WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-fatal occupational injuries

  1. Changing trends in US injury profiles: revisiting non-fatal occupational injury statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A; Desai, A; Prakash, L; Mital, A; Mital, Anil

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the current trends in non-fatal injury profiles of workers in the United States. It is generally accepted that occupational injury and illness rates are affected by many factors, such as the amount and quality of training, employee turnover rates, work experience, extent of mechanization and automation, job-related parameters, and worker gender. In the last decade, not only have the technologies used in the workplace changed significantly, there has been a greater awareness among employers and employees as to the importance of containing work injuries. Additionally, the extent of outsourcing for labor-intensive jobs has increased dramatically owing to cheaper labor costs in places such as China and Mexico. These changes have affected the manufacturing sector of US industry more than any other sector. How these changes have influenced the injury and illness profiles of the American worker is of considerable interest given the increased attention paid to work-workplace design, injury hazard control, and ergonomics in general. In this paper, we compare the injury and illness profiles of US workers separated by nearly a decade. The trends from early 1990s are compared to those from early 2000s. Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics were used to compile the injury statistics. The results of our comparison show that while the absolute numbers of work-related injuries and illnesses have declined over the last 10 years, the basic trends associated with different factors remain almost unchanged. The reasons for this decline are discussed in this paper.

  2. Risk factors for non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khashaba, E; El-Helaly, M; El-Gilany, A H; Motawei, S M; Foda, S

    2018-02-01

    Substance abuse is a serious problem, because it affects both workers and young people. Prevalence and consequences of cannabis abuse among construction workers in particular are not well studied in Egypt. To determine the association between non-fatal occupational injuries among construction workers and their demographic and occupational factors and to assess the frequency of cannabis abuse and its relationship to injury severity and workdays lost. A case-control study was conducted at Mansoura Emergency Hospital. Cases were 100 acutely injured male workers. A control group of 90 healthy age-matched workers was selected from 8 construction sites. Workers were interviewed, and a questionnaire was completed that included socio-demographic data, full occupational history, and causes and type of injury. Injury outcome measures included lost workdays and the injury severity score (ISS). Cannabis abuse in injured workers was monitored by preliminary testing of urine and confirmatory testing of blood. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of occupational injuries were rural residence, being a carpenter or painter and past history of injuries. The most common accidents were slipping falls (62%). Confirmed cannabis test was positive in 51.1% of the injured workers. Median days away from work were greater among cannabis users than non-users. The ISS was significantly higher among users compared to non-users ( p abuse can increase injury severity and prolong workdays lost. Drug testing is recommended for at-risk construction workers with inadequate safety measures.

  3. Impact of psychosocial job stress on non-fatal occupational injuries in small and medium-sized manufacturing enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Akinori; Ikeda, Tomoko; Takahashi, Masaya; Haratani, Takashi; Hojou, Minoru; Fujioka, Yosei; Swanson, Naomi G; Araki, Shunichi

    2006-08-01

    Workers involved in manufacturing are known to comprise a high-risk population for occupational injury, and this risk is greater in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The purpose of this study was to examine the association between psychosocial job stress and occupational injuries among workers in SMEs. One thousand forty-nine men and 721 women from 244 SMEs participated in this study. Perceived job stress was evaluated with the Japanese version of the generic job stress questionnaire, which covered 14 job stress variables. Occupational injury was assessed by self-report during the last 1-year period. Workers with high quantitative workload (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55 for men, 1.62 for women), high cognitive demands (OR = 1.70 for men, 1.53 for women), and low job satisfaction (OR = 1.33 for men, 1.93 for women) had a significantly increased risk of occupational injury in the multivariate model. High variance in workload (OR = 1.70) and high job future ambiguity (OR = 1.35) in men, and low job control (OR = 2.04) and high intragroup conflict (OR = 1.66) in women were significantly associated with occupational injury. In manufacturing/production workers, high quantitative workload (OR = 1.91), high variance in workload (OR = 2.02), and high depressive symptoms (OR = 1.55) were significantly associated with injury in men, while low social support from colleagues (OR = 2.36) or family (OR = 2.51) was related to injury in women. These data point to an independent relationship between psychosocial job stress and self-reported occupational injury in SMEs. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  4. Emprego em serviços domésticos e acidentes de trabalho não fatais Housemaids and non-fatal occupational injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma S Santana

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estimar a incidência anual de acidentes não fatais de acordo com variáveis sociodemográficas e ocupacionais entre empregadas em serviços domésticos. MÉTODOS: Inquérito de base comunitária conduzido com 1.650 mulheres de 10 a 65 anos de idade, que referiram ter atividade remunerada e que compunham uma amostra aleatória por conglomerados dos domicílios da cidade de Salvador, capital da Bahia. Os dados foram obtidos por meio de questionários individuais sobre condições de vida, trabalho e saúde. Foi utilizado o teste Exato de Fisher para diferenças de freqüências. RESULTADOS: Estimou-se a incidência anual de acidentes de trabalho não fatais em 5,0%, maior entre as empregadas em serviços domésticos (7,3% do que entre as demais trabalhadoras (4,5%, diferença estatisticamente significante (pOBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual incidence of non-fatal work injuries according to sociodemographic and occupational variables among housemaids. METHODS: A community-based survey was conducted in a population of 1,650 women aged 10 to 65 years who reported a paid occupation randomly selected in a household sample of the city of Salvador, Brazil. Data was collected through individual questionnaires on living and work conditions and health status. Fisher Exact test was performed for frequency analysis. RESULTS: It was estimated an overall annual incidence of non-fatal work injuries in the study population of 5.0%, which was statistically significant (p<0.05 higher among housemaids (7.3% than in the group with other occupations (4.5%. Half of the injuries among housemaids were not related with long-term disabilities, and 38.1% women referred not being able to work for two weeks on average after the injury. CONCLUSIONS: Housemaids represent a major contingent of the work force in Brazil and other Latin America countries. The high incidence of non-fatal work injuries in this working group reveals its public health relevance and the need

  5. Does obesity contribute to non-fatal occupational injury? Evidence from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tin-chi; Verma, Santosh K; Courtney, Theodore K

    2013-05-01

    The relationship between obesity and occupational injuries remains unclear in the literature due to limitations in study design and sample composition. To better assess the contribution of obesity to occupational injury, we used data from a nationally representative cohort, the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) in 1988-2000. We hypothesized that obesity contributes to workplace injury and tested the hypothesis using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) and random-effects logistic regression. To ensure temporal precedence of obesity, we used the obesity level in each previous wave and examined its association with injury outcome in each wave from 1988-2000. Obesity was measured as body mass index (BMI) based on self-reported height and weight. The GEE analysis showed that obesity was associated with 25% higher odds of workplace injury [odds ratio (OR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-1.39; Pobese workers were associated with 29% higher odds of sustaining injuries than those of normal weight (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.15-1.45; PObesity may predispose workers to work-related injury; further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms.

  6. States with low non-fatal injury rates have high fatality rates and vice-versa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendeloff, John; Burns, Rachel

    2013-05-01

    State-level injury rates or fatality rates are sometimes used in studies of the impact of various safety programs or other state policies. How much does the metric used affect the view of relative occupational risks among U.S. states? This paper uses a measure of severe injuries (fatalities) and of less severe injuries (non-fatal injuries with days away from work, restricted work, or job transfer-DART) to examine that issue. We looked at the correlation between the average DART injury rate (from the BLS Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses) and an adjusted average fatality rate (from the BLS Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries) in the construction sector for states for 2003-2005 and for 2006-2008. The RAND Human Subjects Protection Committee determined that this study was exempt from review. The correlations between the fatal and non-fatal injury rates were between -0.30 and -0.70 for all construction and for the subsector of special trade contractors. The negative correlation was much smaller between the rate of fatal falls from heights and the rate of non-fatal falls from heights. Adjusting for differences in the industry composition of the construction sector across states had minor effects on these results. Although some have suggested that fatal and non-fatal injury rates should not necessarily be positively correlated, no one has suggested that the correlation is negative, which is what we find. We know that reported non-fatal rates are influenced by workers' compensation benefits and other factors. Fatality rates appear to be a more valid measure of risk. Efforts to explain the variations that we find should be undertaken. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Non-fatal occupational falls on the same level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Han T; Lockhart, Thurmon E; Wu, Xuefang

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antecedents and characteristics of same level fall injuries. Fall incidents and costs were compiled from the Bureau of Labor Statistics and other sources from 2006-2010. This study indicated that over 29% of 'fall on same level' injuries resulted in 31 or more workdays lost. The major source of injury was 'floors, walkways or ground surfaces', and the most affected body parts were the lower extremities and the trunk. With regard to gender and age, female workers had the highest risk of falls, while advancing age coincided with an increase in incidence rates. Overall, workers in the healthcare and social assistance industry, the transportation and warehousing industry, and the accommodation and food services industry had the highest risk for 'fall on same level' injuries. Furthermore, the overall compensation cost increased by 25% from 2006-2009. Along with existing evidence, these results may facilitate the design and implementation of preventative measures in the workplace and potentially reduce fall-related compensation costs. This research presents a unique and detailed analysis of non-fatal 'fall on same level' injuries in a large population of workers from various private industries in the USA. This information can be used to prioritise designing and implementing preventive measures and to provide workers with the understanding of risk factors associated with falls in the workplace.

  8. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura N. Syron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives: This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design: Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results: We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136. The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions: The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to

  9. Utility of a Work Process Classification System for characterizing non-fatal injuries in the Alaskan commercial fishing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syron, Laura N; Lucas, Devin L; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Bethel, Jeffrey W; Kincl, Laurel D

    2016-01-01

    The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers' lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS) has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136). The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to determine risk estimates. Efforts to improve non-fatal injury reporting

  10. A case-crossover study of sleep, fatigue, and other transient exposures at workplace and the risk of non-fatal occupational injuries among the employees of an Italian academic hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Francesca Valent; Marika Mariuz; Giulia Liva; Fabrizio Bellomo; Daniela De Corti; Stefania Degan; Alberto Ferrazzano; Silvio Brusaferro

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Transient exposure with acute effect has been shown to affect the risk of occupational injuries in various industrial settings and at the healthcare workplace. The objective of this study has been to identify transient exposures related to occupational injury risk in an Italian teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A case-crossover study was conducted among the employees of the University Hospital of Udine who reported an occupational injury, commuting accident, or incident inv...

  11. National estimates of non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hootman, J; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Hargarten, S

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To characterize non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds (non-GSWs) treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States that occur during routine gun handling and recreational use as well as violence related use of a firearm. Methods—Cases were identified through the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). During the study period, 1 January 1993 through 31 December 1996, NEISS consisted of a nationally representative sample of 91 hospitals in the United States having at least six beds and providing 24 hour emergency services. Results—An estimated 65 374, or an average of 16 300 per year, non-fatal, non-GSWs were treated in American hospital emergency departments during the four year study period. Fifty seven per cent of all the non-fatal, non-GSWs were violence related, most of which involved being struck by a firearm. The majority of unintentional non-fatal, non-GSWs were self inflicted and occurred during routine gun handling or recreational use of a firearm; 43% of these injuries resulted from gun recoils. Conclusions—Non-fatal, non-GSWs make a notable contribution to the public health burden of firearm related injuries. Firearm related injury prevention programs should focus on not only the reduction of gunshot wounds but also the reduction of unintentional and violence related non-GSWs. PMID:11144625

  12. A case-crossover study of sleep, fatigue, and other transient exposures at workplace and the risk of non-fatal occupational injuries among the employees of an Italian academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Francesca; Mariuz, Marika; Liva, Giulia; Bellomo, Fabrizio; De Corti, Daniela; Degan, Stefania; Ferrazzano, Alberto; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-11-18

    Transient exposure with acute effect has been shown to affect the risk of occupational injuries in various industrial settings and at the healthcare workplace. The objective of this study has been to identify transient exposures related to occupational injury risk in an Italian teaching hospital. A case-crossover study was conducted among the employees of the University Hospital of Udine who reported an occupational injury, commuting accident, or incident involving biological risk in a 15-month period in the years 2013 and 2014. The matched-pair interval approach was used to assess the role of acute sleep deprivation whereas the usual frequency approach was used for other 13 transient exposures. Sleep hours were not associated with the risk of injuries whereas a significant risk increase was associated with fatigue, rush, distraction, emergency situations, teaching to or being taught by someone, non-compliant patients, bloody operative/work field, excess noise, complex procedures, and anger. We identified transient exposures that increased the risk of occupational injuries in an Italian teaching hospital, providing indications for interventions to increase workers' safety at the healthcare workplace. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):1001-1009. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  13. A case-crossover study of sleep, fatigue, and other transient exposures at workplace and the risk of non-fatal occupational injuries among the employees of an Italian academic hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Transient exposure with acute effect has been shown to affect the risk of occupational injuries in various industrial settings and at the healthcare workplace. The objective of this study has been to identify transient exposures related to occupational injury risk in an Italian teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A case-crossover study was conducted among the employees of the University Hospital of Udine who reported an occupational injury, commuting accident, or incident involving biological risk in a 15-month period in the years 2013 and 2014. The matched-pair interval approach was used to assess the role of acute sleep deprivation whereas the usual frequency approach was used for other 13 transient exposures. Results: Sleep hours were not associated with the risk of injuries whereas a significant risk increase was associated with fatigue, rush, distraction, emergency situations, teaching to or being taught by someone, non-compliant patients, bloody operative/work field, excess noise, complex procedures, and anger. Conclusions: We identified transient exposures that increased the risk of occupational injuries in an Italian teaching hospital, providing indications for interventions to increase workers’ safety at the healthcare workplace. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:1001–1009

  14. National estimates of non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Hootman, J; Annest, J; Mercy, J; Ryan, G; Hargarten, S

    2000-01-01

    Objective—To characterize non-fatal firearm related injuries other than gunshot wounds (non-GSWs) treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States that occur during routine gun handling and recreational use as well as violence related use of a firearm.

  15. Injury Pattern Among Non-fatal Road Traffic Crash Victims | Gichuhi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study and analyse the pattern of injuries among non-fatal road traffic crash victims. Design: Retrospective analytical study. Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi over a six-month period from February to July 2004. Subjects: Road traffic crashes victims treated at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi during ...

  16. Unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries in Central Anatolia, Turkey: frequencies, characteristics, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alptekin, Fadimana; Uskun, Ersin; Kisioglu, Ahmet Nesimi; Ozturk, Mustafa

    2008-05-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem worldwide. Homes are an important setting for non-fatal unintentional injuries. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency, the characteristics, and the outcome of unintentional non-fatal injuries in the household, and to describe the related risk factors through a community-based survey. The study was conducted using a household-based survey design. Eight hundred inhabitants were sampled from the entire population in the city centre by a stratified sampling method in 2004. All unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries occurring in the previous year were registered and examined, making special note of the mechanism of the injuries, the time and place of the incidents and their outcomes. The frequency of unintentional non-fatal home-related injuries requiring some form of medical attention was established as 10.8%. Falls were the most common injuries among all the study groups. Injury rates were highest among the oldest (aged > or =65) and youngest (aged adults having incomes under euro 500, individuals living alone, or the unemployed. Contact with hot objects/substances or hot liquid/gas was the leading mechanism in children 4 years of age or younger, falls ranking second. Falls are a significant problem particularly among older adults. Multiple analysis revealed that participants with low incomes, living alone and single or divorced had a high risk for injury at home. The findings related to disability highlighted a need to focus attention on the prevention of residential falls among the elderly, and the burns and falls among young children. Preventive measures should be prioritised to risk groups such as individuals with low incomes and those living alone.

  17. The Effect of Child Access Prevention Laws on Non-Fatal Gun Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff DeSimone; Sara Markowitz

    2005-01-01

    Many states have passed child access prevention (CAP) laws, which hold the gun owner responsible if a child gains access to a gun that is not securely stored. Previous CAP law research has focused exclusively on gun-related deaths even though most gun injuries are not fatal. We use annual hospital discharge data from 1988-2001 to investigate whether CAP laws decrease non-fatal gun injuries. Results from Poisson regressions that control for various hospital, county and state characteristics, i...

  18. Population based estimates of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Soheil; Mafi, Mostafa; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi

    2011-07-31

    Fatal injuries are at the top of the injury pyramid; however, non-fatal injuries are quite common and impose huge medical expenses on the population. Relying on hospital data will underestimate the incidence of non-fatal injuries. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual incidence and out of pocket medical expenses of all injuries in urban population of Tehran (the capital city of Iran). Using the cluster random sampling approach, a household survey of residents of greater Tehran was performed on April 2008. At randomly selected residential locations, interviewers asked one adult person to report all injuries which have occurred during the past year for all household members, as well as the type of injury, place of occurrence, the activity, cause of accidents resulting in injuries, the amount of out of pocket medical expenses for injury, and whether they referred to hospital. This study included 2,450 households residing in Tehran during 2007-8. The annual incidence of all injuries was 188.7 (180.7-196.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 68.8 (63.7-74.2), fractures was 19.3 (16.6 - 22.4), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 16.7 (14.2 - 19.6) per 1000 population. The annual incidence of fatal injuries was 33 (7-96) per 100,000 Population. In children aged 15 or less, the annual incidence of all injuries was 137.2 (120.0 - 155.9), significant injuries needing any medical care was 64.2 (52.2 - 78.0), fractures was 21.8 (15.0 - 30.7), and injuries resulted in hospitalization was 6.8 (3.3 - 12.5) per 1000 population. The mean out of pocket medical expense for injuries was 19.9 USD. This population based study showed that the real incidence of non-fatal injuries in the capital of Iran is more than the formal hospital-based estimates. These injuries impose non trivial medical and indirect cost on the community. The out of pocket medical expense of non-fatal injuries to Tehran population is estimated as 27 million USD per year. Effective

  19. Acidentes de trabalho não fatais: diferenças de gênero e tipo de contrato de trabalho Non-fatal occupational injuries: gender and job contract differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Santana

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, trabalhadores sem vínculo formal de trabalho representam mais da metade da força de trabalho, cuja maioria é composta por mulheres. Neste estudo, estima-se a incidência anual de acidentes ocupacionais não fatais, e a sua distribuição por gênero e tipo de contrato de trabalho, em uma área urbana do Brasil. Dados provêm de um inquérito de base comunitária conduzido com uma amostra aleatória dos habitantes de Salvador, capital do Estado da Bahia. A população deste estudo compreende o total de pessoas entre 18 e 65 anos que referiram trabalho remunerado (n = 2.947. A coleta de dados baseada em entrevistas domiciliares individuais. A incidência anual de acidentes foi estimada em 5,80%, discretamente maior entre os homens (6,05% do que entre as mulheres (5,53%, ou entre trabalhadores sem contrato formal de trabalho (5,92% do que no grupo de comparação (5,67%, diferenças não estatisticamente significantes. A semelhança entre as freqüências de acidentes de trabalho entre mulheres e homens independentemente do tipo de contrato de trabalho apontam para a necessidade de maior atenção a estes eventos no sexo feminino, e entre os trabalhadores informais, amplamente ignorados nas estatísticas oficiais do país.In Brazil, workers without a formal job contract comprise more than half of the labor force, a contingent formed mainly by women. This study presents estimates of the annual incidence of non-fatal work-related injuries and their distribution by gender and type of job contract in an urban area of Brazil. This was a community-based study with a random cluster area sample of the inhabitants from the city of Salvador, capital of the State of Bahia. The study population included all individuals from 18 to 65 years of age who reported having a paid job (n = 2,947. Data were obtained through individual household interviews. The overall estimated annual incidence rate was 5.80%, with a non-statistically significant

  20. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data.

  1. A fresh look at the costs of non-fatal consumer product injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Bruce A; Spicer, Rebecca S; Miller, Ted R

    2015-02-01

    Products under the purview of the Consumer Product Safety Commission are involved in a large share of injuries and injury costs in the USA. This study analyses incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) and cost data based on the Injury Cost Model, integrated with the NEISS. We examined the magnitude of non-fatal consumer product related injury, the distribution of products involved in these injuries and the cost of these injuries. We compared these findings with an earlier identical study from 2000. In 2008-2010, 43.8% of the annual 30.4 million non-fatal injuries treated in hospital emergency departments involved consumer products. Of these consumer product related injuries, in 2009-2010, just three product groups accounted for 77% of the $909 billion annual cost: sports and recreation; home structures and construction materials; and home furnishings and fixtures. Sports and recreation was a leading cause of injury costs among 5-24-year-olds, particularly football, basketball, bicycling, baseball/softball and soccer. Since 1996, football surpassed basketball in becoming the number one cause of injury costs for children aged 10-19 years and the fifth ranked cause of product related injury costs overall. Among those over age 30 years, stairs and floors were a leading cause of consumer product related injury costs, in particular among those over age 70 years where they were responsible for over one-fifth of costs. The findings of this study highlight priority areas for intervention and generate questions for future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Non-fatal construction industry fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments, 1998-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishlov, Kirill S; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Myers, Douglas J; Lipscomb, Hester J

    2011-02-01

    There is a growing recognition that common occupational injury surveillance systems in the US fail to reflect true injury risk; this failure limits efforts to accurately monitor efforts to prevent work-related injuries on a national level. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System occupational supplement (NEISS-Work) were used to describe fall-related injuries treated in US emergency departments among workers in the construction industry (1998-2005). These data do not require workers' compensation as the payer in order to be classified as work-related. Based on NEISS-Work estimates, a total of 555,700 (95% confidence interval (CI): 390,700-720,800) non-fatal work-related injuries among workers in the construction industry were the result of a fall, resulting in an annual rate of 70 (95% CI: 49-91) per 10,000 full-time equivalents. Younger workers had higher rates of falls, whereas older workers were more likely to suffer serious injuries. The majority of the injuries (70%) were precipitated by falls to a lower level from roofs, ladders, and scaffolding. The patterns of fall-related injuries identified in these data are consistent with other reports. In contrast to the declining rates of falls requiring days away from work reported through the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, construction industry fall-related injury rates estimated through NEISS-Work remained unchanged from 1998 to 2005 providing another perspective on this serious cause of morbidity in the construction industry. Copyright © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes: results from a purposively sampled census of seven rural subdistricts in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olakunle; Agrawal, Priyanka; Talab, Abu; Rahman, Qazi S; Rahman, Akm Fazlur; Arifeen, Shams El; Hyder, Adnan A

    2017-08-01

    90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project. The census was implemented in 51 unions from seven purposively sampled rural subdistricts of Bangladesh between June and November, 2013. Sociodemographic, injury mortality, and morbidity information were collected for the whole population in the study area. We analysed the data for descriptive measures of fatal and non-fatal injury outcomes. Age and gender distribution, socioeconomic characteristics, and injury characteristics such as external cause, intent, location, and body part affected were reported for all injury outcomes. The census covered a population of 1 169 593 from 270 387 households and 451 villages. The overall injury mortality rate was 38 deaths per 100 000 population per year, and 104 703 people sustained major non-fatal injuries over a 6-month recall period. Drowning was the leading external cause of injury death for all ages, and falls caused the most number of non-fatal injuries. Fatal injury rates were highest in children aged 1-4 years. Non-fatal injury rates were also highest in children aged 1-4 years and those aged 65 years and older. Males had more fatal and non-fatal injuries than females across all external causes except for burns. Suicide was the leading cause of injury deaths in individuals aged 15-24 years, and more than 50% of the suicides occurred in females. The home environment was the most common location for most injuries. The burden of fatal and non-fatal injuries

  4. Comparación de las lesiones no mortales por accidente de trabajo por Comunidades Autónomas en España (1994-2004 Comparison of non-fatal occupational injuries by autonomous communities in Spain (1994-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María López-Ruiz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Dadas las diferencias observadas en estudios previos de la incidencia de lesiones por accidente de trabajo (LAT por Comunidades Autónomas (CC.AA., en este estudio hemos evaluado la hipótesis de homogeneidad de la incidencia de las LAT para tipos específicos de accidentes y en determinadas actividades, entre 1994 y 2004. Métodos: Las LAT analizadas fueron no mortales con baja, de tipo mecánico y sobreesfuerzo, ocurridas en jornada en centro para empresas manufactureras y de la construcción. Se calculó el riesgo relativo ajustado por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato en cada una de las CC.AA. mediante la razón de LAT estandarizada, tomando como referencia las tasas de España, y estratificando según duración de la baja (menos de 16 días y más de 15 días. Resultados: El riesgo relativo ajustado de LAT según los diferentes tipos de accidentes analizados presenta una distribución heterogénea entre CC.AA. Murcia, Navarra, Baleares y País Vasco se encuentran generalmente entre las comunidades con riesgos más elevados, mientras que Castilla-León y Extremadura son las que tienen principalmente menores riesgos de sufrir una LAT. Conclusiones: La heterogeneidad en la incidencia de LAT entre CC.AA. persiste después de seleccionar una serie de formas de accidente específicas y ajustar por sexo, edad y tipo de contrato. Por ello sugerimos que, además de seguir analizando las condiciones de trabajo como explicación de esta heterogeneidad, se tengan en cuenta otras variables socioeconómicas al comparar las incidencias de LAT entre CC.AA.Objectives: Given the differences observed in previous studies with respect to occupational injury rates in Spain's autonomous communities, this study tested the homogeneity hypothesis of occupational injury for specific accident types and economic activity between 1994 and 2004. Methods: We analyzed non-fatal injuries of a mechanical nature or those due to overexertion taking place in

  5. Impact of First Aid on Treatment Outcomes for Non-Fatal Injuries in Rural Bangladesh: Findings from an Injury and Demographic Census.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Islam, Md Irteja; Sharmin Salam, Shumona; Rahman, Qazi Sadeq-Ur; Agrawal, Priyanka; Rahman, Aminur; Rahman, Fazlur; El-Arifeen, Shams; Hyder, Adnan A; Alonge, Olakunle

    2017-07-12

    Non-fatal injuries have a significant impact on disability, productivity, and economic cost, and first-aid can play an important role in improving non-fatal injury outcomes. Data collected from a census conducted as part of a drowning prevention project in Bangladesh was used to quantify the impact of first-aid provided by trained and untrained providers on non-fatal injuries. The census covered approximately 1.2 million people from 7 sub-districts of Bangladesh. Around 10% individuals reported an injury event in the six-month recall period. The most common injuries were falls (39%) and cuts injuries (23.4%). Overall, 81.7% of those with non-fatal injuries received first aid from a provider of whom 79.9% were non-medically trained. Individuals who received first-aid from a medically trained provider had more severe injuries and were 1.28 times more likely to show improvement or recover compared to those who received first-aid from an untrained provider. In Bangladesh, first-aid for non-fatal injuries are primarily provided by untrained providers. Given the large number of untrained providers and the known benefits of first aid to overcome morbidities associated with non-fatal injuries, public health interventions should be designed and implemented to train and improve skills of untrained providers.

  6. [Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Medina-Solís, Carlo E; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Híjar-Medina, Martha; Aracena-Genao, Belkis; Hidalgo-Solórzano, Elisa; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo

    2008-01-01

    To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI) prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94,197 representing an N of 102,886,482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI) during the 12 months prior to the survey. The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (p<0.05). Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  7. Measuring hazardous work and identifying risk factors for non-fatal injuries among children working in Philippine agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Charita L; Hunting, Katherine

    2013-06-01

    Global consensus is lacking, especially among developing countries, on whether agricultural work is detrimental to children's health and safety. We aimed to measure the degree to which Philippine children working in agriculture have a higher risk of injury compared with children working in other industries, and to uncover potential risk factors for their non-fatal injuries. Using the Philippine Survey of Children (SOC) 2001, we calculated injury incidence rates and relative risk measures across industries, and employed a multivariate logistic regression on the sample of working children in agriculture to ascertain the association of various exposures with the occurrence of work-related injuries. Children working in agriculture had a fivefold risk of non-fatal injury compared to children working in other industries. Logistic regression indicated that the most robust risk factor for the occurrence of non-fatal injury was the use of tools (OR = 3.12). The results of this study demonstrate agriculture to be a hazardous industry for children. Further research should focus on identifying the most dangerous tools and restricting their use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Non-fatal injury hospitalizations among Alaska natives, 1994--1999: results from the Alaska Trauma Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Ryan; Wells, Rebecca S; Andon, Helen; Ballew, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Alaska Trauma Registry collects data on injuries resulting in hospitalization or transfer to a higher level of care from every hospital in the state. We analyzed non-fatal injuries to Alaska Native and White residents from 1994--1999. Statewide, the five most common causes of injuries to Alaska Natives were falls, suicide attempts, off-road vehicles, motor vehicles, and assaults. These accounted for two-thirds of all injuries; falls accounted for 26.3% of all injuries. For total injuries and for each cause, injury rates were significantly higher for Alaska Natives than Alaska Whites. The greatest discrepancies were for suicide attempts with firearms (Rate Ratio=12.7) and assault by striking (Rate Ratio=8.9). Alcohol was noted on the record of 37.5% of Alaska Native injuries and 15.5% of Alaska White injuries. Alcohol was involved in 60.8% of intentional injuries involving Alaska Natives and 27.1% for Alaska Whites.

  9. Economic growth and the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Alfred; Winker, Robert; Ponocny-Seliger, Elisabeth; Sögner, Leopold

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to analyze the impact of economic growth measured by real gross domestic product (GDP) on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. The relationship between GDP and the occupational injury rate of the wage-earning population between 1955 and 2004 was analyzed using an error correction model. The sample size increased from 1.568,371 persons in 1955 to 2.656,952 in 2004. Occupational injuries were divided into fatal and non-fatal injuries. Occupational injuries (fatal and non-fatal) decreased from 8.59% to 4.08%: non-fatal injuries decreased from 8.56% to 4.07%; fatal injuries decreased from 0.03% to 0.01%. Austrian GDP increased from EUR 37.7 billion to EUR 202.8 billion (base year 1995). Statistical analysis clearly shows that a growing economy is associated with declining injury rates (fatal and non-fatal). Two mechanisms are discussed. Firstly, rising GDP is accompanied by greater investment in safer technologies and occupational safety measures. Secondly, booming economies are associated with a reduced risk of unemployment, which is already known to be a risk factor for occupational injuries. Economic development appears to have an impact on the incidence of occupational injuries in Austria. Health policy should emphasize the necessity for safety at work particularly in phases of economic slowdown.

  10. A 13-year analysis from Switzerland of non-fatal sledging (sledding or tobogganing) injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Dominik; Altgeld, Katrin; Hasler, Rebecca M; Aghayev, Emin; Exadaktylos, Aristomenis K

    2014-01-01

    Winter sports have evolved from an upper class activity to a mass industry. Especially sledging regained popularity at the start of this century, with more and more winter sports resorts offering sledge runs. This study investigated the rates of sledging injuries over the last 13 years and analysed injury patterns specific for certain age groups, enabling us to make suggestions for preventive measures. We present a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. From 1996/1997 to 2008/2009, all patients involved in sledging injuries were recorded upon admission to a Level III trauma centre. Injuries were classified into body regions according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). The Injury Severity Score (ISS) was calculated. Patients were stratified into 7 age groups. Associations between age and injured body region were tested using the chi-squared test. The slope of the linear regression with 95% confidence intervals was calculated for the proportion of patients with different injured body regions and winter season. 4956 winter sports patients were recorded. 263 patients (5%) sustained sledging injuries. Sledging injury patients had a median age of 22 years (interquartile range [IQR] 14-38 years) and a median ISS of 4 (IQR 1-4). 136 (51.7%) were male. Injuries (AIS ≥ 2) were most frequent to the lower extremities (n=91, 51.7% of all AIS ≥ 2 injuries), followed by the upper extremities (n=48, 27.3%), the head (n=17, 9.7%), the spine (n=7, 4.0%). AIS ≥ 2 injuries to different body regions varied from season to season, with no significant trends (p>0.19). However, the number of patients admitted with AIS ≥ 2 injuries increased significantly over the seasons analysed (p=0.031), as did the number of patients with any kind of sledging injury (p=0.004). Mild head injuries were most frequent in the youngest age group (1-10 years old). Injuries to the lower extremities were more often seen in the age groups from 21 to 60 years (p<0.001). Mild head

  11. Disability, Home Physical Environment and Non-Fatal Injuries among Young Children in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hui-yun; Yu, Chuan-hua; Du, Yu-kai

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We compared the patterns of medically attended injuries between children with and without disabilities and explored the residential environment risks in five counties of Hubei Province in the People's Republic of China by a 1∶1 matched case-control study based on the biopsychosocial model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health – ICF. Methods 1201 children aged 1–14 with disabilities and 1201 their healthy counterparts matched as having the same gender, same age, and lived in the same neighborhood were recruited in our study. Characteristics of injuries in the past 12 months were compared between children with and without disabilities. The associations among disability status, home environment factors and injuries were examined in logistic regression analysis taking into account sociodemographic factors. Results Children with disabilities had a significantly higher prevalence of injury than children without disabilities (10.2% vs. 4.4%; Pchildren compared with the non-disabled children. Disabled children whose family raised cat/dog(s) were 76% more likely to be injured during the last 12 months (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.02, 3.02),comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. And for children without disabilities, those whose family had cat/dog(s) were over 3 times more likely to having injuries comparing with those whose family did not have any cat/dog. Conclusions Children with disabilities had a significantly increased risk for injury. Interventions to prevent residential injury are an important public health priority in children with disabilities. PMID:22624063

  12. A Prospective Study of Significant Non-fatal Injuries in Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cause of injuries were motor vehicle accidents (33%) followed by falls (31%), sports (8%),poisoning (3%), and bicycle accidents (2%). Fourteen (14%) children were injured non-accidentally. The majority of injured children were from poor socio-economic circumstances with a mean family income of 894R ...

  13. Acute occupational injury among adolescent farmworkers from South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Eva M; Cooper, Sharon P; del Junco, Deborah J; Cooper, Charles J; Whitworth, Ryan E

    2013-08-01

    This combined cross-sectional/cohort study addressed research gaps by estimating the rate of non-fatal occupational injury and identifying potential determinants among a population of adolescent farmworkers who are largely Hispanic and migrant. The cohort included 410 farmworkers (aged 13-19 years) attending high school in South Texas along the border with Mexico. Data collection involved a self-administered, Web-based survey that solicited information on demographics, farm work variables including person-time at risk, occupational injury, health status and health risk behaviours. Cox regression was used to identify potential risk factors for non-fatal injury events experienced during a 9-month recall period. Depending on the definition of injury, the rate of non-fatal injury ranged from 27.0-73.6/100 full time equivalents. Variables with an increased and statistically significant HR in an adjusted Cox model included: age groups <15 years-old (5.82) and 16 years-old (4.47), usually sleeping <8 h during the week (2.10), feeling tense, stressed or anxious sometimes/often (2.25), not watching TV (2.65), working around ditches (2.01) and detasseling (2.70). The high observed rates of non-fatal injury combined with the potential negative consequences and cost of these injuries signifies a compelling need for injury prevention efforts targeting adolescent, Hispanic, farmworkers.

  14. Fatal and non-fatal fire injuries in England 1995-2004: time trends and inequalities by age, sex and area deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, C; Kendrick, D; Towner, E; Brussoni, M; Hayes, M; Powell, J; Robertson, S; Ward, H

    2009-03-01

    To examine time trends and deprivation gradients in fire-related deaths and injuries. A cross-sectional study and time trend analysis using data on fire casualties in England between 1995 and 2004 obtained from the Department for Communities and Local Government. Injury rates were calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare changes in deprivation gradients over time. There were significant reductions in fatal and non-fatal fire injuries in children (fatal injuries IRR chi(2)(1) = 11.18, P fire deaths were most commonly caused by smokers' materials (e.g. cigarettes, cigars and tobacco), and cigarette lighters and matches, respectively. Cooking appliances caused most non-fatal fire injuries. Injury rates increased with increasing levels of deprivation and deprivation gradients did not change over 10 years. Fire prevention interventions should promote the safe use of cooking and heating appliances and the responsible use of smokers' materials, lighters and matches, and should target those at greater risk of fire, including the socially disadvantaged.

  15. Non-Fatal Injury in Thailand From 2005 to 2013: Incidence Trends and Links to Alcohol Consumption Patterns in the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mami Wakabayashi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: We analyzed population-based injury trends and the association between injury and alcohol consumption patterns in Thailand, a middle-income country undergoing rapid social change. Methods: A nationwide cohort of 42 785 Thai adult Open University students, who were aged 15 to 87 years at enrolment, participated in cross-sectional assessments at baseline (2005 and 8 years later (2013. Incident non-fatal traffic and non-traffic injuries were recorded. Alcohol consumption patterns were categorized as follows: nondrinkers, occasional light drinkers, occasional heavy drinkers, regular drinkers, and ex-drinkers. Logistic regression was used to assess associations in 2005 and 2013 between injuries and alcohol consumption. We adjusted odds ratios (ORs for socio-demographic factors, stress, health behaviors, and risk-taking behaviors. Results: Incidence estimates in 2013 were standardized to the age structure of 2005: the standardized rates were 10% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.32–9.89 for participants with at least one non-traffic injury and 5% (95% CI, 4.86–5.29 for those with at least one traffic injury. Both standardized incidences for non-traffic and traffic injuries were significantly lower than corresponding rates in 2005 (20% and 6%, respectively. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with non-traffic injury in 2005, but the association disappeared in 2013. For example, nontraffic injury was associated with regular drinking (adjusted OR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.01–1.40 in 2005, but not in 2013 (adjusted OR 0.89; 95% CI, 0.73–1.10. In both survey years, traffic injury was not associated with occasional heavy drinking when adjusted for health and risk-taking behavior. Conclusions: We examined non-fatal injury and the health-risk transition in Thailand in 2005 and 2013. Our data revealed decreases in alcohol consumption and non-fatal injury in the Thai Cohort between 2005 and 2013. Alcoholrelated injury in Thailand today

  16. CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KINGMA, J

    1994-01-01

    The causes of occupational injuries (N = 2,365) were investigated. Accidents with machinery and hand tools were the two main causes (49.9%). 89% of the patients with occupational injuries were male. The highest risk group were in the age category of 19 years or less (51.9%). This age group also

  17. Epidemiology of non-fatal injuries among Egyptian children: a community-based cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halawa, Eman Fawzy; Barakat, Abeer; Rizk, Hoda Ibrahim Ibrahim; Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim

    2015-12-17

    Injuries are a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality worldwide. We aimed to determine the magnitude and characteristics of child injuries in Egypt and to identify the associated risk factors. A community-based, cross-sectional survey was conducted over 27 Egyptian governorates from June to October, 2011. The target population was 1977 households with children aged 0-18 years who had experienced accidental injuries. In the 6-month period before the investigation, 1576 injuries were reported in 1472 children from a sample population of 1399 households (response rate 70.8 %). Falls (25 %) and burn injuries (20.3 %) were the most common accidental injuries. The incidence of these injuries was significantly higher among boys (57.2 %) than girls and in children aged 2-6 years (70 %) compared with older and younger children. The five main causes of injuries were wounds (30.6 %), fractures (28.7 %), burns (20.3 %), swallowing a foreign body (8.4 %) and accidentally ingesting a poison (7.8 %). Injuries from drowning (n = 27), animal bites (n = 22) and sunstroke (n = 20) mostly occurred in rural children, accounting for 65 %, 54.4 % and 52 %, respectively, of all injuries in rural children. Home and its immediate surroundings (64.4 %) was the most common setting for injuries. Maternal age, education and working status were also associated with childhood injuries (p Children of second and third birth order were at higher risk for injuries (p injuries account for a substantial healthcare burden in Egypt. Our findings emphasise the importance of developing national preventive programs designed to reduce the incidence of childhood injuries.

  18. Towards valid 'serious non-fatal injury' indicators for international comparisons based on probability of admission estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cryer, Colin; Miller, Ted R; Lyons, Ronan A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Governments wish to compare their performance in preventing serious injury. International comparisons based on hospital inpatient records are typically contaminated by variations in health services utilisation. To reduce these effects, a serious injury case definition has been proposed...... were calculated. RESULTS: The results confirmed that femoral fractures have high PrA across all countries studied. Strong evidence for high PrA also exists for fracture of base of skull with cerebral laceration and contusion; intracranial haemorrhage; open fracture of radius, ulna, tibia and fibula...

  19. Disentangling age-gender interactions associated with risks of fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in the Sultanate of Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aamri, Amira K; Padmadas, Sabu S; Zhang, Li-Chun; Al-Maniri, Abdullah A

    2017-01-01

    Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in Oman, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. Injury prevention strategies often overlook the interaction of individual and behavioural risk factors in assessing the severity of RTI outcomes. We conducted a systematic investigation of the underlying interactive effects of age and gender on the severity of fatal and non-fatal RTI outcomes in the Sultanate of Oman. We used the Royal Oman Police national database of road traffic crashes for the period 2010-2014. Our study was based on 35 785 registered incidents: of these, 10.2% fatal injuries, 6.2% serious, 27.3% moderate, 37.3% mild injuries and 19% only vehicle damage but no human injuries. We applied a generalised ordered logit regression to estimate the effect of age and gender on RTI severity, controlling for risk behaviours, personal characteristics, vehicle, road, traffic, environment conditions and geographical location. The most dominant group at risk of all types of RTIs was young male drivers. The probability of severe incapacitating injuries was the highest for drivers aged 25-29 (26.6%) years, whereas the probability of fatal injuries was the highest for those aged 20-24 (26.9%) years. Analysis of three-way interactions of age, gender and causes of crash show that overspeeding was the primary cause of different types of RTIs. In particular, the probability of fatal injuries among male drivers attributed to overspeeding ranged from 3%-6% for those aged 35 years and above to 13.4% and 17.7% for those aged 25-29 years and 20-24 years, respectively. The high burden of severe and fatal RTIs in Oman was primarily attributed to overspeed driving behaviour of young male drivers in the 20-29 years age range. Our findings highlight the critical need for designing early gender-sensitive road safety interventions targeting young male and female drivers.

  20. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi c injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia ... injury, while younger age, residing in a rural area, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having a sleeping problem were associated with other bodily injury.

  1. [Occupational injury in foreign workers by economic activity and autonomous community (Spain 2005)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jacob, Ma José; Ahonen, Emily; García, Ana M; Gil, Angel; Benavides, Fernando G

    2008-01-01

    While the immigrant collective in Spain has grown considerably in recent years, little is known about working conditions and their corresponding effects on occupational injury in this group. The objective of this study was to compare the incidences for both fatal and non-fatal injuries in foreign workers to that of Spanish workers in 2005, by autonomous community and economic activity. injury data came from the accident registry of the ministry of labor and social issues, and denominators were taken from available social security affiliation statistics from general and coal mining social security system. Incidence indices for fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries for foreign and spanish workers were calculated. In addition, relative risks and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by autonomous community and economic activity, using spanish workers as the reference group. Overall, relative risk for occupational injury in foreign workers in 2005 was superior to base risk for both fatal (1.34; 95% CI: 1.11-1.62) and non-fatal injury (1.13; 95% CI: 1.13-1.14), though there were important differences by autonomous community and activity sectors. Compared with Spanish workers, risk for occupational injury was higher for foreign workers in industrial activities, while it was lower in construction, commerce and restaurants and hotels. By autonomous community, Aragón and Catalonia showed the highest risks for foreign workers. A higher risk for occupational injury among foreign workers is confirmed, and may be higher than that observed. The differences in risk among economic activities and autonomous communities require more detailed analysis.

  2. Disability Adjusted Life Years and acute onset disorders: Improving estimates of the non-fatal burden of injuries and infectious intestinal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Haagsma (Juanita)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe population's health faces an array of diseases and injuries. Limited resources compel policy-makers everywhere to focus on threats that are regarded most relevant in terms of public health. The World Health Organization and Worldbank developed an innovative concept which expresses

  3. Occupational injuries due to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T; Seligman, P J; Newman, S C; Timbrook, C L

    1988-06-01

    Each year in the United States, an estimated 800 to 1,400 people are murdered at work, and an unknown number of nonfatal injuries due to workplace violence occur. Based on Ohio's workers' compensation claims from 1983 through 1985, police officers, gasoline service station employees, employees of the real estate industry, and hotel/motel employees were found to be at the highest risk for occupational violent crime (OVC) injury and death. Grocery store employees, specifically those working in convenience food stores, and employees of the real estate industry had the most reported rapes. Four previously unidentified industries at increased risk of employee victimization were described. Identification of industries and occupations at high risk for crime victimization provides the opportunity to focus preventive strategies to promote employee safety and security in the workplace.

  4. Medical-encounter mental health diagnoses, non-fatal injury and polypharmacy indicators of risk for accident death in the US Army enlisted soldiers, 2004-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski-Romps, Lisa; Schroeder, Heather M; Berglund, Patricia A; Colpe, Lisa J; Cox, Kenneth; Hauret, Keith; Hay, Jeffrey D; Jones, Bruce; Little, Roderick J A; Mitchell, Colter; Schoenbaum, Michael; Schulz, Paul; Stein, Murray B; Ursano, Robert J; Heeringa, Steven G

    2017-11-17

    Accidents are a leading cause of deaths in U.S. active duty personnel. Understanding accident deaths during wartime could facilitate future operational planning and inform risk prevention efforts. This study expands prior research, identifying health risk factors associated with U.S. Army accident deaths during the Afghanistan and Iraq war. Military records for 2004-2009 enlisted, active duty, Regular Army soldiers were analyzed using logistic regression modeling to identify mental health, injury, and polypharmacy (multiple narcotic and/or psychotropic medications) predictors of accident deaths for current, previously, and never deployed groups. Deployed soldiers with anxiety diagnoses showed higher risk for accident deaths. Over half had anxiety diagnoses prior to being deployed, suggesting anticipatory anxiety or symptom recurrence may contribute to high risk. For previously deployed soldiers, traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicated higher risk. Two-thirds of these soldiers had first TBI medical-encounter while non-deployed, but mild, combat-related TBIs may have been undetected during deployments. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) predicted higher risk for never deployed soldiers, as did polypharmacy which may relate to reasons for deployment ineligibility. Health risk predictors for Army accident deaths are identified and potential practice and policy implications discussed. Further research could test for replicability and expand models to include unobserved factors or modifiable mechanisms related to high risk. PTSD predicted high risk among those never deployed, suggesting importance of identification, treatment, and prevention of non-combat traumatic events. Finally, risk predictors overlapped with those identified for suicides, suggesting effective intervention might reduce both types of deaths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the prevailing occupational injuries. Conclusion: Multiple factors related to the work organization and employee's behavior increased the risk of occupational injuries. Continued on the job training, sustained work place inspections and proving occupational health and safety services should get emphasis in work places.

  6. Prevalencia de accidentes de tránsito no fatales en México: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006 Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Ávila-Burgos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y distribución de los accidentes de tránsito no fatales (ATNF en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de la ENSANUT 2006. En los hogares visitados se seleccionó a un adulto, un adolescente y un niño, hasta conformar una muestra de 94197 sujetos que representa a la N de 102 886 482 individuos. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de ATNF en los 12 meses anteriores a la encuesta. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de accidentes (de tránsito o no fue de 6.0% y de esa cifra 16.7% correspondió a ATNF. Los hombres del grupo de 20 a 44 años, los habitantes de áreas urbanas y los de mejor nivel socioeconómico (NSE presentaron mayor prevalencia (pOBJECTIVE: To determine non-fatal road traffic injuries (NFRTI prevalence and its distribution in Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data from ENSANUT Survey 2006 were used. Using simple random sampling, one adult, one adolescent and one child were selected in each household, constituting a final sample of 94 197 representing an N of 102 886 482 people. The dependent variable was the prevalence of road traffic injuries (RTI during the 12 months prior to the survey. RESULTS: The general accident prevalence was 6.0%; 16.7% corresponded to NFRTI. Men in the 20 to 44 age group living in urban areas and with high socioeconomic status had a higher RTI prevalence (p<0.05. Jalisco, Aguascalientes and Sonora were states with the highest prevalence of RTI, while Guerrero, Michoacan and Oaxaca were those with the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: NFRTI are frequent in Mexico and they are concentrated among men in productive ages in urban areas; they are associated with socioeconomic status at the individual level and with the state's development at the population level.

  7. Occupational injuries in workers from different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekkodathil, Ahammed; El-Menyar, Ayman; Al-Thani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Occupational injuries remain an important unresolved issue in many of the developing and developed countries. We aimed to outline the causes, characteristics, measures and impact of occupational injuries among different ethnicities. We reviewed the literatures using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google Scholar and EMBASE search engine using words: "Occupational injuries" and "workplace" between 1984 and 2014. Incidence of fatal occupational injuries decreased over time in many countries. However, it increased in the migrant, foreign born and ethnic minority workers in certain high risk industries. Disproportionate representations of those groups in different industries resulted in wide range of fatality rates. Overrepresentation of migrant workers, foreign born and ethnic minorities in high risk and unskilled occupations warrants effective safety training programs and enforcement of laws to assure safe workplaces. The burden of occupational injuries at the individual and community levels urges the development and implementation of effective preventive programs.

  8. protecting miners against occupational injuries and diseases

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Against this background, safety and health at work lie at the heart of the system of social security. The occupational health and safety system plays a crucial role in protecting employees against occupational injuries and diseases in their workplace. In fact, the occupational health and safety system has far-reaching ...

  9. Parametric analysis of occupant ankle and tibia injuries in frontal impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhao Mo

    Full Text Available Non-fatal tibia and ankle injuries without proper protection from the restraint system has gotten wide attention from researchers. This study aimed to investigate occupant tibia and ankle injuries under realistic frontal impact environment that is rarely considered in previous experimental and simulant studies.An integrated occupant-vehicle model was established by coupling an isolated car cab model and a hybrid occupant model with a biofidelic pelvis-lower limb model, while its loading conditions were extracted from the realistic full-frontal impact test. A parametric study was implemented concerning instrument panel (IP design and pedal intrusion/rotation parameters.The significant influences of the IP angle, pedal intrusion and pedal rotation on tibia axial force, tibia bending moment and ankle dorsiflexion angle are noted. By coupling their effects, a new evaluation index named CAIEI (Combined Ankle Injury Evaluation Index is established to evaluate ankle injury (including tibia fractures in ankle region risk and severity in robustness.Overall results and analysis indicate that ankle dorsiflexion angle should be considered when judging the injury in lower limb under frontal impact. Meanwhile, the current index with coupling effects of tibia axial force, bending moment and ankle dorsiflexion angle is in a good correlation with the simulation injury outcomes.

  10. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    2.7, 95% CI 1.9-3.9), being distracted by someone (OR 3.1, 95% CI 2.3-4.1), non-routine task (OR 8.2, 95% CI 5.3-12.5), altered surroundings (OR 20.9, 95% CI 12.2-35.8), and broken machinery or materials (OR 20.6, 95% CI 13.5-31.7). The risk of occupational injury did not vary substantially....... In particular, equipment (broken machinery or materials) and work-practice-related factors (non-routine task and altered surroundings) increased the risk of an occupational injury. Elaboration of results in relation to hazard period and information bias is warranted....... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  11. Occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsiddiky, Abdulmonem M.; Alatassi, Raheef; Altamimi, Saad M.; Alqarni, Mahdi M.; Alfayez, Saud M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed all pediatric orthopedic surgeons in Saudi Arabia using an anonymous electronic questionnaire composed of 23 items to identify the rate of occupational injuries and obtain other relevant information. Thirty-nine participants completed the questionnaire (response rate: 83%). Participants who sustained occupational injuries throughout their careers represented 82.5%. The most injured areas were the hands, eyes, and back by 54.5%, 24.2%, and 15.2%, respectively. Approximately 11.1% were injured while operating on infected patients. Approximately 30.3% reported their injuries to their institution. We concluded that the rate of occupational injuries among pediatric orthopedic surgeons is very high and underreported. PMID:28640103

  12. Occupational Injury Prevention Research in NIOSH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Hsiao

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provided a brief summary of the current strategic goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health occupational injury research program. Three primary drivers (injury database, stakeholder input, and staff capacity were used to define NIOSH research focuses to maximize relevance and impact of the NIOSH injury-prevention-research program. Injury data, strategic goals, program activities, and research impacts were presented with a focus on prevention of four leading causes of workplace injury and death in the US: motor vehicle incidents, falls, workplace violence, and machine and industrial vehicle incidents. This paper showcased selected priority goals, activities, and impacts of the NIOSH injury prevention program. The NIOSH contribution to the overall decrease in fatalities and injuries is reinforced by decreases in specific goal areas. There were also many intermediate outcomes that are on a direct path to preventing injuries, such as new safety regulations and standards, safer technology and products, and improved worker safety training. The outcomes serve as an excellent foundation to stimulate further research and worldwide partnership to address global workplace injury problems.

  13. Time off work after occupational hand injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, O; Jeune, B; Lauritsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    This study analysed the impact of several factors on the start and duration of time off work among 802 patients with occupational hand injuries, in order to identify prognostic indicators. The study showed that external factors such as work and social condition seemed to have less influence on time...... off work than expected, whereas advice from doctors, flashbacks and impairment symptoms were important determinants....

  14. Estimated total costs from non-fatal and fatal bicycle crashes in the USA: 1997-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, Thomas W; Sanford, Thomas A; Awad, Mohannad A; Osterberg, E Charles; Murphy, Gregory P; Lawrence, Bruce A; Miller, Ted R; Breyer, Benjamin N

    2018-04-01

    Emergency department visits and hospital admissions resulting from adult bicycle trauma have increased dramatically. Annual medical costs and work losses of these incidents last were estimated for 2005 and quality-of-life losses for 2000. We estimated costs associated with adult bicycle injuries in the USA using 1997-2013 non-fatal incidence data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System with cost estimates from the Consumer Product Safety Commission's Injury Cost Model, and 1999-2013 fatal incidence data from the National Vital Statistics System costed by similar methods. Approximately 3.8 million non-fatal adult bicycle injuries were reported during the study period and 9839 deaths. In 2010 dollars, estimated adult bicycle injury costs totalled $24.4 billion in 2013. Estimated injury costs per mile bicycled fell from $2.85 in 2001 to $2.35 in 2009. From 1999 to 2013, total estimated costs were $209 billion due to non-fatal bicycle injuries and $28 billion due to fatal injuries. Inflation-free annual costs in the study period increased by 137% for non-fatal injuries and 23% for fatal injuries. The share of non-fatal costs associated with injuries to riders age 45 and older increased by 1.6% (95% CI 1.4% to 1.9%) annually. The proportion of costs due to incidents that occurred on a street or highway steadily increased by 0.8% (95% CI 0.4% to 1.3%) annually. Inflation-free costs per case associated with non-fatal bicycle injuries are increasing. The growth in costs is especially associated with rising ridership, riders 45 and older, and street/highway crashes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Occupational injuries: is job security a factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Asim; Kulkarni, P K; Chaudhuri, R; Saiyed, H

    2005-09-01

    Although a large number of contributing factors of occupational injury causation are explored meticulously to explain the phenomenon of higher occupational injury occurrence in some subjects, it has remained a matter of controversy. In this study, an effort is made to explore whether job security has any contribution in explaining higher susceptibility of some workers. This was a retrospective occupational injury record study conducted in an industry of eastern India. Along with the study of injury records of 5 years, an interview was also conducted involving 726 workers (including permanent and temporary workers both) of the factory. Comparison was made between permanent and temporary workers by using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the chi-square test. A theoretical model of Poisson's distribution was used to compare between expected and real occurrence. Although two worker groups were very similar in relation to age, level of education, habits, and nature of work, accident frequency and severity rates were found to be significantly higher in temporary workers. This study concluded that the higher accident risk of the temporary workers might have been due to the less effective experience as well as due to lack of job security inherent in such workers.

  16. Assessment of occupational injuries in Tendaho Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    Continued on the job training, sustained work place inspections and proving occupational health ... accidents and fatal injuries than workers of industries (8). ..... 216 (26.7). Smoked cigarette. 26 (6.1). 13 (13.1). 47 (16.4). 86 (10.6). Had sleeping disorder. 243 (57.2). 47 (47.5). 203 (71.0). 493 (60.9). Had job satisfaction.

  17. Trends in occupational injuries and fatality in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkkan, Alpaslan; Pala, Kayihan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend of occupational injuries in Turkey using epidemiologic criteria such as incidence mortality and fatality/all injuries recorded - rates. Safety and health data were obtained from the Annual Statistic Books of the Social Insurance Institution (1988-2006) and Social Security Institution (2007-2011) of Turkey. The results from the official data showed that although total employment is increasing the number of occupational injuries and incidence and mortality rates are decreasing. The results also demonstrate that occupational fatality/all injuries recorded - rate is increasing. The fatality/all injuries recorded - rate per 1000 injuries increased to 25.5 in 2011 from 8.6 in 1988. Each work day an average of five people died because of occupational injuries. The fatality/all injuries recorded - rate (the number of fatal cases per 1000 occupational injuries) is an important indicator of the injury rate for a country. Systems of occupational injury and illness surveillance constitute a critical resource for the management and reduction of occupational injuries and illness.

