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Sample records for non-exercise activity thermogenesis

  1. Effect of a novel workstation device on promoting non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT).

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    Horswill, Craig A; Scott, Haley M; Voorhees, Danel M

    2017-01-01

    Strategies to increase non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) through promotion of movement and energy expenditure at desk stations are needed to help overcome ill effects of prolonged sitting. Examine the metabolic rate during three stages of a workstation: sitting, standing, and use of a device (HOVR®) that promotes leg movement while seated. Participants (n = 16; mean ±standard deviation: age 26.1±6.0 years; BMI 24.7±4.3 kg/m2) were tested for VO2 and VCO2 for 15 min at each stage in this order: sitting only, sitting using the HOVR, and standing. Participants performed the same desk work to keep fine-motor activity consistent for the stages. Data collected during the final 5 min of a stage were averaged and analyzed as steady-state data. To evaluate the effect of each stage on cognitive function, the Stroop word-color test was administered after metabolic assessment as the stage continued. One-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare stages for VO2 (L/min), metabolic equivalents (METs), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate (p NEAT during the workday.

  2. NEAT--non-exercise activity thermogenesis--egocentric & geocentric environmental factors vs. biological regulation.

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    Levine, J A; Kotz, C M

    2005-08-01

    Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is the energy expenditure of all physical activities other than volitional sporting-like exercise. NEAT includes all those activities that render us vibrant, unique and independent beings such as going to work, playing guitar, toe-tapping and dancing. The factors that account for the 2000 kcal day(-1) variability of NEAT can be categorized as environmental or biological. The environmental determinants of NEAT can be view using one of two models. In the egocentric model we consider a single person as the focus, e.g. 'my job'. In the geocentric model we consider the 'environment' as the focus, e.g. well-lit and safe walk ways. These models provide us with a theoretical framework to understand NEAT and how best to intervene to promote NEAT. As well as environmental effectors of NEAT, there are also biological regulatory mechanisms that enable us to account for three-quarters of the biological variance in susceptibility and resistance to fat gain with human over-feeding. NEAT is likely to be regulated through a central mechanism that integrates NEAT with energy intake and energy stores so that NEAT is activated with over-feeding and suppressed with under-feeding. In conclusion, NEAT is likely to serve as a crucial thermoregulatory switch between energy storage and dissipation that is biologically regulated and influenced, and perhaps over-ridden, by environment. Deciphering the role of NEAT may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis, prevention and treatment of obesity.

  3. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis in obesity management.

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    Villablanca, Pedro A; Alegria, Jorge R; Mookadam, Farouk; Holmes, David R; Wright, R Scott; Levine, James A

    2015-04-01

    Obesity is linked to cardiovascular disease. The global increase in sedentary lifestyle is an important factor contributing to the rising prevalence of the obesity epidemic. Traditionally, counseling has focused on moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise, with disappointing results. Nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is an important component of daily energy expenditure. It represents the common daily activities, such as fidgeting, walking, and standing. These high-effect NEAT movements could result in up to an extra 2000 kcal of expenditure per day beyond the basal metabolic rate, depending on body weight and level of activity. Implementing NEAT during leisure-time and occupational activities could be essential to maintaining a negative energy balance. NEAT can be applied by being upright, ambulating, and redesigning workplace and leisure-time environments to promote NEAT. The benefits of NEAT include not only the extra calories expended but also the reduced occurrence of the metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. We believe that to overcome the obesity epidemic and its adverse cardiovascular consequences, NEAT should be part of the current medical recommendations. The content of this review is based on a literature search of PubMed and the Google search engine between January 1, 1960, and October 1, 2014, using the search terms physical activity, obesity, energy expenditure, nonexercise activity thermogenesis, and NEAT. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fat cells directly sense temperature to activate thermogenesis.

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    Ye, Li; Wu, Jun; Cohen, Paul; Kazak, Lawrence; Khandekar, Melin J; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Zeng, Xing; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2013-07-23

    Classic brown fat and inducible beige fat both dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat through the actions of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1. This nonshivering thermogenesis is crucial for mammals as a defense against cold and obesity/diabetes. Cold is known to act indirectly through the sympathetic nervous systems and β-adrenergic signaling, but here we report that cool temperature (27-33 °C) can directly activate a thermogenic gene program in adipocytes in a cell-autonomous manner. White and beige fat cells respond to cool temperatures, but classic brown fat cells do not. Importantly, this activation in isolated cells is independent of the canonical cAMP/Protein Kinase A/cAMP response element-binding protein pathway downstream of the β-adrenergic receptors. These findings provide an unusual insight into the role of adipose tissues in thermoregulation, as well as an alternative way to target nonshivering thermogenesis for treatment of obesity and metabolic diseases.

  5. Non-Exercise Estimation of VO[subscript 2]max Using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire

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    Schembre, Susan M.; Riebe, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    Non-exercise equations developed from self-reported physical activity can estimate maximal oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2]max) as well as sub-maximal exercise testing. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire is the most widely used and validated self-report measure of physical activity. This study aimed to develop and test a VO[subscript…

  6. Neuroregulation of nonexercise activity thermogenesis and obesity resistance.

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    Kotz, Catherine M; Teske, Jennifer A; Billington, Charles J

    2008-03-01

    High levels of spontaneous physical activity in lean people and the nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) derived from that activity appear to protect lean people from obesity during caloric challenge, while obesity in humans is characterized by dramatically reduced spontaneous physical activity. We have similarly demonstrated that obesity-resistant rats have significantly greater spontaneous physical activity than obesity-prone rats, and that spontaneous physical activity predicts body weight gain. Although the energetic cost of activity varies between types of activity and may be regulated, individual level of spontaneous physical activity is important in determining propensity for obesity. We review the current status of knowledge about the brain mechanisms involved in controlling the level of spontaneous physical activity and the NEAT so generated. Focus is on potential neural mediators of spontaneous physical activity and NEAT, including orexin A (also known as hypocretin 1), agouti-related protein, ghrelin, and neuromedin U, in addition to brief mention of neuropeptide Y, corticotrophin releasing hormone, cholecystokinin, estrogen, leptin, and dopamine effects on spontaneous physical activity. We further review evidence that strain differences in orexin stimulation pathways for spontaneous physical activity and NEAT appear to track with the body weight phenotype, thus providing a potential mechanistic explanation for reduced activity and weight gain.

  7. Orexin activation counteracts decreases in nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) caused by high-fat diet.

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    Bunney, P E; Zink, A N; Holm, A A; Billington, C J; Kotz, C M

    2017-07-01

    Overweight and obesity result from an imbalance between caloric intake and energy expenditure, including expenditure from spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Changes in SPA and resulting changes in non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) likely interact with diet to influence risk for obesity. However, previous research on the relationship between diet, physical activity, and energy expenditure has been mixed. The neuropeptide orexin is a driver of SPA, and orexin neuron activity can be manipulated using DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs). We hypothesized that HFD decreases SPA and NEAT, and that DREADD-mediated activation of orexin neuron signaling would abolish this decrease and produce an increase in NEAT instead. To test these ideas, we characterized behaviors to determine the extent to which access to a high-fat diet (HFD) influences the proportion and probability of engaging in food intake and activity. We then measured NEAT following access to HFD and following a DREADD intervention targeting orexin neurons. Two cohorts of orexin-cre male mice were injected with an excitatory DREADD virus into the caudal hypothalamus, where orexin neurons are concentrated. Mice were then housed in continuous metabolic phenotyping cages (Sable Promethion). Food intake, indirect calorimetry, and SPA were automatically measured every second. For cohort 1 (n=8), animals were given access to chow, then switched to HFD. For cohort 2 (n=4/group), half of the animals were given access to HFD, the other access to chow. Then, among animals on HFD, orexin neurons were activated following injections of clozapine n-oxide (CNO). Mice on HFD spent significantly less time eating (porexin neurons with DREADDs. Food intake (kilocalories) was not significantly different between mice on chow and HFD, yet mice on chow expended more energy per unit of SPA, relative to that in mice consuming HFD. These results suggest that HFD consumption reduces SPA and NEAT

  8. Suppressed sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle, muscle thermogenesis, and activity energy expenditure with calorie restriction.

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    Almundarij, Tariq I; Gavini, Chaitanya K; Novak, Colleen M

    2017-02-01

    During weight loss, adaptive thermogenesis occurs where energy expenditure (EE) is suppressed beyond that predicted for the smaller body size. Here, we investigated the contributions of resting and nonresting EE to the reduced total EE seen after 3 weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in rats, focusing on activity-associated EE, muscle thermogenesis, and sympathetic outflow. Prolonged food restriction resulted in a 42% reduction in daily EE, through a 40% decrease in resting EE, and a 48% decline in nonresting EE These decreases in EE were significant even when the reductions in body weight and lean mass were taken into account. Along with a decreased caloric need for low-to-moderate-intensity treadmill activity with 50% CR, baseline and activity-related muscle thermogenesis were also suppressed, though the ability to increase muscle thermogenesis above baseline levels was not compromised. When sympathetic drive was measured by assessing norepinephrine turnover (NETO), 50% CR was found to decrease NETO in three of the four muscle groups examined, whereas elevated NETO was found in white adipose tissue of food-restricted rats. Central activation of melanocortin 4 receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus stimulated this pathway, enhancing activity EE; this was not compromised by 50% CR These data suggest that suppressed activity EE contributes to adaptive thermogenesis during energy restriction. This may stem from decreased sympathetic drive to skeletal muscle, increasing locomotor efficiency and reducing skeletal muscle thermogenesis. The capacity to increase activity EE in response to central stimuli is retained, however, presenting a potential target for preventing weight regain. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. Mood Dimensions Show Distinct Within-Subject Associations With Non-exercise Activity in Adolescents: An Ambulatory Assessment Study

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    Elena D. Koch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is known to preserve both physical and mental health. However, the physical activity levels of a large proportion of adolescents are insufficient. This is critical, since physical activity levels in youth have been shown to translate into adulthood. Whereas in adult populations, mood has been supposed to be one important psychological factor that drives physical activity in everyday life, this issue has been poorly studied in adolescent populations. Ambulatory Assessment is the state-of-the-art approach to investigate how mood and non-exercise activity fluctuate within persons in everyday life. Through assessments in real time and real life, this method provides ecological validity, bypassing several limitations of traditional assessment methods (e.g., recall biases. To investigate whether mood is associated with non-exercise activity in adolescents, we equipped a community-based sample comprising 113 participants, aged 12–17 years, with GPS-triggered e-diaries querying for valence, energetic arousal, and calmness, and with accelerometers continuously measuring physical activity in their everyday lives for 1 week. We excluded all acceleration data due to participants' exercise activities and thereafter we parameterized non-exercise activity as the mean value across 10-min intervals of movement acceleration intensity following each e-diary prompt. We used multilevel analyses to compute the effects of the mood dimensions on non-exercise activity within 10-min intervals directly following each e-diary prompt. Additionally, we conducted explorative analyses of the time course of the effects, i.e., on different timeframes of non-exercise activity up to 300 min following the mood assessment. The results showed that valence (p < 0.001 and energetic arousal (p < 0.001 were positively associated with non-exercise activity within the 10 min interval, whereas calmness (p < 0.001 was negatively associated with non-exercise activity

  10. 3,5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats.

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    Assunta Lombardi

    Full Text Available 3,5-Diiodo-l-thyronine (T2, a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient and mitochondria (longer lasting, suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis.

  11. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

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    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  12. Stress-induced activation of brown adipose tissue prevents obesity in conditions of low adaptive thermogenesis

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    Maria Razzoli

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that thermogenesis and BAT function are determinant of the resilience or vulnerability to stress-induced obesity. Our data support a model in which adrenergic and purinergic pathways exert complementary/synergistic functions in BAT, thus suggesting an alternative to βARs agonists for the activation of human BAT.

  13. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity.

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    Ekblom-Bak, Elin; Ekblom, Björn; Vikström, Max; de Faire, Ulf; Hellénius, Mai-Lis

    2014-02-01

    Sedentary time is increasing in all societies and results in limited non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) of daily life. The importance of low NEPA for cardiovascular health and longevity is limited, especially in elderly. To examine the association between NEPA and cardiovascular health at baseline as well as the risk of a first cardiovascular disease (CVD) event and total mortality after 12.5 years. Cohort study. Every third 60-year-old man and woman in Stockholm County was invited to a health screening study; 4232 individuals participated (78% response rate). At baseline, NEPA and exercise habits were assessed from a self-administrated questionnaire and cardiovascular health was established through physical examinations and laboratory tests. The participants were followed for an average of 12.5 years for the assessment of CVD events and mortality. At baseline, high NEPA was, regardless of regular exercise and compared with low NEPA, associated with more preferable waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides in both sexes and with lower insulin, glucose and fibrinogen levels in men. Moreover, the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly lower in those with higher NEPA levels in non-exercising and regularly exercising individuals. Furthermore, reporting a high NEPA level, compared with low, was associated with a lower risk of a first CVD event (HR=0.73; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.94) and lower all-cause mortality (0.70; 0.53 to 0.98). A generally active daily life was, regardless of exercising regularly or not, associated with cardiovascular health and longevity in older adults.

  14. Duodenal lipid sensing activates vagal afferents to regulate non-shivering brown fat thermogenesis in rats.

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    Clémence Blouet

    Full Text Available Previous evidence indicates that duodenal lipid sensing engages gut-brain neurocircuits to determine food intake and hepatic glucose production, but a potential role for gut-brain communication in the control of energy expenditure remains to be determined. Here, we tested the hypothesis that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown adipose tissue neuraxis to regulate thermogenesis. We demonstrate that direct administration of lipids into the duodenum increases brown fat temperature. Co-infusion of the local anesthetic tetracaine with duodenal lipids abolished the lipid-induced increase in brown fat temperature. Systemic administration of the CCKA receptor antagonist devazepide blocked the ability of duodenal lipids to increase brown fat thermogenesis. Parenchymal administration of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor blocker MK-801 directly into the caudomedial nucleus of the solitary tract also abolished duodenal lipid-induced activation of brown fat thermogenesis. These findings establish that duodenal lipid sensing activates a gut-brain-brown fat axis to determine brown fat temperature, and thereby reveal a previously unappreciated pathway that regulates thermogenesis.

  15. Diet induced thermogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. METHODS: Measuring

  16. Diet induced thermogenesis

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    Westerterp KR

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective Daily energy expenditure consists of three components: basal metabolic rate, diet-induced thermogenesis and the energy cost of physical activity. Here, data on diet-induced thermogenesis are reviewed in relation to measuring conditions and characteristics of the diet. Methods Measuring conditions include nutritional status of the subject, physical activity and duration of the observation. Diet characteristics are energy content and macronutrient composition. Results Most studies measure diet-induced thermogenesis as the increase in energy expenditure above basal metabolic rate. Generally, the hierarchy in macronutrient oxidation in the postprandial state is reflected similarly in diet-induced thermogenesis, with the sequence alcohol, protein, carbohydrate, and fat. A mixed diet consumed at energy balance results in a diet induced energy expenditure of 5 to 15 % of daily energy expenditure. Values are higher at a relatively high protein and alcohol consumption and lower at a high fat consumption. Protein induced thermogenesis has an important effect on satiety. In conclusion, the main determinants of diet-induced thermogenesis are the energy content and the protein- and alcohol fraction of the diet. Protein plays a key role in body weight regulation through satiety related to diet-induced thermogenesis.

  17. Effects of non-exercise activity and daily exercise activity upon glucose and fat metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

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    Miyamoto, Toshiaki; Fukuda, Kazuhito; Oshima, Yoshitake; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to disclose the relationship between objectively measured non-exercise activity (NEA) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) using triaxial accelerometer and the effect of each activity on glucose and fat metabolism in active type 2 diabetes. Elucidating this relationship and effect would lead to support educational programs for the management of type 2 diabetes. Seventy-seven patients with type 2 diabetes who had performed daily programmed walking exercise participated in this cross-sectional study. Physical activity including NEA and MVPA was measured by triaxial accelerometer for 10 consecutive days and the measurements of body composition and glucose and lipid profile were performed. There was no significant correlation between NEA and MVPA in active type 2 diabetes. NEA had a significant inverse correlation with body fat (Pdiabetes.

  18. Both brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle thermogenesis processes are activated during mild to severe cold adaptation in mice.

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    Bal, Naresh C; Singh, Sushant; Reis, Felipe C G; Maurya, Santosh K; Pani, Sunil; Rowland, Leslie A; Periasamy, Muthu

    2017-10-06

    Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( i.e. uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-based) and skeletal muscle ( i.e. sarcolipin (SLN)-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle- and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation by employing UCP1 -/- and SLN -/- mice. Interestingly, adaptation of SLN -/- mice to mild cold conditions (16 °C) significantly increased UCP1 expression, suggesting increased reliance on BAT-based thermogenesis. This was also evident from structural alterations in BAT morphology, including mitochondrial architecture, increased expression of electron transport chain proteins, and depletion of fat droplets. Similarly, UCP1 -/- mice adapted to mild cold up-regulated muscle-based thermogenesis, indicated by increases in muscle succinate dehydrogenase activity, SLN expression, mitochondrial content, and neovascularization, compared with WT mice. These results further confirm that SLN-based thermogenesis is a key player in muscle non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and can compensate for loss of BAT activity. We also present evidence that the increased reliance on BAT-based NST depends on increased autonomic input, as indicated by abundant levels of tyrosine hydroxylase and neuropeptide Y. Our findings demonstrate that both BAT and muscle-based NST are equally recruited during mild and severe cold adaptation and that loss of heat production from one thermogenic pathway leads to increased recruitment of the other, indicating a functional interplay between these two thermogenic processes. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Different Effects of Cognitive and Non-exercise Physical Leisure Activities on Cognitive Function by Age in Elderly Korean Individuals.

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    Jung, Mi Sook; Kim, Hyunli; Lee, Yeji; Kim, Mijung; Chung, Eunyoung

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine the effects of various leisure activities on cognitive impairment in young-old (aged 65-74 years) and old-old (aged ≥ 75 years) adults. In total, 10,279 elderly Korean individuals from the 2014 Korean National Survey on Older Adults' cohort were enrolled in our study. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the standardized score of the Mini-Mental State Examination for Dementia Screening, whereas leisure activities were recorded via self-reporting of the extent and type of leisure activity the subjects involved in over the past year. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effect of leisure activities on cognitive impairment, while controlling for potential covariates. The subjects were more likely to participate in cognitive activities than in non-exercise physical activities. After controlling for selected covariates, involvement in cognitive activities was found to be a significant predictor of cognitive impairment in both the groups, whereas involvement in non-exercise physical activities was not a predictor of cognitive impairment in individuals aged ≥ 75 years. Moreover, depressive symptoms, rural residence, and hearing difficulties were common predictors of cognitive impairment among elderly-Korean-individuals. Leisure activity involvement may help delay cognitive impairment, which is often concomitant with aging. Hence, an early intervention service may significantly benefit both young-old and old-old individuals.

  20. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage

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    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer MI; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders. PMID:29039412

  1. Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage.

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    Kim, Kyoung-Han; Kim, Yun Hye; Son, Joe Eun; Lee, Ju Hee; Kim, Sarah; Choe, Min Seon; Moon, Joon Ho; Zhong, Jian; Fu, Kiya; Lenglin, Florine; Yoo, Jeong-Ah; Bilan, Philip J; Klip, Amira; Nagy, Andras; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Park, Jin Gyoon; Hussein, Samer Mi; Doh, Kyung-Oh; Hui, Chi-Chung; Sung, Hoon-Ki

    2017-11-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a periodic energy restriction, has been shown to provide health benefits equivalent to prolonged fasting or caloric restriction. However, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of IF-mediated metabolic benefits is limited. Here we show that isocaloric IF improves metabolic homeostasis against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction primarily through adipose thermogenesis in mice. IF-induced metabolic benefits require fasting-mediated increases of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in white adipose tissue (WAT). Furthermore, periodic adipose-VEGF overexpression could recapitulate the metabolic improvement of IF in non-fasted animals. Importantly, fasting and adipose-VEGF induce alternative activation of adipose macrophage, which is critical for thermogenesis. Human adipose gene analysis further revealed a positive correlation of adipose VEGF-M2 macrophage-WAT browning axis. The present study uncovers the molecular mechanism of IF-mediated metabolic benefit and suggests that isocaloric IF can be a preventive and therapeutic approach against obesity and metabolic disorders.

  2. Non-exercise Estimation of V02max Using a Dichotomy of Meeting or Not Meeting DHHS Physical Activity Recommendations

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    Wier, Larry T.; Jackson, Allen W.; Jackson, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The physical activity guidelines (PAG) established by the US Dept. of Health and Human Services in 2008 is consistent with a rating of >/= 6 on the 11-point NASA Physical Activity Status Scale (PASS). Wier, et. al. developed non-exercise models for estimating VO2(sub max) from a combination of PASS, age, gender and either waist girth (WG) (R = 0.810, SEE= 4.799 ml/kg/min), %Fat (R = 0. 817, SEE = 4.716 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.802, SEE = 4.900 ml . kg-1. min -1 ). PURPOSE: to develop non-exercise models to estimate VO2max from age, gender, body composition (WG, %Fat, BMI) and PASS dichotomized at meets or does not meet the PAG (PAG-PASS), and to compare the accuracy of the PAG-PASS models with the models using the 11-point PASS. METHODS: 2417 men and 384 women were measured for VO2max by indirect calorimetry (RER >1.1); age (yr), gender by M = 1, W = 0; WG at the umbilicus; %fat by skin-folds, BMI by weight (kg) divided by height squared (m 2 ) , and PAGPASS by PASS 6 = 1. RESULTS: Three models were developed by multiple regression to estimate VO2(sub max) from age, gender, PAG-PASS and either WG (R = 0.790, SEE=5.019 ml/kg/min), %FAT (R= 0.080, SEE = 4.915 ml/kg/min) or BMI (R = 0.777, SEE = 5.162ml/kg/min). Cross-validation by the PRESS technique confirmed these statistics. Simple correlations between measured VO2(sub max) and estimates from the PAG-PASS models with WG, %Fat and BMI were 0.790, 0.800 and 0.777, minimally different from the correlations obtained with the PASS models (0.810, 0.810, and 0.802). PAG-PASS and PASS model constant errors were also similar: 1 ml/kg/min for VO2(sub max) 50 ml/kg/min. CONCLUSIONS: Non-exercise models using the combined effects of age, gender, body composition and the dichotomized PAG-PASS provide estimates of VO2(sub max) that are accurate for most adults, and the accuracy of these models are similar to previously published models using the 11-point PASS.

  3. Matured Hop Bittering Components Induce Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue via Sympathetic Nerve Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumie Morimoto-Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Obesity is the principal symptom of metabolic syndrome, which refers to a group of risk factors that increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis. In recent decades there has been a sharp rise in the incidence of obesity throughout the developed world. Iso-α-acids, the bitter compounds derived from hops in beer, have been shown to prevent diet-induced obesity by increasing lipid oxidation in the liver and inhibition of lipid absorption from the intestine. Whereas the sharp bitterness induced by effective dose of iso-α-acids precludes their acceptance as a nutrient, matured hop bittering components (MHB appear to be more agreeable. Therefore, we tested MHB for an effect on ameliorating diet-induced body fat accumulation in rodents. MHB ingestion had a beneficial effect but, compared to iso-α-acids and despite containing structurally similar compounds, acted via different mechanisms to reduce body fat accumulation. MHB supplementation significantly reduced body weight gain, epididymal white adipose tissue weight, and plasma non-esterified free fatty acid levels in diet-induced obese mice. We also found that uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT was significantly increased in MHB-fed mice at both the mRNA and protein levels. In addition, MHB administration in rats induced the β-adrenergic signaling cascade, which is related to cAMP accumulation in BAT, suggesting that MHB could modulate sympathetic nerve activity innervating BAT (BAT-SNA. Indeed, single oral administration of MHB elevated BAT-SNA in rats, and this elevation was dissipated by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy. Single oral administration of MHB maintained BAT temperature at a significantly higher level than in control rats. Taken together, these findings indicate that MHB ameliorates diet-induced body fat accumulation, at least partly, by enhancing thermogenesis in BAT via BAT-SNA activation. Our data suggests that MHB is a useful tool for developing functional

  4. miRNA-32 Drives Brown Fat Thermogenesis and Trans-activates Subcutaneous White Fat Browning in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Ng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT activation and subcutaneous white fat browning are essential components of the thermogenic response to cold stimulus in mammals. microRNAs have been shown to regulate both processes in cis. Here, we identify miR-32 as a BAT-specific super-enhancer-associated miRNA in mice that is selectively expressed in BAT and further upregulated during cold exposure. Inhibiting miR-32 in vivo led to impaired cold tolerance, decreased BAT thermogenesis, and compromised white fat browning as a result of reduced serum FGF21 levels. Further examination showed that miR-32 directly represses its target gene Tob1, thereby activating p38 MAP kinase signaling to drive FGF21 expression and secretion from BAT. BAT-specific miR-32 overexpression led to increased BAT thermogenesis and serum FGF21 levels, which further promotes white fat browning in trans. Our results suggested miR-32 and Tob1 as modulators of FGF21 signaling that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit against obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  5. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    In addition to the obligatory thermogenesis due to processing and storage, carbohydrate ingestion is accompanied by a facultative thermogenesis mediated by catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors. The anatomical origin of facultative thermogenesis has hitherto not been determined. The possible...

  6. What is critical for plant thermogenesis? Differences in mitochondrial activity and protein expression between thermogenic and non-thermogenic skunk cabbages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Inaba, Takehito

    2009-12-01

    Thermogenesis during the blooming of inflorescence is found in several but not all aroids. To understand what is critical for thermogenesis, we investigated the difference between thermogenic and non-thermogenic skunk cabbages (Symplocarpus renifolius and Lysichiton camtschatcensis), which are closely related in morphology and phylogeny. Critical parameters of mitochondrial biogenesis, including density, respiratory activity, and protein expression were compared between these two species. Mitochondrial density, respiratory activity, and the amount of alternative oxidase (AOX) in L. camtschatcensis spadix mitochondria were lower than in S. renifolius spadix mitochondria, while the level of uncoupling protein (UCP) was higher. AOX and UCP mRNAs in L. camtschatcensis were constitutively expressed in various tissues, such as the spadix, the spathe, the stalk, and the leaves. cDNA encoding two putative thermogenic proteins, AOX and UCP were isolated from L. camtschatcensis, and their primary structure was analyzed by multiple alignment and phylogenetic tree reconstruction. AOX and UCP protein of two the skunk cabbage species are closely related in structure, compared with other isoforms in thermogenic plants. Our results suggest that mitochondrial density, respiratory activity, and protein expression, rather than the primary structure of AOX or UCP proteins, may play critical roles in thermogenesis in plants.

  7. Patterns of odour emission, thermogenesis and pollinator activity in cones of an African cycad: what mechanisms apply?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suinyuy, Terence N; Donaldson, John S; Johnson, Steven D

    2013-09-01

    Ontogenetic patterns of odour emissions and heating associated with plant reproductive structures may have profound effects on insect behaviour, and consequently on pollination. In some cycads, notably Macrozamia, temporal changes in emission of specific odour compounds and temperature have been interpreted as a 'push-pull' interaction in which pollinators are either attracted or repelled according to the concentration of the emitted volatiles. To establish which mechanisms occur in the large Encephalartos cycad clade, the temporal patterns of volatile emissions, heating and pollinator activity of cones of Encephalartos villosus in the Eastern Cape (EC) and KwaZulu Natal (KZN) of South Africa were investigated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses of Encephalartos villosus cone volatiles showed that emissions, dominated by eucalyptol and 2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine in EC populations and (3E)-1,3-octadiene and (3E,5Z)-1,3,5-octatriene in the KZN populations, varied across developmental stages but did not vary significantly on a daily cycle. Heating in male cones was higher at dehiscence than during pre- and post-dehiscence, and reached a maximum at about 1830 h when temperatures were between 7·0 and 12·0 °C above ambient. Daily heating of female cones was less pronounced and reached a maximum at about 1345 h when it was on average between 0·9 and 3·0 °C above ambient. Insect abundance on male cones was higher at dehiscence than at the other stages and significantly higher in the afternoon than in the morning and evening. There are pronounced developmental changes in volatile emissions and heating in E. villosus cones, as well as strong daily changes in thermogenesis. Daily patterns of volatile emissions and pollinator abundance in E. villosus are different from those observed in some Macrozamia cycads and not consistent with the push-pull pattern as periods of peak odour emission do not coincide with mass exodus of insects from male cones.

  8. Effects of photoperiod on energy metabolism and thermogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plasticity in energy intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) was very important for the regulations in energy balance and thermogenesis in Melano-bellied oriental vole exposed to different photoperiod. Change in brown adipose tissue (BAT) cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity and ...

  9. Central control of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun F. Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, is an essential component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. Mitochondrial oxidation in brown adipose tissue (BAT is a significant source of neurally-regulated metabolic heat production in many species from mouse to man. BAT thermogenesis is regulated by neural networks in the central nervous system which responds to feedforward afferent signals from cutaneous and core body thermoreceptors and to feedback signals from brain thermosensitive neurons to activate BAT sympathetic nerve activity. This review summarizes the research leading to a model of the feedforward reflex pathway through which environmental cold stimulates BAT thermogenesis and includes the influence on this thermoregulatory network of the pyrogenic mediator, prostaglandin E2, to increase body temperature during fever. The cold thermal afferent circuit from cutaneous thermal receptors, through second-order thermosensory neurons in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord ascends to activate neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus which drive GABAergic interneurons in the preoptic area to inhibit warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons of the preoptic area. The resulting disinhibition of BAT thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus activates BAT sympathetic premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the rostral raphe pallidus, which provide excitatory, and possibly disinhibitory, inputs to spinal sympathetic circuits to drive BAT thermogenesis. Other recently recognized central sites influencing BAT thermogenesis and energy expenditure are also described.

  10. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 promotes brown adipose tissue thermogenesis via repressing glucocorticoid activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xing; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Chen, Yi; Serag, Sara; Lavery, Gareth G; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-08-15

    Brown adipocytes display phenotypic plasticity, as they can switch between the active states of fatty acid oxidation and energy dissipation versus a more dormant state. Cold exposure or β-adrenergic stimulation favors the active thermogenic state, whereas sympathetic denervation or glucocorticoid administration promotes more lipid accumulation. Our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying these switches is incomplete. Here we found that LSD1 (lysine-specific demethylase 1), a histone demethylase, regulates brown adipocyte metabolism in two ways. On the one hand, LSD1 associates with PRDM16 to repress expression of white fat-selective genes. On the other hand, LSD1 represses HSD11B1 (hydroxysteroid 11-β-dehydrogenase isozyme 1), a key glucocorticoid-activating enzyme, independently from PRDM16. Adipose-specific ablation of LSD1 impaired mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation capacity of the brown adipose tissue, reduced whole-body energy expenditure, and increased fat deposition, which can be significantly alleviated by simultaneously deleting HSD11B1. These findings establish a novel regulatory pathway connecting histone modification and hormone activation with mitochondrial oxidative capacity and whole-body energy homeostasis. © 2016 Zeng et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  11. Fish oil as a potential activator of brown and beige fat thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens; Larsen, Lesli Hingstrup; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that feeding rodents n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids attenuates adiposity. Moreover, meta-analyses of human dietary intervention studies indicate that fish oil (eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation might reduce waist circumference. A recent line....... Given the available in vivo evidence and the ability of human adipocytes to aquire a beige phenotype in response to eicosapentaenoic acid incubation, future studies should test the hypothesis that fish oil activates thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissue in humans....

  12. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  13. The alpha/beta-adrenergic receptor blocker arotinolol activates the thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue in monosodium-L-glutamate-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Sakane, N; Wakabayashi, Y; Yoshioka, K; Umekawa, T; Kondo, M

    1994-05-01

    We have found previously that arotinolol, an alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, increases blood flow in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a similar extent as BRL 26830A, a beta 3-adrenoceptor agonist. We tested the hypothesis that arotinolol activates thermogenesis in BAT, leading to weight loss in monosodium-L-glutamate-induced (MSG-induced) obese mice and saline-treated controls. Six weeks of standard animal feed (CE-2) containing arotinolol hydrochloride (350 mg/kg CE-2), which reduced mean blood pressure in MSG-treated mice, significantly increased the mitochondrial protein content in BAT, and activated the specific and total binding of guanosine-5'-diphosphate (GDP) in BAT mitochondria, leading to a reduction of obesity in both MSG- and saline-treated mice vs. the control groups fed with CE-2 diet alone. However, six weeks of CE-2 diet containing propranolol hydrochloride (525 mg/kg CE-2) a non-selective beta-blocker, markedly reduced the specific and total binding of GDP in BAT mitochondria, leading to weight gain in both MSG- and saline-treated mice. These findings support the hypothesis, that arotinolol activates BAT thermogenesis, leading to weight loss.

  14. Autonomic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in health and disease: potential clinical applications for altering BAT thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupone, Domenico; Madden, Christopher J.; Morrison, Shaun F.

    2014-01-01

    From mouse to man, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a significant source of thermogenesis contributing to the maintenance of the body temperature homeostasis during the challenge of low environmental temperature. In rodents, BAT thermogenesis also contributes to the febrile increase in core temperature during the immune response. BAT sympathetic nerve activity controlling BAT thermogenesis is regulated by CNS neural networks which respond reflexively to thermal afferent signals from cutaneous and body core thermoreceptors, as well as to alterations in the discharge of central neurons with intrinsic thermosensitivity. Superimposed on the core thermoregulatory circuit for the activation of BAT thermogenesis, is the permissive, modulatory influence of central neural networks controlling metabolic aspects of energy homeostasis. The recent confirmation of the presence of BAT in human and its function as an energy consuming organ have stimulated interest in the potential for the pharmacological activation of BAT to reduce adiposity in the obese. In contrast, the inhibition of BAT thermogenesis could facilitate the induction of therapeutic hypothermia for fever reduction or to improve outcomes in stroke or cardiac ischemia by reducing infarct size through a lowering of metabolic oxygen demand. This review summarizes the central circuits for the autonomic control of BAT thermogenesis and highlights the potential clinical relevance of the pharmacological inhibition or activation of BAT thermogenesis. PMID:24570653

  15. Neuronal control of adaptive thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong eYang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic continues rising as a global health challenge, despite the increasing public awareness and the use of lifestyle and medical interventions. The biomedical community is urged to develop new treatments to obesity. Excess energy is stored as fat in white adipose tissue (WAT, dysfunction of which lie at the core of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT burns fat and dissipates chemical energy as heat. The development and activation of brown-like adipocytes, also known as beige cells, result in WAT browning and thermogenesis. The recent discovery of brown and beige adipocytes in adult humans has sparked the exploration of the development, regulation, and function of these thermogenic adipocytes. The central nervous system (CNS drives the sympathetic nerve activity in BAT and WAT to control heat production and energy homeostasis. This review provides an overview of the integration of thermal, hormonal, and nutritional information on hypothalamic circuits in thermoregulation.

  16. Anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of mazindol in yellow KK mice: its activating effect on brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, T; Umekawa, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Yoshimoto, K; Sakane, N; Kondo, M

    1996-01-01

    1. The anti-obesity and anti-diabetic effects of mazindol were evaluated in obese diabetic yellow KK mice and C57Bl control mice. 2. The study compound was fed through a gastric tube at a rate of 1 or 2 mg/kg per day (0.01 mol/L HCl as control) for 2 weeks. The following parameters were compared in treated and control animals: bodyweight, food intake, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight and its thermogenesis, noradrenaline (NA) turnover, blood glucose and serum insulin levels and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). 3. Furthermore, bodyweight loss of mice pair-fed the same amount of food as the mazindol-treated mice for 2 weeks was measured. 4. Mazindol significantly decreased food intake and significantly increased guanosine-5'-diphosphate-binding in BAT mitochondria and NA turnover in BAT in both yellow KK and C57Bl groups. The amounts of WAT in subcutaneous, mesenteric and retroperitoneal regions and bodyweights were significantly decreased in both groups. Bodyweight loss in mice pair fed with the mazindol-treated groups was approximately 70% compared with that in the mazindol-treated groups. Furthermore, mazindol decreased the levels of blood glucose and serum insulin during the glucose overloading test in yellow KK mice, but it did not influence the GLUT4 protein concentration in WAT and muscle. 5. These observations suggest that mazindol possesses both an anti-obesity action, due to the inhibition of appetite as well as the activation of BAT thermogenesis via increased NA turnover in BAT, and an anti-diabetic action. Consequently, mazindol may be useful for the treatment of obesity as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in obese persons.

  17. Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    2000-01-01

    The postprandial increase in metabolic rate associated with consuming, assimilating and excreting a meal is often termed the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The metabolic heat production of star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, held at thermoneutrality was monitored for 4 h following a single 10 min session of feeding on a ration consisting of 0 g (controls), 3.5 g or 10 g of earthworms. Coefficients for metabolizable energy digestibility and digesta passage rate of earthworms fed to C. cristata were also determined. We then tested whether feeding-induced thermogenesis substitutes partially or completely for thermoregulatory heat production in these animals exposed to sub-thermoneutral air temperatures (9-24 degrees C). A single feeding on earthworms had both short- and long-term effects on the metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio of C. cristata. The observed short-term (0-65 min) rise in metabolic rate, assumed to be associated primarily with the physical costs of nutrient digestion, absorption and excretion, was similar to the calculated mean retention time (66.7+/-7.8 min; mean +/- s.e. m., N=5) of this species. This component of the HIF represented 2.9 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 3.5 g (13.21 kJ) meal of earthworms and 1.4 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 7.5 g (28.09 kJ) meal of earthworms. At all test temperatures, resting metabolic rate typically remained above fasting levels for 1-4 h following ingestion of the high-protein earthworm diet. This protracted rise in metabolic rate, presumably associated with the biochemical costs of amino acid oxidation/gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, averaged 12.8 % of the metabolizable energy and 8.7 % of the gross energy intake. Despite the potential thermoregulatory benefit, we found no evidence that biochemical HIF substitutes for facultative thermogenesis in star-nosed moles exposed to low air temperatures.

  18. Chrysophanic Acid Suppresses Adipogenesis and Induces Thermogenesis by Activating AMP-activated Protein Kinase Alpha in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Lim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chrysophanic acid (CA is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA. CA reduced weight gain in HFD-induced obese mice. They also decreased lipid accumulation and the expressions of adipogenesis factors including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α, the brown fat specific thermogenic genes, were up-regulated in brown adipocytes by CA treatment. Furthermore, when co-treated with Compound C, the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK inhibitor, CA was able to restore the activation of AMPKα in both types of adipocytes, indicating the multi-controlling effect of CA was partially via the AMPKα pathway. Given all together, these results indicate that CA can ameliorate obesity by controlling the adipogenic and thermogenic pathway at the same time. On these bases we suggest the new potential of CA as an anti-obese pharmacotherapy.

  19. Thyroid Hormone Activates Brown Adipose Tissue and Increases Non-Shivering Thermogenesis--A Cohort Study in a Group of Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie P M Broeders

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone receptors are present on brown adipose tissue (BAT, indicating a role for thyroid hormone in the regulation of BAT activation. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of thyroid hormone withdrawal followed by thyroid hormone in TSH-suppressive dosages, on energy expenditure and brown adipose tissue activity.This study was a longitudinal study in an academic center, with a follow-up period of 6 months. Ten patients with well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma eligible for surgical treatment and subsequent radioactive iodine ablation therapy were studied in a hypothyroid state after thyroidectomy and in a subclinical hyperthyroid state (TSH-suppression according to treatment protocol. Paired two-tailed t-tests and linear regression analyses were used.Basal metabolic rate (BMR was significantly higher after treatment with synthetic thyroid hormone (levothyroxine than in the hypothyroid state (BMR 3.8 ± 0.5 kJ/min versus 4.4 ± 0.6 kJ/min, P = 0.012, and non-shivering thermogenesis (NST significantly increased from 15 ± 10% to 25 ± 6% (P = 0.009. Mean BAT activity was significantly higher in the subclinical hyperthyroid state than in the hypothyroid state (BAT standard uptake value (SUVMean 4.0 ± 2.9 versus 2.4 ± 1.8, P = 0.039.Our study shows that higher levels of thyroid hormone are associated with a higher level of cold-activated BAT.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02499471.

  20. Systemic beta-Adrenergic Stimulation of Thermogenesis Is Not Accompanied by Brown Adipose Tissue Activity in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Vosselman, M. J.; van der Lans, A. A. J. J.; Brans, B.; Wierts, R.; van Baak, M. A.; Schrauwen, P.; van Marken Lichtenbelt, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is currently considered as a target to combat obesity and diabetes in humans. BAT is densely innervated by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and can be stimulated by ?-adrenergic agonists, at least in animals. However, the exact role of the ?-adrenergic part of the SNS in BAT activation in humans is not known yet. In this study, we measured BAT activity by 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-d-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in 10 le...

