewable energy carrier promotion by the German feed-in tariffs scheme ''Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz'' for the German State of Baden-Wuerttemberg by using an input-output approach. The local impacts are of particular interest as in Baden-Wuerttemberg the manufacturing industries are highly important compared to the rest of Germany. We analyze the effects of the policy actions on the production as well as the employment of several sectors. We construct a regional input-output table of Baden- Wuerttemberg and introduce the construction and the operation of installations for seven renewable energy types in order to examine different paths to achieve the state government's targets. We consider two scenarios with different sources funding the investments in the construction and operation of renewable energy installations. In the first scenario, all the necessary investments are funded completely by internal sources. Hence, the scenario is driven by the assumption that these investments either crowd out investments in other industries of the regional economy or the investments are paid by the government, i.e. by taxes which are borne by all other industries and by the households. Therefore, the final demand of all other sectors decreases. In this scenario, we have a slightly positive total turnover effect, although in many sectors the turnover effect is negative. In addition, the total employment effect is negative since the more labour-intensive industries are affected more heavily from the policy than the less labour-intensive industries. The second scenario considers the case of a partly external funding by taking into account that the installations may be demanded from ''abroad'', i.e. the rest of Germany and the rest of the world. Therefore, investments in other industries are not completely crowded out in this scenario. We find positive production and employment effects also for

  14. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  15. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    , grants and other sources. A standard connection subsidy is given to new households under the national electrification programme, with subsidy levels differentiated by geographic region, supply technology or other factors. The Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) is another initiative that the South African Government established in 2002 to provide free electricity of 20-50 kWh per household, per month to the poorest segments of the population. The support tariff is intended to provide an approximate amount of power required for basic lighting, media access and limited cooking. It is worth about ZAR 200 per year to a poor household. The initial cost to government is estimated at about ZAR 630 million annually and it is expected to increase with growth in the rate of electrification. An offgrid electrification programme that mainly involves the dissemination of solar home systems (SHS) to the disadvantaged areas was started in 2000. At present, about 12,000 such systems have been disseminated with over 70 per cent direct subsidy from government. Zimbabwe is a landlocked country in Southern Africa and a member of SADC. Independence in April 1980 ended its white-minority rule, with the country inheriting all the ilts of a racially divided society. Zimbabwe's economy relies heavily on agricultural trops, with significant levels of poverty that are Glosely related to the country's history of governance by the minority white government. After independence, the government embarked on policies aimed at redressing economic inbalances of the past, including reforms in the power sector. Power sector objectives in Zimbabwe include increasing electricity access to previously disadvantaged people through gnid electricity expansion and offgrid electrification. The Zimbabwe Electricity Supply Authority (ZESA) is the main utility responsible for the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity. Unfortunately, ZESA generating capacity is not sufficient to

  16. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which eliminate the crude or transformed animal wastes, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui eliminent des dechets animaux bruts ou transformes, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  17. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which valorize the domestic wastes or equivalent, at the exception of the installations using biogas, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations qui valorisent des dechets menagers ou assimiles, a l'exception des installations utilisant du biogaz, et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  18. Model of purchase contract of the electric power produced by installations which use mainly the energy given by the combustion of non fossil matters of vegetable extraction, and subjected to the electric power purchase obligation. Established in the application of the article 5 from the decree of the 10 may 2001 and approved by the ministry charged with the electric power; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant, a titre principal, l'energie degagee par la combustion de matieres non fossiles d'origine vegetale et beneficiant l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The text of the contract is provided presenting the general conditions and specific conditions adapted to the installation characteristics of the electric power producer: contract object, connecting to the public network, producer installation, reciprocal agreements, measure and control of the energy and power, tariffs periods, price of the bought energy, taxes, payments, contract management, validity, suspension modification or avoidance of the contract. (A.L.B.)

  19. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A. J.; Saraiva, J. T.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of Wind Generation on the Electricity Market Prices and on the Profitability of New Wind Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraiva J. T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Dynamic Model of the electricity sector that can be used to simulate the evolution of some key variables on the long term, namely the evolution of the electricity price, of the demand and of the capacity factors of the technologies in the generation mix. This model can be used in different ways and by several agents, for instance to estimate the impact on the electricity price of the increasing presence of renewable power stations, namely using wind power and PV systems. In several countries these stations are paid feed-in tariffs with a fixed price but in some cases this scheme is under discussion and there are opinions that payments determined by the market price are more adequate and would bring fewer costs to final consumers. Such a change has to be carefully evaluated given that the presence of renewable stations bidding at an infra marginal price will affect the price itself. The model described in this paper can be used in a profitable way both by governmental agencies when preparing or studying alternative remuneration schemes to renewable stations or by promoters themselves to get more insight to the profitability of their investments, namely if the fixed feed-in tariffs in force in several countries are changed.

  1. A Simple Operating Strategy of Small-Scale Battery Energy Storages for Energy Arbitrage under Dynamic Pricing Tariffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Telaretti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Price arbitrage involves taking advantage of an electricity price difference, storing electricity during low-prices times, and selling it back to the grid during high-prices periods. This strategy can be exploited by customers in presence of dynamic pricing schemes, such as hourly electricity prices, where the customer electricity cost may vary at any hour of day, and power consumption can be managed in a more flexible and economical manner, taking advantage of the price differential. Instead of modifying their energy consumption, customers can install storage systems to reduce their electricity bill, shifting the energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. This paper develops a detailed storage model linking together technical, economic and electricity market parameters. The proposed operating strategy aims to maximize the profit of the storage owner (electricity customer under simplifying assumptions, by determining the optimal charge/discharge schedule. The model can be applied to several kinds of storages, although the simulations refer to three kinds of batteries: lead-acid, lithium-ion (Li-ion and sodium-sulfur (NaS batteries. Unlike literature reviews, often requiring an estimate of the end-user load profile, the proposed operation strategy is able to properly identify the battery-charging schedule, relying only on the hourly price profile, regardless of the specific facility’s consumption, thanks to some simplifying assumptions in the sizing and the operation of the battery. This could be particularly useful when the customer load profile cannot be scheduled with sufficient reliability, because of the uncertainty inherent in load forecasting. The motivation behind this research is that storage devices can help to lower the average electricity prices, increasing flexibility and fostering the integration of renewable sources into the power system.

  2. The importance of comprehensiveness in renewable electricity and energy-efficiency policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2009-04-15

    Based on extensive research interviews and supplemented with a review of the academic literature, this article assesses the best way to promote renewable energy and energy efficiency. It begins by briefly laying out why government intervention is needed, and then details the four most favored policy mechanisms identified by participants: eliminating subsidies for conventional and mature electricity technologies, pricing electricity accurately, passing a national feed-in tariff, and implementing a nationwide systems benefit fund to raise public awareness, protect lower income households, and administer demand side management programs. Drawing mostly from case studies in the United States, the article also discusses why these policy mechanisms must be implemented comprehensively, not individually, if the barriers to renewables and energy efficiency are to be overcome. (author)

  3. Electric Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, R.

    2004-11-01

    Next Generation Electric Propulsion (NGEP) technology development tasks are working towards advancing solar-powered electric propulsion systems and components to levels ready for transition to flight systems. Current tasks within NGEP include NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT), Carbon Based Ion Optics (CBIO), NSTAR Extended Life Test (ELT) and low-power Hall Effect thrusters. The growing number of solar electric propulsion options provides reduced cost and flexibility to capture a wide range of Solar System exploration missions. Benefits of electric propulsion systems over state-of-the-art chemical systems include increased launch windows, which reduce mission risk; increased deliverable payload mass for more science; and a reduction in launch vehicle size-- all of which increase the opportunities for New Frontiers and Discovery class missions. The Dawn Discovery mission makes use of electric propulsion for sequential rendezvous with two large asteroids (Vesta then Ceres), something not possible using chemical propulsion. NEXT components and thruster system under development have NSTAR heritage with significant increases in maximum power and Isp along with deep throttling capability to accommodate changes in input power over the mission trajectory. NEXT will produce engineering model system components that will be validated (through qualification-level and integrated system testing) and ready for transition to flight system development. NEXT offers Discovery, New Frontiers, Mars Exploration and outer-planet missions a larger deliverable payload mass and a smaller launch vehicle size. CBIO addresses the need to further extend ion thruster lifetime by using low erosion carbon-based materials. Testing of 30-cm Carbon-Carbon and Pyrolytic graphite grids using a lab model NSTAR thruster are complete. In addition, JPL completed a 1000 hr. life test on 30-cm Carbon-Carbon grids. The NSTAR ELT was a life time qualification test started in 1999 with a goal of 88 kg

  4. Customer response to day-ahead wholesale market electricity prices: Case study of RTP program experience in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.; Hopper, N.; Sezgen, O.; Moezzi, M.; Bharvirkar, R.; Neenan, B.; Boisvert, R.; Cappers, P.; Pratt, D.