  18. Alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers for preventing injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cashman, Clodagh M.; Ruotsalainen, Jani H.; Greiner, Birgit A.; Beirne, Paul V.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workforce alcohol and drug testing is commonplace but its effect in reducing occupational injuries remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of alcohol and drug screening of occupational drivers (operating a motorised vehicle) in preventing injury or work-related effects such as

  19. Epidemiology of occupational hand injury in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajesh; Cheung, Jason P Y; Fung, Boris K K; Ip, W Y

    2012-04-01

    To study the epidemiology of occupational hand injuries and associated social and industrial factors. DESIGN. For this retrospective case series of patients with occupational hand injuries, case records were retrieved to gather data. In addition, all the subjects were interviewed by a single interviewer using a predesigned questionnaire. Division of Hand Surgery, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong. A total of 250 patients with occupational hand injuries were treated during the period from 1999 to 2001. This period was chosen to obtain 10 years of follow-up data to assess return to work and any secondary injuries. Personal particulars (gender, age, marital status, education level, length of stay in Hong Kong, type of employment, wage system, personal habits, family size, number of breadwinners, income), type of industry and mode of injury, causes of injury according to the worker, work conditions, type of injury, and treatment given. Two groups of workers in our study had more occupational hand injuries, namely those with less than 1 year of experience on a new job and immigrants from China. Factors associated with a large proportion of occupational hand injuries were male gender with personal risk factors (smoking and regular consumption of alcohol, long working hours), and in the case of machine operators, inadequate training and use of safety devices. Occupational hand injuries lead to loss of working hours and compensation. For prevention, the workplace should be made into a safer and work-friendly environment. Workers should also have sufficient training.

  20. Improving occupational injury surveillance by using a severity threshold: development of a new occupational health indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Jeanne M; Bowman, Stephen M; Rotert, Mary; Blanar, Laura; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah

    2016-06-01

    Hospital discharge data are used for occupational injury surveillance, but observed hospitalisation trends are affected by trends in healthcare practices and workers' compensation coverage that may increasingly impair ascertainment of minor injuries relative to severe injuries. The objectives of this study were to (1) describe the development of a severe injury definition for surveillance purposes and (2) assess the impact of imposing a severity threshold on estimated occupational and non-occupational injury trends. Three independent methods were used to estimate injury severity for the severe injury definition. 10 population-based hospital discharge databases were used to estimate trends (1998-2009), including the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) and State Inpatient Databases (SID) from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Negative binomial regression was used to model injury trends with and without severity restriction and to test trend divergence by severity. Trend estimates for occupational injuries were biased downwards in the absence of severity restriction, more so than for non-occupational injuries. Imposing a severity threshold resulted in a markedly different historical picture. Severity restriction can be used as an injury surveillance methodology to increase the accuracy of trend estimates, which can then be used by occupational health researchers, practitioners and policy-makers to identify prevention opportunities and to support state and national investments in occupational injury prevention efforts. The newly adopted state-based occupational health indicator, 'Work-Related Severe Traumatic Injury Hospitalizations', incorporates a severity threshold that will reduce temporal ascertainment threats to accurate trend estimates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Occupation-based intervention in hand injury rehabilitation: Experiences of occupational therapists in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Daud, Ahmad Zamir; Yau, Matthew K; Barnett, Fiona; Judd, Jenni

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study consensus was sought from Malaysian occupational therapists of occupation-based intervention (OBI) that was perceived as a means and an end. Occupation as a means refers to occupational and purposeful tasks as a therapeutic agent while occupation as an end refers to occupation as an outcome of intervention. The purpose of this follow-up study was to describe the occupational therapists' experiences of providing OBI in hand injury rehabilitation in Malaysia. Sixteen occupational therapists with more than five years of experience in hand rehabilitation were individually interviewed on their experiences of using OBI in practice. Data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Definition of "Occupation as a means", and "Occupation as an end" was broadened after data analysis of interviews to include two new themes: "Rewarding yet challenging" and "Making OBI a reality". Occupational therapists had positive experiences with OBI and perceived that occupation as a means and an end can be merged into a single therapy session when the occupational therapists use an occupation that is therapeutic. Although occupation as a means and as an end have different purposes, when the ultimate goal is to enhance the clients' maximum level of functioning both can be used for successful rehabilitation of hand injuries.

  2. A Review of Occupational Injury Research In Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, C S; Krishnan, R

    2016-06-01

    A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.

  3. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    served high rates are increasing on an international scale. Figures from the World Health Organization ... feelings or acts. They include high self-esteem and social “con- ... Keywords: Non-fatal suicidal behaviour, Non-suicide attempters, Past psychiatric history, Physical abuse, Sexual abuse, Self-harm. Received: 12.10.04.

  4. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour at the Johannesburg General Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Non-fatal suicidal behaviour (NFSB) severely impacts on the health services and the resources of a country and should be prevented. The aim of this control study was to describe a group of patients with NFSB and to elicit, if any, the factors associated with this behaviour compared to a non-suicidal control group.

  5. Early morning awakening and nonrestorative sleep are associated with increased minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Wang, Mei-Yeh; Chang, Cheng-Kuei; Chen, Ching-Min; Chou, Kuei-Ru; Tsai, Jen-Chen; Tsai, Pei-Shan

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between a composite measure of insomnia and occupational or fatal accidents has been investigated previously; however, little is known regarding the effect of various insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. We investigated the predicting role of insomnia symptoms on minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time. Data from the 2005 Taiwan Social Development Trend Survey of 36,473 Taiwanese aged ≥18 years were analyzed in 2013. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty in initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), and nonrestorative sleep (NRS) were investigated. A minor non-fatal accident was defined as any mishap such as forgetting to turn off the gas or faucets, accidental falls, and abrasions or cuts occurring during work and leisure time in the past month that do not require immediate medical attention. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the odds ratios (ORs) and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) of minor non-fatal accidents (as a binary variable) for each insomnia symptom compared with those of people presenting no symptoms, while controlling for possible confounders. EMA and NRS increased the odds of minor non-fatal accidents occurring during work and leisure time (adjusted OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.08-1.32 and adjusted OR=1.27, 95% CI=1.17-1.37, respectively). EMA and NRS are two symptoms that are significantly associated with an increased likelihood of minor non-fatal accidents during work and leisure time after adjusting for of a range of covariates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Incidence of non-fatal work-related accidents in Southeast Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Ricardo; Prestes, Simone Cristina Chiodi; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Diniz, Cíntia Ségre; Sakate, Mirian; Donalisio, Maria Rita

    2006-02-01

    Incidence of work-related accidents in Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil, was estimated according to gender, age, employment status, occupation, and type of work. A household survey was conducted by systematic random group sampling (195 census tracts). Information was collected from all residents 10 years or older in each household. Of those who had worked during the 90 days prior to the interview, we obtained information on occupation, job position, and employment contract. The study included 9,626 households (sample fraction 0.26). The proportion of non-fatal work accidents in the municipal area was 3.3% (95%CI: 2.7-3.9), higher for men 4.5% (95%CI: 3.6-5.5) and varying with type of employment contract and occupation. Compared to results from previous studies, we observed a decline in work-related accident risk.

  7. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Ha Yoon; Jaehoon Roh; Chi-Nyon Kim; Jong-Uk Won

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Materials and Methods: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. Results: In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according...

  8. Prevalence of Occupational Accidents/Injuries among Health Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers (HCWs) are prone to occupational accidents and injuries such as needle pricks in the course of their day to day activities in the health care setting. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of needle sticks and other occupational exposures among HCWs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital.

  9. Workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians and general practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, R; Turner, S; Hussey, L; Page, F; Agius, R

    2015-06-01

    Accurate workplace injury data are useful in the prioritization of prevention strategies. In the UK, physicians report workplace ill-health data within The Health and Occupation Research (THOR) network, including injury case reports. To compare workplace injury data reported by occupational physicians (OPs) and general practitioners (GPs) to THOR. Injury cases reported by OPs and GPs, reported to THOR between 2006 and 2012 were analysed. Demographics, industrial groups, nature of injury, kind of accident and site of injury were compared. Data on sickness absence for workplace injuries reported by GPs were investigated. In total, 2017 workplace injury cases were reported by OPs and GPs. Males were more likely to sustain a workplace accident than females. Sprains and strains were reported most often, with the upper limbs being affected most frequently. Slips, trips and falls were identified as important causal factors by both OPs and GPs. Psychological injuries also featured in THOR reporting, with a higher proportion reported by OPs (21%) than by GPs (3%). The proportion of people classified as 'unfit' by GPs reduced following the introduction of the 'fit' note. THOR reports returned by OPs and GPs provide a valuable source of information of workplace injury data, and complement other sources of information, such as the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations and the Labour Force Survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of non-fatal stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A T; Lidegaard, O; Kreiner, S

    1997-01-01

    of hormone use and stroke, on which information was obtained from postal questionnaires, were controlled for by multivariate analyses based on log-linear graphical models. The analyses included data on 1422 cases classified in four subtypes of stroke (160 subarachnoid haemorrhage, 95 intracerebral......BACKGROUND: The effect of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on the risk of subtypes of stroke is as yet unclear. To investigate the effect of oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen therapy on the risk of non-fatal haemorrhagic and thromboembolic stroke, we carried out a case...... to some extent be explained by selection--HRT users being more aware of symptoms than non-users. INTERPRETATION: Unopposed oestrogen and combined oestrogen-progestagen replacement therapy have no influence on the risk of non-fatal thromboembolic or haemorrhagic stroke in women aged 45-64 years....

  11. AGE DIFFERENCES IN OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Adamović

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational injuries at construction sites are identified as a major problem throughout the world. The purposes of this study are to estimate the number and average annual rate of occupational traumatic injuries and to estimate the age differences in transition period between 1993s and 2003s in construction industry. The most prevalence of injuries was registered in 1994 (4.55% and in 2003 s (4.38%. The number of injured workers under the 20 years of age decreased in the examined period (from 22.2% in 1993s to 4.6% in the 2003s. The number of injured worker over the 51 years of age increased in the examined period (from 0.9% in 1993s to 17.8% in 2003 s. Closed fractures (24.1%, open fractures (14.6% and dislocated fractures (10.9% were the most common type of injuries in the examined period. These types of injuries were the most frequently presented at the workers over the 51 years of age. Falls from height, falls on same level and traffic accidents were the most common causes of occupational injuries in the examined period. Falls from height and falls on the same level were the most common presented at the workers over the 51 years of age. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of occupational injuries among the workers under the 30 years of age. Severity ratio of occupational injuries raised by the age of injured workers. Severity ratio of injuries raised in the examined period (from 60.6 in 1993s to 82.7 in the 2003s. Traumatic occupational injuries are a specific and significant problem in construction industry in the transition period.

  12. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in Ibadan, Nigeria | Ibrahim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and ...

  13. The risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure after controlling for occupational environment status in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon; Kim, Chi-Nyon; Won, Jong-Uk

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used for the current study. Self-report questionnaires were used to investigate occupational injury and exposure to noise, chemicals, and machines and equipments. In separate analyses for occupation and occupational hazard, the proportion of occupational injuries increased according to severity of noise exposure (all P exposure group, the respective odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for occupational injury was 1.39 (1.07-1.80) and 1.67 (1.13-2.46) in the mild and severe noise exposure groups, after controlling for age, gender, sleep hours, work schedule (shift work), and exposure status to hazardous chemicals and hazardous machines and equipments. The current study highlights the association between noise exposure and risk of occupational injury. Furthermore, risk of occupational injury increased according to severity of noise exposure.

  14. Occupational Therapy Practitioners with Occupational Musculoskeletal Injuries: Prevalence and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaser, Musaed Z

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of occupational musculoskeletal injuries (OMIs) among occupational therapy practitioners over a 12-month period. A self-administered questionnaire mailed to 500 randomly selected practicing occupational therapists (OTs) and occupational therapy assistants (OTAs) living in the state of Texas. A response rate of 38 % was attained with 192 questionnaires returned. In a 12-months working period, 23 % of occupational therapy practitioners experienced musculoskeletal injuries. Muscle strain (52 %) was most reported injury and lower back (32 %) was most injured body part. Years of practicing experience (t = 2.83, p = 0.01), and age x(2)(2, N = 192) = 8.28, p = 0.02 were found as significant factors associated with injuries among OTAs. No factors were significantly associated with injuries among OTs. Patient handling was the primary factor associated with injuries. Also, minimal experience and older age were concluded as risk factors that might contribute to OMIs.

  15. Occupational injuries as reported in the Vietnam Multi-Center Injury Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha T; Pham, Cuong V; Keifer, Matthew; Mock, Charles

    2008-10-01

    Hundreds of deaths and thousands of serious injuries occur at workplace every year in Vietnam, causing losses in life, labor productivity and burden to the society. However, these injuries are poorly reported and little effort has been made to prevent them. Using data from the Vietnam Multi-Center Injury Survey in 2001, this study sought to provide better data on the extent and nature of occupational injuries. The overall rate of occupational injuries was 26.01/1000 among people aged 18 years and older, with higher rates in rural than urban areas. Handicraft workers had the highest rate of injury (46.4/1000) followed by farmer and individuals working privately. These rates are all consistently higher than the rates from official reports. This study highlights the need for strengthening current occupational injury surveillance system, to provide better understanding of the problem for setting priority and creating evidence based prevention strategies.

  16. Occupational injury rates in personnel of emergency medical services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gałązkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][b]Introduction and objectives. [/b]The system of emergency medical services (EMS in Poland was established in 2006. The risk of occupational injuries to EMS personnel is very high, irrespective of the country where they operate, as they face many hazards in their everyday work. The aim of this study is to describe the type, incidence and consequences of occupational accidents among the personnel of the National Emergency Medical Services in Poland (NEMS – land and air ambulance crews in 2008–2012. [b]Material and methods:[/b] The study reviewed all occupational accidents among the EMS personnel reported to the National Labour Inspectorate in 2008–2012. [b]Results[/b]: In the period reported, the number of accidents decreased from 32 in 2008 to just 6 in 2012. Traffic accidents predominated and most of the victims were male paramedics under 30 years of age. The most common injuries included multiple organ injuries and injuries of the cervical spine, chest and trunk. [b]Conclusions:[/b] The growing professional experience of the EMS personnel has a beneficial effect on occupational injury rates as they tend to decrease with longer employment. Occupational accidents are definitely more common among ambulance crews than in the personnel of other organizational units of the National Emergency Medical Services.

  17. Stress, Depression, and Occupational Injury among Migrant Farmworkers in Nebraska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena K. Ramos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most dangerous industries in the United States. Farmworkers, including migrant farmworkers, are at risk for work-related injuries. This study explores the association between stress, depression, and occupational injury among migrant farmworkers in Nebraska. Occupational injury was hypothesized to significantly increase the odds of farmworkers being stressed and depressed. Two hundred migrant farmworkers (mean age = 33.5 years, standard deviation (SD = 12.53; 93.0% men, 92.9% of Mexican descent were interviewed. In bivariate analyses, results indicated that stress and depression were positively associated with occupational injury. Two logistic regression models were developed. Occupational injury was a significant factor for depression, but not for stress. Participants who had been injured on the job were over seven times more likely to be depressed. These results highlight the interconnection between the work environment and mental health. More must be done to foster well-being in rural, agricultural communities. Improving occupational health and safety information and training, integrating behavioral health services into primary care settings, and strengthening the protections of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act may improve conditions for migrant farmworkers in the rural Midwest.

  18. Repeat non-fatal suicidal behaviour at Johannesburg Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M YH Moosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe the characteristics of non-fatal suicide behaviour (NFSB in a group of patients and to determine factors, if any, that may be associated with repetition of this behaviour. Method. The study included all patients treated for NFSB at Johannesburg Hospital during the period August 2002 - October 2002. The information was gathered by means of a structured questionnaire designed to evaluate characteristics of the behaviour. Results. The study sample comprised 43 patients with NFSB (mean age 29.7 years, range of 16 - 75 years, of whom 26 (60% were female. Sixty-three per cent of the patients overdosed with medication and 33% ingested household poisons. Events that precipitated the event included relationship problems (70%, illness (12%, financial difficulties (9%, and depressed mood (9%. In 65% of patients the behaviour was impulsive. Factors associated with non-fatal repetition included being in the 18 - 30-year age group (76% (χ2 = 6.74, p < 0.05; being female (90% (χ2 = 4.75, p < 0.05; having children (90% (χ2 = 4.72, p < 0.05; a past psychiatric history (50% (χ2 = 4.08, p < 0.05; and the current attempt deemed medically serious (50% (χ2 = 6.67, p < 0.05. Conclusions. NFSB is a major problem in South Africa and the incidence is still increasing. Hospital-based interventions following admission are recommended to reduce repeat attempts in such patients. Significant factors associated with non-fatal repetition include among others, a history of a previous medically serious attempt and/or a known psychiatric illness.

  19. Subconjunctival latex paint from occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhav, Ashika; Kollipara, Ramya; Teymoorian, Savak; Lord, Ron K; Lyon, David B

    2013-05-01

    Accidental eye trauma with spray guns are rare, but potentially very serious, injuries. Although it is agreed that these injuries require immediate and vigorous therapy, the specifics of such therapy are poorly defined. With latex paint sprayer injuries to hands and extremities, resulting chemical-induced inflammation, high-pressure necrosis, ischemic necrosis, and gangrene require surgical debridement and possibly, amputation. With eye injuries, treatment is directed at preservation of vision, as there is a potential risk of visual loss. There is currently no consensus on optimal treatment of ocular spray paint injuries. Here we propose a management approach to ocular spray paint injuries with a successful outcome in the case reported. We report the first case, to our knowledge, of an industrial airless spray gun injury that resulted in subconjunctival deposition of latex paint in a soft contact lens wearer. Vision was preserved with medical management consisting of irrigation and topical corticosteroids, antibiotics and cycloplegics. Although latex paint spray gun injuries to the eye are not encountered frequently in practice, this case shows that conservative medical management with no surgical intervention is effective for ocular injuries with preserved vision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Age, occupational demands and the risk of serious work injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P M; Berecki-Gisolf, J

    2014-12-01

    Interest in the relationship between age and serious work injury is increasing, given the ageing of the workforce in many industrialized economies. To examine if the relationship between age and risk of serious musculoskeletal injury differs when the physical demands of work are higher from those when they are lower. A secondary analysis of workers' compensation claims in the State of Victoria, Australia, combined with estimates of the insured labour force. We focused on musculoskeletal claims, which required 10 days of absence or health care expenditures beyond a pecuniary threshold. Regression models examined the relationship between age and claim-risk across workers with different occupational demands, as well as the relationship between occupational demands and musculoskeletal claim-risk across different age groups. Older age and greater physical demands at work were associated with an increased risk of musculoskeletal claims. In models stratified by occupational demands, we observed the relationship between age and claim-risk was steeper when occupational demands were higher. We also observed that the relationship between occupational demands and risk of work injury claim peaked among workers aged 25-44, attenuating among those aged 45 and older. This study's results suggest that although older workers and occupations with higher demands should be the targets of primary preventive efforts related to serious musculoskeletal injuries, there may also be gains in targeting middle-aged workers in the most physically demanding occupations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Effectiveness of occupational injury prevention policies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, Fernando G; García, Ana M; Lopez-Ruiz, Maria; Gil, Josep; Boix, Pere; Martinez, José Miguel; Rodrigo, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of preventive interventions against occupational injuries (preferential action plans [PAPs]) developed by Spanish regional governments starting in 2000. We included 3,252,028 occupational injuries with sick leave due to mechanical causes occurring between 1994 and 2004 in manufacturing and private service companies. Time trends for occupational injury rates were estimated before and after implementation of PAPs in each region, with a control group defined for those regions in which no PAPs were implemented (e.g., Galicia, Madrid, and Cataluña). We determined annual change percentages and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through a negative binomial regression model. Regions were grouped into three categories according to formal quality of their PAPs. The regions with the best PAPs (Andalucia, Aragon, Valencia, and Murcia) showed annually increasing occupational injury rates (2.3%, 95% CI -2.5, 7.4) before implementation of PAPs. After PAPs were implemented, occupational injury rates decreased significantly to -7.4% (95% CI -10.2, -4.5). Similar results were also found for regions with PAPs of lower quality and even for regions that didn't implement a PAP (control group). These results did not vary substantially in stratified analysis by gender, age, type of contract, or length of sick leave. PAPs are not related to a general decline in occupational injury rates in Spain starting in 2000. Reinforcement of Spanish health and safety regulations and labor inspection activities since 2000, resulting from a social agreement between central government and social agents, remains an alternative hypothesis requiring additional research.

  2. Occupational injury surveillance of traumatic injuries in Illinois, using the Illinois trauma registry: 1995-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Forst, Linda

    2007-04-01

    Trauma registries continue to be underutilized for surveillance, despite providing data on the most severe injuries with a level of detail not available in national data sets or workers' compensation files. We evaluate trends and patterns of traumatic occupational injuries from the Illinois Trauma Registry (ITR). Between 1995 and 2003, 44.4 of every 100,000 Illinois workers (age-adjusted) suffered work-related, nonfatal traumatic injuries. The majority of workers suffering traumatic injuries were white males younger than 55 years old. Falls were the most common cause of injury, and fracture of the extremities was the most common type of injury experienced by Illinois workers. Approximately 8% of all workers required either partial or total ambulatory assistance at time of discharge. The ITR provides detailed and complete data regarding the most severe occupational injuries. In contrast to reports from national surveillance data sets, we do not observe a significant decline in occupational injuries between 1995 and 2003. Trauma registries should be used more frequently for surveillance programs, because they provide detailed and reliable data regarding the most severe occupational injuries not available in other data sets.

  3. Preventing occupational injury among police officers: does motivation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, D K C; Webb, D; Ryan, R M; Tang, T C W; Yang, S X; Ntoumanis, N; Hagger, M S

    2017-08-01

    Injury prevention is an important issue for police officers, but the effectiveness of prevention initiatives is dependent on officers' motivation toward, and adherence to, recommended health and safety guidelines. To understand effects of police officers' motivation to prevent occupational injury on beliefs about safety and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. Full-time police officers completed a survey comprising validated psychometric scales to assess autonomous, controlled and amotivated forms of motivation (Treatment Self-Regulation Questionnaire), behavioural adherence (Self-reported Treatment Adherence Scale) and beliefs (Safety Attitude Questionnaire) with respect to injury prevention behaviours. There were 207 participants; response rate was 87%. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses demonstrated that autonomous motivation was positively related to behavioural adherence, commitment to safety and prioritizing injury prevention. Controlled motivation was a positive predictor of safety communication barriers. Amotivation was positively associated with fatalism regarding injury prevention, safety violation and worry. These findings are consistent with the tenets of self-determination theory in that autonomous motivation was a positive predictor of adaptive safety beliefs and adherence to injury prevention behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  4. Patterns and trends in injuries due to chemicals based on OSHA occupational injury and illness statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannan, M. Sam; O'Connor, T. Michael; Keren, Nir

    2009-01-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) provide the Survey of Occupational Illness and Injury (SOII) statistics from 1992 to 2006, which is often used to measure the rate of injuries and illness in industry. The present system of gathering and classifying this data was implemented in 1992 with minor changes in 2002. It is hoped that using these statistics to measure safety progress and determine patterns of injury will guide further improvements in chemical safety. Recognizing such factors as what chemicals most frequently cause injury can help to focus safety efforts regarding that chemical. Factors such as what part of the body is most commonly affected by particular chemicals can lead to improved personnel protection practices. This paper provides a detailed analysis of injuries due to chemicals using OSHA's SOII data, which offers valuable insight into measures that should be taken to reduce injuries due to chemicals

  5. MRI of car occupants with whiplash injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyvodic, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Dolinis, J. [National Injury Surveillance Unit, Bedford Park, SA (Australia)]|[National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Moore, V.M. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ryan, G.A. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia); Slavotinek, J.P. [Dept. of Radiology, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, SA (Australia); Whyte, A.M. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Hoile, R.D. [Ashford Hospital Specialist Centre, SA (Australia); Taylor, G.W. [National Health and Medical Research Council Road Accident Research Unit, Univ. of Adelaide, SA (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    Our purpose was to document and investigate the prognostic significance of features seen on MRI of patients with whiplash injury following relatively minor road traffic crashes. MRI was obtained shortly and at 6 months after the crash using a 0.5 T imager. The images were assessed independently by two radiologists for evidence of fracture or other injury; loss of lordosis and spondylosis were also recorded. Clinical examinations were used to assess the status of patients initially and at 6 months. The results of the independent MRI and clinical investigations were then examined for association using statistical tests. Initial MRI was performed on 29 patients, of whom 19 had repeat studies at 6 months; 48 examinations were thus examined. Apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, only one abnormality was detected: an intramedullary lesion consistent with a small cyst or syrinx. There were no statistically significant associations between the outcome of injury and spondylosis or loss of lordosis. No significant changes were found when comparing the initial and follow-up MRI. It appears that MRI of patients with relatively less severe whiplash symptoms reveals a low frequency of abnormalities, apart from spondylosis and loss of lordosis, which have little short-term prognostic value. Routine investigation of such patients with MRI is not justified in view of the infrequency of abnormalities detected, the lack of prognostic value and the high cost of the procedure. (orig.). With 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Occupational injury disparities in the US hotel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Susan; Vossenas, Pamela; Krause, Niklas; Moriarty, Joan; Frumin, Eric; Shimek, Jo Anna M; Mirer, Franklin; Orris, Peter; Punnett, Laura

    2010-02-01

    Hotel employees have higher rates of occupational injury and sustain more severe injuries than most other service workers. OSHA log incidents from five unionized hotel companies for a three-year period were analyzed to estimate injury rates by job, company, and demographic characteristics. Room cleaning work, known to be physically hazardous, was of particular concern. A total of 2,865 injuries were reported during 55,327 worker-years of observation. The overall injury rate was 5.2 injuries per 100 worker-years. The rate was highest for housekeepers (7.9), Hispanic housekeepers (10.6), and about double in three companies versus two others. Acute trauma rates were highest in kitchen workers (4.0/100) and housekeepers (3.9/100); housekeepers also had the highest rate of musculoskeletal disorders (3.2/100). Age, being female or Hispanic, job title, and company were all independently associated with injury risk. Sex- and ethnicity-based disparities in injury rates were only partially due to the type of job held and the company in which the work was performed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Relationship between job, lifestyle, age and occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N; Bhattacherjee, A; Kunar, B M

    2009-03-01

    Physical job demands (PJD), age, disability and lifestyle may influence the risk of occupational injury. To assess the relationships between PJD, lifestyle and injury in workers of various ages. A total of 2888 randomly selected workers from northeastern France, aged >or=15, completed a postal questionnaire. The PJD score was defined as the total number of the following reported job demands: using pneumatic tools, other vibrating hand tools, hammers, machine tools or vibrating platforms and exposure to manual handling tasks, awkward postures, high pace of work, high physical workload, work at heights, work in adverse climates or exposure to noise, cold or heat. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Nine per cent of subjects reported an injury during the previous 2 years. The PJD score was related to the injury rate for workers aged >or=45: crude odds ratio (OR) 3.5 (95% confidence interval = 1.5-8.0) for PJD = 1, 5.0 (2.2-11.3) for PJD = 2-3 and 14.5 (6.5-32.2) for PJD >or=4, versus PJD = 0. Lower ORs were found for those aged or=45 (adjusted ORs 1.7-2.6). Smoking was also an injury risk factor for workers aged <30. PJD and lifestyle have a higher impact on injury rates among older workers than among younger ones. Injury prevention should address reducing PJD and improving relevant lifestyle factors, especially for older workers.

  8. Disabling occupational injury in the US construction industry, 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney, Theodore K; Matz, Simon; Webster, Barbara S

    2002-12-01

    In 1996 the US construction industry comprised 5.4% of the annual US employment but accounted for 7.8% of nonfatal occupational injuries and illness and 9.7% of cases involving at least a day away from work. Information in the published literature on the disability arising from construction injuries is limited. The construction claims experience (n = 35,790) of a large workers' compensation insurer with national coverage was examined. The leading types and sources of disabling occupational morbidity in 1996 in the US construction industry were identified. Disability duration was calculated from indemnity payments data using previously published methods. The average disability duration for an injured construction worker was 46 days with a median of 0 days. The most frequently occurring conditions were low back pain (14.8%), foreign body eye injuries (8.5%), and finger lacerations (4.8%). Back pain also accounted for the greatest percentage of construction claim costs (21.3%) and disability days (25.5%). However, the conditions with the longest disability durations were sudden-onset injuries, including fractures of the ankle (median = 55 days), foot (42 days), and wrist (38 days). Same-level and elevated falls were the principal exposures for fractures of the wrist and ankle, whereas elevated falls and struck by incidents accounted for the majority of foot fractures. Manual materials handling activities were most often associated with low back pain disability. The results suggest that these most disabling injuries can be addressed by increasing primary prevention resources in slips and falls and exposures related to injuries of sudden-onset as well as in reducing manual materials handling and other exposures associated with more gradual-onset injuries.

  9. [Prevention of Occupational Injuries Related to Hands: Calculation of Subsequent Injury Costs for the Austrian Social Occupational Insurance Institution (AUVA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M

    2015-08-01

    Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive

  10. Non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women - the role of spousal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate the precipitants of non-fatal suicidal behaviour in women using a gender-based comparison. Design. A retrospective analysis of case records. Data were analysed using chi-square tests of significance. Subjects. One hundred men and 100 women admitted for non-fatal suicidal behaviour at a ...

  11. Non-fatal hemorrhage from pontine vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Junkoh; Aoyama, Ikuhiro; Gi, Hidefuku; Handa, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    Pontine vascular malformations have usually been found at autopsy as an incidental finding or as a cause of a fatal hemorrhage. In recent years, however, computerized tomography (CT) has made it possible to visualize these lesions while the patinents are still alive. In this paper, we report 2 cases with non-fatal hemorrhages from pontine vascular malformation. The first case was a 31-year-old housewife with cheif complaints of a sensory disturbance of the left half of the body, double vision, nausea, and vomiting of 2 weeks' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially slightly contrast-enhanced, in the right lower pontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, abducens, facial and acoustic nerves, brachium pontis, medial longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal and corticobulbar fibers, and parepontine reticular formation. The second case was a 52-year-old female clerk with chief complaints of a sensory disturbance of the right half of the body and gait disturbance of 7 months' duration. CT revealed a small high-density mass, which was partially contrast-enhanced, in the left midpontine tegmentum, affecting the medial and lateral lemnisci, lateral spinothalamic tract, ventral ascending tract of V, and brachium pontis. Although there was no evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, both cases were deterirating progressively, probably due to tepeated small intraparenchymal hemorrhages. They were treated by radiation therapy in order to prevent further rebleeding. Fortunately, their symptoms gradually subsided, and both of them were doing well 2 years and one and a half years respectively after radiation therapy. The value of radiation therapy for this disease entity has not yet been established, but it may be worthwhile when the symptoms are worsening and there is no other suitable treatment. (J.P.N.)

  12. Non-fatal workplace violence workers' compensation claims (1993-1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, L; Webster, B S

    1998-06-01

    More is known about fatal workplace violence than non-fatal workplace violence (NFWV). This study provides descriptive information on the number and cost of NFWV claims filed with a large workers' compensation carrier. NFWV claims from 51 US jurisdictions were selected either by cause codes or by word search from the accident-description narrative. Claims reported in 1993 through 1996 were analyzed to report the frequency, cost, gender, age, industry, and nature of injury. An analysis of a random sample of 600 claims provided information on perpetrator type, cause of events, and injury mechanism. A total of 28,692 NFWV claims were filed during the study period. No cost was incurred for 32.5% of the claims, and 15.5% received payments for lost work. As a percentage of all claims filed by industry, schools had the highest percentage (11.4%) of NFWV claims, and banking had the highest percentage (11.5%) of cost. The majority of claims in the banking random sample group (93%) were due to stress. In the random sample, 90.3% of claims were caused by criminals (51.8%) or by patients, clients, or customers (38.5%). Only 9.7% were caused by an employee (9.2%) or a personal acquaintance of the employee (0.5%). Employers should acknowledge that NFWV incidents occur, recognize that the majority of perpetrators are criminals or clients rather than employees, and develop appropriate prevention and intervention programs.

  13. Using Narrative Text and Coded Data to Develop Hazard Scenarios for Occupational Injury Interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lincoln, A

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether narrative text in safety reports contains sufficient information regarding contributing factors and precipitating mechanisms to prioritize occupational back injury prevention strategies...

  14. ERDA guide to the classification of occupational injuries and illnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaber, C.R.; Byrom, J.P.; Chandler, D.K.; Eicher, R.W.

    1976-10-01

    The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) administers and regulates its own injury/illness classification and recording program. This program incorporates many of the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA). In some cases, the ERDA program uses or refers to OSHA materials (such as the OSHA No. 100 log) which have been found to be applicable without change. The purpose of this proposed guide is to provide a uniform method for classifying and recording injuries and illnesses, as required by ERDAM Appendix 0502 and ERDAM Chapter 0506 (to be issued). To assist in this endeavor, an attempt has been made to meet the expressed desire of the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, for simplicity of the recordkeeping requirements. Employers are required to maintain an accurate log of injury and illness at each separate work establishment. Log entries of work-connected injuries and illnesses are required (with specific exceptions) to be made within six working days of a case occurrence

  15. Vulnerability of motorcycle riders and co-riders to injuries in multi-occupant crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadiya, Kehinde Sunday; Ojo, Owolabi Dele; Adegbehingbe, Olayinka Oladiran; Mock, Charles; Popoola, Ogunsuyi Sunday

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries, most motorcycles are ridden with more than one occupant. The objective of this study was to establish the relative vulnerability of riders and co-riders to injury and determine the injury risk factors in multi-occupant motorcycle crashes. Between January and December 2010, we collected crash and injury data from victims of multi-occupant motorcycle. It is a hospital-based study. The probability of sustaining injuries was similar for co-riders and riders, but co-riders were more likely to sustain severe injuries. Occupants of >2-occupant motorcycles were also more likely to be involved in risky behaviours like not wearing helmet and speeding than those on 2-occupant motorcycles. Occupants of motorcycles on which there were more than two occupants were at an increased risk of sustaining injuries compared with occupants of motorcycles with only two occupants (OR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3). Motorcycle co-riders were more vulnerable to severe injuries than riders. The significance of the study finding to prevention was discussed.

  16. Investigating the role of behavioral factors in non-fatal accidents of urban and suburban driver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Azad

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road accidents are of the most important events, which cause death and injury of a large number of people and impose huge economic losses. According to previous studies, human factors are the main cause of traffic accidents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of behavioral factors in driving-related non-fatal accidents. Material and Method: The present analytical study was carried out among 150 drivers of urban and suburban transportation system in Yazd province. The research tool was Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ which is consisted of two sections: demographic information and driving behavior. Result: 83/9 % of the participants reported to use safety belt nearly always. The highest deliberate violations, slips, and mistakes were belonged to drivers with age group of 18-25. Moreover, deliberate violations had a significant relationship with rage (P < 0.05. Survey of behavioral factors in terms of vehicle ownership type showed that “deliberate violations” and “slips and mistakes” high among personal bus drivers and state-owned bus drivers, respectively, which shows the significant association between these behavioral factors and ownership type. What is more, rates of deliberate and unintentional violations and slips were higher among those with a history of two times incidents (P < 0.004. Conclusion: The results revealed that behavioral factors such as age, type of vehicle ownership, and accident history played a significant role in occurrence of traffic accidents.

  17. Posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and non-fatal intentional self-harm in Massachusetts Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Gradus, Jaimie L; Leatherman, Sarah; Raju, Sanjay; Ferguson, Ryan; Miller, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Background: The literature on the association between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and fatal and non-fatal intentional self-harm (ISH) among Veterans who receive care within the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) is limited in scope and contradictory. The current study examines the association between PTSD and non-fatal ISH in a gender-stratified sample of patients who received care at a Massachusetts VHA treatment facility between 2000 and 2008. Methods: VHA electronic medical reco...

  18. Dose - response relationship between noise exposure and the risk of occupational injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many workers worldwide experience fatality and disability caused by occupational injuries. This study examined the relationship between noise exposure and occupational injuries at factories in Korea. A total of 1790 factories located in northern Gyeonggi Province, Korea was evaluated. The time-weighted average levels of dust and noise exposure were taken from Workplace Exposure Assessment data. Apart occupational injuries, sports events, traffic accidents, and other accidents occurring outside workplaces were excluded. The incidences of occupational injury in each factory were calculated by data from the Korea Workers′ Compensation and Welfare Services. Workplaces were classified according to the incidence of any occupational injuries (incident or nonincident workplaces, respectively. Workplace dust exposure was classified as 90 dB. Workplaces with high noise exposure were significantly associated with being incident workplaces, whereas workplaces with high dust exposure were not. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals derived from a logistic regression model were 1.68 (1.27-2.24 and 3.42 (2.26-5.17 at 80-89 dB and ≥90 dB versus <80 dB. These associations remained significant when in a separate analysis according to high or low dust exposure level. Noise exposure increases the risk of occupational injury in the workplace. Furthermore, the risk of occupational injury increases with noise exposure level in a dose-response relationship. Therefore, strategies for reducing noise exposure level are required to decrease the risk of occupational injury.

  19. Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    multivariate logistic regression analysis found that residing in a rural area, taking medications or other treatment for ... falls and transport injuries (Kang, 2011; Mock, Abantanga, Cummings, & Koepsell, 1999). Cross-sectional survey ...... and delivery mechanisms in partnership with key stakeholders (Bliss & Breen, 2009).

  20. Characteristics of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The rate of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has increased in recent years, with associated morbidity and economic cost to the country. This review examines the published literature for the characteristics and factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Methods Electronic searches were conducted in Psychinfo, Proquest, Medline and Cochrane databases from inception to October 2011. Results 26 publications (representing 23 studies) were eligible to be included in the review. A majority of studies reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among males, with a peak age range of 10–30 years. Pesticide ingestion was the most commonly used method of non-fatal self-poisoning. However three studies conducted within the last ten years, in urban areas of the country, reported non-fatal self-poisoning by medicinal overdose to be more common, and also reported non-fatal self-poisoning to be more common among females. Interpersonal conflict was the most commonly reported short-term stressor associated with self-poisoning. Alcohol misuse was reported among males who self-poisoned, and data regarding other psychiatric morbidity was limited. Conclusions The findings indicate that pesticide ingestion is the commonest method of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka, and it is more common among young males, similar to other Asian countries. However there appears to be an emerging pattern of increasing medicinal overdoses, paralleled by a gender shift towards increased female non-fatal self-poisoning in urban areas. Many non-fatal self-poisoning attempts appear to occur in the context of acute interpersonal stress, with short premeditation, and associated with alcohol misuse in males. Similar to other Asian countries, strategies to reduce non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka require integrated intervention programs with several key aspects, including culturally appropriate interventions to develop interpersonal skills in young people

  1. Self-reported occupational injuries among industrial beef slaughterhouse workers in the Midwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Perry, Melissa J

    2017-01-01

    Although workers in meatpacking facilities in the U.S. experience high rates of occupational injury, their injury experiences have received limited research attention. Prior research indicates underreporting in injury rates in this industry as well significant variation in injury rates among facilities. To add detail to the rates and circumstances surrounding occupational injury among meatpacking workers, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers employed at an industrial beefpacking plant in Nebraska (n = 137) and interviewed workers about recent injury experiences. We assessed frequency, cause and nature of self-reported injury. We estimated annual incidence rates of self-reported injuries using the OSHA formula and compared these rates to industry-wide data. We also evaluated psychological distress in this workforce as measured by the Kessler-6 scale to assess whether distress was associated with recent occupational injury. In this study, 15.1% of workers experienced occupational injuries that required time off work, job transfer, or restriction during the past three months. The estimated annual incidence rate was 15.2 injuries per 100 full-time workers for these injuries at this plant. Rushing was identified as the cause of nearly 50% of injuries, and repetitive work as the cause of an additional 20% of injuries. Use of metal mesh sleeves (POR: 0.10 (p = 0.008)) and metal mesh gloves (POR: 0.41 (p = 0.05) were associated with reduced risk of injury. Use of a carbon steel for knife sharpening (POR: 5.2 (p = 0.02)) was associated with elevated risk of moderate and severe injury. There were no associations between self-reported occupational injury and overall measures of psychological distress. Self-reported incidence rate of severe injury in this plant was more than twice official industry estimates. Worker self-reports may illustrate key areas for injury prevention.

  2. Unintentional, non-fatal drowning of children: US trends and racial/ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Heather; Myers, John; Liu, Gil; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2015-12-15

    The current study aimed to better understand trends and risk factors associated with non-fatal drowning of infants and children in the USA using two large, national databases. A secondary data analysis was conducted using the National Inpatient Sample and the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample databases. The analytic sample (n=19,403) included children near-drowning/non-fatal drowning. Descriptive, χ(2) and analysis of variance techniques were applied, and incidence rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Non-fatal drowning incidence has remained relatively stable from 2006 to 2011. In general, the highest rates of non-fatal drowning occurred in swimming pools and in children from racial/ethnic minorities. However, when compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian children, children from racial/ethnic minorities were more likely to drown in natural waterways than in swimming pools. Despite the overall lower rate of non-fatal drowning among non-Hispanic Caucasian children, the highest rate of all non-fatal drowning was for non-Hispanic Caucasian children aged 0-4 years in swimming pools. Children who were admitted to inpatient facilities were younger, male and came from families with lower incomes. Data from two large US national databases show lack of progress in preventing and reducing non-fatal drowning admissions from 2006 to 2011. Discrepancies are seen in the location of drowning events and demographic characteristics. New policies and interventions are needed, and tailoring approaches by age and race/ethnicity may improve their effectiveness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross- sectional study was conducted among 160 non- industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre-structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  4. Occupational injuries and safety measures adopted by welding workers: a cross sectional study in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhumika.T.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Welders have been identified as a high risk group according to ranking of occupations based on cost related injuries. Employment of safety measures and practices among welders are potential ways of preventing occupational injuries. Adherence to these precautions is nearly universal in the developed world but there is scarcity of information about the situation in developing world including India. Objectives 1 To estimate the prevalence of occupational injuries among welding workers in Udupi district; 2 To assess the perception towards occupational hazards and the safety measures adopted by the welders Material and Methods A cross--‐ sectional study was conducted among 160 non--‐ industrial welding workers in Udupi district. A pre--‐structured interviewer--‐administered questionnaire was used. Results The prevalence of occupational injuries was found to be 80%. Only 24.4% of the welders had undergone professional training. Though 95% of them were aware of the importance of personal protective equipments (PPE, only 37.5% of them were regularly using PPE. Majority (75% of them reported that welding profession was dangerous. Around 79% of the workers reported carelessness being the major cause of injury during work. Working hours of less than 8 hours in a day, reading of safety manual and maintenance of equipments were significantly positively associated with occupational injuries among welding workers. Conclusion Occupational injuries during welding are preventable. The level of experience, training and attitude while working can reduce the injuries to large extent.

  5. Unintentional injury prevention and the role of occupational therapy in the Solomon Islands: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daufanamae, Barbara U; Franklin, Richard C; Eagers, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Unintentional injuries (injuries for which there is no evidence of a predetermined intent) are one of the leading causes of death worldwide, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although evidence demonstrates unintentional injuries are preventable it is a public health challenge for many LMICs such as the Solomon Islands. Occupational therapists are well placed to contribute to injury prevention, as they have specialised skills to analyse the accessibility and safety of the environments within which people conduct their daily occupations. While the role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention is well known in high-income countries, it is unfamiliar in LMICs, especially in the Solomon Islands. This integrative review aimed to explore the incidence of common unintentional injuries, and the burden in the Solomon Islands; and explore the potential role of occupational therapy in unintentional injury prevention in the Solomon Islands, based on current activities in LMICs. Articles were reviewed from six databases (Medline, CINAHL, OTDBase, OT Seeker, Scopus and PsychInfo). Five articles met the inclusion criteria for the first objective and 15 articles met the inclusion criteria for the second objective. These articles were thematically analysed where themes and codes associated with the research objectives were extracted and analysed. Unintentional injuries in the Solomon Islands reported in the literature included ocular trauma, falls from fruit trees and coconut palms, and road traffic crashes. Burden of injury reported was mostly associated with loss of productivity. Occupational therapists undertook rehabilitative, biomechanical, neurodevelopmental and educational roles in LMIC, focusing on tertiary and secondary injury prevention. This integrative review suggests that there is limited information regarding injury in the Solomon Islands. However, evidence is available in LMICs to suggest that occupational therapy services can

  6. Possibilities and challenges in occupational injury surveillance of day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Sarah J; Blecker, Hillary; Camp, Janice; De Castro, Butch; Hecker, Steven; Arbabi, Saman; Traven, Neal; Seixas, Noah S

    2010-02-01

    Day laborers in the US, comprised largely of undocumented immigrants from Mexico and Central America, suffer high rates of occupational injury according to recent estimates. Adequate surveillance methods for this highly transient, largely unregulated group do not currently exist. This study explores chart abstraction of hospital-based trauma registry records as a potential injury surveillance method for contingent workers and day laborers. We sought to determine the degree of completeness of work information in the medical records, and to identify day laborers and contingent workers to the extent possible. Work-related injury cases from a hospital-based trauma registry (2001-2006) were divided by ethnicity (Hispanic vs. non-Hispanic origin) and presence of social security number (SSN: yes, no), resulting in four groups of cases. Medical records were abstracted for 40 cases from each group; each case was assigned values for the variables "day labor status" (yes, no, probably not, probable, unknown) and "employment type" (contingent, formal, unknown). Work information was missing for 60% of Hispanic cases lacking SSN, as compared with 33-47% of the other three groups. One "probable" day laborer was identified from the same group. Non-Hispanics with SSN were less frequently identified as contingent workers (5% as compared with 15-19%). This method revealed severe limitations, including incomplete and inconsistent information in the trauma registry and medical records. Approaches to improve existing resources for use in surveillance systems are identified. The potential of an active surveillance approach at day labor hiring centers is also briefly discussed. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among Canada's immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiagi, R

    2016-12-01

    Empirical evidence on occupational injury and/or fatality rates among Canada's immigrants has been largely mixed and has almost exclusively focused on the first generation. Over time, as immigrants assimilate into the economy, future generations may be expected to work in less hazardous occupations compared with prior generations. There has been no prior analysis of the differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among later generations. To analyse whether there are intergenerational differences in occupational injury and fatality rates among the first, second and third (or more) immigrant generations in Canada. Data drawn from the 2011 National Household Survey and the Association of Workers' Compensation Boards of Canada were used to determine the difference in occupational injury and fatality rates between the first or the third generation and the second generation, using a Poisson regression framework. Second-generation immigrants worked in jobs with lower occupational injury rates compared with the first generation and the third generation (or more). Similar results were observed for occupational fatality rates. Second-generation immigrants worked in less hazardous jobs compared with the first generation and compared with the third (or more) generations. These results suggest that the second generation may not face the same economic hurdles and challenges, in terms of workplace injuries or fatalities, as those faced by the first or third (or more) generations of immigrants. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. [Knowledge and practices by adolescents in preventing occupational injuries: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Roberta; Lefèvre, Ana Maria C; Lefèvre, Fernando; Steluti, Josiane; Teixeira, Liliane R; Zinn, Lílian C S; Soares, Nilson S; Fischer, Frida M

    2007-06-01

    To describe knowledge and practices adopted by high school students to prevent occupational injuries. The study was carried out in a public school located in São Paulo, in 2003. Fifty-three evening students aged 14 to 21 years old participated the study, they were divided into two groups with and without job experience (32 and 21 students, respectively). The students answered two questions: "Why do occupational injuries occur?" and "How do you avoid occupational injuries?" Analyses were performed using the software "Quali-quanti" to structure collective discourses. ANALYSIS OF DISCOURSES: Adolescents with work experience reported that occupational injuries occur due to carelessness of the employee, bad luck of the employee, employer's negligence, lack of training, and unsafe workplace. Adolescents without work experience reported that the main causes of work injuries were carelessness of the employee and employer's negligence. Regarding the ways to protect themselves against occupational injuries, both groups reported that: they pay attention (would pay attention) and wear safety equipment (would wear) safety equipment. Adolescents from both groups showed limited knowledge about occupational injuries and prevention methods. Students "blamed the victim" to explain the injuries and considered "paying attention to work" as the best way to protect themselves. These facts showed that the culture of blaming the victim is present since adolescence and probably it is an outcome of a learning process of the society.

  9. [Analysis of the mechanisms of minor occupational injuries in the construction industry in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides, F G; Giráldez, M T; Castejón, E; Catot, N; Zaplana, M; Delclós, J; Benach, J; Gimeno, D

    2003-01-01

    The construction industry produces the highest number of occupational injuries in Spain (25.6%). Of these, 98.5% were minor injuries with 5 million workdays lost in 2000. This occurred even after the recent introduction of numerous health and occupational safety regulations. The objective of the present study was to identify the specific mechanisms of minor occupational injuries in the construction sector. In 2000, there were 235,853 minor occupational injuries in the construction industry. From these, injuries in general construction and civil engineering were selected (n = 155,044). These injuries affected both the total number of workers in the sector as well as bricklayers and unskilled construction workers. Insurance and financial activities (n = 2,019) were selected as a reference economic sector. Minor occupational injuries due to nontraumatic processes (heart attack, etc.) were taken as a control group (n = 167), assuming that the risk of nontraumatic processes was independent of economic activities. Odds ratios (OR) were adjusted by age, sex, years of work experience, type of employment and company size through nonconditional logistic regression models. The mechanisms with the highest risk of minor occupational lesions in construction workers as a group compared with employees in the financial sector were projection of fragments (OR = 33.0; 95% CI, 15.3-70.8) and being struck by objects (OR = 18.2; CI 95%, 9.7-34.1). These were also the most specific mechanisms of injury in the subgroup of bricklayers and unskilled construction workers. Activities aimed at preventing minor occupational injuries in the construction sector should be orientated towards these mechanisms, especially projection of fragments despite the low frequency of this mechanism compared with that of other mechanisms. Case-control design is a useful alternative approach for research into occupational injuries.

  10. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Various Blast Loading Descriptors as Occupant Injury Predictors for Underbody Blast Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-09

    t:N , CFC # Pulse type Dec. g ion ms al ms m/s Sp. Pwr Eff. G G- ava @2ms @Oms @15ms 1000 @3ms @7ms @7ms @30ms @Oms 1 Triangular 44 40 2 8.6 376 27 22...Power, Blast, ROM, reduced order models, MADYMO, occupant, injury, pulse , loading, descriptor, calculator 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17... pulse and occupant injury It has been shown before that there is no single input parameter which can be used to effectively assess occupant injury

  11. Non-fatal self-poisoning across age groups, in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret

    2016-02-01

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning in common in Sri Lanka, but little is known about variation of psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent across differing ages. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka across three different age groups (namely 14-24 years, 25-34 years and ≥ 35 years). It was anticipated that the findings of the study would inform and guide development of preventive interventions for non-fatal self-poisoning in this country. 935 participants were interviewed within one week of admission to hospital for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning, over a consecutive 14-month period. Socio-demographic factors, types of poison ingested, triggers and psychiatric morbidity was examined as a function of age. Results showed that a majority (83%) of participants were aged below 35 years. Younger participants aged aged 25-34 years, and ≥ 35 years), who were more likely to ingest pesticides. Recent interpersonal conflict was a proximal trigger seen in all age groups, but suicidal intent, depression and alcohol use disorders increased with age. The overall study findings indicate that most who carry out acts of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka are young (aged age groups, but psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent is higher in the older age groups, as is pesticide ingestion. Age specific interventions may be efficacious in the prevention of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prevalence of occupational injury and its contributing factors among rubber tappers in Galle, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staton, Catherine; de Silva, Vijitha; Tharindra, Hemajith

    2016-01-01

    Background Rubber tapping involves carrying heavy loads, navigating rough terrain, and using sharp tools. However, little is known about occupational injury among this vulnerable working population. Objective To assesses the prevalence, severity, and contributing factors associated with occupational injury among Sri Lankan rubber tappers and to identify possible interventions to improve occupational safety. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 300 Sri Lankan rubber tappers. The associations between tapper characteristics and injury within the last year were examined using log-binomial regression models. Short response answers were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results 300 tappers reported 594 injuries in the previous 12 months, and missed 1,080 days of work. The prevalence of one or more injuries was 49%. Factors associated with injury were being female, working an additional job, tapping with a two-handed approach, and depressive symptomology. Qualitative findings suggest three interventions to address injuries: (1) landscaping, (2) personal protective equipment, and (3) provision of eyeglasses. Conclusions Work-related injuries are common among Sri Lankan rubber tappers. These results highlight the importance of working with and including informal workers in the creation of Sri Lankan occupational health and safety regulations. We believe that the three interventions identified by respondents could help to reduce the risk of occupational injury among rubber tappers. PMID:27784205

  13. Occupational injury proneness in Indian women: A survey in fish processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saha Asim

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross sectional survey was initiated to understand the frequency of occupational injury occurrence and the associated factors in the fish processing industries of western India involving 185 randomly selected women subjects. All the subjects were interviewed with the help of an interviewer-administered questionnaire to collect information regarding their personal, occupational and work related morbidity details (including details of occupational injuries. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the data in order to obtain the contribution of individual factors on occupational injuries. This study has shown that work related morbidity like blanching of hand (OR; 2.30, 95%CI; 1.12–4.74 and nature of job like grading (OR; 3.99, 95%CI; 1.41–11.27 and packing (OR; 5.68, 95%CI; 1.65–19.57 had a significant impact on injury causation. This study eventually concludes that apart from nature of job of fish processing workers occupational hazards prevailing in the work environment contribute significantly to the occurrence of work related injuries and prevention of such occupational hazards may help in protecting workers from occupational injuries also.

  14. Interventions to prevent injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Henk F; Basnet, Prativa; Hoonakker, Peter Lt; Lehtola, Marika M; Lappalainen, Jorma; Frings-Dresen, Monique Hw; Haslam, Roger; Verbeek, Jos H

    2018-02-05

    Construction workers are frequently exposed to various types of injury-inducing hazards. There are a number of injury prevention interventions, yet their effectiveness is uncertain. To assess the effects of interventions for preventing injuries in construction workers. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group's specialised register, CENTRAL (issue 3), MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO up to April 2017. The searches were not restricted by language or publication status. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant papers and reviews. Randomised controlled trials, controlled before-after (CBA) studies and interrupted time-series (ITS) of all types of interventions for preventing fatal and non-fatal injuries among workers at construction sites. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data and assessed their risk of bias. For ITS studies, we re-analysed the studies and used an initial effect, measured as the change in injury rate in the year after the intervention, as well as a sustained effect, measured as the change in time trend before and after the intervention. Seventeen studies (14 ITS and 3 CBA studies) met the inclusion criteria in this updated version of the review. The ITS studies evaluated the effects of: introducing or changing regulations that laid down safety and health requirements for the construction sites (nine studies), a safety campaign (two studies), a drug-free workplace programme (one study), a training programme (one study), and safety inspections (one study) on fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries. One CBA study evaluated the introduction of occupational health services such as risk assessment and health surveillance, one evaluated a training programme and one evaluated the effect of a subsidy for upgrading to safer scaffoldings. The overall risk of bias of most of the included studies was high, as it was uncertain for the ITS studies whether the intervention was independent from other changes and thus could be

  15. The Effects of Curtain Airbag on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Index in Rollover Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Occupant injuries in rollover crashes are associated with vehicle structural performance, as well as the restraint system design. For a better understanding of the occupant kinematics and injury index in certain rollover crash, it is essential to carry out dynamic vehicle rollover simulation with dummy included. Objective. This study focused on effects of curtain airbag (CAB parameters on occupant kinematics and injury indexes in a rollover crash. Besides, optimized parameters of the CAB were proposed for the purpose of decreasing the occupant injuries in such rollover scenario. Method and Material. The vehicle motion from the physical test was introduced as the input for the numerical simulation, and the 50% Hybrid III dummy model from the MADYMO database was imported into a simulation model. The restraint system, including a validated CAB module, was introduced for occupant kinematics simulation and injury evaluation. TTF setting, maximum inflator pressure, and protection area of the CAB were analysed. Results. After introducing the curtain airbag, the maximum head acceleration was reduced from 91.60 g to 49.52 g, and the neck Mx and neck Fz were reduced significantly. Among these CAB parameters, the TTF setting had the largest effect on the head acceleration which could reduce 8.6 g furthermore after optimization. The neck Fz was decreased from 3766.48 N to 2571.77 N after optimization of CAB protection area. Conclusions. Avoiding hard contact is critical for the occupant protection in the rollover crashes. The simulation results indicated that occupant kinematics and certain injury indexes were improved with the help of CAB in such rollover scenario. Appropriate TTF setting and inflator selection could benefit occupant kinematics and injury indexes. Besides, it was advised to optimize the curtain airbag thickness around the head contact area to improve head and neck injury indexes.

  16. Further Remarks on Vaccination for Non-Fatal Susceptible-Invective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We modify existing SIS model to reflect permanent immunity due to vaccination or previous non-fatal attacks of the disease. The model incorporates information on current and past states of the disease needed by families in deciding on whether to vaccinate or not their children. Of particular interest in the analysis are the ...