  1. Facultative thermogenesis induced by carbohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1986-01-01

    thermogenesis. The arterial epinephrine concentration increased to a maximum of 200% above base-line values 4 h after glucose. This value greatly exceeds the physiological threshold for the thermogenic action of epinephrine. In forearm venous blood the corresponding increase in epinephrine was only...... approximately 50% due to enhanced peripheral extraction, which accompanies an increase in arterial epinephrine levels. Due to venous sampling previous studies have overlooked the magnitude of the late postglucose increase in arterial epinephrine, and its potential thermogenic effect has been disregarded...

  2. Estradiol Regulates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis via Hypothalamic AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B.; González-García, Ismael; Martins, Luís; Lage, Ricardo; Fernández-Mallo, Diana; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Ruíz-Pino, Francisco; Liu, Ji; Morgan, Donald A.; Pinilla, Leonor; Gallego, Rosalía; Saha, Asish K.; Kalsbeek, Andries; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H.; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Rahmouni, Kamal; Tena-Sempere, Manuel; López, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Summary Estrogens play a major role in the modulation of energy balance through central and peripheral actions. Here, we demonstrate that central action of estradiol (E2) inhibits AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) selectively in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH), leading to activation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) through the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in a feeding-independent manner. Genetic activation of AMPK in the VMH prevented E2-induced increase in BAT-mediated thermogenesis and weight loss. Notably, fluctuations in E2 levels during estrous cycle also modulate this integrated physiological network. Together, these findings demonstrate that E2 regulation of the VMH AMPK-SNS-BAT axis is an important determinant of energy balance and suggest that dysregulation in this axis may account for the common changes in energy homeostasis and obesity linked to dysfunction of the female gonadal axis. PMID:24856932

  3. Thermogenesis and flowering biology of Colocasia gigantea, Araceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, Anton; Roupsard, Olivier; Garcia, José Quero; Melteras, Marie; Molisale, Tari; Tara, Serge; Lebot, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    The thermogenesis and flowering biology of Colocasia gigantea (Blume) Hook. f. were studied from December 2005 to February 2006 on Espiritu Santo, Vanuatu (South Pacific). Endogenous thermogenesis was measured in two ways: (1) continuously over 5-day periods, and (2) over 3 h during maximum heating. The study showed that heat was generated by the male part of the spadix and probably the lower zone of the sterile region. The temperatures of the male part peaked twice: (1) between 0625 and 0640 (during the female phase) and (2) 24 h later (during the male phase). The average maximum temperature was 42.25 +/- 0.14 degrees C during the female phase (16.63 degrees C above the ambient temperature) and 35.14 +/- 0.22 degrees C during the male phase (10.61 degrees C above the ambient temperature). In the lower zone of the sterile region, thermogenesis was documented only during the female phase. The average maximum temperature was 35.44 +/- 0.41 degrees C (9.82 degrees C above the ambient temperature). Thermogenic heating appeared to be closely associated with the activities of pollinating insects.

  4. Increased cost of motor activity and heat transfer between non-shivering thermogenesis, motor activity and thermic effect of feeding in mice housed at room temperature – Implications in pre-clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Christian Even

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR, resting metabolic rate (RMR, thermogenic response to feeding (TEF, activity and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22°C and 30° C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than 2 times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22°C and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat-transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes such as activity and TEF. Therefore more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be

  5. A standardized infrared imaging technique that specifically detects UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Mottillo, Emilio P; Farncombe, Troy H; Morrison, Katherine M; Steinberg, Gregory R

    2014-07-01

    The activation and expansion of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising strategy to counter obesity and the metabolic syndrome by increasing energy expenditure. The subsequent testing and validation of novel agents that augment BAT necessitates accurate pre-clinical measurements in rodents regarding the capacity for BAT-derived thermogenesis. We present a novel method to measure BAT thermogenesis using infrared imaging following β3-adrenoreceptor stimulation in mice. We show that the increased body surface temperature observed using this method is due solely to uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis and that this technique is able to discern differences in BAT activity in mice acclimated to 23 °C or thermoneutrality (30 °C). These findings represent the first standardized method utilizing infrared imaging to specifically detect UCP1 activity in vivo.

  6. Brown Fat AKT2 Is a Cold-Induced Kinase that Stimulates ChREBP-Mediated De Novo Lipogenesis to Optimize Fuel Storage and Thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez-Gurmaches, Joan; Tang, Yuefeng; Jespersen, Naja Zenius

    2018-01-01

    . The regulation and function of adipocyte DNL and its association with thermogenesis are not understood. We provide evidence suggesting that AKT2 drives DNL in adipocytes by stimulating ChREBPβ transcriptional activity and that cold induces the AKT2-ChREBP pathway in BAT to optimize fuel storage and thermogenesis...

  7. Ontogeny of non-shivering thermogenesis in Muscovy ducklings (Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien

    2014-09-01

    In precocial birds, developing the capacity for early regulatory thermogenesis appears as a fundamental prerequisite for survival and growth in cold environments. However, the exact nature of these processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Several bird species, such as Muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata), develop muscular non-shivering thermogenesis when chronically exposed to cold. The aim of this study was to investigate the age-dependent development of non-shivering thermogenesis in ducklings reared either at thermoneutrality (25°C) or in the cold (4°C). Non-shivering thermogenesis was assessed weekly by simultaneously measuring whole body metabolic heat production and electromyographic activity during shivering at different temperatures ranging from 29°C to 0°C. We found that ducklings reared at thermoneutrality displayed a capacity for non-shivering thermogenesis during the first month of post-hatching life. This thermogenic mechanism increased further in ducklings chronically exposed to a cold environment, but it decreased over time when birds were kept in a thermoneutral environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ephedrine-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1984-01-01

    The warmest interscapular skin areas were located by thermography in six healthy subjects during ephedrine-induced thermogenesis. In these interscapular areas, and in lumbar control areas, the skin temperature, subcutaneous temperature and adipose tissue blood flow were measured before and during...

  9. Ephedrine-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Christensen, N J

    1984-01-01

    The warmest interscapular skin areas were located by thermography in six healthy subjects during ephedrine-induced thermogenesis. In these interscapular areas, and in lumbar control areas, the skin temperature, subcutaneous temperature and adipose tissue blood flow were measured before and during...... ephedrine-induced thermogenesis. The skin and subcutaneous temperatures increased in the interscapular area as well as in the lumbar area, by about 0.7-1.2 degrees C. The interscapular skin temperature remained about 1 degree C higher than the lumbar; the subcutaneous temperatures in the two areas were...... concentrations remained unchanged, and plasma non-esterified fatty acids, lactate and noradrenaline concentrations increased slightly but significantly. Biopsies taken from the hot interscapular areas did not contain brown adipose tissue. It is concluded that the high interscapular skin temperature may be due...

  10. Hypothalamic regulation of brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei eZhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes are increasing at an alarming rate worldwide, but the strategies for the prevention and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Brown adipose tissue (BAT is important for cold protection by producing heat using lipids and glucose as metabolic fuels. This thermogenic action causes increased energy expenditure and significant lipid/glucose disposal. In addition, BAT in white adipose tissue (WAT or beige cells have been found and they also exhibit the thermogenic action similar to BAT. These data provide evidence indicating BAT/beige cells as a potential target for combating obesity and diabetes. Recent discoveries of active BAT and beige cells in adult humans have further highlighted this potential. Growing studies have also shown the importance of central nervous system in the control of BAT thermogenesis and WAT browning using animal models. This review is focused on central neural thermoregulation, particularly addressing our current understanding of the importance of hypothalamic neural signaling in the regulation of BAT/beige thermogenesis and energy homeostasis.

  11. A family based tailored counselling to increase non-exercise physical activity in adults with a sedentary job and physical activity in their young children: design and methods of a year-long randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finni, Taija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Laukkanen, Arto; Pesola, Arto; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2011-12-20

    Epidemiological evidence suggests that decrease in sedentary behaviour is beneficial for health. This family based randomized controlled trial examines whether face-to-face delivered counselling is effective in reducing sedentary time and improving health in adults and increasing moderate-to-vigorous activities in children. The families are randomized after balancing socioeconomic and environmental factors in the Jyväskylä region, Finland. Inclusion criteria are: healthy men and women with children 3-8 years old, and having an occupation where they self-reportedly sit more than 50% of their work time and children in all-day day-care in kindergarten or in the first grade in primary school. Exclusion criteria are: body mass index > 35 kg/m2, self-reported chronic, long-term diseases, families with pregnant mother at baseline and children with disorders delaying motor development.From both adults and children accelerometer data is collected five times a year in one week periods. In addition, fasting blood samples for whole blood count and serum metabonomics, and diurnal heart rate variability for 3 days are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months follow-up from adults. Quadriceps and hamstring muscle activities providing detailed information on muscle inactivity will be used to realize the maximum potential effect of the intervention. Fundamental motor skills from children and body composition from adults will be measured at baseline, and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Questionnaires of family-influence-model, health and physical activity, and dietary records are assessed. After the baseline measurements the intervention group will receive tailored counselling targeted to decrease sitting time by focusing on commute and work time. The counselling regarding leisure time is especially targeted to encourage toward family physical activities such as visiting playgrounds and non-built environments, where children can get diversified stimulation for play and practice

  12. Adaptive thermogenesis by dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: Emerging evidence and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Koehler, Karsten; Chung, Soonkyu

    2018-04-19

    Brown/beige fat plays a crucial role in maintaining energy homeostasis through non-shivering thermogenesis in response to cold temperature and excess nutrition (adaptive thermogenesis). Although numerous molecular and genetic regulators have been identified, relatively little information is available regarding thermogenic dietary molecules. Recently, a growing body of evidence suggests that high consumption of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) or activation of GPR120, a membrane receptor of n-3 PUFA, stimulate adaptive thermogenesis. In this review, we summarize the emerging evidence that n-3 PUFA promote brown/beige fat formation and highlight the potential mechanisms whereby n-3 PUFA require GPR120 as a signaling platform or act independently. Human clinical trials are revisited in the context of energy expenditure. Additionally, we explore some future perspective that n-3 PUFA intake might be a useful strategy to boost or sustain metabolic activities of brown/beige fat at different lifecycle stages of pregnancy and senescence. Given that a high ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA intake is associated with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes, understanding the impact of n-6/n-3 ratio on energy expenditure and adaptive thermogenesis will inform the implementation of a novel nutritional strategy for preventing obesity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A. L.; Boushel, Robert

    2015-01-01

    increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg......NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its...... importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature...

  14. Effects of photoperiod on energy metabolism and thermogenesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... The plasticity in energy intake, basal metabolic rate (BMR) and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) was very ... thermogenesis. Key words: Melano-bellied oriental vole, photoperiod, energy metabolism, brown adipose tissue, cytochrome c ..... oriental vole was nonhibernating rodent. No effect was detected ...

  15. The effect of a high-carbohydrate meal on postprandial thermogenesis and sympathetic nervous system activity in boys with a recent onset of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Narumi; Sakane, Naoki; Hamada, Taku; Kimura, Tetsuya; Moritani, Toshio

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the thermic effect of food (TEF) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity in obese boys. Ten obese (9.2+/-0.4 years) and 13 lean boys (8.8+/-0.4 years) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured via indirect calorimetry for 3 hours after a high-carbohydrate (HC; 70% carbohydrate, 20% fat, and 10% protein) or a high-fat (HF; 20% carbohydrate, 70% fat, and 10% protein) meal served on 2 different days at random. The activity of the SNS was assessed by means of a power spectral analysis of the heart rate variability. The TEF, expressed as a percentage of the consumed energy, was significantly lower in obese boys than in lean boys after the HC meal; however, such a difference was not observed after the HF meal. Multiple regression analysis revealed that obesity was a significant variable contributing to the variances in the TEF induced by the HC meal. Moreover, after the HC meal, the boys with a recent onset of obesity (duration, frequency component of the heart rate variability, an index of thermoregulatory SNS functions, compared with the remaining obese and lean boys. In conclusion, obese boys possessed normal metabolic and sympathetic responses to the HF meal but showed a diminished thermogenic response to the HC meal, especially during the early phase of obesity.

  16. A Secreted Slit2 Fragment Regulates Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis and Metabolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Katrin J; Long, Jonathan Z; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Cohen, Paul; Lo, James C; Serag, Sara; Kir, Serkan; Shinoda, Kosaku; Tartaglia, Julia A; Rao, Rajesh R; Chédotal, Alain; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-03-08

    Activation of brown and beige fat can reduce obesity and improve glucose homeostasis through nonshivering thermogenesis. Whether brown or beige fat also secretes paracrine or endocrine factors to promote and amplify adaptive thermogenesis is not fully explored. Here we identify Slit2, a 180 kDa member of the Slit extracellular protein family, as a PRDM16-regulated secreted factor from beige fat cells. In isolated cells and in mice, full-length Slit2 is cleaved to generate several smaller fragments, and we identify an active thermogenic moiety as the C-terminal fragment. This Slit2-C fragment of 50 kDa promotes adipose thermogenesis, augments energy expenditure, and improves glucose homeostasis in vivo. Mechanistically, Slit2 induces a robust activation of PKA signaling, which is required for its prothermogenic activity. Our findings establish a previously unknown peripheral role for Slit2 as a beige fat secreted factor that has therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P incremental leg exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  18. Detection of thermogenesis in rodents in response to anti-obesity drugs and genetic modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Jonathan R S; Trayhurn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Many compounds and genetic manipulations are claimed to confer resistance to obesity in rodents by raising energy expenditure. Examples taken from recent and older literature, demonstrate that such claims are often based on measurements of energy expenditure after body composition has changed, and depend on comparisons of energy expenditure divided by body weight. This is misleading because white adipose tissue has less influence than lean tissue on energy expenditure. Application of this approach to human data would suggest that human obesity is usually due to a low metabolic rate, which is not an accepted view. Increased energy expenditure per animal is a surer way of demonstrating thermogenesis, but even then it is important to know whether this is due to altered body composition (repartitioning), or increased locomotor activity rather than thermogenesis per se. Regression analysis offers other approaches. The thermogenic response to some compounds has a rapid onset and so cannot be due to altered body composition. These compounds usually mimic or activate the sympathetic nervous system. Thermogenesis occurs in, but may not be confined to, brown adipose tissue. It should not be assumed that weight loss in response to these treatments is due to thermogenesis unless there is a sustained increase in 24-h energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones and fibroblast growth factor 21 also raise energy expenditure before they affect body composition. Some treatments and genetic modifications alter the diurnal rhythm of energy expenditure. It is important to establish whether this is due to altered locomotor activity or efficiency of locomotion. There are no good examples of compounds that do not affect short-term energy expenditure but have a delayed effect. How and under what conditions a genetic modification or compound increases energy expenditure influences the decision on whether to seek drugs for the target or take a candidate drug into clinical studies.

  19. Detection of thermogenesis in rodents in response to anti-obesity drugs and genetic modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R S Arch

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Many compounds and genetic manipulations are claimed to confer resistance to obesity in rodents by raising energy expenditure. Examples taken from recent and older literature, demonstrate that such claims are often based on measurements of energy expenditure after body composition has changed and depend on comparisons of energy expenditure divided by body weight. This is misleading because white adipose tissue has less influence than lean tissue on energy expenditure. Application of this approach to human data would suggest that human obesity is usually due to a low metabolic rate, which is not an accepted view. Increased energy expenditure per animal is a surer way of demonstrating thermogenesis, but even then it is important to know whether this is due to altered body composition (repartitioning, or increased locomotor activity rather than thermogenesis per se. Regression analysis offers other approaches. The thermogenic response to some compounds has a rapid onset and so cannot be due to altered body composition. These compounds usually mimic or activate the sympathetic nervous system. Thermogenesis occurs in, but may not be confined to, brown adipose tissue. It should not be assumed that weight loss in response to these treatments is due to thermogenesis unless there is a sustained increase in 24-h energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones and fibroblast growth factor 21 also raise energy expenditure before they affect body composition. Some treatments and genetic modifications alter the diurnal rhythm of energy expenditure. It is important to establish whether this is due to altered locomotor activity or efficiency of locomotion. There are no good examples of compounds that do not affect short-term energy expenditure but have a delayed effect. How and under what conditions a genetic modification or compound increases energy expenditure influences the decision on whether to seek drugs for the target or take a candidate drug into clinical studies.

  20. Skeletal Muscle Thermogenesis and Its Role in Whole Body Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Periasamy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and diabetes has become a major epidemic across the globe. Controlling obesity has been a challenge since this would require either increased physical activity or reduced caloric intake; both are difficult to enforce. There has been renewed interest in exploiting pathways such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1-mediated uncoupling in brown adipose tissue (BAT and white adipose tissue to increase energy expenditure to control weight gain. However, relying on UCP1-based thermogenesis alone may not be sufficient to control obesity in humans. On the other hand, skeletal muscle is the largest organ and a major contributor to basal metabolic rate and increasing energy expenditure in muscle through nonshivering thermogenic mechanisms, which can substantially affect whole body metabolism and weight gain. In this review we will describe the role of Sarcolipin-mediated uncoupling of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase (SERCA as a potential mechanism for increased energy expenditure both during cold and diet-induced thermogenesis.

  1. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: A study in a monozygotic twin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Vosselman (Maarten J.); G.H.E.J. Vijgen (Guy H. E. J.); B.R.M. Kingma (Boris R. M.); B. Brans (Boudewijn); W.D. Van Marken Lichtenbelt (Wouter D.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has

  2. Glucocorticoids modulate human brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotney, Hannah; Symonds, Michael E; Law, James; Budge, Helen; Sharkey, Don; Manolopoulos, Konstantinos N

    2017-05-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ with substantial metabolic capacity and has important roles in the maintenance of body weight and metabolism. Regulation of BAT is primarily mediated through the β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) pathway. The in vivo endocrine regulation of this pathway in humans is unknown. The objective of our study was to assess the in vivo BAT temperature responses to acute glucocorticoid administration. We studied 8 healthy male volunteers, not pre-selected for BAT presence or activity and without prior BAT cold-activation, on two occasions, following an infusion with hydrocortisone (0.2mg.kg -1 .min -1 for 14h) and saline, respectively. Infusions were given in a randomized double-blind order. They underwent assessment of supraclavicular BAT temperature using infrared thermography following a mixed meal, and during β-AR stimulation with isoprenaline (25ng.kg fat-free mass -1 .min -1 for 60min) in the fasting state. During hydrocortisone infusion, BAT temperature increased both under fasting basal conditions and during β-AR stimulation. We observed a BAT temperature threshold, which was not exceeded despite maximal β-AR activation. We conclude that BAT thermogenesis is present in humans under near-normal conditions. Glucocorticoids modulate BAT function, representing important physiological endocrine regulation of body temperature at times of acute stress. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR Stuginski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Snakes that can ingest prey that are proportionally large have high metabolic rates during digestion. This great increase in metabolic rate (specific dynamic action - SDA may create a significant augment in the animal's body temperature. The present study investigated postprandial thermogenesis in Bothrops moojeni. Briefly, two groups of snakes were fed meals equivalent to 17 ± 3% and 32 ± 5% of their body weight and were observed for 72 hours, in which thermal images of each snake were taken with an infrared camera in a thermostable environment with a constant air temperature of 30°C. The results showed a significant increase in snake surface temperature, with a thermal peak between 33 and 36 hours after feeding. The meal size had a great impact on the intensity and duration of the thermogenic response. Such increase in temperature appears to be connected with the huge increase in metabolic rates during digestion of relatively large prey by snakes that feed infrequently. The ecologic implication of the thermogenic response is still not well understood; however, it is possible that its presence could affect behaviors associated with the snake digestion, such as postprandial thermophily.

  4. Pivotal Role of O-GlcNAc Modification in Cold-Induced Thermogenesis by Brown Adipose Tissue Through Mitochondrial Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Natsuko; Morino, Katsutaro; Ida, Shogo; Sekine, Osamu; Lemecha, Mengistu; Kume, Shinji; Park, Shi-Young; Choi, Cheol Soo; Ugi, Satoshi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Adipose tissues considerably influence metabolic homeostasis, and both white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissue play significant roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. O -linked N -acetylglucosamine ( O -GlcNAc) modification is characterized by the addition of N -acetylglucosamine to various proteins by O -GlcNAc transferase (Ogt), subsequently modulating various cellular processes. However, little is known about the role of O -GlcNAc modification in adipose tissues. Here, we report the critical role of O -GlcNAc modification in cold-induced thermogenesis. Deletion of Ogt in WAT and BAT using adiponectin promoter-driven Cre recombinase resulted in severe cold intolerance with decreased uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) expression. Furthermore, Ogt deletion led to decreased mitochondrial protein expression in conjunction with decreased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α protein expression. This phenotype was further confirmed by deletion of Ogt in BAT using Ucp1 promoter-driven Cre recombinase, suggesting that O -GlcNAc modification in BAT is responsible for cold-induced thermogenesis. Hypothermia was significant under fasting conditions. This effect was mitigated after normal diet consumption but not after consumption of a fatty acid-rich ketogenic diet lacking carbohydrates, suggesting impaired diet-induced thermogenesis, particularly by fat. In conclusion, O -GlcNAc modification is essential for cold-induced thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in BAT. Glucose flux into BAT may be a signal to maintain BAT physiological responses. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  5. Sympathetic mechanisms in diet-induced thermogenesis: modification by ciclazindol and anorectic drugs.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J.; Wyllie, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    1 The sympathetic noradrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue and the biochemical mechanisms involved in diet-induced thermogenesis were studied in rats. 2 A close correlation was found between brown adipose tissue Na+, K+-adenosinetriphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity in vitro and in vivo measurements of resting oxygen consumption (VO2). The effects of noradrenaline on in vitro NA+, K+-ATPase activity in brown adipose tissue and in vivo VO2 could be mimicked by a variety of agents. T...

  6. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  7. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K

    2010-03-01

    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  8. Sex differences in thermogenesis structure behavior and contact within huddles of infant mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Harshaw

    Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue (BAT is a thermogenic effector abundant in most mammalian infants. For multiparous species such as rats and mice, the interscapular BAT deposit provides both an emergency "thermal blanket" and a target for nestmates seeking warmth, thereby increasing the cohesiveness of huddling groups. Sex differences in BAT regulation and thermogenesis have been documented in a number of species, including mice (Mus musculus--with females generally exhibiting relative upregulation of BAT. It is nonetheless unknown whether this difference affects the behavioral dynamics occurring within huddles of infant rodents. We investigated sex differences in BAT thermogenesis and its relation to contact while huddling in eight-day-old C57BL/6 mouse pups using infrared thermography, scoring of contact, and causal modeling of the relation between interscapular temperature relative to other pups in the huddle (T IS (rel and contacts while huddling. We found that females were warmer than their male siblings during cold challenge, under conditions both in which pups were isolated and in which pups could actively huddle in groups of six (3 male, 3 female. This difference garnered females significantly more contacts from other pups than males during cold-induced huddling. Granger analyses revealed a significant negative feedback relationship between contacts with males and T IS (rel for females, and positive feedback between contacts with females and T IS (rel for males, indicating that male pups drained heat from female siblings while huddling. Significant sex assortment nonetheless occurred, such that females made more contacts with other females than expected by chance, apparently outcompeting males for access to each other. These results provide further evidence of enhanced BAT thermogenesis in female mice. Slight differences in BAT can significantly structure the behavioral dynamics occurring in huddles, resulting in differences in the quantity and

  9. Maternal low-protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1-mediated thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claycombe, Kate J; Vomhof-DeKrey, Emilie E; Roemmich, James N; Rhen, Turk; Ghribi, Othman

    2015-07-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT thermogenesis and BW of offspring in utero is not yet known. We fed obese-prone Sprague-Dawley dams 8% LP or 20% normal protein (NP) diets for 3 weeks prior to breeding and through pregnancy. BW and gene expression of interscapular BAT (iBAT) thermogenic markers were measured in male fetal (gestation day 18) and neonatal (day 0 or 1) offspring. BW of neonatal LP males was lower than NP males but no difference was observed in females. Gene and protein expression of UCP-1 and transcription factors PRDM16 and PPARα in iBAT were 2- to 6-fold greater in LP than in NP male neonatal offspring. FNDC5, a precursor of irisin and activator of thermogenesis, was expressed 2-fold greater in neonatal LP iBAT than NP males. However, fetal iBAT UCP-1, PRDM16, PPARα and irisin mRNA did not differ between LP and NP groups. Maternal LP diet had no effects on placental irisin and UCP-2 expression. These results suggest that prenatal protein restriction increases the risk for low BW through mechanisms affecting full-term offspring iBAT thermogenesis but not greatly altering fetal iBAT or placental thermogenesis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Inappropriate heat dissipation ignites brown fat thermogenesis in mice with a mutant thyroid hormone receptor α1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Rahman, Awahan; Solsjö, Peter; Gottschling, Kristina; Davis, Benjamin; Vennström, Björn; Arner, Anders; Mittag, Jens

    2013-10-01

    Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of thermogenesis, acting both in peripheral organs and on central autonomic pathways. Mice heterozygous for a point mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1 display increased thermogenesis as a consequence of high sympathetic brown fat stimulation. Surprisingly, despite the hypermetabolism, their body temperature is not elevated. Here we show, using isolated tail arteries, that defective thyroid hormone receptor α1 signaling impairs acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation as well as phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction. Using infrared thermography on conscious animals, we demonstrate that these defects severely interfere with appropriate peripheral heat conservation and dissipation, which in turn leads to compensatory alterations in brown fat activity. Consequently, when the vasoconstrictive defect in mice heterozygous for a point mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1 was reversed with the selective α1-adrenergic agonist midodrine, the inappropriate heat loss over their tail surface was reduced, normalizing brown fat activity and energy expenditure. Our analyses demonstrate that thyroid hormone plays a key role in vascular heat conservation and dissipation processes, adding a unique aspect to its well-documented functions in thermoregulation. The data thus facilitate understanding of temperature hypersensitivity in patients with thyroid disorders. Moreover, the previously unrecognized connection between cardiovascular regulation and metabolic activity revealed in this study challenges the interpretation of several experimental paradigms and questions some of the currently derived hypotheses on the role of thyroid hormone in thermogenesis.

  11. Inappropriate heat dissipation ignites brown fat thermogenesis in mice with a mutant thyroid hormone receptor α1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Amy; Rahman, Awahan; Solsjö, Peter; Gottschling, Kristina; Davis, Benjamin; Vennström, Björn; Arner, Anders; Mittag, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a major regulator of thermogenesis, acting both in peripheral organs and on central autonomic pathways. Mice heterozygous for a point mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1 display increased thermogenesis as a consequence of high sympathetic brown fat stimulation. Surprisingly, despite the hypermetabolism, their body temperature is not elevated. Here we show, using isolated tail arteries, that defective thyroid hormone receptor α1 signaling impairs acetylcholine-mediated vascular relaxation as well as phenylephrine-induced vasoconstriction. Using infrared thermography on conscious animals, we demonstrate that these defects severely interfere with appropriate peripheral heat conservation and dissipation, which in turn leads to compensatory alterations in brown fat activity. Consequently, when the vasoconstrictive defect in mice heterozygous for a point mutation in thyroid hormone receptor α1 was reversed with the selective α1-adrenergic agonist midodrine, the inappropriate heat loss over their tail surface was reduced, normalizing brown fat activity and energy expenditure. Our analyses demonstrate that thyroid hormone plays a key role in vascular heat conservation and dissipation processes, adding a unique aspect to its well-documented functions in thermoregulation. The data thus facilitate understanding of temperature hypersensitivity in patients with thyroid disorders. Moreover, the previously unrecognized connection between cardiovascular regulation and metabolic activity revealed in this study challenges the interpretation of several experimental paradigms and questions some of the currently derived hypotheses on the role of thyroid hormone in thermogenesis. PMID:24046370

  12. Propranolol and pyrogen effects on shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, B. A.; Hanes, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    The influence of pyrogen and propranolol (a beta-adrenergic antagonist) on shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in male rats exposed to 24-25 C and 17-18 C is studied. It is found that intavenous injection of an exogenous pyrogen into rats exposed to 24-25 C elicited a thermogenic response manifested by elevated body temperature, rate of oxygen consumption, and shivering activity, and that propranolol markedly diminished the pyrogen-induced increases in oxygen consumption and colonic temperature, with little changes in shivering activity. In contrast, in cold-exposed rats, propranolol did nor significantly affect the pyrogen-evoked thermogenesis; shivering rather tended to increase when NST was blocked. It is suggested that the fibrile responses evoked by exogenous pyrogen involve differential effects on the two modes of heat production. The assumption that pyrogen acts at a site common to both shivering and nonshivering pathways or that it uniformly alters the individual set points and/or thresholds for both thermogenic effectors is therefore unlikely in the light of the data presented.

  13. Contribution of shivering and nonshivering thermogenesis to thermogenic capacity for the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sant, Matthew J; Hammond, Kimberly A

    2008-01-01

    Small mammals that are active all year must develop ways to survive the cold winters. Endotherms that experience prolonged cold exposure often increase their thermogenic capacity. Thermogenic capacity incorporates basal metabolic rate (BMR), nonshivering thermogenesis (NST), and shivering thermogenesis (ST). Increasing the capacity of any of these components will result in increased thermogenic capacity. It is often thought that NST should be the most plastic component of thermogenic capacity and as such is the most likely to increase with cold acclimation. We used deer mice to test this hypothesis by acclimating 27 animals to one of two temperatures (5 degrees or 22 degrees C) for 8 wk. We then measured and compared values for thermogenic capacity--BMR, ST, and NST--between the two groups. Thermogenic capacity and NST increased by 21% and 42%, respectively, after cold acclimation. Neither BMR nor ST showed any change after acclimation. Therefore, it appears that deer mice raise their thermogenic capacity in response to prolonged cold by altering NST only.

  14. Adipose HIF-1α causes obesity by suppressing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jonathan C; Devera, Ronald; Unnikrishnan, Dileep; Shin, Mi-Kyung; Bevans-Fonti, Shannon; Yao, Qiaoling; Rathore, Aman; Younas, Haris; Halberg, Nils; Scherer, Philipp E; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in adipose tissue is known to promote obesity. We hypothesized that HIF-1α interferes with brown fat thermogenesis, thus decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we compared transgenic mice constitutively expressing HIF-1α in adipose tissues (HIF-1α++) at usual temperature (22 °C), where brown fat is somewhat active, or at thermoneutrality (30 °C), where brown fat is minimally active. HIF-1α++ mice or control litter mates were separated into room temperature (22 °C) or thermoneutrality (30 °C) groups. We assessed weight gain, food intake, calorimetry, activity, and oxygen consumption and transcriptional changes in isolated white and brown adipocytes. At 22 °C, HIF-1α++ mice exhibited accelerated weight gain, cold and glucose intolerance, hyperglycemia, and decreased energy expenditure without changes in food intake or activity. These changes were absent or minimal at thermoneutrality. In brown adipocytes of HIF-1α++ mice, oxygen consumption decreased ~50 % in association with reduced mitochondrial content, uncoupling protein 2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 (PGC-1α). In conclusion, adipose HIF-1α overexpression inhibits thermogenesis and cellular respiration in brown adipose tissue, promoting obesity in the setting of reduced ambient temperature. Constitutive HIF-1α activation in adipose tissue promotes weight gain in mice. The weight gain is associated with reduced brown adipose tissue function and oxygen consumption. Reduced oxygen consumption may be mediated by reductions in mitochondria.

  15. Sympathetic mechanisms in diet-induced thermogenesis: modification by ciclazindol and anorectic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J.; Wyllie, M. G.

    1981-01-01

    1 The sympathetic noradrenergic activation of brown adipose tissue and the biochemical mechanisms involved in diet-induced thermogenesis were studied in rats. 2 A close correlation was found between brown adipose tissue Na+, K+-adenosinetriphosphatase (Na+, K+-ATPase) activity in vitro and in vivo measurements of resting oxygen consumption (VO2). The effects of noradrenaline on in vitro NA+, K+-ATPase activity in brown adipose tissue and in vivo VO2 could be mimicked by a variety of agents. These included beta-adrenoceptor agonists and agents known to induce the release of noradrenaline or inhibit the noradrenaline uptake process. The pharmacological evidence suggests that dopaminergic mechanisms may also be involved in the control of thermogenesis. 3 Amphetamine did not increase VO2 in rats without causing associated increases in locomotor activity. Ciclazindol at doses of 3-30 mg/kg intraperitoneally increased VO2 but did not appear to increase locomotor activity or evoke any other signs of CNS stimulation including lengthening of time to sleep onset or stereotypy. Separation of metabolic and CNS effects occurred only at the lowest dose of mazindol used (0.3 mg/kg i.p.). These results are probably a reflection of (a) the relative abilities of these drugs to inhibit brain and brown adipose noradrenaline uptake processes and (b) the relatively high accumulation of ciclazindol in brown adipose. 4 Of the drugs tested, only ciclazindol was a more potent inhibitor of the noradrenaline uptake system in brown adipose tissue (BAT) than in brain. Kinetic analysis also revealed that the actions of ciclazindol on the NA uptake system and Na+, K+-ATPase in BAT differed from those of mazindol. 5 These findings suggest that ciclazindol may produce an energy wasting effect in rodents without causing overt CNS stimulation; the implications of these findings in terms of human obesity are discussed. PMID:6271318

  16. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3 knockout mice exhibit enhanced energy expenditure through thermogenesis.

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    Yohsuke Hanaoka

    Full Text Available Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs regulate matrix metalloproteinase activity and maintain extracellular matrix homeostasis. Although TIMP-3 has multiple functions (e.g., apoptosis, inhibition of VEGF binding to VEGF receptor, and inhibition of TNFα converting enzyme, its roles in thermogenesis and metabolism, which influence energy expenditure and can lead to the development of metabolic disorders when dysregulated, are poorly understood. This study aimed to determine whether TIMP-3 is implicated in metabolism by analyzing TIMP-3 knockout (KO mice. TIMP-3 KO mice had higher body temperature, oxygen consumption, and carbon dioxide production than wild-type (WT mice, although there were no differences in food intake and locomotor activity. These results suggest that metabolism is enhanced in TIMP-3 KO mice. Real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of PPAR-δ, UCP-2, NRF-1 and NRF-2 in soleus muscle, and PGC-1α and UCP-2 in gastrocnemius muscle, was higher in TIMP-3 KO mice than in WT mice, suggesting that TIMP-3 deficiency may increase mitochondrial activity. When exposed to cold for 8 hours to induce thermogenesis, TIMP-3 KO mice had a higher body temperature than WT mice. In the treadmill test, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were higher in TIMP-3 KO mice both before and after starting exercise, and the difference was more pronounced after starting exercise. Our findings suggest that TIMP-3 KO mice exhibit enhanced metabolism, as reflected by a higher body temperature than WT mice, possibly due to increased mitochondrial activity. Given that TIMP-3 deficiency increases energy expenditure, TIMP-3 may present a novel therapeutic target for preventing metabolic disorders.

  17. Endogenous peripheral hydrogen sulfide is propyretic: its permissive role in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Renato N; Braga, Sara P; Breder, Jéssica S C; Batalhao, Marcelo E; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando R; Rocha, Maria José A; Carnio, Evelin C; Branco, Luiz G S

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? In fever, the most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation, plasma H 2 S concentration increases. However, the role of endogenous peripheral H 2 S in fever is unknown. What is the main finding and its importance? Endogenous peripheral H 2 S is permissive for increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis to maintain thermal homeostasis in cold environments as well as to mount fever. This finding expands the physiological role of the gaseous modulator as a key regulator of thermal control in health (thermal homeostasis) and disease (fever in systemic inflammation). In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) has been reported as a gaseous modulator acting in several tissues in health and disease. In animal models of systemic inflammation, the plasma H 2 S concentration increases in response to endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The most striking response in the acute phase reaction of systemic inflammation is fever, but we found no reports of the peripheral action of H 2 S on this thermoregulatory response. We aimed at investigating whether endogenous systemic H 2 S modulates LPS-induced fever. A temperature datalogger capsule was inserted in the abdominal cavity of male Wistar rats (220-270 g) to record body core temperature. These animals received an i.p. injection of a systemic H 2 S inhibitor (propargylglycine; 50 or 75 mg kg -1 ), immediately followed by an i.p. injection of LPS (50 or 2500 μg kg -1 ), and were exposed to different ambient temperatures (16, 22 or 27°C). At 22°C, but not at 27°C, propargylglycine at 75 mg kg -1 significantly attenuated (P endogenous peripheral H 2 S on brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Evidence on the modulatory role of peripheral H 2 S in BAT thermogenesis was strengthened when we discarded (i) the possible influence of the gas on febrigenic signalling (when measuring plasma cytokines), and (ii) its interaction with the nitric

  18. Muscle Non-shivering Thermogenesis and Its Role in the Evolution of Endothermy

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    Julia Nowack

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of sustained, long-term endothermy was one of the major transitions in the evolution of vertebrates. Thermogenesis in endotherms does not only occur via shivering or activity, but also via non-shivering thermogenesis (NST. Mammalian NST is mediated by the uncoupling protein 1 in the brown adipose tissue (BAT and possibly involves an additional mechanism of NST in skeletal muscle. This alternative mechanism is based on Ca2+-slippage by a sarcoplasmatic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA and is controlled by the protein sarcolipin. The existence of muscle based NST has been discussed for a long time and is likely present in all mammals. However, its importance for thermoregulation was demonstrated only recently in mice. Interestingly, birds, which have evolved from a different reptilian lineage than mammals and lack UCP1-mediated NST, also exhibit muscle based NST under the involvement of SERCA, though likely without the participation of sarcolipin. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on muscle NST and discuss the efficiency of muscle NST and BAT in the context of the hypothesis that muscle NST could have been the earliest mechanism of heat generation during cold exposure in vertebrates that ultimately enabled the evolution of endothermy. We suggest that the evolution of BAT in addition to muscle NST was related to heterothermy being predominant among early endothermic mammals. Furthermore, we argue that, in contrast to small mammals, muscle NST is sufficient to maintain high body temperature in birds, which have enhanced capacities to fuel muscle NST by high rates of fatty acid import.

  19. Resting metabolic rate and postprandial thermogenesis in polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, K R; Dunaif, A

    1990-07-01

    To determine whether the high frequency of obesity in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO) is related to a defect in energy expenditure, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and the thermic response to a standard meal were compared in 10 obese PCO women, nine obese but otherwise normal women, and 11 lean women. All groups were matched with respect to age and fat-free mass and the two obese groups were matched for degree of obesity. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry for 3 h on two days: (1) in the postabsorptive state; and (2) after a 720 kcal (3014 kJ) liquid mixed meal. The thermic effect of food, calculated as 3 h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was significantly greater for the lean [52.9 +/- 5.5 kcal/3 h (221 +/- 23 kJ/3 h)] than the obese [17.2 +/- 5.1 kcal/3 h (72 +/- 21 kJ/3 h)] and the PCO women [22.8 +/- 5.2 kcal/3 h (95 +/- 22 kJ/3)], P less than 0.001). The thermic effect of food was negatively related to percent body fat (r = -0.694, P less than 0.001). Resting metabolic rate did not differ significantly among the three groups, and was strongly related to fat-free mass (r = 0.687, P less than 0.001). These results confirm previous reports of blunted thermogenesis in obese individuals, but provide no evidence of altered resting metabolic rate or postprandial thermogenesis in women with PCO compared with normal women of similar degree of obesity.