    2004-07-01

    There is growing interest in policies, programs and tariffs that encourage customer loads to provide demand response (DR) to help discipline wholesale electricity markets. Proposals at the retail level range from eliminating fixed rate tariffs as the default service for some or all customer groups to reinstituting utility-sponsored load management programs with market-based inducements to curtail. Alternative rate designs include time-of-use (TOU), day-ahead real-time pricing (RTP), critical peak pricing, and even pricing usage at real-time market balancing prices. Some Independent System Operators (ISOs) have implemented their own DR programs whereby load curtailment capabilities are treated as a system resource and are paid an equivalent value. The resulting load reductions from these tariffs and programs provide a variety of benefits, including limiting the ability of suppliers to increase spot and long-term market-clearing prices above competitive levels (Neenan et al., 2002; Boren stein, 2002; Ruff, 2002). Unfortunately, there is little information in the public domain to characterize and quantify how customers actually respond to these alternative dynamic pricing schemes. A few empirical studies of large customer RTP response have shown modest results for most customers, with a few very price-responsive customers providing most of the aggregate response (Herriges et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 2002). However, these studies examined response to voluntary, two-part RTP programs implemented by utilities in states without retail competition.1 Furthermore, the researchers had limited information on customer characteristics so they were unable to identify the drivers to price response. In the absence of a compelling characterization of why customers join RTP programs and how they respond to prices, many initiatives to modernize retail electricity rates seem to be stymied.

  5. Electricity distribution industry restructuring, electrification, and competition in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galen, P S

    1997-07-01

    This paper reviews the status of the South African electricity supply industry (ESI) and proposals for reorienting and restructuring it. South Africa has been intensely examining its ESI for more than 4 years in an effort to determine whether and how it should be restructured to best support the country`s new economic development and social upliftment goals. The debate has been spirited and inclusive of most ESI stakeholders. The demands on and expectations for the ESI are many and varied. The debate has reflected this diversity of interests and views. In essence, however, there is a consensus on what is expected of the industry, namely, to extend provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable electricity service to all citizens and segments of the economy. This means a large-scale electrification program to reach as many of the nearly 50% of households currently without electricity service as soon as possible, tariff reform to promote equity and efficiency, and the upgrading of service quality now being provided by some of the newly consolidated municipal authorities. The issues involved are how best to achieve these results within the context of the national Reconstruction and Development Program, while accounting for time and resource constraints and balancing the interests of the various parties.

  6. Structure of the Skandinavian electricity market; Struktur des skandinavischen Elektrizitaetsmarktes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, E.; Baumann, R. [VDEW, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Energiewirtschaft, Energiepolitik und Internationale Angelegenheiten; Krieger, S. [VDEW, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Energiewirtschaft, Energiepolitik und Internationale Angelegenheiten]|[VDEW, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Recht

    1998-08-24

    In contrast to Continental Europe, Scandinavia has significant experience with deregulated electricity markets. A new energy law entered into force in Norway in 1991, in Finland in 1995 and in Sweden in 1996. Load measurement as well as market access to different supply levels is designed differently in these three countries. For network prices a stamp tariff applies. The Nordic Power Pool `Nord Pool` was founded at the beginning of 1996. Power trading, especially financial power trading is highly prevalent and its significance will continue to grow. Electricity companies are expanding their marketing departments at the expense of technical ones. Until now price has been a decisive element in a competitive electricity market. In the future other marketing tools will gain increasing significance. (orig.) [Deutsch] Skandinavien hat im Unterschied zu Kontinental-Europa nennenswerte Erfahrungen mit der Deregulierung von Elektrizitaetsmaerkten. Norwegen verabschiedete Anfang 1991 ein neues Energiegesetz, 1995 folgte Finnland, 1996 Schweden. Anfang 1996 wurde die nordische Stromboerse Nord Pool gegruendet. Die Bedeutung des Stromhandels, besonders des finanziellen Stromhandels, ist bereits jetzt hoch und waechst staendig weiter. Eindeutig ist festzustellen, dass der Marketingbereich zu Lasten anderer, besonders der technischen Bereiche, stark ausgebaut wird. (orig.)

  7. Electric monopoly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, C.

    1981-09-14

    A controversial proposal to deregulate a major part of the electric utility industry could transform how electric power is produced. The proposal involves one-third of US energy consumption and violates the classic economic theory that tightly regulated natural monopolies serve society's needs best. Supporters of the proposal suggest that free-market competition may now be valid because new technologies and new power-supply sources can introduce innovation and efficiency into cost control. Many states, for example, allow utilities to pass capital costs through to their users. Alternative energy sources could include small hydro, wind power, and industrial cogeneration. Opponents, who question whether there really is a free market in energy production, suggest better regulation to protect consumers. Some of the opposition will come from utilities wanting to keep their captive markets. (DCK)

  8. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  9. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  10. The tariffs of use of liquefied natural gas transportation networks and facilities; Les tarifs d'utilisation des reseaux de transport et des installations de gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The new tariff proposals for the use of natural gas transportation networks were transmitted to the French Ministry of economy, finances and industry on October 27, 2004 by the commission of energy regulation. These proposals have been adopted and are the object of three legislative texts: the decree no. 2005-607 from May 27 2005 relative to the tariffing rules, the by-law from May 27, 2005 relative to the definition of balancing areas, and the advice from May 27, 2005 relative to the tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks. In application of article 7 of the law from January 3, 2003, the implementation of the first tariffs of use of natural gas transportation networks and of liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities is defined in the decree no. 2004-994 from September 21, 2004. On the main transportation network, the tariffing is of 'input-output' type and does not depend on the distance, while at the regional network scale, the tariffing is linked with the distance. The tariff of use of LNG facilities is the sum of 4 terms: a fixed term applied to each batch unloaded at the methane terminal, a term proportional to the unloaded LNG quantities, a term depending on the duration of use of LNG storage facilities and a term covering the gas consumptions of LNG facilities. This document gathers these different legislative texts with their appendixes. (J.S.)

  11. Cost analysis of the surgical treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus: an evaluation of the determinants of cost and comparison of the institutional cost of treatment with the national tariff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, S; Carter, A W; Rashid, A; Darzi, A; Reilly, P; Gupte, C M

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate the cost of surgical treatment of fractures of the proximal humerus using a micro-costing methodology, contrast this cost with the national reimbursement tariff and establish the major determinants of cost. A detailed inpatient treatment pathway was constructed using semi-structured interviews with 32 members of hospital staff. Its content validity was established through a Delphi panel evaluation. Costs were calculated using time-driven activity-based costing (TDABC) and sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the determinants of cost The mean cost of the different surgical treatments was estimated to be £3282. Although this represented a profit of £1138 against the national tariff, hemiarthroplasty as a treatment choice resulted in a net loss of £952. Choice of implant and theatre staffing were the largest cost drivers. Operating theatre delays of more than one hour resulted in a loss of income Our findings indicate that the national tariff does not accurately represent the cost of treatment for this condition. Effective use of the operating theatre and implant discounting are likely to be more effective cost containment approaches than control of bed-day costs. This cost analysis of fractures of the proximal humerus reinforces the limitations of the national tariff within the English National Health Service, and underlines the importance of effective use of the operating theatre, as well as appropriate implant procurement where controlling costs of treatment is concerned. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  12. 浅议碳关税及其对中国工业化进程的影响%Discussion on Carbon Tariff and Its Effects on Chinese Industrialization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭而郛; 鞠美庭

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the essence and international influence of carbon tariff, through the research on the background and policy intent of carbon tariff.The article also analyses the choice of Chinese industrialization and its effects from carbon tariff.Consequently, the article put forward that the essence of carbon tariff is a kind of new trading protection to maintain the competitive industry and enforce international political speech right of western countries.And the carbon tariff would have a profound impact on China's foreign trade, as well as the overall industrialization process, forcing China to accelerate the implementation of the transformation of the mode of economic growth, and create a new industrialization road to adapt to the complicated international background.%通过对碳关税的提出背景、政策意图的研究,对碳关税的实质及国际影响进行了分析,并且对碳关税对中国工业化道路的选择,以及对中国工业化进程的影响进行了分析.提出碳关税的实质是对本国产业竞争力以及为巩固和加强国际政治话语权而实施的新型贸易保护手段.碳关税政策将对中国的对外贸易以及整体工业化进程产生深远的影响,迫使中国继续加快实施经济增长方式的转变,创新适应目前复杂国际背景的新型工业化道路.