  17. Drugs taken in fatal and non-fatal self-poisoning : A study in South London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neeleman, J; Wessely, S

    This study compared the number and type of substances taken in deliberate self-poisoning with fatal (n=127) and non-fatal (n=521) outcome. The aims were (i) to describe substances typically involved in self-poisoning in England and Wales, (ii) to examine the role of drug 'cocktails' and (iii) to

  18. Epidemiology and trends in non-fatal self-harm in three centres in England: 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Helen; Hawton, Keith; Waters, Keith; Cooper, Jayne; Kapur, Navneet

    2010-12-01

    Self-harm is a common reason for presentation to a general hospital, with a strong association with suicide. Trends in self-harm are an important indicator of community psychopathology, with resource implications for health services and relevance to suicide prevention policy. Previous reports in the UK have come largely from single centres. To investigate trends in non-fatal self-harm in six general hospitals in three centres from the Multicentre Study of Self-harm in England, and to relate these to trends in suicide. Data on self-harm presentations to general hospital emergency departments in Oxford (one), Manchester (three) and Derby (two) were analysed over the 8-year period 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2007. Rates of self-harm declined significantly over 8 years for males in three centres (Oxford: -14%; Manchester: -25%; Derby: -18%) and females in two centres (Oxford: -2% (not significant); Manchester: -13%; Derby: -17%), in keeping with national trends in suicide. A decreasing proportion and number of episodes involved self-poisoning alone, and an increasing proportion and number involved other self-injury (e.g. hanging, jumping, traffic related). Episodes involving self-cutting alone showed a slight decrease in numbers over time. Trends in alcohol use at the time of self-harm and repetition within 1 year were stable. There were decreasing rates of non-fatal self-harm over the study period that paralleled trends in suicide in England. This was reflected mainly in a decline in emergency department presentations for self-poisoning.

  19. Non-fatal repetition of self-harm in Taipei City, Taiwan: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chi-Leung; Yip, Paul S F; Gunnell, David; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Chen, Ying-Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Repeat self-harm is an important risk factor for suicide. Few studies have explored risk factors for non-fatal repeat self-harm in Asia. To investigate the risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in a large cohort of patients presenting to hospital in Taipei City, Taiwan. Prospective cohort study of 7601 patients with self-harm presenting to emergency departments (January 2004-December 2006). Survival analysis was used to examine the rates, timing and factors associated with repeat self-harm. In total 778 (10.2%) patients presented to hospital with one or more further episodes of self-harm. The cumulative risk of non-fatal repetition within 1 year of a self-harm episode was 9.3% (95% CI 8.7-10.1). The median time to repetition within 1 year was 105 days. Females had a higher incidence of repeat self-harm than males (adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.05-1.48) but males had shorter median time to repetition (107 v. 80 days). Other independent risk factors for repeat self-harm within 1 year of an index episode were: young age, self-harm by medicine overdose and increasing number of repeat episodes of self-harm. The risk of non-fatal repeat self-harm in Taipei City is lower than that seen in the West. Risk factors for repeat non-fatal self-harm differ from those for fatal self-harm. The first 3 months after self-harm is a crucial period for intervention.

  20. Occupational injury and fatality investigations: the application of forensic nursing science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Colin

    2013-01-01

    The forensic evaluation of trauma in occupational injuries and fatalities can provide the benefit of a more thorough analysis of incident causation. Forensic nursing science applied during workplace investigations can assist investigators to determine otherwise unknown crucial aspects of the incident circumstances that are important to event reconstruction, the enforcement of occupational health and safety requirements, and the direction of workplace prevention initiatives. Currently, a medical and forensic medical knowledge gap exists in the subject-matter expertise associated with occupational accident investigations. This gap can be bridged with the integration of forensic nursing in the investigation of workplace fatalities and serious injuries.

  1. Occupational exposure to sharp injuries among medical and dental house officers in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosayaba Osazuwa-Peters

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sharp injuries constitute important occupational exposure in hospital environment, and perhaps the newly graduated medical and dental students, known as House Officers, in the first twelve months of their practice, are the most vulnerable of all health workers. This study was designed to examine the nature and prevalence of occupational injuries among medical and dental house officers and factors associated with reporting these injuries. Materials and Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on demography, types of exposure, and barriers to official reporting of occupational injuries. One hundred and forty-four medical and dental house officers in 3 government owned hospitals in Edo State, Nigeria participated in the study, between April and May, 2010. Descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. Results: The overall response rate was 96%. Out of all participants, 69.4% were male; 82.6% were medical house officers. Prevalence of percutaneous injury was 56.9%; where needlestick injury constituted one-third of all injuries. Mean frequency of injury was 1.86±2.24, with medicals having more injuries (p = 0.043. The ward was the most common location for the injury and 14.8% of exposures occurred as a result of lapse in concentration. At least 77.0% did not formally report their injury and perceived low injury risk was the most common reason given (51.67%. Conclusion: This study shows that a substantial number of House Officers are exposed to occupational injuries and that the majority of them does not formally report these. Safer work environment may be achieved by implementing adequate educational programs tailored specifically to house officers, and policies encouraging exposure reporting should be developed.

  2. Population based case–control study of serious non-fatal motorcycle crashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    risk. The relationship between rider factors and travel speed generally will be assessed by multivariate regression methods. Discussion In the context of the changing motorcycling environment, this study will provide evidence on contemporary risk factors for serious non-fatal motorcycle crashes. PMID:23351603

  3. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  4. Is the societal burden of fatal occupational injury different among NORA industry sectors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Elyce Anne

    2013-02-01

    Since the implementation of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, safety and health in the work environment has seen marked improvement. Although these improvements are laudable, workplace hazards continue to plague the American worker. Understanding the economic burden of fatalities by industry sector is important to setting broad occupational safety and health research priorities. Cost estimates provide additional information about how fatal injuries affect society and hence can improve injury prevention program planning, policy analysis, evaluation, and advocacy. This study estimated the total, mean, and median societal costs by worker and case characteristic in 2003-2006 for the industry sectors identified in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA). Analyses were conducted with restricted access to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data. These data exclude military personnel, decedents with unknown age or sex, and fatalities occurring in New York City. Societal costs were estimated using the cost-of-illness approach, which combines direct and indirect costs to yield an overall cost of an fatal occupational injury. During this period, the cost of the 22,197 fatal occupational injuries exceeded $21 billion. The mean and median costs of these fatalities were $960,000 and $944,000 respectively. Total societal costs by NORA sector ranged from a high of $5.8 billion in Services to a low of $530 million in Healthcare and Social Assistance with mean costs ranging from the nearly $800,000 in Agriculture, Forestry, and Fishing to almost $1.1 million in Mining. The societal costs-total, mean, and median costs-of case and worker characteristics for occupational fatal injuries varied within each NORA sector. To have the greatest societal impact, these costs can be used to target resources for public and private sector research by industry. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Occupational injuries in children and adolescents in emergency services of Aracaju, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vasconcelos, R B A; Santos, J C V; Araujo, R F; de Souza, L; Dantas, R A A; Gurgel, R Q

    2010-05-01

    The incidence of occupational injuries among children and adolescents is not well known in Brazil. This study aims to identify occurrences and characteristics of occupational injuries in children and adolescents at the two major public emergency hospitals in Aracaju, Brazil. In a cross sectional study, all children and adolescents (5-17 years) attending the services because of accidents of external cause in October-November 2006 and May-June 2007 were evaluated. The patients and their responsibles were interviewed to obtain information about the injury, family and patient characteristics and relation to work in the last 7 days. Data were analysed in number and percentages using descriptive statistics and chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests. There were 917 patients with injuries of external cause in the period studied. Seventy-one (8%) had worked in the last 7 days and in 40 (4%) the injury was related to work, with 2 (0.21%) deaths. Occupational injuries occurred more frequently in boys (95%); in the 14- to 17-year-old age group (77%); in agricultural (46%) and commercial activities (18%); to help with family budget (54%); without any safety training (73.5%) and not using personal protective equipment (94%). Main mechanisms of injuries were transportation incidents (42.5%) and contact with tools and equipment (27.5%). Injuries were mostly fractures (37.5%) and lacerations (22.5%). Upper extremities were injured in 49% of cases and the lower extremities in 26.5%. Comparison between the two groups (accident related or not related to labour) shows that there were significant differences for gender, age group, the main mechanism of injury and the part of the body injured, but not for the nature of injury. Working children and adolescents have been injured during their occupational activities and work-related injuries represent 4% of injuries of external causes in the emergency departments of Aracaju with 5% lethality.

  6. Determinants of Occupational Injury in Kombolcha Textile Factory, North-East Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S Yessuf Serkalem; G Moges Haimanot; N Ahmed Ansha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Textile factory is among the most common manufacturing industries that has higher rate of work-related injuries. Knowing the associated factors of work-related injuries can be a critical step for improving the working condition of workers in the sector. Objective: To assess the major determinants of occupational injury among workers in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 15, 2013...

  7. A comparison of fatal occupational injury event characteristics from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Vital Statistics Mortality System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Suzanne M; Jackson, Larry L

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine utility of appending International Classification of Diseases (ICD) codes from Vital Statistics Mortality (VSM) data to Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), and compare occupational event characteristics based on ICD external cause and BLS Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System (OIICS) event codes. We linked VSM records with CFOI records for 2003 and 2004. Ninety-five percent of approximately 11,000 CFOI cases were linked to VSM cases. Linked data suggest that CFOI OIICS event and VSM ICD codes identified similar leading events. However, VSM data were generally less specific. Lack of detail inherent in ICD codes and death narratives limits specificity of injury characteristics in VSM data. Appending ICD codes to CFOI appears to offer little value. Research comparing work- and non-work-related events may be better served by having a defined framework to crosswalk both coding schemes to facilitate comparisons. Over the last two decades, both ICD and OIICS have been used to characterize occupational injury circumstances; however, this is the first study to use linked case comparisons of the OIICS and ICD codes at a detailed level. This study confirmed that multiple source data systems provide more detail surrounding an incident than a single source data system does. Our results suggest that OIICS-coded CFOI data are a better source for occupational injury research and prevention purposes. For future comparison studies requiring ICD, it would be advantageous to have a defined framework that could easily be used to map both coding schemes (OIICS and ICD). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. The impact of injuries study. multicentre study assessing physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning post injury - a protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendrick Denise

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large numbers of people are killed or severely injured following injuries each year and these injuries place a large burden on health care resources. The majority of the severely injured are not fully recovered 12-18 months later. Psychological disorders are common post injury and are associated with poorer functional and occupational outcomes. Much of this evidence comes from countries other than the UK, with differing health care and compensation systems. Early interventions can be effective in treating psychological morbidity, hence the scale and nature of the problem and its impact of functioning in the UK must be known before services can be designed to identify and manage psychological morbidity post injury. Methods/Design A longitudinal multi-centre study of 680 injured patients admitted to hospital in four areas across the UK: Nottingham, Leicester/Loughborough, Bristol and Surrey. A stratified sample of injuries will ensure a range of common and less common injuries will be included. Participants will complete a baseline questionnaire about their injury and pre-injury quality of life, and follow-up questionnaires 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post injury. Measures will include health and social care utilisation, perceptions of recovery, physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health-related quality of life. A nested qualitative study will explore the experiences of a sample of participants, their carers and service providers to inform service design. Discussion This study will quantify physical, psychological, social and occupational functioning and health and social care utilisation following a range of different types of injury and will assess the impact of psychological disorders on function and health service use. The findings will be used to guide the development of interventions to maximise recovery post injury.

  9. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  10. Occupational eye injury and risk reduction: Kentucky workers' compensation claim analysis 1994-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, B P; Horwitz, I B; Taylor, O A

    2009-06-01

    Occupational eye injuries are a significant source of injury in the workplace. Little population-based research in the area has been conducted, and is necessary for developing and prioritizing effective interventions. Workers' compensation data from the state of Kentucky for the years 1994-2003 were analysed by demographics, injury nature and cause, cost, and occupational and industrial characteristics. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics' Current Population Survey was utilised to compute injury rates for demographic and occupational groups. There were 10,545 claims of ocular injury, representing 6.29 claims per 10,000 workers on average annually. A substantial drop in the claim rate was found after the state passed monetary penalties for injuries caused by employer negligence or OSHA violations. Claims by men were over three times more likely than those by women to have associated claim costs (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.85; p = 0.009). The highest eye injury rates per 10,000 of 13.46 (95% CI 12.86 to 14.07) were found for the helpers/labourers occupation, and of 19.95 (95% CI 18.73 to 21.17) for the construction industry. The total cost of claim payments over the period was over $3,480,000, and average cost per claim approximated $331. Eye injuries remain a significant risk to worker health, especially among men in jobs requiring intensive manual labour. Evidence showed that increased legislative regulation led to a decline in eye injuries, which was consistent with other recent findings in the area. Additionally, targeting groups most at risk, increasing worker training, providing effective eye protection equipment, and developing workplace safety cultures may together reduce occupational eye injuries.

  11. Occupational injuries in Greece (1938-1955): history of medicine and descriptive epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachiotis, G; Constantinidis, T C; Dounias, G; Drivas, S; Makropoulos, V

    2004-01-01

    To describe the longitudinal trends in the rates of total and fatal occupational accidents in Greece during 1938-1955. Information on occupational injuries have been provided from the yearly reports of the Organization of Social Insurances (1938-1955) and on population data from the tables of National Statistic Agency. Bio-statistical analysis was performed by the use of SPSS software and Stat-Calc of Epi Info. The evolution of the longitudinal trend of occupational accidents has revealed a biphasic character, with a decreasing trend during 1938-1945 and an increasing trend during 1946-1955. The phenomenon was obvious in both sexes and in all age groups. On the contrary fatal occupational injuries increased across the period 1938-1945 and subsequently decreased. These temporal trends can be interpreted on the light of the important reduction in the level of economic activity during the second world war and the subsequent gradual recovery in the post war period. The biphasic characteristics of the occupational accidents longitudinal trend seems to be influenced by historical factors. Important lessons were learnt from the period of war. The decrease of the rate of total occupational accidents does not necessary reflect a satisfactory level of safety at work. The level of the economic activity, the efficiency of the registration and prevention agencies play a role. In addition, the rate of fatal injuries has a critical role in benchmarking national occupational health performance.

  12. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen

    2012-01-01

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  13. Value of CT in the Discrimination of Fatal from Non-Fatal Stercoral Colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng Hsien; Huang, Chen Chin; Wang, Li Jen; Wong, Yon Cheng; Wang, Chao Jan; Lo, Wang Chak; Lin, Being Chuan; Wan, Yung Liang; Haueh, Chuen [Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan (China)

    2012-06-15

    Clinical presentation and physical signs may be unreliable in the diagnosis of stercoral colitis (SC). This study evaluates the value of computed tomography (CT) in distinguishing fatal from non-fatal SC. Ten patients diagnosed as SC were obtained from inter-specialist conferences. Additional 13 patients with suspected SC were identified via the Radiology Information System (RIS). These patients were divided into two groups; fatal and non-fatal SCs. Their CT images are reviewed by two board-certified radiologists blinded to the clinical data and radiographic reports. SC occurred in older patients and displayed no gender predisposition. There was significant correlation between fatal SC and CT findings of dense mucosa (p 0.017), perfusion defects (p = 0.026), ascites (p = 0.023), or abnormal gas (p = 0.033). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of dense mucosa were 71%, 86%, and 81%, respectively. These figures were 75%, 79%, and 77% for perfusion defects; 75%, 80%, and 78% for ascites; and 50%, 93%, and 78% for abnormal gas, respectively. Each CT sign of mucosal sloughing and pericolonic abscess displayed high specificity of 100% and 93% for diagnosing fatal SC, respectively. However, this did not reach statistical significance in diagnosing fatal SC. CT appears to be valuable in discriminating fatal from non-fatal SC.

  14. Obesity and occupational injury: a prospective cohort study of 69,515 public sector employees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kouvonen

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight are suggested to increase the risk of occupational injury but longitudinal evidence to confirm this is rare. We sought to evaluate obesity and overweight as risk factors for occupational injuries.A total of 69,515 public sector employees (80% women responded to a survey in 2000-2002, 2004 or 2008. Body mass index (kg/m(2 was derived from self-reported height and weight and was linked to records of subsequent occupational injuries obtained from national registers. Different injury types, locations and events or exposures (the manner in which the injury was produced or inflicted were analyzed by body mass index category adjusting for baseline socio-demographic characteristics, work characteristics, health-risk behaviors, physical and mental health, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration. During the mean follow-up of 7.8 years (SD = 3.2, 18% of the employees (N = 12,204 recorded at least one occupational injury. Obesity was associated with a higher overall risk of occupational injury; multivariable adjusted hazard ratio (HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.14-1.27. A relationship was observed for bone fractures (HR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.10-1.70, dislocations, sprains and strains (HR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.25-1.49, concussions and internal injuries (HR = 1.26; 95% CI: 1.11-1.44, injuries to lower extremities (HR = 1.62; 95%: 1.46-1.79 and injuries to whole body or multiple sites (HR = 1.37; 95%: 1.10-1.70. Furthermore, obesity was associated with a higher risk of injuries caused by slipping, tripping, stumbling and falling (HR = 1.55; 95% CI: 1.40-1.73, sudden body movement with or without physical stress (HR = 1.24; 95% CI: 1.10-1.41 and shock, fright, violence, aggression, threat or unexpected presence (HR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.03-1.72. The magnitude of the associations between overweight and injuries was smaller, but the associations were generally in the same direction as those of obesity.Obese employees record more occupational injuries than those with

  15. Profitability and occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Abay; Mark, Christopher; Pana-Cryan, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Coal plays a crucial role in the U.S. economy yet underground coal mining continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the country. In addition, there are large variations in both profitability and the incidence of occupational injuries across mines. The objective of this study was to examine the association between profitability and the incidence rate of occupational injuries in U.S. underground coal mines between 1992 and 2008. We used mine-specific data on annual hours worked, geographic location, and the number of occupational injuries suffered annually from the employment and accident/injury databases of the Mine Safety and Health Administration, and mine-specific data on annual revenue from coal sales, mine age, workforce union status, and mining method from the U.S. Energy Information Administration. A total of 5669 mine-year observations (number of mines×number of years) were included in our analysis. We used a negative binomial random effects model that was appropriate for analyzing panel (combined time-series and cross-sectional) injury data that were non-negative and discrete. The dependent variable, occupational injury, was measured in three different and non-mutually exclusive ways: all reported fatal and nonfatal injuries, reported nonfatal injuries with lost workdays, and the 'most serious' (i.e. sum of fatal and serious nonfatal) injuries reported. The total number of hours worked in each mine and year examined was used as an exposure variable. Profitability, the main explanatory variable, was approximated by revenue per hour worked. Our model included mine age, workforce union status, mining method, and geographic location as additional control variables. After controlling for other variables, a 10% increase in real total revenue per hour worked was associated with 0.9%, 1.1%, and 1.6% decrease, respectively, in the incidence rates of all reported injuries, reported injuries with lost workdays, and the most serious injuries reported

  16. Depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorders at six years after occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Wei-Shan; Shiao, Judith Shu-Chu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Guo, Yue Leon

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence rates of depressive, anxiety and PTSDs, and the risk factors for psychological symptoms at 6 years after occupational injury. This longitudinal study followed workers who were occupationally injured in 2009. Psychological symptoms and return to work were assessed at 3 and 12 months after injury. Injured workers who had completed the initial questionnaire survey at 3 or 12 months after injury were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to the participants. For workers with high Brief Symptom Rating Scale and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist scores, an in-depth psychiatric evaluation was performed using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatric Interview. A total of 570 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate, 28.7%). Among them, 243 (42.6%) had high psychological symptom scores and were invited for a phone interview; 135 (55.6%) completed the interview. The estimated rates of major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)/partial PTSD were 9.2 and 7.2%, respectively, and both these rates were higher at 6 years after injury than at 12 months after injury (2.0 and 5.1%). After adjustment for family and social factors, the risk factors for high psychological scores were length of hospitalization immediately after injury, affected physical appearance, repeated occupational injuries, unemployment, and number of quit jobs after the injury. At 6 years after occupational injury, the re-emergence of psychiatric disorders was observed. Relevant factors for poor psychological health were severity of injury and instability of work. Periodic monitoring of psychological and physical health and economic stability are warranted.

  17. Costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Québec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Martin; Duguay, Patrice; Boucher, Alexandre

    2014-09-01

    Occupational injuries and diseases are costly for companies and for society as a whole. This study estimates the overall costs of occupational injuries and diseases in Québec, both human and financial, during the period from 2005 to 2007. The human capital method is used to estimate lost productivity. A health indicator (DALY) is used in combination with a value of statistical life (VSL) to estimate, in monetary terms, the pain and suffering costs resulting from occupational injuries. The costs of occupational injuries and diseases occurring in a single year in Québec are estimated at $4.62 billion, on average, for the 2005-2007 period. Of this amount, approximately $1.78 billion is allocated to financial costs and $2.84 billion to human costs. The average cost per case is $38,355. In view of the limitations identified in the study, it can be argued that this is an underestimation of the costs. Result analysis allows the injury/disease descriptors and industries for which the costs are highest to be identified. The results of these estimates are a relevant source of information for helping to determine research directions in OHS and prevention. The methodology used can be replicated for the purposes of estimating the costs of injuries and diseases in other populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity and Its Relationship with Occupational Injury in the Canadian Workforce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2011-01-01

    Methods. Participants consisted of a representative sample of 7,678 adult Canadian workers. Participants were placed into normal weight, overweight, and obese categories based on their body mass index. Different injury types, location, and external causes were measured. Logistic regression was used to estimate relationships. Results. By comparison to normal weight workers, obese workers were more likely to report any occupational injuries (odds ratio (OR 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.98–1.99 and serious occupational injuries (1.49, 0.99–2.26. These relationships were more pronounced for sprains and strains (1.80, 1.04–3.11, injuries to the lower limbs (2.14, 1.12–4.11 or torso (2.36, 1.13–4.93, and injuries due to falls (2.10, 0.86–5.10 or overexertion (2.08, 0.96–4.50. Female workers, workers ≥40 years, and workers employed in sedentary occupations were particularly vulnerable. Increased risks were not identified for overweight workers. Conclusions. Obese workers experienced 40–49% higher risks for occupational injury.

  19. A comparison of non-fatal self-poisoning among males and females, in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2014-08-08

    In the recent past Sri Lanka has had a high rate of attempted suicide by pesticide ingestion, among both males and females. Recent evidence suggests that these trends in self-poisoning may be changing, with increasing medicinal overdoses and changing gender ratios. In the past, attempted suicide in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive acts, but research regarding aspects such as suicidal intent is limited, and there has been no comparison between genders. The objective of this study was to describe gender differences in non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka with respect to substances ingested, triggers, stressors, suicidal intent and psychiatric morbidity. Persons admitted to Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, for medical management of non-fatal self-poisoning over a consecutive 14-month period were eligible for the study. Participants were interviewed within one week of admission, with regard to demographic details, poison type ingested, triggers, psychiatric morbidity and suicidal intent. 949 participants were included in the study, of whom 44.2% were males, with a median age of 22 years. Males were significantly more likely to ingest agrochemicals, whereas females were more likely to overdose on pharmaceutical drugs. Interpersonal conflict was a common trigger associated with non-fatal self-poisoning for both males and females. Alcohol use disorders and high suicidal intent were significantly more likely in males. There was no difference in rates of depression between the genders. Multiple regression for both genders separately showed that the presence of depression and higher levels of hopelessness was the strongest predictor of suicidal intent, for both genders. Patterns of non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka appear to be changing to resemble Western patterns, with females having a greater rate of self-poisoning and more medicinal overdoses than males. Alcohol use disorder is a gender specific risk factor associated with non-fatal self

  20. Predicting sport and occupational lower extremity injury risk through movement quality screening: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Jackie L; Booysen, Nadine; de la Motte, Sarah; Dennett, Liz; Lewis, Cara L; Wilson, Dave; McKay, Carly; Warner, Martin; Padua, Darin; Emery, Carolyn A; Stokes, Maria

    2017-04-01

    Identification of risk factors for lower extremity (LE) injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations is required to inform injury prevention strategies. To determine if poor movement quality is associated with LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. 5 electronic databases were systematically searched. Studies selected included original data; analytic design; movement quality outcome (qualitative rating of functional compensation, asymmetry, impairment or efficiency of movement control); LE injury sustained with sport or military/first-responder occupation. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. 2 independent authors assessed the quality (Downs and Black (DB) criteria) and level of evidence (Oxford Centre of Evidence-Based Medicine model). Of 4361 potential studies, 17 were included. The majority were low-quality cohort studies (level 4 evidence). Median DB score was 11/33 (range 3-15). Heterogeneity in methodology and injury definition precluded meta-analyses. The Functional Movement Screen was the most common outcome investigated (15/17 studies). 4 studies considered inter-relationships between risk factors, 7 reported diagnostic accuracy and none tested an intervention programme targeting individuals identified as high risk. There is inconsistent evidence that poor movement quality is associated with increased risk of LE injury in sport and military/first-responder occupations. Future research should focus on high-quality cohort studies to identify the most relevant movement quality outcomes for predicting injury risk followed by developing and evaluating preparticipation screening and LE injury prevention programmes through high-quality randomised controlled trials targeting individuals at greater risk of injury based on screening tests with validated test properties. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  1. A study of the effect of OHSAS 18001 on the occupational injury rate in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramani, Abolfazl; Summala, Heikki

    2017-03-01

    The occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) has been a widely used approach for managing occupational health and safety more effectively worldwide. Despite the interest of organizations in implementing OHSMS in recent decades, few studies have examined the effectiveness of these interventions. This study presents an empirical investigation of the effect of occupational health and safety assessment series (OHSAS) 18001 as a worldwide-accepted OHSMS on the occupational injury rate (OIR) in Iran. This study was carried out in six companies: three OHSAS 18001-certified, and three non-certified, including 998 occupational injuries for 15,842 person-months. A before-after analysis showed a positive safety performance change in one out of the three certified companies. For all 66 study years in the six companies, a negative binomial regression did not indicate a lower occupational injury during the certified years and a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) did not confirm the effect of certification. The results of this study indicated that the implementation of OHSAS 18001 is not a guarantee of improved safety.

  2. Association between nationality and occupational injury risk on Danish non-passenger merchant ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maritime occupational accidents can be determined by several factors, among which human characteristics play a crucial role. Worker's safety behaviour depends on individual physical and mental characteristics as well as on his/her social and cultural background. The aim of this study...... is to investigate the frequency of workplace injuries in the Danish merchant fleet in the period 2010-2012, and to characterise its nationality dependence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Occupational injuries data reported from ships registered in the Danish International Ship Register to the Danish Maritime Authority were...

  3. Nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among older workers --- United States, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Older workers (defined as those aged ≥ 55 years) represented 19% of the U.S. workforce in 2009* and are the nation's fastest growing segment of the working population (1). To identify occupational safety issues affecting older workers, an analysis of data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII) was conducted by CDC, BLS, and several state partners. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, based on employer reports, an estimated 210,830 nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses among older workers in 2009 resulted in lost workdays. Although older workers had similar or lower rates for all injuries and illnesses combined compared with younger workers, the length of absence from work increased steadily with age and was highest for older workers (medians of 11 and 12 days for workers aged 55-64 years and ≥ 65 years, respectively). Older workers had higher rates of falls on the same level, fractures, and hip injuries compared with younger workers and workers of all ages. Public health and research agencies should conduct research to better understand the overall burden of occupational injuries and illnesses on older workers, aging-associated risks, and effective prevention strategies. Employers and others should take steps to address specific risks for older workers such as falls (e.g., by ensuring floor surfaces are clean, dry, well-lit, and free from tripping hazardS.)

  4. Determinants of Occupational Injury in Kombolcha Textile Factory, North-East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yessuf Serkalem

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Textile factory is among the most common manufacturing industries that has higher rate of work-related injuries. Knowing the associated factors of work-related injuries can be a critical step for improving the working condition of workers in the sector. Objective: To assess the major determinants of occupational injury among workers in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia. Methods: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 15, 2013 on 455 randomly selected workers after stratification by working departments. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview by data collectors of 6 occupational health experts and 6 nurses. Results: Working >48 hrs/wk (aOR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.18–6.24, handling objects >20 kg (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.24–4.45, visual concentration (aOR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.42–6.75, timely maintenance of machine (aOR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11–2.93, and sleep disorder (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.47–5.92 were significant factors for the occurrence of occupational injuries. Conclusion: Many factors including working for a long time with accurate instruments and sleep disorders can cause occupational injury in textile industries.

  5. Determinants of occupational injury in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yessuf Serkalem, S; Moges Haimanot, G; Ahmed Ansha, N

    2014-04-01

    Textile factory is among the most common manufacturing industries that has higher rate of work-related injuries. Knowing the associated factors of work-related injuries can be a critical step for improving the working condition of workers in the sector. To assess the major determinants of occupational injury among workers in Kombolcha textile factory, North-East Ethiopia. An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted from April 1 to 15, 2013 on 455 randomly selected workers after stratification by working departments. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire through face-to-face interview by data collectors of 6 occupational health experts and 6 nurses. Working >48 hrs/wk (aOR: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.18-6.24), handling objects >20 kg (aOR: 2.35, 95% CI: 1.24-4.45), visual concentration (aOR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.42-6.75), timely maintenance of machine (aOR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.11-2.93), and sleep disorder (aOR: 2.95, 95% CI: 1.47-5.92) were significant factors for the occurrence of occupational injuries. Many factors including working for a long time with accurate instruments and sleep disorders can cause occupational injury in textile industries.

  6. Relationships of physical job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashis Bhattacherjee; Jean-Pierre Bertrand; Jean-Pierre Meyer (and others) [Indian Institute of Technology (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2007-04-15

    This study assessed the relationships of job tasks and living conditions with occupational injuries among coal miners. The sample included randomly selected 516 underground workers. They completed a standardized self-administred questionnaire. The data were analyzed via logistic regression method. The rate of injuries in the past two years was 29.8%. The job tasks with significant crude relative risks were: power hammer, vibrating hand tools, pneumatic tools, bent trunk, awkward work posture, heat, standing about and walking, job tasks for trunk and upper/lower limbs, pain caused by work, and muscular tiredness. Logistic model shows a strong relationship between the number of job tasks (JT) and injuries and significant ORs=1.71 for face work, not-good-health-status, and psychotropic drug use. Musculoskeletal disorders and certain personality traits were also significant in univariate analysis. Therefore job tasks and living conditions strongly increase the injuries, and occupational physicians could help workers to find remedial measures.

  7. A three-year follow-up of 195 reported occupational over-exertion injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmlert, K; Orelius-Dallner, M; Kilbom, A; Gamberale, F

    1993-03-01

    Three years after reporting occupational over-exertion injuries, 181 persons took part in a follow-up study by questionnaire. The objective was to study these persons with respect to their current status of health, well-being and functional capacity and when possible compare collected data to reference data from the "normal population". The studied group reported more physical and psychological symptoms than the reference groups. More than 50% reported difficulties in activities of daily living. Long sick-leaves in the year following the reported injury were associated with remaining pain and low rate of employment. Three years after the injury, 109 persons were in employment. Almost one third of these had changed occupations and now had more varied tasks than at the time of the report. Those whose work loads had been reduced after the injury, did not report less musculoskeletal disorders than others. However, access to social support was positively related with health and psychological well-being.

  8. Possible gasoline-induced chronic liver injury due to occupational malpractice in a motor mechanic: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunathilaka, Mahesh Lakmal; Niriella, Madunil Anuk; Luke, Nathasha Vihangi; Piyarathna, Chathura Lakmal; Siriwardena, Rohan Chaminda; De Silva, Arjuna Priyadarshin; de Silva, Hithanadura Janaka

    2017-07-03

    Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a well-known clinical entity among petroleum industry workers. There are many types of hydrocarbon exposure, with inhalation being the most common. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury is a rarely suspected and commonly missed etiological agent for liver injury. We report a case of a non-petroleum industry worker with chronic liver disease secondary to hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury caused by chronic low-grade hydrocarbon ingestion due to occupational malpractice. A 23-year-old Sri Lankan man who was a motor mechanic presented to our hospital with decompensated cirrhosis. He had been chronically exposed to gasoline via inadvertent ingestion due to occupational malpractice. He used to remove gasoline from carburetors by sucking and failed to practice mouth washing thereafter. On evaluation, he had histologically proven established cirrhosis. A comprehensive history and workup ruled out other nonoccupational etiologies for cirrhosis. The patient's long-term occupational gasoline exposure and clinical course led us to a diagnosis of hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury leading to decompensated cirrhosis. Hydrocarbon-induced occupational liver injury should be considered as a cause when evaluating a patient with liver injury with possible exposure in relevant occupations.

  9. The ICF and Postsurgery Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Hand Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitinghoff, Helene; Lindqvist, Birgitta; Nygard, Louise; Ekholm, Jan; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effectiveness of hand rehabilitation programmes and have linked the outcomes to the concept of ICF but not to specific ICF category codes. The objective of this study was to gain experience using ICF concepts to describe occupational therapy interventions during postsurgery hand rehabilitation, and to describe…

  10. Occupational Injuries Among Physiotherapists: A Case Study in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, risks, occupational safety and responses of physiotherapists to work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). The subjects for this study were physiotherapists registered with the Medical Rehabilitation Council of Zimbabwe. A total of 198 ...

  11. Use of electronic music as an occupational therapy modality in spinal cord injury rehabilitation: an occupational performance model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B; Nantais, T

    1996-05-01

    This article describes an electronic music program that allows clients with spinal cord injury (SCI) to form musical bands and play songs while performing therapeutic exercise in an occupational therapy program. Clients create the music by activating upper extremity exercise devices that are connected to a synthesizer through a computer. The bands choose the songs they would like to play and meet twice a week for 1 hr to practice. The 8-week program often concludes with a public performance. The music program is intended to motivate client participation in physical rehabilitation while promoting self-esteem, emotional expression, and peer support. It is based on the model of occupational performance and the theory of purposeful activity. To date, 33 persons have taken part. Client, therapist, and public response has been positive because this program highlights the abilities of persons with SCI, thereby encouraging their reintegration into the community.

  12. Non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka: associated triggers and motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapakse, Thilini; Griffiths, Kathleen Margaret; Christensen, Helen; Cotton, Sue

    2015-11-24

    Attempted or non-fatal self-poisoning is common in Sri Lanka. To date, most preventive strategies have focused on limitation of access to toxic pesticides, which has reduced the rates of fatal self-poisoning. However the ongoing phenomenon of non-fatal self-poisoning indicates the need for exploration of alternate preventive strategies. Self-poisoning in Sri Lanka has been described as impulsive, with little premeditation, but the motivations associated with this act have not been studied in depth. This research describes the triggers and motivations associated with non-fatal self-poisoning in Sri Lanka. It is anticipated that the findings would help guide future preventive strategies. Two studies were carried out, at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, each using a different methodology - Study 1 consisted of qualitative semi-structured interviews, and Study 2 was a cross sectional survey. Both studies were conducted among those who had recently attempted self-poisoning, and explored associated triggers and motivations associated with the act of self-poisoning. There was no overlap between participants of the two studies. A total of 24 persons participated in the semi-structured interviews (Study 1), and 921 took part in the cross-sectional survey (Study 2). Interpersonal conflict was the most common trigger prior to the act of non-fatal self-poisoning. A mixture of motivations was associated with the act of self-poisoning, including intent to die, to escape, and difficulty tolerating distress associated with interpersonal conflict. Development of interpersonal skills and interpersonal problem solving skills, particularly in adolescents and young people, emerges as a key primary preventive strategy. Further, there is value in exploring and helping people to develop more adaptive strategies to cope with emotional distress associated with interpersonal conflict. While distress tolerance and interpersonal skill training strategies used in the West may be

  13. Non-fatal drowning in under-five rural children of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan Abdullah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Drowning has been identified as a major cause of death in children in both developed and developing countries. Non-fatal drowning is several times higher than the fatal drowning. To describe the socio-demographic and environmental attributes of non-fatal drowning in rural children this community based descriptive study was conducted on 122 children having non-fatal drowning events within one year of study period. This study was undertaken in Raigonj sub-district of Sirajgonj district in Bangladesh. Mothers of those children were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Out of all participants 56.6% children were 2-4 years of age and male-female ratio was almost equal. Of the total respondent mothers 55% were illiterate and 41.8% were below the age of 25 years. Seasonal variation was observed in non-fatal drowning. Rainy season (50.8% appeared as the most risky period followed by summer (29.5%. Higher incidence occurred (53.3% between 10 am to 2 pm of the day. Although most of the drowning occurred outside the home, 9% drowning occurred in water container (like drum, tub within the home. Pond (50.5% was found as the most common place among open water source. During the occurrence, 23% child was not accompanied by parents or any caregivers. At the time of drowning, 47.5% mothers were engaged with usual household work and were not present at the place of occurrence whereas 13% mothers were present around the place of occurance. Before drowning, 45.1% victim was either playing, bathing or swimming in the water. Only 10.7% needed resuscitation, 25% were taken to health centre and reached the health centre within an hour, about a fifth (22.6% of them were admitted. Restriction in dangerous water activities, strengthening supervision of children might decrease the incidence of drowning while quick and effective medical response might prevent its fatal consequences. Ibrahim Med. Coll. J. 2015; 9(2: 37-41

  14. International legal regulation of impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashkov, Vitalii M; Batyhina, Olena M; Trotska, Maryna V

    Agricultural workers' health depends on many factors: working conditions, security arrangements, medicine, quality of drugs, the environment, etc. Occupational injuries and diseases are also among the factors that can negatively affect their health. To analyze provisions of the international legislation and scientific literature concerning existence of restrictions on impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health. International acts, data of international organizations and conclusions of scientists have been examined and used in the study. The article also integrates information from scientific journals and monographs from a medical and legal point of view with scientific methods. This article is based on dialectical, comparative, analytic, synthetic and comprehensive research methods. Impact of occupational injuries and diseases on agricultural workers' health has been studied within the system approach, as well as analysis and synthesis. The level of occupational morbidity, traumatism and above all standard of agricultural workers' health depends on the way of occupational safety organization. Working conditions and safety in agricultural industry and therefore the appropriate standard of health remain unsatisfactory in many countries.

  15. [Causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, Carolina; Paravic, Tatiana; Valenzuela, Sandra

    2016-02-01

    Objective To describe the causes of underreporting of occupational injuries and adverse events as identified in the international literature and by key informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Methods The study uses a qualitative descriptive approach. This includes a systematized literature review that follows the SALSA method (Search, Appraisal, Synthesis and Analysis) and is in line with the PRISMA statement (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). In addition, interviews were conducted with informants in the area of health and risk prevention in Chile. Results The leading causes of underreporting of occupational injuries as described in the literature and by key informants were economic factors and ignorance. With regard to adverse events, the principal causes indicated were fear of sanctions, limited support provided by the authorities, lack of knowledge, and excessive workload. Conclusions It is important to continue working to strengthen the reporting of occupational injuries and adverse events and to implement measures aimed at minimizing factors that appear to be the leading causes of underreporting. In the case of occupational injuries, this means making sure that economic factors are not an impediment but rather an incentive to reporting. With respect to adverse events, steps should be taken to eliminate the fear of sanctions and to develop recommendations, focusing more on systemic improvements than on individuals, to promote joint learning. In both cases it will be necessary to combat ignorance through continuous, systematic training and support.

  16. Characteristics of Compensation Claimants Reporting an Occupational Injury Associated With Disability Benefits in the Subsequent Year

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Marianne; Johansen, Jens Peter; Omland, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics of claimants reporting an occupational injury associated with disability benefits for income independently granted by the municipality the subsequent year. METHOD: Multivariate logistic regression was used on self-reported data and register data. Primary...... and social issues explained only little of the differences in long-term benefits according to decision of workers' compensation system....

  17. 78 FR 32009 - Technical Report on the Injury Vulnerability of Older Occupants and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ...-0072] Technical Report on the Injury Vulnerability of Older Occupants and Women AGENCY: National... on technical report. SUMMARY: This notice announces NHTSA's publication of a technical report.... ADDRESSES: Report: The technical report is available on the Internet for viewing in PDF format at http://www...

  18. A case-crossover study of transient risk factors influence on occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    , but so far no relevant research has been conducted in Europe. METHOD: Case-crossover studies of occupational injuries were collected from PubMed and Embase and read through. Previous experiences concerning method, exposure and outcome, time-related measurements and construction of the questionnaire were...... technique, change in working surroundings, using a phone, disagreement, feeling ill, being distracted and using malfunctioning machinery/tools or work material. Exposure time 'just before the injury' will be compared with two control periods, 'previous day at the same time of the injury' (pair match...

  19. Epidemiology of non-fatal injuries due to external causes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    tween 1989 and 1990 in the course of 271 hospital ward rounds and 43 casualty watches. The overall trauma incidence was 2886 new cases per annum per 100000 population, rising to 19872 for coloured males aged 20 - 24.

  20. Epide·miology of non-fatal injuries due to external causes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... watch each. As for ward rounds, the order in which the watches were conducted and the dates on which they took place were randomised. Table I summarises details of the catchment hospitals and sampling procedure. TABLE I. ANALYSIS OF CATCHMENT HOSPITALS, WARD. ROUNDS AND CASUALTY ...

  1. Epide·miology of non-fatal injuries due to external causes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... cussing the internal limitations of this methodology, it is concluded that its findings may be of limited use for improving secondary interventions, but are of definite value for trauma prevention programmes. S Atr Med J 1991; 79: 466-471. Trauma has been described as 'the scourge of modern society'.l.

  2. Epidemiology of non-fatal injuries due to external causes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overall the malelfemale ratio was 2,9 rising to 6 or more in adolescence (15 - 19) for blacks andcoloureds. There were some 156 new resident cases of trauma daily; half these were victims of interpersonal violence, and coloureds constituted 22% of this group, although forming only 8% of the denominator population.

  3. Using process control concepts to model conditions required for sudden-onset occupational injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyserling, W Monroe; Smith, Gordon S

    2007-07-01

    Sudden-onset injury results from a momentary energy exchange between an agent and host, producing immediately discernible tissue damage. These injuries are common in both occupational and nonoccupational settings; typical causes include falls, mechanical contact/crushing, exposure to temperature extremes, and exposure to electrical current. We review epidemiologic and engineering approaches to injury prevention and propose a process control model for describing risk-of-exposure to injury agents during the Pre-event phase of sudden-onset injury. Process control is a proactive approach to quality engineering that is based on the premise of preventing defective products from being manufactured in the first place, instead of relying on reactive inspections to detect defects at the end of the manufacturing process. Principles of process control can be applied by occupational health and safety professionals to prevent workplace injury. The proposed model describes how work activities (process inputs) cause risk-of-exposure to injury agents to fluctuate over the course of a work shift. Risk-of-exposure is a complex function with many input factors including: the nature/magnitude of hazards, the presence and effectiveness of engineering controls, safety climate, management attitudes and practices, the surrounding work environment, the physical and mental states of the worker, and the quality and quantity of supervision and training. Injury can occur only when this function crosses a certain threshold and the host is exposed to injurious energy via physical contact. Certain factors that contribute to risk-of-exposure are stable for extended time periods (weeks, months, years), whereas other factors are transient (durations of minutes or seconds). The model extends classical work by Haddon and others, provides preliminary insights to designing epidemiologic studies and developing fault-tolerant work systems, and illustrates how interdisciplinary approaches can improve our

  4. High pressure injection injuries: a serious occupational hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrvos, R; Dean, B S; Krenzelok, E P

    1987-01-01

    High pressure injection equipment such as airless paint sprayers, high pressure grease guns, and fuel injection apparatus constitute a serious safety hazard resulting in significant morbidity. These devices are capable of delivering contaminants such as paint, solvents, and grease at pressures ranging from 600-12,000 psi. This allows the substance to penetrate through a minute skin wound and to spread widely through fascial planes and tendon sheaths and to produce significant vascular compression and systemic toxicity. High pressure injection injuries frequently result in amputation. Fifty-five suspected high pressure injection injury cases were evaluated. Twenty were determined to be actual injection injuries from equipment producing pressures in the range of 1,500-12,000 psi. The injected contaminants included latex paint, mineral spirits, and concrete sealer. Fourteen injuries involved digits. Digital amputation was necessary in three patients. Hospital admissions averaged 6.5 days. Successful management of these cases involves awareness of the impending problem and rapid referral of the patient to an emergency department and to a competent orthopedic or plastic surgeon.

  5. Effect of noise exposure on occupational injuries: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad-Sardrudi, Hossein; Dormohammadi, Ali; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Poorolajal, Jalal

    2012-12-13

    Noise exposure is the most frequent occupational factor which may increase the risk of work-related injuries. The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between occupational injuries and noise exposure as well as hearing loss. This study was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 on 1062 workers in the Tabriz Tractor Manufacturing Plant. Sound pressure level (SPL) ≥85 dB in the workplace was considered as the independent variable (exposure) and physical occupational injuries as the dependent variable (outcome). Data were extracted from the workers' medical records using a checklist. Of 1062 volunteers, 392 (36.9%) were exposed (with SPL≥85 dB) and 670 (63.1%) were unexposed (with SPLnoise exposure and hearing impairment have adverse effect on work safety and can increase the probability of work-related injuries. This means reducing noise exposure can contribute to increase safety in workplaces where noise is a factor. Furthermore, using assistive listening devices may reduce risk of work injuries among hearing-impaired workers.

  6. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; Rojo Mota, G; Martínez Piédrola, R; Pérez de Heredia Torres, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients' level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills.

  7. Occupational toxicant inhalation injury: the World Trade Center (WTC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Shohet, Michael R; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Levin, Stephen M; Herbert, Robin

    2008-02-01

    Clinical descriptive data is presented on a group of 554 former workers and volunteers (with more than 90 different occupations) at the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster site. A subsample of 168 workers (30% of the group) was selected to examine lower airway disease risk in relation to smoking and WTC exposure variables. Five diagnostic categories clearly predominate: upper airway disease (78.5%), gastroesophageal reflux disease (57.6%), lower airway disease (48.9%), psychological (41.9%) and chronic musculoskeletal illnesses (17.8%). The most frequent pattern of presentation was a combination of the first three of those categories (29.8%). Associations were found between arrival at the WTC site within the first 48 h of the terrorist attack and lower airway and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and between past or present cigarette smoking and lower airway disease. Occupational exposures at the WTC remain consistently associated with a disease profile, which includes five major diagnostic categories. These conditions often coexist in different combinations, which (as expected) mutually enhances their clinical expression, complicates medical management, and slows recovery. Cigarette smoking and early arrival at the WTC site appear to be risk factors for lower airway disease diagnosis.

  8. A comprehensive overview of the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants and subsequent implications in terms of injury prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Yves; Cuny, Sophie; Hermitte, Thierry; Labrousse, Maxime

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to give an overview of the road injuries issues in France in the 2010's by determining the frequency and the severity of injuries sustained by car occupants, and to infer the implications in terms of vehicule safety. Three types of analysis are conducted. First, we present a time series analysis at a macro statistical level showing a dramatic decrease of injured and fatally injured occupants in passenger cars compared to other modes of road transport. Secondly, we propose a descriptive statistical analysis of the injuries (frequency and severity) sustained by car occupants, by body regions, using the AIS. Finally we propose some insights into the effectiveness of some safety features. French National crash census (BAAC) is used for a general overview of injury frequencies and raw severity scores (fatal, hospitalized, slighty injured) in car crashes. In-depth crash investigations data are used to specify the body regions and the severity of the injuries sustained by car occupants. Data show that car occupants mortality and morbidity decreased more over the last decade than other road modes: -58 % fatalities and -64 % hospitalized (compared to -39% and -55% for pedestrians, and -21% and -44% for motorcyclists for example). In crashes for which at least one person has been injured, 19 % of occupants are uninjured, 49 % of occupants sustain MAIS 1 injuries, 15 % MAIS2, 8% MAIS 3, and 9 % MAIS 4+. Regardless of seat belt use, the body regions most often injured are head, upper and lower extremities and thorax. However, at least two third up to 92% of involved persons sustain no injury at each of these body regions. The frequency of severe injuries is low, often less than 10 % and concern head and thorax mainly. Finally, the frequency and severity of injuries decrease for belted occupants in newer cars compared to older cars, whatever body regions. The frequency of severe injuries decreased by almost 50 % in these newer cars.

  9. Occupational injury among hospital patient-care workers: what is the association with workplace verbal abuse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, Erika L; Hurtado, David A; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Tamers, Sara L; Nelson, Candace; Kim, Seung-Sup; Wagner, Gregory; Sorenson, Glorian

    2014-02-01

    To test the association between workplace abuse exposure and injury risk among hospital workers. We hypothesized that exposed workers would have higher injury rates than unexposed workers. Survey of direct-care workers (n = 1,497) in two hospitals. Exposure to workplace abuse was assessed through self-report; occupational injury reports were extracted from employee records. We tested associations between non-physical workplace violence and injury using log-binomial regression and multilevel modeling. Adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for injury associated with being yelled at was 1.52 (95% CI 1.19, 1.95); for experiencing hostile/offensive gestures 1.43 (1.11, 1.82); and for being sworn at 1.41 (1.09, 1.81). In analyses by injury subtypes, musculoskeletal injuries were more strongly associated with abuse than were acute traumatic injuries. Associations operated on group and individual levels and were most consistently associated with abuse perpetrated by patients. Exposure to workplace abuse may be a risk factor for injuries among hospital workers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The global burden of selected occupational diseases and injury risks: Methodology and summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Deborah Imel; Concha-Barrientos, Marisol; Driscoll, Timothy; Steenland, Kyle; Fingerhut, Marilyn; Punnett, Laura; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Leigh, James; Corvalan, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Around the globe, work has a heavy impact on health. To better advise policy makers, we assessed the global burden of disease and injury due to selected occupational hazards. This article presents an overview, and describes the methodology employed in the companion studies. Using the World Health Organization (WHO) Comparative Risk Assessment methodology, we applied relative risk measures to the proportions of the population exposed to selected occupational hazards to estimate attributable fractions, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Numerous occupational risk factors had to be excluded due to inadequate global data. In 2000, the selected risk factors were responsible worldwide for 37% of back pain, 16% of hearing loss, 13% of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 11% of asthma, 8% of injuries, 9% of lung cancer, and 2% of leukemia. These risks at work caused 850,000 deaths worldwide and resulted in the loss of about 24 million years of healthy life. Needlesticks accounted for about 40% of Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C infections and 4.4% of HIV infections in health care workers. Exposure to occupational hazards accounts for a significant proportion of the global burden of disease and injury, which could be substantially reduced through application of proven risk prevention strategies. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Use of OSHA inspections data for fatal occupational injury surveillance in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, M; Goldoft, M

    1990-01-01

    Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) computerized inspections data, death certificates, and medical examiner records identified 204 fatal occupational injuries in New Jersey, 1984-85. OSHA computerized data uniquely identified seven cases. They did not identify 35 fatalities under OSHA's jurisdiction, of which 24 were investigated by OSHA but not recorded, four were not considered work-related, and seven were not known to OSHA. Eighty-seven were outside OSHA's jurisdiction; 28 were among the self-employed who are not under the health and safety protection of any governmental agency. PMID:2297066

  12. Consultative team to assess manual handling and reduce the risk of occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, P J; Lee, A H; Yau, K K

    2001-05-01

    To describe the formation of a consultative team to assess the risk of manual handling in the workplace that started in October 1992 within the cleaning services department of a 600 bed hospital, and to evaluate the effectiveness of its recommendations in reducing the rate and severity (time lost and cost) of workers' compensation injury. The consultative team identified, assessed, and recommended controls for manual handling and other injury risks. Data on injuries counted before and after implementation of the team's recommendations were obtained for the cleaning services study group, an orderly services comparison group, as well as cleaners from a peer hospital and for the State of Western Australia. Evaluation of the four groups was undertaken 3 years after the end of the study period, to allow maturation of the costs of the claims (adjusted to July 1998 consumer price index) and hours lost from work. Statistical analysis showed that implementation of the recommendations significantly reduced numbers and rates of injury, but not the severity of injury, in the cleaning services study group. There was no difference in numbers or severity of injuries for the comparison groups before and after implementation of the recommendations. The recommendation of the consultative team can produce a meaningful and sustained reduction in rates of injury within an at risk population. The results support a consultative approach to reducing workplace injuries from manual handling. The team process has potential for application to occupational groups at risk of exposure to other types of hazards.

  13. Occupational risk perception, safety training, and injury prevention: testing a model in the Italian printing industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Michael P; Zanaletti, William; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2009-01-01

    This study examined occupational risk perception in relation to safety training and injuries. In a printing industry, 350 workers from 6 departments completed a survey. Data analysis showed significant differences in risk perceptions among departments. Differences in risk perception reflected the type of work and the injury incidents in the departments. A structural equation analysis confirmed a model of risk perception on the basis of employees' evaluation of the prevalence and lethalness of hazards as well as the control over hazards they gain from training. The number of injuries sustained was positively related to the perception of risk exposure and negatively related to evaluations about the safety training. The results highlight the importance of training interventions in increasing workers' adoption of safety procedures and prevention of injuries.

  14. Associations between DSM-IV mental disorders and subsequent non-fatal, self-reported stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Nicola R.; Lim, Carmen C.W.; Levinson, Daphna; Fiestas, Fabian; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Posada-Villa, Jose; Haro, Josep Maria; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Xavier, Miguel; Iwata, Noboru; de Jonge, Peter; Bruffaerts, Ronny; O’Neill, Siobhan; Kessler, Ron C.; Scott, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the associations between a wide range of mental disorders and subsequent onset of stroke. Lifecourse timing of stroke was examined using retrospectively reconstructed data from cross-sectional surveys. Methods Data from the World Mental Health Surveys were accessed. This data was collected from general population surveys over 17 countries of 87,250 adults. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview retrospectively assessed lifetime prevalence and age at onset of DSM-IV mental disorders. A weighted subsample (n = 45,288), was used for analysis in the present study. Survival analyses estimated associations between first onset of mental disorders and subsequent stroke onset. Results Bivariate models showed that 12/16 mental disorders were associated with subsequent stroke onset (ORs ranging from 1.6 to 3.8). However, after adjustment for mental disorder comorbidity and smoking, only significant relationships between depression and stroke (OR 1.3) and alcohol abuse and stroke (OR 1.5) remained. Among females, having a bipolar disorder was also associated with increased stroke incidence (OR 2.1). Increasing number of mental disorders was associated with stroke onset in a dose–response fashion (OR 3.3 for 5+ disorders). Conclusions Depression and alcohol abuse may have specific associations with incidence of non-fatal stroke. General severity of psychopathology may be a more important predictor of non-fatal stroke onset. Mental health treatment should be considered as part of stroke risk prevention. Limitations of retrospectively gathered cross sectional surveys design mean further research on the links between mental health and stroke incidence is warranted. PMID:26094010

  15. Selection bias in follow-up interviews with individuals attending the emergency department for occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether supplementary interview participation was comparable for occupationally injured patients attending two hospital emergency departments and to investigate the magnitude of selection bias in relation to sex, age, severity, job tasks and industry risk level. METHODS......: Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments...... were compared for study recruitment by age and sex. Respondents and non-respondents to the interview were compared for age, sex, injury severity, job tasks and industry risk level. RESULTS: Of 4002 patients attending the two hospitals, 1693 (42%) participated in the interview. One hospital had...

  16. Effectiveness of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy after Traumatic Brain Injury in the Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hellweg

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiotherapy and occupational therapy are frequently administered in intensive care units (ICUs after traumatic brain injury (TBI to promote recovery. The increasing economic pressure and the growing need for evidence of therapeutic effectiveness are reasons for reviewing the currently available scientific data. The databases of OTseeker, PEDro, Medline, and Cochrane were searched for studies on frequently applied therapeutic procedures in the ICU following a TBI. It becomes evident that the currently available data on physiotherapy and occupational therapy are very limited. Consequently, it is not possible to give conclusive recommendations within an evidence-based context. Studies of other neurological disorders indicate that early mobilisation positively influences outcome parameters such as the ability to walk. It can be concluded from three studies that physiotherapy for the prevention or treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia is not effective. The proof of effectiveness for other physiotherapeutic and occupational therapy interventions must still be demonstrated.

  17. Integration of occupation based intervention in hand injury rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che Daud, Ahmad Zamir; Yau, Matthew K; Barnett, Fiona; Judd, Jenni; Jones, Rhondda E; Muhammad Nawawi, Rashdeen Fazwi

    2016-01-01

    Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). Engagement in daily occupations and day to day activities helps to restore function in individuals with injured hands and provides a platform to practise selected occupations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a combination of Occupation Based Intervention (OBI) and Therapeutic Exercise (TE) compared to TE alone for the rehabilitation of hand injuries. A single center RCT, parallel group was conducted at the Kuala Lumpur General Hospital (KLGH), Malaysia. Forty-six adult clients with hand injuries who consented to participate were randomly allocated to either the OBI + TE group or to the TE group. Following a ten week intervention program, statistical significance differences were found in DASH score (TE = 18.64 ± 14.84 vs OBI + TE = 9.50 ± 9.14, p = 0.02); total active motion (TE = 1035.85 ± 179.84 vs OBI + TE = 1203.65 ± 133.60, p = 0.01); neuropathic pain (TE = 2.90 ± 2.79 vs OBI + TE = 1.05 ± 2.01, p = 0.02); COPM performance (TE = 7.62 ± 2.03 vs OBI + TE = 9.53 ± 0.64, p hand injury rehabilitation improved outcomes for clients. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association between job stress and occupational injuries among Korean firefighters: a nationwide cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong-Kwang; Ahn, Yeon-Soon; Kim, KyooSang; Yoon, Jin-Ha; Roh, Jaehoon

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the nature of association between job stress and occupational injuries among firefighters in Korea. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting We conducted a nationwide survey using self-reported questionnaires in South Korea. Participants A survey was conducted among 30 630 firefighters; 25 616 (83.6%) responded. Our study included firefighters who were 20–59 years old. Individuals with job experience and those with missing data were excluded; ultimately, 14 991 firefighters were analysed. Results Among fire suppression personnel, high job demands (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.77), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.37), a poor organisational system (OR=1.33, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.55), and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.64) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; high job demands (OR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.47) were also associated with the frequency of injuries. Among emergency medical services personnel, high job demands (OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.54), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.66), a poor organisational system (OR=1.55, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.85), lack of reward (OR=1.43, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.69) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injury; low job control (OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.38), high interpersonal conflicts (OR=1.18, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.36), lack of reward (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.35) and a negative workplace climate (OR=1.16, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) were also associated with a greater number of injuries. Among officers, high job demands (OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.85) and a negative workplace environment (OR=1.54, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.10) were associated with the occurrence of occupational injuries; however, there was no significant correlation between job stress and the number of injuries. Conclusions High job stress among firefighters was associated with both the

  19. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Pratt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP emergency departments (EDs from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males made up 4.8% of workrelated ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67, crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80, electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00, bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79, open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78 and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83 in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace.