  20. The Role of Thermogenesis in the Pollination Biology of the Amazon Waterlily Victoria amazonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEYMOUR, ROGER S.; MATTHEWS, PHILIP G. D.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Several families of tropical plants have thermogenic flowers that show a 2-d protogynous sequence. Most are pollinated by large beetles that remain for the entire period in the flowers, where they compete for mates and feed. Active beetles require high body temperatures that they can achieve endogenously at great energy expense or attain passively and cheaply in a warm environment. Floral heating is therefore hypothesized to be a direct energy reward to endothermic beetles, in addition to its accepted role in enhancing scent production. • Methods This study measures the pattern of floral heat production (as temperature in 20 flowers and respiration rates in five flowers) in Victoria amazonica at field sites in Guyana and correlates floral temperatures with body temperatures necessary for activity in visiting Cyclocephala hardyi beetles. • Key Results Thermogenesis occurred in a bimodal pattern, with peaks associated with the arrival and departure of beetles near sunset. Peak CO2 production rates averaged 2·9 µmol s−1, equivalent to a heat production of 1·4 W. Heat was generated mainly in the floral chamber on the first evening and by the stamen complex on the second. Mean chamber temperature remained between 29·3 and 34·7 °C during the first night, when ambient temperature was 23·5–25·2 °C. Beetles actively competed for mates and consumed stylar processes in the floral chamber, where their mean thoracic temperature was 33·2 °C. At the lower ambient temperatures outside of the flower, beetles capable of sustained flight had a similar mean temperature of 32·0 °C. • Conclusions Floral heating is not only associated with attraction, but continues throughout the night when beetles are active inside the flower and increases again when they leave. Floral chamber temperatures similar to activity temperatures of actively endothermic beetles imply that thermogenesis is an energy reward. PMID:17018568

  1. Lipoprotein Lipase Expression in Hypothalamus Is Involved in the Central Regulation of Thermogenesis and the Response to Cold Exposure

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    Elise Laperrousaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL is expressed in different areas of the brain, including the hypothalamus and plays an important role in neural control of the energy balance, including feeding behavior and metabolic fluxes. This study tested the hypothesis that hypothalamic LPL participates in the control of body temperature. We first showed that cold exposure induces decreased activity and expression of LPL in the mouse hypothalamus. We then selectively deleted LPL in the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH through an adeno-associated virus approach in LPL-floxed mice and generated MBHΔLpl mice with 30–35% decrease in hypothalamic LPL activity. Results showed a decrease in body temperature in MBHΔLpl mice when compared with controls at 22°C. Exposure to cold (4°C for 4 h decreased the body temperature of the control mice while that of the MBHΔLpl mice remained similar to that observed at 22°C. MBHΔLpl mice also showed increased energy expenditure during cold exposure, when compared to controls. Finally, the selective MBH deletion of LPL also increased the expression of the thermogenic PRMD16 and Dio2 in subcutaneous and perigonadal adipose tissues. Thus, the MBH LPL deletion seems to favor thermogenesis. These data demonstrate that for the first time hypothalamic LPL appears to function as a regulator of body temperature and cold-induced thermogenesis.

  2. Lipid-induced thermogenesis is up-regulated by the first cold-water immersions in juvenile penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teulier, Loïc; Rey, Benjamin; Tornos, Jérémy; Le Coadic, Marion; Monternier, Pierre-Axel; Bourguignon, Aurore; Dolmazon, Virginie; Romestaing, Caroline; Rouanet, Jean-Louis; Duchamp, Claude; Roussel, Damien

    2016-07-01

    The passage from shore to marine life is a critical step in the development of juvenile penguins and is characterized by a fuel selection towards lipid oxidation concomitant to an enhancement of lipid-induced thermogenesis. However, mechanisms of such thermogenic improvement at fledging remain undefined. We used two different groups of pre-fledging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) to investigate the specific contribution of cold exposure during water immersion to lipid metabolism. Terrestrial penguins that had never been immersed in cold water were compared with experimentally cold-water immersed juveniles. Experimentally immersed penguins underwent ten successive immersions at approximately 9-10 °C for 5 h over 3 weeks. We evaluated adaptive thermogenesis by measuring body temperature, metabolic rate and shivering activity in fully immersed penguins exposed to water temperatures ranging from 12 to 29 °C. Both never-immersed and experimentally immersed penguins were able to maintain their homeothermy in cold water, exhibiting similar thermogenic activity. In vivo, perfusion of lipid emulsion at thermoneutrality induced a twofold larger calorigenic response in experimentally immersed than in never-immersed birds. In vitro, the respiratory rates and the oxidative phosphorylation efficiency of isolated muscle mitochondria were not improved with cold-water immersions. The present study shows that acclimation to cold water only partially reproduced the fuel selection towards lipid oxidation that characterizes penguin acclimatization to marine life.

  3. Irisin levels are not affected by physical activity in patients with anorexia nervosa

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    Tobias eHofmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin was recently identified as muscle-derived hormone that increases energy expenditure. Studies in normal weight and obese subjects reported an increased irisin expression following physical activity, although inconsistent results were observed. Increased physical activity in a subgroup of patients with anorexia nervosa (AN complicates the course of the disease. Since irisin could account for differences in clinical outcomes, we investigated irisin levels in anorexic patients with high and moderate physical activity to evaluate whether irisin differs with increasing physical activity. Hospitalized female anorexic patients (n=39 were included. Plasma irisin measured by ELISA and locomotor activity were assessed at the same time. Patients were separated into two groups (n=19/group; median excluded: moderate and high activity (6331±423 vs. 13743±1047 steps/day, p0.05, whereas body weight-adjusted total energy expenditure (46.0±1.4 vs. 41.1±1.1 kcal/kg/d, metabolic equivalents (METs, 1.9±0.1 vs. 1.7±0.1 METs/d, body weight-adjusted exercise activity thermogenesis (EAT, 1.8±0.5 vs. 0.6±0.3 kcal/kg/d, duration of exercise (18.6±4.7 vs. 6.2±3.1 min/d and body weight-adjusted non-exercise activity thermogenesis (21.6±1.0 vs. 18.8±0.8 kcal/kg/d were higher in the high activity compared to the moderate activity group (p0.05. In conclusion, the current data do not support the concept of irisin being induced by exercise, at least not under conditions of severely reduced body weight like AN.

  4. Thermogenesis induced by a high-carbohydrate meal in fasted lean and overweight young men: insulin, body fat, and sympathetic nervous system involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Lopes, Iva; Forga, Luis; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    This dietary trial was designed to evaluate the effect of an experimental short-term fasting period followed by a high-carbohydrate meal on energy expenditure, thermogenesis, and sympathetic nervous system activity in normal (body mass index 27 kg/m(2)) men who were healthy, non-diabetic or with no other endocrine disease, non-smokers, not taking oral prescription medications, and with a stable body weight for the previous 3 mo. Fasting and fed energy expenditures and diet-induced thermogenesis were measured after a high-carbohydrate meal in seven overweight and six lean young male subjects by indirect calorimetry. Heart rate, urinary excretion of catecholamines, serum glucose, and insulin were also measured over the experimental fasting (7.5 h) and postprandial (4 h) periods. After carbohydrate intake, overweight men showed a significantly higher energy production (kJ/kg of fat-free mass) than did lean individuals, and the diet-induced thermogenesis (percentage of energy intake) was positively correlated with body fat (kg), percentage of body fat, fat-free mass (kg), and fasting pre-meal serum insulin levels. Postprandial cumulative energy expenditure was directly associated with postprandial insulin response and with mean postprandial heart rate values. No significant differences in urinary catecholamines were found between lean and overweight men at basal conditions or during the study period. Overweight individuals showed similar short-term sympathetic nervous system responses induced by an experimental fasting period. Although diet-induced thermogenesis after carbohydrate intake was not statistically different between lean and overweight men, the postprandial insulin response and body fat content seemed to be involved in sympathetic nervous system activity.

  5. Adaptive facultative diet-induced thermogenesis in wild-type but not in UCP1-ablated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Essen, Gabriella; Lindsund, Erik; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2017-11-01

    The significance of diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) for metabolic control is still debated. Although obesogenic diets recruit UCP1 and adrenergically inducible thermogenesis, and although the absence of UCP1 may promote the development of obesity, no actual UCP1-related thermogenesis identifiable as diet-induced thermogenesis has to date been unambiguously demonstrated. Examining mice living at thermoneutrality, we have identified a process of facultative (directly elicited by acute eating), adaptive (magnitude develops over weeks on an obesogenic diet), and fully UCP1-dependent thermogenesis. We found no evidence for UCP1-independent diet-induced thermogenesis. The thermogenesis was proportional to the total amount of UCP1 protein in brown adipose tissue and was not dependent on any contribution of UCP1 in brite/beige adipose tissue, since no UCP1 protein was found there under these conditions. Total UCP1 protein amount developed proportionally to total body fat content. The physiological messenger linking obesity level and acute eating to increased thermogenesis is not known. Thus UCP1-dependent diet-induced thermogenesis limits obesity development during exposure to obesogenic diets but does not prevent obesity as such. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Neuronal UCP1 expression suggests a mechanism for local thermogenesis during hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Willem J; Mastrotto, Marco; Pesta, Dominik; Funk, Owen H; Goodman, Jena B; Merriman, Dana K; Ingolia, Nicholas; Shulman, Gerald I; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O

    2015-02-03

    Hibernating mammals possess a unique ability to reduce their body temperature to ambient levels, which can be as low as -2.9 °C, by active down-regulation of metabolism. Despite such a depressed physiologic phenotype, hibernators still maintain activity in their nervous systems, as evidenced by their continued sensitivity to auditory, tactile, and thermal stimulation. The molecular mechanisms that underlie this adaptation remain unknown. We report, using differential transcriptomics alongside immunohistologic and biochemical analyses, that neurons from thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) express mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). The expression changes seasonally, with higher expression during hibernation compared with the summer active state. Functional and pharmacologic analyses show that squirrel UCP1 acts as the typical thermogenic protein in vitro. Accordingly, we found that mitochondria isolated from torpid squirrel brain show a high level of palmitate-induced uncoupling. Furthermore, torpid squirrels during the hibernation season keep their brain temperature significantly elevated above ambient temperature and that of the rest of the body, including brown adipose tissue. Together, our findings suggest that UCP1 contributes to local thermogenesis in the squirrel brain, and thus supports nervous tissue function at low body temperature during hibernation.

  7. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-07-16

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was -1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: -0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: -0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): -0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: -2 min/day; steps/day: -156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  8. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Elbelt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028. Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75, with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20 and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10 did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT: −0.2 kcal/kg/day or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019 over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire.

  9. Body mass, Thermogenesis and energy metabolism in Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

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    Wan-long Zhu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the relationship between energy strategies and environmental temperature, basal metabolic rate (BMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST, the total protein contents, mitochondrial protein contents, state and state respiratory ability, cytochrome C oxidase activity Ⅲ Ⅳ of liver, heart, diaphragm, gastrocnemius and brown adipose tissue (BAT, serum leptin level and serum thyroid hormone levels were measured in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri during cold exposure (5±1oC for 1 day, 7 days,14days,21 days. The results showed that body mass increased, BMR and NST increased, the change of liver mitochondrial protein content was more acutely than total protein. The mitochondrial protein content of heart and BAT were significantly increased during cold-exposed, however the skeletal muscle more moderate reaction. The state Ⅲ and state Ⅳ mitochondrial respiration of these tissues were enhanced significantly than the control. The cytochrome C oxidase activity with cold acclimation also significantly increased except the gastrocnemius. Liver, muscle, BAT, heart and other organs were concerned with thermoregulation during the thermal regulation process above cold-exposed. There is a negative correlation between leptin level and body mass. These results suggested that T. belangeri enhanced thermogenic capacity during cold acclimation, and leptin participated in the regulation of energy balance and body weight in T. belangeri.

  10. A creatine-driven substrate cycle enhances energy expenditure and thermogenesis in beige fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Lawrence; Chouchani, Edward T; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Erickson, Brian K; Shinoda, Kosaku; Cohen, Paul; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Lu, Gina Z; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Hasenfuss, Sebastian C; Kajimura, Shingo; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2015-10-22

    Thermogenic brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate chemical energy as heat, and their thermogenic activities can combat obesity and diabetes. Herein the functional adaptations to cold of brown and beige adipose depots are examined using quantitative mitochondrial proteomics. We identify arginine/creatine metabolism as a beige adipose signature and demonstrate that creatine enhances respiration in beige-fat mitochondria when ADP is limiting. In murine beige fat, cold exposure stimulates mitochondrial creatine kinase activity and induces coordinated expression of genes associated with creatine metabolism. Pharmacological reduction of creatine levels decreases whole-body energy expenditure after administration of a β3-agonist and reduces beige and brown adipose metabolic rate. Genes of creatine metabolism are compensatorily induced when UCP1-dependent thermogenesis is ablated, and creatine reduction in Ucp1-deficient mice reduces core body temperature. These findings link a futile cycle of creatine metabolism to adipose tissue energy expenditure and thermal homeostasis. PAPERCLIP. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. CD36 is indispensable for thermogenesis under conditions of fasting and cold stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putri, Mirasari [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Syamsunarno, Mas Rizky A.A. [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Department of Biochemistry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jl. Raya Bandung Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, West Java 45363 (Indonesia); Iso, Tatsuya, E-mail: isot@gunma-u.ac.jp [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Education and Research Support Center, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Aiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi [Department of Bioimaging Information Analysis, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Sunaga, Hiroaki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Koitabashi, Norimichi [Department of Medicine and Biological Science, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Matsui, Hiroki [Department of Laboratory Sciences, Gunma University Graduate School of Health Sciences, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi [Department of Public Health, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Tsushima, Yoshito [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); and others

    2015-02-20

    Hypothermia can occur during fasting when thermoregulatory mechanisms, involving fatty acid (FA) utilization, are disturbed. CD36/FA translocase is a membrane protein which facilitates membrane transport of long-chain FA in the FA consuming heart, skeletal muscle (SkM) and adipose tissues. It also accelerates uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein by brown adipose tissue (BAT) in a cold environment. In mice deficient for CD36 (CD36{sup −/−} mice), FA uptake is markedly reduced with a compensatory increase in glucose uptake in the heart and SkM, resulting in lower levels of blood glucose especially during fasting. However, the role of CD36 in thermogenic activity during fasting remains to be determined. In fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice, body temperature drastically decreased shortly after cold exposure. The hypothermia was accompanied by a marked reduction in blood glucose and in stores of triacylglycerols in BAT and of glycogen in glycolytic SkM. Biodistribution analysis using the FA analogue {sup 125}I-BMIPP and the glucose analogue {sup 18}F-FDG revealed that uptake of FA and glucose was severely impaired in BAT and glycolytic SkM in cold-exposed CD36{sup −/−} mice. Further, induction of the genes of thermogenesis in BAT was blunted in fasted CD36{sup −/−} mice after cold exposure. These findings strongly suggest that CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit pronounced hypothermia after fasting due to depletion of energy storage in BAT and glycolytic SkM and to reduced supply of energy substrates to these tissues. Our study underscores the importance of CD36 for nutrient homeostasis to survive potentially life-threatening challenges, such as cold and starvation. - Highlights: • We examined the role of CD36 in thermogenesis during cold exposure. • CD36{sup −/−} mice exhibit rapid hypothermia after cold exposure during fasting. • Uptake of fatty acid and glucose is impaired in thermogenic tissues during fasting. • Storage of energy substrates is

  12. Diet-induced thermogenesis in postoperatve Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients with weight regain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeal, Mariane de Almeida; Faria, Silvia Leite; Faria, Orlando Pereira; Facundes, Marcela; Ito, Marina Kiyomi

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective treatment for obesity. Changes in energy expenditure, especially through diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), have been identified as one of the mechanisms to explain this success. However, not all patients are able to maintain healthy postoperative weight loss. Therefore, a question arises: In the weight regain after bariatric surgery, are these changes in energy metabolism still active? To investigate if weight regain after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery is associated with a lower diet-induced thermogenesis in the late postoperative period. A cross-sectional study with the participants chosen from among the patients from a private practice. This was a cross-sectional study where 3 groups of female patients were evaluated: (1) 20 patients with a RYGB postoperative time period of at least 2 years, who kept a healthy weight after surgery (loss of at least 50% of excess weight; Healthy group); (2) 19 patients with clinically severe obesity (BMI>40 kg/m(2), without co-morbidities and>35 kg/m(2), with co-morbidities; Pre group); (3) 18 patients who experienced weight regain after RYGB (Regain group). The 3 groups were submitted to indirect calorimetry to measure resting metabolic rate (RMR), respiratory quotient (RQ), and DIT. Immediately after the RMR measurement, a mixed meal of regular consistency was offered. Ten minutes after the food intake began, energy expenditure measurements were initiated continuing throughout the following 3 postprandial hours. Body composition was evaluated using multifrequency bioelectrical impedance. In subgroups of the studied population, glucose and insulin levels were measured at baseline and at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 minutes after feeding. The mean area under the curve (AUC) between the 3 groups and measurements at baseline were compared using the analysis of variance (ANOVA). The Healthy group had the highest weight adjusted RMR value compared with both the Pre and Regain

  13. Physiotherapy and rehabilitative interventions in patients with chronic respiratory diseases: exercise and non-exercise treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nellessen, A; Hernandes, N A; Pitta, F

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this literature review was to describe and discuss the available evidence about different modalities of physical therapy treatment and pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) involving exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, bronchiectasis and interstitial lung disease (ILD). The search was performed by using the Cochrane Library and PubMed databases. We selected studies published between 2001 and 2012 which involved physiotherapy treatment and included patients with COPD, asthma, bronchiectasis or ILD, aged 18 years or more, in stable or unstable disease condition. PR involving exercise training was effective in improving exercise capacity, muscle force, quality of life and reducing symptoms in patients with COPD and asthma. Although there are few studies published about exercise training in patients with bronchiectasis, improvement in exercise capacity and quality of life in those patients was also observed. Patients with ILD also respond to exercise training; however, the response is less pronounced than in COPD and they lose the gains more quickly. Non-exercise-based interventions, such as bronchial hygiene techniques and inspiratory muscle training, also present positive results when applied to patients with COPD, asthma and bronchiectasis. In some cases it is recommended that these interventions are combined with exercise training. Studies about non-exercise based interventions applied to patients with ILD are still necessary.

  14. Accuracy of Physical Self-Description Among Chronic Exercisers and Non-Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berning, Joseph M; DeBeliso, Mark; Sevene, Trish G; Adams, Kent J; Salmon, Paul; Stamford, Bryant A

    2014-11-06

    This study addressed the role of chronic exercise to enhance physical self-description as measured by self-estimated percent body fat. Accuracy of physical self-description was determined in normal-weight, regularly exercising and non-exercising males with similar body mass index (BMI)'s and females with similar BMI's (n=42 males and 45 females of which 23 males and 23 females met criteria to be considered chronic exercisers). Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the degree of agreement between self-estimated percent body fat and actual laboratory measurements (hydrostatic weighing). Three statistical techniques were employed: Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland and Altman plots, and regression analysis. Agreement between measured and self-estimated percent body fat was superior for males and females who exercised chronically, compared to non-exercisers. The clinical implications are as follows. Satisfaction with one's body can be influenced by several factors, including self-perceived body composition. Dissatisfaction can contribute to maladaptive and destructive weight management behaviors. The present study suggests that regular exercise provides a basis for more positive weight management behaviors by enhancing the accuracy of self-assessed body composition.

  15. Accuracy of physical self-description among chronic exercisers and non-exercisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Berning

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed the role of chronic exercise to enhance physical self-description as measured by self-estimated percent body fat. Accuracy of physical self-description was determined in normal-weight, regularly exercising and non-exercising males with similar body mass index (BMI’s and females with similar BMI’s (n=42 males and 45 females of which 23 males and 23 females met criteria to be considered chronic exercisers. Statistical analyses were conducted to determine the degree of agreement between self-estimated percent body fat and actual laboratory measurements (hydrostatic weighing. Three statistical techniques were employed: Pearson correlation coefficients, Bland and Altman plots, and regression analysis. Agreement between measured and self-estimated percent body fat was superior for males and females who exercised chronically, compared to non-exercisers. The clinical implications are as follows. Satisfaction with one’s body can be influenced by several factors, including self-perceived body composition. Dissatisfaction can contribute to maladaptive and destructive weight management behaviors. The present study suggests that regular exercise provides a basis for more positive weight management behaviors by enhancing the accuracy of self-assessed body composition.

  16. Cold-Inducible SIRT6 Regulates Thermogenesis of Brown and Beige Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Promoting development and function of brown and beige fat may reduce obesity. Here, we show that fat SIRT6 expression is markedly induced by cold exposure and a β-adrenergic agonist. Deletion of SIRT6 in adipose tissue impairs the thermogenic function of brown adipocytes, causing a morphological “whitening” of brown fat, reduced oxygen (O2 consumption, obesity, decreased core body temperature, and cold sensitivity. Fat SIRT6-deleted mice exhibit increased blood glucose levels, severe insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis. Moreover, SIRT6 deficiency inhibits the browning of white adipose tissue (WAT following cold exposure or β3-agonist treatment. Depletion of SIRT6 expression in brown adipocytes reduces expression of thermogenic genes, causing a reduction in cellular respiration. Conversely, SIRT6 overexpression in primary fat cells stimulates the thermogenic program. Mechanistically, SIRT6 interacts with and promotes phospho-ATF2 binding to the PGC-1α gene promoter to activate its expression. The present study reveals a critical role for SIRT6 in regulating thermogenesis of fat.

  17. Maternal low protein diet causes body weight loss in male, neonate Sprague-Dawley rats involving UCP-1 mediated thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in regulating body weight (BW) by modifying thermogenesis. Maternal low protein (LP) diets reduce offspring birth weight. Increased BAT thermogenesis in utero may be one mechanism for the lower BW. However, whether maternal LP nutrition alters BAT...

  18. Contribution of BAT and skeletal muscle to thermogenesis induced by ephedrine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1985-01-01

    This investigation was performed to examine the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in thermogenesis induced by ephedrine in man. Light microscopy of biopsies from necropsy cases showed BAT to occur most frequently in the perirenal fat. Perirenal BAT thermogenesis was investigated in five lean men...... before and during stimulation with 1 mg ephedrine orally X kg body wt-1. Perirenal BAT thermogenesis was assessed by continuous measurements of local temperature and blood flow with the 133xenon clearance method. In the same study the effect of ephedrine on skeletal muscle oxygen consumption...... was estimated by measurements of leg blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen difference. The perirenal adipose tissue blood flow increased approximately twofold, whereas the local temperature increased approximately 0.1 degrees C on an average. Assuming that man possesses 700 g of BAT with a similar thermogenic...

  19. Cold tolerance, cold-induced hyperphagia, and nonshivering thermogenesis are normal in α1-AMPK−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauwens, Jake D.; Schmuck, Eric G.; Lindholm, Christopher R.; Ertel, Rebecca L.; Mulligan, Jacob D.; Hovis, Ian; Viollet, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that a substantial amount of metabolically active brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in adult humans. Given the unique ability of BAT to convert calories to heat, there is intense interest in understanding the regulation of BAT metabolism in hopes that its manipulation might be an effective way of expending excess calories. Because of the established role of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as a “metabolic master switch” and its extremely high levels of activity in BAT, it was hypothesized that AMPK might play a central role in regulating BAT metabolism. To test this hypothesis, whole body α1-AMPK−/− (knockout) and wild-type mice were studied 1) under control (room temperature) conditions, 2) during chronic cold exposure (14 days at 4°C), and 3) during acute nonshivering thermogenesis (injection of a β3-adrenergic agonist). Under control conditions, loss of α1-AMPK resulted in downregulation of two important prothermogenic genes in BAT, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (−9.2-fold) and ciliary neurotrophic factor (−8.7-fold). Additionally, it caused significant upregulation of α2-AMPK activity in BAT, white adipose tissue, and liver, but not cardiac or skeletal muscle. During acute nonshivering thermogenesis and chronic cold exposure, body temperature was indistinguishable in the α1-AMPK−/− and wild-type mice. Similarly, the degree of cold-induced hyperphagia was identical in the two groups. We conclude that α1-AMPK does not play an obligatory role in these processes and that adaptations to chronic loss of α1-AMPK are able to compensate for its loss via several mechanisms. PMID:21593427

  20. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series......% of the whole body adrenaline-induced thermogenesis....

  1. Diet induced thermogenesis measured over 24h in a respiration chamber: effect of diet composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.; Wilson, S.A.; Rolland, V.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of diet composition on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) over 24h in a respiration chamber. SUBJECTS: Eight healthy female volunteers (age 27 +/- 3 y; body mass index, BMI 23 +/- 3 kg/m2). DIETS: A

  2. Diet-Induced Thermogenesis in Insects: A Developing Concept in Nutritional Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry M. Trier; William J. Mattson

    2003-01-01

    Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) is a concept that has been well known in one form or another for more than a century in vertebrate nutrition and physiological ecology. Yet, it is practically unknown in the physiology and nutritional ecology of insects. We suggest that DIT is a ubiquitous mechanism occurring in most if not all organisms and functions to maintain...

  3. Human brown adipose tissue as a target for obesity management; beyond cold-induced thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, R K C; Kingwell, B A; Carey, A L

    2017-11-01

    Elevating energy expenditure via adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a potential strategy to reverse obesity. Much early enthusiasm for this approach, based on rodent studies, was tempered by the belief that BAT was relatively inconsequential in healthy adult humans. Interest was reinvigorated a decade ago when a series of studies re-identified BAT, primarily in upper thoracic regions, in adults. Despite the ensuing explosion of pre-clinical investigations and identification of an extensive list of potential target molecules for BAT recruitment, our understanding of human BAT physiology remains limited, particularly regarding interventions which might hold therapeutic promise. Cold-induced BAT thermogenesis (CIT) has been well studied, although is not readily translatable as an anti-obesity approach, whereas little is known regarding the role of BAT in human diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT). Furthermore, human studies dedicated to translating known pharmacological mechanisms of adipose browning from animal models are sparse. Several lines of recent evidence suggest that molecular regulation and physiology of human BAT differ to that of laboratory rodents, which form the majority of our knowledge base. This review will summarize knowledge on CIT and expand upon the current understanding and evidence gaps related to human adaptive thermogenesis via mechanisms other than cold. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  4. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  5. Lower critical temperature and cold-induced thermogenesis of lean and overweight humans are inversely related to body mass and basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Doornink, Fleur; Jazet, Ingrid M; Rensen, Patrick C N; Abreu-Vieira, Gustavo

    2017-10-01

    It is colloquially stated that body size plays a role in the human response to cold, but the magnitude and details of this interaction are unclear. To explore the inherent influence of body size on cold-exposed metabolism, we investigated the relation between body composition and resting metabolic rate in humans at thermoneutrality and during cooling within the nonshivering thermogenesis range. Body composition and resting energy expenditure were measured in 20 lean and 20 overweight men at thermoneutrality and during individualized cold exposure. Metabolic rates as a function of ambient temperature were investigated considering the variability in body mass and composition. We observed an inverse relationship between body size and the lower critical temperature (LCT), i.e. the threshold where thermoneutrality ends and cold activates thermogenesis. LCT was higher in lean than overweight subjects (22.1 ± 0.6 vs 19.5 ± 0.5°C, p lean and overweight (100 ± 4 vs 97 ± 3kcal/°C/day respectively, p = 0.45). Overweight individuals had higher basal metabolic rate (BMR) explained mostly by the higher lean mass, and lower cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) per degree of cold exposure. Below thermoneutrality, energy expenditure did not scale to lean body mass. Overweight subjects had lower heat loss per body surface area (44.7 ± 1.3 vs 54.7 ± 2.3kcal/°C/m 2 /day, p lean mass rather than a change in whole-body conductance. Thus, larger individuals with higher lean mass need to be exposed to colder temperatures to activate CIT, not because of increased insulation, but because of a higher basal heat generation. Our study suggests that the distinct effects of body size and composition on energy expenditure should be taken in account when exploring the metabolism of humans exposed to cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive thermogenesis in human body weight regulation: more of a concept than a measurable entity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulloo, A G; Jacquet, J; Montani, J-P; Schutz, Y

    2012-12-01

    According to Lavoisier, 'Life is combustion'. But to what extent humans adapt to changes in food intake through adaptive thermogenesis--by turning down the rate of heat production during energy deficit (so as to conserve energy) or turning it up during overnutrition (so as to dissipate excess calories)--has been one of the most controversial issues in nutritional sciences over the past 100 years. The debate nowadays is not whether adaptive thermogenesis exists or not, but rather about its quantitative importance in weight homoeostasis and its clinical relevance to the pathogenesis and management of obesity. Such uncertainties are likely to persist in the foreseeable future primarily because of limitations to unobtrusively measure changes in energy expenditure and body composition with high enough accuracy and precision, particularly when even small inter-individual variations in thermogenesis can, in dynamic systems and over the long term, be important in the determining weight maintenance in some and obesity and weight regain in others. This paper reviews the considerable body of evidence, albeit fragmentary, suggesting the existence of quantitatively important adaptive thermogenesis in several compartments of energy expenditure in response to altered food intake. It then discusses the various limitations that lead to over- or underestimations in its assessment, including definitional and semantics, technical and methodological, analytical and statistical. While the role of adaptive thermogenesis in human weight regulation is likely to remain more a concept than a strictly 'quantifiable' entity in the foreseeable future, the evolution of this concept continues to fuel exciting hypothesis-driven mechanistic research which contributes to advance knowledge in human metabolism and which is bound to result in improved strategies for the management of a healthy body weight. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  7. Adaptive changes in basal metabolic rate and thermogenesis in chronic undernutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Metabolic adaptation during chronic undernutrition represents a complex integration of several processes which affect the total energy expenditure of the individual. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is reduced; reductions in BMR per unit fat free mass (FFM) is difficult to demonstrate. BMR changes in undernutrition reflect the low body weight as well as alterations in the composition of the FFM; more specifically changes in the ratio of viscera to muscle compartments of the FFM. Thermogenic responses to norepinephrine are transiently suppressed but recover rapidly on repeated stimulation. Dietary thermogenesis is enhanced possible the result of increases in tissue synthesis within the body. Changes in BMR and thermogenesis suggestive of an increase in metabolic efficiency is thus difficult to demonstrate in chronic undernutrition. (author). 15 refs, 2 figs, 7 tabs

  8. Functional evolution of leptin of Ochotona curzoniae in adaptive thermogenesis driven by cold environmental stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Environmental stress can accelerate the directional selection and evolutionary rate of specific stress-response proteins to bring about new or altered functions, enhancing an organism's fitness to challenging environments. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae, an endemic and keystone species on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, is a high hypoxia and low temperature tolerant mammal with high resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis to cope in this harsh plateau environment. Leptin is a key hormone related to how these animals regulate energy homeostasis. Previous molecular evolutionary analysis helped to generate the hypothesis that adaptive evolution of plateau pika leptin may be driven by cold stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis, recombinant pika leptin was first purified. The thermogenic characteristics of C57BL/6J mice injected with pika leptin under warm (23±1°C and cold (5±1°C acclimation is investigated. Expression levels of genes regulating adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue and the hypothalamus are compared between pika leptin and human leptin treatment, suggesting that pika leptin has adaptively and functionally evolved. Our results show that pika leptin regulates energy homeostasis via reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure under both warm and cold conditions. Compared with human leptin, pika leptin demonstrates a superior induced capacity for adaptive thermogenesis, which is reflected in a more enhanced β-oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and heat production. Moreover, leptin treatment combined with cold stimulation has a significant synergistic effect on adaptive thermogenesis, more so than is observed with a single cold exposure or single leptin treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings support the hypothesis that cold stress has driven the functional evolution of plateau pika leptin as an ecological adaptation to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Perinatal programming of body weight control by leptin: putative roles of AMP kinase and muscle thermogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pico, C.; Macek Jílková, Zuzana; Kůs, Vladimír; Palou, A.; Kopecký, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 94, 6 suppl. (2011), 1830S-1837S ISSN 0002-9165. [International Conference on The Power of Programming - Developmental Origins of Health and Disease. Munich, 06.05.2010-08.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : leptin * perinatal programming * AMPK * muscle thermogenesis Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 6.669, year: 2011

  10. Lipolysis and thermogenesis in adipose tissues as new potential mechanisms for metabolic benefits of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shu-Fen; Jiao, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Jia-Ying; Zhang, Weiguo; Fu, Chun-Ling; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Dietary fiber consumption is associated with reduced risk for the development of noncommunicable diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cereal dietary fiber on the levels of proteins involved in lipolysis and thermogenesis in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of C57 BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Male C57BL/6 J mice were fed normal chow diet (Chow), HFD, HFD plus oat fiber (H-oat), or HFD plus wheat bran fiber (H-wheat) for 24 wk. Body weight and food intake were recorded weekly. Serum adiponectin was assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Western blotting was used to assess the protein expressions of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), cAMP protein kinase catalytic subunit (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA), perilipin A, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF-21), β3-adrenergic receptor (β3AR), and proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 α (PGC-1 α) in the WAT and BAT. At the end of the feeding period, body and adipose tissues weight in both H-oat and H-wheat groups were lower than in the HFD group. Mice in the H-oat and H-wheat groups showed an increasing trend in serum adiponectin level. Compared with the HFD group, cereal dietary fiber increased protein expressions involved in the lipolysis and browning process. Compared with the H-wheat group, H-oat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, PGC-1 α, and UCP1 of the WAT samples. Compared with the H-oat group, H-wheat was more effective in protein expressions of PKA, ATGL, UCP1, β3AR, and FGF-21 of the BAT samples. Taken together, our results suggested that cereal dietary fiber enhanced adipocyte lipolysis by the cAMP-PKA-HSL pathway and promoted WAT browning by activation of UCP1, and consequently reduced visceral fat mass in response to HFD feeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Barriers to Exercise in Younger and Older Non-Exercising Adult Women: A Cross Sectional Study in London, United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Lovell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 100 women in the south of London, United Kingdom (UK compared exercise barrier intensities between non-exercising younger (20-27 years and older (28-35 years adult women; and examined childcare duties as perceived barriers to exercise. Perceived barriers to exercise were examined using an Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale (EBBS comprising four subscales (exercise milieu; time expenditure; physical exertion; family discouragement. Participants’ number of children was also noted. Non-exercising older women reported significantly higher total exercise barriers, as well as across three barrier subscales: exercise milieu, time expenditure, and family discouragement. For both age groups, significant correlation existed between number of children and women’s total exercise barrier scores. Number of children explained »25% and »30% of the variance of younger and older women’s total barrier scores respectively. For both women groups, the strongest correlation between exercise barrier and number of children was for the time expenditure subscale. Broad grouping of 20-35 year old non-exercising women does not reflect a homogenous sample. Age categories employing narrower age brackets are recommended. Issues surrounding family responsibilities e.g. childcare duties may be shared between these groups and require further research and policy attention.

  12. Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase beige fat thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rajesh R; Long, Jonathan Z; White, James P; Svensson, Katrin J; Lou, Jesse; Lokurkar, Isha; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Ruas, Jorge L; Wrann, Christiane D; Lo, James C; Camera, Donny M; Lachey, Jenn; Gygi, Steven; Seehra, Jasbir; Hawley, John A; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2014-06-05

    Exercise training benefits many organ systems and offers protection against metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Using the recently identified isoform of PGC1-α (PGC1-α4) as a discovery tool, we report the identification of meteorin-like (Metrnl), a circulating factor that is induced in muscle after exercise and in adipose tissue upon cold exposure. Increasing circulating levels of Metrnl stimulates energy expenditure and improves glucose tolerance and the expression of genes associated with beige fat thermogenesis and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Metrnl stimulates an eosinophil-dependent increase in IL-4 expression and promotes alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which are required for the increased expression of the thermogenic and anti-inflammatory gene programs in fat. Importantly, blocking Metrnl actions in vivo significantly attenuates chronic cold-exposure-induced alternative macrophage activation and thermogenic gene responses. Thus, Metrnl links host-adaptive responses to the regulation of energy homeostasis and tissue inflammation and has therapeutic potential for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. AMPK signaling to acetyl-CoA carboxylase is required for fasting- and cold-induced appetite but not thermogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Kim; Murray-Segal, Lisa; Steinberg, Gregory R; Andrews, Zane B

    2018-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a known regulator of whole-body energy homeostasis, but the downstream AMPK substrates mediating these effects are not entirely clear. AMPK inhibits fatty acid synthesis and promotes fatty acid oxidation by phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) 1 at Ser79 and ACC2 at Ser212. Using mice with Ser79Ala/Ser212Ala knock-in mutations (ACC DKI) we find that inhibition of ACC phosphorylation leads to reduced appetite in response to fasting or cold exposure. At sub-thermoneutral temperatures, ACC DKI mice maintain normal energy expenditure and thermogenesis, but fail to increase appetite and lose weight. We demonstrate that the ACC DKI phenotype can be mimicked in wild type mice using a ghrelin receptor antagonist and that ACC DKI mice have impaired orexigenic responses to ghrelin, indicating ACC DKI mice have a ghrelin signaling defect. These data suggest that therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting ACC phosphorylation may suppress appetite following metabolic stress. PMID:29433631

  14. Loss of dorsomedial hypothalamic GLP-1 signaling reduces BAT thermogenesis and increases adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shin J; Sanchez-Watts, Graciela; Krieger, Jean-Philippe; Pignalosa, Angelica; Norell, Puck N; Cortella, Alyssa; Pettersen, Klaus G; Vrdoljak, Dubravka; Hayes, Matthew R; Kanoski, Scott; Langhans, Wolfgang; Watts, Alan G

    2018-03-21

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) neurons in the hindbrain densely innervate the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a nucleus strongly implicated in body weight regulation and the sympathetic control of brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis. Therefore, DMH GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R) are well placed to regulate energy balance by controlling sympathetic outflow and BAT function. We investigate this possibility in adult male rats by using direct administration of GLP-1 (0.5 ug) into the DMH, knocking down DMH GLP-1R mRNA with viral-mediated RNA interference, and by examining the neurochemical phenotype of GLP-1R expressing cells in the DMH using in situ hybridization. GLP-1 administered into the DMH increased BAT thermogenesis and hepatic triglyceride (TG) mobilization. On the other hand, Glp1r knockdown (KD) in the DMH increased body weight gain and adiposity, with a concomitant reduction in energy expenditure (EE), BAT temperature, and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression. Moreover, DMH Glp1r KD induced hepatic steatosis, increased plasma TG, and elevated liver specific de-novo lipogenesis, effects that collectively contributed to insulin resistance. Interestingly, DMH Glp1r KD increased neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA expression in the DMH. GLP-1R mRNA in the DMH, however, was found in GABAergic not NPY neurons, consistent with a GLP-1R-dependent inhibition of NPY neurons that is mediated by local GABAergic neurons. Finally, DMH Glp1r KD attenuated the anorexigenic effects of the GLP-1R agonist exendin-4, highlighting an important role of DMH GLP-1R signaling in GLP-1-based therapies. Collectively, our data show that DMH GLP-1R signaling plays a key role for BAT thermogenesis and adiposity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  15. Epinephrine mediates facultative carbohydrate-induced thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    The thermic effect of carbohydrate has a component mediated by the sympathoadrenal system but of unknown anatomical localization. We have studied the contribution of skeletal muscle to the thermic effect of a carbohydrate-rich natural meal (115 g of carbohydrate, approximately 80% of energy......) by means of the forearm technique on two occasions, with and without intravenous beta-blockade with propranolol. The meal-induced thermogenesis was reduced from 9.6 to 7.1% by beta-blockade (P less than 0.04), the major difference was found 90 to 240 min after the meal. The postprandial increments...

  16. Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white adipose tissue in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Suárez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα in white adipose tissue (WAT. Here we explore whether PPARα activation potentiates the effect of β3-adrenergic stimulation on energy balance mediated by the respective agonists OEA and CL316243. The effect of this pharmacological association on feeding, thermogenesis, β-oxidation, and lipid and cholesterol metabolism in epididymal (eWAT was monitored. CL316243 (1 mg/kg and OEA (5 mg/kg co-administration over 6 days enhanced the reduction of both food intake and body weight gain, increased the energy expenditure and reduced the respiratory quotient (VCO2/VO2. This negative energy balance agreed with decreased fat mass and increased BAT weight and temperature, as well as with lowered plasma levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, nonessential fatty acids (NEFAs, and the adipokines leptin and TNF-α. Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial (Cox4i1, Cox4i2 and BAT (Fgf21, Prdm16 genes were overexpressed in eWAT. The enhancement of the fatty-acid β-oxidation factors Cpt1b and Acox1 in eWAT was accompanied by an upregulation of de novo lipogenesis and reduced expression of the unsaturated-fatty-acid-synthesis enzyme gene, Scd1. We propose that the combination of β-adrenergic and PPARα receptor agonists promotes therapeutic adipocyte remodelling in eWAT, and therefore has a potential clinical utility in the treatment of obesity.

  17. Enhanced thermogenesis in rats by Panax ginseng, multivitamins and minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ratan; Grover, S. K.; Divekar, H. M.; Gupta, A. K.; Shyam, Radhey; Srivastava, K. K.

    1996-12-01

    Substances which enhance endurance for physical and mental work and increase non-specific resistance to stress during a prolonged stay in physiologically adverse habitats are called ‘adaptogens’. Panax ginseng is well known for its anti-stress and adaptogenic properties. In the present study, adaptogenic activity by the intake of a herbo-vitamin-mineral preparation (HVMP) containing P. ginseng and multivitamin-mineral preparation (MVMP) was evaluated using the cold-hypoxia-restrained (C-H-R) animal model. The aim was to determine whether the cold tolerance and recovery from acute hypothermia mediated by P. ginseng was modified by simultaneous intake of additional vitamins and minerals. Results suggest that the adaptogenic effect of HVMP was more or less the sum total of its two components P. ginseng and MVMP. In HVMP, P. ginseng was found to be effective for developing resistance to cooling and MVMP helped in stimulating faster recovery from acute hypothermia.