  13. PV solar electricity: status and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Winfried

    2006-04-01

    Within the four main market segments of PV solar electricity there are already three areas competitive today. These are off-grid industrial and rural as well as consumer applications. The overall growth within the past 8 years was almost 40 % p.a. with a "normal" growth of about 18 % p.a. for the first three market segments whereas the grid connected market increased with an astonishing 63 % p.a. The different growth rates catapulted the contribution of grid connected systems in relation to the total market from about one quarter 6 years ago towards more than three quarters today. The reason for this development is basically due to industry-politically induced market support programs in the aforementioned countries. It is quite important to outline under which boundary conditions grid connected systems will be competitive without support programs like the feed in tariff system in Germany, Spain and some more to come in Europe as well as investment subsidies in Japan, US and some other countries. It will be shown that in a more and more liberalized utility market worldwide electricity produced by PV solar electricity systems will be able to compete with their generating cost against peak power prices from utilities. The point of time for this competitiveness is mainly determined by the following facts: 1. Price decrease for PV solar electricity systems leading to an equivalent decrease in the generated cost for PV produced kWh. 2. Development of a truly liberalized electricity market. 3. Degree of irradiation between times of peak power demand and delivery of PV electricity. The first topic is discussed using price experience curves. Some explanations will be given to correlate the qualitative number of 20 % price decrease for doubling cumulative worldwide sales derived from the historic price experience curve with a more quantitative analysis based on our EPIA-Roadmap (productivity increase and ongoing improvements for existing technologies as well as development

  14. Quantitative Effectiveness Analysis of Solar Photovoltaic Policies, Introduction of Socio-Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) and its Implementation in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafaoglu, Mustafa Sinan

    Some of the main energy issues in developing countries are high dependence on non-renewable energy sources, low energy efficiency levels and as a result of this high amount of CO2 emissions. Besides, a common problem of many countries including developing countries is economic inequality problem. In the study, solar photovoltaic policies of Germany, Japan and the USA is analyzed through a quantitative analysis and a new renewable energy support mechanism called Socio Feed-in Tariff Mechanism (SocioFIT) is formed based on the analysis results to address the mentioned issues of developing countries as well as economic inequality problem by using energy savings as a funding source for renewable energy systems. The applicability of the mechanism is solidified by the calculations in case of an implementation of the mechanism in Turkey.

  15. Promotion of renewable energy resources with a focus on cost-based feed-in tariffs; Foerderung von erneuerbaren Energien mit Schwerpunkt auf kostenbasierter Einspeiseverguetung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweighofer, M.; Tretter, H.; Veigl, A.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a review of possible systems that could be used to promote power production in Switzerland using renewable energy sources. Promotional models on both the provider and consumer sides that use both price and quantity as control factors are examined. Three models are compared: the submission-to-tender model, the quota model with certificates and a model that uses cost-based feed-in tariffs. On the basis of a comparison with Austria, interaction between increasing the proportion of renewable forms of energy and the realisation of energy-efficiency goals is discussed. A further part of the report deals with various options for the use of biomass as a source of energy.

  16. Climate Action Benefits: Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides background on the relationship between electricity and climate change and describes what the CIRA Electricity analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Electricity Demand and Electricity Supply.

  17. Solar Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    ARCO Solar manufactures PV Systems tailored to a broad variety of applications. PV arrays are routinely used at remote communications installations to operate large microwave repeaters, TV and radio repeaters rural telephone, and small telemetry systems that monitor environmental conditions. Also used to power agricultural water pumping systems, to provide electricity for isolated villages and medical clinics, for corrosion protection for pipelines and bridges, to power railroad signals, air/sea navigational aids, and for many types of military systems. ARCO is now moving into large scale generation for utilities.

  18. On the battleground of environmental and competition policy: The renewable electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszaros, Matyas Tamas

    Renewable energy sources have become increasingly important in the efforts to provide energy security and to fight global warming. In the last decade environmental policy has increased the support for renewable electricity. At the same time the electricity sector was often subject of antitrust investigation because of relevant market concentration, and market power. This dissertation looks at the renewable electricity market to analyze the effect of environmental policy on competition. The first chapter provides a short introduction into the regulatory schemes of electricity markets. The second chapter analyzes the demand side of the electricity market. The estimations show that there was no significant change in the income and price elasticity in the electricity consumption of the US households between 1993 an 2001, although there was several policy initiatives to increase energy efficiency and decrease consumption. The third chapter derives a theoretical model where the feed-in tariff and the tradable green certificate system can be analyzed under oligopolistic market structure. The results of the model suggest that the introduction of the environmentally friendly regulatory schemes can decrease the electricity prices compared to the case when there is no support for renewable energy. The other findings of this model is that the price of electricity rises when the requirement for renewable energy increases. In the fourth chapter a simulation model of the UK electricity market is used to test the effect of mergers and acquisitions under the environmental support scheme. The results emphasize the importance of the capacity limit, because it can constrain the strategic action of the electricity producers. The results of the simulation also suggest that the increasing concentration can increase the production and lower the price of electricity and renewable energy certificates in the British Renewable Obligation system.

  19. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leventis, Greg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gopal, Anand [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rue du Can, Stephane de la [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Phadke, Amol [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  20. Strategic evaluation of bilateral contract for electricity retailer in restructured power market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karandikar, R.G.; Khaparde, S.A.; Kulkarni, S.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2010-06-15

    In a competitive market scenario, consumers make payments for the consumption of electricity to retailers at fixed tariff. The retailers buy power at the Market Clearing Price (MCP) in spot market and/or through bilateral contract at agreed upon price. Due to these different modes at buying and selling ends, the retailers are faced with an involved task of estimating their payoffs along with the risk-quantification. The methodology presented in this paper gives a range of bilateral quantity and associated price for a retailer to ensure risk-constrained payoff. The exercise is carried out with a single retailer in the market as well as for a case of competition amongst two retailers. Risk is quantified using Risk Adjusted Recovery on Capital (RAROC). The problem is evaluated to get a range of bilateral quantity to be quoted for a particular bilateral price at fixed tariff of loyal load and fixed value of switching load. This summary combined with risk-averseness of the retailer leads him to make a judicial choice about bilateral transactions such that it leads to a risk-constrained payoff. (author)

  1. The Investment Environment for Renewable Energy Development in Lithuania: The Electricity Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčiuvienė Saulė

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the investment environment in renewable electricity generation capacities, evaluating the credibility of long term renewable energy targets, the stability of promotion schemes and the impartiality of national administrative procedure. The article explores two main questions: (i are the EU and Lithuanian energy policy targets and promotion schemes credible enough to convince private investors to put their money in renewable energy development; (ii does national administrative procedure put a disproportional burden on renewable energy investors or on certain group of investors? The assessment of the investment environment includes a large number of criteria, but we analyze three of them: the stability of long term strategy; the attractiveness of promotionmeasures; and the simplicity and transparency of administrative procedure. Two further criteria are investigated: the stability of targets in renewable energy and the stability of promotional measures. The greatest uncertainty for investors occurs because of constantly changing support schemes of renewable energy sources-schemes that are not harmonized among the member States. At the national level the main driver in the development of small generators is the feed-in tariff. However, the high feed-in tariff does not always guarantee the smooth development of small scale generators of renewable energy.