  20. Occupational injuries in Canadian youth: an analysis of 22 years of surveillance data collected from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, B.; Cheesman, J.; Breslin, C.; Do, M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Inexperience, inadequate training and differential hazard exposure may contribute to a higher risk of injury in young workers. This study describes features of work-related injuries in young Canadians to identify areas for potential occupational injury prevention strategies. Methods: We analyzed records for youth aged 10–17 presenting to Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP) emergency departments (EDs) from 1991–2012. We classified work-related injuries into job groups corresponding to National Occupational Classification for Statistics 2006 codes and conducted descriptive analyses to assess injury profiles by job group. Age- and sex-adjusted proportionate injury ratios (PIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to compare the nature of injuries between occupational and non-occupational events overall and by job group. Results: Of the 6046 injuries (0.72% of events in this age group) that occurred during work, 63.9% were among males. Youth in food and beverage occupations (54.6% males) made up 35.4% of work-related ED visits and 10.2% of work-related hospital admissions, while primary industry workers (76.4% males) made up 4.8% of work-related ED visits and 24.6% of work-related hospital admissions. PIRs were significantly elevated for burns (9.77, 95% CI: 8.94–10.67), crushing/amputations (6.72, 95% CI: 5.79–7.80), electrical injuries (6.04, 95% CI: 3.64–10.00), bites (5.09, 95% CI: 4.47–5.79), open wounds (2.68, 95% CI: 2.59–2.78) and eye injuries (2.50, 95% CI: 2.20–2.83) in occupational versus non-occupational events. These were largely driven by high proportional incidence of injury types unique to job groups. Conclusion: Our findings provide occupation group-specific information on common injury types that can be used to support targeted approaches to reduce incidence of youth injury in the workplace. PMID:27172126

  1. National trends in occupational injuries before and after 1992 and predictors of workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Abhinav; Leigh, J Paul

    2011-01-01

    Numbers and costs of occupational injuries and illnesses are significant in terms of morbidity and dollars, yet our understanding of time trends is minimal. We investigated trends and addressed some common hypotheses regarding causes of fluctuations. We pulled data on incidence rates (per 100 full-time employed workers) for injuries and illnesses from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and on costs and benefits from the National Academy of Social Insurance for 1973 through 2007. Rates reflected all injury and illness cases, lost work-time cases, and cases resulting in at least 31 days away from work. We adjusted dollar costs (premiums) and benefits for inflation and measured them per employed worker. We plotted data in time-trend charts and ran linear regressions. From 1973 to 1991, there was a weak to nonexistent downward trend for injury and illness rates, and rates were strongly and negatively correlated with the unemployment rate. From 1992 to 2007, there were strong, consistent downward trends, but no longer were there statistically significant correlations with unemployment. Significant predictors (and signs) of workers' compensation premiums for 1973-2007 included medical price inflation (positive), number of lost-time injuries (positive), the Dow Jones Industrial Average (negative), and inflation-adjusted interest rate on U.S. Treasury bonds (negative). Dollars of benefits were positively and significantly predicted by medical inflation and number of lost-time cases. For 1992-2007, the Dow Jones variable was the only robust predictor of premiums; the number of injuries was not a significant positive predictor. We had two major conclusions. First, the year 1992 marked a sharp contrast in trends and correlations between unemployment and incidence rates for occupational injuries and illnesses. Second, for the entire time period (1973-2007), insurance carriers' premiums were strongly associated with returns on investments.

  2. Psychological outcome of injured workers at 3 months after occupational injury requiring hospitalization in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuan-Han; Guo, Nai-Wen; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Ya; Hu, Pei-Yi; Hsu, Jin-Huei; Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Guo, Yue Leon

    2012-01-01

    After a traumatic event, a significant proportion of victims develop psychiatric disorders. Trauma has been an important ailment among workers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders at three months after occupational injuries. Our study candidates were injured workers in Taiwan who were hospitalized for 3 days or longer and received hospitalization benefits from the Labor Insurance program. A two-staged survey study was conducted. A self-reported questionnaire including the Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-50) and Post-traumatic Symptom Checklist (PTSC) was sent to workers at 3 months after injury. Those who met the criteria were recruited for the second stage phone interview with a psychiatrist using the Mini-international Neuropsychiatrie Interview (MINI). A total of 2001 workers completed the questionnaire (response rate 45.5%). Among them, 357 (17.8%) fulfilled the criteria for the MINI interview and were invited. A total of 148 (41.5%) completed the phone interview. The estimated rates of PTSD, partial PTSD (PPTSD), major depression, comorbid PTSD/PPTSD and major depression, and either PTSD/PPTSD or major depression were 2.7, 4.1, 3.0, 2.3, and 7.5%, respectively. The estimated rates of either PTSD/PPTSD or major depression among workers who suffered from intracranial injury, fracture, burn, crushing injury, and open wound of upper limbs were 10.4, 6.9, 5.9, 5.8 and 0%, respectively. At three months after occupational injuries, a significant proportion of workers suffered from psychiatric disorders. The rates of psychiatric disorders occurring after intracranial injuries were significantly higher than those occurring after non-intracranial injuries.

  3. The development of the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: an occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Mogammad Shaheed

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the methodology used in order to develop the Model of Occupational Self Efficacy: An occupational therapy practice model to facilitate returning to work after a brain injury. Nine males and one female participated in the study. Face to face, semi structured individual interviews were conducted and data were analyzed using a qualitative approach to explicate patterns and themes. The study was conducted in two phases, namely, Phase one described the lived experience of individuals with brain injury who had returned to work and Phase two described the development of the model by means of theory generation methodology. Four themes emerged that reflected the lived experiences for people returning to work after a brain injury. (1) A sense of loss of former self; (2) Uncertainty about the future; (3) The road to acceptance and believing in yourself; and (4) Participation in occupation enables growth. The above themes contributed to the central concept called Occupational Self Efficacy that resulted in the development of the occupational therapy practice model. The findings of the study suggest that theory generation methodology is adequate for the conceptual development of an occupational therapy practice model.

  4. Occupational injury history and universal precautions awareness: a survey in Kabul hospital staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garner Paul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health staff in Afghanistan may be at high risk of needle stick injury and occupational infection with blood borne pathogens, but we have not found any published or unpublished data. Methods Our aim was to measure the percentage of healthcare staff reporting sharps injuries in the preceding 12 months, and to explore what they knew about universal precautions. In five randomly selected government hospitals in Kabul a total of 950 staff participated in the study. Data were analyzed with Epi Info 3. Results Seventy three percent of staff (72.6%, 491/676 reported sharps injury in the preceding 12 months, with remarkably similar levels between hospitals and staff cadres in the 676 (71.1% people responding. Most at risk were gynaecologist/obstetricians (96.1% followed by surgeons (91.1%, nurses (80.2%, dentists (75.4%, midwives (62.0%, technicians (50.0%, and internist/paediatricians (47.5%. Of the injuries reported, the commonest were from hollow-bore needles (46.3%, n = 361/780, usually during recapping. Almost a quarter (27.9% of respondents had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B. Basic knowledge about universal precautions were found insufficient across all hospitals and cadres. Conclusion Occupational health policies for universal precautions need to be implemented in Afghani hospitals. Staff vaccination against hepatitis B is recommended.

  5. Salivary melatonin and cortisol and occupational injuries among Italian hospital workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Francesca; Mariuz, Marika; Liva, Giulia; Verri, Sara; Arlandini, Sara; Vivoli, Roberto

    2016-10-01

    Stress, circadian patterns, and sleep-related factors may have a role on occupational injuries. We investigated the association between occupational injuries among the workers of an Italian hospital and their secretion of salivary melatonin and cortisol. We used a case-control study design. 27 injured cases and 31 non-injured controls provided 5 salivary samples every 60 min from 9 pm to 1 am. Melatonin and cortisol concentrations were measured, and the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) derived using two fixed thresholds (1 and 3 pg/mL). The associations between injury, melatonin, cortisol, and DLMO were assessed through univariate and multivariate analyses. Non-injured controls had higher melatonin (median 2.28 pg/mL) and lower cortisol concentrations (0.71 ng/mL), as well as earlier DLMO times (9:00 pm with the 1 pg/mL melatonin cutoff) than cases (1.01 pg/mL, 1.14 ng/mL and 9:12 pm, respectively), although only few results were statistically significant. Measuring these hormones might be helpful to characterize the risk of injury among hospital workers.

  6. [Occupational injury risk in the shoe industry: frequency, types of injuries and equipment involved, improvement interventions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Ilaria Desirée

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work has been to evaluate the risk of injuries connected to the use of machinery and work tools in the footwear industry. The analysis of the data related to injuries in the footwear industry, deduced from the registers of injuries collected in the investigated factories, shows that most accidents arise from the contact of the operator's hands with tools and machinery parts during their use. Risk factors generally include the inherent specific danger of some work tools and machines, the lack or inadequacy of safety devices, the obsolescence of the equipment, the imprudence and underestimation of risk.

  7. Epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Al Quseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Tarek A Rageh,1 Reda Badry,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut branch, Assuit, Egypt Background and purpose: Stroke is a medical emergency that can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and disability. We aim to determine the epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke (CVS and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in Al Quseir City, Red Sea, Egypt. Methods: The total population (n=33,285 was screened through a door to door study by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection. All suspected stroke patients were subjected to a full clinical examination, computerized tomography (CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of their brain, blood sugar, lipogram, serum uric acid, complete blood cells, blood urea, and serum creatinine, as well as evaluated by Barthel Index and Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Carotid doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid functions were done for selected cases. Results: CVS was recorded among 130 patients out of 19,848 subjects aged 20 years and more, yielding a total prevalence of 6.55/1,000 population. From June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011, 36 patients were recorded to have stroke within 1-year, yielding an incidence rate of 1.81/1,000. Prevalence and incidence rates were higher among males than females, and both indices increased steadily with advancing age to reach the highest prevalence (37.02/1,000 and incidence rate (9.5/1,000 among aged persons 60 years and more. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-fatal stroke in Al Quseir city (6.55/1,000 was at the lower range of that recorded in developing countries (5–10/1,000 and slightly higher than that recorded in industrialized countries (5/1,000 population. Ischemic stroke is the most

  8. Occupational Injuries in Germany: Population-Wide National Survey Data Emphasize the Importance of Work-Related Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rommel

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries

  9. Effects of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in the population with chronic spinal cord injury: preparing for the best outcomes with occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the implications of chronic shoulder pain on quality of life and occupational engagement in spinal cord injury (SCI). The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory will be used to further examine the interplay of shoulder pain, quality of life and engagement in this population. Method Analysis of literature. Results Persons with SCI have a high prevalence of shoulder pain and injury, affecting 37-84% of analysed studies; chronic pain limits occupational engagement and decreases quality of life. Remediation of pain provides improved occupational engagement, functional independence and quality of life in those with high self-efficacy and low depression. Conclusion Shoulder pain is a serious complication following SCI and the Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-Efficacy Theory can be utilized in conjunction for a framework to evaluate, treat and prevent shoulder pain and its devastating effects on occupational engagement and quality of life in the spinal cord injured population. Thereafter, rehabilitation professionals will have a greater understanding of these interactions to serve as a guide for evaluation and intervention planning to promote optimal occupational engagement through limiting the experiences of occupational injustices for those with SCI and shoulder pain. Implications for Rehabilitation Musculoskeletal pain at the shoulder joint and depression are common complications following spinal cord injury that limit occupational engagement and decrease quality of life. To increase engagement and quality of life in this population, treatments need to address all factors including the under-lying psychosocial instead of task and environment modification alone. The Ecology of Human Performance Model and Self-efficacy Theory are effective frameworks that can be used for evaluation, treatment planning and outcome measurement to maximize occupational engagement and quality of life.

  10. Use of the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) to predict symptomatic deep vein thrombosis and fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism in severely injured patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, K M; Rao, S; Rittenhouse, K J; Rogers, F B

    2014-11-01

    Fatal pulmonary embolism is the third most common cause of death after major trauma. We hypothesised that the Trauma Embolic Scoring System (TESS) would have adequate calibration and discrimination in a group of severely injured trauma patients in predicting venous thromboembolism (VTE), and could be used to predict fatal and non-fatal symptomatic pulmonary embolism. Calibration and discrimination of the TESS were assessed by the slope and intercept of the calibration curve and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. Of the 357 patients included in the study, 74 patients (21%) developed symptomatic VTE after a median period of 14 days following injury. The TESS predicted risks of VTE were higher among patients who developed VTE than those who did not (14 versus 9%, P=0.001) and had a moderate ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.65 to 0.77). The slope and intercept of the calibration curve were 2.76 and 0.34, respectively, suggesting that the predicted risks of VTE were not sufficiently extreme and overall, underestimated the observed risks of VTE. Using 5% predicted risk of VTE as an arbitrary cut-point, TESS had a high sensitivity and negative predictive value (both ≥0.97) in excluding fatal and non-fatal pulmonary embolism. The TESS had a reasonable ability to discriminate between patients who developed VTE and those who did not and may be useful to select different strategies to prevent VTE in severely injured patients.

  11. Hair 32P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mianji, Fereidoun A; Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh; Hajizadeh, Bardia

    2015-03-01

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., (32)S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the (32)S(n,p)(32)P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived.

  12. Occupational injury and disease incidence and risk factors in Finnish agriculture based on 5-year insurance records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to evaluate the incidence of and risk factors for compensated occupational injuries and diseases in agriculture. The study population consisted of 78,679 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members covered by mandatory workers' compensation insurance. This population had a total of 24,424 occupational injuries and 1684 diseases from 2000 to 2004. In the 5-year period, 20.2% of the population had (one or more) injuries and 2.0% had occupational diseases. Multiple claims were common particularly among livestock producers. Using Poisson regression analyses, we identified several personal and farm-related risk factors, with relative risk estimates ranging from 1.07 to 3.08 for injuries and from 1.45 to 3.01 for diseases. Cattle-intensive geographic regions, occupational health service membership, large farm size, and farming alone were identified as risk factors for both outcomes. Further, male gender, higher number of insurance years, and residing on the farm were among risk factors for injury. These risk factors identified from a large longitudinal data set can be considered for developing and targeting interventions for farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  13. Role of working conditions in the explanation of occupational inequalities in work injury: findings from the national French SUMER survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedhammer, Isabelle; Lesuffleur, Thomas; Labarthe, Géraldine; Chastang, Jean-François

    2018-03-12

    Social inequalities in work injury have been observed but explanations are still missing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the contribution of working conditions in the explanation of social inequalities in work injury in a national representative sample of employees. The study was based on the cross-sectional sample of the national French survey SUMER 2010 including 46,962 employees, 26,883 men and 20,079 women. The number of work injuries within the last 12 months was studied as the outcome. Occupation was used as a marker of social position. Psychosocial work factors included various variables related to the classical job strain model, psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and other understudied variables related to reward, job insecurity, job promotion, esteem, working time and hours and workplace violence. Occupational exposures of chemical, biological, physical and biomechanical nature were also studied. Weighted age-adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Occupational gradients were observed in the exposure of most psychosocial work factors and occupational exposures. Strong occupational differences in work injury were found, blue-collar workers being more likely to have work injury. Chemical, biological, physical and biomechanical exposures contributed to explain the occupational differences in work injury substantially. Noise, thermic constraints, manual materials handling, postural/articular constraints and vibrations had significant contributions. Psychosocial work factors also contributed to explain the differences especially among women. Prevention policies oriented toward chemical, biological, physical, biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures may contribute to reduce the magnitude of occupational differences in work injury.

  14. Laboratory Animal Workers' Attitudes and Perceptions Concerning Occupational Risk and Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steelman, Eric D; Alexander, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known regarding the risk perceptions and attitudes of laboratory animal care workers toward biologic safety. The purpose of this descriptive study was to assess the attitudes and perceptions of laboratory animal workers toward occupational and injury risk. Subscribers to the CompMed and TechLink listservs (n = 4808) were surveyed electronically, and 5.3% responded; data from 215 respondents were included in the final analysis. Primary variables of interest included AALAS certifications status, level of education, and responses to Likert-scale questions related to attitudes and perceptions of occupational risk and injury. Nonparametric (χ(2)) testing and measures of central tendency and dispersion were used to analyze and describe the data. According to 88.6% of respondents, biologic safety training is provided with information about zoonotic diseases of laboratory animals. Level of education was significantly related to perception of importance regarding wearing personal protective equipment. Participants indicated that appropriate support from coworkers and management staff is received, especially when performance and perception are hindered due to stress and fatigue. Laboratory animal staff are susceptible to injury and exposure to dangerous organisms and toxic substances. For this reason, to maximize safety, yearly biologic safety training should be provided, the importance of protective equipment adherence strengthened, and the culture of safety made a priority within the institution.

  15. Distribution and characteristics of occupational injuries and diseases among farmers: a retrospective analysis of workers' compensation claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, Janne P; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-08-01

    Research indicates occupational injuries and diseases are not evenly distributed among workers. We investigated the distribution and characteristics of compensated occupational injuries and diseases requiring medical care in the Finnish farming population. The study population consisted of 93,564 Finnish farmers, spouses, and salaried family members who were covered by the mandatory workers' compensation insurance in 2002. This population had a total of 133,207 occupational injuries and 9,148 occupational diseases over a 26-year period (1982-2008). Clustering of claims was observed. Nearly half (47.1%) of the population had no compensated claims while 52.9% had at least one; 50.9% of farmers had one or more injuries and 8.1% had one or more diseases. Ten percent of the population had half of injury cases, and 3% of the population had half of occupational disease cases. Claims frequently involved work tasks related to animal husbandry and repair and maintenance of farm machinery. Injury and disease characteristics (work activity, cause, ICD-10 code) differed between individuals with high and low personal claim rate. Injuries and diseases of the musculoskeletal system had a tendency to reoccur among those with high claim rate. These outcomes were often related to strenuous working motions and postures in labor-intensive animal husbandry. Analyses of longitudinal insurance data contributes to better understanding of the long-term risk of occupational injury and disease among farmers. We suggest focusing on recurrent health outcomes and their causes among high risk populations could help design more effective interventions in agriculture and other industries. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. An observational study of shift length, crew familiarity, and occupational injury and illness in emergency medical services workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew D; Patterson, P Daniel; Fabio, Anthony; Moore, Charity G; Freiberg, Matthew S; Songer, Thomas J

    2015-11-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) clinicians are shift workers deployed in two-person teams. Extended shift duration, workplace fatigue, poor sleep and lack of familiarity with teammates are common in the EMS workforce and may contribute to workplace injury. We sought to examine the relationship between shift length and occupational injury while controlling for relevant shift work and teamwork factors. We obtained 3 years of shift schedules and occupational injury and illness reports were from 14 large EMS agencies. We abstracted shift length and additional scheduling and team characteristics from shift schedules. We matched occupational injury and illness reports to shift records and used hierarchical logistic regression models to test the relationship between shift length and occupational injury and illness while controlling for teammate familiarity. The cohort contained 966,082 shifts, 4382 employees and 950 outcome reports. Risk of occupational injury and illness was lower for shifts ≤8 h in duration (RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.96) compared with shifts >8 and ≤12 h. Relative to shifts >8 and ≤12 h, risk of injury was 60% greater (RR 1.60; 95% CI 1.22 to 2.10) for employees that worked shifts >16 and ≤24 h. Shift length is associated with increased risk of occupational injury and illness in this sample of EMS shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Going beyond the injury: regulatory conditions contributing to Latina/o immigrants’ occupational psychosocial stressors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airin Denise Martinez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Utilizing a psychosocial stress approach, we report psychosocial stressors that Latina/o immigrant day laborers in Baltimore report as workplace hazards and the contextual factors that shape these stressors. METHODS: Through a community-academic partnership, we conducted focus groups (n=18 and key informant interviews (n=9 using instruments developed between academics and the community partner to inquire Latina/o immigrants’ jobs, hazard awareness, occupational illnesses and injuries, and reporting behaviors. We conducted a transcript-based thematic analysis.RESULTS: The psychosocial stressors that Latina/o day laborers report as dangers at work are anxiety beating the deadline and fear from wage theft, sudden termination and immigration enforcement.DISCUSSION: More attention needs to be given to Latina/o immigrant day laborers’ occupational psychosocial risks. Policies should be made to lower barriers for Latina/o immigrants to report grievances to state agencies.

  18. A post-conference evaluation of the 2015 National Occupational Injury Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Christine R; Castillo, Dawn N; Menéndez, Cammie Chaumont; Sinelnikov, Sergey; Webb, Sydney; Chavez, Emily

    2017-02-01

    The National Occupational Injury Research Symposium (NOIRS) is the only national forum focused on occupational injury research findings, data and methods, and prevention strategies; it has been convened every 3-5years since 1997. Held in May 2015, the 6th symposium's theme was "Advancing Occupational Injury Research through Integration and Partnership." Organizers requested that attendees complete a post-meeting evaluation to assess meeting impact, and gather information useful in planning subsequent meetings and activities. The questionnaire was publicized via a quick response code and link to the survey on symposium book cover, and mentioned at each scientific session. The online survey was designed to be completed in ≤15min; no identifying information was collected. Survey link remained open for seven days post-symposium. About 50% of registered attendees responded. Almost half were attending their first NOIRS. Most were researchers (69%); 45% were affiliated with government and 38% with university or research institute. Five of six reported that the symposium mostly or completely met expectations. Reasons for attending included gaining exposure to new areas of research (87%), sharing their research (80%), and to develop new ideas for conducting research (79%). The majority (90%) reported that the symposium provided adequate networking opportunities. The conference venue was reported as good or better by 69%, moreso among repeat attendees (77%) compared to first-timers (61%). The evaluation demonstrated that NOIRS was valuable to attendees, and provided a forum for sharing research results, developing new research ideas, and networking. Respondents provided input on different aspects of NOIRS and suggestions useful in planning next NOIRS, tentatively scheduled for 2018. NOIRS 2015 objectives for integration across disciplines and partnership with industry and safety professionals were partially met. In planning NOIRS 2018, more attention should be paid to

  19. Optimization of vehicle deceleration to reduce occupant injury risks in frontal impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Koji; Itakura, Takuya; Hirabayashi, Satoko; Tanaka, Eiichi; Ito, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    In vehicle frontal impacts, vehicle acceleration has a large effect on occupant loadings and injury risks. In this research, an optimal vehicle crash pulse was determined systematically to reduce injury measures of rear seat occupants by using mathematical simulations. The vehicle crash pulse was optimized based on a vehicle deceleration-deformation diagram under the conditions that the initial velocity and the maximum vehicle deformation were constant. Initially, a spring-mass model was used to understand the fundamental parameters for optimization. In order to investigate the optimization under a more realistic situation, the vehicle crash pulse was also optimized using a multibody model of a Hybrid III dummy seated in the rear seat for the objective functions of chest acceleration and chest deflection. A sled test using a Hybrid III dummy was carried out to confirm the simulation results. Finally, the optimal crash pulses determined from the multibody simulation were applied to a human finite element (FE) model. The optimized crash pulse to minimize the occupant deceleration had a concave shape: a high deceleration in the initial phase, low in the middle phase, and high again in the final phase. This crash pulse shape depended on the occupant restraint stiffness. The optimized crash pulse determined from the multibody simulation was comparable to that from the spring-mass model. From the sled test, it was demonstrated that the optimized crash pulse was effective for the reduction of chest acceleration. The crash pulse was also optimized for the objective function of chest deflection. The optimized crash pulse in the final phase was lower than that obtained for the minimization of chest acceleration. In the FE analysis of the human FE model, the optimized pulse for the objective function of the Hybrid III chest deflection was effective in reducing rib fracture risks. The optimized crash pulse has a concave shape and is dependent on the occupant restraint

  20. Minimizing the injury potential of deploying airbag interactions with car occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, Harold J; Prasad, Priya; Dalmotas, Dainius

    2013-11-01

    Minimizing the injury potential of the interactions between deploying airbags and car occupants is the major issue with the design of airbag systems. This concern was identified in 1964 by Carl Clark when he presented the results of human volunteer and dummy testing of the "Airstop" system that was being developed for aircraft. The following is a chronological summary of the actions taken by the car manufacturers, airbag suppliers, SAE and ISO task groups, research institutes and universities, and consumer and government groups to address this issue.

  1. Preventing passenger vehicle occupant injuries by vehicle design--a historical perspective from IIHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Motor vehicle crashes result in some 1.2 million deaths and many more injuries worldwide each year and is one of the biggest public health problems facing societies today. This article reviews the history of, and future potential for, one important countermeasure-designing vehicles that reduce occupant deaths and injuries. For many years, people had urged automakers to add design features to reduce crash injuries, but it was not until the mid-1960s that the idea of pursuing vehicle countermeasures gained any significant momentum. In 1966, the U.S. Congress passed the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act, requiring the government to issue a comprehensive set of vehicle safety standards. This was the first broad set of requirements issued anywhere in the world, and within a few years similar standards were adopted in Europe and Australia. Early vehicle safety standards specified a variety of safety designs resulting in cars being equipped with lap/shoulder belts, energy-absorbing steering columns, crash-resistant door locks, high-penetration-resistant windshields, etc. Later, the standards moved away from specifying particular design approaches and instead used crash tests and instrumented dummies to set limits on the potential for serious occupant injuries by crash mode. These newer standards paved the way for an approach that used the marketplace, in addition to government regulation, to improve vehicle safety designs-using crash tests and instrumented dummies to provide consumers with comparative safety ratings for new vehicles. The approach began in the late 1970s, when NHTSA started publishing injury measures from belted dummies in new passenger vehicles subjected to frontal barrier crash tests at speeds somewhat higher than specified in the corresponding regulation. This program became the world's first New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and rated frontal crashworthiness by awarding stars (five stars being the best and one the worst) derived from head

  2. Causes of General Aviation Weather-Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Certified Flight Instructor-Instrument CFIT Controlled flight into terrain FAA U.S. Federal Aviation Administration FBO Fixed-base operator FSS Flight...William R. Knecht Michael Lenz Civil Aerospace Medical Institute Federal Aviation Administration Oklahoma City, OK 73125 September 2010 Final Report...Causes of General Aviation Weather- Related, Non-Fatal Incidents: Analysis Using NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System Data DOT/FAA/AM-10/13 Office

  3. A non-fatal case of invasive zygomycete (Lichtheimia corymbifera) infection in an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eickhardt, Steffen; Braendstrup, Peter; Clasen-Linde, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Post-transplant infections in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients often have severe consequences. This is especially the case when dealing with zygomycete infections where the result is often fatal. A major problem when dealing with zygomycete infections is the need...... for an accurate and fast diagnosis as the phylum is highly resistant towards the conventional antifungals. We herein describe a non-fatal case of Lichtheimia corymbifera infection in an allo-HCT recipient....

  4. Crash protectiveness to occupant injury and vehicle damage: An investigation on major car brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Helai; Li, Chunyang; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    This study sets out to investigate vehicles' crash protectiveness on occupant injury and vehicle damage, which can be deemed as an extension of the traditional crash worthiness. A Bayesian bivariate hierarchical ordered logistic (BVHOL) model is developed to estimate the occupant protectiveness (OP) and vehicle protectiveness (VP) of 23 major car brands in Florida, with considering vehicles' crash aggressivity and controlling external factors. The proposed model not only takes over the strength of the existing hierarchical ordered logistic (HOL) model, i.e. specifying the order characteristics of crash outcomes and cross-crash heterogeneities, but also accounts for the correlation between the two crash responses, driver injury and vehicle damage. A total of 7335 two-vehicle-crash records with 14,670 cars involved in Florida are used for the investigation. From the estimation results, it's found that most of the luxury cars such as Cadillac, Volvo and Lexus possess excellent OP and VP while some brands such as KIA and Saturn perform very badly in both aspects. The ranks of the estimated safety performance indices are even compared to the counterparts in Huang et al. study [Huang, H., Hu, S., Abdel-Aty, M., 2014. Indexing crash worthiness and crash aggressivity by major car brands. Safety Science 62, 339-347]. The results show that the rank of occupant protectiveness index (OPI) is relatively coherent with that of crash worthiness index, but the ranks of crash aggressivity index in both studies is more different from each other. Meanwhile, a great discrepancy between the OPI rank and that of vehicle protectiveness index is found. What's more, the results of control variables and hyper-parameters estimation as well as comparison to HOL models with separate or identical threshold errors, demonstrate the validity and advancement of the proposed model and the robustness of the estimated OP and VP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prioritizing industries for occupational injury prevention and research in the Services Sector in Washington State, 2002-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K; Adams, Darrin

    2014-01-01

    The Services Sector, as defined by the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA), is comprised of a diverse industry mix and its workers face a variety of occupational exposures and hazards. The objective of this study was to identify high-risk industry groups within the Services Sector for prevention targeting. Compensable Washington State workers' compensation claims from the Services Sector from 2002 through 2010 were analyzed. A "prevention index" (PI), the average of the rank orders of claim count and claim incidence rate, was used to rank 87 Services Sector industry groups by seven injury types: Work- Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs), Fall to Lower Level, Fall on Same Level, Struck By/Against, Caught In/Under/Between, Motor Vehicle, and Overexertion. In the PI rankings, industry groups with high injury burdens appear higher ranked than industry groups with low counts or low rates of injury, indicating a need for prioritizing injury prevention efforts in these groups. In the Services Sector, these 7 injury types account for 84% of compensable claims in WA. The industry groups highest ranked by PI across the injury types included: Services to Buildings and Dwellings; Executive, Legislative, and Other General Government Support; and Waste Collection. WMSDs had the highest compensable claims rates. Services is a large sector of the economy, and the substantial number, rate, and cost of occupational injuries within this sector should be addressed. Several Services Sector industry groups are at high risk for a variety of occupational injuries. Using a PI to rank industry groups based on their injury risk provides information with which to guide prevention efforts.

  6. [Determinants of occupational injuries in the construction of the "high speed train" Bologna-Florence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Venere Leda Mara; Lisi, Catiuscia; Cinti, Danilo; Cervino, Daniela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Forastiere, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    to study determinants of occupational injuries in tunnel construction using data from the surveillance system which had been implemented in order to monitor accidents during the construction of the "high speed train tracks in the Italian Regions Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany. retrospective cohort study. 16 sites for the construction of 14 tunnels of the high speed railway-tract Bologna-Firenze, in Italy. 1,602 workers (of 3,000 employed in the underground tunnelling), aged 18 - 67 years, operating during excavation with traditional method in 1999-2002. A total of 549 injuries occurred among 385 workers. The number of worked hours were used as time at risk. incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals for all injuries, serious injuries and first injuries were considered in separate multiple regression analyses (Poisson). residence, task and working phase were taken into consideration. An increased risk was found for younger workers, for carpenters (IRR "all-events" = 2.33; 95% CI=1.85-2.94; IRR" first-events" = 2.12; 95% CI 1.62-2.77) and miners (IRR "all-events" = 1.76; 95% CI 1.39-2.24; IRR"first-events" = 1.71; 95% CI 1.30-2.24) vs. machinery operators. Construction of inverted arch turns out to have an incidence rate ratio three times higher than digging out (IRR "all-events" = 2.79; 95% CI 2.27-3.43; IRR "firsts-event = 2.98; 95% CI 2.33-3.81). The probability of "serious" injuries (>30 days) is higher for miners (IRR=2.45; 95% CI 1.65-3.64) and for carpenters (IRR=2.31; 95% CI 1.53-3.49). this study pointed out to indicate some determinants (age, task and work phase) of injuries in tunneling about which little had been published previously. These results are useful for addressing preventive measures, for control and prevention activities and point to the need to explore the effect of experience and to study, through a case crossover design, transient working and individual risk factors for traumatic injury within these working sites.

  7. Increased risk of non-fatal myocardial infarction following testosterone therapy prescription in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Finkle

    Full Text Available An association between testosterone therapy (TT and cardiovascular disease has been reported and TT use is increasing rapidly.We conducted a cohort study of the risk of acute non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI following an initial TT prescription (N = 55,593 in a large health-care database. We compared the incidence rate of MI in the 90 days following the initial prescription (post-prescription interval with the rate in the one year prior to the initial prescription (pre-prescription interval (post/pre. We also compared post/pre rates in a cohort of men prescribed phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5I; sildenafil or tadalafil, N = 167,279, and compared TT prescription post/pre rates with the PDE5I post/pre rates, adjusting for potential confounders using doubly robust estimation.In all subjects, the post/pre-prescription rate ratio (RR for TT prescription was 1.36 (1.03, 1.81. In men aged 65 years and older, the RR was 2.19 (1.27, 3.77 for TT prescription and 1.15 (0.83, 1.59 for PDE5I, and the ratio of the rate ratios (RRR for TT prescription relative to PDE5I was 1.90 (1.04, 3.49. The RR for TT prescription increased with age from 0.95 (0.54, 1.67 for men under age 55 years to 3.43 (1.54, 7.56 for those aged ≥ 75 years (p trend = 0.03, while no trend was seen for PDE5I (p trend = 0.18. In men under age 65 years, excess risk was confined to those with a prior history of heart disease, with RRs of 2.90 (1.49, 5.62 for TT prescription and 1.40 (0.91, 2.14 for PDE5I, and a RRR of 2.07 (1.05, 4.11.In older men, and in younger men with pre-existing diagnosed heart disease, the risk of MI following initiation of TT prescription is substantially increased.

  8. Work Safety Climate, Safety Behaviors, and Occupational Injuries of Youth Farmworkers in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Gregory D; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Justin T; Arcury, Thomas A

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this project were to describe the work safety climate and the association between occupational safety behaviors and injuries among hired youth farmworkers in North Carolina (n = 87). We conducted personal interviews among a cross-sectional sample of youth farmworkers aged 10 to 17 years. The majority of youths reported that work safety practices were very important to management, yet 38% stated that supervisors were only interested in "doing the job quickly and cheaply." Few youths reported appropriate work safety behavior, and 14% experienced an injury within the past 12 months. In bivariate analysis, perceptions of work safety climate were significantly associated with pesticide exposure risk factors for rewearing wet shoes (P = .01), wet clothes (P = .01), and shorts (P = .03). Youth farmworkers perceived their work safety climate as being poor. Although additional research is needed to support these findings, these results strengthen the need to increase employer awareness to improve the safety climate for protecting youth farmworkers from harmful exposures and injuries.

  9. Occupational injuries in Korea: a comparison of blue-collar and white-collar workers' rates and underreporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Jonguk; Ahn, Yeonsoon; Song, Jaesuk; Koh, Donghee; Roh, Jaehoon

    2007-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the differences in occupational injuries and illnesses between white-collar and blue-collar workers and to estimate the magnitude of the underreporting of these injuries and illnesses in Korea. Two datasets were used. One was a cohort established in the Gyeongin area with workers who underwent mandated health examinations, and the other was the National Health Insurance (NHI) data of claims submitted by workers employed between 1999 and 2001. Workers were classified into two groups--white-collar and blue-collar workers--according to their job types and the type of health examination they received. Injury rates were calculated for white-collar and blue-collar workers. The differences in the incidences of musculoskeletal diseases or injury and poisoning between the two groups were regarded as unreported occupational injuries or illnesses. Thereafter, work-related injury rates were estimated. With regard to medical treatment for musculoskeletal diseases or injuries and poisonings covered by the NHI, blue-collar workers had 3.47 more cases per 100 person-years than white-collar workers. This translates into a rate of between 12.57 and 18.1 injured workers per million working hours. The injury rate was 2.74 to 3.29 injured workers and the incidence rate was 3.62 to 5.44 injuries and illnesses per hundred workers. The estimated occupational injury and illness rates in this study were likely to be two to three times higher than those officially reported. However, the limitations of the study should also be considered.

  10. Relationships of job, age, and life conditions with the causes and severity of occupational injuries in construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nearkasen; Gauchard, Gérome C; Siegfried, Christian; Benamghar, Lahoucine; Dangelzer, Jean-Louis; Français, Martine; Jacquin, Régis; Sourdot, Alain; Perrin, Philippe P; Mur, Jean-Marie

    2004-01-01

    To assess the relationships of job, age, and life conditions with the causes and severity of occupational injuries in male construction labourers. The sample included 880 male construction workers having had at least one occupational injury with subsequent sick leave. The survey used a standardised questionnaire, filled in by the occupational physician in the presence of the subject: socio-demographic data, job, safety training, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, sporting activities, physical disabilities, hearing, vision, and sleep disorders. Statistical analysis was via the logistic regression method. Logistic models showed that falls and injuries from the handling of objects or hand tools was similar for all jobs, while masons, plumbers and electricians had a higher risk of injury from moving objects, and carpenters, roofers and civil-engineering workers were more exposed to injury from construction machinery and devices. Age falls on the same level [OR 2.04 (1.30-3.21)] and falls to a lower level [OR 1.55 (1.13-2.13)]. Injuries from the handling of objects were less frequent in overweight workers [OR 0.62 (0.46-0.84)]. Injuries with hospitalisation or sick leave > or =60 days were associated with age > or =30 and hearing disorders. The causes of injuries were related to jobs. Prevention through working conditions could be made against the revealed risks. The risks for each worker depended on age, body mass index, hearing disorders, sleep disorders, and sporting activities. The occupational physician could inform the workers of these risks and encourage them to practise sporting activities and reduce their hearing disorders and sleep disorders.

  11. Occupant-level injury severity analyses for taxis in Hong Kong: A Bayesian space-time logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanyu; Xu, Pengpeng; Wong, S C; Huang, Helai; Li, Y C

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the factors affecting the crash-related severity level of injuries in taxis and quantify the associations between these factors and taxi occupant injury severity. Casualties resulting from taxi crashes from 2004 to 2013 in Hong Kong were divided into four categories: taxi drivers, taxi passengers, private car drivers and private car passengers. To avoid any biased interpretation caused by unobserved spatial and temporal effects, a Bayesian hierarchical logistic modeling approach with conditional autoregressive priors was applied, and four different model forms were tested. For taxi drivers and passengers, the model with space-time interaction was proven to most properly address the unobserved heterogeneity effects. The results indicated that time of week, number of vehicles involved, weather, point of impact and driver age were closely associated with taxi drivers' injury severity level in a crash. For taxi passengers' injury severity an additional factor, taxi service area, was influential. To investigate the differences between taxis and other traffic, similar models were established for private car drivers and passengers. The results revealed that although location in the network and driver gender significantly influenced private car drivers' injury severity, they did not influence taxi drivers' injury severity. Compared with taxi passengers, the injury severity of private car passengers was more sensitive to average speed and whether seat belts were worn. Older drivers, urban taxis and fatigued driving were identified as factors that increased taxi occupant injury severity in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Abort and Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T. Somers

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the NASA Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR anthropomorphic test device (ATD as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria (HIC 15, kinematic rotational brain injury criteria (BRIC, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score.

  13. Working Conditions, Occupational Injuries, and Health Among Filipino Fish Processing Workers in Dutch Harbor, Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gabriel Macasiray; de Castro, Butch

    2017-05-01

    This study explored how unique environmental conditions in Alaska influenced occupational health and safety for Filipino fish processing workers, many of whom migrated from warm locations (e.g., the Philippines, California, and Nevada). In-depth interviews were conducted with 26 Filipino workers in one commercial fish processing company in Dutch Harbor. Results indicated that cold weather interferes with workers' job performance, increasing their risk for injury and illness, whereas the community's isolation and rural nature causes loneliness and boredom, resulting in more high-risk behaviors. Other non-environmental factors affecting worker health include roommate and supervisor concerns and culture-specific practices. Findings suggest the importance of job rotation to avoid long exposures to cold temperatures, the value of a designated individual to inform workers about company and community resources that promote healthy lifestyles, and the possible utility of a joint worker-management safety committee.

  14. Service Dogs for People with Spinal Cord Injury: Outcomes Regarding Functional Mobility and Important Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Claude; Gagnon, Dany H; Routhier, François; Dumont, Frédéric; Poissant, Lise; Corriveau, Hélène; Tousignant, Michel

    2015-01-01

    No research using standardized tests based on direct observations along with longitudinal studies have shown the effects of service dogs on persons with mobility impairment. Our research objectives were to document the consequences of the use of the service dog on wheelchair propelling, grasping objects, shoulder pain, occupational performance, reintegration into normal living and psychosocial impacts for people with spinal cord injury (SCI). A cross sectional study was conducted with 45 males and 21 females with SCI (average age = 41.2). They were assessed in their homes and their communities, two to five years after they received their service dogs. Observations were based on four testing methods. An ongoing longitudinal study is reported, based on 9 months (n = 8 to 16) of data from four standardised questionnaires. Results demonstrate that services dogs are an efficient assistive technology for persons with SCI.

  15. Associations of Work Stress, Supervisor Unfairness, and Supervisor Inability to Speak Spanish with Occupational Injury among Latino Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer

    2017-06-22

    Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.

  16. Prevalence of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders and Injuries in Occupational and Physical Therapists and Its Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himan Nazari

    2017-03-01

    Discussion: This study confirmed the rate of prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries in occupational and physical therapists, with wrist and lumbar being the most affected. The promotion of therapist’s knowledge about MSD and following ergonomic principles and new approaches in the treatment may lower or prevent MSD. 

  17. Life span history of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in a large sample of general practitioners' patients: data from Rovigo, Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanone Poma, S; Vicentini, S; Siviero, F; Grossi, A; Toniolo, E; Cocchio, S; Baldo, V; De Leo, Diego

    2014-11-01

    A survey about history of non-fatal suicidal behaviour was performed on 1,171 subjects in the waiting room of general practitioners' practices in the territory of Rovigo (Northern Italy). The mean age of interviewed subjects was 52.9 ± 17.0, with a majority of female individuals. Two and two percent admitted previous experience of non-suicidal self-injury, 4.7 % admitted having had serious suicidal thoughts/plans, and 1.8 % reported at least one suicide attempt. Compared to the rest of the sample, people with history of suicidal behaviours resulted to be of younger age (p < .05), whilst their level of well-being was poorer (p < .001). When compared to the results of the Italian arm of the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders, carried out on general population samples, the present study produces higher rates of suicidality, despite the much higher mean age of the interviewed subjects compared to the general population.

  18. Left ventricular hypertrophy and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); J. Tuomilehto; D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; P.C. Elwood; S. Malyutina; A. Freire de Concalves; J. Sivenius; A. di Carlo; P. Lagiou

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between electrocardiographically assessed left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and fatal, non-fatal, haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating in EUROSTROKE. METHODS: EUROSTROKE is a

  19. Evaluation of non-HDL cholesterol as a predictor of non-fatal cardiovascular events in a prospective population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbayo Herencia, Julio A; Simarro Rueda, Marta; Palazón Bru, Antonio; Molina Escribano, Francisca; Ponce García, Isabel; Artigao Ródenas, Luis Miguel; Caldevilla Bernardo, David; Divisón Garrote, Juan A; Gil Guillén, Vicente Francisco

    2018-01-27

    Non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) is becoming relevant both in its participation in cardiovascular risk assessment and as a therapeutic target. The objective of the present study was to assess the independent predictive capacity of both non-HDL-C and LDL-C (the main priority in dyslipidemias to reduce cardiovascular risk), in cardiovascular morbidity in a population-based sample. A prospective cohort study involving 1186 individuals in the non-HDL-C group and 1177 in the LDL-C group, followed for 10.7years (SD=2.2), who had not had any previous cardiovascular event. The predictor variables included in the adjustment were: gender, age, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoker status and non-HDL-C in one group. In the other group, consisting of patients presenting TG levels of 400mg/dL, non-HDL-C was replaced by LDL-C. Survival curves (Kaplan-Meier) were calculated and two Cox regression models were applied, one for each group. Non-HDL-C group presented 6.2% of non-fatal cardiovascular episodes during follow-up and the LDL-C group 6.0%. After adjustment, for each 30mg/dL increase in non-HDL-C, the incidence of new non-fatal cardiovascular events increased by 31% (HR=1.31, 95%CI: 1.06-1.61; P=.018) and in the LDL-C group by 27% (HR=1.27, 95%CI: 0.97-1.61, P=.068). After a follow-up of 10.7years, non-HDL-C has been shown in our population as a prognostic factor of non-fatal cardiovascular disease, but not LDL-C, although its HR is close to statistical significance. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing non-safety with safety device sharps injury incidence data from two different occupational surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, A H; Parker, G B; Kanamori, H; Rutala, W A; Weber, D J

    2017-06-01

    The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Bloodborne Pathogens Standard as amended by the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act requiring the use of safety-engineered medical devices to prevent needlesticks and sharps injuries has been in place since 2001. Injury changes over time include differences between those from non-safety compared with safety-engineered medical devices. This research compares two US occupational incident surveillance systems to determine whether these data can be generalized to other facilities and other countries either with legislation in place or considering developing national policies for the prevention of sharps injuries among healthcare personnel. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occupational, Physical, and Speech Therapy Treatment Activities During Inpatient Rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Cynthia L; Dijkers, Marcel P; Barrett, Ryan S; Horn, Susan D; Giuffrida, Clare G; Timpson, Misti L; Carroll, Deborah M; Smout, Randy J; Hammond, Flora M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use of occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and speech therapy (ST) treatment activities throughout the acute rehabilitation stay of patients with traumatic brain injury. Multisite prospective observational cohort study. Inpatient rehabilitation settings. Patients (N=2130) admitted for initial acute rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury. Patients were categorized on the basis of admission FIM cognitive scores, resulting in 5 fairly homogeneous cognitive groups. Not applicable. Percentage of patients engaged in specific activities and mean time patients engaged in these activities for each 10-hour block of time for OT, PT, and ST combined. Therapy activities in OT, PT, and ST across all 5 cognitive groups had a primary focus on basic activities. Although advanced activities occurred in each discipline and within each cognitive group, these advanced activities occurred with fewer patients and usually only toward the end of the rehabilitation stay. The pattern of activities engaged in was both similar to and different from patterns seen in previous practice-based evidence studies with different rehabilitation diagnostic groups. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The contribution of respiratory pathogens to fatal and non-fatal respiratory hospitalizations: a pilot study of Taqman Array Cards (TAC) in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njuguna, Henry N; Chaves, Sandra S; Emukule, Gideon O; Nyawanda, Bryan; Omballa, Victor; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Mott, Joshua A; Fields, Barry

    2017-08-25

    Respiratory diseases cause substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, with sub-Saharan Africa bearing the greatest burden. Identifying etiologies of respiratory disease is important to inform cost effective treatment, prevention and control strategies. Testing for all of the different pathogens that are potentially associated with respiratory illnesses is challenging. We piloted the use of a multi-pathogen respiratory Taqman Array Cards (TAC) to identify pathogens in respiratory samples collected from non-fatal and fatal cases and their matched asymptomatic controls. This is a case control study comparing viral and bacterial pathogens detected among non-fatal and fatal cases to those detected among age and time matched asymptomatic controls. We used McNemar's test to compare proportions of pathogens detected among cases (non-fatal and fatal) to their matched asymptomatic controls. We used Mann-Whitney test to compare the distribution of median Cycle threshold (Ct) values among non-fatal and fatal cases to their corresponding asymptomatic controls. There were 72 fatal and 72 non-fatal cases matched to 72 controls. We identified at least one pathogen in 109/144 (76%) cases and 59/72 (82%) controls. For most pathogens, the median Ct values were lower among cases (fatal and non-fatal) compared to asymptomatic controls. Similar rates of pathogen detection among cases and controls make interpretation of results challenging. Ct-values might be helpful in interpreting clinical relevance of detected pathogens using multi-pathogen diagnostic tools.

  3. A non-fatal case of invasive zygomycete (Lichtheimia corymbifera) infection in an allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhardt, Steffen; Braendstrup, Peter; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Jensen, Karl E; Alhede, Morten; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Høiby, Niels; Vindeløv, Lars; Moser, Claus

    2013-05-01

    Post-transplant infections in allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) recipients often have severe consequences. This is especially the case when dealing with zygomycete infections where the result is often fatal. A major problem when dealing with zygomycete infections is the need for an accurate and fast diagnosis as the phylum is highly resistant towards the conventional antifungals. We herein describe a non-fatal case of Lichtheimia corymbifera infection in an allo-HCT recipient. © 2012 The Authors APMIS © 2012 APMIS.

  4. The role of door orientation on occupant injury in a nearside impact: a CIREN, MADYMO modeling and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencer, Allan F; Kaufman, Robert; Huber, Philippe; Mock, Charles

    2005-12-01

    This study addressed the effects of vehicle height mismatch in side impact crashes. A light truck or SUV tends to strike the door of a passenger car higher causing the upper border to lead into the occupant space. Conversely, an impact centered lower on the door, from a passenger car, causes the lower border to lead. We proposed the hypothesis that the type of injury sustained by the occupant could be related to door orientation during its intrusion into the passenger compartment. Data on door orientation and nearside occupant injuries were collected from 125 side impact crashes reported in the CIREN database. Experimental testing was performed using a pendulum carrying a frame and a vehicle door, impacting against a USDOT SID. The frame allowed the door orientation to be changed. A model was developed in MADYMO (v 6.2) using the more biofidelic dummies, BIOSID, and SIDIIs as well as USDOT SID. In side impact crashes with the lower border of the door leading, 81% of occupants sustained pelvic injury, 42% suffered rib fractures, and the rate of organ injury was 0.84. With the upper border leading, 46% of occupants sustained pelvic injury, 71% sustained rib fracture, and the rate of organ injuries per case increased to 1.13. The differences in the groups with respect to pelvic injury were significant at p = 0.01, rib fracture, p = 0.10, and organ injury, p = 0.001. Experimental testing showed that when the door angle changed from lower to upper border leading, peak T4 acceleration increased by 273% and pelvic acceleration decreased by 44%. The model demonstrated that when the door angle changed from lower to upper border leading, the USDOT SID showed a 29% increase in T4 acceleration and a 57% decrease in pelvic acceleration. The BIOSID dummy demonstrated a 36% increase in T1 acceleration, a 44% increase in abdominal rib 1 deflection, a 91% increase in thoracic rib 1 deflection, and a 33% decrease in pelvic acceleration. These data add more insight to the problem of

  5. Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vos, Theo; Flaxman, Abraham D; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2012-01-01

    Non-fatal health outcomes from diseases and injuries are a crucial consideration in the promotion and monitoring of individual and population health. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) studies done in 1990 and 2000 have been the only studies to quantify non-fatal health outcomes across an exhaust...

  6. Factors affecting occupational exposure to needlestick and sharps injuries among dentists in Taiwan: a nationwide survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chung Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the risks of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs for dentists are well recognized, most papers published only described the frequency of occupational exposure to NSIs. Less has been reported assessing factors contributing to exposure to NSIs. The purpose of this study was to update the epidemiology of NSIs among dentists in Taiwan and identify factors affecting NSIs in order to find preventive strategies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nationwide survey was conducted in dentists at 60 hospitals and 340 clinics in Taiwan. The survey included questions about factors supposedly affecting exposure to NSIs, such as dentist and facility characteristics, knowledge and attitudes about infectious diseases, and practices related to infection control. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between risk factors and exposure to NSIs. In total, 434 (74.8% of 580 dentists returned the survey questionnaires, and 100 (23.0% reported that they had experienced more than one NSI per week. Our data showed that the risk of occupational NSIs is similarly heightened by an older age (odds ratio [OR], 3.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.62-6.25, more years in practice (OR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.41-4.69, working in clinics (OR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.08-2.77, exhibiting less compliance with infection-control procedures (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.04-3.18, having insufficient knowledge of blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.04-2.67, and being more worried about being infected by blood-borne pathogens (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.05-3.13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High rates of NSIs and low compliance with infection-control procedures highly contribute to the chance of acquiring a blood-borne pathogen infection and threaten occupational safety. This study reveals the possible affecting factors and helps in designing prevention strategies for occupational exposure to NSIs.

  7. Occupational Noise Exposure and the Risk for Work-Related Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2017-11-10

    Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  8. Biographical disruption, adjustment and reconstruction of everyday occupations and work participation after mild traumatic brain injury. A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveen, Unni; Søberg, Helene Lundgaard; Østensjø, Sigrid

    2016-11-01

    To explore traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a biographical disruption and to study the reconstruction of everyday occupations and work participation among individuals with mild TBI. Seven focus groups were conducted with 12 women and 8 men (22-60 years) who had sustained mild TBI and participated in a return-to-work program. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Four interrelated themes emerged: disruption of occupational capacity and balance; changes in self-perceptions; experience of time; and occupational adjustment and reconstruction. The meaning of the impairments lies in their impact on the individual's everyday occupations. The abandonment of meaningful daily occupations and the feeling of not recognizing oneself were experienced as threats to the sense of self. Successful integration of the past, present and future was paramount to continuing life activities. The unpredictability of the future seemed to permeate the entire process of adjustment and reconstruction of daily life. Our findings show that the concept of time is important in understanding and supporting the reconstruction of daily life after TBI. The fundamental work of rehabilitation is to ameliorate the disruptions caused by the injury, restoring a sense of personal narrative and supporting the ability to move forward with life. Implications for Rehabilitation Individuals with a protracted recovery after a mild traumatic brain injury must reconstruct a new way of being and acting in the world to achieve biographical continuity. The perceived anxiety regarding changes in self and occupational identity, as well as loss of control over the future, can be attenuated through informational sessions during the hospital stay and at follow-up visits. The significant personal costs of returning to full-time employment too early indicate the need for early and ongoing vocational support in achieving a successful return to work.

  9. Nonfatal occupational injuries from slips, trips, and falls among older workers treated in hospital emergency departments, United States 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Larry A; Pollack, Keshia M

    2004-07-01

    Falls are a leading cause of injury among older adults. As the workforce demographics shift to an older population, the dearth of information on occupational falls among older adults must be addressed. A national probability sample of hospital emergency departments (EDs) (National Electronic Injury Surveillance System) was utilized to characterize falls at work. Older workers were found not to be at increased risk of a fall injury, but were more likely than younger workers to be hospitalized post-injury. Same-level falls were the most common type of incident among older workers. Falls from height were more prevalent among men than women. The narrative case descriptions for same-level falls to the floor primarily implicated floor contamination and tripping hazards. Fall prevention programs targeted to older workers must examine extrinsic sources of falls, particularly surface traction, contaminant control, and footwear. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Modeling of Individual and Organizational Factors Affecting Traumatic Occupational Injuries Based on the Structural Equation Modeling: A Case Study in Large Construction Industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadfam, Iraj; Soltanzadeh, Ahmad; Moghimbeigi, Abbas; Akbarzadeh, Mehdi

    2016-09-01

    Individual and organizational factors are the factors influencing traumatic occupational injuries. The aim of the present study was the short path analysis of the severity of occupational injuries based on individual and organizational factors. The present cross-sectional analytical study was implemented on traumatic occupational injuries within a ten-year timeframe in 13 large Iranian construction industries. Modeling and data analysis were done using the structural equation modeling (SEM) approach and the IBM SPSS AMOS statistical software version 22.0, respectively. The mean age and working experience of the injured workers were 28.03 ± 5.33 and 4.53 ± 3.82 years, respectively. The portions of construction and installation activities of traumatic occupational injuries were 64.4% and 18.1%, respectively. The SEM findings showed that the individual, organizational and accident type factors significantly were considered as effective factors on occupational injuries' severity (P factors and their indicator variables are very influential on the severity of traumatic occupational injuries. So, these should be considered to reduce occupational accidents' severity in large construction industries.