  18. Shiver me titin! Elucidating titin's role in shivering thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Burt, Kari R; Monroy, Jenna; Pace, Cinnamon; Lindstedt, Stan; Nishikawa, Kiisa C

    2015-03-01

    Shivering frequency scales predictably with body mass and is 10 times higher in a mouse than a moose. The link between shivering frequency and body mass may lie in the tuning of muscle elastic properties. Titin functions as a muscle 'spring', so shivering frequency may be linked to titin's structure. The muscular dystrophy with myositis (mdm) mouse is characterized by a deletion in titin's N2A region. Mice that are homozygous for the mdm mutation have a lower body mass, stiffer gait and reduced lifespan compared with their wild-type and heterozygous siblings. We characterized thermoregulation in these mice by measuring metabolic rate and tremor frequency during shivering. Mutants were heterothermic at ambient temperatures of 20-37°C while wild-type and heterozygous mice were homeothermic. Metabolic rate increased at smaller temperature differentials (i.e. the difference between body and ambient temperatures) in mutants than in non-mutants. The difference between observed tremor frequencies and shivering frequencies predicted by body mass was significantly larger for mutant mice than for wild-type or heterozygous mice, even after accounting for differences in body temperature. Together, the heterothermy in mutants, the increase in metabolic rate at low temperature differentials and the decreased tremor frequency demonstrate the thermoregulatory challenges faced by mice with the mdm mutation. Oscillatory frequency is proportional to the square root of stiffness, and we observed that mutants had lower active muscle stiffness in vitro. The lower tremor frequencies in mutants are consistent with reduced active muscle stiffness and suggest that titin affects the tuning of shivering frequency. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. The acute effects of psyllium on postprandial lipaemia and thermogenesis in overweight and obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khossousi, A; Binns, C W; Dhaliwal, S S; Pal, S

    2008-05-01

    Overweight and obesity is one of the risk factors for developing CVD. At present, very little is known about the acute effects of dietary fibre on lipids, glucose and insulin, resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese individuals. This study examined the postprandial metabolic effects of dietary fibre in overweight and obese men. Ten overweight and obese men consumed a mixed meal accompanied by either a high-fibre or low-fibre supplement on two separate visits, in a random order, 1 week apart. Two isoenergetic breakfast meals with similar composition were consumed by ten overweight/obese men. The meals contained either a low (3 g) or high (15 g) amount of fibre, low-fibre meal (LFM) and high-fibre meal (HFM) respectively. Analysis was carried out using paired t test and ANOVA. Serum TAG incremental area under the curve during 6 h of the postprandial period was significantly lower after the consumption of HFM compared with LFM. At the first hour of the postprandial period, plasma apo B48 concentration after consumption of HFM was significantly lower compared with LFM. The resting energy expenditure and diet-induced thermogenesis after both meals was similar during 6 h of the postprandial period. Collectively, these findings suggest that a single acute dose of dietary fibre in the form of psyllium supplement can decrease arterial exposure to TAG and modify chylomicron responses in the postprandial period.

  20. Postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation are unaffected by sleep restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechter, Ari; Rising, Russell; Wolfe, Scott; Albu, Jeanine B.; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives The extent to which alterations in energy expenditure (EE) in response to sleep restriction contribute to the short sleep-obesity relationship is not clearly defined. Short sleep may induce changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect of food (TEF), and postprandial substrate oxidation. Subjects/Methods Ten females (age and BMI: 22-43 y and 23.4-28 kg/m2) completed a randomized, crossover study assessing the effects of short (4 h/night) and habitual (8 h/night) sleep duration on fasting and postprandial RMR and respiratory quotient (RQ). Measurements were taken after 3 nights using whole-room indirect calorimetry. The TEF was assessed over a 6-h period following consumption of a high-fat liquid meal. Results Short vs. habitual sleep did not affect RMR (1.01 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 kcal/min; p=0.23). Fasting RQ was significantly lower after short vs. habitual sleep (0.84 ± 0.01 and 0.88 ± 0.01; p=0.028). Postprandial EE (short: 1.13 ± 0.04 and habitual: 1.10 ± 0.04, p=0.09) and RQ (short: 0.88 ± 0.01 and habitual: 0.88 ± 0.01, p=0.50) after the high-fat meal were not different between conditions. TEF was similar between conditions (0.24 ± 0.02 kcal/min in both; p=0.98), as was the ~6-h incremental area under the curve (1.16 ± 0.10 and 1.17 ± 0.09 kcal/min x 356 min after short and habitual sleep, respectively; p=0.92). Conclusions Current findings observed in non-obese healthy premenopausal women do not support the hypothesis that alterations in TEF and postprandial substrate oxidation are major contributors to the higher rate of obesity observed in short sleepers. In exploring a role of sleep duration on EE, research should focus on potential alterations in physical activity to explain the increased obesity risk in short sleepers. PMID:24352294

  1. Effects of green tea extracts on non-shivering thermogenesis during mild cold exposure in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Chantal; Haman, François

    2013-07-28

    The effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and caffeine on non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold exposure is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to quantify the effects of co-ingesting EGCG and caffeine on the thermogenic responses of a 3 h cold exposure. A total of eight healthy males were exposed to mild cold, using a liquid-conditioned suit perfused with 158C water, on two occasions and consumed a placebo or an extract of 1600 mg of EGCG and 600 mg of caffeine (Green tea). Thermic, metabolic and electromyographic measurements were monitored at baseline and during the cold exposure. Results showed that the AUC of shivering intensity over the cold exposure period was reduced by approximately 20% in the Green tea (266 (SEM 6)% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) x min) compared with the Placebo (332 (SEM 69)%MVC x min) (P=0·01) treatments. In contrast, the total AUC for energy expenditure (EE) was approximately 10% higher in the Green tea (23·5 (SEM 1·4) kJ/kg x 180 min) compared with the Placebo (327 (SEM 74) kJ/kg 180 min) (P=0·007) treatments. The decrease in shivering activity combined with an increase in EE, following the ingestion of EGCG and caffeine during the cold exposure, indicates that NST pathways can be significantly stimulated in adult human subjects. The present study provides an experimental approach for human investigations into the potential role of diet and bioactive food ingredients in modulating NST during cold exposure. Stimulating NST pathways in such a manner may also provide important targets in the search of targets for the management of obesity and diabetes.

  2. Changes of body mass and thermogenesis in Apodemus chevrieri during cold exposure and rewarming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wan-long

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cues, such as temperature, play important roles in the regulation of physiology and behavior in small mammals. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass and thermogenic capacity in Apodemus chevrieri. It showed that A. chevrieri increased resting metabolic rate (RMR, nonshivering thermogenesis (NST and energy intake and decreased body mass and body temperature when exposed to the cold while showed a significant increase in body mass and body temperature after rewarming. The decrease of body temperature can reduce the difference in temperature in environment, save energy consumption. The increase in body mass after rewarming was associated with the higher energy intake. Together, these data supported our hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce changes in body mass and metabolism in A. chevrieri.

  3. Control and regulatory mechanisms associated with thermogenesis in flying insects and birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loli, Denise; Bicudo, José Eduardo P W

    2005-01-01

    Most insects and birds are able to fly. The chitin made exoskeleton of insects poses them several constraints, and this is one the reasons they are in general small sized animals. On the other hand, because birds possess an endoskeleton made of bones they may grow much larger when compared to insects. The two taxa are quite different with regards to their general "design" platform, in particular with respect to their respiratory and circulatory systems. However, because they fly, they may share in common several traits, namely those associated with the control and regulatory mechanisms governing thermogenesis. High core temperatures are essential for animal flight irrespective of the taxa they belong to. Birds and insects have thus evolved mechanisms which allowed them to control and regulate high rates of heat fluxes. This article discusses possible convergent thermogenic control and regulatory mechanisms associated with flight in insects and birds.

  4. Frequent extreme cold exposure and brown fat and cold-induced thermogenesis: a study in a monozygotic twin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J Vosselman

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mild cold acclimation is known to increase brown adipose tissue (BAT activity and cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT in humans. We here tested the effect of a lifestyle with frequent exposure to extreme cold on BAT and CIT in a Dutch man known as 'the Iceman', who has multiple world records in withstanding extreme cold challenges. Furthermore, his monozygotic twin brother who has a 'normal' sedentary lifestyle without extreme cold exposures was measured. METHODS: The Iceman (subject A and his brother (subject B were studied during mild cold (13°C and thermoneutral conditions (31°C. Measurements included BAT activity and respiratory muscle activity by [18F]FDG-PET/CT imaging and energy expenditure through indirect calorimetry. In addition, body temperatures, cardiovascular parameters, skin perfusion, and thermal sensation and comfort were measured. Finally, we determined polymorphisms for uncoupling protein-1 and β3-adrenergic receptor. RESULTS: Subjects had comparable BAT activity (A: 1144 SUVtotal and B: 1325 SUVtotal, within the range previously observed in young adult men. They were genotyped with the polymorphism for uncoupling protein-1 (G/G. CIT was relatively high (A: 40.1% and B: 41.9%, but unlike during our previous cold exposure tests in young adult men, here both subjects practiced a g-Tummo like breathing technique, which involves vigorous respiratory muscle activity. This was confirmed by high [18F]FDG-uptake in respiratory muscle. CONCLUSION: No significant differences were found between the two subjects, indicating that a lifestyle with frequent exposures to extreme cold does not seem to affect BAT activity and CIT. In both subjects, BAT was not higher compared to earlier observations, whereas CIT was very high, suggesting that g-Tummo like breathing during cold exposure may cause additional heat production by vigorous isometric respiratory muscle contraction. The results must be interpreted with caution given the

  5. Transcriptomic plasticity in brown adipose tissue contributes to an enhanced capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis in deer mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotta, Jonathan P; Jones, Jennifer; Wolf, Cole J; Cheviron, Zachary A

    2016-06-01

    For small mammals living at high altitude, aerobic heat generation (thermogenesis) is essential for survival during prolonged periods of cold, but is severely impaired under conditions of hypobaric hypoxia. Recent studies in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) reveal adaptive enhancement of thermogenesis in high- compared to low-altitude populations under hypoxic cold stress, an enhancement that is attributable to modifications in the aerobic metabolism of muscles used in shivering. However, because small mammals rely heavily on nonshivering mechanisms for cold acclimatization, we tested for evidence of adaptive divergence in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) under hypoxia. To do so, we measured NST and characterized transcriptional profiles of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in high- and low-altitude deer mice that were (i) wild-caught and acclimatized to their native altitude, and (ii) born and reared under common garden conditions at low elevation. We found that NST performance under hypoxia is enhanced in wild-caught, high-altitude deer mice, a difference that is associated with increased expression of coregulated genes that influence several physiological traits. These traits include vascularization and O2 supply to BAT, brown adipocyte proliferation and the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation from ATP synthesis in the generation of heat. Our results suggest that acclimatization to hypoxic cold stress is facilitated by enhancement of nonshivering heat production, which is driven by regulatory plasticity in a suite of genes that influence intersecting physiological pathways. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Stimulation of S14 mRNA and lipogenesis in brown fat by hypothyroidism, cold exposure, and cafeteria feeding: evidence supporting a general role for S14 in lipogenesis and lipogenesis in the maintenance of thermogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freake, H.C.; Oppenheimer, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    In liver, thyroid hormone rapidly induces S14 mRNA, which encodes a small acidic protein. This sequence is abundantly expressed only in lipogenic tissues and is thought to have some function in fat metabolism. In the euthyroid rat, we measured 20-fold higher levels of S14 mRNA in interscapular brown adipose tissue than liver. Furthermore, whereas in liver or epididymal fat, hypothyroidism resulted in an 80% fall in S14 mRNA, in brown fat the level of this sequence increased a further 3-fold. In all three tissues, the expression of S14 mRNA correlated well with lipogenesis, as assessed by /sup 3/H/sub 2/O incorporation. Physiological activation of brown fat by chronic cold exposure or cafeteria feeding increased the concentration of S14 mRNA in this tissue and again this was accompanied by a greater rate of fatty acid synthesis. Overall, in liver and white and brown adipose tissue, S14 mRNA and lipogenesis were well correlated and strongly suggest a function of the S14 protein related to fat synthesis. These studies suggest that the S14 protein and lipogenesis may be important for thyroid hormone-induced and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and that stimulation of these functions in hypothyroid brown fat is a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone-induced thermogenesis elsewhere.

  7. JMJD1A is a signal-sensing scaffold that regulates acute chromatin dynamics via SWI/SNF association for thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yohei; Rozqie, Royhan; Matsumura, Yoshihiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Nakaki, Ryo; Tsurutani, Yuya; Tanimura-Inagaki, Kyoko; Shiono, Akira; Magoori, Kenta; Nakamura, Kanako; Ogi, Shotaro; Kajimura, Shingo; Kimura, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Toshiya; Fukami, Kiyoko; Osborne, Timothy F; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Takeshi; Sakai, Juro

    2015-05-07

    Histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylase JMJD1A regulates β-adrenergic-induced systemic metabolism and body weight control. Here we show that JMJD1A is phosphorylated at S265 by protein kinase A (PKA), and this is pivotal to activate the β1-adrenergic receptor gene (Adrb1) and downstream targets including Ucp1 in brown adipocytes (BATs). Phosphorylation of JMJD1A by PKA increases its interaction with the SWI/SNF nucleosome remodelling complex and DNA-bound PPARγ. This complex confers β-adrenergic-induced rapid JMJD1A recruitment to target sites and facilitates long-range chromatin interactions and target gene activation. This rapid gene induction is dependent on S265 phosphorylation but not on demethylation activity. Our results show that JMJD1A has two important roles in regulating hormone-stimulated chromatin dynamics that modulate thermogenesis in BATs. In one role, JMJD1A is recruited to target sites and functions as a cAMP-responsive scaffold that facilitates long-range chromatin interactions, and in the second role, JMJD1A demethylates H3K9 di-methylation.

  8. Effect of dietary fatty acids on metabolic rate and nonshivering thermogenesis in golden hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimow, Małgorzata; Wojciechowski, Michał S

    2014-02-01

    Hibernating rodents prior to winter tend to select food rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Several studies found that such diet may positively affect their winter energy budget by enhancing torpor episodes. However, the effect of composition of dietary fatty acids (FA) on metabolism of normothermic heterotherms is poorly understood. Thus we tested whether diets different in FA composition affect metabolic rate (MR) and the capacity for nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) in normothermic golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Animals were housed in outdoor enclosures from May 2010 to April 2011 and fed a diet enriched with PUFA (i.e., standard food supplemented weekly with sunflower and flax seeds) or with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (SFA/MUFA, standard food supplemented with mealworms). Since diet rich in PUFA results in lower MR in hibernating animals, we predicted that PUFA-rich diet would have similar effect on MR of normothermic hamsters, that is, normothermic hamsters on the PUFA diet would have lower metabolic rate in cold and higher NST capacity than hamsters supplemented with SFA/MUFA. Indeed, in winter resting metabolic rate (RMR) below the lower critical temperature was higher and NST capacity was lower in SFA/MUFA-supplemented animals than in PUFA-supplemented ones. These results suggest that the increased capacity for NST in PUFA-supplemented hamsters enables them lower RMR below the lower critical temperature of the thermoneural zone. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Molecular evolution of UCP1 and the evolutionary history of mammalian non-shivering thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingenspor Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 is a mitochondrial anion carrier, expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT of Eutherians. UCP1 is responsible for uncoupling mitochondrial proton transport from the production of ATP, thereby dissipating heat; it is essential for non-shivering thermogenesis (NST in mammalian BAT. UCP1 orthologs have been identified in non-Eutherian mammals, fish and amphibians. Yet, UCP1 has a unique function in Eutherians in that it is necessary in the production of heat (NST. As such, this study aims to determine the evolutionary mode of UCP1 in Eutherians, where there is clear evidence of UCP1-dependent NST in BAT. Results Models of adaptive evolution through phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences by maximum likelihood were implemented to determine the mode of UCP1 protein evolution in Eutherians. An increase in the rate of amino acid substitutions on the branch leading to Eutherians is observed, but is best explained by relaxed constraints, not positive selection. Further, evidence for branch and site heterogeneity in selection pressures, as well as divergent selection pressures between UCP1 and its paralogs (UCP2-3 is observed. Conclusion We propose that the unique thermogenic function of UCP1 in Eutherians may be best explained by neutral processes. Along with other evidence, this suggests that the primary biochemical properties of UCP1 may not differ between Eutherians and non-Eutherians.

  10. Growth prior to thermogenesis for a quick fledging of Adélie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dégletagne, Cyril; Roussel, Damien; Rouanet, Jean Louis; Baudimont, Fanny; Moureaux, Elodie-Marie; Harvey, Steve; Duchamp, Claude; Le Maho, Yvon; Raccurt, Mireille

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary trade-off between tissue growth and mature function restricts the post natal development of polar birds. The present study uses an original integrative approach as it includes gene expression, plus biochemical and physiological analysis to investigate how Adélie penguin chicks achieve a rapid growth despite the energetic constraints linked to the cold and the very short breeding season in Antarctica. In pectoralis muscle, the main thermogenic tissue in birds, our data show that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy on Day 15 post- hatching is associated with substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of key genes. While the early activation of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation (avGHR, avIGF-1R, T3Rβ) is rapidly down-regulated after hatching, the global increase in the relative expression of genes involved in thermoregulation (avUCP, avANT, avLPL) and transcriptional regulation (avPGC1α, avT3Rβ) underlie the muscular acquisition of oxidative metabolism. Adélie chicks only become real endotherms at 15 days of age with the development of an oxidative muscle phenotype and the ability to shiver efficiently. The persistent muscular expression of IGF-1 throughout growth probably acts as a local mediator to adjust muscle size and its oxidative capacity to anticipate the new physiological demands of future Dives in cold water. The up-regulation of T3Rβ mRNA levels suggests that circulating T3 may play an important role in the late maturation of skeletal muscle by reinforcing, at least in part, the paracrine action of IGF-1. From day 30, the metabolic shift from mixed substrate to lipid metabolism, with the markedly increased mRNA levels of muscle avLPL, avANT and avUCP, suggests the late development of a fatty acid-enhanced muscle non-shivering thermogenesis mechanism. This molecular control is the key to this finely-tuned strategy by which the Adélie penguin chick successfully heads for the sea on schedule.

  11. Growth prior to thermogenesis for a quick fledging of Adélie penguin chicks (Pygoscelis adeliae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Dégletagne

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trade-off between tissue growth and mature function restricts the post natal development of polar birds. The present study uses an original integrative approach as it includes gene expression, plus biochemical and physiological analysis to investigate how Adélie penguin chicks achieve a rapid growth despite the energetic constraints linked to the cold and the very short breeding season in Antarctica. In pectoralis muscle, the main thermogenic tissue in birds, our data show that the transition from ectothermy to endothermy on Day 15 post- hatching is associated with substantial and coordinated changes in the transcription of key genes. While the early activation of genes controlling cell growth and differentiation (avGHR, avIGF-1R, T3Rβ is rapidly down-regulated after hatching, the global increase in the relative expression of genes involved in thermoregulation (avUCP, avANT, avLPL and transcriptional regulation (avPGC1α, avT3Rβ underlie the muscular acquisition of oxidative metabolism. Adélie chicks only become real endotherms at 15 days of age with the development of an oxidative muscle phenotype and the ability to shiver efficiently. The persistent muscular expression of IGF-1 throughout growth probably acts as a local mediator to adjust muscle size and its oxidative capacity to anticipate the new physiological demands of future Dives in cold water. The up-regulation of T3Rβ mRNA levels suggests that circulating T3 may play an important role in the late maturation of skeletal muscle by reinforcing, at least in part, the paracrine action of IGF-1. From day 30, the metabolic shift from mixed substrate to lipid metabolism, with the markedly increased mRNA levels of muscle avLPL, avANT and avUCP, suggests the late development of a fatty acid-enhanced muscle non-shivering thermogenesis mechanism. This molecular control is the key to this finely-tuned strategy by which the Adélie penguin chick successfully heads for the sea

  12. The gene expression landscape of thermogenic skunk cabbage suggests critical roles for mitochondrial and vacuolar metabolic pathways in the regulation of thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito-Inaba, Yasuko; Hida, Yamato; Matsumura, Hideo; Masuko, Hiromi; Yazu, Fumiko; Terauchi, Ryohei; Watanabe, Masao; Inaba, Takehito

    2012-03-01

    Floral thermogenesis has been described in several plant species. Because of the lack of comprehensive gene expression profiles in thermogenic plants, the molecular mechanisms by which floral thermogenesis is regulated remain to be established. We examined the gene expression landscape of skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) during thermogenic and post-thermogenic stages and identified expressed sequence tags from different developmental stages of the inflorescences using super serial analysis of gene expression (SuperSAGE). In-depth analysis suggested that cellular respiration and mitochondrial functions are significantly enhanced during the thermogenic stage. In contrast, genes involved in stress responses and protein degradation were significantly up-regulated during post-thermogenic stages. Quantitative comparisons indicated that the expression levels of genes involved in cellular respiration were higher in thermogenic spadices than in Arabidopsis inflorescences. Thermogenesis-associated genes seemed to be expressed abundantly in the peripheral tissues of the spadix. Our results suggest that cellular respiration and mitochondrial metabolism play key roles in heat production during floral thermogenesis. On the other hand, vacuolar cysteine protease and other degradative enzymes seem to accelerate senescence and terminate thermogenesis in the post-thermogenic stage. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Is the timing of caloric intake associated with variation in diet-induced thermogenesis and in the metabolic pattern? A randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, S; Fadda, M; Castiglione, A; Ciccone, G; De Francesco, A; Fedele, D; Guggino, A; Parasiliti Caprino, M; Ferrara, S; Vezio Boggio, M; Mengozzi, G; Ghigo, E; Maccario, M; Broglio, F

    2015-12-01

    Food-induced thermogenesis is generally reported to be higher in the morning, although contrasting results exist because of differences in experimental settings related to the preceding fasting, exercise, sleeping and dieting. To definitively answer to this issue, we compared the calorimetric and metabolic responses to identical meals consumed at 0800 hours and at 2000 hours by healthy volunteers, after standardized diet, physical activity, duration of fast and resting. Twenty subjects (age range 20-35 years, body mass index=19-26 kg m(-)(2)) were enrolled to a randomized cross-over trial. They randomly received the same standard meal in the morning and, 7 days after, in the evening, or vice versa. A 30-min basal calorimetry was performed; a further 60-min calorimetry was done 120-min after the beginning of the meal. Blood samples were drawn every 30-min for 180-min. General linear models, adjusted for period and carry-over, were used to evaluate the 'morning effect', that is, the difference of morning delta (after-meal minus fasting values) minus evening delta (after-meal minus fasting values) of the variables. Fasting resting metabolic rate (RMR) did not change from morning to evening; after-meal RMR values were significantly higher after the morning meal (1916; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1792, 2041 vs 1756; 1648, 1863 kcal; Ptiming of meals should probably be considered when nutritional recommendations are given.

  14. No effect of saturated fatty acid chain length on meal-induced thermogenesis in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguo, Kay; Huggins, Catherine E; Truby, Helen; Sinclair, Andrew J; Clarke, Rachel E; Bonham, Maxine P

    2018-02-02

    Monounsaturated (MUFA) fatty acids have been shown to induce greater meal-induced thermogenesis (MIT) than saturated fatty acids (SFA) in some studies, however, the effect of SFA chain length has not been examined. We hypothesized that a meal rich in short- to medium-chain SFA would elicit a greater MIT than one rich in long-chain SFA, and that MIT responses would be comparable between the short- to medium-chain SFA and the MUFA rich meal. A 3-arm crossover study was conducted with healthy overweight men, aged 18 to 40 years. Participants consumed either an iso-energetic (3780 ± 4.3 kJ), high fat (45%) meal rich in short-/medium-chain SFA (SMCSFA) (2-12 carbons); long-chain SFA (LCSFA) (14-24 carbons), and MUFA. MIT, fat oxidation, triglyceride and subjective appetite were measured for 6 hours post-prandial. Data were analyzed as total area under the curve and compared using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The mean BMI of participants (n =13) was 29.3 ± 0.6 kg/m 2 and mean age 23.8±1.4 years. MIT was not different between the meals: MUFA (204.2 ± 20.5 kJ/6 h), SMCSFA (192.6 ± 21.8 kJ/6 h), LCSFA (198.1 ± 21.5 kJ/6 h) (P = .888). Fat oxidation, plasma triglyceride, and hunger and fullness were similar after each meal (P > .05 all values). This study demonstrated that in healthy overweight men, SFA chain length, and fatty acid saturation have no acute differential effect on MIT, fat oxidation, triglyceride, or subjective appetite responses. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Effect of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Diamond, P

    1986-02-01

    The influence of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis was studied in nine mongrel dogs (congruent to 18 kg). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory quotient (R) were continuously monitored by indirect calorimetry during the following experiments. In expt 1, four dogs were fed on alternated days either a large (3.1 MJ) or small meal (0.77 MJ). In expt 2, five different dogs were fed on alternated days either one large meal (3.1 MJ) or four consecutive small meals (0.77 MJ) spaced at 1.5-h intervals. In expt 3, the four dogs of expt 1 after being sham fed 3 times at 1.5-h intervals were given one large meal (3.1 MJ). The VO2 increase during the initial or cephalic phase (congruent to 50 min) was independent of the meal size but it was directly proportional to the amount of food ingested during the digestive phase. The total thermogenic response to four small meals (125 g) fed at 1.5-h intervals was twice as large as that of one large meal (500 g). One large meal (500 g) preceded by three periods of sham feeding was also found to be more thermogenic than a large meal only. For all experiments the changes in R were seen to parallel the postprandial fluctuations in VO2. These findings indicate that the enhanced heat production obtained when meal frequency is increased is caused by the repeated sensory stimulation produced by palatable food.

  16. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. The effect of acute beta-adrenergic inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Tuxen, C

    1994-01-01

    -induced thermogenesis in the 120 min following the glucose load was significantly reduced by beta-adrenergic inhibition with approximately 50% from 63.9 +/- 5.8 kJ 120 min-1 (mean +/- SE) to 27.8 +/- 9.8 kJ 120 min-1 (P ...-induced forearm oxygen uptake in the period 60-120 min following the glucose load was significantly reduced after beta-adrenergic inhibition from 103 +/- 28 mumol 100 g-1 60 min-1 to 29 +/- 29 mumol 100 g-1 60 min-1 (P

  17. Phosphorus Supplementation Recovers the Blunted Diet-Induced Thermogenesis of Overweight and Obese Adults: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya S. Bassil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT is believed to be largely related to ATP production, which is dependent on phosphorus (P availability. We aimed to test the effect of P addition on DIT of lean and overweight/obese healthy subjects. DIT was measured with or without P in 10 lean and 13 overweight/obese adults in a double-blind randomized cross-over pilot study with one week washout period. After 10 h overnight fast, resting metabolic rate, respiratory quotient, and substrate utilization were measured at fasting and every 30 min for 3 h after subjects drank a standardized glucose solution, with P (500 mg or placebo pills. Subjective ratings of hunger and satiety were assessed before and after the end of each experiment using validated visual analogue scale (VAS questionnaires. Overweight/obese subjects had a blunted DIT with placebo, while P supplementation induced a 23% increase in their DIT area under the curve (p < 0.05, which was associated with a significant increase in carbohydrate oxidation. Subjects had lower appetite following P supplementation, which was expressed as a significantly (p = 0.02 lower desire to eat a meal (4.0 ± 0.7 cm compared with placebo (5.8 ± 0.9 cm. P supplementation recovers the blunted diet-induced thermogenesis in overweight and obese subjects and enhances their postprandial satiety.

  18. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  19. Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Although a regular meal pattern is recommended for obese people, its effects on energy metabolism have not been examined. We investigated whether a regular meal frequency affects energy intake (EI), energy expenditure, or circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy obese women. Ten women [x +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 37.1 +/- 4.8] participated in a randomized crossover trial. In phase 1 (14 d), the subjects consumed their normal diet on 6 occasions/d (regular meal pattern) or followed a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/d, irregular meal pattern). In phase 2 (14 d), the subjects followed the alternative pattern. At the start and end of each phase, a test meal was fed, and blood glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations were determined before and for 3 h after (glucose and insulin only) the test meal. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 d during each phase. The thermogenic response to the test meal was ascertained by indirect calorimetry. Regular eating was associated with lower EI (P thermogenesis (P meal pattern, but peak insulin concentrations and area under the curve of insulin responses to the test meal were lower after the regular than after the irregular meal pattern (P thermogenesis.

  20. Growth hormone (GH) and prolactin responses to a non-exercise stress test in athletes with overtraining syndrome: results from the Endocrine and metabolic Responses on Overtraining Syndrome (EROS) - EROS-STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadegiani, Flavio A; Kater, Claudio E

    2017-11-16

    Overtraining syndrome (OTS) leads to worsened sports performance and fatigue. The pathophysiology of OTS has not been entirely elucidated, and there is a lack of accurate markers for its diagnosis. Changes in hormonal responses implicated in OTS were stimulated by exercise, which has limited their interpretation. Hence, we aimed to evaluate growth hormone (GH) and prolactin responses to a gold-standard and exercise-independent stimulation test, the insulin tolerance test (ITT). Volunteers were recruited and divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS), healthy athletes (ATL), and healthy non-active subjects (NCS) groups, after general and specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. We evaluated the responses of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin to the ITT, and compared between groups. A total of 51 subjects were included (OTS, n=14, ATL, n=25, and NCS, n=12). OTS disclosed significantly lower basal levels of GH (p=0.003) and prolactin (p=0.048), and GH (p=0.001) and prolactin (pGH levels in response to hypoglycemia, compared to ATL, but not to NCS. We suggest cutoffs for GH and prolactin levels to aid in the diagnosis of OTS. OTS-affected athletes show reduced GH and prolactin basal levels and responses to a non-exercise stress test compared to healthy athletes, but not to sedentary subjects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The biological control of voluntary exercise, spontaneous physical activity and daily energy expenditure in relation to obesity: human and rodent perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Schutz, Heidi; Chappell, Mark A; Keeney, Brooke K; Meek, Thomas H; Copes, Lynn E; Acosta, Wendy; Drenowatz, Clemens; Maciel, Robert C; van Dijk, Gertjan; Kotz, Catherine M; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2011-01-15

    Mammals expend energy in many ways, including basic cellular maintenance and repair, digestion, thermoregulation, locomotion, growth and reproduction. These processes can vary tremendously among species and individuals, potentially leading to large variation in daily energy expenditure (DEE). Locomotor energy costs can be substantial for large-bodied species and those with high-activity lifestyles. For humans in industrialized societies, locomotion necessary for daily activities is often relatively low, so it has been presumed that activity energy expenditure and DEE are lower than in our ancestors. Whether this is true and has contributed to a rise in obesity is controversial. In humans, much attention has centered on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) or non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), the latter sometimes defined so broadly as to include all energy expended due to activity, exclusive of volitional exercise. Given that most people in Western societies engage in little voluntary exercise, increasing NEAT may be an effective way to maintain DEE and combat overweight and obesity. One way to promote NEAT is to decrease the amount of time spent on sedentary behaviours (e.g. watching television). The effects of voluntary exercise on other components of physical activity are highly variable in humans, partly as a function of age, and have rarely been studied in rodents. However, most rodent studies indicate that food consumption increases in the presence of wheels; therefore, other aspects of physical activity are not reduced enough to compensate for the energetic cost of wheel running. Most rodent studies also show negative effects of wheel access on body fat, especially in males. Sedentary behaviours per se have not been studied in rodents in relation to obesity. Several lines of evidence demonstrate the important role of dopamine, in addition to other neural signaling networks (e.g. the endocannabinoid system), in the control of voluntary exercise. A

  2. Central command increases muscular oxygenation of the non-exercising arm at the early period of voluntary one-armed cranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji; Asahara, Ryota; Liang, Nan; Endo, Kana; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Michioka, Kensuke; Sasaki, Yu; Hamada, Hironobu; Yamashita, Kaori; Watanabe, Tae; Kataoka, Tsuyoshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to examine whether central command increases oxygenation in non-contracting arm muscles during contralateral one-armed cranking and whether the oxygenation response caused by central command differs among skeletal muscles of the non-exercising upper limb. In 13 male subjects, the relative changes in oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) of the non-contracting arm muscles [the anterior deltoid, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, and extensor carpi radialis (ECR)] were measured during voluntary one-armed cranking (intensity, 35-40% of maximal voluntary effort) and mental imagery of the one-armed exercise for 1 min. Voluntary one-armed cranking increased ( P  arm muscles consisted of the rapid atropine-sensitive and delayed propranolol-sensitive components. Mental imagery of the exercise increased the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. Motor-driven passive one-armed cranking had little influence on the Oxy-Hb of the arm muscles. It is likely that central command plays a role in the initial increase in oxygenation in the non-contracting arm muscles via sympathetic cholinergic vasodilatation at the early period of one-armed cranking. The centrally induced increase in oxygenation may not be different among the distal arm muscles but may augment in the deltoid muscle. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  3. Participation of breast and leg muscles in shivering thermogenesis in young turkeys and guinea fowl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, Maurine W.; Mourik, Sijmen van; Tøien, Øivind; Koolmees, Peter A.; Tersteeg-Zijderveld, Monique H.G.; Heldmaier, G.

    1997-01-01

    Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) and guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) chicks (0-27 days posthatch) were exposed to decreasing or increasing ambient temperatures. Root mean square electromyographic activity of musculus pectoralis (m. pect.) and musculus iliotibialis (m. iliot.) was recorded simultaneously

  4. Differential effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on brown and beige adipose tissue thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankir, Mohammed K; Bronisch, Felix; Hintschich, Constantin; Krügel, Ute; Seyfried, Florian; Fenske, Wiebke K

    2015-10-01

    There are numerous reports of increased energy expenditure after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in humans and rodent models but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study we assessed at the gene expression level whether RYGB leads to recruitment of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and/or beige adipose tissue (BeAT) as a means of enhanced facultative thermogenesis and increased energy expenditure after surgery. Diet-induced obese male Wistar rats were randomized into RYGB-operated (n=10), sham-operated ad libitum fed (Sham) (n=7) or sham-operated body weight matched (BWM) to RYGB groups (n=7). At a stage of postoperatively stabilized weight reduction, BAT (interscapular), subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (epididymal and perirenal) white adipose tissue (WAT) depots were collected in the fasted state. Expression of thermoregulatory genes (UCP1, CIDEA and PRDM16) in BAT and WAT as well as specific markers of BeAT (Ear2 and TMEM26) in WAT was analyzed using RT-qPCR. Compared to Sham rats, UCP1 mRNA expression in BAT was significantly reduced in BWM, but not in RYGB rats. No differences in mRNA expression were found for thermoregulatory proteins or for markers of BeAT in subcutaneous or visceral WAT depots between RYGB and Sham groups. The compensatory decrease in BAT thermogenic gene expression typically associated with body weight loss is attenuated after RYGB which, as opposed to recruitment of BeAT, may contribute to overall increases in energy expenditure and weight loss maintenance after surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Fuel selection in Wistar rats exposed to cold: shivering thermogenesis diverts fatty acids from re-esterification to oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Eric; Haman, François; Weber, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    This study characterizes the effects of shivering thermogenesis on metabolic fuel selection in Wistar rats. Because lipids account for most of the heat produced, we have investigated: (1) whether the rate of appearance of non-esterified fatty acids (R(a) NEFAs) is stimulated by shivering, (2) whether mono-unsaturated (oleate) and saturated fatty acids (palmitate) are affected similarly, and (3) whether the partitioning between fatty acid oxidation and re-esterification is altered by cold exposure. Fuel oxidation was measured by indirect calorimetry and fatty acid mobilization by continuous infusion of 9,10-[(3)H]oleate and 1-[(14)C]palmitate. During steady-state cold exposure, results show that total heat production is unequally shared by the oxidation of lipids (52% of metabolic rate), carbohydrates (35%) and proteins (13%), and that the same fuel selection pattern is observed at all shivering intensities. All previous research shows that mammals stimulate R(a) NEFA to support exercise or shivering. In contrast, results reveal that the R(a) NEFA of the rat remains constant during cold exposure (55 micromol kg(1) min(1)). No preferential use of mono-unsaturated over saturated fatty acids could be demonstrated. The rat decreases its rate of fatty acid re-esterification from 48.4 +/- 6.4 to 19.6 +/- 6.3 micromol kg(1) min(1) to provide energy to shivering muscles. This study is the first to show that mammals do not only increase fatty acid availability for oxidation by stimulating R(a) NEFA. Reallocation of fatty acids from re-esterification to oxidation is a novel, alternative strategy used by the rat to support shivering.

  6. Body fat loss achieved by stimulation of thermogenesis by a combination of bioactive food ingredients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind 8-week intervention in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, A; Frandsen, E; Kondrup, J

    2007-01-01

    A combination of tyrosine, capsaicin, catechines and caffeine may stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and promote satiety, lipolysis and thermogenesis. In addition, dietary calcium may increase fecal fat excretion. To investigate the acute and subchronic effect of a supplement containing the above mentioned agents or placebo taken t.i.d on thermogenesis, body fat loss and fecal fat excretion. In total, 80 overweight-obese subjects ((body mass index) 31.2+/-2.5 kg/m(2), mean+/-s.d.) underwent an initial 4-week hypocaloric diet (3.4 MJ/day). Those who lost>4% body weight were instructed to consume a hypocaloric diet (-1.3 MJ/day) and were randomized to receive either placebo (n=23) or bioactive supplement (n=57) in a double-blind, 8-week intervention. The thermogenic effect of the compound was tested at the first and last day of intervention, and blood pressure, heart rate, body weight and composition were assessed. Weight loss during the induction phase was 6.8+/-1.9 kg. At the first exposure the thermogenic effect of the bioactive supplement exceeded that of placebo by 87.3 kJ/4 h (95%CI: 50.9;123.7, P=0.005) and after 8 weeks this effect was sustained (85.5 kJ/4 h (47.6;123.4), P=0.03). Body fat mass decreased more in the supplement group by 0.9 kg (0.5; 1.3) compared with placebo (Psupplement had no effect on fecal fat excretion, blood pressure or heart rate. The bioactive supplement increased 4-h thermogenesis by 90 kJ more than placebo, and the effect was maintained after 8 weeks and accompanied by a slight reduction in fat mass. These bioactive components may support weight maintenance after a hypocaloric diet.

  7. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis and arterial norepinephrine response persist after weight reduction in obese humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    A reduced thermic response and an impaired activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) has been reported after oral glucose in human obesity. It is, however, not known whether the reduced SNS activity returns to normal along with weight reduction. The thermic effect of glucose was lower...... in eight obese patients than in matched control subjects (1.7% vs 9.2%, p less than 0.002). The increase in arterial norepinephrine after glucose was also blunted in the obese patients. After a 30-kg weight loss their glucose and lipid profiles were markedly improved but the thermic effect of glucose...

  8. Changes of high-energy phosphorous compounds in skeletal muscle during glucose-induced thermogenesis in man. A 31P MR spectroscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, Karl Erik; Astrup, A

    1989-01-01

    By the use of invasive techniques, skeletal muscle has been shown to contribute to thermogenesis induced by glucose in humans. In an attempt to study this phenomenon by a non-invasive method, this study investigated intracellular high-energy phosphorous compounds in calf muscle by 31P MR......H remained unchanged after the glucose administration. No changes were seen in the control experiments. The processes responsible for the decreased energy state of the skeletal muscle cell may be an obligatory conversion of glucose to glycogen. Also, facultative processes, such as sodium/potassium pumping...