  2. Market vs. policy failures. How governments affect electricity markets and what they should do

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jus, Darko

    2013-11-06

    This dissertation analyzes four key aspects related to the development of renewable energy. Firstly, in the presence of a climate change externality, a first-best allocation on the electricity market generally cannot be achieved with a renewable energy subsidy, thus highlighting its imperfectness in replacing a correct pricing of carbon dioxide emissions (Chapter 2). Secondly, supposing the existence of an emission trading system, this dissertation investigates the effects of additionally supporting renewable energy. Surprisingly, when considering a one-country model, the market participant who loses rents due to the introduction of a levy-financing subsidy scheme, such as the case of Germany, proves to be the fossil electricity producers rather than the electricity consumers (Chapter 3). Thirdly, considering a more realistic two-country framework, it becomes more likely that domestic electricity consumers have to accept a higher electricity price, while rents are shifted to foreign electricity consumers as a consequence of unilateral renewable energy support (Chapter 4). Fourthly, this dissertation studies reasons for employing technology-specific feed-in tariffs, and in contrast to usual intuition, finds them to be (static) efficiency improving when policy has committed to achieving a strong renewable energy target (Chapter 5).

  3. Marginal cost pricing for coal fired electricity in coastal cities of China:The case of Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By developing a GDMOD model to estimate the environmental externalities associated with electricity generation, this project provides a detailed analysis of the damages and costs caused by different pollutants at varying distances from the Mawan Electricity Plant in Shenzhen, China. The major findings of this study can be summarized that (1) environmental damages caused by electricity production are large and are mainly imposed on regions far away from the electricity plant; (2) air pollution is the most significant contributor to the total damages, and SO2, NOx, and particulate matter are the three major pollutants with highest damages; (3) the damages caused per unit of particulate, NOx, and SO2 emissions are much higher than pollution treatment and prevention costs. The research results of this project showed that China needs to have a more effective levy system on SO2, and a more manageable electricity tariff mechanism to internalize the environmental externalities. The results have also implications for pollution control strategies, compensation schemes as well as emission trading arrangements.

  4. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  5. The mechanism of contribution to the taxes of the electricity public service; Le mecanisme de contribution aux Charges de Service Public d'Electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blonde, G.; Poizat, F.; Triboulet, A. [IED, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2008-02-15

    This report presents the results of an expertise realized by the Institute of the Energy and development for the CCE of EDF. The CSPE is a mechanism of mutualization of taxes of the electricity public service. These taxes concern the impact of the tariffs adjustment, the assistance to systems of energy conservation, the solidarity to poor households. the document presents the historical aspects and the bases of the mechanism, the cost of the global compensation, the foundations of this mutualization system, the forecasts and some recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  6. Customer Response to RTP in Competitive Markets: A Study ofNiagara Mohawk's Standard Offer Tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boisvert, Richard N.; Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Neenan,Bernie; Hopper, Nicole

    2006-06-01

    Utilizing load, price, and survey data for 119 largecustomers that paid competitively determined hourly electricity pricesannounced the previous day between 2000 and 2004, this study providesinsight into the factors that determine the intensity of price response.Peak and off-peak electricity can be: perfect complements, substitutes,or substitutes where high peak prices cause temporary disconnection fromthe grid, as for some firms with on-site generation. The averageelasticity of substitution is 0.11. Thirty percent of the customers usepeak and off-peak electricity in fixed proportions. The 18 percent withelasticities greater than 0.10 provide 75 percent of the aggregate priceresponse. In contrast to Industrial customers, Commercial/Retail andGovernment/Education customers are more price responsive on hot days andwhen the ratio of peak to off-peak prices is high. Price responsivenessis not substantially reduced when customers operate near peak usage.Diversity of customer circumstances and price response suggest dynamicpricing is suited for some, but not all customers.

  7. Model of contract of purchase of the electric power produced by facilities that use the energy of aquifers or of underground rocks and benefiting from the electricity purchase obligation. Established after enforcement of the article 5 of the decree from May 10, 2001 and approved by the minister attended to electricity; Modele de contrat d'achat de l'energie electrique produite par les installations utilisant l'energie des nappes aquiferes ou des roches souterraines et beneficiant de l'obligation d'achat d'electricite. Etablie en application de l'article 5 du decret du 10 mai 2001 et approuve par le Ministre charge de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This model of contract comprises 2 parts. The first part describes the general conditions of electric power purchase: aim of the contract, connection to the grid and delivery point, producer's facility, reciprocal commitments and stoppages for maintenance purpose, energy and power metering and control, energy delivery, payment for the purchased power (payment and payment indexing), taxes, payments, contract enforcement, date line, suspension, modification or cancellation, conciliation in case of dispute. A recall of the tariffs mentioned in the by-law from March 13, 2002, of the approximation rules and a model of certificate are given in appendixes. The second part gives some complements to the general conditions (purchaser and producer corporate, characteristics of the facility, details about the connection and delivery point, description of the metering system, tariffs of purchase and indexing, payment of bills, contract characteristics, subscription for a power supply contract). (J.S.)

  8. Electric Vehicle Charging Modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Grahn, Pia

    2014-01-01

    With an electrified passenger transportation fleet, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced significantly depending on the electric power production mix. Increased electric power consumption due to electric vehicle charging demands of electric vehicle fleets may be met by increased amount of renewable power production in the electrical systems. With electric vehicle fleets in the transportation system there is a need for establishing an electric vehicle charging infrastructure that distribu...

  9. Ancillary-service costs for 12 US electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, B.; Hirst, E.

    1996-03-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by electrical generating, transmission, system-control, and distribution-system equipment and people to support the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission defined ancillary services as ``those services necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.`` FERC divided these services into three categories: ``actions taken to effect the transaction (such as scheduling and dispatching services) , services that are necessary to maintain the integrity of the transmission system [and] services needed to correct for the effects associated with undertaking a transaction.`` In March 1995, FERC published a proposed rule to ensure open and comparable access to transmission networks throughout the country. The rule defined six ancillary services and developed pro forma tariffs for these services: scheduling and dispatch, load following, system protection, energy imbalance, loss compensation, and reactive power/voltage control.

  10. Evaluation of the heating share of household electricity consumption using statistical analysis: a case study of Tirana, Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flamur Bidaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Albania’s residential sector represents a large share of the country’s energy consumption, especially of electric power. Other important characteristics of the sector include fast growing energy demand and a high level of energy losses, which challenge the possibility of sustainable development. A large share of the electricity demand is used for heating purposes – a demand that could potentially be met in a more energy efficient manner. However, the precise portion of electricity used to meet heat needs is unknown. The main objective of this article is thus to determine the share of electricity used for heating in the largest Albanian city Based on a sample of households in Tirana, a statistical model is established and applied to perform a regression analysis to derive an estimation of household electricity demand. The heating share of the domestic electricity consumption is then quantified using additional information validated by actual measurements. The distribution of the electricity consumption data is better understood through an analysis of heat-related electricity consumption. Additionally, the monthly relative share of household electricity consumption reveals the number of households with electricity demand above the monthly 300kWh limit established by the Albanian Energy Regulatory Authority, which must be met in order to avoid triggering a higher electricity tariff. It is suggested that household electricity consumption will continue to grow in the near future, due to rising incomes and changing climatic conditions that are influencing the amount of heat used by Albanians, who rely primarily on electricity to heat their homes.

  11. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : NAFTA provisions and the electricity sector[Secretariat report to Council under article 13 of the North American agreement on environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horlick, G.; Schuchhardt, C. [O' Melveny and Myers LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Mann, H. [International Inst. for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    In this background paper, the authors examined the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) from the perspective of the electricity sector, especially trade in electricity. The authors only identified those rules that have relevance to the topic at hand; they did not interpret the rules. NAFTA rules and environmental regulations, as well as the possible links between them were examined in the first section of the paper, while the relationship between NAFTA Chapter Eleven: Investment Provisions and environmental regulations and standards was dealt with in the second section. The twelve committees and nineteen working groups of NAFTA were listed in annex one, as well as the one council. Annex two discussed tariff reduction on capital equipment. refs., tabs.

  12. Standardization of the Electricity and Economic Potentials of Landfill gas (LFG in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher N AKUJIEZE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, various practical data and scholarly estimations of the electricity potentials of landfill gas (LFG have been forwarded and these can be juxtaposed for estimations in the megacity called Lagos. The calculated values were between 63.22- 700MW of  derivable electricity. However, in order to limit observable disparities and ambiguities in these derivations and thus allow for more accurate projections, these estimations can be gauged using as template; -stoichiometry, establishing 50% of landfill gas as methane, assuming 50% of this volume as recoverable, and using a proposed engine efficiency of 30%. This standardization projects a theoretical mean achievable electrical power of 121.69 MW for the Lagos area from a population of about 21 million with a generation per capita (GPC of 0.63kg with biodegradable content of about 60%. The yearly electrical energy was placed at 1,066,004.4 MWh with tariff revenue in excess of US$ 106.6 million /yr. An accruing carbon credit of about US$75.59 million /yr is expected from certified emission reduction (CER. The projected derivations can be used as models for evaluation of the landfill gas and electricity potentials in many parts of the world.