  11. Present of occupational accidents dimensions based on risk-injury affinity groups (case study, from1384 to 1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Yari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: correspondence analysis method as the best method to optimize matrix functions that using the risk-injury matrix methods are analyzed. This method reduces the information contained in the risk-injury table and to determine the correlation between the variables in the matrix. The aim of this study is to present accidents and occupational hazards dimensions is dependent to risk-injury groups, using occupational accidents that can be managed. Method: in this study the reports of occupational accidents registered in the social security organization in a period of ten years from the beginning of 1384 until the end of 1393 ( 222,300 incidents were collected and type of Risk and injury related to any accident identified based on criteria, the International Labour Organization and classified in a risk-injury matrix (18 × 18. Using correspondence analysis of dimensions are identified individually, this dimensions Most indicate the most correlation between risk and injury that facilitate decision-making in the risk assessment companies are covered by Social Security.  Results: Hair criteria recommends dimensions with inertia higher than 0.2 are suitable for the study and interpretation of results, based on this study were obtained from the dimensions of inertia (eigenvalue greater than 0.2 include the dim1 ,dim2 ,dim3 to consider and the correlation between variables is obtained based on singular value (variable distance from the centeroid. (Singular value of dim1: 0.750, singular value of dimension 2: 0.647 and singular value dimension3: 0.521

  12. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Costa, Giuseppe

    2017-04-22

    Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities) has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC), and workers born in high income countries (HIC), taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py), but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09), transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23) and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67). Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both SMPC and Moroccan workers in the construction

  13. Migrant workers in Italy: an analysis of injury risk taking into account occupational characteristics and job tenure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migrants resident in Italy exceeded 5 million in 2015, representing 8.2% of the resident population. The study of the mechanisms that explain the differential health of migrant workers (as a whole and for specific nationalities has been identified as a priority for research. The international literature has shown that migrant workers have a higher risk of total and fatal injury than natives, but some results are conflicting. The aim of this paper is to study the injury risk differentials between migrants, born in countries with strong migratory pressure (SMPC, and workers born in high income countries (HIC, taking into account individual and firm characteristics and job tenure. In addition to a comprehensive analysis of occupational safety among migrants, the study focuses on Moroccans, the largest community in Italy in the years of the analysis. Methods Using the Work History Italian Panel-Salute integrated database, only contracts of employment in the private sector, starting in the period between 2000 and 2005 and held by men, were selected. The analysis focused on economic sectors with an important foreign component: engineering, construction, wholesale and retail trade, transportation and storage. Injury rates were calculated using a definition of serious occupational injuries based on the type of injury. Incidence rate ratios (IRR were calculated using a Poisson distribution for panel data taking into account time-dependent variables. Results Injury rates among SMPC workers were higher than for HIC workers in engineering (15.61 ‰ py vs. 8.92 ‰ py, but there were no significant differences in construction (11.21 vs. 10.09, transportation and storage (7.82 vs. 7.23 and the wholesale and retail sectors (4.06 vs. 4.67. Injury rates for Moroccans were higher than for both HIC and total migrant workers in all economic sectors considered. The multivariate analysis revealed an interaction effect of job tenure among both

  14. Evaluating the Association of Workplace Psychosocial Stressors with Occupational Injury, Illness, and Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lezah P.; Rospenda, Kathleen M.; Sokas, Rosemary K.; Conroy, Lorraine; Freels, Sally; Swanson, Naomi G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This research project characterizes occupational injuries, illnesses, and assaults (OIIAs) as a negative outcome associated with worker exposure to generalized workplace abuse/harassment, sexual harassment, and job threat and pressure. Methods Data were collected in a nationwide random-digit-dial telephone survey conducted during 2003–2004. There were 2,151 study interviews conducted in English and Spanish. Analyses included cross tabulation with Pearson’s Chi-Square, and logistic regression analyses. Results Three hundred fifty-one (351) study participants reported having an OIIA during the 12 months preceding the study. Occurrences of generalized workplace harassment (O.R.= 1.53; CI = 1.33 – 1.75, p≤ 0.05), sexual harassment (O.R.= 1. 18; CI = 1.04 –1.34, p≤ 0.05), and job pressure and threat (O.R.=1.26; CI = 1.10–1.45, p≤ 0.05), were significantly associated with reporting an OIIA. Conclusions The psychosocial environment is significantly associated with an increased risk of OIIA. Further research is needed to understand causal pathways and to explore potential interventions. PMID:21154106

  15. Movement Repetitions in Physical and Occupational Therapy during Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbogar, Dominik; Eng, Janice J; Miller, William C; Krassioukov, Andrei V; Verrier, Molly C

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Longitudinal observational study. Objective To quantify the amount of upper and lower extremity movement repetitions (i.e., voluntary movements as part of a functional task or specific motion) occurring during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) physical (PT) and occupational therapy (OT), and examine changes over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. Setting Two stand-alone inpatient SCI rehabilitation centres. Methods Participants 103 patients were recruited through consecutive admissions to SCI rehabilitation. Interventions Trained assistants observed therapy sessions and obtained clinical outcome measures in the second week following admission and in the second to last week prior to discharge. Main Outcome Measures PT and OT time, upper and lower extremity repetitions, and changes in these outcomes over the rehabilitation stay. Results We observed 561 PT and 347 OT sessions. Therapeutic time comprised two-thirds of total therapy time. Summed over PT and OT, median upper extremity repetitions in patients with paraplegia were 7 repetitions and in patients with tetraplegia, 42 repetitions. Lower extremity repetitions and steps primarily occurred in ambulatory patients and amounted to 218 and 115, respectively (summed over PT and OT sessions at discharge). Wilcoxon signed rank tests revealed that most repetition variables did not change significantly over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. In contrast, clinical outcomes for the arm and leg improved over this time period. Conclusions Repetitions of upper and lower extremity movement are markedly low during PT and OT sessions. Despite improvements in clinical outcomes, there was no significant increase in movement repetitions over the inpatient rehabilitation stay. PMID:27752057

  16. SDF-1 dynamically mediates megakaryocyte niche occupancy and thrombopoiesis at steady state and following radiation injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswander, Lisa M.; Fegan, Katherine H.; Kingsley, Paul D.; McGrath, Kathleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Megakaryocyte (MK) development in the bone marrow progresses spatially from the endosteal niche, which promotes MK progenitor proliferation, to the sinusoidal vascular niche, the site of terminal maturation and thrombopoiesis. The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), signaling through CXCR4, is implicated in the maturational chemotaxis of MKs toward sinusoidal vessels. Here, we demonstrate that both IV administration of SDF-1 and stabilization of endogenous SDF-1 acutely increase MK-vasculature association and thrombopoiesis with no change in MK number. In the setting of radiation injury, we find dynamic fluctuations in marrow SDF-1 distribution that spatially and temporally correlate with variations in MK niche occupancy. Stabilization of altered SDF-1 gradients directly affects MK location. Importantly, these SDF-1-mediated changes have functional consequences for platelet production, as the movement of MKs away from the vasculature decreases circulating platelets, while MK association with the vasculature increases circulating platelets. Finally, we demonstrate that manipulation of SDF-1 gradients can improve radiation-induced thrombocytopenia in a manner additive with earlier TPO treatment. Taken together, our data support the concept that SDF-1 regulates the spatial distribution of MKs in the marrow and consequently circulating platelet numbers. This knowledge of the microenvironmental regulation of the MK lineage could lead to improved therapeutic strategies for thrombocytopenia. PMID:24735964

  17. Occupational radiation injuries from ionising rays recorded in the Federal Republic of Germany during the period between 1953 and 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffke, R.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of 218 occupational diseases, which were reported between 1953 and 1979 and officially recognised as being caused by ionising rays, showed these to be made up chiefly by skin disorders (61%, equally distributed over acute and chronic forms), even though considerable percentage shares were also calculated for haematological ailments (15%) and bronchial carcinomas developed by uranium miners. There was a total of 42 deaths, 32 of which were ascribed to uranium mining and 10 to haematological diseases. In all, the annual rate of occupational diseases attributed to ionising rays shows a tendency to decline, even though the number of individuals exposed to radiation is increasing. The incidence of radiation injuries was calculated to be in the order of 0.01% for persons at risk of occupational radiation exposure. (orig./EDB) [de

  18. An evaluation of virtual reality technology as an occupational therapy treatment tool in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, Angela Dr.

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of virtual reality (VR) games as an occupational therapy (OT) treatment tool is an attempt to use technology as purposeful activity that is more relevant to a modern patient population than traditional art and craft based activities. It is unclear however if VR games are suitable for clinical applications and the current project examines the usability of video-capture VR games in spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation.\\r\

  19. Are joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, obesity, or occupational activities predictors for osteoarthritis? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Sarah A; Fukuchi, Reginaldo K; Ezzat, Allison; Schneider, Kathryn; Schneider, Geoff; Emery, Carolyn A

    2013-08-01

    Systematic review with meta-analysis. To identify risk factors for osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, hip, and ankle, including joint injury, sport, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and occupational activity, in all age groups. OA is a significant health problem worldwide, affecting up to 10% of men and 18% of women over 60 years of age. There has not been a comprehensive review examining modifiable physical risk factors associated with the onset of OA. This evidence is important to inform the physiotherapy management of individuals following onset of OA. Twelve electronic databases were systematically reviewed. The studies selected met the following criteria: (1) original data; (2) joint injury, sport activity, physical activity, overweight/obesity, and/or occupational activity investigated as risk factors; (3) outcomes included OA (hip, knee, and/or ankle); and (4) analytic component of study design. The data extracted included study design, years of follow-up, study population, OA definition, risk factors, and results (effect estimates reported or calculated where available). The quality of evidence was assessed based on a modified version of the Downs and Black checklist. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity were associated with an increased risk of OA of the knee and hip. Sport and physical activity produced inconsistent findings. Joint injury was identified as a significant risk factor for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 3.8; 95% confidence interval: 2.0, 7.2) and hip OA (combined odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 18.2), as was previous meniscectomy with or without anterior cruciate ligament injury for knee OA (combined odds ratio = 7.4; 95% confidence interval: 4.0, 13.7). There is a paucity of research examining risk factors associated with ankle OA; this review identified only 2 studies with this outcome. Joint injury, obesity, and occupational activity are associated with an increased risk of knee and hip OA. Some findings

  20. Mental Health Symptomatology and Exposure to Non-Fatal Suicidal Behavior: Factors That Predict Vulnerability and Resilience Among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottomley, Jamison S; Abrutyn, Seth; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2017-11-07

    Despite efforts to identify risk factors following exposure to completed suicide, research has paid less attention to the associations between exposure to non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) and mental health symptomatology-factors that may underlie one's susceptibility to future suicidal thoughts and behaviors. This study examined differences in mental health symptomatology among 192 college students exposed to NFSB and 202 exposed to general stressors. Results indicated that students exposed to NFSB had significantly higher levels of depression and anxiety compared to those exposed to a variety of other stressors but not NFSB. Furthermore, among those exposed, a number of risk and protective factors emerged in relation to psychological sequelae, such as emotional stability, social support, and the quality of the relationship between the exposed and suicidal individual. These findings highlight the importance of enhancing provisions of support for those exposed to NFSB.

  1. Profile of the subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at an occupational health service and the RSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Freitas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the profile of subjects with soft tissue injuries attended at the Reference Center of Occupational Health – CEREST in the municipality of Santos, Sao Paulo state, in 2010, and the social insurance benefits granted.Materials and Methods: Analysis of medical records of the subjects assisted at CEREST in 2010, surveying data on gender, age, occupation, clinical diagnostics, clinical complaints, retirement, etc. The clinical diagnostics were categorized according to the International Classification of Diseases - ICD-10, subjects with soft tissue injuries were selected, and the diagnostics related to mental health disorders were registered. Data were recorded in Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and analyzed using statistical software R Development Core Team.Results: Of the 206 medical records analyzed, 18.0% (n=37 showed soft tissue injuries, 81.1% were female and 18.9% were male, and the subjects’ mean age was 43.24 years (SD=8.76. Subjects between 31 and 50 years old (70.2% were the most affected. The most affected occupations were cleaners, general service workers, and bank clerks. The most prevalent clinical diagnoses were synovitis and tenosynovitis, shoulder bursitis, and rotator cuff syndrome, with 62.2% of the subjects presenting more than one clinical diagnosis. 13.5% of the subjects also presented mental disorders. Association between retirement from work and the presence of soft tissue injury was observed (p=0.032. Only 13.5% of the diagnoses had some association with the work conditions.Conclusions: The general profile of the workers with soft tissue injuries was obtained: prevalence in women, diseases manifested in productive age, difficulty of association with work conditions, need for interdisciplinary interventions.

  2. Red meat intake is positively associated with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in the Costa Rica Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongqing; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2017-08-01

    The adverse effect of red meat consumption on the risk for CVD is a major population health concern, especially in developing Hispanic/Latino countries in which there are clear trends towards increased consumption. This population-based case-control study examined the associations between total, processed and unprocessed red meat intakes and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) in Costa Rica. The study included 2131 survivors of a first non-fatal acute MI and 2131 controls individually matched by age, sex and area of residence. Dietary intake was assessed with a FFQ. OR were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Higher intakes of total and processed red meat were associated with increased odds of acute MI. The OR were 1·31 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·65) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·65) for the highest quintiles of total red meat (median: 110·8 g or 1 serving/d) and processed red meat intake (median: 36·1 g or 5 servings/week), respectively. There were increasing trends in the odds of acute MI with higher total (P trend=0·01) and processed (P trend=0·02) red meat intakes. Unprocessed red meat intake was not associated with increased odds of acute MI. Substitutions of 50 g of alternative foods (fish, milk, chicken without skin and chicken without fat) for 50 g of total, processed and unprocessed red meat were associated with lower odds of acute MI. The positive association between red meat intake and acute MI in Costa Rica highlights the importance of reducing red meat consumption in middle-income Hispanic/Latino populations.

  3. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  4. Characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims in dairy farmers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karttunen, J P; Rautiainen, R H

    2013-07-01

    Research indicates that dairy farmers have an elevated risk of work-related adverse health outcomes. This case-control study evaluated the characteristics of and risk factors for compensated occupational injury and disease claims among Finnish dairy farmers. The cases consisted of 19 farm couples in which both spouses had a history of multiple claims. There were 283 claims in total, a rate of 26.6 claims per 100 person-years. The controls consisted of 12 couples in which neither spouse had compensated or rejected claims during their work history as insured farmers. A combined mail/telephone survey charted potential risk factors for compensated claims. These claims frequently involved work tasks and causes related to animal husbandry. Cattle were the most common cause for injuries in general and for serious injuries in particular. Gender differences in farm work and claims were observed. Using logistic regression analyses, we identified personal and work-related risk factors including long work history, small-scale dairy farm operation, and conventional stanchion barn for dairy cattle. Outdated working conditions, while not statistically significant, were positively associated with claims as well. Declined current work ability and musculoskeletal or respiratory conditions were significantly associated with claims where each of these outcomes may contribute to the other. Identified factors could be used to select subgroups of dairy farmers with either elevated or reduced risk of claims. Prevention of adverse health outcomes could be most effective when targeted to farmers at highest risk of occupational injury and disease.

  5. An empirical analysis on labor unions and occupational safety and health committees' activity, and their relation to the changes in occupational injury and illness rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Kwan Hyung; Cho, Hm Hak; Kim, Jiyun

    2011-12-01

    To find out from an analysis of empirical data the levels of influence, which a labor union (LU) and Occupational Safety and Health Committee (OSHC) have in reducing the occupational injury and illness rate (OIIR) through their accident prevention activities in manufacturing industries with five or more employees. The empirical data used in this study are the Occupational Safety and Health Tendency survey data, Occupational Accident Compensation data and labor productivity and sales data for the years 2003 to 2007. By matching these three sources of data, a final data set (n = 280) was developed and analyzed using SPSS version 18 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). It was found that a workplace with a LU has a lower OIIR than one without a LU. In manufacturing industries with five or more employees in 2007, the OIIR of the workplaces without a LU was 0.87%, while that of workplaces with a LU was much lower at 0.45%. In addition, workplaces with an established OSHC had a lower OIIR than those without an OSHC. It was found that the OIIR of workplaces with a LU is lower than those without a LU. Moreover, those with the OSHC usually had a lower OIIR than those without. The workplace OIIR may have an impact on management performance because the rate is negatively correlated with labor productivity and sales. In the long run, the OIIR of workplaces will be reduced when workers and employers join forces and recognize that the safety and health activities of the workplace are necessary, not only for securing the health rights of the workers, but also for raising labor productivity.

  6. Expanded Occupational Safety and Health Administration 300 log as metric for bariatric patient-handling staff injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Stephen B; Pories, Walter J; Pearson, Amy; Drake, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization of morbidly obese patients poses significant physical challenges to healthcare providers. The purpose of this study was to examine the staff injuries associated with the patient handling of the obese, to describe a process for identifying injuries associated with their mobilization, and to report on the need for safer bariatric patient handling. We performed our study at a 761-bed, level 1 trauma center affiliated with a U.S. medical school. The hospital's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 300 log was expanded to the "E-OSHA 300 log" to specifically identify injuries the staff attributed to bariatric patient handling. The 2007 E-OSHA 300 log was analyzed to identify and describe the frequency, severity, and nature of bariatric versus nonbariatric patient handling injuries. The analyses revealed that during 2007, although patients with a body mass index of > or =35 kg/m(2) constituted patient population, 29.8% of staff injuries related to patient handling were linked to working with a bariatric patient. Bariatric patient handling accounted for 27.9% of all lost workdays and 37.2% of all restricted workdays associated with patient handling. Registered nurses and nursing assistants accounted for 80% of the injuries related to bariatric patient handling. Turning and repositioning the patient in bed accounted for 31% of the injuries incurred. The E-OSHA 300 log narratives revealed that staff injuries associated with obese and nonobese patient handling were usually performed using biomechanics and not equipment. Manual mobilization of morbidly obese patients increases the risk of caregiver injury. A tracking indicator on the OSHA 300 logs for staff injury linked to a bariatric patient would provide the ability to compare obese and nonobese patient handling injuries. The E-OSHA 300 log provides a method to identify the frequency, severity, and nature of caregiver injury during mobilization of the obese. Understanding the heightened risk of

  7. [Reactive anxiety crisis and chronic adjustment disorder: a unique case of work injury and suspected occupational disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post

  8. Effects of increasing child restraint use in reducing occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakajima, Yukari

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, child restraint use among preschool children started to increase before compulsory child restraint use for children aged 0-5 years was introduced by legislation in April 2000. This study determined the effects of increased child restraint use in reducing motor vehicle occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years. We obtained monthly police data of child vehicle occupant injuries from 1990 to 2009. We calculated monthly ratios of morbidity rates per population of children aged 0-5 years to those of children aged 6-9 years. Time trends of the morbidity rate ratios were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to determine whether there were trend changes in child occupant injuries and when they occurred if there were trend changes. The morbidity rate ratios showed a slightly increasing trend of 0.03% per month (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02% to 0.09%) until the change-point in December 1997 (95% CI, July 1996 to January 1999), which then changed to a decreasing trend of -0.14% per month (95% CI, -0.16 to -0.11), with an overall trend change of -0.17% (95% CI, -0.23 to -0.11). No change-point was identified in or around April 2000 when compulsory restraint use was introduced. The present study used comparative indicators relative to age groups that were not covered by the legislation and showed that a decreasing trend of occupant morbidity among children aged 0-5 years started before the introduction of compulsory restraint use. This change probably reflects the prelegislative voluntary increase in child restraint use.

  9. An estimate of the U.S. government's undercount of nonfatal occupational injuries and illnesses in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, J Paul; Du, Juan; McCurdy, Stephen A

    2014-04-01

    Debate surrounds the accuracy of U.S. government's estimates of job-related injuries and illnesses in agriculture. Whereas studies have attempted to estimate the undercount for all industries combined, none have specifically addressed agriculture. Data were drawn from the U.S. government's premier sources for workplace injuries and illnesses and employment: the Bureau of Labor Statistics databanks for the Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages, and the Current Population Survey. Estimates were constructed using transparent assumptions; for example, that the rate (cases-per-employee) of injuries and illnesses on small farms was the same as on large farms (an assumption we altered in sensitivity analysis). We estimated 74,932 injuries and illnesses for crop farms and 68,504 for animal farms, totaling 143,436 cases in 2011. We estimated that SOII missed 73.7% of crop farm cases and 81.9% of animal farm cases for an average of 77.6% for all agriculture. Sensitivity analyses suggested that the percent missed ranged from 61.5% to 88.3% for all agriculture. We estimate considerable undercounting of nonfatal injuries and illnesses in agriculture and believe the undercounting is larger than any other industry. Reasons include: SOII's explicit exclusion of employees on small farms and of farmers and family members and Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages's undercounts of employment. Undercounting limits our ability to identify and address occupational health problems in agriculture, affecting both workers and society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alcohol, psychoactive substances and non-fatal road traffic accidents - a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogstrand Stig

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of alcohol and other psychoactive substances is high in biological specimens from injured drivers, while the prevalence of these psychoactive substances in samples from drivers in normal traffic is low. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of alcohol and psychoactive substances in drivers admitted to hospital for treatment of injuries after road traffic accidents with that in drivers in normal traffic, and calculate risk estimates for the substances, and combinations of substances found in both groups. Methods Injured drivers were recruited in the hospital emergency department and drivers in normal conditions were taken from the hospital catchment area in roadside tests of moving traffic. Substances found in blood samples from injured drivers and oral fluid samples from drivers in moving traffic were compared using equivalent cut off concentrations, and risk estimates were calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results In 21.9% of the injured drivers, substances were found: most commonly alcohol (11.5% and stimulants eg. cocaine or amphetamines (9.4%. This compares to 3.2% of drivers in normal traffic where the most commonly found substances were z-hypnotics (0.9% and benzodiazepines (0.8%. The greatest increase in risk of being injured was for alcohol combined with any other substance (OR: 231.9, 95% CI: 33.3- 1615.4, p  Conclusion The prevalence of psychoactive substances was higher among injured drivers than drivers in normal moving traffic. The risk of accident is greatly increased among drivers who tested positive for alcohol, in particular, those who had also ingested one or more psychoactive substances. Various preventive measures should be considered to curb the prevalence of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances as these drivers constitute a significant risk for other road users as well as themselves.

  11. Occupational injuries in times of labour market flexibility: the different stories of employment-secure and precarious workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Giraudo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between labour market flexibility, job insecurity and occupational injuries is not univocal. The literature generally focuses on the temporary character of work arrangements rather than on the precarity of careers. The aim of this paper is to identify, without defining a priori what a precarious career is, the most common professional profiles of young people who entered the labour market in the 2000s and to correlate them with occupational injury risks. Methods Using the Whip-Salute database, which combines individual work and health histories, we selected the subjects under 30 years of age whose first appearance in the database is dated after 2000. The occupational history of each individual between 2000 and 2005 was described according to 6 variables (type of entry contract, number of contracts, number of jobs, economic activities, work intensity and duration of the longest period of non-employment. Workers were grouped into homogeneous categories using cluster analysis techniques, which enable to identify different career profiles. Injury rates were calculated for each cluster, and compared within and between the groups. Results We selected 56,760 workers in the study period, who were classified in 6 main career profiles. About 1/3 of the subjects presented an employment-secure career profile, while about 45 % of them were classified into 3 clusters showing precarious career profiles with different work intensities. Precarious workers present significantly higher injury rates than those with secure careers, with an increase in risk between 24 and 57 % (p < 0.05. The comparison of injury rates at the beginning and at the end of the study period revealed a significant decrease in all clusters, but the gap between secure and precarious workers remained wide. Conclusions Cluster analysis allowed to identify career patterns with clearly different characteristics. A positive association between injury

  12. Occupational injuries in times of labour market flexibility: the different stories of employment-secure and precarious workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Massimiliano; Bena, Antonella; Leombruni, Roberto; Costa, Giuseppe

    2016-02-13

    The relationship between labour market flexibility, job insecurity and occupational injuries is not univocal. The literature generally focuses on the temporary character of work arrangements rather than on the precarity of careers. The aim of this paper is to identify, without defining a priori what a precarious career is, the most common professional profiles of young people who entered the labour market in the 2000s and to correlate them with occupational injury risks. Using the Whip-Salute database, which combines individual work and health histories, we selected the subjects under 30 years of age whose first appearance in the database is dated after 2000. The occupational history of each individual between 2000 and 2005 was described according to 6 variables (type of entry contract, number of contracts, number of jobs, economic activities, work intensity and duration of the longest period of non-employment). Workers were grouped into homogeneous categories using cluster analysis techniques, which enable to identify different career profiles. Injury rates were calculated for each cluster, and compared within and between the groups. We selected 56,760 workers in the study period, who were classified in 6 main career profiles. About 1/3 of the subjects presented an employment-secure career profile, while about 45 % of them were classified into 3 clusters showing precarious career profiles with different work intensities. Precarious workers present significantly higher injury rates than those with secure careers, with an increase in risk between 24 and 57 % (p < 0.05). The comparison of injury rates at the beginning and at the end of the study period revealed a significant decrease in all clusters, but the gap between secure and precarious workers remained wide. Cluster analysis allowed to identify career patterns with clearly different characteristics. A positive association between injury risk and the level of career fragmentation was found. The association

  13. Socio-cultural predictors of injuries: life-course experience of hospitalised injuries during the past century in the Velestino study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kousoulis, Antonis A; Michelakos, Theodoros; Katsiardani, Kalliopi-Pinelopi; Katsiardanis, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Anastasia; Petridou, Eleni Th

    2014-01-01

    Retrospective reviews provide unique opportunity to assess changing approaches to trauma in recent history and identify modifiable behaviours through the lessons of the past. The objective of this paper is to depict the nearly one-century long, life-course injury experience of seniors residing in Velestino, an agricultural Greek town, and comment on neglected determinants and transitional patterns following historical and socio-cultural events in the area. The life-course experience of non-fatal injuries, requiring hospitalisation, has been reported by N = 643 study participants, aged 65-102 years. Injuries were grouped and assessed in three ways: chronologically, by body part and by type. Overall, 124 injuries have been recorded over the past 70 years; the majority sustained by men (58.6%), and the highest number of injuries occurred during the recent decades, 1980s-1990s. For the age groups 26-45 and 46-65 years old, traffic (37.5% and 22.2%) and occupational (25.0% and 22.2%) events have been the commonest cause of injury, whereas injuries occurring at home were primary hazard (25.8%) for the elderly. Moreover, meaningful historical connections with warfare and migration movements were made. In retrospect, socio-cultural factors emerge as important predictors of certain injuries, pointing to the number of factors that should be taken into account when designing injury-prevention programmes.

  14. The relationship between the implementation of voluntary Five-Star occupational health and safety management system and the incidence of fatal and permanently disabling injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines two properties of the South African NOSA 5-Star System, a voluntary occupational health and safety (OHS) management system. The first property is the association between system implementation and final OHS outcomes measured as incidence rates of fatal and permanently disabling...... injury. The second is the association between the Star audit rating and rates of serious occupational injury. Although there are many uncertainties involved the paper argues that companies committed to the NOSA system experienced fewer fatal and permanently disabling injuries than the general...

  15. Combining Adult Learning Theory with Occupational Therapy Intervention for Bladder and Bowel Management after Spinal Cord Injury: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Gina; Bell, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Bladder and bowel management is an important goal of rehabilitation for clients with spinal cord injury. Dependence is these areas have been linked to a variety of secondary complications, including decreased quality of life, urinary tract infections and pressure ulcers (Hammell, 2010; Hicken et al, 2001). Occupational therapists have been identified as important members of the health care team in spinal cord injury rehabilitation; however, specific roles and interventions have not been clearly described. This case report will describe occupational therapy interventions embedded with principles of adult learning theory to address bladder and bowel management with an adult client who sustained an incomplete thoracic level spinal cord injury.

  16. In-depth Analysis of Pattern of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Workers of Railway Wagon Repair Workshop in Jhansi (U.P.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shubhanshu; Malhotra, Anil K; Verma, Santosh K; Yadav, Rashmi

    2017-01-01

    Occupational injuries constitute a global health challenge, yet they receive comparatively modest scientific attention. Pattern of occupational injuries and its safety precautions among wagon repair workers is an important health issue, especially in developing countries like India. To assess the pattern of occupational injuries and utilization of safety measures among railway wagon repair workshop workers in Jhansi (U.P.). Railway wagon repair workshop urban area, Jhansi (U.P). Occupation-based cross-sectional study. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 309 workers of railway workshop in Jhansi (U.P.) who were all injured during the study period of 1 year from July 2015 to June 2016. Baseline characteristics, pattern of occupational injuries, safety measures, and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data obtained were collected and analyzed statistically by simple proportions and Chi-square test. The majority of studied workers aged between 38 and 47 years ( n = 93, 30.6%) followed by 28-37 years ( n = 79, 26%). Among the pattern of occupational injuries, laceration (28.7%) was most common followed by abrasion/scratch (21%). Safety shoes and hat were utilized 100% by all workers. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience ( n = 237, 78%). Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with pattern of occupational injuries in univariate analysis ( P safety measures is low among workers on railway wagon repair workshop, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services toward this group of workers. Younger age group workers show a significant association with open wounds and surface wounds. As the education level of workers increases, the incidence of injuries decreases. Apart from shoes, hat, and gloves, regular utilization of other personal protective equipment was not seen.

  17. High strength steels, stiffness of vehicle front-end structure, and risk of injury to rear seat occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Elham; Digges, Kennerly; Marzougui, Dhafer; Roddis, Kim

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has shown that rear seat occupant protection has decreased over model years, and front-end stiffness is a possible factor causing this trend. In this research, the effects of a change in stiffness on protection of rear seat occupants in frontal crashes were investigated. The stiffness was adjusted by using higher strength steels (DP and TRIP), or thicker metal sheets. Finite element simulations were performed, using an LS Dyna vehicle model coupled with a MADYMO dummy. Simulation results showed that an increase in stiffness, to the extent it happened in recent model years, can increase the risk of AIS3+ head injuries from 4.8% in the original model (with a stiffness of 1,000 N/mm) to 24.2% in a modified model (with a stiffness of 2,356 N/mm). The simulations also showed an increased risk of chest injury from 9.1% in the original model to 11.8% in the modified model. Distribution of injuries from real world accident data confirms the findings of the simulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender-Related Spinal Injury Assessment Consideration in Military Aviation Occupant Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitley, P

    2001-01-01

    In determining the risk of injury in the military aviation environment, a male and female of similar height and weight have been assumed to have the same risk of vertebral injury during an escape or crash scenario...

  19. Evaluation of Occupational Therapy Workshops to Prevent Work-Related Injuries or Illnesses among Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecours, Alexandra; Therriault, Pierre-Yves

    2018-01-01

    The few studies aiming to evaluate prevention interventions provided by occupational therapists in health at work were conducted in work settings. However, to intervene in primary prevention, developing occupational therapy interventions with students learning a trade is relevant. The objective is to evaluate workshops designed and set up by…

  20. 75 FR 4728 - Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... workers experienced (68 FR at 38605). The column for hearing loss was added to the log in 2003 (67 FR at... included some non-MSD cases, such as occupational hearing loss. In the preamble to the 2001 Recordkeeping...). Based on this, OSHA concluded there was a need to create a separate column for occupational hearing loss...

  1. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  2. The ability of an electrocardiogram to predict fatal and non-fatal cardiac events in asymptomatic middle-aged subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Kenttä, Tuomas V; Junttila, M Juhani; Aro, Aapo L; Anttonen, Olli; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Knekt, Paul; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2016-11-01

    The long-term prognostic value of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for predicting cardiac events in apparently healthy middle-aged subjects is not well defined. A total of 9511 middle-aged subjects (mean age 43 ± 8.2 years, 52% males) without a known cardiac disease and with a follow-up 40 years were included in the study. Fatal and non-fatal cardiac events were collected from the national registries. The predictive value of ECG was separately analyzed for 10 and 30 years. Major ECG abnormalities were classified according to the Minnesota code. Subjects with major ECG abnormalities (N = 1131) had an increased risk of cardiac death after 10-years (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.7; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.1-2.5, p = 0.009) and 30-years of follow-up (HR 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5, p electrocardiogram are shown to have prognostic significance for cardiac events in elderly subjects without known cardiac disease. Our results suggest that ECG abnormalities increase the risk of fatal cardiac events also in middle-aged healthy subjects.

  3. Hair {sup 32}P measurement for body dose mapping in non-fatal exposures to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mianji, Fereidoun A. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jafari, Sheyda; Zaryouni, Saiedeh [Bu-Ali Sina University, Faculty of Science, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hajizadeh, Bardia [Iran Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Dosimetry bioassay methods are the backbone of a personal dosimetry in criticality accidents. Although methods like hair dosimetry and the use of activation foils (e.g., {sup 32}S) have been employed for decades, capabilities of different techniques, effects of hair type and neutron spectrum on the dose response, sensitivity and uncertainties of different techniques, etc., need more investigations. For this reason, the use of the {sup 32}S(n,p){sup 32}P reaction and hair samples for estimating non-fatal doses from fast neutrons was studied. The experiments were carried out with the hair samples attached on a RANDO phantom in a Cf-252 neutron field, in the dose range of about 0.05-1.15 Gy. In addition, the adequate post-accident preparation for hair samples including optimum conditioning and timing were investigated. Experimental results prove the good sensitivity and merit of the method for neutron quantification in the mentioned dose range for which other bioassay methods are of poor resolution and sensitivity. A rough estimation of the dose-response curve for Iranian hair was also derived. (orig.)

  4. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S.; Kiss, Ligia; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Background Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. Methods We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Findings Data are presented on 446 males aged 10–58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63–7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39–7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62–4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0–51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74–39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20–0.75). Conclusion This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant

  5. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S Pocock

    Full Text Available Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys.We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam.Data are presented on 446 males aged 10-58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%, manufacturing (19.1% and begging (5.2%. Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9 and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9. 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves. The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8% and skin injuries (36.7%, injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5% had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8% experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63-7.26, being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39-7.09 and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62-4.75. Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0-51.23, being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74-39.28 and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20-0.75.This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant labourers working in high-risk sectors, particularly

  6. Labour Trafficking among Men and Boys in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Exploitation, Violence, Occupational Health Risks and Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocock, Nicola S; Kiss, Ligia; Oram, Sian; Zimmerman, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Men comprise nearly two-thirds of trafficked and forced labourers in common low-skilled labour sectors including fishing, agriculture and factory work. Yet, most evidence on human trafficking has focused on women and girls trafficked for sex work, with scant research on trafficked men and boys. We analyse survey data from the largest systematic consecutive sample of trafficked people collected to date to describe the prevalence of violence, occupational health risks and injuries and associated factors. Participants were labour-trafficked men and boys using post-trafficking support services in Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam. Data are presented on 446 males aged 10-58. Men and boys were mainly trafficked for fishing (61.7%), manufacturing (19.1%) and begging (5.2%). Fishermen worked extensive hours (mean 18.8 hours/day, SD 5.9) and factory workers worked on average 11.9 hours/day (SD 2.9). 35.5% of male survivors had been injured while trafficked; 29.4% received no personal protective equipment (e.g. gloves). The most commonly reported injuries among all males were deep cuts (61.8%) and skin injuries (36.7%), injuries for which fewer than one-quarter reported receiving medical care. Six fishermen lost body parts, none of whom received medical care. Most males (80.5%) had no or very few rest breaks. One-third (37.8%) experienced severe violence. Work-related injuries were associated with severe violence (AOR 3.44, CI:1.63-7.26), being in the fishing sector, (AOR 4.12, CI:2.39-7.09) and threats (AOR 2.77, CI:1.62-4.75). Experiencing any violence was associated with threats (AOR 26.86, CI:14.0-51.23), being in the fishing sector (AOR 18.53, CI:8.74-39.28) and fluency in language of destination country (AOR 0.39, CI:0.20-0.75). This study highlights the abuse and extreme occupational hazards suffered by trafficked men and boys. Occupational health and safety interventions are urgently needed to protect male migrant labourers working in high-risk sectors, particularly

  7. Relationship of occupational therapy inpatient rehabilitation interventions and patient characteristics to outcomes following spinal cord injury: The SCIRehab Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelie, Rebecca; Gassaway, Julie; Buchman, Emily; Thimmaiah, Deepa; Heisler, Lauren; Cantoni, Kara; Foy, Teresa; Hsieh, Ching-Hui (Jean); Smout, Randall J.; Kreider, Scott E. D.; Whiteneck, Gale

    2012-01-01

    Background/objective Describe associations of occupational therapy (OT) interventions delivered during inpatient spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation and patient characteristics with outcomes at the time of discharge and 1-year post-injury. Methods Occupational therapists at six inpatient rehabilitation centers documented detailed information about treatment provided. Least squares regression modeling was used to predict outcomes at discharge and 1-year injury anniversary for a 75% subset; models were validated with the remaining 25%. Functional outcomes for injury subgroups (motor complete low tetraplegia and motor complete paraplegia) also were examined. Results OT treatment variables explain a small amount of variation in Functional Independence Measure (FIM) outcomes for the full sample and significantly more in two functionally homogeneous subgroups. For patients with motor complete paraplegia, more time spent in clothing management and hygiene related to toileting was a strong predictor of higher scores on the lower body items of the self-care component of the discharge motor FIM. Among patients with motor complete low tetraplegia, higher scores for the FIM lower body self-care items were associated with more time spent on lower body dressing, manual wheelchair mobility training, and bathing training. Active patient participation during OT treatment sessions also was predictive of FIM and other outcomes. Conclusion OT treatments add to explained variance (in addition to patient characteristics) for multiple outcomes. The impact of OT treatment on functional outcomes is more evident when examining more homogeneous patient groupings and outcomes specific to the groupings. Note This is the third of nine articles in the SCIRehab series. PMID:23318035

  8. Injury severity assessment for car occupants in frontal impacts, using disability scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, H; Krafft, M; Korner, J; Nygren, A; Tingvall, C

    1997-01-01

    Injury classification and assessment is one of the most important fields of injury prevention. At present, injury assessment focuses primarily on the risk of fatalities, in spite of the fact that most people who are injured survive the trauma. The net result of a fatality-based approach is that safety and vehicle engineers must make decisions with an incomplete, and sometimes misleading, picture of the traffic safety problem. By applying disability scaling reflecting long-term consequences to injury data, the most significant disabling injuries can be identified. The priorities change with the level of disability used in the scaling. In this study, the risk of permanent medical disability due to different injuries was derived and linked to abbreviated injury scale (AIS) values for 24,087 different injured body regions. This material is based on insurance data. To study how the importance of different bodily injuries changes with different severity assessments in a realistic real-world injury distribution, Swedish insurance industry disability scaling was applied to 3066 cases of belted Volvo drivers involved in frontal collisions. Crash severity was included in the study by using equivalent barrier speed (EBS). When lower levels of disability are included, injuries to the neck and the extremities become the most important, while brain and skull injuries become the most prominent at higher levels of disability. The results presented in this article should be regarded as a contribution to the development of a suitable disability scaling method. The results can also be utilized to further injury research and vehicle design aimed at reducing injuries which have the most important long-term disability consequences.

  9. Employer reasons for failing to report eligible workers’ compensation claims in the BLS survey of occupational injuries and illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuellner, Sara E.; Bonauto, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little research has been done to identify reasons employers fail to report some injuries and illnesses in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII). Methods We interviewed the 2012 Washington SOII respondents from establishments that had failed to report one or more eligible workers’ compensation claims in the SOII about their reasons for not reporting specific claims. Qualitative content analysis methods were used to identify themes and patterns in the responses. Results Non‐compliance with OSHA recordkeeping or SOII reporting instructions and data entry errors led to unreported claims. Some employers refused to include claims because they did not consider the injury to be work‐related, despite workers’ compensation eligibility. Participant responses brought the SOII eligibility of some claims into question. Conclusion Systematic and non‐systematic errors lead to SOII underreporting. Insufficient recordkeeping systems and limited knowledge of reporting requirements are barriers to accurate workplace injury records. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:343–356, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26970051

  10. The impact of the business cycle on occupational injuries in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rhys; Jones, Paul; Nuñez, Imanol

    2009-07-01

    This paper investigates the cyclical fluctuations in rates of workplace injury for the UK from 1986 to 2005. Time series analysis shows that, in aggregate terms, the rate of minor injuries is pro-cyclical whilst the rate of major injury is not affected by the level of economic activity. Analysis by sector reveals that cyclical fluctuations are sharper in the construction and manufacturing sectors. Using panel data, we find that fluctuations in both the rates of minor and major injury are related to the level of new hiring and the ratio of actual to usual hours worked. However, only minor injuries are related to variables that control for workers' bargaining power. The analysis demonstrates the importance of both compositional effects and individual reporting behaviour to understanding cyclical variations in workplace injury rates.

  11. Association between ambient noise exposure, hearing acuity, and risk of acute occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between acute workplace injury risk, ambient noise exposure, and hearing acuity, adjusting for reported hearing protection use. In a cohort of 9220 aluminum manufacturing workers studied over six years (33 300 person-years, 13 323 person-jobs), multivariate mixed effects models were used to estimate relative risk (RR) of all injuries as well as serious injuries by noise exposure category and hearing threshold level (HTL) adjusting for recognized and potential confounders. Compared to noise exposure was associated with elevated risk in a monotonic and statistically significant exposure-response pattern for all injuries and serious injuries with higher risk estimates observed for serious injuries [82-84.99 dBA: RR 1.26, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.96-1.64; 85-87.99 dBA: RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.85; ≥88 dBA: RR 2.29, 95% CI 1.52-3.47]. Hearing loss was associated with increased risk for all injuries, but was not a significant predictor of risk for the subset of more serious injuries. Compared to those without hearing loss, workers with HTL ≥25 dB had 21% increased all injury risk (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.33) while those with HTL 10-24.99 dB had 6% increased risk (RR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00-1.13). Reported hearing protection type did not predict injury risk. Noise exposure levels as low as 85 dBA may increase workplace injury risk. HTL was associated with increased risk for all, but not the subset of serious, injuries. Additional study is needed both to confirm the observed associations and explore causal pathways.

  12. High-Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle Rollover Accidents and Injuries to U.S. Army Soldiers by Reported Occupant Restraint Use, 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Michael C; Giffin, Robert P; Pakulski, Kraig A; Davis, W Sumner; Bernstein, Stephen A; Wise, Daniel V

    2017-05-01

    The high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle (HMMWV) is a light military tactical vehicle. During Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, the U.S. Army modified the HMMWV into a combat vehicle by adding vehicle armor, which made the vehicle more difficult to control and more likely to roll over. Consequently, reports of fatal rollover accidents involving up-armored HMMWVs began to accumulate during the up-armoring period (August 2003 to April 2005). Furthermore, the lack of occupant restraint use prevalent in a predominantly young, male, and enlisted military population compounded the injuries resulting from these accidents. In this retrospective case series analysis, we describe the characteristics of U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents, occupants, and injuries reported worldwide from fiscal year 1992 to 2013 based on reported occupant restraint use. We conducted all analyses using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SAS version 9.1. Because this analysis does not constitute human subjects research, no institutional review board review was required. First, we obtained U.S. Army HMMWV accident records from the U.S. Army Combat Readiness Center, and selected those records indicating a HMMWV rollover had occurred. Next, we successively deduplicated the records at the accident, vehicle, occupant, and injury levels for descriptive analysis of characteristics at each level. For each occupant position, we calculated relative, attributable, and population attributable risks of nonfatal and fatal injury based on reported occupant restraint use. Finally, we analyzed body part injured and nature of injury to characterize the injury patterns that HMMWV occupants in each position sustained based on restraint use. We performed a χ 2 test of homogeneity to assess differences in injury patterns between restrained and unrestrained occupants. A total of 819 U.S. Army HMMWV rollover accidents worldwide were reported from October 1991 through May 2013 involving 821 HMMWVs and

  13. Are frailty markers associated with serious thoracic and spinal injuries among motor vehicle crash occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskutis, Morgan Q; Lauerman, Margaret H; Kufera, Joseph A; Shanmuganathan, Kathirkamanathan; Burch, Cynthia; Kerns, Timothy; Ho, Shiu; Scalea, Thomas M; Stein, Deborah M

    2016-07-01

    While age is a known risk factor in trauma, markers of frailty are growing in their use in the critically ill. Frailty markers may reflect underlying strength and function more than chronologic age, as many modern elderly patients are quite active. However, the optimal markers of frailty are unknown. A retrospective review of The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN) database was performed over an 11-year period. Computed tomographic images were analyzed for multiple frailty markers, including sarcopenia determined by psoas muscle area, osteopenia determined by Hounsfield units (HU) of lumbar vertebrae, and vascular disease determined by aortic calcification. Overall, 202 patients were included in the review, with a mean age of 58.5 years. Median Injury Severity Score was 17. Sarcopenia was associated with severe thoracic injury (62.9% vs. 42.5%; p = 0.03). In multivariable analysis controlling for crash severity, sarcopenia remained associated with severe thoracic injury (p = 0.007) and osteopenia was associated with severe spine injury (p = 0.05). While age was not significant in either multivariable analysis, the association of sarcopenia and osteopenia with development of serious injury was more common with older age. Multiple markers of frailty were associated with severe injury. Frailty may more reflect underlying physiology and injury severity than age, although age is associated with frailty. Prognostic and epidemiologic study, level IV.

  14. Occupational exposure to sharps injury among healthcare providers in Ethiopia regional hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharew, Nigussie Tadesse; Mulu, Getaneh Baye; Habtewold, Tesfa Dejenie; Gizachew, Kefyalew Dagne

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sharps injury is a penetrating stab wound from a needle, scalpel, or another sharp object that may result in exposure to blood or other body fluids. According to World Health Organization pooled estimate, the annual incidence of sharps injury in Africa was ranged from 2.10 to 4.68 per

  15. Non-fatal disease burden associated with excess body mass index and waist circumference in New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Maria; Tobias, Martin; Paul, Sue

    2006-06-01

    To describe the relationship between two measures of body fat and selected non-fatal health conditions in the New Zealand adult population in 2003. Data were obtained from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey. A total of 10,026 adults aged 25 years and over were classified according to measured body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). BMI classes were 18.5-24.9, 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, > or = 35.0 kg/m2. WC classes were 102 centimetres (cm) for males and 88 cm for females. Prevalence rate ratio estimates for selected self-reported health conditions were calculated for males and females separately, adjusting for age, ethnicity, deprivation and smoking using logistic regression. Increasing BMI or WC class was associated with increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, osteoarthritis, asthma and sleep disorders in both males and females. The association with depression was not statistically significant in either gender. Associations were strongest for diabetes and blood pressure, with adults in the highest BMI or WC class at least 3.5 times more likely to have diabetes and 2-3 times more likely to have high blood pressure compared with those in the lowest classes. Increasing body fatness, defined by either BMI or WC, was associated with increased prevalence of many important health conditions. If the obesity epidemic is not halted or reversed, the impact on both the New Zealand population and health system will be considerable.

  16. Functional outcomes of motor vehicle crash head injuries in pediatric and adult occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Baker, Gretchen; Doud, Andrea N; Barnard, Ryan T; Stitzel, Joel D; Zonfrillo, Mark R

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to develop a disability-based metric for motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries, with a focus on head injuries, and compare the functional outcomes between the pediatric and adult populations. Disability risk (DR) was quantified using Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores within the National Trauma Data Bank-Research Data System (NTDB-RDS) for the top 95% most frequently occurring Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 3, 4, and 5 head injuries in NASS-CDS 2000-2011. Pediatric (ages 7-18), adult (19-45), middle-aged (46-65), and older adult (66+) patients with an FIM score available who were alive at discharge and had an AIS 3, 4, or 5 injury were included in the study. The NTDB-RDS contains a truncated form of the FIM instrument, including 3 items (self-feed, locomotion, and verbal expression), each graded on a scale of 1 (full functional dependence) to 4 (full functional independence). Patients within each age group were classified as disabled or not disabled based on the FIM scale. The DR was calculated for each age group by dividing the number of patients who sustained a specific injury and were disabled by the number of patients who sustained the specific injury. To account for the impact of more severe associated coinjuries, a maximum AIS (MAIS) adjusted DR (DRMAIS) was also calculated for each injury. DR and DRMAIS ranged from 0 (0% disability risk) to 1 (100% disability risk). An analysis of the most frequent FIM components associated with disabling MVC head injuries revealed that disability across all 3 items (self-feed, locomotion, and expression) was the most frequent for pediatric and adult patients. Only locomotion was the most frequent for middle-aged and older adults. The mean DRMAIS for MVC head injuries was 35% for pediatric patients, 36% for adults, 38% for middle-aged adults, and 44% for older adults. Further analysis was conducted by grouping the head injuries into 8 groups based on the structure of injury and injury

  17. Effectiveness of Interventions to Address Visual and Visual-Perceptual Impairments to Improve Occupational Performance in Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Sue; Kaldenberg, Jennifer; Selmane, Romeissa; Carlo, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Visual and visual-perceptual impairments occur frequently with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and influence occupational performance. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to improve occupational performance for adults with visual and visual-perceptual impairments as a result of TBI. Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, OTseeker, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched, and 66 full text articles were reviewed. Sixteen articles were included in the review. Strong evidence supports the use of scanning, limited evidence supports the use of adaptive strategies, and mixed evidence supports the use of cognitive interventions to improve occupational performance for adults with TBI. Evidence related to vision therapy varies on the basis of the specific intervention implemented. Although the strength of the research varied, implications are discussed for practice, education, and research. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  18. Knowledge of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects of age, locality, occupation, media and sports participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Results: Misconceptions about TBI were reported by participants, irrespective of gender, locality, occupation, or history of sports participation. There were no significant differences in knowledge scores across these demographic groups. In particular, healthcare and education workers did not score any higher than other occupations. At least 40% of respondents answered either incorrectly or “I don’t know” on items related to gender differences, the utility of neuroimaging, and patient insight into their impairments. For those in non-medical, professional occupations, the older they were the less they knew about TBI (r = -.299, p = 0.009. In contrast, a positive correlation (r = 0.268, p = 0.018 was found between age and TBI knowledge for workers in healthcare or education. Conclusions: Misconceptions about TBI are present in Australia and are consistent across genders, localities, occupations and sport participation groups. A concern is that risk for misconceptions is not lower in healthcare or education professions. This suggests that professional development for groups most likely to be the frontline referral resources and supports for head injured children and adults may require further training.

  19. Does tinnitus, hearing asymmetry, or hearing loss predispose to occupational injury risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Galusha, Deron; Cullen, Mark R; Dixon-Ernst, Christine; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Slade, Martin D; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    To determine the relative contributions of tinnitus, asymmetrical hearing loss, low frequency hearing loss (pure tone average of 0.5, 1, 2, 3 kHz; PTA.5123), or high frequency hearing loss (pure tone average of 4, 6 kHz; PTA46), to acute injury risk among a cohort of production and maintenance workers at six aluminum manufacturing plants, adjusting for ambient noise exposure and other recognized predictors of injury risk. Retrospective analysis. The study considered 9920 workers employed during 2003 to 2008. The cohort consisted of 8818 workers (89%) whose complete records were available. Adjusting for noise exposure and other recognized injury predictors, a 25% increased acute injury risk was observed among workers with a history of tinnitus in conjunction with high-frequency hearing loss (PTA46). Low frequency hearing loss may be associated with minor, yet less serious, injury risk. We did not find evidence that asymmetry contributes to injury risk. These results provide evidence that tinnitus, combined with high-frequency hearing loss, may pose an important safety threat to workers, especially those who work in high-noise exposed environments. These at risk workers may require careful examination of their communication and hearing protection needs.

  20. Occupational management in the workplace and impact on injury claims, duration, and cost: a prospective longitudinal cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemstra ME

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mark E Lemstra Alliance Health Medical Clinic, Moose Jaw, SK, Canada Abstract: Few workplaces have prospectively reviewed workplace and worker issues simultaneously and assessed their impact on Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB claims. In January of 2014, each worker in a large workplace in Saskatchewan, Canada, was prospectively followed for 1 year to determine factors that impact injury claim incidence, recovery, and costs. In total, 207 out of 245 workers agreed to complete the baseline survey (84.5%. In 2014, 82.5% of workers had self-reported pain, but only 35.5% submitted a WCB claim. Binary logistic regression was used to compare those with pain who did not submit a WCB injury claim to those with pain who did initiate a WCB claim. Independent risk factors associated with WCB claim incidence included depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] =2.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44–9.78 and lower job satisfaction (OR =1.70, 95% CI 1.08–10.68. Higher disability duration was independently associated with higher depressed mood (OR =1.60, 95% CI 1.05–4.11 and poor recovery expectation (OR =1.31, 95% CI 1.01–5.78. Higher cost disability claims were independently associated with higher depressed mood (OR =1.51, 95% CI 1.07–6.87 and pain catastrophizing (OR =1.11, 95% CI 1.02–8.11. Self-reported pain, physically assessed injury severity, and measured ergonomic risk of workstation did not significantly predict injury claim incidence, duration, or costs. In January 2015, the workplace implemented a new occupational prevention and management program. The injury incidence rate ratio reduced by 58% from 2014 to 2015 (IRR =1.58, 95% CI =1.28–1.94. The ratio for disability duration reduced by 139% from 2014 to 2015 (RR =2.39, 95% CI =2.16–2.63. Costs reduced from $114,149.07 to $56,528.14 per year. In summary, WCB claims are complex. Recognizing that nonphysical factors, such as depressed mood, influence injury claim incidence, recovery, and

  1. Effectiveness of Occupation- and Activity-Based Interventions to Improve Everyday Activities and Social Participation for People With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Janet M; Rich, Timothy J; Wise, Elizabeth K

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve everyday activities and areas of occupation and social participation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nineteen studies identified through a comprehensive database search were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment approaches, (2) community-based rehabilitation programs, (3) treatment approaches using client-centered goals and relevant contexts, (4) social skills training and peer mentoring interventions, and (5) community mobility interventions. Evidence supports the use of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches across a variety of settings, with no single treatment approach or setting clearly superior to another. The specific contributions of occupational therapy practitioners and the nature of occupational therapy interventions have not been well studied, making it difficult to determine the extent to which occupation- and activity-based interventions provided by occupational therapy practitioners improve occupational performance and social participation after TBI. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. High prevalence of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia: Correlates of overdose and implications for overdose prevention from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazazi, Alexander R; Zelenev, Alexei; Fu, Jeannia J; Yee, Ilias; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2015-07-01

    Overdose is the leading cause of death among opioid users, but no data are available on overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. We present the first estimates of the prevalence and correlates of recent non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia. In 2010, 460 people who inject drugs were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Klang Valley to assess health outcomes associated with injection drug use. Self-reported history of non-fatal overdose in the previous 6 months was the primary outcome. Sociodemographic, behavioral and structural correlates of non-fatal overdose were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. All 460 participants used opioids and nearly all (99.1%) met criteria for opioid dependence. Most injected daily (91.3%) and were male (96.3%) and ethnically Malay (90.4%). Overall, 20% of participants had overdosed in the prior 6 months, and 43.3% had ever overdosed. The RDS-adjusted estimate of the 6-month period prevalence of overdose was 12.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 7.9-16.6%). Having injected for more years was associated with lower odds of overdose (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.6 per 5 years of injection, CI: 0.5-0.7). Rushing an injection from fear of the police nearly doubled the odds of overdose (AOR 1.9, CI: 1.9-3.6). Alcohol use was associated with recent non-fatal overdose (AOR 2.1, CI: 1.1-4.2), as was methamphetamine use (AOR 2.3, CI: 1.3-4.6). When adjusting for past-month drug use, intermittent but not daily methadone use was associated with overdose (AOR 2.8, CI: 1.5-5.9). This study reveals a large, previously undocumented burden of non-fatal overdose among people who inject drugs in Malaysia and highlights the need for interventions that might reduce the risk of overdose, such as continuous opioid substitution therapy, provision of naloxone to prevent fatal overdose, treatment of polysubstance use, and working with police to improve the risk environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  3. The impact of OSHA recordkeeping regulation changes on occupational injury and illness trends in the US: a time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Forst, Linda

    2007-07-01

    The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) logs, indicates that the number of occupational injuries and illnesses in the US has steadily declined by 35.8% between 1992-2003. However, major changes to the OSHA recordkeeping standard occurred in 1995 and 2001. The authors assessed the relation between changes in OSHA recordkeeping regulations and the trend in occupational injuries and illnesses. SOII data available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for years 1992-2003 were collected. The authors assessed time series data using join-point regression models. Before the first major recordkeeping change in 1995, injuries and illnesses declined annually by 0.5%. In the period 1995-2000 the slope declined by 3.1% annually (95% CI -3.7% to -2.5%), followed by another more precipitous decline occurring in 2001-2003 (-8.3%; 95% CI -10.0% to -6.6%). When stratifying the data, the authors continued to observe significant changes occurring in 1995 and 2001. The substantial declines in the number of injuries and illnesses correspond directly with changes in OSHA recordkeeping rules. Changes in employment, productivity, OSHA enforcement activity and sampling error do not explain the large decline. Based on the baseline slope (join-point regression analysis, 1992-4), the authors expected a decline of 407 964 injuries and illnesses during the period of follow-up if no intervention occurred; they actually observed a decline of 2.4 million injuries and illnesses of which 2 million or 83% of the decline can be attributed to the change in the OSHA recordkeeping rules.

  4. The impact of OSHA recordkeeping regulation changes on occupational injury and illness trends in the US: a time‐series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lee S; Forst, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) logs, indicates that the number of occupational injuries and illnesses in the US has steadily declined by 35.8% between 1992–2003. However, major changes to the OSHA recordkeeping standard occurred in 1995 and 2001. The authors assessed the relation between changes in OSHA recordkeeping regulations and the trend in occupational injuries and illnesses. Methods SOII data available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for years 1992–2003 were collected. The authors assessed time series data using join‐point regression models. Results Before the first major recordkeeping change in 1995, injuries and illnesses declined annually by 0.5%. In the period 1995–2000 the slope declined by 3.1% annually (95% CI −3.7% to −2.5%), followed by another more precipitous decline occurring in 2001–2003 (−8.3%; 95% CI −10.0% to −6.6%). When stratifying the data, the authors continued to observe significant changes occurring in 1995 and 2001. Conclusions The substantial declines in the number of injuries and illnesses correspond directly with changes in OSHA recordkeeping rules. Changes in employment, productivity, OSHA enforcement activity and sampling error do not explain the large decline. Based on the baseline slope (join‐point regression analysis, 1992–4), the authors expected a decline of 407 964 injuries and illnesses during the period of follow‐up if no intervention occurred; they actually observed a decline of 2.4 million injuries and illnesses of which 2 million or 83% of the decline can be attributed to the change in the OSHA recordkeeping rules. PMID:17303676

  5. Differences in Patterns of Mortality Between Foreign-Born and Native-Born Workers Due to Fatal Occupational Injury in the USA from 2003 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Christen G; Robinson, W Courtland

    2018-02-01

    This study assesses differences mortality patterns and relative hazard due to fatal occupational injuries between native and immigrant workers in the US. Fatal occupational injury data from 2003 to 2010 were examined using survival analysis based on proportional hazards models controlling for categorical variables of race, gender, occupation, and industry. Workers are stratified based on whether they are native to the US (n = 31952) or born abroad (n = 7096). Foreign-born workers are further stratified into region of birth. Foreign-born workers had an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.148 (95 % CI 1.109:1.189) relative to native workers. Stratifying foreign-born workers into region of origin revealed significantly higher adjusted risk of work fatality relative to native workers for most foreign regions. Of fatally injured workers, foreign-born workers have shorter survival before succumbing to traumatic injury during their time of occupational 'exposure' in the workforce. Native-born workers tend to incur fatal injuries at older ages after longer 'exposure'.