  9. Thermal-Work Strain and Energy Expenditure during Marine Rifle Squad Operations in Afghanistan (August 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-10

    pants, belt, socks, athletics shoes, and a short-sleeved shirt [2]. The permeability index is a non -dimensional index from 0 to 1 where 0 indicates a...and watts (Js-1). Non -exercise activity thermogenesis energy expenditures include any activities that are not sleeping , eating, or volitional...hours of ṀREE and 8.5 hours of ṀNEAT activities. Because we had no logs of any non -mission activities, including sleep , we estimated 5 hours of

  10. Effects of dihydrocapsiate on adaptive and diet-induced thermogenesis with a high protein very low calorie diet: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerlin Alona

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dihydrocapsiate (DCT is a natural safe food ingredient which is structurally related to capsaicin from chili pepper and is found in the non-pungent pepper strain, CH-19 Sweet. It has been shown to elicit the thermogenic effects of capsaicin but without its gastrointestinal side effects. Methods The present study was designed to examine the effects of DCT on both adaptive thermogenesis as the result of caloric restriction with a high protein very low calorie diet (VLCD and to determine whether DCT would increase post-prandial energy expenditure (PPEE in response to a 400 kcal/60 g protein liquid test meal. Thirty-three subjects completed an outpatient very low calorie diet (800 kcal/day providing 120 g/day protein over 4 weeks and were randomly assigned to receive either DCT capsules three times per day (3 mg or 9 mg or placebo. At baseline and 4 weeks, fasting basal metabolic rate and PPEE were measured in a metabolic hood and fat free mass (FFM determined using displacement plethysmography (BOD POD. Results PPEE normalized to FFM was increased significantly in subjects receiving 9 mg/day DCT by comparison to placebo (p Conclusions These data provide evidence for postprandial increases in thermogenesis and fat oxidation secondary to administration of dihydrocapsiate. Trial registration clinicaltrial.govNCT01142687

  11. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2013-02-01

    Obesity develops as a result of altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a new transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, SERTA domain containing 2 (TRIP-Br2, also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2-null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of these knockout mice showed greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The knockout mice also have higher energy expenditure because of increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism caused by upregulating key enzymes in their respective processes. Our data show that a cell-cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data, together with the observation that TRIP-Br2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans, suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a new therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia.

  12. Ablation of TRIP-Br2, a novel regulator of fat lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism, prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Chong Wee; Boucher, Jeremie; Cheong, Jit Kong; Vernochet, Cecile; Koh, Ho-Jin; Mallol, Cristina; Townsend, Kristy; Langin, Dominique; Kawamori, Dan; Hu, Jiang; Tseng, Yu-Hua; Hellerstein, Marc K; Farmer, Stephen R; Goodyear, Laurie; Doria, Alessandro; Blüher, Matthias; Hsu, Stephen I-Hong; Kulkarni, Rohit N

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Obesity develops due to altered energy homeostasis favoring fat storage. Here we describe a novel transcription co-regulator for adiposity and energy metabolism, TRIP-Br2 (also called SERTAD2). TRIP-Br2 null mice are resistant to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. Adipocytes of the knockout (KO) mice exhibited greater stimulated lipolysis secondary to enhanced expression of hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and β3-adrenergic (Adrb3) receptors. The KOs also exhibit higher energy expenditure due to increased adipocyte thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism by up-regulating key enzymes in respective processes. Our data show for the first time that a cell cycle transcriptional co-regulator, TRIP-Br2, modulates fat storage through simultaneous regulation of lipolysis, thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism. These data together with the observation that TRIP-BR2 expression is selectively elevated in visceral fat in obese humans suggests that this transcriptional co-regulator is a novel therapeutic target for counteracting the development of obesity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. PMID:23291629

  13. A coconut oil-rich meal does not enhance thermogenesis compared to corn oil in a randomized trial in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarrie, Janna; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in overweight adults increases thermogenesis and improves weight management. Coconut oil is a rich natural source of MCT, but its thermogenic effect is unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of a test oil enriched in coconut oil, on energy expenditure, satiety, and metabolic markers in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study. Fifteen children, age 13-18 years, body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, were enrolled. Two test meals, containing 20 g of fat from either corn oil or a coconut oil-enriched baking fat (1.1 g of fatty acids with chain lengths ≤ 10C), were administered. A fasting blood sample was taken before breakfast and at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 min post-meal for measurement of metabolites. Thermic effect of food (TEF) was assessed over 6 h using indirect calorimetry. Satiety was measured using visual analog scales (VAS). There was no significant effect of fat type, time, or fat type × time interaction on TEF, appetite/satiety, glucose, and insulin area under the curve. There was a significant effect of fat type on leptin (P=0.027), triglycerides (P=0.020) and peptide YY (P=0.0085); leptin and triglyceride concentrations were lower and peptide YY concentrations were higher with corn oil consumption. A coconut oil-enriched baking fat does not enhance thermogenesis and satiety in children. Given that this is the only current study of its kind, more research is needed into the use of coconut oil as a tool in weight management in overweight and obese children.

  14. Supraclavicular skin temperature and BAT activity in lean healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lans, Anouk A J J; Vosselman, Maarten J; Hanssen, Mark J W; Brans, Boudewijn; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2016-01-01

    The 'gold standard' for measuring brown adipose tissue (BAT) in humans is [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging. With this technique subjects are exposed to ionizing radiation and are therefore limited in the number of scans that can be performed. We investigated the relation between supraclavicular skin temperatures and BAT activity values using a strictly temperature-controlled air-cooling protocol. Data of 36 male subjects was analyzed. BAT activity was evaluated by [(18)F]FDG-PET/CT-imaging and skin temperature was measured by means of wireless temperature sensors. Supraclavicular skin temperature dropped less compared to skin temperatures at other sites (all P values BAT activity (R (2) 0.23), and the change in supraclavicular skin temperature and non-shivering thermogenesis (R (2) 0.18, both P values BAT activity and BAT thermogenesis.

  15. Inertial sensors to estimate the energy expenditure of team-sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Emily J; McAinch, Andrew J; Sweeting, Alice; Aughey, Robert J

    2016-02-01

    To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. Cross sectional observation study. An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches. The algorithm was used to validate a metabolic power calculation used by Catapult Innovations (Scoresby Australia) in their proprietary GPS software. The SenseWear™ (Model MF-SW, Bodymedia, Pittsburgh, PA) armband was used to determine non-exercise activity thermogenesis and was worn for 7 days leading into a match. Training, match and non-exercise activity thermogenesis data was summed for total daily energy expenditure. Energy expenditure for field training was estimated to be 2719±666kJ and for matches to be 5745±1468kJ. The estimated energy expenditure in the current study showed a large correlation (r=0.57, 90% CI 0.06-0.84) with the metabolic power calculation. The mean total daily energy expenditure for an in-season main training day was approximately 18,504kJ and match day approximately 19,160kJ with non-exercise activity thermogenesis contributing approximately 85% and 69% on training and match days, respectively. The MiniMax 4.0 and SenseWear™ armband accelerometers provide a practical, non-invasive and an effective method to successfully measure training and match energy expenditure, and non-exercise activity thermogenesis in field sport athletes. Taking methodological limitations into consideration, measuring energy expenditure allows for individualised nutrition programming to enhance performance and achieve body composition goals. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cold-Induced Thermogenesis and Inflammation-Associated Cold-Seeking Behavior Are Represented by Different Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Sites: A Three-Dimensional Functional Topography Study in Conscious Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimansky, Yury P.; Oliveira, Daniela L.; Eales, Justin R.; Coimbra, Cândido C.

    2017-01-01

    In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and thus to understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis. DMH-lesioned rats also could not develop fever autonomically: they did not increase thermogenesis in response to a low, pyrogenic dose of LPS (10 μg/kg, i.v.). In contrast, changes in thermogenesis were uninvolved in the attenuation of the hypothermic response to a high, shock-inducing dose of LPS (5000 μg/kg, i.v.); this attenuation was due to a blockade of cold-seeking behavior. To compile DMH maps for the autonomic cold defense and for the cold-seeking response to LPS, we studied rats with small thermal lesions in different parts of the DMH. Cold thermogenesis had the highest representation in the dorsal hypothalamic area. Cold seeking was represented by a site at the ventral border of the dorsomedial nucleus. Because LPS causes both fever and hypothermia, we originally thought that the DMH contained a single thermoregulatory site that worked as a fever–hypothermia switch. Instead, we have found two separate sites: one that drives thermogenesis and the other, previously unknown, that drives inflammation-associated cold seeking. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cold-seeking behavior is a life-saving response that occurs in severe systemic inflammation. We studied this behavior in rats with lesions in the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) challenged with a shock-inducing dose of bacterial endotoxin. We built functional maps of the DMH and found the strongest

  17. Infrared thermography, a new method for detection of brown adipose tissue activity after a meal in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, Nikola; Kordić, Milan; Jurenec, Franjo; Dugandžić, Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) after cold exposure leads to heat production. However, the activation of BAT activity after a meal as part of diet induced thermogenesis is still controversial. A possible reason is that measuring BAT activity by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET CT) via accumulation of radiotracer fludeoxyglucose (18F-FDG), which competes with an increase in glucose concentration after a meal, fails as the method of choice. In this study, activity of BAT was determined by infrared thermography. Activation of BAT 30 min after a meal increases glucose consumption, decreases plasma glucose concentration, and leads to changes of body temperature (diet-induced thermogenesis). Detecting pathophysiological changes in BAT activity after a meal by infrared thermography, a non-invasive more sensitive method, will be of great importance for people with increased body weight and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  18. Happier People Live More Active Lives: Using Smartphones to Link Happiness and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathia, Neal; Sandstrom, Gillian M; Mascolo, Cecilia; Rentfrow, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity, both exercise and non-exercise, has far-reaching benefits to physical health. Although exercise has also been linked to psychological health (e.g., happiness), little research has examined physical activity more broadly, taking into account non-exercise activity as well as exercise. We examined the relationship between physical activity (measured broadly) and happiness using a smartphone application. This app has collected self-reports of happiness and physical activity from over ten thousand participants, while passively gathering information about physical activity from the accelerometers on users' phones. The findings reveal that individuals who are more physically active are happier. Further, individuals are happier in the moments when they are more physically active. These results emerged when assessing activity subjectively, via self-report, or objectively, via participants' smartphone accelerometers. Overall, this research suggests that not only exercise but also non-exercise physical activity is related to happiness. This research further demonstrates how smartphones can be used to collect large-scale data to examine psychological, behavioral, and health-related phenomena as they naturally occur in everyday life.

  19. Basal insulin peglispro increases lipid oxidation, metabolic flexibility, thermogenesis and ketone bodies compared to insulin glargine in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porksen, Niels K; Linnebjerg, Helle; Lam, Eric Chen Quin; Garhyan, Parag; Pachori, Alok; Pratley, Richard E; Smith, Steven R

    2018-01-08

    When treated with basal insulin peglispro (BIL), patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) exhibit weight loss and lower prandial insulin requirements versus insulin glargine (GL), while total insulin requirements remain similar. One possible explanation is enhanced lipid oxidation and improved ability to switch between glucose and lipid metabolism with BIL. This study compared the effects of BIL and GL on glucose and lipid metabolism in subjects with T1DM. Fifteen subjects with T1DM were enrolled into this open-label, randomised, crossover study, and received once-daily stable, individualised, subcutaneous doses of BIL and GL for 4 weeks each. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was measured using whole-room calorimetry, and energy expenditure (EE) and concentrations of ketone bodies (3-hydroxybutyrate) and acylcarnitines were assessed. Mean sleep RQ was lower during the BIL (0.822) than the GL (0.846) treatment period, indicating greater lipid metabolism during the post-absorptive period with BIL. Increases in carbohydrate oxidation following breakfast were greater during BIL than GL treatment (mean change in RQ following breakfast 0.111 for BIL, 0.063 for GL). Furthermore, BIL treatment increased total daily EE versus GL (2215.9 kcal/d for BIL, 2135.5 kcal/d for GL). Concentrations of ketone bodies and acylcarnitines appeared to be higher following BIL than GL treatment. BIL increased sleeping fat oxidation, EE, ketone bodies, acylcarnitines and post-prandial glucose metabolism when switching from conventional insulin, thus, restoring metabolic flexibility and increasing thermogenesis. These changes may explain the previously observed weight loss with BIL versus GL. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Korde, Anisha; Ye, Li; Lo, James C; Rasbach, Kyle A; Boström, Elisabeth Almer; Choi, Jang Hyun; Long, Jonathan Z; Kajimura, Shingo; Zingaretti, Maria Cristina; Vind, Birgitte F; Tu, Hua; Cinti, Saverio; Højlund, Kurt; Gygi, Steven P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2012-01-11

    Exercise benefits a variety of organ systems in mammals, and some of the best-recognized effects of exercise on muscle are mediated by the transcriptional co-activator PPAR-γ co-activator-1 α (PGC1-α). Here we show in mouse that PGC1-α expression in muscle stimulates an increase in expression of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise.

  1. A two-week reduction of ambulatory activity attenuates peripheral insulin sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Thyfault, John P; Broholm, Christa

    2009-01-01

    US adults take between ~2,000 to ~12,000 steps per day, a wide range of ambulatory activity, that at the low range could increase risk for developing chronic metabolic diseases. Dramatic reductions in physical activity induce insulin resistance; however it is uncertain if and how low ambulatory...... activity would influence peripheral insulin sensitivity. We aimed to explore if healthy, non-exercising subjects who went from a normal to a low level of ambulatory activity for two weeks would display metabolic alterations including reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity. -To do this, ten healthy young...... possible biological cause for the public health problem of type 2 diabetes has been identified. Reduced ambulatory activity for two weeks in healthy, non-exercising young men significantly reduced peripheral insulin sensitivity, cardiovascular fitness, and lean leg mass. Key words: Inactivity, Insulin...

  2. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L; DeMello, Madison M

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0 ± 3.3 years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6 weeks in random order. Energy expenditure and PA were measured with the SenseWear Mini Armband prior to each intervention as well as during week 1, week 8 and week 16 of the aerobic and resistance exercise program. Body composition was measured via dual x-ray absorptiometry. Body composition did not change in response to either exercise intervention. Total daily energy expenditure on exercise days increased by 443 ± 126 kcal/d and 239 ± 152 kcal/d for aerobic and resistance exercise, respectively (p change in total daily energy expenditure and PA on non-exercise days with aerobic exercise while resistance exercise was associated with an increase in moderate-to-vigorous PA during non-exercise days (216 ± 178 kcal/d, p = 0.01). Results of the present study suggest a compensatory reduction in PA in response to aerobic exercise. Resistance exercise, on the other hand, appears to facilitate non-exercise PA, particularly on non-exercise days, which may lead to more sustainable adaptations in response to an exercise program.

  3. Physical activity and pet ownership in year 3 of the Health ABC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Kreisle, Regina A; Glickman, Lawrence T; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Newman, Anne B; Kritchevsky, Stephen

    2006-04-01

    Pet ownership among older adults was investigated to determine whether dog owners were more likely to engage in physical activity than non-dog-pet or non-pet owners. The relationship between pet ownership and physical activity was examined using data from the Health ABC study. After age, race, education level, number of assets, family income, and site were adjusted for dog owners were more likely than non-pet owners to have engaged in non-exercise-related walking in the preceding week but did not differ from non-pet owners in walking for exercise or any physical activity. In contrast, non-dog-pet owners did not differ from non-pet owners in non-exercise-related walking in the preceding week and were less likely than non-pet owners to have engaged in walking for exercise or any physical activity in the preceding week. The activity-related benefits of pet ownership in older adults were limited to dog owners, who engaged in greater overall physical activity--non-exercise-related walking, in particular. Whether pet-related physical activity is sufficient to provide health benefits requires longitudinal investigation.

  4. Saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng prevent obesity via regulating thermogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guilin; Li, Haijun; Zhao, Yan; Zhu, Hongyan; Cai, Enbo; Gao, Yugang; Liu, Shuangli; Yang, He; Zhang, Lianxue

    2017-08-01

    In this study, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in mouse model was used to evaluate the dietary effect of saponins from stems and leaves of Panax ginseng (SLG), and to explore its mechanism of action in producing anti-obesity effects. The results indicate that SLG showed significant anti-obesity effects in diet-induced obese mice, represented by decreased serum levels of free fatty acids (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, glucose, leptin and insulin, as well as a reduction in overall body and liver weight, epididymal adipose tissue weight, and food efficiency, and inhibition of abnormal increases in acyl carnitine levels normally caused by an HFD. Additionally, the down-regulated expression of PPARγ, FAS, CD36, FATP2 and up-regulated expression of CPT-1, UCP-2, PPARα, HSL, and ATGL in liver tissue was induced by SLG. In addition, the SLG groups showed decreased PPARγ, aP2 and leptin mRNA levels and increased expression of PPARα, PGC-1α, UCP-1 and UCP-3 genes in adipose tissues, compared with the HFD group. In short, SLG may play a key role in producing anti-obesity effects in mice fed an HFD, and its mechanism may be related to regulation of thermogenesis, lipogenesis and lipolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Change in energy expenditure and physical activity in response to aerobic and resistance exercise programs

    OpenAIRE

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Grieve, George L.; DeMello, Madison M.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is considered an important component of a healthy lifestyle but there remains controversy on effects of exercise on non-exercise physical activity (PA). The present study examined the prospective association of aerobic and resistance exercise with total daily energy expenditure and PA in previously sedentary, young men. Nine men (27.0???3.3?years) completed two 16-week exercise programs (3 exercise sessions per week) of aerobic and resistance exercise separated by a minimum of 6?week...

  6. Using Thermogenic Beige Cells to Identify Biologically Active Small Molecules and Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ling; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Incorporating molecular libraries in chemical biology screenings in cultured cells has been successfully used for gene discovery in many cellular processes. It has the unique potential to uncover novel mechanisms of complex cellular biology through the screening of small molecules and protein biologics in relevant cell-based assays. Recent development in the understanding and generation of thermogenic adipocytes provides opportunities for potential anti-obesity therapeutics discovery. In this chapter, we describe screening methods using thermogenic beige cells to identify novel compounds and peptides that activate adipocyte thermogenesis.

  7. Modulation of receptors and adenylate cyclase activity during sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpace, P.J.; Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves as a regulator of body temperature and weight maintenance. Thermogenesis can be stimulated by catecholamine activation of adenylate cyclase through the β-adrenergic receptor. To investigate the effects of sucrose feeding, food deprivation, and cold exposure on the β-adrenergic pathway, adenylate cyclase activity and β-adrenergic receptors were assessed in rat BAT after 2 wk of sucrose feeding, 2 days of food deprivation, or 2 days of cold exposure. β-Adrenergic receptors were identified in BAT using [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. Binding sites had the characteristics of mixed β 1 - and β 2 -type adrenergic receptors at a ratio of 60/40. After sucrose feeding or cold exposure, there was the expected increase in BAT mitochondrial mass as measured by total cytochrome-c oxidase activity but a decrease in β-adrenergic receptor density due to a loss of the β 1 -adrenergic subtype. This BAT β-adrenergic receptor downregulation was tissue specific, since myocardial β-adrenergic receptors were unchanged with either sucrose feeding or cold exposure. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity increased in BAT after sucrose feeding or cold exposure but not after food deprivation. These data suggest that in BAT, sucrose feeding or cold exposure result in downregulation of β-adrenergic receptors and that isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was limited by receptor availability

  8. Thermogenic activation represses autophagy in brown adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó, M; Villarroya, J; Cereijo, R; Campderrós, L; Giralt, M; Villarroya, F

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is an adaptive process, essential for energy expenditure and involved in the control of obesity. Obesity is associated with abnormally increased autophagy in white adipose tissue. Autophagy has been proposed as relevant for brown-vs-white adipocyte differentiation; however, its role in the response of BAT to thermogenic activation is unknown. The effects of thermogenic activation on autophagy in BAT were analyzed in vivo by exposing mice to 24 h cold condition. The effects of norepinephrine (NE), cAMP and modulators of lysosomal activity were determined in differentiated brown adipocytes in the primary culture. Transcript expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and specific proteins were determined by immunoblot. Transmission electron microscopy, as well as confocal microscopy analysis after incubation with specific antibodies or reagents coupled to fluorescent emission, were performed in BAT and cultured brown adipocytes, respectively. Autophagy is repressed in association with cold-induced thermogenic activation of BAT in mice. This effect was mimicked by NE action in brown adipocytes, acting mainly through a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A pathway. Inhibition of autophagy in brown adipocytes leads to an increase in UCP1 protein and uncoupled respiration, suggesting a repressing role for autophagy in relation to the activity of BAT thermogenic machinery. Under basal conditions, brown adipocytes show signs of active lipophagy, which is suppressed by a cAMP-mediated thermogenic stimulus. Our results show a noradrenergic-mediated inverse relationship between autophagy and thermogenic activity in BAT and point toward autophagy repression as a component of brown adipocyte adaptive mechanisms to activate thermogenesis.

  9. Critical review of beige adipocyte thermogenic activation and contribution to whole-body energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Érique; Silva, Tiago E Oliveira; Festuccia, William T

    2017-09-01

    Beige (or brite, "brown in white") adipocytes are uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-positive cells residing in white adipose depots that, depending on the conditions, behave either as classic white adipocytes, storing energy as lipids, or as brown adipocytes, dissipating energy from oxidative metabolism as heat through non-shivering thermogenesis. Because of their thermogenic potential and, therefore, possible usage to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, beige cells have attracted the attention of many scientists worldwide aiming to develop strategies to safely recruit and activate their thermogenic activity. Indeed, in recent years, a large variety of conditions, molecules (including nutrients) and signaling pathways were reported to promote the recruitment of beige adipocytes. Despite of those advances, the true contribution of beige adipocyte thermogenesis to whole-body energy expenditure is still not completely defined. Herein, we discuss some important aspects that should be considered when studying beige adipocyte biology and the contribution to energy balance and whole-body metabolism.

  10. Thermogenin amount and activity in hamster brown fat mitochondria: effect of cold acclimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundin, U.; Moore, G.; Nedergaard, J.; Cannon, B.

    1987-01-01

    To investigate the acclimation process in a hibernator, four different parameters of thermogenin amount and activity were investigated in brown adipose tissue mitochondria from cold-exposed and cold-acclimated Syrian hamsters. Hamsters, which are hibernators, have been considered to be primed for thermogenesis and thus not to show cold-acclimation effects, but here a significant increase in [ 3 H]GDP-binding capacity was observed, and this increase was paralleled by an increase in thermogenin antigen amount, as measured in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The transient nature of the effect of cold exposure on [ 3 H]GDP binding, characteristically observed with rat mitochondria, was not observed with hamster mitochondria, and the increase in [ 3 H]GDP binding occurred without a change in the dissociation constant. The increase in thermogenin amount was paralleled by an increase both in GDP-sensitive Cl - permeability of the mitochondria and in GDP-sensitive respiration. It was established that it is the maximal activity of thermogenin that is rate limiting for thermogenesis in isolated mitochondria, provided that an optimal substrate is used (such as palmitoyl carnitine). Cold acclimation also increased the total amount of mitochondria in the tissue, leading totally to a sixfold increase in thermogenin content of the hamster. It is concluded that hamsters show the expected physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical signs of cold acclimation

  11. Staying physically active after spinal cord injury: a qualitative exploration of barriers and facilitators to exercise participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroll Thilo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While enhancing physical activity has been an essential goal of public health officials, people with physical impairments such as spinal cord injury (SCI are more likely to live a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise has been shown to decrease the risk for many of the secondary conditions associated with SCI, including osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, diabetes and arthritis, yet this population is rarely a target for health promotion efforts. This paper examines the self-reported exercise experiences of people with SCI using a qualitative-exploratory design. Methods We enrolled 26 individuals with SCI (15 self-described 'exercisers' and 11 'non-exercisers' from a non-random pool of survey responders. Semi-structured phone interviews were conducted to record participants' experiences with exercise pre/post injury, barriers and facilitators to being active and perceived health impact. Results Regardless of exercise status, all participants reported physical activity prior to injury and expressed interest in becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Participants identified a range of both motivational and socio-environmental factors that were either facilitating or constraining of such a lifestyle. Non-exercisers identified barriers to exercise, including a perceived low return on physical investment, lack of accessible facilities, unaffordable equipment, no personal assistance and fear of injury. Exercisers identified facilitators, including personal motivation, independence, availability of accessible facilities and personal assistants, fear of health complications, and weight management. Exercisers associated a greater range of specific health benefits with being active than non-exercisers. Conclusion Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with SCI face many obstacles. Removal of barriers coupled with promotion of facilitating factors, is vital for

  12. Activation of brown adipose tissue in hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapa, Constantin; Maya, Yoshifumi; Wagner, Martin; Arias-Loza, Paula; Werner, Rudolf A; Herrmann, Ken; Higuchi, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) attracts growing interest as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes. Hyperthyroidism is well-known to increase BAT activity, but the role of hypothyroidism is controversial. We aimed to investigate the association between different thyroid hormone (TH) states and BAT activity. FDG-PET studies were retrospectively evaluated in thyroid cancer patients after total thyroidectomy both at euthyroidism during TH replacement or at hypothyroidism after TH cessation. Serum TH levels were compared between patients with active BAT and control patients with non-active BAT matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Additionally, animal experiments with controls (n = 5) and hypothyroid rats (n = 5) were performed. Out of 124 patients, 6 patients with active BAT were identified. These patients showed significantly higher thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels than matched controls (P hypothyroid animals showed BAT activation at room temperature (24 °C), whereas controls did not (P hypothyroidism, which might be the result of a feedback mechanism to maintain body temperature in a state of reduced basal thermogenesis. Future research needs to explore the underlying mechanistic and biological implications.

  13. Metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids directly activate uncoupling protein 1 in brown-fat mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabalina, Irina G; Kalinovich, Anastasia V; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The metabolically inert perfluorinated fatty acids perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) can display fatty acid-like activity in biological systems. The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown adipose tissue is physiologically (re)activated by fatty acids, including octanoate. This leads to bioenergetically uncoupled energy dissipation (heat production, thermogenesis). We have examined here the possibility that PFOA/PFOS can directly (re)activate UCP1 in isolated mouse brown-fat mitochondria. In wild-type brown-fat mitochondria, PFOS and PFOA overcame GDP-inhibited thermogenesis, leading to increased oxygen consumption and dissipated membrane potential. The absence of this effect in brown-fat mitochondria from UCP1-ablated mice indicated that it occurred through activation of UCP1. A competitive type of inhibition by increased GDP concentrations indicated interaction with the same mechanistic site as that utilized by fatty acids. No effect was observed in heart mitochondria, i.e., in mitochondria without UCP1. The stimulatory effect of PFOA/PFOS was not secondary to non-specific mitochondrial membrane permeabilization or to ROS production. Thus, metabolic effects of perfluorinated fatty acids could include direct brown adipose tissue (UCP1) activation. The possibility that this may lead to unwarranted extra heat production and thus extra utilization of food resources, leading to decreased fitness in mammalian wildlife, is discussed, as well as possible negative effects in humans. However, a possibility to utilize PFOA-/PFOS-like substances for activating UCP1 therapeutically in obesity-prone humans may also be envisaged.

  14. Synchronicity of thermogenic activity, alternative pathway respiratory flux, AOX protein content, and carbohydrates in receptacle tissues of sacred lotus during floral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Nicole M; Miller, Rebecca E; Watling, Jennifer R; Robinson, Sharon A

    2008-01-01

    The relationships between heat production, alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway flux, AOX protein, and carbohydrates during floral development in Nelumbo nucifera (Gaertn.) were investigated. Three distinct physiological phases were identified: pre-thermogenic, thermogenic, and post-thermogenic. The shift to thermogenic activity was associated with a rapid, 10-fold increase in AOX protein. Similarly, a rapid decrease in AOX protein occurred post-thermogenesis. This synchronicity between AOX protein and thermogenic activity contrasts with other thermogenic plants where AOX protein increases some days prior to heating. AOX protein in thermogenic receptacles was significantly higher than in post-thermogenic and leaf tissues. Stable oxygen isotope measurements confirmed that the increased respiratory flux supporting thermogenesis was largely via the AOX, with little or no contribution from the cytochrome oxidase pathway. During the thermogenic phase, no significant relationship was found between AOX protein content and either heating or AOX flux, suggesting that regulation is likely to be post-translational. Further, no evidence of substrate limitation was found; starch accumulated during the early stages of floral development, peaking in thermogenic receptacles, before declining by 89% in post-thermogenic receptacles. Whilst coarse regulation of AOX flux occurs via protein synthesis, the ability to thermoregulate probably involves precise regulation of AOX protein, most probably by effectors such as alpha-keto acids.

  15. Associations between lower extremity muscle mass and metabolic parameters related to obesity in Japanese obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidetaka Hamasaki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia increases the incidence of obesity in the elderly by reducing physical activity. This sarcopenic obesity may become self-perpetuating, increasing the risks for metabolic syndrome, disability, and mortality. We investigated the associations of two sarcopenic indices, the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to body weight (L/W ratio and the ratio of lower extremity muscle mass to upper extremity muscle mass (L/U ratio, with metabolic parameters related to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity.Methods. Of 148 inpatients with type 2 diabetes treated between October 2013 and April 2014, we recruited 26 with obesity but no physical disability. Daily physical activity was measured by a triaxial accelerometer during a period of hospitalization, and which was also evaluated by our previously reported non-exercise activity thermogenesis questionnaire. We measured body composition by bioelectrical impedance and investigated the correlations of L/W and L/U ratios with body weight, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area, serum lipid profile, and daily physical activity.Results. The L/W ratio was significantly and negatively correlated with BMI, WC, WHR, body fat mass, body fat percentage, subcutaneous fat area, and serum free fatty acid concentration, was positively correlated with daily physical activity: the locomotive non-exercise activity thermogenesis score, but was not correlated with visceral fat area. The L/U ratio was significantly and positively correlated with serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.Conclusions. High L/W and L/U ratios, indicative of relatively preserved lower extremity muscle mass, were predictive of improved metabolic parameters related to obesity. Preserved muscle fitness in obesity, especially of the lower extremities, may prevent sarcopenic obesity and lower associated risks for

  16. Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of β-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT...... therapies based on cold exposure or β-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from...... receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation...

  17. Activity of thyroxine 5' deiodinase in brown fat of lean and obese zucker rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.Y.; Fisher, D.A.; Stern, J.S.; Glick, Z.

    1986-03-01

    This study examines the possibility that the reduced brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in the Zucker obese rat may result from a limited capacity for conversion of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ in BAT, through activity of T/sub 4/ 5' deiodinase. Eighteen lean (Fa/.) and 18 age matched obese (fa/fa), about 16 weeks old, were each divided into 3 groups (n=6 per group). Group 1 and 2 were fed Purina Rat Chow and a cafeteria diet respectively for 21 days, and maintained at 22/sup 0/C+/-2. Group 3 was fed rat chow and maintained at 8/sup 0/C+/-1 for 7 days. Activity of T/sub 4/5'deiodinase was determined in vitro. T/sub 3/ was measured by a radioimmunoassay. The rate of T/sub 4/ to T/sub 3/ conversion was similar in the lean and the obese rats maintained at room temperature, whether fed rat chow or a cafeteria diet (about 40 to 50 pmol T/sub 3//scapular BAT depot, per hour). However, lean rats exposed to the cold displayed about a 5 fold increase in T/sub 4/5' deiodinase activity (p<0.0001), with only a small increase displayed by the cold exposed obese rats. Our data suggest that a reduced capacity of the brown rat to produce T/sub 3/ may account for the reduced tolerance of obese animals to cold, but it does not account for their reduced diet induced BAT thermogenesis.

  18. Does a physical activity program in the nursing home impact on depressive symptoms? A generalized linear mixed-model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelmann, Mona; Jansen, Carl-Philipp; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Schilling, Oliver K; Schnabel, Eva-Luisa; Hauer, Klaus

    2017-04-18

    Physical activity (PA) may counteract depressive symptoms in nursing home (NH) residents considering biological, psychological, and person-environment transactional pathways. Empirical results, however, have remained inconsistent. Addressing potential shortcomings of previous research, we examined the effect of a whole-ecology PA intervention program on NH residents' depressive symptoms using generalized linear mixed-models (GLMMs). We used longitudinal data from residents of two German NHs who were included without any pre-selection regarding physical and mental functioning (n = 163, M age = 83.1, 53-100 years; 72% female) and assessed on four occasions each three months apart. Residents willing to participate received a 12-week PA training program. Afterwards, the training was implemented in weekly activity schedules by NH staff. We ran GLMMs to account for the highly skewed depressive symptoms outcome measure (12-item Geriatric Depression Scale-Residential) by using gamma distribution. Exercising (n = 78) and non-exercising residents (n = 85) showed a comparable level of depressive symptoms at pretest. For exercising residents, depressive symptoms stabilized between pre-, posttest, and at follow-up, whereas an increase was observed for non-exercising residents. The intervention group's stabilization in depressive symptoms was maintained at follow-up, but increased further for non-exercising residents. Implementing an innovative PA intervention appears to be a promising approach to prevent the increase of NH residents' depressive symptoms. At the data-analytical level, GLMMs seem to be a promising tool for intervention research at large, because all longitudinally available data points and non-normality of outcome data can be considered.

  19. UCP1 induction during recruitment of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue is dependent on cyclooxygenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Pedersen, Lone M; Lillefosse, Haldis Haukaas

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a hallmark of brown adipocytes and pivotal for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are crucially involved in induction of UCP1...... expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. Indomethacin repressed beta......-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. The use of PGE(2) receptor antagonists implicated EP(4) as a main PGE(2) receptor, and injection of the stable PGE(2) analog (EP(3/4) agonist) 16,16 dm PGE(2) induced UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue. Inhibition of COX activity...

  20. Hyperphagia, lower body temperature, and reduced running wheel activity precede development of morbid obesity in New Zealand obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Hella S; Schürmann, Annette; Kluge, Reinhart; Ortmann, Sylvia; Klaus, Susanne; Joost, Hans-Georg; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2006-04-13

    Among polygenic mouse models of obesity, the New Zealand obese (NZO) mouse exhibits the most severe phenotype, with fat depots exceeding 40% of total body weight at the age of 6 mo. Here we dissected the components of energy balance including feeding behavior, locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis compared with the related lean New Zealand black (NZB) and obese B6.V-Lep(ob)/J (ob/ob) strains (11% and 65% fat at 23 wk, respectively). NZO mice exhibited a significant hyperphagia that, when food intake was expressed per metabolic body mass, was less pronounced than that of the ob/ob strain. Compared with NZB, NZO mice exhibited increased meal frequency, meal duration, and meal size. Body temperature as determined by telemetry with implanted sensors was reduced in NZO mice, but again to a lesser extent than in the ob/ob strain. In striking contrast to ob/ob mice, NZO mice were able to maintain a constant body temperature during a 20-h cold exposure, thus exhibiting a functioning cold-induced thermogenesis. No significant differences in spontaneous home cage activity were observed among NZO, NZB, and ob/ob strains. When mice had access to voluntary running wheels, however, running activity was significantly lower in NZO than NZB mice and even lower in ob/ob mice. These data indicate that obesity in NZO mice, just as in humans, is due to a combination of hyperphagia, reduced energy expenditure, and insufficient physical activity. Because NZO mice differ strikingly from the ob/ob strain in their resistance to cold stress, we suggest that the molecular defects causing hyperphagia in NZO mice are located distal from leptin and its receptor.

  1. Physical Activity and Constipation in Hong Kong Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Ho, Sai-Yin; Lo, Wing-Sze; Lam, Tai-Hing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of constipation with exercise, non-exercise physical activity, and sedentary behaviours in Hong Kong adolescents. Methods In 2006–2007, 42 secondary schools were randomly selected to participate in the Hong Kong Student Obesity Surveillance (HKSOS) project. A total of 33692 Form 1–7 students (44.9% boys; mean age 14.8, SD 1.9 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire on lifestyle behaviours. Constipation was defined as a frequency of evacuation of less than once every two days. Exercise (moderate-to-vigorous levels) and non-exercise physical activity (NEPA) were each considered insufficient when less than 1 hour per day, and sedentary behaviours were considered excessive when over 4 hours per day. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratio (AOR) for constipation in relation to exercise, NEPA, and sedentary behaviours, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Constipation was identified in 15.6% (95% CI 15.2% – 16.0%) of adolescents overall, 14.0% in those with sufficient exercise and 19.6% in those without. Constipation was associated with insufficient exercise (AOR 1.26, 95% CI 1.16 – 1.36), insufficient NEPA 1.21 (1.10 – 1.33) and excessive sedentary behaviours (1.25, 1.17 – 1.34). Compared with having none of the above 3 inactive behaviours, increasing AORs of constipation were observed for having 1 (AOR 1.23), 2 (AOR 1.57) and 3 (AOR 1.88) inactive behaviours (p for trend Constipation was associated with insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behaviours among Chinese adolescents with a dose-response relation. If the association is causal, constipation could be prevented by promotion of physical activity. PMID:24587274

  2. Vanillic acid attenuates obesity via activation of the AMPK pathway and thermogenic factors in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yunu; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Sim, Jung-Eun; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; Lim, Seona; Jeong, Mi-Young; Yang, Woong Mo; Lee, Seok-Geun; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Um, Jae-Young

    2018-03-01

    Energy expenditure is a target gaining recent interest for obesity treatment. The antiobesity effect of vanillic acid (VA), a well-known flavoring agent, was investigated in vivo and in vitro. High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice and genetically obese db/db mice showed significantly decreased body weights after VA administration. Two major adipogenic markers, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), were reduced while the key factor of energy metabolism, AMPKα, was increased in the white adipose tissue and liver tissue of VA-treated mice. Furthermore, VA inhibited lipid accumulation and reduced hepatotoxic/inflammatory markers in liver tissues of mice and HepG2 hepatocytes. VA treatment also decreased differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes by regulating adipogenic factors including PPARγ and C/EBPα. AMPKα small interfering RNA was used to examine whether AMPK was associated with the actions of VA. In AMPKα-nulled 3T3-L1 cells, the inhibitory action of VA on PPARγ and C/EBPα was attenuated. Furthermore, in brown adipose tissues of mice and primary cultured brown adipocytes, VA increased mitochondria- and thermogenesis-related factors such as uncoupling protein 1 and PPARγ-coactivator 1-α. Taken together, our results suggest that VA has potential as an AMPKα- and thermogenesis-activating antiobesity agent.-Jung, Y., Park, J., Kim, H.-L., Sim, J.-E., Youn, D.-H., Kang, J., Lim, S., Jeong, M.-Y., Yang, W. M., Lee, S.-G., Ahn, K. S., Um, J.-Y. Vanillic acid attenuates obesity via activation of the AMPK pathway and thermogenic factors in vivo and in vitro.

  3. Metabolically active human brown adipose tissue derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francisco J; Holt, Dolly J; Vargas, Vanessa; Yockman, James; Boudina, Sihem; Atkinson, Donald; Grainger, David W; Revelo, Monica P; Sherman, Warren; Bull, David A; Patel, Amit N

    2014-02-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in the evolutionarily conserved mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis in mammals. It is characterized by fat vacuoles 5-10 µm in diameter and expression of uncoupling protein one, central to the regulation of thermogenesis. In the human newborn, BAT depots are typically grouped around the vasculature and solid organs. These depots maintain body temperature during cold exposure by warming the blood before its distribution to the periphery. They also ensure an optimal temperature for biochemical reactions within solid organs. BAT had been thought to involute throughout childhood and adolescence. Recent studies, however, have confirmed the presence of active BAT in adult humans with depots residing in cervical, supraclavicular, mediastinal, paravertebral, and suprarenal regions. While human pluripotent stem cells have been differentiated into functional brown adipocytes in vitro and brown adipocyte progenitor cells have been identified in murine skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, multipotent metabolically active BAT-derived stem cells from a single depot have not been identified in adult humans to date. Here, we demonstrate a clonogenic population of metabolically active BAT stem cells residing in adult humans that can: (a) be expanded in vitro; (b) exhibit multilineage differentiation potential; and (c) functionally differentiate into metabolically active brown adipocytes. Our study defines a new target stem cell population that can be activated to restore energy homeostasis in vivo for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders. © 2013 AlphaMed Press.

  4. The cannabinoid receptor agonist THC attenuates weight loss in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verty, Aaron N A; Evetts, Megan J; Crouch, Geraldine J; McGregor, Iain S; Stefanidis, Aneta; Oldfield, Brian J

    2011-06-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by anhedonia whereby patients experience little pleasure or reward in many aspects of their lives. Reward pathways and the endocannabionid system have been implicated in the mediation of food intake. The potential to exploit these systems to reverse weight loss is investigated in a rodent model of activity-based anorexia (ABA). The effect of subchronic (6 days) Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) treatment (0.1, 0.5, or 2.0 mg/kg/day) was assessed on chow and high-fat diet (HFD) intake, body weight, running wheel activity (RWA) as well as thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT). Limited time availability of food and continuous access to running wheels led to anorexia and significantly reduced body weight. THC treatment (0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg/day) transiently stimulated chow intake with a moderate effect on RWA. THC (2.0 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced body weight loss and shifted markers of thermogenesis in BAT and lipid metabolism in WAT in directions consistent with reduced energy expenditure and lipolysis. THC (2.0 mg/kg/day) combined with HFD, produced a transient increase in food intake, reduction in RWA, attenuation of body weight loss, and changes in markers of thermogensis in BAT and lipolysis in the WAT. These changes were significantly greater than those seen in vehicle (HFD), vehicle (chow), and THC (chow)-treated animals. These data show for the first time the effectiveness of the endocannabinoid system in attenuating the weight loss associated with the development of ABA via a mechanism involving reduced energy expenditure.