  13. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  14. Approach undertaken by our Company for leveling electric loads; Chubu Denryoku Kabushi Kaisha no fuka heijunka eno torikumi ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Measures for leveling the electric loads relying upon two facets - tariff system and business activities - in Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc. are presented. Firstly, the existing pricing systems for midnight electric power and electric light according to the period of time for the household as well as those of seasonal and time zone electric power, modifiable contract with the time zone and so forth for large industry users, together with a similar contract for the owner of regenerating installation are outlined. In addition, a price reduction system is indicated in favor of a scheduled shutdown of large industry operations as a means of avoiding electric consumption during weekdays in summer and between 13h and 16h when large demands exist. Further, a selective contract system put in service in 1995 and the price reduction for ice regenerating air conditioning system are cited. As for business facet, 1995 is regarded as the first year of the ice regenerator for its generalization through exhibition and promotive campaign to the foods processing industry, and the application of the latent heat regenerative system to perishable foods is recommended. Moreover, installation of energy saving type automatic vending machine, so-called eco-vendor is encouraged for its merit of peak-cut and energy price lowering. Lastly, activities to extend the use of electric calorifiers and the regenerative floor heating are mentioned. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Discussion Electricity Marketing Risk Management and Control%刍议电费的营销风险管控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐靖; 董娜; 邓驭; 姚新芹

    2014-01-01

    电费是指电力企业通过为广大用户提供电力资源而收取一定的服务费用,它是电力企业的主要收入来源。制订相关的电费风险管控计划来规避电费风险是电力企业营销风险管控的重要内容。通过对供电企业营销风险的研究,从提高企业经济效益的角度出发,提出了有关电费营销风险管控的措施。%Electricity refers to electricity companies to provide customers with electricity through resources charge a service fee, which is the main source of income for electricity companies. Development of related risk management and control electricity tariff plan to avoid the risk of electric power is an important part of risk management and control of enterprise marketing. Through the study of power supply enterprise marketing risk from the perspective of improving economic efficiency of enterprises, proposed measures relating to risk management and control of the marketing of electricity.

  16. Electricity supply contracts: Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, G.; Vezzoni, M.; Grassani, E. (Sistemi Integrati per il Risparmio Energetico, Pavia (Italy) Necchi Compressori, Pavia (Italy))

    1991-10-01

    This paper presents a computer program, ACEE (Electrical Energy Consumption Analysis), developed to assist industrial firms in Italy to determine their electrical power consumption, optimize it through production process interventions, and then utilize the results to draft up optimum electricity supply contracts with ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board). The program also allows the user to properly budget future allocations for electricity costs.

  17. Determinants of electricity demand for newly electrified low-income African households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, Kate [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Conradie, Beatrice [School of Economics, University of Cape Town (South Africa); Howells, Mark [Planning and Economic Studies Section (PESS), International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria); Dekenah, Marcus [Marcus Dekenah Consulting, Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    Access to clean, affordable and appropriate energy is an important enabler of development. Energy allows households to meet their most basic subsistence needs; it is a central feature of all the millennium development goals (MDGs) and, while a lack of access to energy may not be a cause of poverty, addressing the energy needs of the impoverished lets them access services which in turn address the causes of poverty. While much is known about the factors affecting the decisions made when choosing between fuel types within a household, few quantitative studies have been carried out in South Africa to determine the extent to which these factors affect energy choice decisions. It is assumed that the factors traditionally included in economic demand such as price and income of the household affect choice; tastes and preferences as well as external factors such as distance to fuel suppliers are expected to influence preferences. This study follows two typical low-income rural sites in South Africa, Antioch and Garagapola, where the Electricity Basic Services Support Tariff (EBSST) was piloted in 2002. The EBSST is set at 50 kWh/month per household for low domestic consumers; this is worth approximately R20 ({+-}US$3). This subsidy is a lifeline tariff, where households receive the set amount of units per month, free of charge irrespective of whether more units are purchased. These data (collected in 2001 and 2002), recently collated with detailed electricity consumption data, allow us to determine the drivers of electricity consumption within these households. The sample analysed is taken from the initial phase of the study, when no FBE had been introduced to the households. This enabled the study presented here to make use of the well-populated datasets to assess what affects the electricity use decision in these households. This paper attempts to assess which factors affected the decision-making process for electricity consumption within these households. A brief

  18. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  19. Seasonal variation of prices of sugar cane, ethanol and electric power; Variacao estacional dos precos da cana-de-acucar, alcool combustivel e energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Carmem Ozana de; Silva, Gerson Henrique da; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Francisco Beltrao, PR (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal price of sugar cane, fuel alcohol (hydrated and anhydrous) and electricity tariffs as a way of aiding tool for optimization of energy generation, using biomass originating from cane sugar. Using the method of moving average centered was concluded that cane and electricity rates were close to seasonal average, with low range of prices, suggesting the non-occurrence of seasonal variation in prices. Unlike the seasonal indices of ethanol showed seasonal variation of prices with greater amplitude of seasonal index. Thus, the results suggest that the utilization of by-products of sugar cane to produce electrical power points to the prospect of reducing risks associated with variations in the price of ethanol, thereby contributing to greater stability and possibility to those involved in planning alcohol sector. (author)

  20. Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    electric vehicles .10 In 1994, BART chose the bid submitted by U.S. Electricar to provide 45 converted Geo Prisms and to be the turnkey operator. However...Declining to Sign Contracts Rank (1 = highest) => 1 2 3 4 Cost too much per month (10) 6 2 1 1 Want to buy , not lease, an electric vehicle (4) 2 1...District DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY ELECTRIC AND HYBRID ELECTRIC VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES COOPERATIVE AGREEMENT MDA972-93-1-0027 QUARTERLY

  1. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  2. External conditions and structure development in the Norwegian electricity supply; Rammebetingelser og strukturutvikling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thommessen; Krefting; Greve; Lund

    1997-12-31

    In Norway, an act of 1996 implied a total reform of the taxation system for electricity suppliers. Publicly owned utilities are also subject to this act. The problem discussed in this report is whether energy political goals about fewer and larger units are weakened or strengthened because of today`s taxation rules. The taxation rules are considered only in relation to any structural changes. The external conditions that can affect the structural development are: (1) duties and licences, (2) concessionary rules, (3) regulation of network tariffs, (4) judicial problems of competition, (5) judicial problems of company. They are discussed in detail. The general conclusion is that the design and practice of public regulations strongly interfere with and affect the incentives and possibility for a restructuring of the power sector. 1 table

  3. A Solar Atlas for Building-Integrated Photovoltaic Electricity Resource Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Nielsen, Steffen; Sperling, Karl

    While photovoltaic energy gathers momentum as power costs increase and panel costs decrease, the total technical and economic potentials for building integrated solar energy in Denmark remain largely unidentified. The current net metering feed-in scheme is restricted to 6kW plant size, limiting...... large scale application. This paper presents a solar atlas based on a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of all 2.9 million buildings in the country, combined with a building register. The 1.6 m resolution DEM has been processed into global radiation input, solar energy output and production....... The continuous assessment of solar electricity generation potentials by marginal costs, ownership and plant type presented in the paper may be used for defining long term policies for the development of photovoltaic energy, as well as political instruments such as a multi-tier feed-in tariff....