  6. Criteria and test methodologies for injury assessment of vehicle occupants threatened by landmines and/or IED; an approach by HFM-148/RTG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, M.J. van der

    2010-01-01

    Today STANAG 4569 is working towards a new volume of the AEP-55 including the Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) threat to vehicles and their occupants. Therefore, a follow-up of the HFM-090/TG-25 was required to establish common NATO test procedures and injury criteria for both the Anti-Vehicular

  7. [Dance as a risk factor for injuries and development of occupational diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janev Holcer, Nataša; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Zuškin, Eugenija

    2012-06-01

    Injuries and diseases can significantly affect the creativity and artistic performance. The link between working conditions and artistic performance had been recognised as early as the medieval age. Physically demanding performance arts such as dance can sometimes result in injuries, illnesses, inability to perform, and even end artist's career. Dancers are exposed to specific risks and in need of specific medical care. Many dancers often stretch their physical capabilities and endurance and neglect their physical limitations. Their health problems include a number of work-related illnesses that range from stress and stage fright to metabolic and nutritional disorders. They also include musculoskeletal injuries due to overload training that are often the beginning of chronic health problems.

  8. Effect of occupational safety and health education received during schooling on the incidence of workplace injuries in the first 2 years of occupational life: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boini, Stephanie; Colin, Regis; Grzebyk, Michel

    2017-07-18

    This study aimed to determine the effect of occupational safety and health (OSH) education during formal schooling on the incidence of workplace injuries (WIs) in young people starting their careers. We hypothesised that young people who had received OSH education during their schooling would have fewer WIs than those who received no OSH education. Secondary objectives focused on the effect of 'first aid at work' training during schooling and the conditions encountered on arrival in the company (occupational hazard information, safety training and job task training) on WI occurrence. Prospective cohort study. From 2009 to 2012, French apprentices and students at the end of their schooling and starting their careers were included. Occurrence of WIs. At the time of inclusion, information about school courses and personal characteristics were collected, and subsequent half-yearly contacts gathered information relating to work and personal data. During the 2-year follow-up, WIs were directly reported by participants and were identified by searching the French National Health Insurance Funds' databases listing compulsory WI declarations. 755 participants reported holding 1290 jobs. During follow-up, 158 WIs were identified, corresponding to an incident rate of 0.12 (0.10 to 0.14) WIs per full-time worker. Subjects who reported having received OSH education at school had two times less WIs than those declaring not having received OSH education (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.51, 0.00 to 0.98). A lower WI risk was observed for participants who received the 'first aid at work' training (IRR=0.68, 0.00 to 0.98). The conditions on arrival in company were not associated with WIs occurrence. In France, the OSH education provided to apprentices and students is mostly broader than the specific risks related to future jobs. Our results highlight the advantages of reinforcing this approach. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  9. Awareness of Occupational Injuries and Utilization of Safety Measures among Welders in Coastal South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ganesh Kumar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Awareness of occupational hazards and its safety precautions among welders is an important health issue, especially in developing countries. Objective: To assess the awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures among welders in coastal South India. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 209 welders in Puducherry, South India. Baseline characteristics, awareness of health hazards, safety measures and their availability to and utilization by the participants were assessed using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results: The majority of studied welders aged between 20 and 40 years (n=160, 76.6% and had 1-10 years of education (n=181, 86.6%. They were more aware of hazards (n=174, 83.3% than safety measures (n=134, 64.1%. The majority of studied welders utilized at least one protective measure in the preceding week (n=200, 95.7%. Many of them had more than 5 years of experience (n=175, 83.7%, however, only 20% of them had institutional training (n=40, 19.1%. Age group, education level, and utilization of safety measures were significantly associated with awareness of hazards in univariate analysis (p<0.05. Conclusion: Awareness of occupational hazards and utilization of safety measures is low among welders in coastal South India, which highlights the importance of strengthening safety regulatory services towards this group of workers.

  10. Care-Seeking Patterns and Direct Economic Burden of Injuries in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Natalia Y; Alonge, Olakunle; Hoque, Dewan Md Emdadul; Baset, Kamran Ul; Hyder, Adnan A; Bishai, David

    2017-04-29

    This study provides a comprehensive review of the care-seeking patterns and direct economic burden of injuries from the victims' perspective in rural Bangladesh using a 2013 household survey covering 1.17 million people. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to derive rates and test the association between variables. An analytic model was used to estimate total injury out-of-pocket (OOP) payments and a multivariate probit regression model assessed the relationship between financial distress and injury type. Results show non-fatal injuries occur to 1 in 5 people in our sample per year. With average household size of 4.5 in Bangladesh--every household has an injury every year. Most non-fatally injured patients sought healthcare from drug sellers. Less than half of fatal injuries sought healthcare and half of those with care were hospitalized. Average OOP payments varied significantly (range: $8-$830) by injury type and outcome (fatal vs. non-fatal). Total injury OOP expenditure was $$355,795 and $5000 for non-fatal and fatal injuries, respectively, per 100,000 people. The majority of household heads with injuries reported financial distress. This study can inform injury prevention advocates on disparities in healthcare usage, OOP costs and financial distress. Reallocation of resources to the most at risk populations can accelerate reduction of preventable injuries and prevent injury related catastrophic payments and impoverishment.

  11. Occupational Hazards of Fyling Pigs: A Swine model of Hypobaric Induced Neuronal Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-22

    59 MDW/SGVU SUBJECT: Profess ional Presentation Approval 18 APR 20 17 1. Your paper, entitled Occupational Hazards of Flving Pigs : A Swine Model of...RANK1’GRAOE, ’TITlE OF RE \\llEW’ER 45. REVIEWER 31GNAT’IJRE so_ o,o.TE FR-C"\\/.OUS EDlnCNB ARE Ol>SCLETE OCCU PATIONAL HAZARDS OF FLYING PIGS : A SWINE...necessitates intubation or anesthetization of exposure subjects, miniature pigs (Sus scrofa domestica) were repetiti vely exposed to non-hypoxic

  12. The direct cost burden of 13years of disabling workplace injuries in the U.S. (1998-2010): Findings from the Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Courtney, Theodore K; Corns, Helen L; Sorock, Gary S; Webster, Barbara S; Wasiak, Radoslaw; Noy, Y Ian; Matz, Simon; Leamon, Tom B

    2015-12-01

    Although occupational injuries are among the leading causes of death and disability around the world, the burden due to occupational injuries has historically been under-recognized, obscuring the need to address a major public health problem. We established the Liberty Mutual Workplace Safety Index (LMWSI) to provide a reliable annual metric of the leading causes of the most serious workplace injuries in the United States based on direct workers compensation (WC) costs. More than $600 billion in direct WC costs were spent on the most disabling compensable non-fatal injuries and illnesses in the United States from 1998 to 2010. The burden in 2010 remained similar to the burden in 1998 in real terms. The categories of overexertion ($13.6B, 2010) and fall on same level ($8.6B, 2010) were consistently ranked 1st and 2nd. The LMWSI was created to establish the relative burdens of events leading to work-related injury so they could be better recognized and prioritized. Such a ranking might be used to develop research goals and interventions to reduce the burden of workplace injury in the United States. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence of road traffic accidents and pattern of injury among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and Objective: Motorcyclists are at high risk of road traffic accidents and the attendant injuries, but few community-based studies have investigated the problem in Nigeria. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the incidence of accidents and patterns of non-fatal injury among commercial motorcyclists ...

  14. African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived childhood exposure to domestic violence: The risk for adult revictimisation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Prevalence, circumstances and consequences of non-fatal road traffi c injuries and other bodily injuries among older people in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa ...

  15. Costing injuries in South Africa: preliminary results and challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has extremely high incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries due to interpersonal violence, motor vehicle crashes (many involving pedestrians), burns, falls and other unintentional injuries. The direct costs associated with the medical treatment, rehabilitation and administration of these victims run into ...

  16. Incidence and predictors of non-fatal drug overdose after release from prison among people who inject drugs in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, R J; Stoové, M; Degenhardt, L; Hellard, M E; Spelman, T; Jenkinson, R; McCarthy, D R; Kinner, S A

    2015-08-01

    Release from prison is a period of elevated risk for drug-related harms, particularly among people who inject drugs (PWID). Non-fatal overdose can cause serious morbidity and predicts future fatal overdose, however neither the incidence nor the risk factors for non-fatal overdose following release from prison are well understood. Structured health-related interviews were conducted with 1051 adult prisoners in Queensland, Australia prior to release and approximately 1, 3 and 6 months post-release. Incidence of self-reported overdose in the community was calculated for PWID and all prisoners for three discrete time periods. Negative binomial regression with robust error variance was used to identify pre-release predictors of overdose among PWID. The incidence of reported overdose was highest between 1 and 3 months post-release (37.8 per 100 person-years (PY) among PWID; 24.5/100 PY among all ex-prisoners). In adjusted analyses, the risk of post-release non-fatal overdose was higher for PWID who reported: being unemployed for >6 months before prison, having been removed from family as a child, at least weekly use of benzodiazepines and/or pharmaceutical opiates in the 3 months prior to prison, and ever receiving opioid substitution therapy (OST). Pre-release psychological distress and a lifetime history of mental disorder also predicted overdose, whereas risky alcohol use in the year before prison was protective. PWID have a high risk of overdose following release from prison. Imprisonment is an opportunity to initiate targeted preventive interventions such as OST, overdose prevention training and peer-delivered naloxone for those with a high risk profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  18. The association between price of regular-grade gasoline and injury and mortality rates among occupants involved in motorcycle- and automobile-related motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Eddie; Griffin, Russell; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2009-09-01

    Motorcyclists have been reported to be more likely to die in a motor vehicle collision (MVC) than automobile occupants. With the recent increase in the pump price of gasoline, it has been reported that people are switching to motorcycles as main modes of transportation. This study evaluated the association between motor vehicle collision-related injury and mortality rates and increases in gasoline prices for occupants of automobiles and riders of motorcycles. There were an estimated 1,270,512 motorcycle MVC and 238,390,853 automobile MVC involved occupants in the U.S. from 1992 to 2007. Higher gasoline prices were associated with increased motorcycle-related injuries and deaths; however, this association no longer remained after accounting for changes in the number of registered vehicles. The current study observed that, while the number of injuries and fatalities in motorcycle-related MVCs increase with increasing gasoline price, rates remained largely unchanged. This suggests that the observed increase in motorcycle-related injuries and fatalities with increasing gasoline price is more a factor of the number of motorcycles on the road rather than operator characteristics.

  19. A genetic risk score for CAD, psychological stress, and their interaction as predictors of CAD, fatal MI, non-fatal MI and cardiovascular death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Engström, Gunnar; Melander, Olle

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychological stress is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the mechanism by which stress is associated with CVD is not entirely understood. Although genetic factors are implied in both stress responsivity and cardiovascular reactivity, no studies to date have investigated their interactions with stress for cardiovascular end points. The objective was to elucidate the association and interactions between a genetic risk score (GRS), individual genetic variants and stress for three cardiovascular end points: coronary artery disease (CAD), fatal myocardial infarction (MI), non-fatal MI, and cardiovascular death. Methods and findings 18,559 participants from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based prospective study, were included in the analyses. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used and adjusted for a large number of known predictors of cardiovascular end points. Mean follow-up time in years was 14.6 (CAD; n = 1938), 14.8 (fatal MI; n = 436), 14.8 (non-fatal MI; n = 1108), and 15.1 (cardiovascular death; n = 1071) respectively. GRS was significantly associated with increased risks of CAD (top quartile hazard ratio [HR], 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51–1.96), fatal MI (top quartile HR, 1.62; 95%CI, 1.23–2.15), non-fatal MI (top quartile HR, 1.55; 95%CI, 1.31–1.84), and cardiovascular death (top quartile HR, 1.29; 95%CI, 1.08–1.53). Stress was not independently associated with any end point and did not interact with GRS. Four individual genetic variants interacted unfavorably with stress for end points with mortality outcomes. Conclusion A GRS composed of 50 SNPs and predictive of CAD was found for the first time to also strongly predict fatal MI, non-fatal MI and cardiovascular death. A stress-sensitive component of the GRS was isolated on the basis of individual genetic variants that interacted unfavorably with stress. PMID:28426714

  20. Exposure to Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work and the Incidence of Occupational Injuries: A Cohort Study in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julià, Mireia; Catalina-Romero, Carlos; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the association between the exposure to psychosocial risk factors at work and the incidence of occupational injuries (OIs). A prospective dynamic cohort study (n = 16,693) of 1-year follow-up. Psychosocial risk factors at work were assessed with the Spanish version of Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire. Incidence rates of OI per 1000 workers-year were calculated and associations between psychosocial risk factors and OI were estimated by Poisson regression models. Unfavorable levels of esteem in men [rate ratio (RR) = 1.28], and unfavorable levels of social support and quality of leadership (RR = 1.87), psychological demands (RR = 2.20), and active work and possibilities for development (RR = 1.83) among women, were associated with OI incidence. Poor quality of psychosocial work environment increases the incidence of OI. Psychosocial intervention programs could be helpful in order to reduce OI incidence rates and their associated costs.

  1. Do clients with acquired brain injury use the splints prescribed by occupational therapists? A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Kathy; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Ashburner, J; Griffin, J; Worley, L; Moes, L; Fleming, Jennifer; Copley, Jodie

    2009-01-01

    Clients with acquired brain injury often demonstrate hypertonicity and decreased function in their upper limbs, requiring appropriate intervention. Splinting is one of the intervention methods that is widely used to address these issues. Literature shows that some clients are not using splints following fabrication. However, there is a paucity of research about the factors that influence clients to use or not use splints. This study aims to investigate these influential factors for clients with upper limb hypertonicity. Two survey tools including therapist and client questionnaires were developed and completed by both therapists and clients. Six therapists and 14 clients participated in this study and completed the relevant questionnaires. The results illustrate that most clients (13 out of 14) were continuing to use their splints four weeks following discharge from hospital. The main goals of choosing splints for both therapists and clients were prevention of contracture and deformity. The most indicated client reasons for adhering to the splint wearing program were therapist-related factors including clients' trust and reliance on their therapists. Further reasons for clients implementing the recommended splint-wearing program and clinical implications are discussed.

  2. The dangerousness of mountain recreation: A quantitative overview of fatal and non-fatal accidents in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulé, Bastien; Lefèvre, Brice; Boutroy, Eric

    2017-08-01

    In France, there is a growing enthusiasm for outdoor sports and recreation. In the meantime, the risk of both severe and frequent injury associated with active pursuits in mountain areas is acknowledged. This paper tackles accidents related to mountain sports, with a focus on three critical activities: hiking, mountaineering and ski touring. The aim consists of estimating the actual number of accidents (whether they entailed deaths or injuries) in the three above-mentioned activities. In order to align the information collected, then provide estimations based on the reasoned crossing of these secondary data, we consulted and summarised all the databases available on the French territory. Results address the trauma-related mortality in absolute values, and a comparison with the death rate of other sports. The calculation of a mortality index, including secondary mortality, is then provided. Elements of mountain sports accidentality are also presented, intending to clarify how many casualities occur each year in the French mountains. Last, a focus on the particularities of each mountain sport is provided.

  3. Impact of on-site cardiac catheterization on resource utilization and fatal and non-fatal outcomes after acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hugues

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of care for acute myocardial infarction (AMI strongly depend on the availability of on-site cardiac catheterization facilities. Although the management found at hospitals without on-site catheterization does not lead to increased mortality, little it known about its impact on resource utilization and non-fatal outcomes. Methods We identified all patients (n = 35,289 admitted with a first AMI in the province of Quebec between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 1999 using population-based administrative databases. Medical resource utilization and non-fatal and fatal outcomes were compared among patients admitted to hospitals with and without on-site cardiac catheterization facilities. Results Cardiac catheterization and PCI were more frequently performed among patients admitted to hospitals with catheterization facilities. However, non-invasive procedures were not used more frequently at hospitals without catheterization facilities. To the contrary, echocardiography [odds ratio (OR, 2.04; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.93–2.16] and multi-gated acquisition imaging (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17–1.32 were used more frequently at hospitals with catheterization, and exercise treadmill testing (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91–1.15 and Sestamibi/Thallium imaging (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.88–0.98 were used similarly at hospitals with and without catheterization. Use of anti-ischemic medications and frequency of emergency room and physician visits, were similar at both types of institutions. Readmission rates for AMI-related cardiac complications and mortality were also similar [adjusted hazard ratio, recurrent AMI: 1.02, 95% CI, 0.89–1.16; congestive heart failure: 1.02; 95% CI, 0.90–1.15; unstable angina: 0.93; 95% CI, 0.85–1.02; mortality: 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93–1.05]. Conclusion Although on-site availability of cardiac catheterization facilities is associated with greater use of invasive cardiac procedures, non-availability of

  4. Civilian firearm injuries in head and neck

    OpenAIRE

    Sonkhya, Nishi; Singhal, Pawan; Srivastava, Subodh P.

    2005-01-01

    Firearm injuries to the head and neck contribute to substantial medical, medicolegal, economic as well as social problems. Internal wounds in the head and neck by firearms are usually complicated and are diagnostically and therapeutically challenging cases. Based on four cases of non-fatal firearm injuries, we discuss problems related to firearm wounds, their irregular path, final lodgment of the bullet and their diagnostic and therapeutic consequences. In the present study it was observed th...

  5. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and incidence of fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction in Denmark 1976-1998: a pooled cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Osler, M; Vestbo, J

    2003-01-01

    reduced their daily tobacco consumption by at least 50% without quitting between first and second examination, and 1379 participants stopped smoking. During follow up 1658 men and 521 women experienced a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, people who......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the effects of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on incidence of myocardial infarction after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage to mortality and hospital registers. The association of individual...... change in smoking with myocardial infarction was examined in Cox proportional hazard analyses with continuous heavy smokers (> or =5 cigarettes/day) as reference. SETTING: Pooled data from three population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 10 956 men and 8467 women with complete...

  6. Occupational noise exposure and noise-induced hearing loss are associated with work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Serge-André; Leroux, Tony; Courteau, Marilene; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Richer, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    This study focuses on work-related injuries that required admission to hospital in a population of male workers exposed to occupational noise (≥80 dBA) which some displayed a hearing loss due to their exposure. The study population count 46 550 male workers, 1670 (3.6%) of whom incurred at least one work-related injury requiring admission to hospital within a period of 5 years following hearing tests conducted between 1987 and 2005. The noise exposure and hearing loss-related data were gathered during occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) screening. The hospital data were used to identify all members of the study population who were admitted, and the reason for admission. Finally, access to the death-related data made it possible to identify participants who died during the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards model taking into account hearing status, noise levels, age and cumulative duration of noise exposure at the time of the hearing test established the risk of work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital. For each dB of hearing loss, a statistically significant risk increase was observed (HR=1.01 dB 95% CI 1.006 to 1.01). An association (HR=2.36 95% CI 2.01 to 2.77) was also found between working in an occupational ambient noise ≥100 dBA and the risk of injury. From a safety perspective, this issue is highly relevant; especially when workers are exposed to intense ambient noise and NIHL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries in road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, M K; Chindia, M L; Macigo, F G; Guthua, S W

    2007-06-01

    Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya. Victims may suffer multiple injuries including maxillofacial injuries. In most developing countries RTAs are the leading cause of maxillofacial injuries. In an attempt to reduce RTAs, the government of Kenya has enacted a legislation requiring mandatory fitting of speed governors and safety belts by passenger service vehicles. To describe the characteristics and pattern of maxillofacial and associated injuries sustained in road traffic accidents. A cross-sectional study. Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH). All patients involved in RTAs brought to casualty and the dental department of KNH as well as accident victims admitted to the KNH mortuary over a four- month period from September 2004 to December 2004. Four hundred and thirteen (85.7%) had non-fatal injuries whereas 69 (14.3%) had sustained fatal injuries. Males in the 21-30-year age group were the most affected. Most accidents occurred during weekends with pedestrians being the leading casualties in 59.5% and 71.4% of non-fatal and fatal cases respectively. Most accidents were caused by passenger service vehicles (matatus) which were responsible for 62% and 40.6% of non-fatal and fatal injuries respectively. Non-use of safety belts was reported in 56.6% of the cases who suffered non-fatal injuries. In the non-fatal category 89.6% of the casualties had soft tissue injuries (STIs) involving the craniofacial region with facial cuts being the majority (69.2%). Two hundred and seventy three (66.1%) incidents of other STIs than those of the head region were noted, the lower limbs accounting for 45.4% of these. Only 5.1% of the casualties with non-fatal injuries had fractures involving the maxillofacial skeleton. Skeletal injuries other than those involving the maxillofacial region were found in 142 (34.1%) incidents. In the fatal category head injury alone was the leading cause of death accounting for 37.7% of the cases followed by

  8. Towards a National Injury Costing System?:Lessons from a Public ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa has extremely high incidence rates of fatal and non-fatal injuries due to interpersonal violence, pedestrian–motor vehicle collisions, burns, falls and other unintentional causes. While the actual cost associated with these injuries remains relatively unknown, the estimated direct cost of the medical treatment, ...

  9. Differences in lumbopelvic control and occupational behaviours in female nurses with and without a recent history of low back pain due to back injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiolakis, Corinne S; Kuk, Jennifer L; Drake, Janessa D M

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is highly prevalent in nurses. This study aimed to determine which physical fitness, physical activity (PA) and biomechanical characteristics most clearly distinguish between nurses with [recently injured (RInj)] and without [not recently injured (NRInj)] a recent back injury. Twenty-seven (8 RInj, 19 NRInj) female nurses completed questionnaires (pain, work, PA), physical fitness, biomechanical and low back discomfort measures, and wore an accelerometer for one work shift. Relative to NRInj nurses, RInj nurses exhibited reduced lumbopelvic control (41.4% more displayed a moderate loss of frontal plane position), less active occupational behaviours (less moderate PA; less patient lifts performed alone; more sitting and less standing time) and more than two times higher low back discomfort scores. Despite no physical fitness differences, the lumbopelvic control, occupational behaviours and discomfort measures differed between nurses with and without recent back injuries. It is unclear whether poor lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in RInj nurses and may require further investigation. Practitioner Summary: It is unclear which personal modifiable factors are most clearly associated with low back pain in nurses. Lumbopelvic control was the only performance-based measure to distinguish between nurses with and without recent back injuries. Future research may investigate whether reduced lumbopelvic control is causal or adaptive in recently injured nurses.

  10. Systematic review of the role of occupational health and safety interventions in the prevention of upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms, signs, disorders, injuries, claims and lost time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Carol A; Amick, Benjamin C; Dennerlein, Jack T; Brewer, Shelley; Catli, Starly; Williams, Renee; Serra, Consol; Gerr, Fred; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby; Franzblau, Al; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Evanoff, Bradley; Rempel, David

    2010-06-01

    Little is known about the most effective occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions to reduce upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and injuries. A systematic review used a best evidence synthesis approach to address the question: "do occupational health and safety interventions have an effect on upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms, signs, disorders, injuries, claims and lost time?" The search identified 36 studies of sufficient methodological quality to be included in data extraction and evidence synthesis. Overall, a mixed level of evidence was found for OHS interventions. Levels of evidence for interventions associated with positive effects were: Moderate evidence for arm supports; and Limited evidence for ergonomics training plus workstation adjustments, new chair and rest breaks. Levels of evidence for interventions associated with "no effect" were: Strong evidence for workstation adjustment alone; Moderate evidence for biofeedback training and job stress management training; and Limited evidence for cognitive behavioral training. No interventions were associated with "negative effects". It is difficult to make strong evidenced-based recommendations about what practitioners should do to prevent or manage upper extremity MSDs. There is a paucity of high quality OHS interventions evaluating upper extremity MSDs and none focused on traumatic injury outcomes or workplace mandated pre-placement screening exams. We recommend that worksites not engage in OHS activities that include only workstation adjustments. However, when combined with ergonomics training, there is limited evidence that workstation adjustments are beneficial. A practice to consider is using arm supports to reduce upper extremity MSDs.

  11. Evaluation of kinematics and injuries to restrained occupants in far-side crashes using full-scale vehicle and human body models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Mike W J; Umale, Sagar; Humm, John R; Yoganandan, Narayan; Hadagali, Prasanaah; Pintar, Frank A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to perform a parametric study with different impact objects, impact locations, and impact speeds by analyzing occupant kinematics and injury estimations using a whole-vehicle and whole-body finite element-human body model (FE-HBM). To confirm the HBM responses, the biofidelity of the model was validated using data from postmortem human surrogate (PMHS) sled tests. The biofidelity of the model was validated using data from sled experiments and correlational analysis (CORA). Full-scale simulations were performed using a restrained Global Human Body Model Consortium (GHBMC) model seated on a 2001 Ford Taurus model using a far-side lateral impact condition. The driver seat was placed in the center position to represent a nominal initial impact condition. A 3-point seat belt with pretensioner and retractor was used to restrain the GHBMC model. A parametric study was performed using 12 simulations by varying impact locations, impacting object, and impact speed using the full-scale models. In all 12 simulations, the principal direction of force (PDOF) was selected as 90°. The impacting objects were a 10-in.-diameter rigid vertical pole and a movable deformable barrier. The impact location of the pole was at the C-pillar in the first case, at the B-pillar in the second case, and, finally, at the A-pillar in the third case. The vehicle and the GHBMC models were defined an initial velocity of 35 km/h (high speed) and 15 km/h (low speed). Excursion of the head center of gravity (CG), T6, and pelvis were measured from the simulations. In addition, injury risk estimations were performed on head, rib cage, lungs, kidneys, liver, spleen, and pelvis. The average CORA rating was 0.7. The shoulder belt slipped in B- and C-pillar impacts but somewhat engaged in the A-pillar case. In the B-pillar case, the head contacted the intruding struck-side structures, indicating higher risk of injury. Occupant kinematics depended on interaction with

  12. Investigation of the THOR Anthropomorphic Test Device for Predicting Occupant Injuries during Spacecraft Launch Aborts and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Jeffrey T.; Newby, Nathaniel; Lawrence, Charles; DeWeese, Richard; Moorcroft, David; Phelps, Shean

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate new methods for predicting injury from expected spaceflight dynamic loads by leveraging a broader range of available information in injury biomechanics. Although all spacecraft designs were considered, the primary focus was the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Orion capsule, as the authors have the most knowledge and experience related to this design. The team defined a list of critical injuries and selected the THOR anthropomorphic test device as the basis for new standards and requirements. In addition, the team down-selected the list of available injury metrics to the following: head injury criteria 15, kinematic brain rotational injury criteria, neck axial tension and compression force, maximum chest deflection, lateral shoulder force and displacement, acetabular lateral force, thoracic spine axial compression force, ankle moments, and average distal forearm speed limits. The team felt that these metrics capture all of the injuries that might be expected by a seated crewmember during vehicle aborts and landings. Using previously determined injury risk levels for nominal and off-nominal landings, appropriate injury assessment reference values (IARVs) were defined for each metric. Musculoskeletal deconditioning due to exposure to reduced gravity over time can affect injury risk during landing; therefore a deconditioning factor was applied to all IARVs. Although there are appropriate injury data for each anatomical region of interest, additional research is needed for several metrics to improve the confidence score. PMID:25152879

  13. Occupational therapy students' perceptions of occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Merrill June; Rodger, Sylvia; Hall, Anna R

    2012-10-01

    An understanding of students' perceptions of occupational therapy on entry is required to recognise how professional socialisation occurs through curriculum. Findings pertain to a qualitative study investigating students' perceptions of occupational therapy upon entry to two occupational therapy programmes in Australia. Students commencing Bachelor of Occupational Therapy and Masters of Occupational Therapy Studies programmes participated in the study (n = 462). A purpose-designed questionnaire was distributed to students in the first lecture of each programme. Preliminary analysis comprised identification of keywords/phrases and coding categories were generated from patterns of keywords. Frequency counts and percentages of keywords/phrases within categories were completed. Students' responses were categorised as 'what' occupational therapists do; 'how' they do it; 'why' they do it; and 'who' they work with. In 'what' occupational therapists do students frequently described 'helping' people. Both undergraduate and graduate entry masters students used the term 'rehabilitation' to describe how occupational therapy is done, with graduate entry students occasionally responding with 'through occupation' and 'modifying the environment'. Students perceived the 'why' of occupational therapy as getting back to 'everyday activities', with some students emphasising returning to 'normal' activities or life. Regarding the 'who' category, students also thought occupational therapists worked with people with an 'injury' or 'disability'. Students entered their occupational therapy programmes with perceptions consistent with the general public's views of occupational therapy. However, graduate entry students exposed to a pre-reading package prior to entry had more advanced occupational therapy concepts than undergraduate students. © 2011 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2011 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  14. [Occupational injuries and sickness absence: association with job demand, decision latitude, and life style in 2174 workers in the Veneto Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, G; Mattioli, S; Baldasseroni, A; Bontadi, D; Capodicasa, E; Marzia, Vita; Mazzi, Maddalena; Patané, P; Torri, Paola; Marangi, G; Fadda, Emanuela; Priolo, G; Scoizzato, L; Maier, Elisabetta; Campo, G; Marchiori, L

    2008-01-01

    .6; 1.1-2.2). PAR was 26.1% for occupational factors (high JD and low DL), 7.6% for non-occupational factors (smoking), and 30.4% overall. While the risk of sick absence increased mainly with the reduction of DL, the risk of occupational accidents increased with increasing JD and, to a lesser extent, with decreasing DL. The current approach to accident prevention is based only on technical and administrative aspects, in spite of the fact that 80% of accidents are not attributable to malfunctioning of machinery. Injury prevention should address technical, personal and psychosocial risk factors together as a whole.

  15. Mesleksel yaralanma ve ölümlerde bölgesel eşitsizlikler/Regional inequalities in occupational injuries and deaths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Özet Amaç: Türkiye’de mesleksel hastalıklar ile iş kazaları nedeniyle oluşan yaralanma ve ölümlerde bölgesel eşitsizlikleri değerlendirmektir. Yöntem: Ekolojik tipteki çalışma 2000-2011 yılları arası 12 yıllık döneme ait mesleksel güvenlik ve sağlık verisinin retrospektif olarak incelenmesiyle yürütülmüştür. Veri kaynağı Sosyal Güvenlik Kurumu (SGK ve Sosyal Sigortalar Kurumu (SSK istatistik yıllıklarıdır. Zorunlu sigortalıların yaralanma ve ölüm verisi iller bazında kaydedilmiştir. Veri İstatistiki Bölge Birimleri Sınıflaması’na (İBBS uygun şekilde birleştirilerek bölgesel veri haline dönüştürülmüştür. Yaralanma insidans hızı, mortalite ve fatalite hızları bu veriden hesaplanmıştır. Bölgesel eşitsizlikleri göstermek için risk oranı, risk farkı, topluma atfedilen risk (PAR ve yüzdesi (PAR% hesaplanmıştır. Bulgular: Türkiye’de 2000-2011 yılları arasında iş nedeniyle yılda ortalama 74.215 kişi yaralanmış ve 1.092 kişi ölmüştür. Türkiye’de 2000-2011 yılları arasında mesleksel yaralanma insidans hızı %58, mortalite hızı %27,3 azalırken fatalite hızı %73,4 artmıştır. Mutlak eşitsizlik göstergesi olan fatalite hızı risk farkı 2000 yılındaki 50,9’dan 2011 yılında 128,0’a yükselmiştir. Bölgesel eşitsizlikler olmasaydı 2000-2011 arasındaki 13.099 iş nedenli ölüm sayısı 6.511’e düşecekti. Sonuç: İş kazaları ve meslek hastalıkları nedeniyle yaralanma ve ölümlerde bölgelerarası eşitsizlikler belirgindir. Türkiye’de mesleksel hastalık ve iş kazası kayıtları yetersiz olup tüm olgular bildirilmemektedir. Bu nedenle mesleksel güvenlik ve sağlık durumu değerlendirilirken fatalite hızı da göz önüne alınmalıdır. Anahtar Kelimeler: Mesleksel yaralanma, meslek hastalığı, mortalite, fatalite Abstract Objective: To evaluate the injuries and the deaths due to occupational diseases and

  16. An ecological study on the association between characteristics of hospital units and the risk of occupational injuries and adverse events on the example of an Italian teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Francesca; Liva, Giulia; Bellomo, Fabrizio; De Corti, Daniela; Degan, Stefania; Cattani, Giovanni; Rosa, Ilaria; Mizza, Agnese; Brusaferro, Silvio

    2016-01-01

    We explored the association of workplace characteristics with occupational injuries and adverse events in an Italian teaching hospital. This ecological study was conducted using data routinely collected in the University Hospital of Udine, Northeastern Italy. Poisson regression models were used to investigate, at the hospital unit level, the association between 5 outcomes, including: occupational injuries, patient falls, medication errors, other adverse events and near-misses, and various characteristics of the units. The proportion of female workers in a unit, the average number of sick-leave days and of overtime hours, the number of medical examinations requested by employees, and being a surgical unit were significantly associated with some of the outcomes. Despite ecological nature of the study, which does not allow for inferences to be drawn at the individual level, the results of our study provide useful clues to support strategies and interventions directed towards healthier work environments and better patient care in hospitals. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  17. A validated method for quantifying atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside in blood by HPLC-HRMS/MS, a non-fatal case of intoxication with Atractylis gummifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Jérémy; Romeuf, Ludovic; Guitton, Jérôme; Priez-Barallon, Cédric; Bévalot, Fabien; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2014-01-01

    Atractyloside (ATR) and carboxyatractyloside (CATR) are diterpene glycosides that are responsible for the toxicity of several Asteraceae plants around the world. Mediterranean gum thistle (Atractylis gummifera L.) and Zulu impila (Callilepis laureola DC.), in particular, are notoriously poisonous and the cause of many accidental deaths, some suicides and even some murders. There is no current method for measuring the two toxins in biological samples that meet the criteria of specificity required in forensic medicine. We have endeavored to fill this analytical gap. Analysis was carried out using a solid-phase extraction and a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry detection. The method was validated in the whole blood with quantification limits of 0.17 and 0.15 µg/L for ATR and CATR, respectively. The method was applied to a non-fatal case of intoxication with A. gummifera. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first time that a concentration of ATR and CATR in blood (883.1 and 119.0 µg/L, respectively) and urine (230.4 and 140.3 µg/L, respectively) is reported. ATR and CATR were quantified in A. gummifera roots by the standard method addition (3.7 and 5.4 mg/g, respectively). © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The Economic Cost of Suicide and Non-Fatal Suicide Behavior in the Australian Workforce and the Potential Impact of a Workplace Suicide Prevention Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Doran, Christopher M

    2017-03-27

    Suicide and non-fatal suicide behavior (NFSB) are significant problems faced by most countries. The objective of this research is to quantify the economic cost of suicide and NFSB in the Australian workforce and to examine the potential impact of introducing a workplace suicide prevention intervention to reduce this burden. The analysis used the best available suicide data, a well-established costing methodology, and a proven workplace intervention. In 2014, 903 workers died by suicide, 2303 workers harmed themselves resulting in full incapacity, and 11,242 workers harmed themselves resulting in a short absence from work. The present value of the economic cost of suicide and NFSB is estimated at $6.73 billion. Our analysis suggests the economic benefit of implementing a universal workplace strategy would considerably outweigh the cost of the strategy. For every one dollar invested, the benefits would be in excess of $1.50 ($1.11-$3.07), representing a positive economic investment. All variations of the key parameter hold the positive benefit-cost ratio. Rates of suicide and NFSB are far too high in Australia and elsewhere. More needs to be done to reduce this burden. Although workplace strategies are appropriate for those employed, these interventions must be used within a multifaceted approach that reflects the complex nature of self-harming behavior.

  19. Safe and unsafe spaces: Non-fatal overdose, arrest, and receptive syringe sharing among people who inject drugs in public and semi-public spaces in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Kyle; Park, Ju Nyeong; Allen, Sean T; Chaulk, Patrick; Frost, Taeko; Weir, Brian W; Sherman, Susan G

    2018-04-13

    The spaces in which drug use occurs constitutes a key aspect of the "risk environment" of people who inject drugs (PWID). We aimed to add nuance to the characterization of "safe" and "unsafe" spaces in PWID's environments to further understand how these spaces amplify the risk of morbidities associated with injection drug use. PWID were recruited through the Baltimore City syringe service program and through peer referral. Participants completed a socio-behavioral survey. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between utilization of public, semi-public and private spaces with arrest, non-fatal overdose, and receptive syringe sharing. The sample of PWID (N = 283) was mostly 45 years and older (54%), male (69%), Black (55%), and heroin users (96%). Compared to PWID who primarily used private settings, the adjusted odds of recent overdose were greater among PWID who mostly used semi-public and public locations to inject drugs. We also found independent associations between arrest and semi-public spaces, and between receptive syringe sharing and public spaces (all p spaces where PWID can reduce their risk of overdose, likelihood of arrest and blood-borne diseases, and the dual potential of the environment in promoting health and risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Risk of fatal/non-fatal events in patients with previous coronary heart disease/acute myocardial infarction and treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Olmo, L; Juan Armas, J; Gomariz García, J J

    2017-09-04

    Primary Care is the fundamental axis of our health system and obliges us to be consistent with our prescriptions. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been associated with increased cardiovascular risk and increased risk of all causes of death, as well as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with a previous myocardial infarction. Pain and cardiac patient management are 2 basic pillars in our daily activity, and we must know the limitations of NSAIDs in patients with established cardiovascular risk. We present a review of the scientific literature with primary interest in the role of NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk. The objective is to determine the relationship between the consumption of different NSAIDs and the fatal and non-fatal events among patients with known coronary disease. This is a review of the scientific literature with primary interest in the role of NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk. The literature review was conducted in PubMed search engines like Tripdatabase and with certain keywords. Of the 15 original papers found, 9 did not correspond completely to the central focus, so the approach was decided from 6 original articles from the past 5 years, which address the central focus of increased cardiovascular risk found (fatal and non-fatal events) in patients with prior cardiovascular disease or AMI being prescribed NSAIDs for any reason. The risk of fatal/non-fatal events in each of the studies is expressed by the odds ratio (OR)/hazard ratio (HR), defined as the probability of an event occurring. A moderate risk was observed for ibuprofen. It increases the risk of acute coronary syndrome after 5 years of cardiovascular event, especially in the 2nd year (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.42-1.87). It also increases the risk of stroke (HR 1.23; 95% IC 1.10-1.38). Cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors were the third risk group, after nabumetone and diclofenac. Celecoxib increases risk from the 14th day of treatment (HR 2.3; 95% CI 1.79-3.02), having an OR

  1. The role of healthcare delivery in the outcome of meningococcal disease in children: case-control study of fatal and non-fatal cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninis, Nelly; Phillips, Claire; Bailey, Linda; Pollock, Jon I; Nadel, Simon; Britto, Joseph; Maconochie, Ian; Winrow, Andrew; Coen, Pietro G; Booy, Robert; Levin, Michael

    2005-06-25

    To determine whether suboptimal management in hospital could contribute to poor outcome in children admitted with meningococcal disease. Case-control study of childhood deaths from meningococcal disease, comparing hospital care in fatal and non-fatal cases. National statistics and hospital records. All children under 17 years who died from meningococcal disease (cases) matched by age with three survivors (controls) from the same region of the country. Predefined criteria defined optimal management. A panel of paediatricians blinded to the outcome assessed case records using a standardised form and scored patients for suboptimal management. We identified 143 cases and 355 controls. Departures from optimal (per protocol) management occurred more frequently in the fatal cases than in the survivors. Multivariate analysis identified three factors independently associated with an increased risk of death: failure to be looked after by a paediatrician, failure of sufficient supervision of junior staff, and failure of staff to administer adequate inotropes. Failure to recognise complications of the disease was a significant risk factor for death, although not independently of absence of paediatric care (P = 0.002). The odds ratio for death was 8.7 (95% confidence interval 2.3 to 33) with two failures, increasing with multiple failures. Suboptimal healthcare delivery significantly reduces the likelihood of survival in children with meningococcal disease. Improved training of medical and nursing staff, adherence to published protocols, and increased supervision by consultants may improve the outcome for these children and also those with other life threatening illnesses.

  2. A step-by-step diagnosis of exclusion in a twin pregnancy with acute respiratory failure due to non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papaioannou Vasilios E

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Respiratory failure may develop during the later stages of pregnancy and is usually associated with tocolysis or other co-existing conditions such as pneumonia, sepsis, pre-eclampsia or amniotic fluid embolism syndrome. Case presentation We present the case of a 34-year-old healthy woman with a twin pregnancy at 31 weeks and 6 days who experienced acute respiratory failure, a few hours after administration of tocolysis (ritodrine, due to preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Her chest discomfort was significantly ameliorated after the ritodrine infusion was stopped and a Cesarean section was performed 48 hours later under spinal anesthesia; however, 2 hours after surgery she developed severe hypoxemia, hypotension, fever and mild coagulopathy. The patient was intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit where she made a quick and uneventful recovery within 3 days. As there was no evidence for drug- or infection-related thromboembolic or myocardial causes of respiratory failure, we conclude that our patient experienced a rare type of non-fatal amniotic fluid embolism. Conclusion In spite of the lack of solid scientific support for our diagnosis, we conclude that our patient suffered an uncommon type of amniotic fluid embolism syndrome and we believe that this report highlights the need for extreme vigilance and a high index of suspicion for such a diagnosis in any pregnant individual.

  3. A descriptive analysis of nonfatal occupational injuries to older workers, using a national probability sample of hospital emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, L A; Landen, D D

    1997-09-01

    An estimated 136,985 nonfatal, work-related injuries to workers 55 years of age and older were presented for treatment in hospital emergency departments across the United States during 1993. Men accounted for 63.7% of the injuries and had an injury rate of 1.06 per 100 workers, compared with a rate of 0.76 among women. Among the oldest workers (65+ years), injuries were more likely to be fractures or dislocations, to result from falls on the same level, or to involve hospitalization. The services industry had the largest number of injuries (31.9%), whereas the highest injury rate occurred in the agriculture/forestry/fishing industry (1.50 per 100 workers). The types of injuries most frequently requiring hospitalization were fractures or dislocations that resulted from a fall. Because older workers' employment demographics and injury patterns differ from the remainder of the labor force, interventions need to be developed which are specific to the workplace for this older working population.

  4. 77 FR 4048 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  5. 76 FR 52330 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  6. 77 FR 51810 - Safety and Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Occupational Health Study Section (SOHSS), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) In... the magnitude of the aggregate health burden associated with occupational injuries and illnesses, as... occupational safety and health services, and the prevention of work-related injury and illness. It is...

  7. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  8. Arrow injury to the skull base

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in which the orbits is a prime target, are exceedingly rare.3. O'Neil et a1 presented a case of non-fatal transorbital penetrating arrow injury to the brain.I The case highlighted. WAJM VOL. 23 NO l, JANUARY ~ MARCH. 2004 the necessity for anterograde removal of the arrow in the direction of its lines of trajectory. Pandey et ...

  9. Associations of Individual-Related and Job-Related Risk Factors with Nonfatal Occupational Injury in the Coal Workers of Shanxi Province: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cui

    Full Text Available To assess the relationships between the risk factors and the incidence of nonfatal occupational injury of coal mine workers of Shanxi Province.A cross-sectional study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013, and 4319 workers were recruited from more than 200,000 coal mine employees who are exposed to continuous potential risk of occupational injuries by using a two-stage stratified cluster sampling method. Trained interviewers having necessary medical knowledge conducted face-to-face interviews with the participants. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR and the 95% confidence interval (CI.A total number of 3618 effective respondents were got from 4319 participants (83.77% and the mean age of the participants was 41.5 years with the standard deviation of 8.65. Significant crude odds ratios were observed for all factors considered except for marital status, education, work duration, BMI, EPQ-RSC(P scale and EPQ-RSC(L scale. Results from multivariable logistic regression model showed significant adjusted odds ratios for risk factors including gender (female vs male 0.275, 0.094-0.800, age (≥55 vs ≤25yr 0.169, 0.032-0.900, work type (light physical labor vs heavy physical labor 0.504, 0.328-0.774, workplace (underground auxiliary vs underground front-line 0.595, 0.385-0.919, length of shiftwork experience (0~5yr vs no shift 2.075, 1.287-3.344 and ≥15yr vs no shift 2.076, 1.230-3.504 and EPQ-RSC(E score (extraversion vs introversion 0.538, 0.334-0.867.Several risk factors of nonfatal occupational injury were identified including male, age, heavy physical labor, underground front-line, length of shiftwork experience and introversion. The coal mining enterprises should pay attention to controlling the hazards associated with frontline physical work. Workers' behaviors, life styles and personality traits should also be considered, so that the enterprises could set achievable targets

  10. Risk of non-fatal suicide ideation and behaviour in recent onset schizophrenia--the influence of clinical, social, self-esteem and demographic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrier, Nicholas; Barrowclough, Christine; Andrews, Bernice; Gregg, Lynsey

    2004-11-01

    Suicide rates amongst schizophrenic patients are high. There are disadvantages in investigating successfully completed suicides which make suicidal ideation and previous attempts important proxy measures of suicidal risk. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with these risk measures. Fifty-nine patients suffering recent onset schizophrenia were assessed for suicidal ideation and history, and a range of demographic, clinical, social (including relatives' Expressed Emotion) and self-esteem measures. Univariate comparisons were made between those with and without suicide ideation and previous attempts. Path analysis was conducted to identify factors directly or indirectly associated with a composite scale of risk (low, medium or high). Approximately 25% of the sample reported a current desire to kill themselves and 47% had made one or more previous attempts. There were numerous significant univariate differences between those with or without ideation or history. Path analysis indicated that greater hopelessness (OR 1.22) and longer duration of illness (OR 1.13) increased risk. Hopelessness was associated with higher negative self-evaluation and social isolation. Negative self-evaluation was associated with more relatives' criticism which was associated with more negative symptoms. Being a male, unmarried and unemployed were all significantly associated with an increase in negative symptoms. Social isolation was associated with being unemployed, older, more positive symptoms and longer illness duration. Duration of illness was not itself predicted by any other variables. Non-fatal suicide ideation and behaviour are significantly associated with an array of demographic, clinical, interpersonal and psychological factors. To reduce risk of suicide, these factors need to be assessed and methods developed to reduce their influence.

  11. Epidemiology of Unintentional Child Injuries in the Makwanpur District of Nepal: A Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Puspa Raj; Towner, Elizabeth; Ellis, Matthew; Manandhar, Dharma; Pilkington, Paul; Mytton, Julie

    2015-11-30

    Secondary sources of information indicate that the proportion of child deaths due to injuries is increasing in Nepal. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of unintentional injuries in children, explore risk factors and estimate the burden faced by families and the community in the Makwanpur district. We conducted a household survey in Makwanpur, covering 3441 households. Injuries that occurred during the 12 months before the survey and required treatment or caused the child to be unable to take part in usual activities for three or more days were included. We identified 193 cases of non-fatal unintentional child injuries from 181 households and estimated an annual rate of non-fatal injuries of 24.6/1000 children; rates for boys were double (32.7/1000) that for girls (16.8/1000). The rates were higher among the children of age groups 1-4 years and 5-9 years. Falls were the most common cause of non-fatal child injuries followed by burns in preschool children and road traffic injuries were the most likely cause in adolescence. Mean period of disability following injury was 25 days. The rates and the mechanisms of injury vary by age and gender. Falls and burns are currently the most common mechanisms of injury amongst young children around rural homes.

  12. a Study on the Mechanism of OCCUPANT'S Cervical Injury by Low Speed Rear-End Collision of Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Wonhak; Kim, Yongchul; Choi, Hyeonki

    Neck injury in rear-end car collisions is an increasing concern in the field of traffic safety. This injury commonly occurs at rear-end impact, however the injury mechanisms for whiplash remain a mystery. The purpose of this study is to quantitatively analyze the head and neck kinematics during the low-speed rear-end impact of automobiles. It is important to produce data that is related as closely as possible to the in vivo situation. So, we performed a sled test which simulated rear-end impacts with a velocity of 0.6 m/s with five normal healthy male subjects. 3-D motion analysis system was used to document motion data of two situations. When we compare the values of angular velocity and acceleration of head and neck, the peak magnitudes of inclined seated posture were smaller than those of upright seated posture. The result of this study is expected to provide insight that will aid in determining the mechanism of whiplash which is crucial to the identification of possible injury mechanisms.

  13. Suggestion of an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries Sugestão de uma associação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Worker perception of risk influences worker behavior and consequently exposure to risks. However, an inverse relationship between perception of occupational risks and work-related injuries has not yet been clearly established. A matched case-control was performed aiming to investigate possible differences in perception of occupational risks between workers who had suffered occupational injuries and those who had not. Cases were defined as all 93 workers from a large metallurgical factory in southeastern Brazil, who had suffered occupational injuries during the year 1996. Controls were 372 workers who had not suffered occupational injuries, matched on the basis of the factory sector and jobs performed. Assessment of occupational risk perception was performed by asking the workers to fill out a questionnaire consisting of questions on specific risks related to problems in work relations, work per se, and mode of production. The findings suggest that the degree of perception that workers with occupational injuries have of some occupational risks is lower than that of their non-injured coworkers.A percepção que o trabalhador tem dos riscos ocupacionais a que está exposto, influencia seu comportamento e sua própria exposição a riscos. Entretanto, uma relação inversa entre percepção de riscos ocupacionais e acidentes do trabalho, embora especulada, não foi ainda claramente estabelecida. Este é um estudo caso-controle objetivando investigar a existência de diferenças na percepção de riscos ocupacionais entre trabalhadores acidentados e não acidentados. Os casos foram todos os 93 trabalhadores de uma grande metalúrgica de Botucatu, que sofreram acidentes do trabalho no ano de 1996. Para cada caso foram aleatoriamente alocados quatro controles não acidentados, emparelhados segundo a seção de trabalho e a função do trabalhador acidentado na semana do acidente. A mensuração da percepção de riscos ocupacionais de casos e controles

  14. Occupant dynamics in rollover crashes: influence of roof deformation and seat belt performance on probable spinal column injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidez, Martha W; Cochran, John E; King, Dottie; Burke, Donald S

    2007-11-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death in the United States for people ages 3-33, and rollover crashes have a higher fatality rate than any other crash mode. At the request and under the sponsorship of Ford Motor Company, Autoliv conducted a series of dynamic rollover tests on Ford Explorer sport utility vehicles (SUV) during 1998 and 1999. Data from those tests were made available to the public and were analyzed in this study to investigate the magnitude of and the temporal relationship between roof deformation, lap-shoulder seat belt loads, and restrained anthropometric test dummy (ATD) neck loads. During each of the three FMVSS 208 dolly rollover tests of Ford Explorer SUVs, the far-side, passenger ATDs exhibited peak neck compression and flexion loads, which indicated a probable spinal column injury in all three tests. In those same tests, the near-side, driver ATD neck loads never predicted a potential injury. In all three tests, objective roof/pillar deformation occurred prior to the occurrence of peak neck loads (F ( z ), M ( y )) for far-side, passenger ATDs, and peak neck loads were predictive of probable spinal column injury. The production lap and shoulder seat belts in the SUVs, which restrained both driver and passenger ATDs, consistently allowed ATD head contact with the roof while the roof was contacting the ground during this 1000 ms test series. Local peak neck forces and moments were noted each time the far-side, passenger ATD head contacted ("dived into") the roof while the roof was in contact with the ground; however, the magnitude of these local peaks was only 2-13% of peak neck loads in all three tests. "Diving-type" neck loads were not predictive of injury for either driver or passenger ATD in any of the three tests.

  15. Bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth Nicole; Stevens, Judy A; Haileyesus, Tadesse

    2013-10-01

    To quantify and describe non-fatal, unintentional bathroom injuries among children less than 15 years of age treated in US hospital emergency departments (EDs). This study used 2008 data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, available from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program. We examined unintentional non-fatal bathroom injuries in any setting (eg, home, school or public place) among children less than 15 years of age and identified types of injuries, major locations within the bathroom and precipitating events. Based on 1099 cases, an estimated 51 132 non-fatal bathroom injuries in children less than 15 years of age were treated in US EDs in 2008. Most injuries (73.8%) were caused by falls. The highest rate was for injuries that occurred in or around the shower or bathtub (65.9 per 100 000). Children less than 15 years of age sustained the greatest number of injuries and had the highest injury rate (151 per 100 000 (95% CI 108.7 to 193.3)), while children 10-14 years of age had the lowest rate (28.7 (95% CI 20.6 to 36.8)). The rates differed significantly by age group (pinjuries in children occurred while they were showering or bathing and were caused by falling or hitting an object. Such injuries might be reduced by improving caregiver supervision for younger children. For older children, a combination of bathroom safety education and environmental modifications, such as installing grab bars inside and outside the shower or tub, may reduce bathroom injuries.

  16. Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Travel Occupational Health First Aid and Injury Prevention Crisis Situations Pets ... PoisoningAcute Bronchitis Home Prevention and Wellness Staying Healthy Occupational Health Occupational Exposure to HIV: Advice for Health Care ...