  5. Enhancement of brown fat thermogenesis using chenodeoxycholic acid in mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Teodoro, J.S.; Zouhar, Petr; Flachs, Pavel; Bardová, Kristina; Janovská, Petra; Gomes, A.P.; Duarte, F.V.; Varela, A.T.; Rolo, A.P.; Palmeira, C.M.; Kopecký, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 8 (2014), s. 1027-1034 ISSN 0307-0565 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E12073; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00871S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : white adipose tissue * uncoupling protein 1 * energy expenditure * bile acids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 5.004, year: 2014

  6. Does Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis Play a Role in Metabolic Health?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Porter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function ascribed to brown adipose tissue in humans has long been confined to thermoregulation in neonates, where this thermogenic capacity was thought lost with maturation. Recently, brown adipose tissue depots have been identified in adult humans. The significant oxidative capacity of brown adipocytes and the ability of their mitochondria to respire independently of ATP production, has led to renewed interest in the role that these adipocytes play in human energy metabolism. In our view, there is a need for robust physiological studies determining the relationship between molecular signatures of brown adipose tissue, adipose tissue mitochondrial function, and whole body energy metabolism, in order to elucidate the significance of thermogenic adipose tissue in humans. Until such information is available, the role of thermogenic adipose tissue in human metabolism and the potential that these adipocytes may prevent or treat obesity and metabolic diseases in humans will remain unknown. In this article, we summarize the recent literature pertaining to brown adipose tissue function with the aims of drawing the readers’ attention to the lack of data concerning the role of brown adipocytes in human physiology, and to the potential limitations of current research strategies.

  7. Shivering thermogenesis in humans: Origin, contribution and metabolic requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, François; Blondin, Denis P

    2017-01-01

    As endotherms, humans exposed to a compensable cold environment rely on an increase in thermogenic rate to counteract heat lost to the environment, thereby maintaining a stable core temperature. This review focuses primarily on the most important contributor of heat production in cold-exposed adult humans, shivering skeletal muscles. Specifically, it presents current understanding on (1) the origins of shivering, (2) the contribution of shivering to total heat production and (3) the metabolic requirements of shivering. Although shivering had commonly been measured as a metabolic outcome measure, considerable research is still needed to clearly identify the neuroanatomical structures and circuits that initiate and modulate shivering and drives the shivering patterns (continuous and burst shivering). One thing is clear, the thermogenic rate in humans can be maintained despite significant inter-individual differences in the thermogenic contribution of shivering, the muscles recruited in shivering, the burst shivering rate and the metabolic substrates used to support shivering. It has also become evident that the variability in burst shivering rate between individuals, despite not influencing heat production, does play a key role in orchestrating metabolic fuel selection in the cold. In addition, advances in our understanding of the thermogenic role of brown adipose tissue have been able to explain, at least in part, the large inter-individual differences in the contribution of shivering to total heat production. Whether these differences in the thermogenic role of shivering have any bearing on cold endurance and survival remains to be established. Despite the available research describing the relative thermogenic importance of shivering skeletal muscles in humans, the advancement in our understanding of how shivering is initiated and modulated is needed. Such research is critical to consider strategies to either reduce its role to improve occupational performance or exploit its metabolic potential for clinical purposes.

  8. Contribution of anaerobic energy expenditure to whole body thermogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Christopher B

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heat production serves as the standard measurement for the determination of energy expenditure and efficiency in animals. Estimations of metabolic heat production have traditionally focused on gas exchange (oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide production although direct heat measurements may include an anaerobic component particularly when carbohydrate is oxidized. Stoichiometric interpretations of the ratio of carbon dioxide production to oxygen uptake suggest that both anaerobic and aerobic heat production and, by inference, all energy expenditure – can be accounted for with a measurement of oxygen uptake as 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen. This manuscript incorporates contemporary bioenergetic interpretations of anaerobic and aerobic ATP turnover to promote the independence of these disparate types of metabolic energy transfer: each has different reactants and products, uses dissimilar enzymes, involves different types of biochemical reactions, takes place in separate cellular compartments, exploits different types of gradients and ultimately each operates with distinct efficiency. The 21.1 kJ per liter of oxygen for carbohydrate oxidation includes a small anaerobic heat component as part of anaerobic energy transfer. Faster rates of ATP turnover that exceed mitochondrial respiration and that are supported by rapid glycolytic phosphorylation with lactate production result in heat production that is independent of oxygen uptake. Simultaneous direct and indirect calorimetry has revealed that this anaerobic heat does not disappear when lactate is later oxidized and so oxygen uptake does not adequately measure anaerobic efficiency or energy expenditure (as was suggested by the "oxygen debt" hypothesis. An estimate of anaerobic energy transfer supplements the measurement of oxygen uptake and may improve the interpretation of whole-body energy expenditure.

  9. An OLTAM system for analysis of brown/beige fat thermogenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D-I; Liao, J; Emont, M P; Park, M-J; Jun, H; Ramakrishnan, S K; Lin, J D; Shah, Y M; Omary, M B; Wu, J

    2018-01-23

    Thermogenic fat is present in humans and emerging evidence indicates that increasing the content and activity of these adipocytes may lead to weight loss and improved metabolic health. Multiple reporter systems have been developed to assay thermogenic fat activity based on the transcriptional and translational activation of Ucp1, the key molecule that mediates nonshivering thermogenesis. Our study aims to develop a much-needed tool to monitor thermogenic fat activity through a mechanism independent of Ucp1 regulation, therefore effectively assaying not only canonical β-adrenergic activation but also various non-UCP1-mediated thermogenic pathways that have been increasingly appreciated. We detected increased luciferase activity upon thermogenic activation in interscapular brown and inguinal subcutaneous fat in ODD-Luc mice, a hypoxia reporter mouse model. We then developed an OLTAM (ODD-Luc based Thermogenic Activity Measurement) system to assay thermogenic fat cell activity. In both primary murine and human adipocytes and an immortalized adipose cell line that were transduced with the OLTAM system, luciferase activity can be readily measured and visualized by bioluminescence imaging in response to a variety of stimuli, including UCP1-independent thermogenic signaling. This system can offer a convenient method to assay thermogenic activity for both basic and translational research. The OLTAM system offers a convenient way to measure of the activation of thermogenic fat and presents opportunities to discover novel signaling pathways and unknown compounds targeting metabolically active adipocytes to counteract human obesity.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 23 January 2018. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.308.

  10. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Wasenius

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks and during the intervention (1–12 weeks and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050. The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p 0.050 compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised.

  11. Infrared thermography for indirect assessment of activation of brown adipose tissue in lean and obese male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hamza; Frascati, Andrea; Granzotto, Marnie; Silvestrin, Valentina; Ferlini, Elisabetta; Vettor, Roberto; Rossato, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a key role in adaptive thermogenesis in mammals, and it has recently been considered as an attractive therapeutic target for tackling human obesity by increasing energy expenditure. Thermal imaging using infrared thermography (IRT) has emerged as a potential safe, rapid and inexpensive technique for detecting BAT in humans. However, little attention has been given to the reliability of this method in obese subjects. To this end, we evaluated the capacity of IRT to detect activated supraclavicular (SCV) BAT in 14 lean and 16 mildly obese young adults after acute cold exposure. Using IRT we measured the temperature of the skin overlying the SCV and sternal areas at baseline and after acute cold stimulation. Additionally, energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Energy expenditure and SCV skin temperature significantly increased in lean subjects upon cold exposure, while no significant changes were detected in the obese group. Furthermore, cold-induced variations in SCV skin temperature of obese subjects showed a negative correlation with body mass index. This study suggests that in lean individuals BAT is a rapidly activated thermogenic tissue possibly involved in the regulation of energy balance, and can be indirectly assessed using IRT. In obese subjects, BAT seems less prone to be activated by cold exposure, with the degree of adiposity representing a limiting factor for the indirect detection of BAT activation by measuring the skin temperature overlying BAT.

  12. Effects of nutrient intake on sympathoadrenal activity and thermogenic mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A V; Christensen, N J; Simonsen, L

    1990-01-01

    the physiological threshold for thermogenic effect. The target is mainly skeletal muscle where thermogenesis is stimulated via beta 2-adrenoceptors. Also the basal metabolic rate and the thermogenic responses to cold and heat exposure, mental stress and exercise, have facultative components. Inhibition...

  13. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refinetti, Roberto; Kenagy, G J

    2018-02-01

    We studied circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) under laboratory conditions of a 12L:12D light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Antelope ground squirrels are diurnally active and, exceptionally among ground squirrels and other closely related members of the squirrel family in general, they do not hibernate. Daily oscillations in body temperature consisted of a rise in temperature during the daytime activity phase of the circadian cycle and a decrease in temperature during the nighttime rest phase. The body temperature rhythms were robust (71% of maximal strength) with a daily range of oscillation of 4.6°C, a daytime mean of 38.7°C, and a nighttime mean of 34.1°C (24-h overall mean 36.4°C). The body temperature rhythm persisted in continuous darkness with a free-running period of 24.2h. This pattern is similar to that of hibernating species of ground squirrels but with a wave form more similar to that of non-hibernating rodents. Daily oscillations in body temperature were correlated with individual bouts of activity, but daytime temperatures were higher than nighttime temperatures even when comparing short episodes of nocturnal activity that were as intense as diurnal activity. This suggests that although muscular thermogenesis associated with locomotor activity can modify the level of body temperature, the circadian rhythm of body temperature is not simply a consequence of the circadian rhythm of activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enzyme activity, hormone concentration in tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri during cold acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors play an important role in the seasonal adaptation of body mass and thermogenesis in wild small mammals. The tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri, is a unique species of small mammals which is origin of island in the Oriental realm. The present study was to test the hypothesis that ambient temperature was a cue to induce adjustments in body mass, energy intake, metabolism, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT, and other biochemical characters of T. belangeri during cold exposure about 21 days. Our data demonstrate that cold acclimation induced a remarkable increase in body mass, a significant increase in energy intake and metabolic rate, and high expression of UCP1 in BAT of T. belangeri. Cold acclimation induced an increase in cytochrome c oxidase (COX and Thyroidhormones (T3/T4. These data supported that T. belangeri increased the body mass and increased energy intake and expenditure under cold acclimation. Increased expression of UCP1 was potentially involved in the regulation of energy metabolism and thermogenic capacity following cold acclimation. And it through changes in enzyme activity and hormone concentration under cold acclimation, and suggested temperature changes play an important role in the regulation of thermogenic capacity in tree shrew.

  15. Effects of stochastic food deprivation on energy budget, body mass and activity in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun ZHAO, Jing CAO, Ye TIAN, Rui-Rui WANG, Gui-Ying WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available When small animals are faced with an unpredictable food supply, they can adapt by altering different components of their energy budget such as energy intake, metabolic rate, rate of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST or behaviour. The present study examined the effect of stochastic food deprivation (FD on body mass, food intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR, NST and behaviour in male Swiss mice. During a period of 4 weeks’ FD, animals were fed ad libitum for a randomly assigned 4 days each week, but were deprived of food for the other 3 days. The results showed that body mass significantly dropped on FD days compared to controls. Food intake of FD mice increased significantly on ad libitum days, ensuring cumulative food intake, final body mass, fat mass, RMR and NST did not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, gastrointestinal tract mass increased in FD mice, but digestibility decreased. In general, activity was higher on deprived days, and feeding behaviour was higher on ad libitum days suggesting that Swiss mice are able to compensate for stochastic FD primarily by increasing food intake on ad libitum days, and not by reducing energy expenditure related to RMR or NST [Current Zoology 55(4: 249–257, 2009].

  16. An Estrogen-Responsive Module in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Selectively Drives Sex-Specific Activity in Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Correa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen-receptor alpha (ERα neurons in the ventrolateral region of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHVL control an array of sex-specific responses to maximize reproductive success. In females, these VMHVL neurons are believed to coordinate metabolism and reproduction. However, it remains unknown whether specific neuronal populations control distinct components of this physiological repertoire. Here, we identify a subset of ERα VMHVL neurons that promotes hormone-dependent female locomotion. Activating Nkx2-1-expressing VMHVL neurons via pharmacogenetics elicits a female-specific burst of spontaneous movement, which requires ERα and Tac1 signaling. Disrupting the development of Nkx2-1+ VMHVL neurons results in female-specific obesity, inactivity, and loss of VMHVL neurons coexpressing ERα and Tac1. Unexpectedly, two responses controlled by ERα+ neurons, fertility and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, are unaffected. We conclude that a dedicated subset of VMHVL neurons marked by ERα, NKX2-1, and Tac1 regulates estrogen-dependent fluctuations in physical activity and constitutes one of several neuroendocrine modules that drive sex-specific responses.

  17. Activation of stress signaling molecules in bat brain during arousal from hibernation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moonyong; Choi, Inho; Park, Kyoungsook

    2002-08-01

    Induction of glucose-regulated proteins (GRPs) is a ubiquitous intracellular response to stresses such as hypoxia, glucose starvation and acidosis. The induction of GRPs offers some protection against these stresses in vitro, but the specific role of GRPs in vivo remains unclear. Hibernating bats present a good in vivo model to address this question. The bats must overcome local high oxygen demand in tissue by severe metabolic stress during arousal thermogenesis. We used brain tissue of a temperate bat Rhinolopus ferrumequinum to investigate GRP induction by high metabolic oxygen demand and to identify associated signaling molecules. We found that during 30 min of arousal, oxygen consumption increased from nearly zero to 11.9/kg/h, which was about 8.7-fold higher than its active resting metabolic rate. During this time, body temperature rose from 7 degrees C to 35 degrees C, and levels of TNF-alpha and lactate in brain tissue increased 2-2.5-fold, indicating a high risk of oxygen shortage. Concomitantly, levels of GRP75, GRP78 and GRP94 increased 1.5-1.7-fold. At the same time, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity increased 6.4-fold, and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activity decreased to a similar degree (6.1-fold). p38 MAPK activity was very low and remained unchanged during arousal. In addition, survival signaling molecules protein kinase B (Akt) and protein kinase C (PKC) were activated 3- and 5-fold, respectively, during arousal. Taken together, our results showed that bat brain undergoes high oxygen demand during arousal from hibernation. Up-regulation of GRP proteins and activation of JNK, PKCgamma and Akt may be critical for neuroprotection and the survival of bats during the repeated process.

  18. Patterns and correlates of physical activity: a cross-sectional study in urban Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hong-Lan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Rapid economic development in China has been associated with changes in lifestyle, including physical activity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patterns and correlates of physical activity in middle-aged and elderly women from urban Shanghai. Methods Study population consisted of 74,942 Chinese women, 40–70 years of age, participating in the baseline survey of the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1997–2000, an ongoing population-based cohort study. A validated, interviewer-administered physical activity questionnaire was used to collect information about several physical activity domains (exercise/sports, walking and cycling for transportation, housework. Correlations between physical activity domains were evaluated by Spearman rank-correlation coefficients. Associations between physical activity and socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were evaluated by odds ratios derived from logistic regression. Results While more than a third of study participants engaged in regular exercise, this form of activity contributed only about 10% to daily non-occupational energy expenditure. About two-thirds of women met current recommendations for lifestyle activity. Age was positively associated with participation in exercise/sports and housework. Dietary energy intake was positively associated with all physical activity domains. High socioeconomic status, unemployment (including retirement, history of chronic disease, small household, non-smoking status, alcohol and tea consumption, and ginseng intake were all positively associated with exercise participation. High socioeconomic status and small household were inversely associated with non-exercise activities. Conclusion This study demonstrates that physical activity domains other than sports and exercise are important contributors to total energy expenditure in women. Correlates of physical activity are domain

  19. Adiponectin is required for maintaining normal body temperature in a cold environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogenic impairment promotes obesity and insulin resistance. Adiponectin is an important regulator of energy homeostasis. While many beneficial metabolic effects of adiponectin resemble that of activated thermogenesis, the role of adiponectin in thermogenesis is not clear. In this study, we inves...

  20. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, A; Lee, J H; Wu, C-S; Wei, Q; Pradhan, G; Yafi, M; Lu, H-C; Sun, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical cannabinoid receptor, and its pharmacology and functions are distinct from CB1. GPR55 regulates neuropathic pain, gut, bone, immune functions and motor coordination. GPR55 is expressed in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. However, the roles of GPR55 in energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here we have investigated the roles of GPR55 in energy balance and insulin sensitivity using GPR55-null mice (GPR55(-/-)). Body composition of the mice was measured by EchoMRI. Food intake, feeding behavior, energy expenditure and physical activity of GPR55(-/-) mice were determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle function was assessed by forced treadmill running test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Adipose inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of adipose tissue macrophages. The expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissues and orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus was also analyzed by real-time PCR. GPR55(-/-) mice had normal total energy intake and feeding pattern (i.e., no changes in meal size, meal number or feeding frequency). Intriguingly, whereas adult GPR55(-/-) mice only showed a modest increase in overall body weight, they exhibited significantly increased fat mass and insulin resistance. The spontaneous locomotor activity of GPR55(-/-) mice was dramatically decreased, whereas resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis were unchanged. Moreover, GPR55(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased voluntary physical activity, showing reduced running distance on the running wheels, whereas muscle function appeared to be normal. GPR55 has an important role in energy

  1. Site-specific effects of apolipoprotein E expression on diet-induced obesity and white adipose tissue metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziri, Aikaterini; Kalogeropoulou, Christina; Xepapadaki, Eva; Birli, Eleni; Karavia, Eleni A; Papakosta, Eugenia; Filou, Serafoula; Constantinou, Caterina; Kypreos, Kyriakos E

    2018-02-01

    Apolipoprotein E (APOE) has been strongly implicated in the development of diet induced obesity. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of brain and peripherally expressed human apolipoprotein E3 (APOE3), the most common human isoform, to diet induced obesity. In our studies APOE3 knock-in (Apoe3 knock-in ), Apoe-deficient (apoe -/- ) and brain-specific expressing APOE3 (Apoe3 brain ) mice were fed western-type diet for 12week and biochemical analyses were performed. Moreover, AAV-mediated gene transfer of APOE3 to apoe -/- mice was employed, as a means to achieve APOE3 expression selectively in periphery, since peripherally expressed APOE does not cross blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Our data suggest a bimodal role of APOE3 in visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial metabolic activation that is highly dependent on its site of expression and independent of postprandial dietary lipid deposition. Our findings indicate that brain APOE3 expression is associated with a potent inhibition of visceral WAT mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to significantly reduced substrate oxidation, increased fat accumulation and obesity. In contrast, peripherally expressed APOE3 is associated with a notable shift of substrate oxidation towards non-shivering thermogenesis in visceral WAT mitochondria, leading to resistance to obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha activates signal transduction in hypothalamus and modulates the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins and orexigenic/anorexigenic neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Maria E; Barbuio, Raquel; Milanski, Marciane; Romanatto, Talita; Barbosa, Helena C; Nadruz, Wilson; Bertolo, Manoel B; Boschero, Antonio C; Saad, Mario J A; Franchini, Kleber G; Velloso, Licio A

    2006-07-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is known to participate in the wastage syndrome that accompanies cancer and severe infectious diseases. More recently, a role for TNF-alpha in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has been shown. Much of the regulatory action exerted by TNF-alpha upon the control of energy stores depends on its action on the hypothalamus. In this study, we show that TNF-alpha activates canonical pro-inflammatory signal transduction pathways in the hypothalamus of rats. These signaling events lead to the transcriptional activation of an early responsive gene and to the induction of expression of cytokines and a cytokine responsive protein such as interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signalling-3, respectively. In addition, TNF-alpha induces the expression of neurotransmitters involved in the control of feeding and thermogenesis. Thus, TNF-alpha may act directly in the hypothalamus inducing a pro-inflammatory response and the modulation of expression of neurotransmitters involved in energy homeostasis.

  3. BMR variability in women of different weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Maurizio; Pasanisi, Fabrizio; Montagnese, Concetta; De Filippo, Emilia; De Caprio, Carmela; de Magistris, Lanfranca; Contaldo, Franco

    2007-10-01

    Non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) and substrate oxidation are significant components of Energy Balance; their regulation may be modulated according to nutritional status and their impairment has been advocated as a factor facilitating the development of excess body fat. In this study body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), fidgeting as a component of NEAT and respiratory quotient (RQ), an index of preferential substrate oxidation, have been evaluated in 80 young women: 20 restrictive anorexia nervosa (rAN: BMI 15.1+/-1.6 kg/m(2)); 20 constitutional leanness (CL: BMI 17.2+/-1.0); 20 obese patients (Ob: BMI 43.8+/-10.0) and 20 controls (CTR: BMI 21.7+/-2.4). Fat free mass, fat mass and RMR progressively increased from rAN to Ob (p < 0.05). Fidgeting was higher in CL (67.2+/-27.2 kcal; p < 0.05) than in the other groups. Lipid oxidation, evaluated with RQ showed a negative correlation with fidgeting in CL (r=-0.433; p<0.05) and positive in Ob (r=0.572; p<0.05) and in rAN (r=0.434; p<0.05). Our findings support the regulatory function of NEAT, its protective role to prevent excess body fat accumulation and its positive relation with fat oxidation in CL.

  4. Leisure activities, education, and cognitive impairment in Chinese older adults: a population-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyi; Qiu, Chengxuan; Zeng, Yi; Li, Juan

    2017-05-01

    We examine the association between leisure-time activities and the risk of developing cognitive impairment among Chinese older people, and further investigate whether the association varies by educational level. This follow-up study included 6,586 participants (aged 79.5 ± 9.8 years, range 65-105 years, 51.7% female) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey who were aged ≥65 years and were free of cognitive impairment in 2002. Incident cognitive impairment was defined at the 2005 or 2008/2009 survey following an education-based cut-off on the adapted Chinese version of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Participation in cognitive activities (e.g. reading) and non-exercise physical activity (e.g. housework) was assessed by a self-reported scale. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to examine the association of leisure activities with incident cognitive impairment while controlling for age, gender, education, occupation, residence, physical exercise, smoking, drinking, cardiovascular diseases and risk factors, negative well-being, and physical functioning, and baseline MMSE score. During a five-year follow-up, 1,448 participants developed incident cognitive impairment. Overall, a high level of participation in leisure activities was associated with a 41% decreased risk of cognitive impairment compared to low-level engagement in leisure activities after controlling for age, gender, education, and other confounders. Moreover, there was a significant interaction between leisure activity and educational level, such that the beneficial effect of leisure activities on cognitive function was larger in educated elderly than their uneducated counterparts, and only educated elderly benefited from cognitive activities. Late-life leisure activities protect against cognitive impairment among elderly Chinese people, and the protective effects are more profound for educated elderly.

  5. Primate Torpor: Regulation of Stress-activated Protein Kinases During Daily Torpor in the Gray Mouse Lemur, Microcebus murinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle K. Biggar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Very few selected species of primates are known to be capable of entering torpor. This exciting discovery means that the ability to enter a natural state of dormancy is an ancestral trait among primates and, in phylogenetic terms, is very close to the human lineage. To explore the regulatory mechanisms that underlie primate torpor, we analyzed signal transduction cascades to discover those involved in coordinating tissue responses during torpor. The responses of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family members to primate torpor were compared in six organs of control (aroused versus torpid gray mouse lemurs, Microcebus murinus. The proteins examined include extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, c-jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNKs, MAPK kinase (MEK, and p38, in addition to stress-related proteins p53 and heat shock protein 27 (HSP27. The activation of specific MAPK signal transduction pathways may provide a mechanism to regulate the expression of torpor-responsive genes or the regulation of selected downstream cellular processes. In response to torpor, each MAPK subfamily responded differently during torpor and each showed organ-specific patterns of response. For example, skeletal muscle displayed elevated relative phosphorylation of ERK1/2 during torpor. Interestingly, adipose tissues showed the highest degree of MAPK activation. Brown adipose tissue displayed an activation of ERK1/2 and p38, whereas white adipose tissue showed activation of ERK1/2, p38, MEK, and JNK during torpor. Importantly, both adipose tissues possess specialized functions that are critical for torpor, with brown adipose required for non-shivering thermogenesis and white adipose utilized as the primary source of lipid fuel for torpor. Overall, these data indicate crucial roles of MAPKs in the regulation of primate organs during torpor.

  6. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Learning is active in nature. It is something you do, not something that is done to you. Engineering educators around the world recognize this basic truth and implement one or another form of active learning to enhance their teaching. Active learning in Engineering (ALE) was started as an initiat...

  7. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli Tikkanen

    Full Text Available Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours. EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC. During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC. Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min. Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC than men (p<0.05. In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  8. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK−−/−− mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK−−/−− mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  9. Physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk among urban Chinese: Results from two prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lang; Zheng, Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Li, Hong-Lan; Cai, Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2018-02-23

    Associations between physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk are unclear. In two prospective cohort studies: the Shanghai Women's Health Study and Shanghai Men's Health Study, physical activity and other information were collected at the baseline interview of 72,451 women and 60,037 men. Participants were followed up through annual linkage with cancer registry in combination with in-person interviews taking place every 2-4 years. We identified 225 female and 159 male cases during a median follow up of 16.1 and 10.3 years, respectively. Adult exercise participation was significantly associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk in men [hazard ratio (HR), 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71 (0.50-1.00)]. Meeting the recommended minimum exercise threshold to achieve health benefits of 150 min/week of moderate-intensity or 75 min/week of vigorous-intensity exercise was associated with further decreased pancreatic cancer risk [HR (95% CI): 0.59 (0.40-0.87)]. We also observed an inverse association between adolescent physical activity and pancreatic cancer risk in men [HR (95% CI): 0.54 (0.33-0.90)]. Exercise throughout one's lifetime was associated with a 68% decrease in pancreatic cancer risk [HR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.16-0.66)]. No significant association was found in women. Adult non-exercise daily activity and occupational activity were not associated with pancreatic cancer risk in either men or women. Adult exercise and adolescent physical activity were significantly associated with a decreased pancreatic cancer risk in men but not in women. These findings underscore the importance of investigating the possible modification by sex on the exercise and pancreatic cancer risk association. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Differential effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate isoenergetic meals on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Tsigos, C; Perea, D; Koukou, E; Kyriaki, D; Kitsou, E; Daskas, S; Daifotis, Z; Makrilakis, K; Raptis, S A; Katsilambros, N

    2003-11-01

    Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions: after a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich and after a fat-rich test meal. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, and NE, as well as spectral analysis of the HRV, were performed at baseline and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meals. At baseline, obese women had higher SNS activity than lean controls (higher values of low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF], 1.52 +/- 0.31 v 0.78 +/- 0.13, P=.04; and plasma NE levels, 405.6 +/- 197.9 v 240.5 +/- 95.8 pg/mL, Pmeal a greater increase in LF/HF and in plasma NE levels was observed in lean, compared to obese women (1.21 +/- 0.6 v 0.32 +/- 0.06, P=.04; and 102.9 +/- 35.4 v 38.7 +/- 12.3 pg/mL, P=.01, respectively), while no differences were observed after the fat-rich meal. Meal-induced thermogenesis was higher after the CHO-rich as compared to the fat-rich meal and was comparable between lean and obese women. Changes in HRV were not associated with the thermogenic response to the test meals. In conclusion, consumption of a CHO-rich meal causes greater cardiac SNS activation in lean than in obese women, while fat ingestion does not result in any appreciable change in either group. SNS activation does not appear to influence the thermic effect of the food in either lean or obese women.

  11. Effect of glucocorticoids on the activity, expression and proximal promoter of type II deiodinase in rat brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-deMena, Raquel; Calvo, Rosa-Maria; Garcia, Laura; Obregon, Maria Jesus

    2016-06-15

    Triiodothyronine (T3) is important for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Type II deiodinase (DIO2) produces T3 required for intracellular needs in BAT. Brown adipocytes in culture require T3 for the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2. Glucocorticoids induce adipocyte differentiation (lipogenesis). We investigated the regulation of DIO2 activity, Dio2 mRNA and Dio2 promoter activity by glucocorticoids in primary cultures of rat brown adipocytes using dexamethasone (DEX) and hydrocortisone (HC). DEX and HC regulated the adrenergic stimulation of DIO2 activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner, inhibiting DIO2 activity at short treatment times and large doses (1-10 μM) and stimulating DIO2 at low HC doses (1-100 nM) and longer times (DEX). Insulin depletion reduced DIO2 activity but the response to glucocorticoids remained unchanged. DEX and HC inhibited basal DIO2 activity. DEX had no effect on DIO2 half-life, whereas HC stabilized DIO2 activity. DEX and HC inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 mRNA expression (100-10000 nM, 14-96 h), but stabilized Dio2 mRNA, particularly DEX. DEX increased basal Dio2 mRNA levels, possibly through stabilization of Dio2 mRNA. An 807 bp construct of the murine Dio2 proximal promoter showed maximal reporter activity, with the cAMP response element (CRE) essential for transcriptional activity. DEX caused inhibition in most constructs containing the CRE element whereas HC stimulated reporter activity in the 807 bp construct. Glucocorticoids inhibited the adrenergic stimulation of Dio2 at the transcriptional level in brown adipocytes, although DIO2 activity increased with HC, possibly due to stabilization of Dio2 activity and mRNA. The CRE and cEBP elements of the Dio2 promoter seem involved in the regulation by glucocorticoids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Associations of Health Club Membership with Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth C Schroeder

    Full Text Available This study evaluates whether a health club membership is associated with meeting the US physical activity (PA guidelines and/or favorable cardiovascular health.Using cross-sectional data of health club members (n = 204 and non-members (n = 201 from April to August 2013, this is the first study to our knowledge to examine a health club membership in relation to objectively measured cardiovascular health indicators including resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, body mass index, waist circumference, and cardiorespiratory fitness based on a non-exercise test algorithm. To determine the total PA and sedentary time, this study used a comprehensive PA questionnaire about both aerobic and resistance activities at the health club, as well as lifestyle activities in other settings, which was developed based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ.The odds ratios (95% confidence interval of meeting either the aerobic, resistance, or both aerobic and resistance PA guidelines for members compared to non-members were 16.5 (9.8-27.6, 10.1 (6.2-16.3, and 13.8 (8.5-22.4, respectively. Significant associations of health club membership with more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes and sedentary behavior were observed for resting heart rate (B: -4.8 b/min, p1 year had more favorable health outcomes, with a smaller waist circumference (men, B: -4.0 cm, p = 0.04; women, B: -3.4 cm, p = 0.06, compared to non-members.Health club membership is associated with significantly increased aerobic and resistance physical activity levels and more favorable cardiovascular health outcomes compared to non-members. However, longitudinal, randomized controlled trials would be clearly warranted as cross-sectional data prohibits causal inferences.

  13. Influencing Factors of Thermogenic Adipose Tissue Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoqing; Sun, Qinghua; Liu, Cuiqing

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an escalating public health challenge and contributes tremendously to the disease burden globally. New therapeutic strategies are required to alleviate the health impact of obesity-related metabolic dysfunction. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized for dissipating chemical energy for thermogenesis as a defense against cold environment. Intriguingly, the brown-fat like adipocytes that dispersed throughout white adipose tissue (WAT) in rodents and humans, called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, share similar thermogenic characteristics to brown adipocytes. Recently, researchers have focused on cognition of these thermogenic adipose tissues. Some factors have been identified to regulate the development and function of thermogenic adipose tissues. Cold exposure, pharmacological conditions, and lifestyle can enhance non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolism via some mechanisms. However, environmental pollutants, such as ambient fine particulates and ozone, may impair the function of these thermogenic adipose tissues and thereby induce metabolic dysfunction. In this review, the origin, function and influencing factors of thermogenic adipose tissues were summarized and it will provide insights into identifying new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related diseases.

  14. Total energy expenditure estimated using foot-ground contact pedometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Reed W; Buller, Mark J; Santee, William R; Yokota, Miyo; Weyand, Peter G; Delany, James P

    2004-02-01

    Routine walking and running, by increasing daily total energy expenditure (TEE), can play a significant role in reducing the likelihood of obesity. The objective of this field study was to compare TEE estimated using foot-ground contact time (Tc)-pedometry (TEE(PEDO)) with that measured by the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) method. Eight male U.S. Marine test volunteers [27 +/- 4 years of age (mean +/- SD); weight = 83.2 +/- 10.7 kg; height = 182.2 +/- 4.5 cm; body fat = 17.0 +/- 2.9%] engaged in a field training exercise were studied over 2 days. TEE(PEDO) was defined as (calculated resting energy expenditure + estimated thermic effect of food + metabolic cost of physical activity), where physical activity was estimated by Tc-pedometry. Tc-pedometry was used to differentiate inactivity, activity other than exercise (i.e., non-exercise activity thermogenesis, or NEAT), and the metabolic cost of locomotion (M(LOCO)), where M(LOCO) was derived from total weight (body weight + load weight) and accelerometric measurements of Tc. TEE(PEDO) data were compared with TEEs measured by the DLW (2H2(18)O) method (TEE(DLW)): TEE(DLW) = 15.27 +/- 1.65 MJ/day and TEE(PEDO) = 15.29 +/- 0.83 MJ/day. Mean bias (i.e., TEE(PEDO) - TEE(DLW)) was 0.02 MJ, and mean error (SD of individual differences between TEE(PEDO) and TEE(DLW)) was 1.83 MJ. The Tc-pedometry method provided a valid estimate of the average TEE of a small group of physically active subjects where walking was the dominant activity.

  15. Effects of epinephrine and lactate on the increase in oxygen consumption of non-exercising skeletal muscle after aerobic exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Motohide; Katsumura, Toshihito; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Osada, Takuya; Sako, Takayuki; Higuchi, Hiroyuki; Esaki, Kazuki; Kime, Ryotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure O2 consumption of nonexercising skeletal muscles (VO2nonex) at rest and after aerobic exercise and to investigate the stimulant factors of O2 consumption. In experiment 1, we measured the resting metabolic rate of the finger flexor muscles in seven healthy males by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during a 15 min arterial occlusion. In experiment 2, the VO2nonex of the finger flexor muscles was measured using near infrared continuous wave spectroscopy at rest, immediate postexercise, and 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 min following a cycling exercise at a workload corresponding to 50% of peak pulmonary O2 uptake for 20 min. We also monitored deep tissue temperature in the VO2nonex measurement area and determined catecholamines and lactate concentrations in the blood at rest and immediate postexercise. VO2nonex at rest was 1.1 +/- 0.1 (mu) M O2/s (mean +/- standard error) and VO2nonex after exercise increased 59.6 +/- 7.2% (p < 0.001) from the resting values. There were significant correlations between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in epinephrine concentration (p < 0.01), and between the increase in VO2nonex and the increase in lactate concentration (p < 0.05). These results suggest that epinephrine and lactate concentrations are important VO2nonex stimulant factors.

  16. Loss of perivascular adipose tissue on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ deletion in smooth muscle cells impairs intravascular thermoregulation and enhances atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lin; Villacorta, Luis; Li, Rongxia; Hamblin, Milton; Xu, Wei; Dou, Chunyan; Zhang, Jifeng; Wu, Jiarui; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Y Eugene

    2012-08-28

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds most vessels and shares common features with brown adipose tissue (BAT). Although adaptive thermogenesis in BAT increases energy expenditure and is beneficial for metabolic diseases, little is known about the role of PVAT in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis. We hypothesize that the thermogenic function of PVAT regulates intravascular temperature and reduces atherosclerosis. PVAT shares similar structural and proteomics with BAT. We demonstrated that PVAT has thermogenic properties similar to BAT in response to cold stimuli in vivo. Proteomics analysis of the PVAT from mice housed in a cold environment identified differential expression in proteins highly related to cellular metabolic processes. In a mouse model deficient in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in smooth muscle cells (SMPG KO mice), we uncovered a complete absence of PVAT surrounding the vasculature, likely caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ deletion in the perivascular adipocyte precursor cells as well. Lack of PVAT, which results in loss of its thermogenic activity, impaired vascular homeostasis, which caused temperature loss and endothelial dysfunction. We further showed that cold exposure inhibits atherosclerosis and improves endothelial function in mice with intact PVAT but not in SMPG KO mice as a result of impaired lipid clearance. Proinflammatory cytokine expression in PVAT is not altered on exposure to cold. Finally, prostacyclin released from PVAT contributes to the vascular protection against endothelial dysfunction. PVAT is a vasoactive organ with functional characteristics similar to BAT and is essential for intravascular thermoregulation of cold acclimation. This thermogenic capacity of PVAT plays an important protective role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  17. Effect of 4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin on brown fat adipose tissue- and cutaneous-sympathetic nerve activity and peripheral body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jiao; Nakamura, Hiroyasu; Fujisaki, Yoshiyuki; Tanida, Mamoru; Horii, Yuko; Fuyuki, Risa; Takumi, Hiroko; Shiraishi, Koso; Kometani, Takashi; Nagai, Katsuya

    2009-09-11

    Changes in the activity of the autonomic nervous system are good indicators of alterations in physiological phenomena such as the body temperature, blood glucose, blood pressure. Hesperidin, a flavanone known as vitamin P, has been shown to reduce the levels of serum lipids, cholesterol, and blood pressure. However, hesperidin is not water-soluble and is not well absorbed from the intestine. G-hesperidin (4G-alpha-glucopyranosyl hesperidin) is more water-soluble and more rapidly absorbed than hesperidin. In order to clarify the functions of G-hesperidin, we examined the effects of oral administration of G-hesperidin on interscapular brown adipose tissue-sympathetic nerve activity (BAT-SNA) and cutaneous sympathetic nerve activity (CASNA) in rats weighing about 300 g. In this study, we found that oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin increased the BAT-SNA but decreased the CASNA in urethane-anesthetized rats. Since an elevation in BAT-SNA increases heat production (i.e. body temperature (BT)) and a decrease in CASNA increases cutaneous perfusion, we examined whether oral administration of G-hesperidin had an effect on the peripheral BT in rats. Consequently, we observed that the subcutaneous BT at the caudal end of the back after oral administration of 60 mg of G-hesperidin was significantly higher than the subcutaneous BT after oral administration of water in conscious rats. These findings suggest that G-hesperidin enhances the BAT-SNA and suppresses the CASNA resulting in an increase in the peripheral BT, probably by an increase in the thermogenesis in the BAT and an elevation in the cutaneous blood flow.

  18. Sarcolipin: a key thermogenic and metabolic regulator in skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Meghna; Bal, Naresh. C; Periasamy, Muthu

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes ∼40 % of body mass and has the capacity to play a major role as thermogenic, metabolic and endocrine organ. In addition to shivering, muscle also contributes to nonshivering thermogenesis via futile sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) activity. Sarcolipin (SLN), a regulator of SERCA activity in muscle, plays an important role in regulating muscle thermogenesis and metabolism. Uncoupling of SERCA by SLN increases ATP hydrolysis, heat production an...

  19. The effects of a reformer Pilates program on body composition and morphological characteristics in active women after a detraining period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; Esparza-Ros, Francisco; López-Plaza, Daniel; Muyor, José M; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this quasi-experimental pilot study was to explore the effects of a reformer Pilates program on the anthropometry, body composition, and somatotype of active adult women after a short non-exercise period. Twenty-eight women (mean age: 40.21 ± standard deviation of 8.12 years old) with one to three years of reformer Pilates experience participated in the study. The women participated in a reformer Pilates program for 16 weeks (one hour, twice per week) after 4 weeks of detraining (summer holidays) in 2012. The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry full profile was assessed before and after the intervention program. Significant decreases (p ≤ 0.05) from pre- to post-program were observed for triceps, iliac crest, supraspinale, abdominal, front thigh and medial calf skinfold thicknesses, six and eight skinfold thickness sums, forearm and ankle girths, waist/hip ratio, endomorphy, and fat mass. Significant increases (p ≤ .05) were observed for corrected arm, corrected calf girths, and muscle mass. Generally, women showed a mesomorphic endomorph (endomorphy predominant) and mesomorph-endomorph (endomorphy and mesomorphy predominant) in the pre- and posttests, respectively. In conclusion, the practice of reformer Pilates was associated with healthy changes in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and somatotype in Pilates-experienced women after 4 weeks of no physical exercise.

  20. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  1. Get Active

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity are best for you. Get tips on physical activity and diabetes Learn how physical activity helps high blood pressure What if I have ... benefits by stepping up your routine. Getting more physical activity can further lower your risk for: ... cancer Colorectal cancer Do more vigorous activities. ...