  4. Congestion management in open access based on relative electrical distances using voltage stability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yesuratnam, G.; Thukaram, D. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2007-10-15

    This paper presents an approach for alleviation of network over loads in the day-to-day operation of power systems under deregulated environment. The control used for over load alleviation is real power generation rescheduling based on relative electrical distance (RED) concept. The method estimates the relative location of load nodes with respect to the generator nodes. The contribution of each generator for a particular over loaded line is first identified, then based on RED concept the desired proportions of generations for the desired overload relieving is obtained, so that the system will have minimum transmission losses and more stability margins with respect to voltage profiles, bus angles and better transmission tariff. Results obtained for network overload alleviation of suitably modified IEEE 39-bus New England system are presented for illustration purposes. (author)

  5. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  6. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  7. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  8. 论非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口的影响及应对措施%On non tariff trade barriers impact on China's exports of agricultural products and measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琦

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural products has accounted for a large proportion in our country's export products, the trade of agricultural products has also been a high-profile problem in international trade. With the gradual weakening of the role of traditional tariff barriers, non-tariff barriers to trade have increasingly become the main measure of a country's trade protection. Therefore, it is necessary to influence of non tariff trade barriers on China's agricultural product export trade are analyzed, in order to better take corresponding measures to reduce the loss.%农产品在我国对外出口的产品中一直占有很大的比重,农产品贸易也一直是国际贸易中备受瞩目的问题。随着传统的关税壁垒作用的逐渐弱化,非关税贸易壁垒日益成为一国贸易保护的主要措施。因此,有必要对非关税贸易壁垒对我国农产品出口贸易的影响进行分析,以利于更好的采取相应的措施以减少损失。

  9. 从贸易与环境视角辨析碳关税的合法性%Analysis on Legality of Carbon Tariff in the Perspective of Trade and Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施姝婧; 黄良军

    2011-01-01

    随着联合国哥本哈根气候变化会议落下帷幕,"碳关税"这一具有时代色彩的非传统绿色贸易壁垒成为国际社会关注的热点。虽然碳关税的产生和存在具有一定的法律依据,但这并不能掩盖碳关税的本质———新保护主义。本文通过权衡贸易自由和环境保护之利弊,探析了碳关税的合法性,并针对发达国家征收碳关税的措施,提出发展中国家应采取的应对措施。%"carbon tariff",a Non-conventional Green Trade Barrier,has attracted people's attention quite a lot since the UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen.The generation and existence of carbon tariff have some legal basises,but the essence of carbon tariff is still a new protectionism barrier which in green clothes.The paper analyzes the legality of carbon tariff by compare free trade with environment protection.At the same time,the author suggests that China should take some measures so as to protect the legitimate rights.

  10. Managing charging loads of electric vehicles by monetary incentives. A model-based optimization; Monetaere Anreize zur Steuerung der Ladelast von Elektrofahrzeugen. Eine modellgestuetzte Optimierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paetz, Alexandra-Gwyn; Kaschub, Thomas; Kopp, Martin; Jochem, Patrick; Fichtner, Wolf [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    2013-03-15

    Electric mobility is supposed to contribute to climate policy targets by reducing CO{sub 2}-emissions in the transportation sector. Increasing penetration rates of electric vehicles (EV) can lead to new challenges in the electricity sector, especially with regard to local distribution networks. Thus the management of charging loads is discussed as a key issue in energy economics. Due to their long parking times, high electricity and power demand, EV seem to be predestined for load management. Monetary incentives as dynamic pricing can be suitable for that: They reflect the current supply situation, pass the information to the consumers and can thus lead to a corresponding charging behaviour. In this article we analyse this interaction between dynamic pricing and charging loads. For this reason we have developed the optimization model DS-Opt+. It models a total number of 4,000 households in two residential areas of a major city with regard to its electricity demand, its mobility behaviour and its equipment of photovoltaic systems. Four different pricing models are tested for their effects on charging behaviour and thus the total load of the residential area. The results illustrate that only fairly high penetration rates of EV lead to remarkably higher electricity demand and require some load management. The tested dynamic pricing models are suitable for influencing charging loads; load-based tariffs are best in achieving a balanced load curve. In our analysis uncontrolled charging strategies are superior regarding a balanced load curve than controlled strategies by time-varying tariffs. Our results lead to several implications relevant for the energy industry and further research.

  11. ELECTRIC MOTOR CARS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PASSENGER VEHICLES , ELECTRIC MOTORS), FEASIBILITY STUDIES, BATTERY COMPONENTS, ELECTRIC BATTERIES, FUEL CELLS, ENERGY CONVERSION, NUCLEAR ENERGY, THERMIONIC CONVERTERS , THERMOELECTRICITY, POWER EQUIPMENT, COSTS

  12. Estimation of electric power generation using coal from the fruit peel of cupuassu in Amazonas State, Brazil; Estimativa de geracao de energia eletrica utilizando o carvao da casca do fruto do cupuacuzeiro no estado do Amazonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Antonio Cleuder Lima da [Manaus Energia S/A., Manaus, AM (Brazil); Santos, Eyde Cristiane Saraiva dos [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (FCA/UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e Solos], e-mail: eyde_cristianne@yahoo.com.br

    2008-07-01

    The application of the charcoal of agroforestry residue for the generation of electric energy, for being renewable power plant and possessing technology for application, comes being evidenced. In this research the potential of generation of electric energy was estimated, in the main producing cities of the State of Amazonas of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro (Theobroma grandiflorum Wild. Ex. Spreng. Shum.), using the rind carbonized in technology of gasification, substitution of diesel. The charcoal of the rind of the fruit of the cupuacuzeiro presents to be able calorific next to the one to the deriving coal of the wood. Known the annual production of each one the cities, the amount and the cost of production of the generated electric energy, determined in this research, it justifies the exploitation of this residue, for having economic advantages, when comparative with the tariff of the adopted electric energy in the region for the concessionaire. (author)

  13. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  14. [Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

    2012-07-01

    The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Financial analysis of revision knee surgery based on NHS tariffs and hospital costs: does it pay to provide a revision service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallala, R F; Vanhegan, I S; Ibrahim, M S; Sarmah, S; Haddad, F S

    2015-02-01

    Revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a complex procedure which carries both a greater risk for patients and greater cost for the treating hospital than does a primary TKA. As well as the increased cost of peri-operative investigations, blood transfusions, surgical instrumentation, implants and operating time, there is a well-documented increased length of stay which accounts for most of the actual costs associated with surgery. We compared revision surgery for infection with revision for other causes (pain, instability, aseptic loosening and fracture). Complete clinical, demographic and economic data were obtained for 168 consecutive revision TKAs performed at a tertiary referral centre between 2005 and 2012. Revision surgery for infection was associated with a mean length of stay more than double that of aseptic cases (21.5 vs 9.5 days, p < 0.0001). The mean cost of a revision for infection was more than three times that of an aseptic revision (£30 011 (sd 4514) vs £9655 (sd 599.7), p < 0.0001). Current NHS tariffs do not fully reimburse the increased costs of providing a revision knee surgery service. Moreover, especially as greater costs are incurred for infected cases. These losses may adversely affect the provision of revision surgery in the NHS.

  16. The policy effects of feed-in tariff and renewable portfolio standard: A case study of China's waste incineration power industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin-Gang, Zhao; Yu-Zhuo, Zhang; Ling-Zhi, Ren; Yi, Zuo; Zhi-Gong, Wu

    2017-06-15

    Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable portfolio standards (RPS) are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. This paper uses system dynamics (SD) to establish models of long-term development of China's waste incineration power industry under FIT and RPS schemes, and provides a case study by using scenario analysis method. The model, on the one hand, not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also assesses policy effects of the two policy tools in the development of the industry. On the other hand, it provides a reference for scholars to study similar problems in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of waste incineration power's long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China's waste incineration power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Analysis of Investment Benefit Based on Benchmark Tariff for Wind Power Project%标杆电价下风电项目投资收益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁芙翠; 陈立斌

    2012-01-01

    Summarizing China' s wind power development during the "11 th Five-Year Plan" period (2006-2010), this paper estimates the investment cost of wind power projects in different regions of China in the year 2010. Taking into account tile cun'ent benchmark tariff, it calculates the financial internal rate of return on the wind power investment. Then it discusses the impacts of variate factors on the return of wind power investment, such as investment cost, annual generation hours, interest rate of loan and other factors. Enhancing investment management is an effective approach to avoiding resource risk, market risk and policy risk, and guaranteeing return on investment.%简析“十一五”期间我国风电发展现状,对我国不同区域2010年风电工程造价进行分析测算,对现行标杆电价机制下风电项目投资效益进行评价,分析了风电投资成本、发电设备年利用小时数、贷款利率等因素变化对投资收益的影响,提出了加强投资管理,规避资源风险、市场风险以及政策风险,确保投资收益的建议。

  18. Institutional aspects of state regulation of interrelations of subjects of the electric energy market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmynchuk Nataliia V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies tendencies of development of international electric energy markets. It marks out the role of well-organised functioning of the electric energy market for maintaining the energy security of the country under complex conditions of Ukrainian economy transformation under the influence of geopolitical changes, financial, economic and social factors. It justifies important role of the state in realisation of the regulating impact through mechanisms of institutional support of production, transportation and supply of electric energy; it focuses on imperfection of the existing system of institutes of this sphere, which determine harmonicity of the electric energy buy and sell process. Based on the system analysis of the institutional foundation, which reflects principles and essence of regulation of the electric energy market and interrelations of its subjects, the article generalises problems of the modern regulatory and legal base and realisation of strategic programmes of development in the context of formation of relations between the energy market participants, which would facilitate renovation of state regulation. The article marks out key directions of solution of topical issues of institutional support of activity of electric energy market participants, the most urgent of which are problems of the tariff policy, alternative energy development, financial discipline and technical state of fixed assets of the electric energy complex. The article puts in order the system of contractual relations of subjects of the electric energy market, which allows formation of the scientifically justified approaches in the direction of improvement of the organisational structure of the energy market and introduction of measures on increase of efficiency of regulating actions by the state.