  17. Burden of injury of serious road injuries in six EU countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijermars, Wendy; Bos, Niels; Filtness, Ashleigh; Brown, Laurie; Bauer, Robert; Dupont, Emmanuelle; Martin, Jean Louis; Perez, Katherine; Thomas, Pete

    2018-02-01

    Information about the burden of (non-fatal) road traffic injury is very useful to further improve road safety policy. Previous studies calculated the burden of injury in individual countries. This paper estimates and compares the burden of non-fatal serious road traffic injuries in six EU countries/regions: Austria, Belgium, England, The Netherlands, the Rhône region in France and Spain. It is a cross-sectional study based on hospital discharge databases. of study are patients hospitalized with MAIS3+ due to road traffic injuries. The burden of injury (expressed in years lived with disability (YLD)) is calculated applying a method that is developed within the INTEGRIS study. The method assigns estimated disability information to the casualties using the EUROCOST injury classification. The average burden per MAIS3+ casualty varies between 2.4 YLD and 3.2 YLD per casualty. About 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties is due to lifelong consequences that are experienced by 19% to 33% of the MAIS3+ casualties. Head injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of MAIS3+ road traffic injuries. Results per transport mode differ between the countries. Differences between countries are mainly due to differences in age distribution and in the distribution over EUROCOST injury groups of the casualties. The analyses presented in this paper can support further improvement of road safety policy. Countermeasures could for example be focused at reducing skull and brain injuries, spinal cord injuries and injuries to the lower extremities, as these injuries are responsible for more than 90% of the total burden of injury of MAIS3+ casualties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdulle, Abdishakur M.; Abebo, Teshome Abuka; Abera, Semaw Ferede; Aboyans, Victor; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adamu, Abdu Abdullahi; Adetokunboh, Olatunji; Afarideh, Mohsen; Afshin, Ashkan; Agarwal, Sanjay Kumar; Aggarwal, Rakesh; Agrawal, Anurag; Agrawal, Sutapa; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Amani Nidhal; Aichour, Ibtihel; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Aiyar, Sneha; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al Lami, Faris Hasan; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore; Alam, Tahiya; Alasfoor, Deena; Alene, Kefyalew Addis; Ali, Raghib; Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Allen, Christine; Al-Maskari, Fatma; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Alsowaidi, Shirina; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amini, Erfan; Ammar, Walid; Amoako, Yaw Ampem; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Anwari, Palwasha; Arnlov, Johan; Artaman, Al; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Asayesh, Hamid; Asgedom, Solomon W.; Assadi, Reza; Atey, Tesfay Mehari; Atnafu, Niguse Tadele; Atre, Sachin R.; Avila-Burgos, Leticia; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Saleem, Huda Omer Ba; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Bannick, Marlena S.; Barac, Aleksandra; Barber, Ryan M.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Baernighausen, Till; Barquera, Simon; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Sanjay; Battista, Bob; Battle, Katherine E.; Baune, Bernhard T.; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Beardsley, Justin; Bedi, Neeraj; Beghi, Ettore; Bejot, Yannick; Bekele, Bayu Begashaw; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benson, Jennifer; Berhane, Adugnaw; Berhe, Derbew Fikadu; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beuran, Mircea; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhansali, Anil; Bhatt, Samir; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhoff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Birungi, Charles; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bizuayehu, Habtamu Mellie; Boneya, Dube Jara; Boufous, Soufiane; Bourne, Rupert R. A.; Brazinova, Alexandra; Brugha, Traolach S.; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Bulto, Lemma Negesa Bulto; Bumgarner, Blair R.; Butt, Zahid A.; Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero; Cameron, Ewan; Car, Mate; Carabin, Helene; Carapetis, Jonathan R.; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Carter, Austin; Carvalho, Felix; Casey, Daniel C.; Caso, Valeria; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castle, Chris D.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Chang, Jung-Chen; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Honglei; Chibalabala, Mirriam; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Chitheer, Abdulaal A.; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Colombara, Danny; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortesi, Paolo Angelo; Criqui, Michael H.; Crump, John A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dalal, Koustuv; Dandona, Lalit; Dandona, Rakhi; das Neves, Jose; Davitoiu, Dragos V.; de Courten, Barbora; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Deiparine, Selina; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dey, Subhojit; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet Kaur; Dicker, Daniel; Ding, Eric L.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Huyen Phuc Do,; Dorsey, E. Ray; Bender dos Santos, Kadine Priscila; Douwes-Schultz, Dirk; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; El-Khatib, Ziad Ziad; Ellerstrand, Jerisha; Enayati, Ahmadali; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Erskine, Holly E.; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Esteghamati, Alireza; Estep, Kara; Fanuel, Fanuel Belayneh Bekele; Sa Farinha, Carla Sofia e; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fazeli, Mir Sohail; Feigin, Valery L.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Joao C.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Flaxman, Abraham D.; Flor, Luisa Sorio; Foigt, Nataliya; Foreman, Kyle J.; Franklin, Richard C.; Fullman, Nancy; Furst, Thomas; Furtado, Joao M.; Futran, Neal D.; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Ganji, Morsaleh; Garcia-Basteiro, Alberto L.; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Geleto, Ayele; Gemechu, Bikila Lencha; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gething, Peter W.; Ghajar, Alireza; Gibney, Katherine B.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Gillum, Richard F.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergay; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Giussani, Giorgia; Godwin, William W.; Gold, Audra L.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Gona, Philimon N.; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goto, Atsushi; Goulart, Alessandra Carvalho; Griswold, Max; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Tanush; Gupta, Vipin; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Hareri, Habtamu Abera; Maria Haro, Josep; Harvey, James; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hawley, Caitlin; Hay, Roderick J.; Hay, Simon I.; Henry, Nathaniel J.; Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hotez, Peter J.; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Guoqing; Huang, Hsiang; Huynh, Chantal; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Igumbor, Ehimario Uche; Ikeda, Chad; Irvine, Caleb Mackay Salpeter; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Jassal, Simerjot K.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayaraman, Sudha P.; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jha, Vivekanand; Jiang, Guohong; John, Denny; Johnson, Catherine O.; Johnson, Sarah Charlotte; Jonas, Jost B.; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Zubair; Kadel, Rajendra; Kahsay, Amaha; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karam, Nadim E.; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Kasaeian, Amir; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kassaw, Nigussie Assefa; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kastor, Anshul; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Keren, Andre; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khosravi, Ardeshir; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Pauline; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kisa, Adnan; Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.; Kivimaki, Mika; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Krishnaswami, Sanjay; Krohn, Kristopher J.; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, Sanjiv; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lambert, Nkurunziza; Lan, Qing; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Leasher, Janet L.; Lee, Jong-Tae; Lee, Paul H.; Leigh, James; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Leung, Janni; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Li Kappe, Darya; Liang, Xiaofeng; Liben, Misgan Legesse; Lim, Stephen S.; Linn, Shai; Liu, Angela; Liu, Patrick Y.; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lodha, Rakesh; Logroscino, Giancarlo; London, Stephanie J.; Looker, Katharine J.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lorkowski, Stefan; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Low, Nicola; Lozano, Rafael; Lucas, Timothy C. D.; Macarayan, Erlyn Rachelle King; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Mahdavi, Mahdi; Majdan, Marek; Majdzadeh, Reza; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rajesh; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manguerra, Helena; Manhertz, Treh; Mantilla, Ana; Mantovani, Lorenzo G.; Mapoma, Chabila C.; Marczak, Laurie B.; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Martopullo, Ira; Maerz, Winfried; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; McGaughey, Madeline; McGrath, John J.; Mckee, Martin; McNellan, Claire; Mehata, Suresh; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Mengistie, Mubarek Abera; Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese; Mensah, George A.; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane; Micha, Renata; Millear, Anoushka; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Misganaw, Awoke; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mohammad, Karzan Abdulmuhsin; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Kedir Endris; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohanty, Sanjay K.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Mollenkopf, Sarah K.; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio; Montico, Marcella; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Moraga, Paula; Mori, Rintaro; Morozoff, Chloe; Morrison, Shane D.; Moses, Mark; Mountjoy-Venning, Cliff; Mruts, Kalayu Birhane; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Muller, Kate; Murdoch, Michele E.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naheed, Aliya; Naidoo, Kovin S.; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Natarajan, Gopalakrishnan; Negasa, Dumessa Edessa; Negoi, Ionut; Negoi, Ruxandra Irina; Newton, Charles R.; Ngunjiri, Josephine Wanjiku; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Nguyen, Grant; Nguyen, Minh; Quyen Le Nguyen, [Unknown; Trang Huyen Nguyen,; Nichols, Emma; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nolte, Sandra; Vuong Minh Nong,; Norrving, Bo; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.; O'Donnell, Martin J.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Okoro, Anselm; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Olsen, Helen E.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ong, Kanyin; Opio, John Nelson; Oren, Eyal; Ortiz, Alberto; Osgood-Zimmerman, Aaron; Osman, Majdi; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pacella, Rosana E.; Pana, Adrian; Panda, Basant Kumar; Papachristou, Christina; Park, Eun-Kee; Parry, Charles D.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Paulson, Katherine; Pearce, Neil; Pereira, David M.; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Pigott, David M.; Pillay, Julian David; Pinho, Christine; Plass, Dietrich; Pletcher, Martin A.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Narayan; Prasad, Noela M.; Purcell, Carrie; Qorbani, Mostafa; Quansah, Reginald; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rankin, Zane; Rao, Paturi Vishnupriya; Rao, Puja C.; Rawaf, Salman; Ray, Sarah E.; Reiner, Robert C.; Reinig, Nikolas; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaei, Satar; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Roy, Ambuj; Rubagotti, Enrico; Ruhago, George Mugambage; Saadat, Soheil; Sadat, Nafis; Safdarian, Mahdi; Safi, Sare; Safiri, Saeid; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Salama, Joseph; Salomon, Joshua A.; Salvi, Sundeep Santosh; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan R.; Santomauro, Damian; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Saxena, Sonia; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schoettker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Schwendicke, Falk; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Setegn, Tesfaye; Shackelford, Katya Anne; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shamsipour, Mansour; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Sharma, Jayendra; Sharma, Rajesh; She, Jun; Shi, Peilin; Shields, Chloe; Shigematsu, Mika; Shinohara, Yukito; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shirude, Shreya; Shishani, Kawkab; Shrime, Mark G.; Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Silva, Joao Pedro; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Skirbekk, Vegard; Slepak, Erica Leigh; Sligar, Amber; Smith, David L.; Smith, Mari; Sobaih, Badr H. A.; Sobngwi, Eugene; Sorensen, Reed J. D.; Moraes Sousa, Tatiane Cristina; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Srinivasan, Vinay; Stanaway, Jeffrey D.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Stein, Murray B.; Steiner, Caitlyn; Steiner, Timothy J.; Steinke, Sabine; Stokes, Mark Andrew; Stovner, Lars Jacob; Strub, Bryan; Subart, Michelle; Sufiyan, Muawiyyah Babale; Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick J.; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Taffere, Getachew Redae; Takala, Jukka S.; Tandon, Nikhil; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taveira, Nuno; Taylor, Hugh R.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Shifa, Girma Temam; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Tesfaye, Dawit Jember; Tesssema, Belay; Thamsuwan, Ornwipa; Thomas, Katie E.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Tiruye, Tenaw Yimer; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tollanes, Mette C.; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tortajada, Miguel; Touvier, Mathilde; Bach Xuan Tran,; Tripathi, Suryakant; Troeger, Christopher; Truelsen, Thomas; Tsoi, Derrick; Tuem, Kald Beshir; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Updike, Rachel; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; van Boven, Job F. M.; Varughese, Santosh; Vasankari, Tommi; Venkatesh, S.; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Vidavalur, Ramesh; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wadilo, Fiseha; Wakayo, Tolassa; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Weaver, Marcia; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Woodbrook, Rachel; Woolf, Anthony D.; Workicho, Abdulhalik; Hanson, Sarah Wulf; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadgir, Simon; Yaghoubi, Mohsen; Yakob, Bereket; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Ye, Pengpeng; Yimam, Hassen Hamid; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Yotebieng, Marcel; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Zenebe, Zerihun Menlkalew; Zhang, Xueying; Zhou, Maigeng; Zipkin, Ben; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive

  19. Workplace violence in long haul trucking: occupational health nursing update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Debra Gay

    2004-01-01

    Almost 2 million workdays and millions of dollars are lost annually because of non-fatal assaults suffered at the workplace (NIOSH, 1996). Twenty workers, on average, are murdered each week in the United States and an estimated 18,000 workers per week are victims of non-fatal assault (NIOSH, 2001). Violence and stress are two interrelated issues that affect the work force. In-depth studies of these issues have not been conducted with long haul truckers in general, or with women in non-traditional, male dominated fields such as the long haul trucking industry. Epidemiological data related to violence and stress experienced by these under-studied populations are needed to plan effective interventions to reduce occupational risks. Studies employing both qualitative and quantitative methods are needed to articulate risk and protective factors related to violence against workers (Runyan, 2001). Occupational health nurses are qualified to participate in the development and implementation of research and intervention studies to improve worker safety related to violence at the workplace for men and women in both traditional and non-traditional occupational roles.

  20. Measuring illness beliefs in patients with lower extremity injuries: reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping questionnaire (SPOC-NL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininga, Inge H F; Brouwer, Sandra; Dijkstra, Anita; Busse, Jason W; Ebrahim, Shanil; Wendt, Klaus W; El Moumni, Mostafa

    2015-02-01

    Positive coping strategies, illness perceptions and recovery expectations are associated with better clinical outcomes and earlier return to work after injuries. The Somatic Pre-Occupation and Coping (SPOC) questionnaire captures illness beliefs and coping towards recovery of physical function and return to work after surgical treatment of tibial shaft fractures. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the SPOC into Dutch (SPOC-NL) and evaluate its reliability and validity in patients with lower extremity injuries. The SPOC-NL contains four subscales: Somatic complaints, Coping, Energy, and Optimism. Patients treated for lower extremity injuries (N=106) completed the SPOC-NL, Short Form-36 and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment (SMFA-NL) questionnaire, and reported their current work status and self-perceived work ability. To assess test-retest reliability, 56 patients completed the SPOC-NL for a second time two weeks after the first administration of the SPOC-NL. We calculated Cronbach's Alpha, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and G coefficients to measure internal consistency and overall reliability, and used the Bland and Altman method to assess bias between test and retest SPOC-NL scores. To determine construct validity, we explored 16 a priori hypotheses regarding correlations between SPOC-NL scores and subscale scores and SF-36, SMFA-NL, work status and work ability. Internal consistency was good to excellent, with Cronbach's Alpha values ranging between 0.79 and 0.94 and G coefficients ranging between 0.77 and 0.95. Test-retest reliability was also good, since high ICCs (0.72-0.91) and G coefficients (0.82-0.94) were found. Construct validity of the SPOC-NL was good, as 75% of the predefined hypotheses were confirmed. Compared to participants who were on sick leave or receiving disability benefits, participants with a paid job had significantly higher scores on the total score and the subscales Somatic complaints and

  1. The characteristics of, and risk factors for, child injuries in Andhra Pradesh, India: the Young Lives project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Erika; Griffin, Mark; Durham, Jo

    2015-11-01

    Injuries are an emerging public health issue among children worldwide, and one of the leading causes of disability-adjusted life years lost for children aged 0-14 years. Few studies, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, have analysed characteristics and risk factors for these injuries. This study examined the occurrence and risk factors of serious non-fatal injuries in children aged 7-9 years (n=1820) from Andhra Pradesh, India. Logistic regression models were used to explore potential risk factors for these injuries. Based on a 3-year recall period, 336 (18.5%) children reported serious non-fatal injuries. Incidence was higher among males (209/971; 21.5%) compared to females (127/849; 15.0%). Of the most serious non-fatal injuries reported, falls (n=186, 55.4%) were the major cause of injuries, followed by road traffic injuries (50, 14.9%), and assaults/blows/hits (26, 7.7%). Twenty children (6.0%) did not fully recover from their injuries, and 14 (4.2%) had long-term health problems as a result of their injuries. The logistic regression analyses indicated that being male (AOR 1.59; 95% CI: 1.25-2.05), in poor health (AOR 2.50; 95% CI: 1.88-3.31), and having a caregiver with low education (AOR 1.53; 95% CI: 1.15-2.05) were associated with an increased risk of non-fatal injury. Urgent attention is needed to reduce child injuries and address risk factors according to local context. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundNon-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at t...

  3. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, R.M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2016-01-01


    Background

    Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  5. Determination of pre-impact occupant postures and analysis of consequences on injury outcome. Part I: a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hault-Dubrulle, Audrey; Robache, Frederic; Pacaux, Marie-Pierre; Morvan, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers pre-impact vehicle maneuvers and analyzes the resulting driver motion from their comfort seating position. Part I of this work consists of analyzing the driver behavior during a crash. The study is conducted using the LAMIH driving simulator and involves 76 participants. The emergency situation is created by a truck emerging from behind a tractor on the opposite side of the road and tearing along the participant. The driver positioning throughout the simulation is recorded via five video cameras allowing view of the front scene, the driver face, feet and pedals, hands on the steering wheel and global lateral view. Data related to braking force, seat pressure, muscular activity for major groups of muscles and actions on the steering wheel are also collected. The typical response to this type of emergency event is to brace rearward into the seat and to straighten the arms against the steering wheel, or, to swerve to attempt to avoid the impacting vehicle. While turning the steering wheel, the forearm can be directly positioned on the airbag module at time of crash which represents a potential injurious situation. These positions are used in Part II to determine scenario of positions for numerical simulation of a frontal collision. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Qiang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Methods Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP. Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs, adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. Results The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years. Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96; type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14; liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45. Conclusions Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  7. Status and risk factors of unintentional injuries among Chinese undergraduates: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongying; Yang, Xinjun; Huang, Chenping; Zhou, Zumu; Zhou, Qiang; Chu, Maoping

    2011-07-05

    Injuries affect all age groups but have a particular impact on young people. To evaluate the incidence of non-fatal, unintentional, injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou, China, assess the burden caused by these injuries, and explore the associated risk factors for unintentional injuries among these undergraduates, we conducted a college-based cross-sectional study. Participants were selected by a multi-stage random sampling method, and 2,287 students were asked whether they had had an injury in the last 12 months; the location, cause, and consequences of the event. The questionnaire included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle habits, and the scale of type A behaviour pattern (TABP). Multivariate logistic regression models were used; crude odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, with students having no injuries as the reference group. The incidence of injuries among undergraduates in Wenzhou was 18.71 injuries per 100 person-years (95%CI: 17.12~20.31 injuries per 100 person-years). Falls were the leading cause of injury, followed by traffic injuries, and animal/insect bites. Male students were more likely to be injured than female students. Risk factors associated with unintentional injuries among undergraduates were: students majoring in non-medicine (adjusted OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.19-1.96); type A behaviour pattern (adjusted OR: 2.99; 95% CI: 1.45-6.14); liking sports (adjusted OR: 1.86; 95% CI: 1.41-2.45). Injuries have become a public health problem among undergraduates. Falls were the major cause of non-fatal injury. Therefore, individuals, families, schools and governments should promptly adopt preventive measures aimed at preventing and controlling morbidity due to non-fatal injury, especially among students identified to be at high-risk; such as male students with type A behaviour pattern who like sports.

  8. Road traffic injuries in Peace Corps Volunteers, 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Rennie W; Henderson, Susan J; Jung, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Travellers are at risk given unfamiliarity with local road conditions and traffic rules. Peace Corps Volunteers are a unique population of long-term travellers who live and work in-country, often in remote settings, over a period of 27 months and use a range of transportation modes. Data from Peace Corps' Epidemiologic Surveillance System (ESS) and Death In-Service (DIS) database were analysed in 2015 for non-fatal and fatal road traffic injuries among in-service Volunteers from 1996 to 2014. Volunteer-months were used to calculate incidence rates, and rates were compared among countries and regions. A total of 5047 non-fatal and 15 fatal road crash injuries were reported during 1 616 252 Volunteer-months for an overall rate of 3.12 non-fatal injuries and 0.01 fatalities per 1000 Volunteer-months. The total combined rate of nonfatal road traffic injuries among Volunteers generally declined from 4.01 per 1000 Volunteer-months in 1996 to 2.84 in 2014. Pedestrian and bicycle injuries emerged as the most frequent mechanisms of injury during this timeframe. Differences in rates of observed road traffic-related fatalities among Volunteers compared with expected age-matched cohort rates in the US were not statistically significant. Peace Corps transportation policies and training, and changes to road environments worldwide, may have led to a decrease in the rate of road traffic injuries among Peace Corps Volunteers. Pedestrians and bicyclists remain at risk of road traffic injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Cenários típicos de lesões decorrentes de acidentes de trabalho na indústria madeireira Scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal de Souza

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os cenários das lesões decorrentes de acidentes de trabalho na indústria madeireira. MÉTODOS: Foram identificados todos os acidentes típicos entre janeiro de 1997 e janeiro de 1999, notificados a um dos postos do Instituto Nacional de Seguro Social, localizado em Lages, Santa Catarina. Trata-se de um estudo transversal descritivo em que foram analisadas 254 Comunicações de Acidentes de Trabalho (CAT. Aplicou-se análise multivariada com Análise Fatorial de Correspondência Múltipla (AFCM, Classificação Hierárquica de Ascendência (CHA e Classificação Não Hierárquica de Partição (CNHP para a identificação dos cenários típicos de lesões decorrentes de acidentes. RESULTADOS: Cinco cenários de lesões decorrentes de acidentes foram agrupados: 1 queda do trabalhador, 40 casos; 2 sobreesforço ao erguer ou empurrar um objeto, 5 casos; 3 objetos ou peças que tenham caído ou saltado de máquinas em movimento, 76 casos; 4 esmagamento de partes moles, 56 casos; e 5 contato com serras em movimento, 77 casos. CONCLUSÕES: A utilização de análise multivariada permitiu definir as lesões mais típicas relacionadas a determinados tipos de acidentes, bem como apreender as circunstâncias em que ocorreram.OBJECTIVE: To describe the scenarios of typical occupational injuries in lumber industry. METHODS: All occupational injuries reported to a INSS (National Institute of Social Security center in Lages, SC, Brazil from January 1997 to January 1999 were identified. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out and 254 injury report forms were analyzed. Multivariate analysis was conducted using Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC, Hierarchical Ascendant Classification (HAC and Partition to identify the scenarios of typical occupational injuries. RESULTS: There were identified five scenarios of occupational injuries: 1 workers' falls (40 reports; 2 overexertion in lifting or pushing objects (5 reports; 3

  10. Conhecimentos e práticas de adolescentes na prevenção de acidentes de trabalho: estudo qualitativo Knowledge and practices by adolescents in preventing occupational injuries: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Nagai

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever conhecimentos e práticas adotados por estudantes do ensino médio na prevenção de acidentes de trabalho. DELINEAMENTO DO ESTUDO: O estudo foi realizado em uma escola pública, localizada no Município de São Paulo, em 2003. Participaram 53 estudantes do período noturno, com idades entre 14 e 21 anos, divididos em dois grupos: com e sem experiência de trabalho (32 e 21 adolescentes, respectivamente. Eles responderam a duas questões: "Por quê os acidentes de trabalho ocorrem?" e "O que você faz para evitar que ocorram acidentes de trabalho?". As análises dos dados foram feitas no programa Quali-quanti, para a elaboração do discurso de sujeito coletivo. ANÁLISE DOS DISCURSOS: Para os adolescentes com experiência de trabalho, acidentes ocorrem devido ao descuido ou má sorte do funcionário, irresponsabilidade do patrão, falta de treinamento no trabalho e ambiente de trabalho inseguro. Os adolescentes sem experiência relataram que acidentes de trabalho ocorrem devido ao descuido do funcionário e irresponsabilidade do patrão. Sobre as formas de proteção dos acidentes de trabalho os adolescentes de ambos grupos relataram que: prestam (prestariam atenção no trabalho e usam (usariam equipamentos de segurança. CONCLUSÕES: Os adolescentes dos dois grupos mostraram conhecimento limitado sobre acidentes de trabalho e formas de prevenção. Os adolescentes apontaram como "culpa da vítima" as ocorrências dos acidentes de trabalho e a melhor forma de proteção "prestar atenção no trabalho". A cultura de culpar a vítima está presente desde a adolescência e provavelmente é resultado de um processo de aprendizado na sociedade.OBJECTIVE: To describe knowledge and practices adopted by high school students to prevent occupational injuries. STUDY DESIGN: The study was carried out in a public school located in São Paulo, in 2003. Fifty-three evening students aged 14 to 21 years old participated the study, they were

  11. Perspective on occupational mortality risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational risks to radiation workers are compared with other occupational risks on the basis of lost life expectancy (LLE) in a full working lifetime. Usual comparisons with National Safety Council accident death statistics for various industry categories are shown to be unfair because the latter average over a variety of particular industries and occupations within each industry. Correcting for these problems makes some common occupations in some industries 20-50 times more dangerous due to accidents alone than being a radiation worker. If more exposed subgroups of radiation workers are compared with more dangerous subgroups of other occupations, these ratios are maintained. Since radiation causes disease rather than acute injury, a wide range effort is made to estimate average loss of life expectancy from occupational disease; the final estimate for this is 500 days. The average American worker loses more than an order of magnitude more life expectancy from occupational disease than the average radiation worker loses from radiation induced cancer. (author)

  12. THE SOCIAL AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH PROBLEMS OF CHILD LABOUR: A CHALLENGE THE WORLD IS FACING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Goel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Eliminating child labour is one of the biggest challenges that the world is facing. Child labour not only causes damage to a child’s physical and mental health but also keeps him deprived of his basic rights to education, development, and freedom. Children of lower socio-economic class are known to be inducted as child labour. The main causes of child labour include poverty, unemployment, excess population and urbanization. The construction sector is one of the most hazardous working environments especially for children. Children are exposed to dangerous machinery causing fatal and non-fatal injuries, while operating or working near them. Children are exposed to strenuous labour, which can affect the musculo-skeletal development of the children. In industries, child workers are exposed to various physical, mental, social occupational hazards resulting in lower growth and poor health status. Working long hours, child labourers are often denied a basic school education, normal social interaction, personal development and emotional support from their family. The Child Labour Act was implemented in India in 1986 that outlaws child labour in certain areas and sets the minimum age of employment at fourteen. Eradicating poverty is only the first step on the road for eliminating child labour. There is an urgent need for intensive focus and research along with political and practical decisions to improve the conditions of working children for the betterment of their health and development. Proper education of the children and banning child labor will help in boosting the success of the country.

  13. Differences in police, ambulance, and emergency department reporting of traffic injuries on Karachi-Hala road, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagarde Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research undertaken in developing countries has assessed discrepancies in police reporting of Road Traffic Injury (RTI for urban settings only. The objective of this study was to assess differences in RTI reporting across police, ambulance, and hospital Emergency Department (ED datasets on an interurban road section in Pakistan. Methods The study setting was the 196-km long Karachi-Hala road section. RTIs reported to the police, Edhi Ambulance Service (EAS, and five hospital EDs in Karachi during 2008 (Jan to Dec were compared in terms of road user involved (pedestrians, motorcyclists, four-wheeled vehicle occupants and outcome (died or injured. Further, records from these data were matched to assess ascertainment of traffic injuries and deaths by the three datasets. Results A total of 143 RTIs were reported to the police, 531 to EAS, and 661 to hospital EDs. Fatality per hundred traffic injuries was twice as high in police records (19 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (10 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (9 per 100 RTIs. Pedestrian and motorcyclist involvement per hundred traffic injuries was lower in police records (8 per 100 RTIs than in ambulance (17 per 100 RTIs and hospital ED records (43 per 100 RTIs. Of the 119 deaths independently identified after matching, police recorded 22.6%, EAS 46.2%, and hospital ED 50.4%. Similarly, police data accounted for 10.6%, EAS 43.5%, and hospital ED 54.9% of the 1 095 independently identified injured patients. Conclusions Police reporting, particularly of non-fatal RTIs and those involving vulnerable road users, should be improved in Pakistan.

  14. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C

    2001-11-01

    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  15. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Diseases and Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Effects Stress Tick-Borne Diseases Tobacco in the Workplace Traumatic Occupational Injuries Traumatic Incident Stress Upper Limb Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium Tuberculosis Violence (Occupational) ( ...

  16. The incidence and economic burden of injuries in Jiangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X; Zeng, G; Linnan, H W; Jing, R; Zhu, X; Corso, P; Liu, P; Linnan, M

    2016-09-01

    This study estimated the incidence, direct medical and non-medical costs, and productivity losses due to morbidity and mortality across multiple strata for injuries that occurred in Jiangxi, China. Cross-sectional study. Data came from the Jiangxi injury survey, a provincially-representative, population-based sample of 100,010 households. The major economic costs of injuries were divided into direct costs and indirect costs. Direct costs encompass medical costs and direct non-medical costs. Indirect costs refer to the productivity losses due to injury-related morbidity and mortality. In 2005, about one of 18 residents in Jiangxi, China, experienced an injury. Overall, fall, animal bite, and road traffic crash (RTC) injuries accounted for more than 66% of all injuries, while fall, RTC, drowning, and self-harm injuries accounted for 80% of fatal injuries. Average cost per case for a fatal injury was 163,389 RMB ($20,171) for lost productivity and 2800 RMB ($346) in direct medical & non-medical costs. A non-fatal injury resulting in hospitalisation or permanent disability on average caused 5221 RMB ($643) in direct costs and 18,437 RMB ($2276) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of three school days. A non-hospitalised non-fatal injury on average caused 303 ($37) RMB in direct costs and 491 RMB ($61) in lost productivity and, an additional loss of 0.5 school days. The unequivocal evidence of the substantial health and financial burden of injuries indicates to Chinese policy makers that more research and efforts are needed to find efficacious and cost-effective interventions targeting injury. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does the Length of Disability between Injury and Functional Restoration Program Entry Affect Treatment Outcomes for Patients with Chronic Disabling Occupational Musculoskeletal Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asih, Sali; Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Gatchel, Robert J

    2018-03-01

    Purpose Functional restoration programs (FRPs), for patients with chronic disabling occupational musculoskeletal disorders (CDOMDs), have consistently demonstrated positive socioeconomic treatment outcomes, including decreased psychosocial distress and increased work return. The pre-treatment length of disability (LOD), or time between injury and treatment admission, has been shown to influence FRP work outcomes. Some studies have found that shorter LOD is associated with better work outcomes. However, few studies have actually examined cohorts with LOD duration longer than 18 months. This present study evaluated the effects of extended LOD (beyond 18 months) on important treatment outcomes. Methods A total cohort of 1413 CDOMD patients entered an FRP. Of those, 312 did not complete the program, so they were eliminated from outcome analyses. The 1101 patients who completed the FRP were classified based on LOD: Late Rehabilitation (LR, 3-6 months, n = 190); Chronic Disability (CD, 7-17 months, n = 494); and Late Chronic Disability (LCD). The LCD, in turn, consisted of four separate subgroups: 18-23 months (LCD-18, n = 110); 24-35 months (LCD-24, n = 123); 36-71 months (LCD-36, n = 74); and 72+ months (LCD-72, n = 110). Patients were evaluated upon admission and were reassessed at discharge. Those patients who chose to pursue work goals post-treatment (n = 912) were assessed 1-year later. Results Longer LOD was associated with less likelihood of completing the FRP (p disability group were receiving social security disability benefits. Associations were found between longer LOD and more severe patient-reported pain, disability, and depressive symptoms at treatment admission. At discharge, symptom severity decreased for these patient-reported variables in all LOD groups (p disability. Furthermore, long LOD was a significant predictor for work outcomes at 1 year following FRP discharge. Nevertheless, a large percentage of longer LOD (>24

  18. Occupational Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Morris M. Kleiner

    2000-01-01

    The study of the regulation of occupations has a long and distinguished tradition in economics. In this paper, I present the central arguments and unresolved issues involving the costs and benefits of occupational licensing. The main benefits that are suggested for occupational licensing involve improving quality for those persons receiving the service. In contrast, the costs attributed to this labor market institution are that it restricts the supply of labor to the occupation and thereby dr...

  19. Occupational Dermatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Solak, Yavuzalp; Yoldaşcan, Elçin; Akbaba, Muhsin; Kurt, Burak

    2018-01-01

    Dermatosesthat occur as a result of primary irritation or sensitization are generallyreferred to as "occupational dermatosis", depending on work done by aperson, vehicle they are using and their workplace or work environment.Skin’s occupational diseases are most frequently reported occupational diseasesafter trauma. It constitutes ~ 50% of all occupational diseases. It isresponsible for ~ 25% of work loss. It is very important because it is bothfrequent and vulnerable. In addition, ...

  20. Occupational mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper aims to present the methods and main results from the Danish occupational mortality studies, and to set the Danish studies into the international context of occupational mortality studies. RESEARCH TOPICS: The first Danish occupational mortality study from 1970...

  1. Occupational health and safety in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Wendy; Driscoll, Tim; Stuckey, Rwth; Oakman, Jodi

    2012-01-01

    The focus of OHS in Australia is on workplace-based prevention rather than individual health care. Over the past decade, workers' compensation data have shown continuous improvement in work-related deaths, serious injuries and diseases. Injuries from work-related vehicle incidents are the leading cause of fatalities. There is a high incidence of on-road incidents in light vehicles; this problem is under-recognised, and better incidence data are required to support more effective interventions. Rates of many long-latency diseases such as cancers are underestimated, and again more reliable information is needed, particularly on work-related exposures to carcinogens. Disease-related deaths are largely confined to older workers. Musculoskeletal injuries and disorders are the most frequent and costly OHS problem, constituting a large majority of non-fatal injuries and diseases. There is growing recognition that their risk management should be more evidence based, integrating assessment and control of psychosocial and 'manual handling' hazards. A high rate of population ageing is increasing risk of chronic diseases, including musculoskeletal disorders, which is helping to raise awareness of the importance of protecting and promoting workforce health. Strategies to achieve this have been developed but implementation is at an early stage.

  2. Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015 : a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Theo; Allen, Christine; Arora, Megha; Barber, Ryan M.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Brown, Alexandria; Carter, Austin; Casey, Daniel C.; Charlson, Fiona J.; Chen, Alan Z.; Coggeshall, Megan; Cornaby, Leslie; Dandona, Lalit; Dicker, Daniel J.; Dilegge, Tina; Erskine, Holly E.; Ferrari, Alize J.; Fitzmaurice, Christina; Fleming, Tom; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.; Fullman, Nancy; Gething, Peter W.; Goldberg, Ellen M.; Graetz, Nicholas; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Johnson, Catherine O.; Kassebaum, Nicholas J.; Kawashima, Toana; Kemmer, Laura; Khalil, Ibrahim A.; Kinfu, Yohannes; Kyu, Hmwe H.; Leung, Janni; Liang, Xiaofeng; Lim, Stephen S.; Lopez, Alan D.; Lozano, Rafael; Marczak, Laurie; Mensah, George A.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Naghavi, Mohsen; Nguyen, Grant; Nsoesie, Elaine; Olsen, Helen; Pigott, David M.; Pinho, Christine; Rankin, Zane; Reinig, Nikolas; Salomon, Joshua A.; Sandar, Logan; Smith, Alison; Stanaway, Jeffrey; Steiner, Caitlyn; Teeple, Stephanie; Thomas, Bernadette A.; Troeger, Christopher; Wagner, Joseph A.; Wang, Haidong; Wanga, Valentine; Whiteford, Harvey A.; Zoeckler, Leo; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu; Abate, Kalkidan Hassen; Abbafati, Cristiana; Abbas, Kaja M.; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abraham, Biju; Abubakar, Ibrahim; Abu-Raddad, Laith J.; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.; Ackerman, Ilana N.; Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi; Ademi, Zanfina; Adou, Arsene Kouablan; Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko; Agardh, Emilie Elisabet; Agarwal, Arnav; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Ajala, Oluremi N.; Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola; Akseer, Nadia; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Khurshid; Alam, Noore K. M.; Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed; Alegretti, Miguel Angel; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Alexander, Lily T.; Alhabib, Samia; Ali, Raghib; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Alla, Francois; Allebeck, Peter; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Amare, Azmeraw T.; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Amini, Heresh; Ammar, Walid; Amrock, Stephen Marc; Andersen, Hjalte H.; Anderson, Gregory M.; Anderson, Benjamin; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Aregay, Atsede Fantahun; Arnlov, Johan; Al Artaman, Ali; Asayesh, Hamid; Assadi, Reza; Atique, Suleman; Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur; Awasthi, Ashish; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Azzopardi, Peter; Bacha, Umar; Badawi, Alaa; Balakrishnan, Kalpana; Banerjee, Amitava; Barac, Aleksandra; Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.; Barnighausen, Till; Barregard, Lars; Barrero, Lope H.; Basu, Arindam; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bell, Brent; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Benzian, Habib; Berhane, Adugnaw; Bernabe, Eduardo; Betsu, Balem Demtsu; Beyene, Addisu Shunu; Bhala, Neeraj; Bhatt, Samir; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Bienhofff, Kelly; Bikbov, Boris; Biryukov, Stan; Bisanzio, Donal; Bjertness, Espen; Blore, Jed; Borschmann, Rohan; Boufous, Soufiane; Brainin, Michael; Brazinova, Alexandra; Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Brown, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Buckle, Geoffrey Colin; Butt, Zahid A.; Calabria, Bianca; Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Cesar Campuzano, Julio; Carabin, Helene; Cardenas, Rosario; Carpenter, David O.; Carrero, Juan Jesus; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Chang, Jung-Chen; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne; Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe; Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Christensen, Hanne; Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas; Ciobanu, Liliana G.; Cirillo, Massimo; Coates, Matthew M.; Colquhoun, Samantha M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Cortinovis, Monica; Crump, John A.; Damtew, Solomon Abrha; Dandona, Rakhi; Daoud, Farah; Dargan, Paul I.; das Neves, Jose; Davey, Gail; Davis, Adrian C.; De Leo, Diego; Degenhardt, Louisa; Del Gobbo, Liana C.; Dellavalle, Robert P.; Deribe, Kebede; Deribew, Amare; Derrett, Sarah; Des Jarlais, Don C.; Dharmaratne, Samath D.; Dhillon, Preet K.; Diaz-Torne, Cesar; Ding, Eric L.; Driscoll, Tim R.; Duan, Leilei; Dubey, Manisha; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Ebrahimi, Hedyeh; Ellenbogen, Richard G.; Elyazar, Iqbal; Endres, Matthias; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich; Eshrati, Babak; Estep, Kara; Farid, Talha A.; Sofia e Sa Farinha, Carla; Faro, Andre; Farvid, Maryam S.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Feigin, Valery L.; Felson, David T.; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Jefferson G.; Fernandes, Joao C.; Fischer, Florian; Fitchett, Joseph R. A.; Foreman, Kyle; Fowkes, Gerry R.; Fox, Jordan; Franklin, Richard C.; Friedman, Joseph; Frostad, Joseph; Furst, Thomas; Futran, Neal D.; Gabbe, Belinda; Ganguly, Parthasarathi; Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho; Gebre, Teshome; Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Gessner, Bradford D.; Gibney, Katherine B.; Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed; Giref, Ababi Zergaw; Giroud, Maurice; Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo; Glaser, Elizabeth; Godwin, William W.; Gomez-Dantes, Hector; Gona, Philimon; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Gotay, Carolyn C.; Goto, Atsushi; Gouda, Hebe N.; Grainger, Rebecca; Greaves, Felix; Guillemin, Francis; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Vipin; Gutierrez, Reyna A.; Haile, Demewoz; Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne; Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa; Halasa, Yara A.; Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi; Hamidi, Samer; Hammami, Mouhanad; Hancock, Jamie; Handal, Alexis J.; Hankey, Graeme J.; Hao, Yuantao; Harb, Hilda L.; Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai; Maria Haro, Josep; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hay, Roderick J.; Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Heydarpour, Pouria; Hoek, Hans W.; Horino, Masako; Horita, Nobuyuki; Hosgood, H. Dean; Hoy, Damian G.; Htet, Aung Soe; Huang, Hsiang; Huang, John J.; Huynh, Chantal; Iannarone, Marissa; Iburg, Kim Moesgaard; Innos, Kaire; Inoue, Manami; Iyer, Veena J.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.; Javanbakht, Mehdi; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jee, Sun Ha; Jeemon, Panniyammakal; Jensen, Paul N.; Jiang, Ying; Jibat, Tariku; Jimenez-Corona, Aida; Jin, Ye; Jonas, Jost B.; Kabir, Zubair; Kalkonde, Yogeshwar; Kamal, Ritul; Kan, Haidong; Karch, Andre; Karema, Corine Kakizi; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Karimkhani, Chante; Kasaeian, Amir; Kaul, Anil; Kawakami, Norito; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Kemp, Andrew Haddon; Keren, Andre; Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khaiff, Abdur Rahman; Khaiff, Ejaz Ahmad; Khang, Young-Ho; Khera, Sahil; Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kieling, Christian; Kim, Pauline; Kim, Cho-il; Kim, Daniel; Kim, Yun Jin; Kissoon, Niranjan; Knibbs, Luke D.; Knudsen, Ann Kristin; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kolte, Dhaval; Kopec, Jacek A.; Kosen, Soewarta; Kotsakis, Georgios A.; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Kravchenko, Michael; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kudom, Andreas A.; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Kumar, G. Anil; Kutz, Michael; Kwan, Gene F.; Lal, Aparna; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lallukka, Tea; Lam, Hilton; Lam, Jennifer O.; Langan, Sinead M.; Larsson, Anders; Lavados, Pablo M.; Leasher, Janet L.; Leigh, James; Leung, Ricky; Levi, Miriam; Li, Yichong; Li, Yongmei; Liang, Juan; Liu, Shiwei; Liu, Yang; Lloyd, Belinda K.; Lo, Warren D.; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Looker, Katharine J.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Lyons, Ronan A.; Mackay, Mark T.; Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy; Mahdavi, Mandi; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Marcenes, Wagner; Margolis, David Joel; Martinez-Raga, Jose; Masiye, Felix; Massano, Joao; McGarvey, Stephen Theodore; McGrath, John J.; McKee, Martin; McMahon, Brian J.; Meaney, Peter A.; Mehari, Alem; Meija-Rodriguez, Fabiola; Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.; Melaku, Yohannes Adama; Memiah, Peter; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Meretoja, Atte; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary; Miller, Ted R.; Mills, Edward J.; Mirarefin, Mojde; Mitchell, Philip B.; Mock, Charles N.; Mohammadi, Alireza; Mohammed, Shafiu; Monasta, Lorenzo; Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar; Montico, Marcella; Mooney, Meghan D.; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Mueller, Ulrich O.; Mullany, Erin; Mumford, John Everett; Murdoch, Michele E.; Nachega, Jean B.; Nagel, Gabriele; Naheed, Aliya; Naldi, Luigi; Nangia, Vinay; Newton, John N.; Ng, Marie; Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak; Quyen Le Nguyen,; Nisar, Muhammad Imran; Nkamedjie Pete, Patrick Martial; Nona, Joan M.; Norheim, Ole F.; Norman, Rosana E.; Norrving, Bo; Nunes, Bruno P.; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Olivares, Pedro R.; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Ortiz, Alberto; Osman, Majdi; Ota, Erika; Mahesh, P. A.; Park, Eun-Kee; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; de Azeredo Passos, Valeria Maria; Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.; Patten, Scott B.; Patton, George C.; Pereira, David M.; Perez-Padilla, Rogelio; Perico, Norberto; Pesudovs, Konrad; Petzold, Max; Phillips, Michael Robert; Piel, Frederic B.; Pillay, Julian David; Pishgar, Farhad; Plass, Dietrich; Platts-Mills, James A.; Polinder, Suzanne; Pond, Constance D.; Popova, Svetlana; Poulton, Richie G.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Prasad, Noela M.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rahimi, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rahman, Sajjad Ur; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Rajsic, Sasa; Ram, Usha; Rao, Puja; Refaat, Amany H.; Reitsma, Marissa B.; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Resnikofff, Serge; Reynolds, Alex; Ribeiro, Antonio L.; Rios Blancas, Maria Jesus; Rolm, Hirbo Shore; Rojas-Rueda, David; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Roth, Gregory A.; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Roy, Ambuj; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahathevan, Ramesh; Sanabria, Juan R.; Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria; Santos, Itamar S.; Santos, Joao Vasco; Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo; Sartorius, Benn; Satpathy, Maheswar; Savic, Miloje; Sawhney, Monika; Schaub, Michael P.; Schmidt, Maria Ines; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schottker, Ben; Schwebel, David C.; Scott, James G.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson E.; Shackelford, Katya A.; Shaheen, Amira; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Sharma, Rajesh; Sharma, Upasana; Shen, Jiabin; Shepard, Donald S.; Sheth, Kevin N.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Min-Jeong; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Shrime, Mark G.; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Om Prakash; Singh, Prashant Kumar; Sivonda, Anna; Skirbekk, Vegard; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Sligar, Amber; Silwa, Karen; Soljak, Michael; Soreide, Kjetil; Soriano, Joan B.; Sposato, Luciano A.; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Stathopoulou, Vasiliki; Steel, Nicholas; Stein, Dan J.; Steiner, Timothy J.; Steinke, Sabine; Stovner, Lars; Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos; Sunguya, Bruno F.; Sur, Patrick; Swaminathan, Soumya; Sykes, Bryan L.; Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Takala, Jukka S.; Landon, Nikhil; Tanne, David; Tavakkoli, Mohammad; Taye, Bineyam; Taylor, Hugh R.; Te Ao, Braden J.; Tedla, Bemnet Amare; Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman; Thomson, Alan J.; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.; Thrift, Amanda G.; Thurston, George D.; Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan; Tonelli, Marcello; Topor-Madry, Roman; Topouzis, Fotis; Tran, Bach Xuan; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis; Tura, Abera Kenay; Tuzcu, Emin Murat; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Ukwaja, Kingsley N.; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Uthman, Olalekan A.; van Gool, Coen H.; Varakin, Yuri Y.; Vasankari, Tommi; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Verma, Raj Kumar; Violante, Francesco S.; Vladimirov, Sergey K.; Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich; Vollset, Stein Emil; Wagner, Gregory R.; Waller, Stephen G.; Wang, Linhong; Watkins, David A.; Weichenthal, Scott; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Weintraub, Robert G.; Werdecker, Andrea; Westerman, Ronny; White, Richard A.; Williams, Hywel C.; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; Won, Sungho; Woodbrook, Rachel; Wubshet, Mamo; Xavier, Denis; Xu, Gelin; Yadav, Ajit Kumar; Yan, Lijing L.; Yano, Yuichiro; Yaseri, Mehdi; Ye, Pengpeng; Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin; Yip, Paul; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zaidi, Zoubida; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Zeeb, Hajo; Zhou, Maigeng; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna; Murray, Christopher J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common

  3. Causas de los accidentes de trabajo en España: análisis longitudinal con datos de panel Causes of occupational injuries in Spain: a longitudinal analysis with panel data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada García Mainar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Se pretende investigar la influencia de algunas características, tanto de los trabajadores como de los puestos de trabajo que ocupan, en la incidencia de accidentes laborales por categorías (leves, graves, mortales y totales, utilizando herramientas propias del análisis económico. Métodos: Se utiliza un panel de datos para estimar los determinantes de los accidentes agregados de dos formas: por comunidades autónomas y ocupación, y por ramas de actividad y ocupación. Los datos de los accidentes provienen del Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, y el resto de la Encuesta de Población Activa, para todos los trimestres desde 1999 hasta 2002. Resultados: Un mayor porcentaje de trabajadores con contrato indefinido, del sector público, con estudios secundarios o que han recibido cursos de formación, se asocia con una menor incidencia de accidentes, mientras que una mayor proporción de varones o extranjeros se relaciona con una mayor incidencia. Una mayor experiencia laboral reduce el riesgo de accidente grave o mortal, mientras que más horas de trabajo lo aumentan. Conclusiones: Sería recomendable una mayor actuación para reducir el riesgo de accidente en los trabajadores temporales, los que trabajan en el sector privado, los varones y los extranjeros. Para reducir la incidencia de los accidentes mortales, habría que limitar además el número de horas trabajadas, especialmente en los casos en que no se cuente con una amplia experiencia laboral.Objectives: To investigate the influence of several personal and occupational characteristics on the occurrence of occupation injuries, expressed in different categories (minor, serious, fatal and overall by applying tools that are widely used in economic analyses. Methods: Panel data were used to estimate occupational injuries in an aggregate manner: both by regions and occupational categories and by industries and occupational categories. Data on occupational injuries were drawn

  4. [Analysis of road traffic injuries in Mexican cyclists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro-Báez, Victoria Alejandra; Mendoza-García, M Eulalia; Vera-López, Juan Daniel; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo

    2017-01-01

    With the objective of analyzing fatal and non-fatal road traffic injuries in cyclists and to document helmet use in this road user to inform sustainable mobility policies, a descriptive analysis of four secondary official information sources was conducted at the national level: mortality, Ministry of Health's hospital discharges, Unintentional and Violence Registry System (SIS-SS-17-P) and the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT). Only SIS-SS-17-P and ENSANUT document helmet use. Except for ENSANUT information analyzed is of 2014.A total of 190 cyclists died in Mexico during 2014 and 392 were hospitalized; head was the anatomical region most frequently affected (63% and 32%, respectively). Only 0.75% of the 667 cases registered in SIS-17 reported helmet use and 24% suffered head injuries. Of the 165,348 non-fatally injured cyclists from ENSANUT <10% used helmet, 24% had head injuries and more than 16,000 suffered permanent injuries. Whereas cyclist-friendly infrastructure is an effective intervention to prevent injuries in the long term, helmet use could potentially reduce the frequency and severity of head injuries in the short run while bicycle use widespread as a means of transportation providing "safety in numbers".

  5. [Monetary value of the human costs of road traffic injuries in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Pérez, Jorge Eduardo; Sánchez Martínez, Fernando Ignacio; Abellán Perpiñán, José María; Pinto Prades, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    Cost-benefit analyses in the field of road safety compute human costs as a key component of total costs. The present article presents two studies promoted by the Directorate-General for Traffic aimed at obtaining official values for the costs associated with fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries in Spain. We combined the contingent valuation approach and the (modified) standard gamble technique in two surveys administered to large representative samples (n1=2,020, n2=2,000) of the Spanish population. The monetary value of preventing a fatality was estimated to be 1.4 million euros. Values of 219,000 and 6,100 euros were obtained for minor and severe non-fatal injuries, respectively. These figures are comparable to those observed in neighboring countries. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupational exposures among healthcare workers: A teaching hospital sample

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Öztürk Engin; Asuman İnan; Nurgül Ceran; Zeynel Abiddin Demir; Özgür Dağli; Emin Karagül; Seyfi Özyürek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for occupational injury associated with contaminated blood and body fluids. This study aims to examine the frequency and type of occupational injuries and to determine best practices after exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Haydarpaşa Teaching Hospital in December 2010. The questionnaires were completed by healthcare workers with face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was evaluated occupational injuries in the ho...

  7. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  8. Occupational Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L.

    2015-01-01

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country’s ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives – notably work by Biko and Fanon – and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term ‘consciousness’ in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation. PMID:26549984

  9. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL ACCIDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovica Jovanovic

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical services, physicians and nurses play an essential role in the plant safety program through primary treatment of injured workers and by helping to identify workplace hazards. The physician and nurse should participate in the worksite investigations to identify specific hazard or stresses potentially causing the occupational accidents and injuries and in planning the subsequent hazard control program. Physicians and nurses must work closely and cooperatively with supervisors to ensure the prompt reporting and treatment of all work related health and safety problems. Occupational accidents, work related injuries and fatalities result from multiple causes, affect different segments of the working population, and occur in a myriad of occupations and industrial settings. Multiple factors and risks contribute to traumatic injuries, such as hazardous exposures, workplace and process design, work organization and environment, economics, and other social factors. With such a diversity of theories, it will not be difficult to understand that there does not exist one single theory that is considered right or correct and is universally accepted. These theories are nonetheless necessary, but not sufficient, for developing a frame of reference for understanding accident occurrences. Prevention strategies are also varied, and multiple strategies may be applicable to many settings, including engineering controls, protective equipment and technologies, management commitment to and investment in safety, regulatory controls, and education and training. Research needs are thus broad, and the development and application of interventions involve many disciplines and organizations.

  10. Occupational health and the radiographer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stronach, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper identifies some of the occupational health hazards faced by radiographers in the hospital environment. There has been very little work done in this area in the past, and as the subject is so large this paper can do little other than raise some of the issues . The hazards addressed include: radiation, ergonomics, chemical, environmental, biological, occupational injury and accident, stress. 14 refs., 2 figs

  11. Heat injury in youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, S W

    2010-01-01

    Heat injury is a potentially lethal condition that is considered to be completely preventable. Fatal heat injury is relatively rare (0.20 per 100 000 player-seasons in US high school football) and there are very limited data on non-fatal incidence. Expert recommendations for prevention include gradual acclimatisation of youth athletes to hot conditions, reductions in activity in hot and humid conditions, wearing light and light-coloured clothing, careful monitoring of athletes for signs of heat injury to facilitate immediate detection, having the resources to immediately and rapidly cool affected athletes, and education of athletes, care givers, and coaches about heat injury. Although a base of observational case data, physiological information, and expert opinion exists, the science surrounding this field is devoid of health communication and health behaviour research, and there is a pressing need for analytical studies to evaluate intervention programmes and/or identify new risk factors. There is also a need for ongoing data collection on heat injury incidence and on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards heat injury among youth athletes, their care givers and their coaches.

  12. The relationship between gasoline price and patterns of motorcycle fatalities and injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Wilson, Fernando A; Stimpson, Jim P

    2015-06-01

    Economic factors such as rising gasoline prices may contribute to the crash trends by shaping individuals' choices of transportation modalities. This study examines the relationship of gasoline prices with fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries. Data on fatal and non-fatal motorcycle injuries come from California's Statewide Integrated Traffic Records System for 2002-2011. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) regressions were used to estimate the impact of inflation-adjusted gasoline price per gallon on trends of motorcycle injuries. Motorcycle fatalities and severe and minor injuries in California were highly correlated with increasing gasoline prices from 2002 to 2011 (r=0.76, 0.88 and 0.85, respectively). In 2008, the number of fatalities and injuries reached 13,457--a 34% increase since 2002, a time period in which inflation-adjusted gasoline prices increased about $0.30 per gallon every year. The majority of motorcycle riders involved in crashes were male (92.5%), middle-aged (46.2%) and non-Hispanic white (67.9%). Using ARIMA modelling, we estimated that rising gasoline prices resulted in an additional 800 fatalities and 10,290 injuries from 2002 to 2011 in California. Our findings suggest that increasing gasoline prices led to more motorcycle riders on the roads and, consequently, more injuries. Aside from mandatory helmet laws and their enforcement, other strategies may include raising risk awareness of motorcyclists and investment in public transportation as an alternative transportation modality to motorcycling. In addition, universally mandated training courses and strict licensing tests of riding skills should be emphasised to help reduce the motorcycle fatal and non-fatal injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Tendencias temporales de las lesiones mortales (traumáticas por accidente de trabajo en España (1992-2002 Time trends in fatal traumatic occupational injuries in Spain (1992-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Santamaría

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir la evolución temporal de la incidencia de las lesiones por accidentes de trabajo (LAT traumáticas mortales ocurridas en jornada laboral según la actividad económica, el contrato, la edad y el sexo entre 1992 y 2002 en España. Método: El número de LAT traumáticas mortales en jornada ocurridos en los trabajadores asalariados durante el período de estudio fue de 8.510. El porcentaje de cambio anual para la incidencia se ha calculado por grupo de actividad económica, tipo de contrato, grupo de edad y sexo, asumiendo una distribución Poisson. La incidencia de 2002 se estandarizó por actividad económica para ajustar por el posible efecto del cambio en la estructura de la población asalariada desde 1992. La actividad económica se agrupó según el porcentaje de variación de la población asalariada en el período de estudio. Resultados: La incidencia disminuyó a un ritmo anual de -4,3% (intervalo de confianza del 95%, -5,3 a -3,4%, desde 9,8 por 100.000 en 1992 a 6,1 en 2002, lo que representa un descenso global del 38% (riesgo relativo (RR = 0,62, especialmente en las actividades económicas con mayor crecimiento de empleo (-4,4%, las mujeres (-7,6% y los indefinidos (-4,3%. Al ajustar la incidencia de 2002, según la actividad económica de 1992, ésta fue de 8,5 (RR ajustado = 0,87. Conclusiones: La tendencia descendente observada en las LAT traumáticas mortales ocurridas en jornada laboral, similar a la observada en otros países desarrollados, se puede explicar, al menos en dos terceras partes, por los cambios de la estructura productiva. Los resultados muestran dónde deberían concentrarse las actividades preventivas.Objective: To describe time trends in fatal traumatic occupational injuries by economic activity, type of contract, age, and gender between 1992 and 2002 in Spain. Methods: The number of fatal traumatic occupational injuries occurring during the study period in salaried workers was 8,510. The

  14. Development of the Occupational Safety and Health System (OSHSYS): A Database and Software Program for Analyzing Navy Civilian Injury and Illness Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Payments totaled $224 million in 1998 for workers' compensation indemnity and medical benefits resulting from work-related injuries and illnesses among civilians employed by the Department of the Navy...

  15. Work Related Injuries and Associated Factors among Small Scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    significantly associated factors with occupational injury. Conclusion: Work-related injuries were high among small scale industry workers in the studied area. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, working for more than 8 hours and working at night had high odds of occupational injuries. Use of PPE and occupation health ...

  16. Subclinical nephrotoxicity associated with occupational silica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine early signs of renal injury due to occupational silica exposure. Design: Cross-sectional analytical research. Settings: Kenyatta National Hospital for the referent population and Clayworks ceramics, bricks and tiles factory for the assessment of occupational silica exposure. Subjects: Thirty three ...

  17. Occupational Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammer, Leslie C

    2016-05-01

    Occupational rhinitis (OR) involves nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing resulting from workplace exposures. OR can have a significant negative effect on quality of life and productivity. OR can be divided into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based on the underlying pathogenesis. Certain occupational exposures place employees at greater risk for developing disease. Primary treatment is avoidance of implicated exposures. Antihistamines, saline rinses, and nasal steroids may be useful. OR can coexist with occupational asthma, and rhinitis symptoms have been reported to precede those of the lower respiratory tract. OR is has both medical and socioeconomic implications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalencia de accidentes de tránsito no fatales en México: resultados de la ENSANUT 2006 Prevalence of non-fatal road traffic injuries in Mexico: results from ENSANUT 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Leticia Ávila-Burgos; Carlo E Medina-Solís; Ricardo Pérez-Núñez; Martha Híjar-Medina; Belkis Aracena-Genao; Elisa Hidalgo-Solórzano; Oswaldo Palma-Coca

    2008-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia y distribución de los accidentes de tránsito no fatales (ATNF) en México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizaron datos de la ENSANUT 2006. En los hogares visitados se seleccionó a un adulto, un adolescente y un niño, hasta conformar una muestra de 94197 sujetos que representa a la N de 102 886 482 individuos. La variable dependiente fue la prevalencia de ATNF en los 12 meses anteriores a la encuesta. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de accidentes (de tránsito o no) fu...

  19. Assessing the impact of previous experience, and attitudes towards technology, on levels of engagement in a virtual reality based occupational therapy intervention for spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCaughey, Manus Dr.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the current research project was to determine if there were significant differences between patients with higher or lower levels of experience with technology in terms of their level of engagement with virtual reality (VR) in occupational therapy, their future uptake of VR technology in therapy, and their attitudes towards technology. Patients’ experience of technology was also examined in relation to demographic characteristics such as age and education level.\\r\

  20. Occupational risk of building construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneziris, O.N.; Topali, E.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the quantification of occupational risk of a building construction project. Risk assessment is based on the Occupational Risk Model (ORCA) developed under the Workgroup Occupational Risk Model project (WORM), in the Netherlands, for quantifying occupational risk. This model assesses occupational risk of a worker, by taking into account his various tasks, activities and their hazards. Risk is evaluated for three types of consequences: recoverable injury, permanent injury and death. The occupational risk model is based on a set of 63 bowties, which assess risk owing to different hazards such as fall from ladder, scaffold, roofs, falling object, struck by moving vehicle, contact by moving parts, etc. ORCA calculates the risk profile of a building construction site, consisting of thirty-eight workers in different job positions, such as operators of excavators, loaders, compaction equipment, workers in excavation and framing phases, etc. All risk profiles of workers have been quantified and jobs have been ranked according to their risk. Workers installing timber formworks have the highest fatality risk (1.57×10 −3 /yr), followed by the workers installing reinforcement (1.52×10 −3 /yr).

  1. Occupational Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the enzymes of the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, while bakers may develop an allergy and occupational asthma symptoms ... counts Continuing education center Find an allergist / immunologist Journals Login / My membership Search your symptoms Shop the ...

  2. Occupational Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational health problems occur at work or because of the kind of work you do. These problems can include ... by exposure to radiation Exposure to germs in health care settings Good job safety and prevention practices ...

  3. Occupational health

    CERN Document Server

    Fingret, Dr Ann

    2013-01-01

    Offers a comprehensive view of health and safety issues at work. An invaluable resource for managers, personnel professionals and occupational health practitioners. Recommended by the Institute of Personnel Management.