  2. Activation of pregnane X receptor by pregnenolone 16 α-carbonitrile prevents high-fat diet-induced obesity in AKR/J mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Ma

    Full Text Available Pregnane X receptor (PXR is known to function as a xenobiotic sensor to regulate xenobiotic metabolism through selective transcription of genes responsible for maintaining physiological homeostasis. Here we report that the activation of PXR by pregnenolone 16α-carbonitrile (PCN in AKR/J mice can prevent the development of high-fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. The beneficial effects of PCN treatment are seen with reduced lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lack of hepatic accumulation of lipid and lipid storage in the adipose tissues. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in gluconeogenesis, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal that PCN treatment on high-fat diet-fed mice reduces expression in the liver of G6Pase, Pepck, Cyp7a1, Cd36, L-Fabp, Srebp, and Fas genes and slightly enhances expression of Cyp27a1 and Abca1 genes. RT-PCR analysis of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue show that PCN treatment reduces expression of Pparγ2, Acc1, Cd36, but increases expression of Cpt1b and Pparα genes in mice fed with high-fat diet. Similarly, PCN treatment of animals on high-fat diet increases expression in brown adipose tissue of Pparα, Hsl, Cpt1b, and Cd36 genes, but reduces expression of Acc1 and Scd-1 genes. PXR activation by PCN in high-fat diet fed mice also increases expression of genes involved in thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue including Dio2, Pgc-1α, Pgc-1β, Cidea, and Ucp-3. These results verify the important function of PXR in lipid and energy metabolism and suggest that PXR represents a novel therapeutic target for prevention and treatment of obesity and insulin resistance.

  3. Dental erosive wear and salivary flow rate in physically active young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulic Aida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little attention has been directed towards identifying the relationship between physical exercise, dental erosive wear and salivary secretion. The study aimed i to describe the prevalence and severity of dental erosive wear among a group of physically active young adults, ii to describe the patterns of dietary consumption and lifestyle among these individuals and iii to study possible effect of exercise on salivary flow rate. Methods Young members (age range 18-32 years of a fitness-centre were invited to participate in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy young adults training hard at least twice a week. A non-exercising comparison group was selected from an ongoing study among 18-year-olds. Two hundred and twenty participants accepted an intraoral examination and completed a questionnaire. Seventy of the exercising participants provided saliva samples. The examination was performed at the fitness-centre or at a dental clinic (comparison group, using tested erosive wear system (VEDE. Saliva sampling (unstimulated and stimulated was performed before and after exercise. Occlusal surfaces of the first molars in both jaws and the labial and palatal surfaces of the upper incisors and canines were selected as index teeth. Results Dental erosive wear was registered in 64% of the exercising participants, more often in the older age group, and in 20% of the comparison group. Enamel lesions were most observed in the upper central incisors (33%; dentine lesions in lower first molar (27%. One fourth of the participants had erosive wear into dentine, significantly more in males than in females (p = 0.047. More participants with erosive wear had decreased salivary flow during exercise compared with the non-erosion group (p Conclusion The study showed that a high proportion of physically active young adults have erosive lesions and indicate that hard exercise and decreased stimulated salivary flow rate may be associated with such

  4. Measurement of ad libitum food intake, physical activity, and sedentary time in response to overfeeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying He

    Full Text Available Given the wide availability of highly palatable foods, overeating is common. Energy intake and metabolic responses to overfeeding may provide insights into weight gain prevention. We hypothesized a down-regulation in subsequent food intake and sedentary time, and up-regulation in non-exercise activity and core temperature in response to overfeeding in order to maintain body weight constant. In a monitored inpatient clinical research unit using a cross over study design, we investigated ad libitum energy intake (EI, using automated vending machines, core body temperature, and physical activity (using accelerometry following a short term (3-day weight maintaining (WM vs overfeeding (OF diet in healthy volunteers (n = 21, BMI, mean ± SD, 33.2±8.6 kg/m(2, 73.6% male. During the ad libitum periods following the WM vs. OF diets, there was no significant difference in mean 3-d EI (4061±1084 vs. 3926±1284 kcal/day, p = 0.41, and there were also no differences either in core body temperature (37.0±0.2°C vs. 37.1±0.2°C, p = 0.75 or sedentary time (70.9±12.9 vs. 72.0±7.4%, p = 0.88. However, during OF (but not WM, sedentary time was positively associated with weight gain (r = 0.49, p = 0.05, adjusted for age, sex, and initial weight. In conclusion, short term overfeeding did not result in a decrease in subsequent ad libitum food intake or overall change in sedentary time although in secondary analysis sedentary time was associated with weight gain during OF. Beyond possible changes in sedentary time, there is minimal attempt to restore energy balance during or following short term overfeeding.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342732.

  5. The Influences of Physical Activity on Patterns of Sleep Behavior of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Kevan H.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A light exercise program was set up for 11 patients with Alzheimer's disease who exercised each day for 40 minutes. Their sleep patterns were compared with a control group who did not exercise. Results indicate that those who participated in the exercise program manifested 40% less restless behavior, while those in the non-exercise group showed a…

  6. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in splanchnic and leg tissues in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Ryge, C; Bülow, J

    1995-01-01

    and lactate were taken from an artery, a hepatic vein and a femoral vein. Blood flow in the splanchnic region was measured by constant infusion of Indocyanine Green. Leg blood flow was measured by venous occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. Oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output in the splanchnic and leg...

  7. A claim in search of evidence: reply to Manger's thermogenesis hypothesis of cetacean brain structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Lori; Butti, Camilla; Connor, Richard C; Fordyce, R Ewan; Herman, Louis M; Hof, Patrick R; Lefebvre, Louis; Lusseau, David; McCowan, Brenda; Nimchinsky, Esther A; Pack, Adam A; Reidenberg, Joy S; Reiss, Diana; Rendell, Luke; Uhen, Mark D; Van der Gucht, Estelle; Whitehead, Hal

    2008-11-01

    In a recent publication in Biological Reviews, Manger (2006) made the controversial claim that the large brains of cetaceans evolved to generate heat during oceanic cooling in the Oligocene epoch and not, as is the currently accepted view, as a basis for an increase in cognitive or information-processing capabilities in response to ecological or social pressures. Manger further argued that dolphins and other cetaceans are considerably less intelligent than generally thought. In this review we challenge Manger's arguments and provide abundant evidence that modern cetacean brains are large in order to support complex cognitive abilities driven by social and ecological forces.

  8. Intact brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is required for restorative sleep responses after sleep loss

    OpenAIRE

    Kap?s, Levente; Szentirmai, ?va

    2014-01-01

    The article demonstrates the importance of brown fat in creating and maintaining a metabolic environment which is permissive for optimal restorative sleep after sleep loss. The authors propose that impaired brown fat function could be a common underlying cause of poor sleep and metabolic disorders.

  9. Impaired Fat-induced Thermogenesis in Obese Subjects: The NUGENOB Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaak, E.E.; Hul, G.; Verdich, C.; Stich, V.; Martinez, J.A.; Petersen, M.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Patel, K.; Oppert, J.M.; Barbe, P.; Tourbro, S.; Polak, J.; Anderson, I.; Astrup, A.; Macdonald, I.; Langin, D.; Sorensen, T.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To study energy expenditure before and 3 hours after a high-fat load in a large cohort of obese subjects (n=701) and a lean reference group (n = 113). Research Methods and Procedures: Subjects from seven European countries underwent a 1-day clinical study with a liquid test meal

  10. Tungstate decreases weight gain and adiposity in obese rats through increased thermogenesis and lipid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claret, Marc; Corominola, Helena; Canals, Ignasi; Saura, Josep; Barcelo-Batllori, Silvia; Guinovart, Joan J; Gomis, Ramon

    2005-10-01

    The increasing worldwide incidence of obesity and the limitations of current treatments raise the need for finding novel therapeutic approaches to treat this disease. The purpose of the current study was first to investigate the effects of tungstate on body weight and insulin sensitivity in a rat model of diet-induced obesity. Second, we aimed to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. Oral administration of tungstate significantly decreased body weight gain and adiposity without modifying caloric intake, intestinal fat absorption, or growth rate in obese rats. Moreover, the treatment ameliorated dislipemia and insulin resistance of obese rats. These effects were mediated by an increase in whole-body energy dissipation and by changes in the expression of genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial uncoupling in adipose tissue. Furthermore, treatment increased the number of small adipocytes with a concomitant induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that tungstate treatment may provide the basis for a promising novel therapy for obesity.

  11. Localization of thermogenesis induced by single infusion of ephedrine in dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J; Bülow, J; Larsen, O G

    1993-01-01

    The localization of the thermogenic effect of ephedrine (1 mg.kg-1 infused intravenously over 10 min.) was studied in 6 fasted dogs anaesthetized with etorfin-acepromazin-N2O. Three experiments were performed in each animal to determine the effect of ephedrine on a) splanchnic oxygen uptake, b...

  12. The effect of milk proteins on appetite regulation and diet induced thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Janne; Frederiksen, Rikke; Hoppe, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    postprandial energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and subjective appetite sensation of three isocaloric test meals containing either a whey drink, a casein drink or skim milk was examined. Energy intake (EI) at a subsequent ad libitum lunch was also measured. RESULTS: There was no significant effect...... for baseline values. There was no significant difference in effect on EE, protein oxidation or carbohydrate oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: Milk reduced subsequent EI more than isocaloric drinks containing only whey or casein. A small but significant increase in lipid oxidation was seen after casein compared with whey....

  13. Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2 is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT. Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2−/− mice. Moreover, in Id2−/− BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner.

  14. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series...

  15. Contribution of BAT and skeletal muscle to thermogenesis induced by ephedrine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Bülow, J; Madsen, J

    1985-01-01

    was estimated by measurements of leg blood flow and arteriovenous oxygen difference. The perirenal adipose tissue blood flow increased approximately twofold, whereas the local temperature increased approximately 0.1 degrees C on an average. Assuming that man possesses 700 g of BAT with a similar thermogenic...... skeletal muscle, approximately 50% of the increase in oxygen consumption induced by ephedrine may take place in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that skeletal muscle is a tissue of importance with respect to the thermogenic effect of sympathomimetics in man, whereas the results do not support a major role...

  16. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in splanchnic and leg tissues in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Ryge, C; Bülow, J

    1995-01-01

    1. Fourteen healthy subjects were investigated before and for 4 hours after oral intake of 75 g of glucose (n = 8) or tap water (n = 6). Whole-body energy expenditure was measured by an open-circuit ventilated hood system. Blood samples for determination of oxygen, carbon dioxide, glucose...

  17. Oxidative fuel selection and shivering thermogenesis during a 12- and 24-h cold-survival simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haman, François; Mantha, Olivier L; Cheung, Stephen S; DuCharme, Michel B; Taber, Michael; Blondin, Denis P; McGarr, Gregory W; Hartley, Geoffrey L; Hynes, Zach; Basset, Fabien A

    2016-03-15

    Because the majority of cold exposure studies are constrained to short-term durations of several hours, the long-term metabolic demands of cold exposure, such as during survival situations, remain largely unknown. The present study provides the first estimates of thermogenic rate, oxidative fuel selection, and muscle recruitment during a 24-h cold-survival simulation. Using combined indirect calorimetry and electrophysiological and isotopic methods, changes in muscle glycogen, total carbohydrate, lipid, protein oxidation, muscle recruitment, and whole body thermogenic rate were determined in underfed and noncold-acclimatized men during a simulated accidental exposure to 7.5 °C for 12 to 24 h. In noncold-acclimatized healthy men, cold exposure induced a decrease of ∼0.8 °C in core temperature and a decrease of ∼6.1 °C in mean skin temperature (range, 5.4-6.9 °C). Results showed that total heat production increased by approximately 1.3- to 1.5-fold in the cold and remained constant throughout cold exposure. Interestingly, this constant rise in Ḣprod and shivering intensity was accompanied by a large modification in fuel selection that occurred between 6 and 12 h; total carbohydrate oxidation decreased by 2.4-fold, and lipid oxidation doubled progressively from baseline to 24 h. Clearly, such changes in fuel selection dramatically reduces the utilization of limited muscle glycogen reserves, thus extending the predicted time to muscle glycogen depletion to as much as 15 days rather than the previous estimates of approximately 30-40 h. Further research is needed to determine whether this would also be the case under different nutritional and/or colder conditions. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  19. Epinephrine mediates facultative carbohydrate-induced thermogenesis in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    1989-01-01

    The thermic effect of carbohydrate has a component mediated by the sympathoadrenal system but of unknown anatomical localization. We have studied the contribution of skeletal muscle to the thermic effect of a carbohydrate-rich natural meal (115 g of carbohydrate, approximately 80% of energy...... postprandially and coinciding with the peak in arterial epinephrine. The present study provides evidence of a facultative thermogenic component in skeletal muscle, mediated by epinephrine via beta 2-adrenoreceptors. However, it also points to a nonmuscle component mediated through beta 1-adrenoceptors...... by norepinephrine released from the sympathetic nervous system. Consequently, the sympathoadrenal system seems to play a physiological role in the daily energy balance....

  20. Impaired glucose-induced thermogenesis in skeletal muscle in obesity. The role of the sympathoadrenal system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, A; Andersen, T; Henriksen, O

    1987-01-01

    From a 7-day food recording in 29 morbidly obese patients two groups of six patients each were selected: a high-energy-intake group (HEI) and a low-energy-intake group (LEI). The groups were otherwise comparable. Five lean subjects served as controls for some observations. Oral glucose tolerance ...

  1. The effect of meal frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, D

    1992-01-01

    The effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food (TEF) was studied in six obese boys and five obese girls (age: mean +/- SE, 12.7 +/- 0.6 yr). Post-absorptive and postprandial resting energy expenditure (REE) were monitored continuously by indirect calorimetry. The children consumed one large liquid meal (LM) or three consecutive small meals (SM) at 1.5 h intervals on subsequent days. The first mode of nutrient intake was determined random. The energy content of the LM and one SM was tailored to provide 30% and 10% of the 24 h postabsorptive REE, respectively. The postprandial changes in REE were monitored for 6 h. The postabsorptive REE (mean +/- SE) was 4.86 +/- 0.28 and 4.9 +/- 0.27 kJ/min before the LM and SM, respectively. REE, respiratory quotient, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations increased sooner, steeper and higher with the LM than with the SM. The magnitude of the TEF was greater (p frequency of food consumption influences the immediate thermogenic response as well as the changes in respiratory quotient, glycaemia and insulinaemia. However, the complex effect of different meal frequencies on the overall energy balance of obese patients cannot be answered on the basis of the present results.

  2. Effects of ambient temperature on adaptive thermogenesis during maintenance of reduced body weight in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravussin, Yann; LeDuc, Charles A.; Watanabe, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    We showed previously that, at ambient room temperature (22°C), mice maintained at 20% below their initial body weight by calorie restriction expend energy at a rate below that which can be accounted for by the decrease of fat and fat-free mass. Food-restricted rodents may become torpid at subthermoneutral temperatures, a possible confounding factor when using mice as human models in obesity research. We examined the bioenergetic, hormonal, and behavioral responses to maintenance of a 20% body weight reduction in singly housed C57BL/6J +/+ and Lepob mice housed at both 22°C and 30°C. Weight-reduced high-fat-fed diet mice (HFD-WR) showed similar quantitative reductions in energy expenditure—adjusted for body mass and composition—at both 22°C and 30°C: −1.4 kcal/24 h and −1.6 kcal/24 h below predicted, respectively, and neither group entered torpor. In contrast, weight-reduced Lepob mice (OB-WR) housed at 22°C became torpid in the late lights-off period (0200–0500) but did not when housed at 30°C. These studies indicate that mice with an intact leptin axis display similar decreases in “absolute” energy expenditure in response to weight reduction at both 22°C and 30°C ambient temperature. More importantly, the “percent” decrease in total energy expenditure observed in the HFD-WR compared with AL mice is much greater at 30°C (−19%) than at 22°C (−10%). Basal energy expenditure demands are ∼45% lower in mice housed at 30°C vs. 22°C, since the mice housed at thermoneutrality do not allocate extra energy for heat production. The higher total energy expenditure of mice housed at 22°C due to these increased thermogenic demands may mask physiologically relevant changes in energy expenditure showing that ambient temperature must be carefully considered when quantifying energy metabolism in both rodents and humans. PMID:22761182

  3. Active turbulence in active nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thampi, S. P.; Yeomans, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    Dense, active systems show active turbulence, a state characterised by flow fields that are chaotic, with continually changing velocity jets and swirls. Here we review our current understanding of active turbulence. The development is primarily based on the theory and simulations of active liquid crystals, but with accompanying summaries of related literature.

  4. Gender-Specific Mechanisms Underlying the Amelioration of High-Fat Diet-Induced Glucose Intolerance in B-Cell-Activating Factor Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobae Kim

    Full Text Available It has recently been found that B cell activating factor (BAFF plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. We also have previously reported that BAFF deficiency reverses high-fat (HF diet-induced glucose intolerance by potentiating adipose tissue function. In the present study, we found that BAFF deficient (BAFF-/- mice exhibit gender-specific differences in protection against diet-induced glucose intolerance, and aimed to characterize the gender-dependent molecular alterations in energy metabolism. Under HF feeding conditions, serum BAFF level of female wild-type (WT mice was considerably higher than that of male mice. Despite increased body weight gain, both male and female BAFF-/- mice showed significantly improved glucose tolerance compared to their WT counterparts. Expressions of genes involved in glucose transport, thermogenesis and lipid oxidation were up-regulated in brown adipose tissues of both male and female BAFF-/- mice. Interestingly, the expression of thermogenic genes in subcutaneous adipose tissue was significantly enhanced in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but the difference was not observed between male BAFF-/- and WT mice. The enhanced thermogenic program was confirmed by higher protein levels of UCP1 and irisin in female BAFF-/- than in WT mice. Additionally, adiponectin production in white adipose tissues and AMPK phosphorylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue were also significantly elevated in female BAFF-/- compared to WT mice, but not in male BAFF-/- mice. Our findings define a comprehensive scenario for the enhancing effect of BAFF depletion on glucose tolerance wherein the underlying mechanism is, at least in part, gender-specific, and suggest that gender difference should be considered as an important factor in the use of BAFF blockade as a therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  5. Monitoring Energy Expenditure Using a Multi-Sensor Device—Applications and Limitations of the SenseWear Armband in Athletic Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Koehler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to monitor their energy requirements, athletes may desire to assess energy expenditure (EE during training and competition. Recent technological advances and increased customer interest have created a market for wearable devices that measure physiological variables and bodily movement over prolonged time periods and convert this information into EE data. This mini-review provides an overview of the applicability of the SenseWear armband (SWA, which combines accelerometry with measurements of heat production and skin conductivity, to measure total daily energy expenditure (TDEE and its components such as exercise energy expenditure (ExEE in athletic populations. While the SWA has been shown to provide valid estimates of EE in the general population, validation studies in athletic populations indicate a tendency toward underestimation of ExEE particularly during high-intensity exercise (>10 METs with an increasing underestimation as exercise intensity increases. Although limited information is available on the accuracy of the SWA during resistance exercise, high-intensity interval exercise, or mixed exercise forms, there seems to be a similar trend of underestimating high levels of ExEE. The SWA, however, is capable of detecting movement patterns and metabolic measurements even at high exercise intensities, suggesting that underestimation may result from limitations in the proprietary algorithms. In addition, the SWA has been used in the assessment of sleep quantity and quality as well as non-exercise activity thermogenesis. Overall, the SWA provides viable information and remains to be used in various clinical and athletic settings, despite the termination of its commercial sale.

  6. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    various types of accommodations (including dwellings, shelters and institutions for the homeless or other living quarters). Appendix D D-4 JDN X-XX...activity capabilities can be severely impacted by a lack of forethought and planning related to these factors. Assessing Identity Activities Threat...complement and reinforce many of the activities making up civil-military counterinsurgency (COIN) operations. (c) Criminal Networks. Areas that lack

  7. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  8. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  9. Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craft Lynette L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ≥10 minutes of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (≥ 30 min of MVPA or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ≥10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22 compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4. Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22, standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15, and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06 did not differ between days with (~55 min/day and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More

  10. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...... one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping...

  11. A platelet-activating factor (PAF) receptor deficiency exacerbates diet-induced obesity but PAF/PAF receptor signaling does not contribute to the development of obesity-induced chronic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Matsui, Masakazu; Higa, Ryoko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Ikari, Akira; Miyake, Masaki; Miwa, Masao; Ishii, Satoshi; Sugatani, Junko; Shimizu, Takao

    2015-02-15

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is a well-known phospholipid that mediates acute inflammatory responses. In the present study, we investigated whether PAF/PAF receptor signaling contributed to chronic inflammation in the white adipose tissue (WAT) of PAF receptor-knockout (PAFR-KO) mice. Body and epididymal WAT weights were higher in PAFR-KO mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) than in wild-type (WT) mice. TNF-α mRNA expression levels in epididymal WAT and the infiltration of CD11c-positive macrophages into epididymal WAT, which led to chronic inflammation, were also elevated in HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice. HFD-fed PAFR-KO mice had higher levels of fasting serum glucose than HFD-fed WT mice as well as impaired glucose tolerance. Although PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of TNF-α and lipopolysaccharide induced the expression of acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) mRNA in bone marrow-derived macrophages, no significant differences were observed in the expression of LPCAT2 mRNA and PAF levels in epididymal WAT between HFD-fed mice and normal diet-fed mice. In addition to our previous finding in which energy expenditure in PAF receptor (PAFR)-deficient mice was low due to impaired brown adipose tissue function, the present study demonstrated that PAF/PAF receptor signaling up-regulated the expression of Ucp1 mRNA, which is essential for cellular thermogenesis, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We concluded that the marked accumulation of abdominal fat due to HFD feeding led to more severe chronic inflammation in WAT, which is associated with glucose metabolism disorders, in PAFR-KO mice than in WT mice, and PAF/PAF receptor signaling may regulate energy expenditure and adiposity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Where Latin Americans are physically active, and why does it matter? Findings from the IPEN-adult study in Bogota, Colombia; Cuernavaca, Mexico; and Curitiba, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Hino, Adriano A F; Bolivar, Manuel A; Lemoine, Pablo D; Gonçalves, Priscilla B; Pratt, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Latin America (LA) has a unique structural, political, cultural and social environment. This study aimed to identify the places where Latin American adults are physically active; and to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with physical activity (PA). We used data from the International PA Environment Network study in Bogota, Colombia (n=1000, accelerometry=249); Cuernavaca, Mexico (n=677, accelerometry=652); and Curitiba, Brazil (n=697, accelerometry=331) (2010-2011). Walking and moderate-to-vigorous PA for leisure were measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Overall PA and PA within 10-minute bouts were measured with accelerometers. Participants reported use of public- and restricted-access places for PA. Mixed-effects regression models were used to determine the association of using public- and restricted-access places with PA. The streets were the most frequently-reported place for PA, and walking was the most common PA in the studied places. 'Informal', non-exercise-or-sports places (e.g., shopping malls) ranked high for use for PA in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Curitiba, use of 'formal' places for sports/exercise (e.g., gyms) was more prevalent. Using public-access places was directly related to walking for leisure in all cities, and to additional PA outcomes in Bogota and Cuernavaca. In Cuernavaca and Curitiba, using restricted-access places was also associated with PA. Our study highlights the importance of public-access places for PA in LA. In some contexts, places for social interaction may be as important for PA as places for exercise/sport. Strategies increasing the availability, accessibility and quality of these places may effectively promote PA in LA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  14. Active handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper describes the work carried out by the National Nuclear Corporation on radioactive handling projects. The categories of these active handling projects include: irradiated reactor fuel and components handling for AGR fuel and fast reactor fuel, nuclear facilities for laboratory facilities and tritium handling, and nuclear waste from power station arisings and repository design. A description is given of the design work and responsibility for the facilities in each of the above active handling categories. The work requires a consistent approach to compliance with design codes and radiological protection criteria. (U.K.)

  15. Activating schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Scheller, Hanne Bebendorf

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the Activating Schoolyards Study is to develop, implement, document and assess a comprehensive schoolyard intervention to promote physical activity (PA) during school recess for primary school children (grade 4-8). The intervention is designed to implement organizational...... project schools (cases) were selected by means of an open competition and the interventions were developed using a participatory bottom-up approach. DISCUSSION: The participatory approach and case selection strategy make the study design novel. The use of a mixed methods design including qualitative...... in the schoolyard will lead to recommendations for schools undergoing schoolyard renovations at some point in the future....

  16. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  17. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are pregnant. Gastrointestinal (GI) blockage or slow movement of food through the intestine: Don’t use activated charcoal ... obstruction. Also, if you have a condition that slows the passage of food through your intestine (reduced peristalsis), don’t use ...

  18. Activated Sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, F. Michael

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) activated sludge process; (2) process control; (3) oxygen uptake and transfer; (4) phosphorus removal; (5) nitrification; (6) industrial wastewater; and (7) aerobic digestion. A list of 136 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying Active: Physical ... 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits of physical ...

  20. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  1. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Stawski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C than in control lines (−20.2°C. Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under

  2. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  3. Brown adipose tissue: Updates in cellular and molecular biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargut, Thereza Cristina Lonzetti; Aguila, Marcia Barbosa; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is mainly composed of adipocytes, it is highly vascularized and innervated, and can be activated in adult humans. Brown adipocytes are responsible for performing non-shivering thermogenesis, which is exclusively mediated by uncoupling protein (UCP) -1 (a protein found in the inner mitochondrial membrane), the hallmark of BAT, responsible for the uncoupling of the proton leakage from the ATP production, therefore, generating heat (i.e. thermogenesis). Besides UCP1, other compounds are essential not only to thermogenesis, but also to the proliferation and differentiation of BAT, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family, PPARgamma coactivator 1 (PGC1)-alpha, and PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain protein containing protein (PRDM) -16. The sympathetic nervous system centrally regulates thermogenesis through norepinephrine, which acts on the adrenergic receptors of BAT. This bound leads to the initialization of the many pathways that may activate thermogenesis in acute and/or chronic ways. In summary, this mini-review aims to demonstrate the latest advances in the knowledge of BAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beeck, J. OP de

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that activation analysis is especially suited to serve as a basis for determining the chemical similarity between samples defined by their trace-element concentration patterns. The general problem of classification and identification is discussed. The nature of possible classification structures and their appropriate clustering strategies is considered. A practical computer method is suggested and its application as well as the graphical representation of classification results are given. The possibility for classification using information theory is mentioned. Classification of chemical elements is discussed and practically realized after Hadamard transformation of the concentration variation patterns in a series of samples. (Sz.N.Z.)

  5. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  6. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenenbaum Alexander

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C. However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates. Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants

  7. Balanced pan-PPAR activator bezafibrate in combination with statin: comprehensive lipids control and diabetes prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2012-11-14

    All fibrates are peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs)-alpha agonists with ability to decrease triglyceride and increase high density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C). However, bezafibrate has a unique characteristic profile of action since it activates all three PPAR subtypes (alpha, gamma and delta) at comparable doses. Therefore, bezafibrate operates as a pan-agonist for all three PPAR isoforms. Selective PPAR gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones) are used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). They improve insulin sensitivity by up-regulating adipogenesis, decreasing free fatty acid levels, and reversing insulin resistance. However, selective PPAR gamma agonists also cause water retention, weight gain, peripheral edema, and congestive heart failure. The expression of PPAR beta/ delta in essentially all cell types and tissues (ubiquitous presence) suggests its potential fundamental role in cellular biology. PPAR beta/ delta effects correlated with enhancement of fatty acid oxidation, energy consumption and adaptive thermogenesis. Together, these data implicate PPAR beta/delta in fuel combustion and suggest that pan-PPAR agonists that include a component of PPAR beta/delta activation might offset some of the weight gain issues seen with selective PPAR gamma agonists, as was demonstrated by bezafibrate studies. Suggestively, on the whole body level all PPARs acting as one orchestra and balanced pan-PPAR activation seems as an especially attractive pharmacological goal. Conceptually, combined PPAR gamma and alpha action can target simultaneously insulin resistance and atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR beta/delta properties may prevent the development of overweight. Bezafibrate, as all fibrates, significantly reduced plasma triglycerides and increased HDL-C level (but considerably stronger than other major fibrates). Bezafibrate significantly decreased prevalence of small, dense low density lipoproteins particles, remnants, induced

  8. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal......The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  9. Mitochondrial ROS regulate thermogenic energy expenditure and sulfenylation of UCP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchani, Edward T; Kazak, Lawrence; Jedrychowski, Mark P; Lu, Gina Z; Erickson, Brian K; Szpyt, John; Pierce, Kerry A; Laznik-Bogoslavski, Dina; Vetrivelan, Ramalingam; Clish, Clary B; Robinson, Alan J; Gygi, Steve P; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2016-04-07

    Brown and beige adipose tissues can dissipate chemical energy as heat through thermogenic respiration, which requires uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Thermogenesis from these adipocytes can combat obesity and diabetes, encouraging investigation of factors that control UCP1-dependent respiration in vivo. Here we show that acutely activated thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is defined by a substantial increase in levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). Remarkably, this process supports in vivo thermogenesis, as pharmacological depletion of mitochondrial ROS results in hypothermia upon cold exposure, and inhibits UCP1-dependent increases in whole-body energy expenditure. We further establish that thermogenic ROS alter the redox status of cysteine thiols in brown adipose tissue to drive increased respiration, and that Cys253 of UCP1 is a key target. UCP1 Cys253 is sulfenylated during thermogenesis, while mutation of this site desensitizes the purine-nucleotide-inhibited state of the carrier to adrenergic activation and uncoupling. These studies identify mitochondrial ROS induction in brown adipose tissue as a mechanism that supports UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and whole-body energy expenditure, which opens the way to improved therapeutic strategies for combating metabolic disorders.

  10. Transcriptional control and hormonal response of thermogenic fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emont, Margo P; Yu, Hui; Wu, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Obesity and its associated metabolic diseases present a major public health problem around the world. The discovery that thermogenic fat is active in adult humans has sparked a renewal of interest in the study of its development and function and in the feasibility of using modulators of thermogenesis to work against obesity. In recent years, it has been shown that there are at least two distinct types of thermogenic fat cells: brown and beige fat. In this review, we discuss the transcriptional mediators of thermogenesis and the signaling molecules that regulate thermogenic cells. We also review the effects of thermogenic fat activation on whole-body metabolic parameters and evaluate the increasing evidence that activating thermogenesis in humans can be a viable method of ameliorating obesity. In these discussions, we highlight targets that can potentially be stimulated or modified in anti-obesity treatments. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  11. POTENTIAL OF LIVESTOCK MANURE FOR COAL ACTIVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EllIN HARlIA HARlIA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The natural methane formed by bacteria in anaerobic conditions is known as biogenic gas. Gas trapped in coal, formed through thermogenesis as well as biogenesisis known as coal-bed methane (CBM. The availability of organic material as decomposition of this material into methane is continuously required for the production of methane in the coal aquifer. The aim of this research was to investigate whether or not cattle feces bacteria were able to grow and produce methane in coal. Parameters measured were Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA and the production of biogas, such as nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and methane. Explorative method was used and data obtained was analyzed by descriptive approach. The results showed that the bacteria found in the feces survived in the coal and produce biogas. On day 2 when the process was at the acidogenesis phase, it produced VFA with the largest component of acetic acid. Acetic acid would undergo decarboxylation and reduction of CO2 followed by reactions of H2and CO2 to produce methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2 as the final products. ,

  12. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  13. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  14. Different physical activity subtypes and risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS is growing rapidly in China. Tai chi and dancing are common types of exercise among middle-aged and elderly Chinese. It remains unclear whether these activities are associated with a lower risk of MetS. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 15,514 individuals (6,952 men, 8,562 women aged 50 to 70 years from the Dongfeng-Tongji Cohort in Shiyan, China participated in a cross-sectional study. Physical activity and other lifestyle factors were assessed with semi-structured questionnaires during face-to-face interviews. MetS was defined by the current National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. The prevalence of MetS was 33.2% in the study population. In the multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analyses, total physical activity levels were monotonically associated with a lower odds of MetS [OR 0.75 comparing extreme quintiles, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.66-0.86, P<0.001]. Compared with non-exercisers in a specific exercise type, jogging (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-1.00, P = 0.046, tai chi (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.88, P<0.001, and dancing (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.47-0.67, P<0.001 were associated with significantly lower odds of MetS. Furthermore, each 1-h/week increment in tai chi and dancing was associated with a 5% (95% CI 2%-9% and a 9% (95% CI 6%, 12% lower risk of MetS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Jogging, tai chi and dancing are associated with a significantly lower risk of having MetS in middle-aged and older Chinese. Future intervention studies should consider the role of jogging, tai chi and dancing in preventing MetS.

  15. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps ...

  16. Glucose-induced thermogenesis in patients with small cell lung carcinoma. Before and after inhibition of tumour growth by chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Bülow, J; Sengeløv, H

    1993-01-01

    . Whole body energy expenditure was measured by the open circuit ventilated hood system. Forearm blood flow was measured by venous-occlusion strain-gauge plethysmography. The uptake of oxygen in skeletal muscle was calculated as the product of the forearm blood flow and the difference in a-v oxygen...

  17. Water-induced thermogenesis reconsidered: the effects of osmolality and water temperature on energy expenditure after drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clive M; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    A recent study reported that drinking 500 ml of water causes a 30% increase in metabolic rate. If verified, this previously unrecognized thermogenic property of water would have important implications for weight-loss programs. However, the concept of a thermogenic effect of water is controversial because other studies have found that water drinking does not increase energy expenditure. The objective of the study was to test whether water drinking has a thermogenic effect in humans and, furthermore, determine whether the response is influenced by osmolality or by water temperature. This was a randomized, crossover design. The study was conducted at a university physiology laboratory. Participants included healthy young volunteer subjects. Intervention included drinking 7.5 ml/kg body weight (approximately 518 ml) of distilled water or 0.9% saline or 7% sucrose solution (positive control) on different days. In a subgroup of subjects, responses to cold water (3 C) were tested. Resting energy expenditure, assessed by indirect calorimetry for 30 min before and 90 min after the drinks, was measured. Energy expenditure did not increase after drinking either distilled water (P = 0.34) or 0.9% saline (P = 0.33). Drinking the 7% sucrose solution significantly increased energy expenditure (P water that had been cooled to 3 C caused a small increase in energy expenditure of 4.5% over 60 min (P water at room temperature did not increase energy expenditure. Cooling the water before drinking only stimulated a small thermogenic response, well below the theoretical energy cost of warming the water to body temperature. These results cast doubt on water as a thermogenic agent for the management of obesity.

  18. A PGC1-α-dependent myokine that drives brown-fat-like development of white fat and thermogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boström, Pontus; Wu, Jun; Jedrychowski, Mark P

    2012-01-01

    of FNDC5, a membrane protein that is cleaved and secreted as a newly identified hormone, irisin. Irisin acts on white adipose cells in culture and in vivo to stimulate UCP1 expression and a broad program of brown-fat-like development. Irisin is induced with exercise in mice and humans, and mildly...... increased irisin levels in the blood cause an increase in energy expenditure in mice with no changes in movement or food intake. This results in improvements in obesity and glucose homeostasis. Irisin could be therapeutic for human metabolic disease and other disorders that are improved with exercise....

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  3. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource ...

  4. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education ...

  5. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  8. Activities of Daily Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Parkinson's › Managing Parkinson's › Activities of Daily Living Activities of Daily Living Sometimes Parkinson’s disease (PD) can complicate the basic daily activities a person with living with Parkinson’s once did ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate- ...

  13. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ... counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  18. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  19. Studies of the common DIO2 Thr92Ala polymorphism and metabolic phenotypes in 7342 Danish white subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grarup, Niels; Andersen, Mette K; Andreasen, Camilla H

    2007-01-01

    The type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D2) catalyzes the conversion of T(4) to the active form of thyroid hormone, which is a critical regulator of thermogenesis and glucose metabolism. A Thr92Ala polymorphism in the gene encoding D2 (DIO2) has been reported to associate with insulin resistance....

  20. Criminalisation of Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie

    Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism.......Different forms of political participation involve different challenges. This paper focuses on challenges to radical activism and particularly the criminalisation of activism....

  1. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  2. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  3. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    ‘sites of active aging’ in Denmark. By presenting three technologies of active aging (billiards at an activity center for elderly persons, dancing tiles for rehabilitation after falls and an online fitness community for elderly persons) the paper suggests that active aging is more than regimes...... in their socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...... of physical and productive activity; e.g. that a game of billiards is a technology of active aging. Thus, active aging is enacted in the socio-material practices of the technologies in this paper. The paper contributes with a strengthening of the concept of active aging, by focusing on entangled practices...

  4. Who is actively denitrifying in activated sludge?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund

    Denitrification is of crucial importance in nitrogen removal from wastewater. However, due to the polyphyletic taxonomy of denitrifiers, little is known about the composition and ecophysiology of the actively denitrifying community in activated sludge. To identify the active denitrifiers in a full......-scale wastewater treatment plant the transcripts (mRNA) of the nirS, nirK and nosZ denitrification genes expressed under acetate or amino acid consumption were amplified, sequenced and identified. This revealed that the majority of the denitrifiers belonged to Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria, while only few...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ... 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  7. Antitubercular activities of quinolones

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . (Sz). Using this index antitubercular activities of N-2,4-difluorophenyl quinolones are subjected to quantitative structure–activity relationship analysis. The potential of Sz related to the Wiener index (W) is critically discussed. In addition, Huckel ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  12. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... minutes Stairwalking for 15 minutes Sporting Activities Playing volleyball for 45–60 minutes Playing touch football for ... strenuous activities. Competitive sports, such as tennis and volleyball, can provide an enjoyable form of exercise for ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ... Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC A-Z SEARCH A B C D E F G H I J K L M ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ...

  20. USAID Activity Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID Activities dataset is a snapshot of activities supported by USAID including their geographical locations within countries at the time of the snapshot. The...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  2. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  3. Balance Food and Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Choosing Foods for Your Family Eating Healthy When Eating Out Food Shopping Tips Fun Family Recipes Healthy Cooking ... Recipes Healthy Cooking and Snacking Eating Healthy When Eating Out Tips for Eating Right Get Active Physical Activity ...

  4. Sympathetic transmitters control thermogenic efficacy of brown adipocytes by modulating mitochondrial complex V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao-Rong; Liu, Chun-Feng; Kang, Jian-Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a worldwide epidemic and results from excessive energy intake or inefficient energy expenditure. It is promising to utilize the thermogenic function of brown adipose tissue for obesity intervention. However, the mechanisms controlling the efficacy of norepinephrine-induced thermogenesis in brown adipocytes remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that norepinephrine (NE) induces low-efficacy thermogenesis, evoking both heterogeneous changes (ΔΨ m and ΔpH) and homogenous responses, one of which is that NE stimulation causes large amounts of ATP consumption in brown adipocytes. We reveal that the proton-ATPase activity of mitochondrial complex V is a key factor that antagonizes proton leakage by UCP1 and determines the efficacy of NE-induced thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. Furthermore, to avoid unnecessary and undesired heat production, we reveal that ATP is a necessary sympathetic cotransmitter for the high efficacy and specificity of NE-induced thermogenesis in brown adipocytes as it increases intracellular calcium concentrations and upregulates the ATP synthase activity of complex V. Thus, we demonstrate the modulation mechanism of thermogenic efficacy in brown adipocytes. These findings imply new strategies to partially or fully utilize the thermogenic capacity of brown adipocytes to identify therapeutic targets for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  5. Activity-based design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

      In many types of activities communicative and material activities are so intertwined that the one cannot be understood without taking the other into account. This is true of maritime and hospital work that are used as examples in the paper. The spatial context of the activity is also important:...... and automatic machinery can replace one another in an activity. It also gives an example of how to use the framework for design....

  6. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    -income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes...

  7. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  8. Comparing Active Vision Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  9. Comparing active vision models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croon, G.C.H.E. de; Sprinkhuizen-Kuyper, I.G.; Postma, E.O.