  19. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Chris

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT, which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. Methods The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Results Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry

  20. 'A major lobbying effort to change and unify the excise structure in six Central American countries': How British American Tobacco influenced tax and tariff rates in the Central American Common Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Chris; Lee, Kelley

    2011-05-19

    Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) may respond to processes of regional trade integration both by acting politically to influence policy and by reorganising their own operations. The Central American Common Market (CACM) was reinvigorated in the 1990s, reflecting processes of regional trade liberalisation in Latin America and globally. This study aimed to ascertain how British American Tobacco (BAT), which dominated the markets of the CACM, sought to influence policy towards it by member country governments and how the CACM process impacted upon BAT's operations. The study analysed internal tobacco industry documents released as a result of litigation in the US and available from the online Legacy Tobacco Documents Library at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/. Documents were retrieved by searching the BAT collection using key terms in an iterative process. Analysis was based on an interpretive approach involving a process of attempting to understand the meanings of individual documents and relating these to other documents in the set, identifying the central themes of documents and clusters of documents, contextualising the documentary data, and choosing representative material in order to present findings. Utilising its multinational character, BAT was able to act in a coordinated way across the member countries of the CACM to influence tariffs and taxes to its advantage. Documents demonstrate a high degree of access to governments and officials. The company conducted a coordinated, and largely successful, attempt to keep external tariff rates for cigarettes high and to reduce external tariffs for key inputs, whilst also influencing the harmonisation of excise taxes between countries. Protected by these high external tariffs, it reorganised its own operations to take advantage of regional economies of scale. In direct contradiction to arguments presented to CACM governments that affording the tobacco industry protection via high cigarette tariffs would safeguard

  1. Implementing batteries in electrical grids. Possible operating modes for efficient business cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittlaus, Barnabas; Schreider, Achim; Pour, Adel Hassan [Lahmeyer International GmbH, Bad Vilbel (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    promotion. As a result, today some countries have significant shares of RES power generation. Due to the intermittency of most RES, for example, wind power and photovoltaic (PV) power generation, there is a large demand for all types of balancing power in order to allow for a reliable operation of the electricity systems. However, the available thermal power plants with their respective power output ramping characteristics are not sufficient any more and the construction of new ones is expensive, takes a long time and is not supported by large portions of the population. Hence, new options are needed; electricity storage and stationary batteries in particular, is one possible solution. European Directive 2006/32/EC set incentives for the deployment of variable retail electricity tariffs depending on time of use (ToU) or by current grid load. For example, by linking the electricity tariff to the amount of current grid load - directly or indirectly - it is intended that consumers shift their load into off-peak periods. Once smart metering infrastructure is widely installed the electricity price can also reflect the amount of RES capacity currently fed into the grid and give a financial incentive to shift load into high-RES-injection periods. By these means, the price of electricity would become the central controlling instrument of the power system (smart grid). (orig.)

  2. 浅谈电费差错专项审计%Special Audit of Electricity Errors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娅丽

    2014-01-01

    By analyzing the causes of common electricity errors, errors in the special audit to determine the focus of electricity, and propose to correct errors tariff measures to strengthen nuclear electricity copied income management to ensure the power supply enterprise, the user’s interests, improve the supply of corporate social image. The main focus of electricity errors discussed the special audit, procedures and methods, and so on.%通过分析常见电费差错的原因,确定电费差错专项审计的重点,并提出纠正电费差错的措施,以加强电费抄核收管理,保证供电企业、用户的利益,提升供电企业的社会形象。主要探讨了电费差错专项审计的工作重点、程序和和方法等。

  3. Electricity for groundwater use: constraints and opportunities for adaptive response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.

    2013-09-01

    Globally, groundwater use is intensifying to meet demands for irrigation, urban supply, industrialization, and, in some instances, electrical power generation. In response to hydroclimatic variability, surface water is being substituted with groundwater, which must be viewed as a strategic resource for climate adaptation. In this sense, the supply of electricity for pumping is an adaptation policy tool. Additionally, planning for climate-change mitigation must consider CO2 emissions resulting from pumping. This paper examines the influence of electricity supply and pricing on groundwater irrigation and resulting emissions, with specific reference to Mexico—a climate-water-energy ‘perfect storm’. Night-time power supply at tariffs below the already-subsidized rates for agricultural groundwater use has caused Mexican farmers to increase pumping, reversing important water and electricity conservation gains achieved. Indiscriminate groundwater pumping, including for virtual water exports of agricultural produce, threatens the long-term sustainability of aquifers, non-agricultural water uses, and stream-aquifer interactions that sustain riparian ecosystems. Emissions resulting from agricultural groundwater pumping in Mexico are estimated to be 3.6% of total national emissions and are equivalent to emissions from transporting the same agricultural produce to market. The paper concludes with an assessment of energy, water, and climate trends coupled with policy futures to address these challenges.

  4. Electrical installations technology

    CERN Document Server

    Whitfield, J F

    1968-01-01

    Electrical Installations Technology covers the syllabus of the City and Guilds of London Institute course No. 51, the "Electricians B Certificate”. This book is composed of 15 chapters that deal with basic electrical science and electrical installations. The introductory chapters discuss the fundamentals and basic electrical principles, including the concept of mechanics, heat, magnetic fields, electric currents, power, and energy. These chapters also explore the atomic theory of electric current and the electric circuit, conductors, and insulators. The subsequent chapter focuses on the chemis

  5. Informatics requirements for a restructured competitive electric power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickle, S.; Marnay, C.; Olken, F. [eds.

    1996-08-01

    The electric power industry in the United States is undergoing a slow but nonetheless dramatic transformation. It is a transformation driven by technology, economics, and politics; one that will move the industry from its traditional mode of centralized system operations and regulated rates guaranteeing long-run cost recovery, to decentralized investment and operational decisionmaking and to customer access to true spot market prices. This transformation will revolutionize the technical, procedural, and informational requirements of the industry. A major milestone in this process occurred on December 20, 1995, when the California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) approved its long-awaited electric utility industry restructuring decision. The decision directed the three major California investor-owned utilities to reorganize themselves by the beginning of 1998 into a supply pool, at the same time selling up to a half of their thermal generating plants. Generation will be bid into this pool and will be dispatched by an independent system operator. The dispatch could potentially involve bidders not only from California but from throughout western North America and include every conceivable generating technology and scale of operation. At the same time, large customers and aggregated customer groups will be able to contract independently for their supply and the utilities will be required to offer a real-time pricing tariff based on the pool price to all their customers, including residential. In related proceedings concerning competitive wholesale power markets, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) has recognized that real-time information flows between buyers and sellers are essential to efficient equitable market operation. The purpose of this meeting was to hold discussions on the information technologies that will be needed in the new, deregulated electric power industry.