  4. Who will use claims data for the prevention of occupational trauma?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Tore J

    2003-01-01

    If claims data from the public fund workers' compensation system is merged with the relevant census data, the relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the system can be calculated. A reconstituted occupational code, made from combining the present occupational and industrial codes, can be used to differentiate occupations in relation to hazards. A four-part injury severity index, generated in the claims settling process, can be used to further differentiate occupations, tasks and ...

  5. 77 FR 5026 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review The meeting announced below concerns Occupational..., Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control SEP: Occupational Safety and Health Education and Research...

  6. Evaluation of occupational health services and hazards in a car ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Occupational hazards and injuries among PAN workers are a frequent occurrence. There is need for sustained public awareness campaigns among the workers and management on the importance of occupational safety to guide against injuries/ accidents at work sites and compliance to the use of protective ...

  7. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...

  8. Feasibility of a classification system for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and sports therapy interventions for mobility and self-care in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Langeveld, Sacha A.; Post, Marcel W.; van Asbeck, Floris W.; Postma, Karin; Leenders, Jacqueline; Pons, Kees

    Objective: To test the feasibility of a classification system developed to record the contents of treatment sessions intended to improve mobility and self-care by persons with a spinal cord injury (SCI) in clinical rehabilitation. Design: Descriptive study. Setting: Three Dutch SCI facilities.

  9. Occupational Stress among Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Occupational stress induced injuries occur in various professions that require repetitive motion or physical exertion, such as Radiography. The injuries may involve body parts such as the neck, the upper back, mid back, low back (waist), knee, elbow, wrist and hand and eyes. Objective: To assess work related ...

  10. Estimating the burden of injury in urban and rural Sudan in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Safa; Ahmed, Suad; Swareldahab, Zeinab; Bhalla, Kavi

    2017-06-01

    Sudan has been undergoing demographic and social changes that could have a tangible impact on population injury rates. However, reliable estimates of injury epidemiology are lacking. We aimed to estimate injury incidence and mortality in urban and rural Sudan, using existing data sources. We used the 2008 national census mortality data with mortuary data to construct unintentional and intentional injury mortality estimates in urban and rural areas. We estimated incidence of non-fatal injuries using the Sudan Household Health Survey 2010. Uncertainty analysis was carried out to construct 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for the final estimates. Overall injury death rate was estimated at 109 (95% UI 83-142) per 100 000 per year, 94 (66-129) per 100 000 in urban populations and 117 (95% UI 86-157) per 100 000 in rural populations. Injuries accounted for 12% of all male deaths and 6% of all female deaths, but more than half of the deaths among young men aged 20-34 years. Urban injury rates were higher among males but lower among females than rural injury rates. Road traffic injuries were the major cause of fatal injury in urban Sudan, but other causes accounted for the majority of non-fatal injuries nationally. Road traffic injuries should remain a priority for the country but better data are needed for rural Sudan. To that end, investment in existing data collection systems is essential. Our method can be applied in other countries with a similar data availability pattern. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries among children under six years old in floating and residential population in four communities in Beijing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Limin; Wang, Huishan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Kaime-Atterhög, Wanjiku

    2014-05-01

    To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.

  12. Acidentes de trabalho envolvendo mãos: casos atendidos em um serviço de reabilitação Hand occupational injuries: cases in a rehabilitation centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Angélica Peixoto Souza

    2008-01-01

    between patients' occupation and causal agent, and between occupation and injured structure were significant (p<0.05, as well as those between causal agent and injured structure, and between injured structure and lag of time between injury and the onset of rehabilitation. Type of injury and causal agent were associated with rehabilitation time, but they explained only 6.7% of the variance. Such features of work-related hand injuries should be taken into account in prevention planning and for improving health services.

  13. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents. Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population's working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness. Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days of absence. Based on this the total absence due to injuries in Denmark was estimated to 1,822,000 workdays, corresponding to approximately 6% of the total absence from work due to all types of illness. Non-occupational injuries resulted in more absence than did occupational injuries. Absence due to accidents contributed to a considerable part of the total absence from work, and non-occupational accidents caused more absence than did occupational accidents.

  14. A Follow-up Study on Return to Work in the Year After Reporting an Occupational Injury Stratified by Outcome of the Workers' Compensation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Marianne; Johansen, Jens Peter; Omland, Øyvind

    2018-01-01

    ) or slower (industrial accident) compared to claimants with recognized claim without compensation the subsequent year and at a faster rate after decision. CONCLUSIONS: Compensation claims and proceedings of the workers' compensation system probably increase time to return to work, other factors as health......OBJECTIVE: To compare return rates to work between different groups according to decision from the workers' compensation. METHOD: Register data on disability benefits were used to describe return rates to work in Kaplan-Meier curves and association with decision on compensation claims. Disability...... benefits were granted by the municipalities independently of any compensation claim if sick-listed. RESULTS: Claimants with ongoing claims were the group with the largest proportion remaining on disability benefits. Claimants with rejected claims returned to work at the same rate (occupational disease...

  15. The burden of road traffic injuries in Kermanshah Province, Iran, in 2010-2011: GBD 2010 method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Neda; Najafi, Farid; Khosravi, Ardeshir

    2017-12-01

    Deaths, injuries and disabilities resulting from road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a public health major concern. This study aims to calculate the burden of RTIs in Kermanshah Province in Iran. In this study to determine the years of life lost (YLL) related to RTIs, the National Death Registration and Forensics Medicine census data were employed. We use forensic medicine data to calculate the incidence of non-fatal injuries and years lost due to disability (YLD). The cause of death and non-fatal injuries was classified using ICD-10 codes and 23 groupes of global burden of diseases (GBD) 2010. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) estimated on the guidelines of the GBD 2010 and age and sex structure was taken from the National Statistic Center for the year 2010. Overall, 70.8% of the subjects were males. The fatal and non-fatal injury rates of RTI were 51.3 and 283.6 per 100,000 persons, respectively. YLLs and YLDs were 46613 (24.5 per 1000) and 3405 (1.8 per 1000) in both sexes, respectively. The disability adjusted life years were 40711 in males, 9306 in females and 50018 in both sexes (42.5, 9.8 and 26.3 per 1000, respectively). More than 93% of DALY was from YLL (24.5 per 1000), with a small proportion for YLD (1.8 per 1000). Accounting for more than 50,000 DALY attributed to RTIs, traffic injuries is a major public health and socioeconomic problem in Kermanshah. Designing cost-effective interventions based on comprehensive and multi-sectoral programmes at the national and provincial levels can save many lives and resources that are lost every year. Undoubtedly, establishing a surveillance system at the sub-national level and measuring the burden of injuries, as in this study, can help policy-makers and planners in lessening the burden of RTIs.

  16. 76 FR 31453 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Single-Occupant Side-Facing Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... apply to that model as well. Conclusion This action affects only certain novel or unusual design... single-occupant side-facing seats: A. The Injury Criteria 1. Existing Criteria: All injury protection criteria of Sec. 25.562(c)(1) through (c)(6) apply to the occupant of a side-facing seat. Head injury...

  17. Exposição ao ruído ocupacional como fator de risco para acidentes do trabalho Occupational noise as a risk factor for work-related injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cordeiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a exposição ocupacional ao ruído é fator de risco relevante para acidentes do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso-controle de base populacional. Os dados foram coletados entre 16/5/2002 e 15/10/2002, na cidade de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Os casos foram definidos como trabalhadores que sofreram acidentes ocupacionais típicos nos últimos 90 dias, identificados por intermédio de amostragem aleatória sistemática de domicílios residenciais. Os controles foram trabalhadores não acidentados, aleatoriamente alocados a partir da mesma população que originou os casos, emparelhados na razão 3:1 segundo sexo, faixa etária e setor censitário de moradia. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, tendo como variável independente a exposição ocupacional ao ruído, controlada por covariáveis de interesse. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 94 casos e 282 controles. Ajustando-se um modelo de regressão logística condicional múltipla observou-se que trabalhar sempre e às vezes exposto a ruído intenso associou-se a um risco relativo de acidentar-se de 5,0 (IC 95%: 2,8-8,7; pOBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to occupational noise is an important risk factor for work-related injuries. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was performed. Data collection was carried out from May 16, 2002 to October 15, 2002 in the city of Botucatu, southeast Brazil. Cases were defined as workers who had suffered typical work-related injuries in a 90-day period previously to the study, and who identified through systematic random sampling of their households. Controls were non-injured workers randomly sampled from the same population, matched on 3:1 ratio according to sex, age group and census track. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted, where the independent variable was exposure to occupational noise, controlled for covariates of interest. RESULTS: A total of 94 cases and 282 controls were analyzed

  18. Evidence Based Prevention of Occupational Slips, Trips and Falls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    2009-01-01

    It is estimated that about one third of the compensated occupational injuries and half of the most serious occupational injuries in merchant seafaring are related to slips, trips and falls (STF)-events. Among the elderly, STF is the risk factor that causes the largest number of inpatient days...... at hospitals. It is the argued that prevention of STF is insufficient and that the reason is insufficient evidence on incidence rates, the causes and the health impact of STF related injuries. Practical knowledge of the best practice and what works is also needed. Here the issue is evidence based...... on epidemiological data. STF in the injury model is considered not as an injury, but as a pre-event of an injury and in most cases a near miss without injury. The registration of whether a STF-event preceded an injury or not is important near miss information for prevention in injury registers. The quality...

  19. Occupational rhinitis affects occupational asthma severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscato, Gianna; Pala, Gianni; Folletti, Ilenia; Siracusa, Andrea; Quirce, Santiago

    2016-06-16

    The strong interactions between asthma and rhinitis, and the influence of rhinitis in the severity and/or control of asthma, have clearly been demonstrated. Nevertheless, no specific study has been conducted in the occupational setting. The aim of the study was to assess the severity of occupational asthma and rhinitis and evaluate whether rhinitis is a predictor for increased asthma severity. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical charts of 72 patients who received a diagnosis of allergic occupational asthma, with or without associated occupational rhinitis. Our findings suggested that persistent asthma tended to be more common in subjects with associated occupational asthma and rhinitis, and occupational asthma severity was associated with occupational rhinitis severity. Moderate-severe persistent occupational rhinitis is a risk factor for persistent occupational asthma. We demonstrated, for the first time in the occupational setting, a significant association between occupational rhinitis and asthma severity.

  20. 78 FR 11651 - Board of Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Construction Safety and Health, Respiratory Disease Studies, and Traumatic Injury Prevention, Nanotechnology... Scientific Counselors, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (BSC, NIOSH) In accordance with..., research, experiments, and demonstrations relating to occupational safety and health and to mine health...

  1. Annual report on occupational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    A report is given on the occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for the year 1984 and the results compared to those obtained in 1983. Data are presented for each of the Company's Sites on whole body exposures, accidental deaths and major injuries and nuclear and non-nuclear incidents. The results show that the Company average body dose continues to be less than 5mSv, there were no accidental deaths but 15 major injuries. One nuclear incident and 9 non-nuclear incidents were notified to the Health and Safety Executive. (UK)

  2. Cognitive function in childhood and early adulthood and injuries later in life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Laursen, Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    measured at both the age of 12 and 18 years was inversely associated with any form of unintentional injury. Adjustment for educational attainment at the age of 18 years attenuated these associations but did not remove them completely. The association was most evident for falls and poisoning, while......BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that cognitive function in childhood is a modifiable risk factor for adult injury. This study examines the relationship between cognitive function measured at the age of 12 and 18 years and fatal and non-fatal injuries later in adult life. METHODS: A total of 11...... associations with other injury types were weaker and disappeared after adjustment for educational status. Cognitive function was associated with repeated hospital admissions for injuries as well as length of hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: We found marked inverse associations between cognitive function measured...

  3. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-01-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined

  4. Occupation: nurse; occupational hazard: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickson, K.

    1984-03-01

    The work of the occupational health nurses at the Pickering Generating Station is described. A staff of two nurses teach first aid and safety, practice an emergency plan, and monitor personnel for minimum health standards for radiation workers. Special attention is paid to problems which might be aggravated by radiation, such as skin complaints, respiratory diseases, emotional stability, or phobias regarding heights, plastic suits, or radiation itself. Procedures used in treating contaminated personnel are outlined.

  5. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  6. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  7. Effectiveness of functional hand splinting and the cognitive orientation to occupational performance (CO-OP) approach in children with cerebral palsy and brain injury: two randomised controlled trial protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebral palsy (CP) and brain injury (BI) are common conditions that have devastating effects on a child’s ability to use their hands. Hand splinting and task-specific training are two interventions that are often used to address deficits in upper limb skills, both in isolation or concurrently. The aim of this paper is to describe the method to be used to conduct two randomised controlled trials (RCT) investigating (a) the immediate effect of functional hand splints, and (b) the effect of functional hand splints used concurrently with task-specific training compared to functional hand splints alone, and to task-specific training alone in children with CP and BI. The Cognitive Orientation to Occupational Performance (CO-OP) approach will be the task-specific training approach used. Methods/Design Two concurrent trials; a two group, parallel design, RCT with a sample size of 30 participants (15 per group); and a three group, parallel design, assessor blinded, RCT with a sample size of 45 participants (15 per group). Inclusion criteria: age 4-15 years; diagnosis of CP or BI; Manual Abilities Classification System (MACS) level I – IV; hand function goals; impaired hand function; the cognitive, language and behavioural ability to participate in CO-OP. Participants will be randomly allocated to one of 3 groups; (1) functional hand splint only (n=15); (2) functional hand splint combined with task-specific training (n=15); (3) task-specific training only (n=15). Allocation concealment will be achieved using sequentially numbered, sealed opaque envelopes opened by an off-site officer after baseline measures. Treatment will be provided for a period of 2 weeks, with outcome measures taken at baseline, 1 hour after randomisation, 2 weeks and 10 weeks. The functional hand splint will be a wrist cock-up splint (+/- thumb support or supination strap). Task-specific training will involve 10 sessions of CO-OP provided in a group of 2-4 children. Primary outcome

  8. Occupational Differences in Muscle Strength of U.S. Navy Enlisted Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vickers, Ross R., Jr; Hodgdon, James a; Marcinik, Edward J

    2004-01-01

    .... Overexertion is one likely cause of the excess injuries. Over time, repeated performance of physically demanding tasks may reduce injury risk by increasing strength of the personnel in physically demanding occupations...

  9. Occupational health in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Domyung; Hisanaga, Naomi

    2002-01-01

    The government-initiated Annual Workers Health Examination Program and the Industrial Accident Compensation Program both of which are delivered from outside the workplace mainly by a handful of service agents have remained the cornerstones of occupational health and safety (OHS) policy in South Korea since the 1960s. Initially, policies centered on the technical dimensions of OHS problems. This acultural approach is no longer efficient, and the scope of problems that can be dealt with is limited. The injury rate has gone down from 6 to less than 1 injury per 100 insured workers, but since the 1980s there has been no sign of improvement in the death rate from industrial accidents, and future improvement in the injury rate is not expected. As South Korea is facing major economic and social changes, review of current OHS policy is also underway. International collaborations and comparisons will surely add thoughtful perspectives to this discussion.

  10. Unique Role of Occupational Therapy in Rehabilitation of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... components of function. www.aota.org 4720 Montgomery Lane, Suite 200, Bethesda, MD 20814-3449 Phone: 301- ... possible. • Occupations (activities) may not be designed to assist with healing the injury itself; they may be ...

  11. Estimated injury risk for specific injuries and body regions in frontal motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Ashley A; Talton, Jennifer W; Barnard, Ryan T; Schoell, Samantha L; Swett, Katrina R; Stitzel, Joel D

    2015-01-01

    Injury risk curves estimate motor vehicle crash (MVC) occupant injury risk from vehicle, crash, and/or occupant factors. Many vehicles are equipped with event data recorders (EDRs) that collect data including the crash speed and restraint status during a MVC. This study's goal was to use regulation-required data elements for EDRs to compute occupant injury risk for (1) specific injuries and (2) specific body regions in frontal MVCs from weighted NASS-CDS data. Logistic regression analysis of NASS-CDS single-impact frontal MVCs involving front seat occupants with frontal airbag deployment was used to produce 23 risk curves for specific injuries and 17 risk curves for Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) 2+ to 5+ body region injuries. Risk curves were produced for the following body regions: head and thorax (AIS 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+), face (AIS 2+), abdomen, spine, upper extremity, and lower extremity (AIS 2+, 3+). Injury risk with 95% confidence intervals was estimated for 15-105 km/h longitudinal delta-Vs and belt status was adjusted for as a covariate. Overall, belted occupants had lower estimated risks compared to unbelted occupants and the risk of injury increased as longitudinal delta-V increased. Belt status was a significant predictor for 13 specific injuries and all body region injuries with the exception of AIS 2+ and 3+ spine injuries. Specific injuries and body region injuries that occurred more frequently in NASS-CDS also tended to carry higher risks when evaluated at a 56 km/h longitudinal delta-V. In the belted population, injury risks that ranked in the top 33% included 4 upper extremity fractures (ulna, radius, clavicle, carpus/metacarpus), 2 lower extremity fractures (fibula, metatarsal/tarsal), and a knee sprain (2.4-4.6% risk). Unbelted injury risks ranked in the top 33% included 4 lower extremity fractures (femur, fibula, metatarsal/tarsal, patella), 2 head injuries with less than one hour or unspecified prior unconsciousness, and a lung contusion (4

  12. Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, H; Câmara, V de M

    1991-12-01

    Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory scheme, workers' compensation system, plant-level practices, training, and data collection. We reviewed and analyzed Brazilian regulatory legislation and government and non-governmental organization (NGO) activity in occupational safety and health, as well as the structure and function of the workers' compensation system. We also reviewed available data on injuries and diseases from major sources, including the now-defunct Instituto Nacional do Previdencia Social (INPS) and the workers' compensation scheme, Seguro de Acidente de Trabalho (SAT). The incidence of workplace injuries has decreased in recent years and is now reported to be about 5 per 100 workers per year. The case fatality rate has been constant at about 5 fatalities per 1000 injuries. Less than 6% of reported injuries are classified as "diseases." Brazil's rates are comparable to those of Mexico and Zimbabwe, and two to four times higher than in most industrialized countries. Brazil has a high incidence of occupational injuries and diseases; these injuries and diseases are underreported; there is a large informal sector at special risk; and Brazil illustrates the disparity that exists in many countries between legislation on the books and legislation that is actually implemented.

  13. Image processing occupancy sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry J.

    2016-09-27

    A system and method of detecting occupants in a building automation system environment using image based occupancy detection and position determinations. In one example, the system includes an image processing occupancy sensor that detects the number and position of occupants within a space that has controllable building elements such as lighting and ventilation diffusers. Based on the position and location of the occupants, the system can finely control the elements to optimize conditions for the occupants, optimize energy usage, among other advantages.

  14. Occupant Protection Project for the Orion Crew Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernhardt, Michael L.; Jones, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    This powerpoint presentation describes the occupant protection project for the Orion Crew Vehicle. Background information on the Orion Crew Vehicle along with comparisons of the Space Shuttle, Ares I, Ares V, Saturn V and Soyuz-FG are also described. The contents include: 1) Background and Overview; 2) Crew health and safety overview; 3) Occupant Protection project overview; and 4) Suit Element injury risk.

  15. The status of occupational safety among health service providers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational hazards exist whenever health care is practised (Gestal, 1987). The greatest risks are usually run by the staff of hospitals and research centres. There are a number of consequences of occupational diseases and injuries among hospital workers. These include economic, physical, and psychological damage to ...

  16. Occupational Health and Sleep Issues in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalliny, Medhat; McKenzie, Judith Green

    2017-03-01

    Sleep disorders and occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses impact an individual's overall health. In the United States, substantial racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities exist in sleep and occupational health. Primary care physicians working in underserved communities should be aware of this disparity and target these higher-risk populations for focused evaluation and intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Occupational Accidents and Sleep Apnea in Hospital Staff

    OpenAIRE

    Hassani, Somayeh; Rahnama, Nooshin; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Yazdanparast, Taraneh; Roozbahani, Rahim; Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Adimi Naghan, Parisa; Jamaati, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a common disorder in which instability of the upper airways leads to a reduction or cessation of airflow during sleep. Sleep disorders such as OSAS increase the risk of occupational accidents and impaired work performance. Sleep deprivation during shift increases the risk of occupational accidents among health care employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between occupational injuries in hospital staff and the...

  18. Time to add a new priority target for child injury prevention? The case for an excess burden associated with sport and exercise injury: population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Wong Shee, Anna; Clapperton, Angela

    2014-07-02

    To determine the population-level burden of sports injuries compared with that for road traffic injury for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases for children aged sports injury and road traffic injury cases in children aged sports-related cases and ICD-10-AM cause and location codes to identify road traffic injuries; and injury presentations to 38 Victorian public hospital emergency departments, using a combination of activity, cause and location codes. Trends in injury frequency and rate were analysed by log-linear Poisson regression and the population-level injury burden was assessed in terms of years lived with disability (YLD), hospital bed-days and direct hospital costs. Over the 7-year period, the annual frequency of non-fatal hospital-treated sports injury increased significantly by 29% (from N=7405 to N=9923; pSports injury accounted for a larger population health burden than did road traffic injury on all measures: 3-fold the number of YLDs (7324.8 vs 2453.9); 1.9-fold the number of bed-days (26 233 vs 13 886) and 2.6-fold the direct hospital costs ($A5.9 millions vs $A2.2 millions). The significant 7-year increase in the frequency of hospital-treated sports injury and the substantially higher injury population-health burden (direct hospital costs, bed-day usage and YLD impacts) for sports injury compared with road traffic injury for children aged sports injury prevention in this age group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Annual report on occupational safety 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on occupational safety relating to BNFL's employees for 1989 and data compared with the previous year. Routine monitoring, non-radiological safety and 'incidents' are discussed and 'statutory' whole-body exposures, nuclear incidents, lost-time accidents, and types of injury are tabulated. (author)

  20. The influence of demographics and working conditions on self-reported injuries among Latino day laborers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Atkinson, John A; Montano, Cecilia F

    2015-01-01

    The majority of day laborers in the USA are Latinos. They are engaged in high-risk occupations and suffer high occupational injury rates. To describe on-the-job injuries reported by Latino day laborers, explore the extent that demographic and occupational factors predict injuries, and whether summative measures for total job types, job conditions, and personal protective equipment (PPE) predict injuries. A community survey was conducted with 327 participants at 15 corners in Houston, Texas. Hierarchical and multiple logistic regressions explored predictors of occupational injury odds in the last year. Thirty-four percent of respondents reported an occupational injury in the previous year. Education, exposure to loud noises, cold temperatures, vibrating machinery, use of hard hats, total number of job conditions, and total PPE significantly predicted injury odds. Risk for injury among day laborers is not only the product of a specific hazard, but also the result of their exposure to multiple occupational hazards.

  1. Occupational balance: exploring the relationships among daily occupations and their influence on well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backman, Catherine L

    2004-10-01

    In this lecture, I have reviewed theoretical discussions and definitions of occupational balance, findings from selected studies, and highlighted some methods for measuring aspects of occupational balance. Are any of these ideas directly applicable to occupational therapy practice, education and research? Consider the hassles of everyday life, and add the complicating factors of illness, injury, disability, and limited income. Life, and the pursuit of necessary, desirable and obligatory occupations, can become overwhelming. Given that occupational therapists aim to enable individuals, regardless of ability, to successfully engage in a range of occupations, the answer to the question is yes. Furthering our understanding of occupational balance can improve our ability to serve individual clients and society. In 2001, Fearing stated in her Muriel Driver Memorial Lecture: We will not only recognize and value the skill of maintaining balance, our own and that of our clients, but we will live it. Balance will not be viewed as a set of scales that has equal parts such as work on one side and play on the other but rather the kind of balance that comes from being centred so that we act from a stable base. From that stable base, we will gain a keen sensitivity to rhythm--knowing when to move and when to let go. (Fearing, 2001 pp. 214-215) Perhaps these reflections have added a little coherence to the study of occupational balance. Occupational balance is a relative state, recognizable by a happy or pleasant integration of life activities and demands. There are indicators of imbalance, more so than tangible ways to measure it, and once recognized occupational therapists have the strategies to help restore a sense of occupational balance. Given our collective history and skill in client-centred practice, occupational therapists are capable of both advancing this line of inquiry and attaining occupational balance for ourselves and our clients.

  2. [Operative applications of occupational therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational therapy is the branch of rehabilitation whose main aim is to achieve maximum possible autonomy of the disabled person and the most complete integration into society, family and work. In subjects with motor disabilities following an occupational injury, the re-education programme includes a series of interventions aimed at progressive recovery of the ability to carry out work tasks compatible with the residual motor capacity of the worker. This article presents some examples related to the different stages making up the specific re-education programme: from the initial stages (with more purely kinesiotherapeutic techniques) directed at recovering movements and muscle strength, to the intermediate and final stages (more typically ergotherapeutic) directed first at the recovery of basic functions (clasping, pulling, pushing, lifting, lowering, carrying, etc.) and then, finally, retraining of work movements, with the introduction of compensatory methods and/or use of auxiliaries, when necessary.

  3. [Pulmonary thromboembolism in Occupational Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Capapé-Aguilar, Ana; Romero-Paredes, Carmen; Aguado-Benedí, María-José

    2015-01-01

    Occupational physicians should be familiar with the risk factors and clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). PTE belongs to the group ofis a cardiovascular diseases, which are the main cause (40%) of death in Spanish workplaces; at present, they may be considered a work-related injury because of the doctrinal evolution in the legal interpretation of the presumption of iuris tantum. We present the case of a hypertensive and obese adult male who suffered a PTE at his workplace. The availability of a portable pulse oximeter (room air SpO2, 92%) was critical in guiding the decision to refer him urgently to the hospital, where the diagnosis was confirmed. We can conclude that, independently of whether this event is later deemed to be work-related (in this case it was not), occupational physicians must know how to correctly manage and refer affected workers. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.

  4. Epidemiology of traumatic spinal cord injuries in Austria 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdan, Marek; Brazinova, Alexandra; Mauritz, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiological patterns (mortality, incidence of non-fatal cases and overall incidence), of traumatic spinal cord injuries (TSCI) in 2002-2012 in Austria. TSCI-related deaths and hospital admissions in Austria 2002-2012 were obtained from Statistics Austria and analysed. Mortality rates, as well as non-fatal and overall incidence rates were calculated and compared across the age spectrum and by sex. Additionally, the main causes and demographic characteristics of victims were analysed. The crude overall incidence rate of TSCI was 16.96, CI 95 % 16.95-16.97 and the standardized incidence rate was 13.98, CI 95 % 13.97-13.99 per million (annual average rate). An annual increase in fatality rates was observed occurring mostly in the age group >65 years (Kendall's Tau = 0.1). Falls (mortality rate 19.58, CI 95 % 19.57-19.59) and injuries at home (incidence rate 56.57, CI 95 % 56.56-56.58) were the principal causes of fatal and non-fatal TSCI, respectively. Injuries to the neck region were the most common. All indicators were the highest for the age group >65 years: non-fatal incidence rate 23.55, CI 95 % 23.54-23.56; mortality rate 21.4, CI 95 % 21.39-21.41; and overall incidence rate 47.9, CI 95 % 47.89-47.91. A clear male dominance was observed (incidence rate ratio 1.9, CI 95 % 1.4-2.7). The population >65 years has been at the highest risk of TSCI in Austria for the analysed period and therefore preventive activities should be focused on this group. The increasing overall incidence of TSCI was driven by the increasing mortality rates that were highest in the age group >65 years. We advocate harmonization of epidemiological reporting especially regarding aetiology of TSCI in order to better inform policy makers and prevention.

  5. 77 FR 46126 - Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ...] Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health (MACOSH) AGENCY: Occupational Safety and... nominations for membership on the Maritime Advisory Committee for Occupational Safety and Health. DATES: You... increase the effectiveness of safety and health standards that apply to the maritime industries, injury and...

  6. Isometric strength and occupational muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbom, A

    1988-01-01

    In two longitudinal studies, initial muscle strength and endurance of the shoulder-forearm muscles were related to deterioration of shoulder-neck-arm disorders after one year. Group I (n = 32) worked in the automobile industry assembling car motors. Their work was performed when standing and walking, and implied varied postures and exertion of external forces. Group II (n = 96) worked in the electronics industry assembling printed circuit boards. They worked sitting down and were exposed mainly to postural static loads. Muscle strength was negatively related to deterioration in group I but no such relationship was found in group II. The mechanism of occupational muscular injury is discussed, and it is suggested that mechanical overstress of the musculoskeletal system causes injury in occupations where external forces are exerted. The mechanism of injury in static, postural loads remains to be explained.

  7. Local Residential Segregation Matters: Stronger Association of Census Tract Compared to Conventional City-Level Measures with Fatal and Non-Fatal Assaults (Total and Firearm Related), Using the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE) for Racial, Economic, and Racialized Economic Segregation, Massachusetts (US), 1995-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Feldman, Justin M; Waterman, Pamela D; Chen, Jarvis T; Coull, Brent A; Hemenway, David

    2017-04-01

    Research on residential segregation and health, primarily conducted in the USA, has chiefly employed city or regional measures of racial segregation. To test our hypothesis that stronger associations would be observed using local measures, especially for racialized economic segregation, we analyzed risk of fatal and non-fatal assault in Massachusetts (1995-2010), since this outcome is strongly associated with residential segregation. The segregation metrics comprised the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), the Index of Dissimilarity, and poverty rate, with measures computed at both the census tract and city/town level. Key results were that larger associations between fatal and non-fatal assaults and residential segregation occurred for models using the census tract vs. city/town measures, with the greatest associations observed for racialized economic segregation. For fatal assaults, comparing the bottom vs. top quintiles, the incidence rate ratio (and 95% confidence interval (CI)) in models using the census tract measures equaled 3.96 (95% CI 3.10, 5.06) for the ICE for racialized economic segregation, 3.26 (95% CI 2.58, 4.14) for the ICE for income, 3.14 (95% CI 2.47, 3.99) for poverty, 2.90 (95% CI 2.21, 3.81) for the ICE for race/ethnicity, and only 0.93 (95% CI 0.79, 1.11) for the Index of Dissimilarity; in models that included both census tract and city/town ICE measures, this risk ratio for the ICE for racialized economic segregation was higher at the census tract (3.29; 95% CI 2.43, 4.46) vs. city/town level (1.61; 95% CI 1.12, 2.32). These results suggest that, at least in the case of fatal and non-fatal assaults, research on residential segregation should employ local measures, including of racialized economic segregation, to avoid underestimating the adverse impact of segregation on health.

  8. Análisis de los mecanismos de producción de las lesiones leves por accidentes de trabajo en la construcción en España Analysis of the mechanisms of minor occupational injuries in the construction industry in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Benavides

    2003-10-01

    injuries in Spain (25.6%. Of these, 98.5% were minor injuries with 5 million workdays lost in 2000. This occurred even after the recent introduction of numerous health and occupational safety regulations. The objective of the present study was to identify the specific mechanisms of minor occupational injuries in the construction sector. Methods: In 2000, there were 235,853 minor occupational injuries in the construction industry. From these, injuries in «general construction and civil engineering» were selected (n = 155,044. These injuries affected both the total number of workers in the sector as well as bricklayers and unskilled construction workers. «Insurance and financial activities» (n = 2,019 were selected as a reference economic sector. Minor occupational injuries due to nontraumatic processes (heart attack, etc. were taken as a control group (n = 167, assuming that the risk of nontraumatic processes was independent of economic activities. Odds ratios (OR were adjusted by age, sex, years of work experience, type of employment and company size through nonconditional logistic regression models. Results: The mechanisms with the highest risk of minor occupational lesions in construction workers as a group compared with employees in the financial sector were projection of fragments (OR = 33.0; 95% CI, 15.3-70.8 and being struck by objects (OR = 18.2; CI 95%, 9.7-34.1. These were also the most specific mechanisms of injury in the subgroup of bricklayers and unskilled construction workers. Conclusions: Activities aimed at preventing minor occupational injuries in the construction sector should be orientated towards these mechanisms, especially projection of fragments despite the low frequency of this mechanism compared with that of other mechanisms. Case-control design is a useful alternative approach for research into occupational injuries.

  9. EDITORIAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occupational health hazards of agricultural workers have been recognised since the 16th century,' but despite the early recognition of these hazards, agriculture has lagged behind other industries in improving workplace health and safety. Measured by both fatal and non-fatal occupational injuries, agriculture is one of the ...

  10. Occupational risk factors and voice disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilkman, E

    1996-01-01

    From the point of view of occupational health, the field of voice disorders is very poorly developed as compared, for instance, to the prevention and diagnostics of occupational hearing disorders. In fact, voice disorders have not even been recognized in the field of occupational medicine. Hence, it is obviously very rare in most countries that the voice disorder of a professional voice user, e.g. a teacher, a singer or an actor, is accepted as an occupational disease by insurance companies. However, occupational voice problems do not lack significance from the point of view of the patient. We also know from questionnaires and clinical studies that voice complaints are very common. Another example of job-related health problems, which has proved more successful in terms of its occupational health status, is the repetition strain injury of the elbow, i.e. the "tennis elbow". Its textbook definition could be used as such to describe an occupational voice disorder ("dysphonia professional is"). In the present paper the effects of such risk factors as vocal loading itself, background noise and room acoustics and low relative humidity of the air are discussed. Due to individual factors underlying the development of professional voice disorders, recommendations rather than regulations are called for. There are many simple and even relatively low-cost methods available for the prevention of vocal problems as well as for supporting rehabilitation.

  11. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  12. Percutaneous injuries in doctors in the School of Medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Percutaneous injuries are defined as occupation-related, unintentional injuries that break the integrity of the skin, and ... Health, “Management of Occupational Exposures to HIV, HBV, HCV and. Recommendations for PEP ... Internal Medicine, Medical Microbiology, Neurology, Oncotherapy,. Paediatrics, Pharmacology and ...

  13. International survey of occupational health nurses' roles in multidisciplinary teamwork in occupational health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Bonnie; Kono, Keiko; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Peurala, Marjatta; Radford, Jennifer; Staun, Julie

    2014-07-01

    Access to occupational health services for primary prevention and control of work-related injuries and illnesses by the global workforce is limited (World Health Organization [WHO], 2013). From the WHO survey of 121 (61%) participating countries, only one-third of the responding countries provided occupational health services to more than 30% of their workers (2013). How services are provided in these countries is dependent on legal requirements and regulations, population, workforce characteristics, and culture, as well as an understanding of the impact of workplace hazards and worker health needs. Around the world, many occupational health services are provided by occupational health nurses independently or in collaboration with other disciplines' professionals. These services may be health protection, health promotion, or both, and are designed to reduce health risks, support productivity, improve workers' quality of life, and be cost-effective. Rantanen (2004) stated that basic occupational health services must increase rather than decline, especially as work becomes more complex; workforces become more dynamic and mobile, creating new models of work-places; and jobs become more precarious and temporary. To better understand occupational health services provided by occupational health nurses globally and how decisions are made to provide these services, this study examined the scope of services provided by a sample of participating occupational health nurses from various countries. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Occupational hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001048.htm Occupational hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Occupational hearing loss is damage to the inner ear from noise ...

  15. Occupational Noise Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety and Health Topics / Occupational Noise Exposure Occupational Noise Exposure This page requires that javascript be enabled ... interprets the signal as sound. x What is noise? Noise and vibration are both fluctuations in the ...

  16. Patterns of youth injury: a comparison across the northern territories and other parts of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Jessica; King, Nathan; Hawe, Penelope; Peters, Paul; Pickett, William; Davison, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death for young people in Canada. For those living in the northern territories (Yukon, Nunavut, and the Northwest Territories), injury represents an even greater problem, with higher rates of injury for people of all ages in northern areas compared with the rest of Canada; however, no such comparative studies have focussed specifically on non-fatal injury in youth. To profile and examine injuries and their potential causes among youth in the northern territories as compared with other parts of Canada. Cross-sectional data from the 2009/2010 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (youth aged 11-15 years) were examined for the Canadian northern territories and the provinces (n=26,078). Individual survey records were linked to community-level data to profile injuries and then study possible determinants via multilevel regression modelling. The prevalence of injury reported by youth was similar in northern populations and other parts of Canada. There were some minimal differences by injury type: northern youth experienced a greater percentage of neighbourhood (pCanada. Given previous research, this was unexpected. When implementing injury prevention initiatives, individual and community-level risk factors are essential to understand; however, specific positive safety assets that might exist in different community contexts must also be considered.

  17. Occupational Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Occupational Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Occupational Therapy What's in this ... care for some kids. Kids Who Might Need Occupational Therapy According to the AOTA, kids with these medical ...

  18. Absence from work due to occupational and non-occupational accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kirsten; Laursen, Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate absence from work in Denmark due to occupational and non-occupational accidents. Background: Since the beginning of the last decade, political focus has been placed on the population’s working capacity and the scope of absence due to illness....... Absence from work is estimated at between 3% and 6% of working hours in the EU and costs are estimated at approximately 2.5% of GNP. Methods: Victims of accidents treated at two emergency departments were interviewed regarding absence for the injured, the family and others. All answers were linked...... to the hospital information on the injury, so that it was possible to examine the relation between absence and injury type, and cause of the accident. Results: In total, 1,479 injured persons were interviewed. 36% of these reported absence from work by themselves or others. In mean, an injury caused 3.21 days...

  19. San Francisco pedestrian injury surveillance: mapping, under-reporting, and injury severity in police and hospital records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, Stanley; Vassar, Mary; Radetsky, Michael; Knudson, M Margaret

    2005-11-01

    Police reports of severely injured pedestrians help identify hazardous traffic areas in San Francisco, but they under-report non-fatal collisions. We set out to: identify injured pedestrians who were missing from police collision reports, see what biases exist in injury reporting and assess the utility of broad categories of police severe injury (including fatal) for mapping and analysis. We linked data on injured pedestrians from police collision reports listed in the Statewide Integrated Traffic Reporting System (SWITRS, n = 1991) with records of pedestrians treated at San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 1323) for 2000 and 2001. Data were analyzed using bivariate statistics, logistic regression and mapping. : We found that police collision reports underestimated the number of injured pedestrians by 21% (531/2442). Pedestrians treated at SFGH who were African-American were less likely then whites (odds ratio = 0.55, p-value report. Over 70% of pedestrians deemed by the police to have a severe injury received treatment at SFGH, regardless of the collision's distance from SFGH. The sensitivity of a police-designated severe injury (including fatal) was 69% and the specificity was 89% when compared with a known SFGH assessment. But, sensitivity declined when we included pedestrians without a SFGH record. Though collision reports have demonstrated limitations, broad categories of police severity may be sensitive enough to map locations where numerous severe injuries occur, for timely countermeasure selection.

  20. Sport-Related Concussion and Occupational Therapy: Expanding the Scope of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Nick

    2011-01-01

    Sport participation is a common occupation for many children and youth and can lead to improved physical and psychosocial health. Despite these benefits, it exposes children and youth to the increased risk of injury. Concussion, also referred to as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is one of the most common sports injuries reported in the…

  1. Occupational rhinitis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Whitney W; Grammer, Leslie C

    2015-01-01

    Occupational rhinitis is characterized by nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, nasal itching, and/or sneezing that occur secondary to exposures in the workplace. This disease can be classified into allergic or nonallergic subgroups based upon the underlying disease pathogenesis as well as the type of causative agent. While the true prevalence of occupational rhinitis is unknown, there are certain professions and occupational exposures that place workers at a higher risk for developing the disease. Additionally, occupational rhinitis can be associated with occupational asthma and upper airway symptoms may precede those of the lower respiratory tract. Taken together, occupational rhinitis is an important disease for study given its medical as well as socioeconomic implications. This review will focus on the classification of occupational rhinitis as well the prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment strategies.

  2. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational health issues in marine and freshwater research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Glenn; Smith, Derek R; Gladstone, William

    2012-03-19

    Marine and freshwater scientists are potentially exposed to a wide variety of occupational hazards. Depending on the focus of their research, risks may include animal attacks, physiological stresses, exposure to toxins and carcinogens, and dangerous environmental conditions. Many of these hazards have been investigated amongst the general population in their recreational use of the environment; however, very few studies have specifically related potential hazards to occupational exposure. For example, while the incidence of shark and crocodile attacks may invoke strong emotions and the occupational risk of working with these animals is certainly real, many more people are stung by jellyfish or bitten by snakes or dogs each year. Furthermore, a large proportion of SCUBA-related injuries and deaths are incurred by novice or uncertified divers, rather than professional divers using aquatic environments. Nonetheless, marine and freshwater research remains a potentially risky occupation, and the likelihood of death, injury and long-term health impacts still needs to be seriously considered.

  4. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 1991 projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-08-01

    The report presents information on projects conducted by NIOSH in 1991 aimed at improving working conditions and worker health. The planning format for 1991 was depicted using a flow chart. Each division of NIOSH was listed along with phone numbers and brief descriptions of the projects conducted by the division. Summaries were included of national prevention strategies for occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, occupational cardiovascular diseases, disorders of reproduction, neurotoxic disorders, noise induced hearing loss, dermatological conditions, and psychological disorders. The purpose of each NIOSH project was described, and projects were categorized by program areas. These programs areas included the subjects of the national prevention strategies, agriculture related projects, construction related projects, assistance requests, and administration.

  5. [Preventing occupational eye trauma (Geneva, Switzerland)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngondi, C Emole; Chastonay, P; Dosso, A

    2010-01-01

    Occupational eye trauma causes injuries with often serious socioprofessional, medical-legal, and economic consequences, not only for workers themselves, but also for employers. In spite of today's legislation and the efforts to encourage prevention, the frequency of occupational ocular accidents remains relatively high despite how easy it is to protect the eyes. In this study, the reasons that these accidents persist despite the progress made in preventive measures was investigated. From January to July 2005, we analyzed the parameters related to 175 occupational eye injuries. All patients agreed to take part in this study, which was carried out in the emergency unit of the Ophthalmology Clinic at Geneva University Hospital. Additional data was collected in companies. Construction workers were the most exposed (41.1%). The activity with the greatest risk was grinding (19.4%). The most affected structure of the eye was the cornea (84%), 72.6% patients were not equipped with ocular protection at the time of the accident, and 17.4% wore poorly adapted eye protection. This can be explained by negligence, lack of awareness, etc. Overall, workers, employers, and the legislation in force are all responsible. Our results are comparable with those found in the literature, with certain particularities because heavy industry was underrepresented in our sample. Analysis of the law on the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases shows that the worker is not sufficiently aware of his responsibilities. To our knowledge, the legal aspects treated herein have not been studied. As done in certain studies, we emphasize the importance of preventive ophthalmologic examinations as well as improvement of both working conditions and worker awareness in the workplace. Primary prevention must be reinforced. Information campaigns within the workplace aimed at workers and revision of the laws on occupational safety are some of the recommendations that are proposed to control

  6. Assessment of Bilateral Thoracic Loading on the Near-Side Occupant Due to Occupant-to-Occupant Interaction in Vehicle Crash Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunnevång, Cecilia; Pipkorn, Bengt; Boström, Ola

    2015-01-01

    This study aims, by means of the WorldSID 50th percentile male, to evaluate thoracic loading and injury risk to the near-side occupant due to occupant-to-occupant interaction in combination with loading from an intruding structure. Nine vehicle crash tests were performed with a 50th percentile WorldSID male dummy in the near-side (adjacent to the intruding structure) seat and a THOR or ES2 dummy in the far-side (opposite the intruding structure) seat. The near-side seated WorldSID was equipped with 6 + 6 IR-Traccs (LH and RH) in the thorax/abdomen enabling measurement of bilateral deflection. To differentiate deflection caused by the intrusion, and the deflection caused by the neighboring occupant, time history curves were analyzed. The crash tests were performed with different modern vehicles, equipped with thorax side airbags and inflatable curtains, ranging from a compact car to a large sedan, and in different loading conditions such as car-to-car, barrier, and pole tests. Lateral delta V based on vehicle tunnel acceleration and maximum residual intrusion at occupant position were used as a measurement of crash severity to compare injury measurements. In the 9 vehicle crash tests, thoracic loading, induced by the intruding structure as well as from the far-side occupant, varied due to the size and structural performance of the car as well as the severity of the crash. Peak deflection on the thoracic outboard side occurred during the first 50 ms of the event. Between 70 to 150 ms loading induced by the neighboring occupant occurred and resulted in an inboard-side peak deflection and viscous criterion. In the tests where the target vehicle lateral delta V was below 30 km/h and intrusion less than 200 mm, deflections were low on both the outboard (20-40 mm) and inboard side (10-15 mm). At higher crash severities, delta V 35 km/h and above as well as intrusions larger than 350 mm, the inboard deflections (caused by interaction to the far-side occupant) were of the

  7. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Bailey, Larissa L.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    This chapter deals with the estimation of occupancy as a state variable to assess the status of, and track changes in, species distributions when sampling with camera traps. Much of the recent interest in occupancy estimation and modeling originated from the models developed by MacKenzie et al. (2002, 2003), although similar methods were developed independently (Azuma et al. 1990; Bayley and Petersen 2001; Nichols and Karanth, 2002; Tyre et al. 2003), all of which deal with species occurrence information and imperfect detection. Less than a decade after these publications, the modeling and estimation of species occurrence and occupancy dynamics have increased significantly. Special features of scientific journals have explored innovative uses of detection–nondetection data with occupancy models (Vojta 2005), and an entire volume has synthesized the use and application of occupancy estimation methods (MacKenzie et al. 2006). Reviews of the topical concepts, philosophical considerations, and various sampling designs that can be used for occupancy estimation are now readily available for a range of audiences (MacKenzie and Royle 2005; MacKenzie et al. 2006; Bailey et al. 2007; Royle and Dorazio 2008; Conroy and Carroll 2009; Kendall and White 2009; Hines et al. 2010; Link and Barker 2010). As a result, it would be pointless here to recast all that these publications have so eloquently articulated, but that said, a review of any scientific topic requires sufficient context and relevant background information, especially when relatively new methodologies and techniques such as occupancy estimation and camera traps are involved. This is especially critical in a digital age where new information is published at warp speed, making it increasingly difficult to stay abreast of theoretical advances and research developments.

  8. Case studies of hydrogen sulphide occupational exposure incidents in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kate

    2014-12-15

    The UK Health and Safety Executive has investigated several incidents of workplace accidents involving hydrogen sulphide exposure in recent years. Biological monitoring has been used in some incidents to determine the cause of unconsciousness resulting from these incidents and as a supporting evidence in regulatory enforcement. This paper reports on three case incidents and discusses the use of biological monitoring in such cases. Biological monitoring has a role in identifying hydrogen sulphide exposure in incidents, whether these are occupational or in the wider environment. Sample type, time of collection and sample storage are important factors in the applicability of this technique. For non-fatal incidents, multiple urine samples are recommended at two or more time points between the incident and 15 h post-exposure. For routine occupational monitoring, post-shift samples should be adequate. Due to endogenous levels of urinary thiosulphate, it is likely that exposures in excess of 12 ppm for 30 min (or 360 ppm/min equivalent) would be detectable using biological monitoring. This is within the Acute Exposure Guideline Level 2 (the level of the chemical in air at or above which there may be irreversible or other serious long-lasting effects or impaired ability to escape) for hydrogen sulphide. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and presentation of spinal injury in patients with major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Spinal injury is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and long bed occupancy in patients admitted in Mulago Hospital. Several studies have reported different incidence and presentations of spinal injury 1-4. At Mulago hospital, road traffic crushes (RTC) is one of the most common causes of these injuries5.

  10. Prevalence of Needle Stick Injuries among Healthcare Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Needle stick injuries represent one of the most important occupational hazards to which health workers are exposed. These injuries result from accidental piercing of the skin and or mucous membranes by sharp objects. Needle stick injuries carry the risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens, especially ...

  11. Investigating occupant safety through simulating the interaction between side curtain airbag deployment and an out-of-position occupant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potula, S R; Solanki, K N; Oglesby, D L; Tschopp, M A; Bhatia, M A

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the effect of side curtain airbag deployment on occupant injuries and safety when the occupant is either in-position or out-of-position (OOP). We used side impact vehicle collision simulations with a 1996 Dodge Neon model, which was further modified to include a side curtain airbag, a seatbelt, and a 50th percentile Hybrid III dummy. The airbag used in the study was inflated using both the uniform pressure (UP) and smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methods. In-position and OOP simulations were performed to assess and establish guidelines for airbag aggressivity thresholds and occupant position versus risk of injury. Three different OOP scenarios (OOP1, OOP2, OOP3) were initially setup following the work of Lund (2003), then modified such that the dummy's head was closer to the airbag, increasing the chance of injury caused by the airbag. The resultant head acceleration as a function of time for in-position and OOP simulations shows that both UP and SPH methods produce similar peak accelerations in cases where the airbag is fully inflated prior to impact. In all cases, the head peak accelerations and the head injury criteria for simulations with an airbag were significantly lower when compared with the no airbag case, which would typically indicate that the use of an airbag results in improved occupant protection during side impact. However, in the case of OOP2 and OOP3, the neck flexion forces actually increase significantly when compared with the no airbag case. This finding indicates that the HIC and neck flexion forces criterion are in conflict and that there may be a tradeoff in terms of occupant injury/safety with a side curtain airbag that is strongly correlated to the occupant position. Consequently, this study shows that safety devices result in a significant effect on occupant injury/safety when the occupant is in OOP conditions. Moreover, in some cases, simulation results show that the side curtain airbag

  12. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life and Function after Paediatric Injuries in India: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagnoor Jagnoor

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric injuries can lead to long-term functional impairment and reduced health-related quality of life, and are a growing public health issue in India. To date, however, the burden has been poorly characterized. This study assessed the impact of non-fatal injuries on health-related quality of life in a prospective cohort study of 373 children admitted to three hospitals in Chandigarh and Haryana states in India. The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL and King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI were administered at baseline (pre-injury and at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months post-injury by telephone interview. Follow-up at all-time points was completed for 277 (77% of all living participants. Less than one percent reported ongoing disability at 4 months, and no disability was reported at 12 months. PedsQL physical health scores were below healthy child norms (83.4 at 1 month in the cohort for ages 8–12 years and 13–16 years. Although injuries are prevalent, ongoing impact on functioning and disability from most childhood injuries at 12 months was reported to be low. The results raise questions about reliability of generic, Western-centric tools in low- and middle-income settings, and highlight the need for local context-specific tools.

  14. Occupational rehabilitation in Singapore and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kay-Fei; Tan, Charlie W C; Yeo, Doreen S C; Tan, Heidi S K; Tan, F L; Tan, E W; Szeto, Grace P Y; Cheng, Andy S K

    2011-03-01

    Asia is the new and favored magnet of economic attention and foreign investments after it made an almost uneventful rebound from the depths of financial crisis of 2008/2009. Not many Western observers fully understand the diversity that is Asia other than perhaps its 2 growing economic giants of China and India. Indeed many smaller countries like Singapore and Malaysia in South East Asia along with Australia and Hong Kong (a Special Administrative Region within China) look to symbiotic relationships with these two economic giants. The purpose of this discussion paper is to examine the current issues related to the development and provision of occupational rehabilitation services in Singapore and Malaysia with a forward-looking view of how Asia's different developing societies could potentially benefit from better alignment of occupational rehabilitation practices and sharing of expertise through international collaboration and dialogue platforms. Seven therapists and one physician who are frequently involved in occupational rehabilitation services in their home countries critically reviewed the current issues in Singapore and Malaysia which included analysis of the prevalence and cost of occupational injury; overview of workers' compensation system; current practices, obstacles, and challenges in providing occupational rehabilitation and return to work practices. They also offered opinions about how to improve the occupational rehabilitation programs of their two home countries. Even though Malaysia and Singapore are two different countries, in many ways their current provision of occupational rehabilitation services and the problems they face with are very similar. There is a lot of room for systemic improvements that require government support and action. Most prominently, the training of more healthcare professionals in the assessment and rehabilitation of the injured worker should be encouraged. There could be better liaison between the many stakeholders and

  15. Synthetic biology and occupational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Murashov, Vladimir; Schulte, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging interdisciplinary field of biotechnology that involves applying the principles of engineering and chemical design to biological systems. Biosafety professionals have done an excellent job in addressing research laboratory safety as synthetic biology and gene editing have emerged from the larger field of biotechnology. Despite these efforts, risks posed by synthetic biology are of increasing concern as research procedures scale up to industrial processes in the larger bioeconomy. A greater number and variety of workers will be exposed to commercial synthetic biology risks in the future, including risks to a variety of workers from the use of lentiviral vectors as gene transfer devices. There is a need to review and enhance current protection measures in the field of synthetic biology, whether in experimental laboratories where new advances are being researched, in health care settings where treatments using viral vectors as gene delivery systems are increasingly being used, or in the industrial bioeconomy. Enhanced worker protection measures should include increased injury and illness surveillance of the synthetic biology workforce; proactive risk assessment and management of synthetic biology products; research on the relative effectiveness of extrinsic and intrinsic biocontainment methods; specific safety guidance for synthetic biology industrial processes; determination of appropriate medical mitigation measures for lentiviral vector exposure incidents; and greater awareness and involvement in synthetic biology safety by the general occupational safety and health community as well as by government occupational safety and health research and regulatory agencies.

  16. Occupational accidents in dental school: a 10-year retrospective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maia Araújo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate occupational accidents that occurred during the first 10 years of Fortaleza University (UNIFOR Dental School. Methods: A documental study based on secondary data from the Notification Center of Occupational Accidents of UNIFOR Dental School, reported in the last 10 years. The variables included characteristics of the accidents and of the injured, besides the type of instrument and the resulting injury. Results: Were recorded 160 occupational accidents divided by location, function of the injured and type of accident. It was observed that 63.1% of cases occurred in the Multidisciplinary Clinic, 23.1% in the Integrated Clinic, 8.8% in the laboratories, 1.9% at home, 1.25% in the Surgical Center, 1.25% in the Material Sterilization Central and 0.6% during the training outside university. Concerning the injured, 90.6% of the victims were undergraduates, 5.0% staff, 3.8% teachers and 0.6% patients. Regarding the injury, 40.6% were penetrating bloody injuries, 11.9% cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% cutting non-bloody injuries, 5% burns, 5% penetrating bloody injuries/cutting bloody injuries, 2.5% were injuries with maceration, 1.9% injuries causing ocular trauma and 0.6% of an incident of dog bite. Conclusion: It was concluded that penetrating injuries were prevalent and these occurred mostly in the multidisciplinary clinic, where students of earlier periods of dental course work, indicating that the experience in dental practice generates more care with safety.

  17. Dimensions of Occupational Prestige

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Marie R.; Widdison, Harold A.

    1975-01-01

    Eight dimensions of occupational prestige are examined for their effect on the general prestige ratings accorded various occupations within the medical profession. Stepwise multiple regression analyzes the relative weight of these dimension among 410 persons. The findings suggested that public stereotypes exert a normative pressure on individual…

  18. Leadership and Occupational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickle, Fred E.; Scott, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In a leadership position, it is important to understand what stress is and how it affects others. In an occupational setting, stressors vary according to personality types, gender, and occupational rank. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the foundations of stress and to explore how personality characteristics influence stress.…

  19. The Heath Occupational Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Career development programs must identify occupational needs of adults. A model based on Maslow's hierarchy develops occupational questions related to individual motivations (physiology, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization). Individual needs are then compared with characteristics and benefits of proposed jobs, companies, or careers. (SK)

  20. Occupational environment of mining, production and transport of certain fuels for power and heating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagerman, Y.

    1986-10-01

    The risks and occupational injuries are described. The actual fuels are coal, fuel oils, natural gas, peat and wood fuels, the latter two being considered as indigenous. The frequency and causes of accidents are presented. (G.B)

  1. Occupational skin diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahler, V; Aalto-Korte, K; Alfonso, J H

    2017-01-01

    in Science and Technology (COST) Action TD 1206 (StanDerm) (www.standerm.eu). RESULTS: Besides a national health service or a statutory health insurance, most European member states implemented a second insurance scheme specifically geared at occupational diseases [insurance against occupational risks......BACKGROUND: Work-related skin diseases (WSD) are caused or worsened by a professional activity. Occupational skin diseases (OSD) need to fulfil additional legal criteria which differ from country to country. OSD range amongst the five most frequently notified occupational diseases (musculoskeletal...... diseases, neurologic diseases, lung diseases, diseases of the sensory organs, skin diseases) in Europe. OBJECTIVE: To retrieve information and compare the current state of national frameworks and pathways to manage patients with occupational skin disease with regard to prevention, diagnosis, treatment...

  2. Occupational stress among dentists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, Rod

    2011-01-01

    Dentists report a high degree of occupational stress.(Cooper, Mallinger, and Kahn, 1978;Coster, Carstens, and Harris, 1987;DiMatteo, Shugars, and Hays, 1993;Hakeberg et al., 1992;Möller and Spangenberg, 1996;Moore, 2000;Myers and Myers, 2004;O'Shea, Corah, and Ayer, 1984) This chapter reviews...... the literature of studies that elaborate on the circumstances of occupational stress of dentists. These will include the frequency of occurrence of occupational stress among dentists in several countries, frequency and intensity of identified stressors specific to dentistry, as well as the consequences...... of this occupational stress. The literature on consequences includes effects on dentists' physical health, personal and occupational performance, including "burnout" phenomena, as well as topics of alcohol or substance abuse and reports of suicidal behaviour among dentists. One specific and less conventionally...

  3. Occupational medicine and toxicology