  6. Transparent electric convection heater

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  7. Red Electrica de Espana S.A.. Instrument of regulation and liberalization of the Spanish electricity market (1944-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrues-Irurzun, Josean [Department of Theory and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Lopez-Garcia, Santiago [Department of Economics and Economic History, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Salamanca, Campus Miguel de Unamuno, 37007 Salamanca (Spain)

    2009-10-15

    To understand the regulation system of the Spanish electricity market it is first necessary to understand on the one hand the system of tariffs and prices, and on the other the organization of the market for high voltage distribution. This article is concerned with this second aspect and traces its history from 1944, this is because before that date it was not possible to speak of a truly national market, but rather only of regional monopolies. In the 1940s, with Franco's new political regime, and the development of the Spanish electricity sector, it became necessary to completely rethink business strategies in relation to competition and cooperation, as well as the regulatory function of the state. In the 1950s, the main feature of the sector was the system of business self-regulation permitted by the state. Throughout the remaining years of Franco's government state intervention was particularly focussed on the subject of tariffs, but with the onset of democracy the state was to involve itself in the transmission network as well. A debate began as to whether it should be run by a private or public operator. In this dispute were ranged, on the one hand, the economic policy concepts of the major parties (PSOE and PP), and against them the strategic interests of the companies. Although the high voltage transmission network was nationalized by the state in the mid-1980s, establishing a 'traditional' model of regulation, the 1990s saw the triumph of a market-based regulation, strongly influenced by the dominant ideas in the European Union, which has converted Red Electrica into a private company. Currently the TSO (Transmission System Operators) model has been extended to Portugal and has entered into competition-cooperation with the other models of the European electricity market. (author)

  8. Electric circuit theory applied electricity and electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yorke, R

    1981-01-01

    Electric Circuit Theory provides a concise coverage of the framework of electrical engineering. Comprised of six chapters, this book emphasizes the physical process of electrical engineering rather than abstract mathematics. Chapter 1 deals with files, circuits, and parameters, while Chapter 2 covers the natural and forced response of simple circuit. Chapter 3 talks about the sinusoidal steady state, and Chapter 4 discusses the circuit analysis. The fifth chapter tackles frequency response of networks, and the last chapter covers polyphase systems. This book will be of great help to electrical

  9. Electricity market 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-09-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have had a common electricity market since 1996. The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition, to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the 'Electricity market 2001' publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic market. Iceland is not included in the description. The publication also includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment. The publication contains data on electricity generation and use during the past years, structure of the electricity market, trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic countries and other countries as well as impact of electricity generation system on the environment.

  10. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  11. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  12. Topics in Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  13. Topics on Electricity Transmission Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerndal, Mette

    2000-02-01

    Within the last decade we have experienced deregulation of several industries, such as airlines, telecommunications and the electric utility industry, the last-mentioned being the focus of this work. Both the telecommunications and the electricity sector depend on network facilities, some of which are still considered as natural monopolies. In these industries, open network access is regarded as crucial in order to achieve the gains from increased competition, and transmission tariffs are important in implementing this. Based on the Energy Act that was introduced in 1991, Norway was among the first countries to restructure its electricity sector. On the supply side there are a large number of competing firms, almost exclusively hydro plants, with a combined capacity of about 23000 MW, producing 105-125 TWh per year, depending on the availability of water. Hydro plants are characterized by low variable costs of operation, however since water may be stored in dams, water has an opportunity cost, generally known as the water value, which is the shadow price of water when solving the generator's inter temporal profit maximization problem. Water values are the main factor of the producers' short run marginal cost. Total consumption amounts to 112-117 TWh a year, and consumers, even households, may choose their electricity supplier independent of the local distributor to which the customer is connected. In fact, approximately 10% of the households have actually changed supplier. The web-site www.konkurransetilsynet.no indicates available contracts, and www.dinside.no provides an ''energy-calculator'' where one can check whether it is profitable to switch supplier. If a customer buys energy from a remote supplier, the local distributor only provides transportation facilities for the energy and is compensated accordingly. Transmission and distribution have remained monopolized and regulated by the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy

  14. The Development of the Renewable Energy Power Industry under Feed-In Tariff and Renewable Portfolio Standard: A Case Study of China’s Photovoltaic Power Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhuo Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the regulatory policies, feed-in tariffs (FIT and renewable portfolio standards (RPS are the most popular to promote the development of renewable energy power industry. They can significantly contribute to the expansion of domestic industrial activities in terms of sustainable energy. In this paper, we synthetically consider various important factors with the analysis of the existing literature, and use system dynamics (SD to establish models of long-term development of the renewable energy power industry under FIT and RPS schemes. The model not only clearly shows the complex logical relationship between the factors but also reveals the process of coordination between the two policy tools in the development of the renewable energy power industry. In addition, as an example of development of renewable energy industry, the paper studies the development of China’s photovoltaic power industry under different scenarios. The models proposed in this paper can provide a reference for scholars to study development of the renewable energy power industry in different countries, thereby facilitating an understanding of the renewable energy power’s long-term sustainable development pattern under FIT and RPS schemes, and helping to provide references for policy-making institutions. The results show that in the perfect competitive market, the implementation of RPS can promote long-term and rapid development of China’s photovoltaic power industry given the constraints and actions of the mechanisms of RPS quota proportion, the TGC valid period, and fines, compared with FIT. At the end of the paper, policy implications are offered as references for the government.

  15. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  16. Electrical installation calculations advanced

    CERN Document Server

    Kitcher, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    All the essential calculations required for advanced electrical installation workThe Electrical Installation Calculations series has proved an invaluable reference for over forty years, for both apprentices and professional electrical installation engineers alike. The book provides a step-by-step guide to the successful application of electrical installation calculations required in day-to-day electrical engineering practiceA step-by-step guide to everyday calculations used on the job An essential aid to the City & Guilds certificates at Levels 2 and 3For apprentices and electrical installatio

  17. Study of an electrical heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Kunping; Zhang, Yinping; Di, Hongfa [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang, Rui [Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2007-07-15

    A kind of electrical floor heating system with a shape-stabilized phase change material (PCM) which has been studied at Tsinghua University in our previous studies, can provide space heating during the whole day and can be controlled conventionally. However, this is not suitable for office buildings where no space heating is needed at night. The effective control is very important for the heating system in such buildings. In this paper, we studied a kind of new electrical floor heating system with ductless air supply and shape-stabilized PCM for thermal storage in order to overcome the shortcomings of the passive under-floor electric heating system with thermal storage. In this paper, we investigated its thermal performance by experiments and simulation, calculated the effects of various factors and discussed the application feasibility in different climate regions. The results show that the total electrical energy consumption was shifted from the peak period to the off-peak period, which would provide significant economic benefits because of the different day and night electricity tariffs. The system can be designed by choosing PCM with proper melting temperature and be controlled by varying velocity of air supply in different conditions. (author)

  18. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  19. Electricity market 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsfeldt, T.; Petsala, B.

    2000-08-01

    The electricity markets in the Nordic countries have undergone major changes since the electricity market reform work was started in the early 1990s. Sweden, Norway and Finland have a common electricity market since 1996.The work of also reforming the Danish electricity market was begun in the year 2000. The objective of the electricity market reform is to introduce increased competition,to give the consumers greater freedom of choice and also, by open and expanded trade in electricity, create the conditions for efficient pricing. The Swedish National Energy Administration is the supervisory authority as specified in the Electricity Act, and one of the tasks entrusted to it by the Government is to follow developments on the electricity market and to regularly compile and report current market information. The purpose of the present publication is to meet the need for generalized and readily accessible information on the conditions on the Nordic markets.The publication includes summaries of information from recent years concerning electricity generation and utilization in the Nordic countries, the structure of the electricity market from the players' perspective trade in electricity in the Nordic countries and in Northern Europe, electricity prices in the Nordic and other countries, and the impact of the electricity sector on the environment.

  20. Implementation of electrical efficiency project in an beverage industry; Implementacao de um projeto de eficiencia eletrica em uma fabrica de bebidas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasconcellos, Arnulfo Barroso de; Corral, Marcela Marcote; Festa, Alexandre Vinicius; Silva, Thiago Vieira da [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso (UFMT), MT (Brazil); Malheiro, Teresa Irene Ribeiro de Carvalho [Instituto Federal Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Mato Grosso (IFMT), MT (Brazil); Barros, Regiane Silva de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Proper management of electric energy use in industries promotes benefits to these consumers as well as to the Energy Dealers because they can postpone necessary investments in the electrical system and therefore minimize the social and environmental impacts caused by expansion or construction of new projects for generation / distribution energy, thus benefiting society in general. In most cases the electricity is the most significant portion of fixed costs among industrial consumers. The state of Mato Grosso has one of the electricity rates highest in the country. Thus, energy conservation measures can reduce this portion of expenses without changing the level of production. This article reviews the tariff framework, proposes efficiency measures electrical and analyzes the impact on power quality due to the drive motors via electronic systems in a beverage industry in the state of Mato Grosso. The main objective is to reduce energy costs and optimize its electric drive system with the proposed replacement of low-income induction motors for high-income ones. It was found that through the proposed measures can reduce both the demand of active power as electricity consumption without affecting production levels. (author)