    2009-01-01

    Active vision models can simplify visual tasks, provided that they can select sensible actions given incoming sensory inputs. Many active vision models have been proposed, but a comparative evaluation of these models is lacking. We present a comparison of active vision models from two different

  10. Proteolytic activities in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saheki, T; Holzer, H

    1975-03-28

    Studies on the mechanism and time course of the activation of proteinases A (EC 3.4.23.8), B (EC 3.4.22.9) and C (EC 3.4.12.--) in crude yeast extracts at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C showed that the increase in proteinase B activity is paralleled with the disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor. Addition of purified proteinase A to fresh crude extracts accelerates the inactivation of the proteinase B inhibitor and the appearance of maximal activities of proteinases B and C. The decrease of proteinase B inhibitor activity and the increase of proteinase B activity are markedly retarded by the addition of pepstatin. Because 10-minus 7 M pepstatin completely inhibits proteinase A without affecting proteinase B activity, this is another indication for the role of proteinase A during the activation of proteinase B. Whereas extracts of yeast grown on minimal medium reached maximal activation of proteinases B and C after 20 h of incubation at pH 5.1 and 25 degrees C, extracts of yeast grown on complete medium had to be incubated for about 100 h. In the latter case, the addition of proteinas A results in maximal activation of proteinases B and C and disappearance of proteinase B inhibitor activity only after 10--20 h of incubation. With the optimal conditions, the maximal activities of proteinases A, B and C, as well as of the proteinase B inhibitor, were determined in crude extracts of yeast that had been grown batchwise for different lengths of time either on minimal or on complete medium. Upon incubation, all three proteinases were activated by several times their initial activity. This reflects the existence of proteolytically degradable inhibitors of the three proteinases and together with the above mentioned observations it demonstrates that the "activation" of yeast proteinases A, B and C upon incubation results from the proteolytic digestion of inhibitors rather than from activation of inactive zymogens by limited proteolysis.

  11. Heterogeneous Active Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Thomas; Klotsa, Daphne

    Active systems are composed of self-propelled (active) particles that locally convert energy into motion and exhibit emergent collective behaviors, such as fish schooling and bird flocking. Most works so far have focused on monodisperse, one-component active systems. However, real systems are heterogeneous, and consist of several active components. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of multi-component active matter systems and report on their emergent behavior. We discuss the phase diagram of dynamic states as well as parameters where we see mixing versus segregation.

  12. Accessibility, activity participation and location of activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    By investigating relationships between residential location and the availability of facilities, location of activities, trip distances, activity participation and trip frequencies, this paper seeks to contribute to a more detailed and nuanced understanding of the relationships between residential...... location and the amount of daily-life travel in an urban region. The empirical data are from a comprehensive study of residential location and travel in Copenhagen Metropolitan Area. Differences between inner- and outer-area residents in activity frequencies and trip frequencies are modest and partly...... outweigh each other. However, differences in trip distances due to the location of the dwelling relative to concentrations of facilities translate into substantially longer total travelling distances among suburbanites than among inner-city residents....

  13. NEA activities in 1980. 9. Activity Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1980 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  14. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Lectures Abandoned: Active Learning by Active Seminars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak; Corry, Aino Vonge

    2012-01-01

    engi- neering course in software architecture to employ a range of active learning techniques. The course was constrained by the study administration's traditional assignment of a three hour lecturing slot and as such we had to make techniques that tted this imposed constraint. Our contribution is ac...

  16. The Active Reader: What Is Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkum, Cees

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept of the "active reader," which is getting more…

  17. Factor XII Contact Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Burillo, Elena; Blankenberg, Stefan; Butler, Lynn; Renné, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Contact activation is the surface-induced conversion of factor XII (FXII) zymogen to the serine protease FXIIa. Blood-circulating FXII binds to negatively charged surfaces and this contact to surfaces triggers a conformational change in the zymogen inducing autoactivation. Several surfaces that have the capacity for initiating FXII contact activation have been identified, including misfolded protein aggregates, collagen, nucleic acids, and platelet and microbial polyphosphate. Activated FXII initiates the proinflammatory kallikrein-kinin system and the intrinsic coagulation pathway, leading to formation of bradykinin and thrombin, respectively. FXII contact activation is well characterized in vitro and provides the mechanistic basis for the diagnostic clotting assay, activated partial thromboplastin time. However, only in the past decade has the critical role of FXII contact activation in pathological thrombosis been appreciated. While defective FXII contact activation provides thromboprotection, excess activation underlies the swelling disorder hereditary angioedema type III. This review provides an overview of the molecular basis of FXII contact activation and FXII contact activation-associated disease states. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Arotinolol is a weak partial agonist on beta 3-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Golozoubova, V; Cannon, B; Nedergaard, J

    2001-07-01

    Arotinolol, a clinically used alpha/beta-adrenergic blocker, has been demonstrated to be an anti-obesity agent. The anti-obesity effect of arotinolol was suggested to be the result of direct activation of thermogenesis in brown-fat cells. We tested the ability of arotinolol to stimulate thermogenesis (oxygen consumption) in isolated brown-fat cells and in intact animals. Arotinolol stimulated thermogenesis in brown-fat cells isolated from mouse and hamster. A relatively low sensitivity to the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (pK(B) approximately 6) indicated that arotinolol interacted with the beta3-adrenergic receptor. On the beta3-receptor, arotinolol was a very weak (EC50 approximately 20 microM) and only partial (approximately 50%) agonist, but arotinolol also demonstrated the properties of being a beta3-receptor antagonist with a pK(B) of 5.7. In intact animals, only the antagonistic action of arotinolol could be observed. Because arotinolol is only a very weak and partial agonist on the beta3-receptors, direct stimulation of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue is unlikely to be sufficient to cause significant weight loss. It may be necessary to invoke additional pathways to explain the anti-obesity effects of chronic treatment with arotinolol.

  19. Active ageing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Aske Juul

    In the recent decade the concept of active aging has become important in the Western hemisphere. The World Health Organization and The European Union have staged active aging as a core policy area and initiated programs of physical activity, independence and prolonged working lives among...... the elderly. As part of this rearticulation of old age, many new technologies take form. This paper uses a wide concept of technologies (devices, regimes, strategies and ways of doing) and argues that technologies form active aging subjectivities, and on the other hand, that these subjectivities...... in their socio-material practices form active aging. Hence, active aging is a mutual entanglement (Callon and Rabeharisoa 2004) between technologies, practices and subjectivities. The paper is based on four months of participant observations and 17 in-depth interviews with elderly persons conducted at three...

  20. Participatory Activities in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Frederik; Sørensen, Vicki

    Through a series of participatory activities within a product development project, we analyse how these activities influence the design process and how new meaning is created through the interaction of crossing intentions (Larsen, 2010). By focusing on a specific theme in the project we reflect...... on how participatory activities are a key part in establishing important interactions between participants resulting in new design approaches. At other times participatory activities become a part of blurring these new approaches when performing new participatory activities towards developing new...... iterations of the concept in focus. We conclude that participatory activities can play a key part in the uptake of user knowledge but that a participatory innovation approach of establishing collaboration between crossing intentions can as well be considered provocative and as such, result in resistance...

  1. Mechanics of active surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbreux, Guillaume; Jülicher, Frank

    2017-09-01

    We derive a fully covariant theory of the mechanics of active surfaces. This theory provides a framework for the study of active biological or chemical processes at surfaces, such as the cell cortex, the mechanics of epithelial tissues, or reconstituted active systems on surfaces. We introduce forces and torques acting on a surface, and derive the associated force balance conditions. We show that surfaces with in-plane rotational symmetry can have broken up-down, chiral, or planar-chiral symmetry. We discuss the rate of entropy production in the surface and write linear constitutive relations that satisfy the Onsager relations. We show that the bending modulus, the spontaneous curvature, and the surface tension of a passive surface are renormalized by active terms. Finally, we identify active terms which are not found in a passive theory and discuss examples of shape instabilities that are related to active processes in the surface.

  2. Lupus Activity in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Clowse, Megan E. B.

    2007-01-01

    Pregnancy in a woman with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) can be complicated by both lupus activity and pregnancy mishaps. The majority of recent studies demonstrate an increase in lupus activity during pregnancy, perhaps exacerbated by hormonal shifts required to maintain pregnancy. Increased lupus activity, in turn, prompts an elevated risk for poor pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirth, preterm birth, low birth weight, and preeclamspsia. Fortunately, the majority of pregnancies in wo...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  4. CDBG Public Services Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public services, including senior services, legal services, youth services, employment training, health services, homebuyer counseling, food...

  5. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  6. Activated carbons and gold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, G.J.; Hancock, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The literature on activated carbon is reviewed so as to provide a general background with respect to the effect of source material and activation procedure on carbon properties, the structure and chemical nature of the surface of the activated carbon, and the nature of absorption processes on carbon. The various theories on the absorption of gold and silver from cyanide solutions are then reviewed, followed by a discussion of processes for the recovery of gold and silver from cyanide solutions using activated carbon, including a comparison with zinc precipitation

  7. NEA activities in 1983. 12. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1983 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, nuclear development and the fuel cycles nuclear safety technology and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings and other NEA joint projects, organisation and administration are reviewed

  8. NEA activities in 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an account of the activities of the Nuclear Energy Agency. It deals with current nuclear trends, nuclear development and the fuel cycle, nuclear safety research and licensing, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, legal affairs, nuclear science, joint undertakings, and, organization and administration

  9. Coordinating Shared Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley

    2004-01-01

    Shared Activity Coordination (ShAC) is a computer program for planning and scheduling the activities of an autonomous team of interacting spacecraft and exploratory robots. ShAC could also be adapted to such terrestrial uses as helping multiple factory managers work toward competing goals while sharing such common resources as floor space, raw materials, and transports. ShAC iteratively invokes the Continuous Activity Scheduling Planning Execution and Replanning (CASPER) program to replan and propagate changes to other planning programs in an effort to resolve conflicts. A domain-expert specifies which activities and parameters thereof are shared and reports the expected conditions and effects of these activities on the environment. By specifying these conditions and effects differently for each planning program, the domain-expert subprogram defines roles that each spacecraft plays in a coordinated activity. The domain-expert subprogram also specifies which planning program has scheduling control over each shared activity. ShAC enables sharing of information, consensus over the scheduling of collaborative activities, and distributed conflict resolution. As the other planning programs incorporate new goals and alter their schedules in the changing environment, ShAC continually coordinates to respond to unexpected events.

  10. Activity report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This annual report deals with the activities, the program management and the financial aspects of the ANDRA (National Agency for the radioactive wastes management) during 2002. After a presentation of the activities during the year 2002, it provides the financial accounting, data on company cash, the ANDRA missions and publications. (A.L.B.)

  11. Physical Activity Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostencka Alicja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The aim of the study was to determine the weekly energy expenditure measuring MET/min/week based on data collected through the Canada Fitness Survey (CFS, according to the classification used in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and to verify the adopted method to assess the level of physical activity in students of physical education.

  12. Elementary Environmental Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert J.

    This guide presents suggestions for field trips, out-of-doors activities, material for centers, and individualized activities in the teaching of elementary school science and particularly environmental education at the elementary level. The guide includes a section on preparation and procedures for conducting field trips, including sample…

  13. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  14. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  15. Learning Activities for Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Suggests activities to help toddlers develop skills in the four important areas of self-help, creativity, world mastery, and coordination. Activities include hand washing, button practice, painting, movement and music, bubble making, creation of a nature mural, and a shoe print trail. (TJQ)

  16. Respirometry in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, H.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the study was (1) to develop a respiration meter capable of continuously measuring, using different procedures, the oxygen uptake rate of activated sludge and (2) to expand knowledge about respiration related characteristics of wastewater and activated sludge.

    A

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ...

  18. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  19. Reflections on Activity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhurst, David

    2009-01-01

    It is sometimes suggested that activity theory represents the most important legacy of Soviet philosophy and psychology. But what exactly "is" activity theory? The canonical account in the West is given by Engestrom, who identifies three stages in the theory's development: from Vygotsky's insights, through Leontiev's articulation of the…

  20. RTE activity report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The RTE (electric power transport network) is the french manger of the electric power transport. This activity report provides information on the company results for the year 2005: panorama of the year, management and organization, the place of RTE in the european market, the customers, the industrial tool, the environment the human resources, the international activity and the management report. (A.L.B.)

  1. Habitats, activities, and signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Brynskov, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Digital habitats is a framework for designing and modeling environments for activities that involve mobile and embedded computing systems. This paper 1) introduces the basic concepts of the framework, i.e. activity, thematic role, and the three ‘dimensions’ of a habitat: physical, informational...

  2. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  3. Mental activity and culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstede, Gert Jan

    2018-01-01

    How does culture affect mental activity? That question, applied to the design of social agents, is tackled in this chapter. Mental activity acts on the perceived outside world. It does so in three steps: perceive, interpret, select action. We see that when culture is taken into account, objective

  4. Activation force splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell-Nørregård, Morten Pol; Erleben, Kenny

    We present a method for simulating the active contraction of deformable models, usable for interactive animation of soft deformable objects. We present a novel physical principle as the governing equation for the coupling between the low dimensional 1D activation force model and the higher...

  5. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ...

  7. Cosmogenic activation: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Vitaly A.

    2018-01-01

    Activation of materials is known to cause background events in underground experiments that may affect the sensitivity of these experiments to rare event searches. The most common source of activation is the exposure of materials to cosmic rays at the surface of the Earth but other various sources of neutrons may also be dangerous. Different computer codes provide estimates of production rates of radioactive isotopes due to activation but their results are sometimes inconsistent. High-sensitivity experiments looking for dark matter, neutrino-less double-beta decay or neutrinos from various sources, although affected by activation, provide crucial tests of models used in the codes. Recent calculations and measurements of activation rates are discussed in this paper.

  8. Local Worlds of Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Kerstin; Hollertz, Katarina; Garsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    . This article studies local activation policy and practice in three Swedish municipalities, representing three distinct ‘local worlds of activation’. The analysis shows that policy orientations in the municipalities studied ranged from ‘work-first’ to ‘life-first’ approaches to activation. Governance...... arrangements and the role of private services and actors in service delivery differed significantly too, ranging from strictly market-based forms of governance to classical public administration. The article moreover shows how the different activation approaches were reflected in the radically different usages...... of Coordination Unions, as multi-party collaborate organisational structures established for activation policy implementation for certain target groups. Thus, activation must be approached not as a fixed and universal policy for social inclusion, but as susceptible to local practice and hence open to influence...

  9. Ras activation by SOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lars; Tu, Hsiung-Lin; Lin, Wan-Chen

    2014-01-01

    SOS molecules catalyzing nucleotide exchange in H-Ras. Single-molecule kinetic traces revealed that SOS samples a broad distribution of turnover rates through stochastic fluctuations between distinct, long-lived (more than 100 seconds), functional states. The expected allosteric activation of SOS...... by Ras-guanosine triphosphate (GTP) was conspicuously absent in the mean rate. However, fluctuations into highly active states were modulated by Ras-GTP. This reveals a mechanism in which functional output may be determined by the dynamical spectrum of rates sampled by a small number of enzymes, rather......Activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase H-Ras by the exchange factor Son of Sevenless (SOS) is an important hub for signal transduction. Multiple layers of regulation, through protein and membrane interactions, govern activity of SOS. We characterized the specific activity of individual...

  10. Active chiral fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürthauer, S; Strempel, M; Grill, S W; Jülicher, F

    2012-09-01

    Active processes in biological systems often exhibit chiral asymmetries. Examples are the chirality of cytoskeletal filaments which interact with motor proteins, the chirality of the beat of cilia and flagella as well as the helical trajectories of many biological microswimmers. Here, we derive constitutive material equations for active fluids which account for the effects of active chiral processes. We identify active contributions to the antisymmetric part of the stress as well as active angular momentum fluxes. We discuss four types of elementary chiral motors and their effects on a surrounding fluid. We show that large-scale chiral flows can result from the collective behavior of such motors even in cases where isolated motors do not create a hydrodynamic far field.

  11. Active Photonic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, Giuseppe; Osellame, Roberto

    The chapter is devoted to active photonic devices fabricated by fs-laser writing. After a brief introduction focused on the role played by fs-laser written active devices, Sect. 10.2 briefly reviews the spectroscopical properties of the most interesting active ions so far exploited, namely erbium, ytterbium, neodimium, and bismuth. In Sect. 10.3 the main figures of merit for an active waveguide, namely the internal gain, the insertion loss, the net gain, and the noise figure are introduced and the experimental procedure for accurate gain measurement is also detailed. A thorough review of the active photonic devices demonstrated with the femtosecond laser microfabrication technique is presented in Sects. 10.4, 10.5, and 10.6, where several active waveguides and amplifiers, prototypal lasers, as well as more functionalized laser devices (operating under single longitudinal mode or stable mode-locking regime) are illustrated, respectively. Finally, conclusions and future perspectives of femtosecond-laser micromachining of active photonic devices are provided.

  12. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  13. Mnemonic activation by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, O.; Darcourt, J.; Benoit, M; Malandain, G.; Thirion, J.P.; Robert, Ph.; Vidal, R.; Desvignes, Ph.; Benoliel, J.; Ayache, N.; Bussiere, F.

    1997-01-01

    Data of literature show that SPECT is able to detect cerebral activations induced by sensory-motor stimuli. The facts are not clearly established in what concerns the cognitive activations the amplitude of which is lower. We have studied an activation paradigm such as the Grober and Bruschke test which implies the long term explicit memory. It comprises a visual presentation of words followed by their indexed recall. By using a two-day protocol, 2 SPECTs were achieved in 4 healthy right-handed voluntaries as follows: one of activation (A) and one of control (B). The fifth subject benefited by a SPECT B and of an MRI. The injection for the examination A has been done during the indexed recall stage and for the examination B at the moment when the patient repeated several times the same 3 words. The SPECT data were collected 1 hour after the injection of 370 MBq of ECD making use of a 3-head camera equipped with UHR fan collimators and ending by a LMH on the reconstructed images of 8 mm. The MRI has been achieved by means of a Signa 1.5 Tesla magnet. The SPECT A and B of the subjects 1 to 4 were matched elastically to that of the subject 5 and that of the subject 5 was rigidly matched on its MRI. In this way the individual activation cards of the 4 subjects could be averaged and superimposed on the MRI of the 5. subject. One observes an internal temporal activation (maximal activation of left tonsil, +25% and right uncus, +23%) and a right cingulum activation (maximal activation, +25%), in agreement with the neuro-physiological data. The elastic matching makes possible the inter-subject averaging, what increases the signal-to-noise ratio of activation. The inter-modality rigid matching facilitates the anatomical localisation of the activation site. With these adapted tools, the cognitive activation is thus possible by SPECT and opens perspectives for early diagnosis of neurological troubles, namely of Alzheimer's disease

  14. IPSN's 2001 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the 2001 activities and operation of the French institute of nuclear protection and safety (IPSN) which has become the institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety (IRSN) after its merging with the office of protection against ionizing radiations (OPRI). IPSN's activities cover: the safety of nuclear facilities, the safety of nuclear wastes, the management of emergencies, the management of sensible materials, the protection of the environment and of the public health, some research activities with foreign partners (central and eastern Europe, Asia..), and a partnership with the GRS, the German homologue of IPSN. (J.S.)

  15. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, L.V.; Lee, S.M.; Sahoo, D.; Sreedharan, O.M.; Srinivasan, G.

    1979-05-01

    The Research and Development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during the year 1977 are reported. The report is presented in the form of individual summaries of R and D activities most of which are connected with the FBTR project. These R and D activities deal with various aspects of the FBTR project such as reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, fabrication, testing and quality assurance of reactor materials and components, reactor chemistry, reactor safety, reprocessing, systems analysis and instrumentation. (M.G.B.)

  16. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  17. Creative activity and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shemanov A.Yu.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article was to analyze the inclusion potential of art creative activity, namely of theatre performance, in people with disabilities. The article provides examples of disagreements in understanding the significance of these art activities for exercising the rights of people with disabilities to contribute to culture and art and some problems arising here. The conclusion is made that theatre art performed by people with disabilities is gradually changing its function: from being a means of self-affirmation to the determination of its specific place in overall theatre process. These changes confirm the inclusion potential of theatre art activity.

  18. Active Directory cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, Laura

    2008-01-01

    When you need practical hands-on support for Active Directory, the updated edition of this extremely popular Cookbook provides quick solutions to more than 300 common (and uncommon) problems you might encounter when deploying, administering, and automating Microsoft's network directory service. For the third edition, Active Directory expert Laura E. Hunter offers troubleshooting recipes based on valuable input from Windows administrators, in addition to her own experience. You'll find solutions for the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), ADAM (Active Directory Application Mode), m

  19. A neutron activation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1973-01-01

    The present invention concerns a neutron activation detector made from a moulded and hardened composition. According to the invention, that composition contains an activable substance constituted by at least two chemical elements and/or compounds of at least two chemical elements. Each of these chemical elements is capable of reacting with the neutrons forming radio-active isotopes with vatious levels of energy during desintegration. This neutron detector is mainly suitable for measuring integral thermal neutron and fast neutron fluxes during irradiation of the sample, and also for measuring the intensities of neutron fields [fr

  20. Forecast of auroral activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.

    2004-01-01

    A new technique is developed to predict auroral activity based on a sample of over 9000 auroral sites identified in global auroral images obtained by an ultraviolet imager on the NASA Polar satellite during a 6-month period. Four attributes of auroral activity sites are utilized in forecasting, namely, the area, the power, and the rates of change in area and power. This new technique is quite accurate, as indicated by the high true skill scores for forecasting three different levels of auroral dissipation during the activity lifetime. The corresponding advanced warning time ranges from 22 to 79 min from low to high dissipation levels

  1. Scientific activities 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The scientific activities and achievements of the Nuclear Research Center Democritus for the year 1979 are presented in the form of a list of 78 projects giving title, objectives, commencement year, responsible of each project, developed activities and the pertaining lists of publications. The 15 chapters of this work cover the activities of the main Divisions of the Democritus NRC: Electronics, Biology, Physics, Chemistry, Health Physics, Reactor, Radioisotopes, Environmental Radioactivity, Soil Science, Computer Center, Uranium Exploration, Medical Service, Technological Applications and Training. (T.A.)

  2. The Activity of Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin

    This paper presents Activity Theory as a framework for understanding the action of playing games with the intention of building a foundation for the creation of new game design tools and methods. Activity Theory, an epistemological framework rooted in Soviet psychology of the first half of the 20th...... century, has a long history and was only recently applied to HCI (Nardi 1996) and games (P. Barr et al. 2007), where Barr succeeded in situating play in the Activity Theory framework. Based on his work to establish a framework for analysing systems of values in games, this paper maps different levels...

  3. Activation neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambardanishvili, T.S.; Kolomiitsev, M.A.; Zakharina, T.Y.; Dundua, V.J.; Chikhladze, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    An activation neutron detector made as a moulded and cured composition of a material capable of being neutron-activated is described. The material is selected from a group consisting of at least two chemical elements, a compound of at least two chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements and their mixture, each of the chemical elements being capable of interacting with neutrons to form radioactive isotopes having different radiation energies when disintegrating. The material capable of being neutron-activated is distributed throughout the volume of a polycondensation resin inert with respect to neutrons and capable of curing. 17 Claims, No Drawings

  4. PRCR Classes and Activities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — This data is specific to Parks and Recreation classes, workshops, and activities within the course catalog. It contains an entry for upcoming classes.*This data set...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  8. Active at Any Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If it’s too easy, your weight is too light. Try to exercise all the major muscle groups. ... online and can download them to a computer, smart phone, or other device. These types of activities ...

  9. Active Materials Characterization Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lagoudas, Dimitris

    2001-01-01

    The Active Materials Laboratory has recently acquired upgraded and new equipment made possible by the AFOSR in the form of a research grant as a part of the Defense University Research Instrumentation Program...

  10. Homebuyer Activities Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet. PJs can use this report to view homebuyer activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS that are in final draw,...

  11. Uranium market activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Results are summarized from the 1974 ERDA annual survey of buyers and sellers and from a survey of uranium price data which provided information on additional domestic buying activity during the first half of 1975 through 1982

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... videos Here are some ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and ... The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. In general, if you're doing ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant ... page, enter your email address: Enter Email Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Our Division ...

  14. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  17. Cryogenic Active Mirrors

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This effort seeks to develop active mirrors that can correct for thermally-induced figure deformations upon cooling from room-temperature at the time of manufacture,...

  18. CDBG Public Improvements Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to public improvements, including senior centers, youth centers, parks, street improvements, water/sewer improvements, child care centers, fire...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For ... Email CDC-INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ... pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. ... Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  6. Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a bone-strengthening activity. Stretching helps improve your flexibility and your ability to fully move your joints. ... own, consider joining a support group. Many hospitals, workplaces, and community groups offer classes to help people ...

  7. Enerplan, activity report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Enerplan is the French union of solar energy professionals. Created in 1983, its social purpose is the study and defense of the rights and of the material and moral interests of its members. Enerplan structures its action through two poles representing members' activities: 'solar energy and building' where topics about heat and electricity generation in relation with buildings are treated, and 'photovoltaic energy' where topics specific to big solar power plants are considered. Thanks to the collaborative participation of its members, both poles allow Enerplan union to be source of proposals to develop solar energy in France. As an active interface between professionals and institutions, Enerplan includes in its membership: industrialists, plant makers, engineering consultants, installers, associations, energy suppliers etc, from small-medium size companies to big groups. This document presents Enerplan's activities in 2010 (public relations, lobbying, meetings and conferences, promotional activities, collaborations, projects..)

  8. Home Activities Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This monthly report is an Excel spreadsheet, broken up by state. PJs can use this report to view activities with the 2012 or 2013 program year in IDIS, including;...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a ...

  10. Mining activities at Neyveli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boopathy, P.V.; Rathinavel, R.

    1993-01-01

    Mining activities at lignite areas around Neyveli are described. Measures taken to safeguard the environment from despoliation of land, air pollution, noise pollution and effluents are described. (M.G.B.)

  11. Exercise and activity - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... htm Exercise and activity - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Children should have many chances to play, run, bike, and play sports during the day. They should ...

  12. OTI Activity Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — OTI's worldwide activity database is a simple and effective information system that serves as a program management, tracking, and reporting tool. In each country,...

  13. Tanzania - Kigoma Solar Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The performance evaluation of the Kigoma solar activity was designed to answer questions about the implementation of the program and about outcomes that may have...

  14. Activity report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1977-08-01

    The report covers a wide range of R and D activities in the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India). The scientific and technical activities in various fields such as: reactor physics, reactor design, reactor engineering, design of sodium circuits, reactor fuel handling, electrical and instrumentation engineering for FBTR, data processing system, reactor operation studies, reactor construction, materials science, metallurgy, reprocessing, instrumentation, safety research and engineering services, have been reported in brief. (A.K.)

  15. Activity report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1980-07-01

    The activites of the Eurochemic (European Company for the Chemical Processing of Irradiated Fuels) at Mol is summarized under the following headings: the decontamination and intervention in the Fuel Reception and Storage Building, the active operation of the bituminization facility, the construction of two additional storage bunkers, the full active operation of the section for the handling of solid waste and the construction of various units for the conditioning of organic liquid waste and plutonium hearing solid wastes. (AF)

  16. The Active Music Reception

    OpenAIRE

    Šulanová, Silvie

    2009-01-01

    Listening to music in the process of education is beneficial for a pupil only in case it is realized by means of active creativeness. To meet this requirement specific activities concerning music listening are applied in the framework of receptive music teaching. The dissertation proposes a so called dynamic model to function as an ideal solution to didactic transformation of music. The model enables to set up such classroom conditions in which pupils find it easier to observe elementary item...

  17. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  18. Liquidity and Shareholder Activism

    OpenAIRE

    Norli, Øyvind; Ostergaard, Charlotte; Schindele, Ibolya

    2009-01-01

    This is the authors’ accepted, refereed and final manuscript to the article Blockholders' incentives to intervene in corporate governance are weakened by free-rider problems and high costs of activism. Theory suggests activists may recoup expenses through informed trading of target rms' stock when stocks are liquid. We show that stock liquidity increases the probability of activism but does less so for potentially overvalued rms for which privately informed blockholders may h...

  19. Activity report 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; Ramanathan, N.; Rodriguez, P.; Shankar Singh, R.; Venkataraman, S.

    1978-11-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam, during 1976 are reported. The main thrust of the R and D activities is directed towards the FBTR Project and they deal with the various aspects of the project such as reactor physics, reactor design, fuel handling, reactor instrumentation, reactor operation, reactor construction, reactor safety, reactor materials, reactor chemistry and fuel reprocessing. (M.G.B.)

  20. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  1. Shareholder activism in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Raluca

    2015-01-01

    This paper conducts the first assessment of shareholder activism in banking and its effects on risk and performance. The focus is on the conflicts among bank shareholders, managers, and creditors (e.g., regulators, deposit insurer, taxpayers, depositors). This paper finds activism may generally be a destabilizing force, increasing bank risk-taking, but creating market value for shareholders, and leaving operating returns unchanged, consistent with the empirical dominance of the Shareholder-Cr...

  2. Cyclization-activated Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Moreira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Many drugs suffer from an extensive first-pass metabolism leading to druginactivation and/or production of toxic metabolites, which makes them attractive targets forprodrug design. The classical prodrug approach, which involves enzyme-sensitive covalentlinkage between the parent drug and a carrier moiety, is a well established strategy toovercome bioavailability/toxicity issues. However, the development of prodrugs that canregenerate the parent drug through non-enzymatic pathways has emerged as an alternativeapproach in which prodrug activation is not influenced by inter- and intraindividualvariability that affects enzymatic activity. Cyclization-activated prodrugs have beencapturing the attention of medicinal chemists since the middle-1980s, and reached maturityin prodrug design in the late 1990s. Many different strategies have been exploited in recentyears concerning the development of intramoleculary-activated prodrugs spanning fromanalgesics to anti-HIV therapeutic agents. Intramolecular pathways have also a key role intwo-step prodrug activation, where an initial enzymatic cleavage step is followed by acyclization-elimination reaction that releases the active drug. This wor

  3. Psychomotor activities with seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Kopřivová

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given that the population all over the world is aging, it is necessary to fi nd ways to help maintain or improve the quality of life of seniors. The main goal of this paper is to show how appropriate physical activity programs contribute to the improvement of the functionality and psychosocial wellbeing of seniors. We are particularly interested in the possibilities of preserving self-suffi ciency and self-service, independence and the ability to perform everyday activities. One of the most eff ective forms of physical activity is psychomotr activity.OBJECTIVE: The aim of our paper is to present basic information concerning the meaning and the application of the psychomotr activities in intervention movement programmes in order to improve seniors’ life quality.METHODS: We defi ne the term psychomotr activities according to Adamírová (1995 and Novotná (2010. In this paper we present some results of research that stress the positive eff ect of psychomotor exercises and games on the life satisfaction of the elderly (Stará 2011; Stará & Kopřivová, 2011.DESCRIPTION: According to the results of our research and practical experience gained from working with the elderly it is strongly recommended to include suitable psychomotor exercises and games focusing on the development of manual dexterity in training programs in order to improve the balance abilities and the psychosocial area. In terms of prevention, because of the growing number of neurological disorders at an old age it is appropriate to include psychomotor exercises that encourage the development of cognitive functions in the physical interventions.CONCLUSION: We were able to positively infl uence the emotional aspect from performing physical activities, to enhance self-esteem of the exercising subjects and to create new social relationships. Motion programs, which also included psychomotor exercises and games, had a positive eff ect on the physical assessment of the

  4. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  5. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  6. Active noise control primer

    CERN Document Server

    Snyder, Scott D

    2000-01-01

    Active noise control - the reduction of noise by generating an acoustic signal that actively interferes with the noise - has become an active area of basic research and engineering applications. The aim of this book is to present all of the basic knowledge one needs for assessing how useful active noise control will be for a given problem and then to provide some guidance for designing, setting up, and tuning an active noise-control system. Written for students who have no prior knowledge of acoustics, signal processing, or noise control but who do have a reasonable grasp of basic physics and mathematics, the book is short and descriptive. It leaves for more advanced texts or research monographs all mathematical details and proofs concerning vibrations, signal processing and the like. The book can thus be used in independent study, in a classroom with laboratories, or in conjunction with a kit for experiment or demonstration. Topics covered include: basic acoustics; human perception and sound; sound intensity...

  7. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  8. Parsing Heterogeneous Striatal Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kae Nakamura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum. Looking for generality in the complex striatal activity patterns, here we briefly survey several types of striatal activity, focusing on their usefulness for mediating behaviors. In particular, we focus on two types of behavioral tasks: reward-based tasks that use salient sensory cues and manipulate outcomes associated with the cues; and perceptual decision tasks that manipulate the quality of noisy sensory cues and associate all correct decisions with the same outcome. Guided by previous insights on the modular organization and general selection-related functions of the basal ganglia, we relate striatal activity patterns on these tasks to two types of computations: implementation of selection and evaluation. We suggest that a parsing with the selection/evaluation categories encourages a focus on the functional commonalities revealed by studies with different animal models and behavioral tasks, instead of a focus on aspects of striatal activity that may be specific to a particular task setting. We then highlight several questions in the selection-evaluation framework for future explorations.

  9. Photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segebade, C.; Weise, H.P.; Lutz, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    This book is written to give, in a concentrated form, an overview of the application of photonuclear reactions to activation analysis. Is is intended to accompany the analyst's work in the photon activation analysis laboratory as a practical usable reference. Emphasis is placed upon analytical qualitative and quantitative data which are based upon experimentally obtained results. Therefore, both a source of general information on photon activation analysis and a laboratory manual are combined in this book. The results of the authors' laboratory work and a large amount of literature data are evaluated and presented as completely as possible by the authors. Special knowledge of photonuclear physics is not required; only a very elementary theoretical introduction is given. More detailed information on the physical and mathematical theory should be sought in the special literature which is cited in the relevant chapters. (orig./RB)

  10. Activity report 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1978-07-01

    The principal activities of Eurochemic plant in the fields of reprocessing and the solidification and conditioning of liquid wastes are presented in this report that covers the period 1 January to 31 December 1977. Works in the plant are closely related to the handling of fuel element and the treatment of solid wastes as well as the management of liquid wastes. Industrial development activities have been primarily devoted to the solidification of HEWC (highly enriched waste concentrate) by means of the Lotes process; the treatment of spent solvent by means of the Eurowatt process; the treatment of the plutonium-bearing solid wastes by the Eurowetcomb process and the conditioning of highly activity non-combustible solid wastes by incorporation into polymer-concrete matrix . (AF)

  11. Active Photonic Crystal Waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ek, Sara

    This thesis deals with the fabrication and characterization of active photonic crystal waveguides, realized in III-V semiconductor material with embedded active layers. The platform offering active photonic crystal waveguides has many potential applications. One of these is a compact photonic...... crystal semiconductor optical amplier. As a step towards such a component, photonic crystal waveguides with a single quantum well, 10 quantum wells and three layers of quantum dots are fabricated and characterized. An experimental study of the amplied spontaneous emission and a implied transmission...... are presented in this thesis. A variation of photonic crystal design parameters are used leading to a spectral shift of the dispersion, it is veried that the observed effects shift accordingly. An enhancement of the amplified spontaneous emission was observed close to the band edge, where light is slowed down...

  12. Safeguards activities in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osabe, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    Current Japanese State System for Accountancy and Control (SSAC) has been developing and fully satisfies requirements of both IAEA Safeguards and bilateral partners. However, the public attention on the national and international safeguards activities were increased and the safeguards authorities were required to promote the objective assessment of safeguards implementation to avoid mistrust in safeguards activities which directly influence the public acceptance of nuclear energy in itself. Additionally, since Japan has promoted to complete nuclear fuel cycle including spent fuel reprocessing, enrichment and mixed oxide fuel fabrication this would require further assurance of Japanese non-proliferation commitment. Japan supports the introduction of strengthened safeguards. In this context it is particularly important to strengthen the relationship between national and the IAEA safeguards to contribute actively to the IAEA safeguards in development and utilization of new technologies towards more effective and efficient IAEA safeguards

  13. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an important contributor to non-communicable diseases in countries of high income, and increasingly so in those of low and middle income. Understanding why people are physically active or inactive contributes to evidence-based planning of public health interventions, because...... that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  14. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  15. Activating Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Jon

    This paper investigates how welfare states may actively contribute to promote employment opportunities, i.e. participation in the labour market through various operations and policies. The principal operations concern in particular the de-familiarisation of caring tasks through social services...... for children and the elderly, which in turn allows in particular women to (re-)enter the labour market, de-commodification of labour through easy accessible and relative generous cash benefits providing a more flexible labour market, and re-commodification of labour through conditioning of benefits and active...... labour market policies giving long-term unemployed and people with low skills better opportunities to participate in the labour market, whether the ordinary or in special activities....

  16. Postsplenectomy splenic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orda, R; Barak, J; Baron, J; Spirer, Z; Wiznitzer, T

    1981-01-01

    Evidence of recurring activity of splenic tissue was investigated in patients who had undergone splenectomies. Methods included technetium 99m sulfur colloid scan, serum tuftsin assay, serum immunoglobulin concentration, blood cell counts, and search for Howell-Jolly bodies. Positive scans were observed together with normal levels of tuftsin in 54% of the patients. In 46% of the patients, no splenic activity was detected by scanning and low levels of tuftsin were noticed. The difference in tuftsin levels between the two groups was statistically significant. Howell-Jolly bodies and decreased serum levels of IgM featured all patients. The possible application of combined splenic scan and tuftsin assessment for screening recurring splenic activity in the postsplenectomy population at great risk is suggested. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:7305494

  17. Rheology of Active Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintillan, David

    2018-01-01

    An active fluid denotes a viscous suspension of particles, cells, or macromolecules able to convert chemical energy into mechanical work by generating stresses on the microscale. By virtue of this internal energy conversion, these systems display unusual macroscopic rheological signatures, including a curious transition to an apparent superfluid-like state where internal activity exactly compensates viscous dissipation. These behaviors are unlike those of classical complex fluids and result from the coupling of particle configurations with both externally applied flows and internally generated fluid disturbances. Focusing on the well-studied example of a suspension of microswimmers, this review summarizes recent experiments, models, and simulations in this area and highlights the critical role played by the rheological response of these active materials in a multitude of phenomena, from the enhanced transport of passive suspended objects to the emergence of spontaneous flows and collective motion.

  18. Activated carbon regeneration process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skripnik, K.I.; Burachevskii, I.I.; Tarkovskaya, I.A.; Yarovenko, V.L.

    1981-01-01

    The regeneration process was tested by oxidative treatment of activated carbon, employable in the vodka industry, with an aqueous KMnO/sub 4/ (I) solution. The spent carbon is exposed to a 0.4% solution of for 30-50 min, then washed with water, and blown through for 15-30 min with steam at a temperature of 105-110/sup 0/ C under 0.07 MPa pressure. A check of the activity of the regenerated carbon revealed an increase in pore volume by 29% with respect to benzene adsorption and a higher adsorptive capacity (by a factor of about 2) with respect to fatty acids by comparison with carbon regenerated by the conventional steam procedure. Application of the process in the plant made it possible to use the carbon for 3-4 months additionally because of an increase in activity after regeneration. Iodine comsumption amounts to 5-6 kg per column.

  19. Lesion activity assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrand, K R; Zero, D T; Martignon, S

    2009-01-01

    in response to cariogenic plaque as well as lesion arrest. Based on this understanding, different clinical scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity/depth and activity of lesions. A recent system has been devised by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System Committee......This chapter focusses on the probability of a caries lesion detected during a clinical examination being active (progressing) or arrested. Visual and tactile methods to assess primary coronal lesions and primary root lesions are considered. The evidence level is rated as low (R....... The literature suggests that there is a fair agreement between visual/tactile external scripts of caries and the severity/depth of the lesion. The reproducibility of the different systems is, in general, substantial. No single clinical predictor is able to reliably assess activity. However, a combination...

  20. Effects of Activating Schoolyards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Andersen, Henriette Bondo

    measures to get a broader knowledge base. Drawing on our qualitative dataset, the aim of this study was to investigate children’s perceptions of the effect of their renewed schoolyards. METHODS: Drawing on a phenomenological approach data was collected through ten focus groups at five Danish intervention...... have to support the older children’s recess physical activity on an organisational level by encourage them to use the schoolyard and renewing schoolyard areas close to their classrooms. This follow-up study of children’s perception of the renewed schoolyards can aid development of future schoolyard......PURPOSE: There is no consistent evidence to guide schoolyard interventions promoting physical activity. The Activating Schoolyards Study is a quasi-experimental schoolyard intervention study aimed at investigating the impact of renewed schoolyards on 10-15-year-old children’s recess physical...

  1. Plasminogen activation and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danø, Keld; Behrendt, N.; Hoyer-Hansen, G.

    2005-01-01

    , the regulation of extracellular proteolysis in cancer involves a complex interplay between cancer cells and non-malignant stromal cells in the expression of the molecular components involved. For some types of cancer, this cellular interplay mimics that observed in the tissue of ori- gin during non......Breakdown of the extracellular matrix is crucial for cancer invasion and metastasis. It is accomplished by the concerted action of several proteases, including the serine protease plasmin and a number of matrix metalloproteases.The activity of each of these proteases is regulated by an array...... of activators, inhibitors and cellular receptors.Thus, the generation of plasmin involves the pro-enzyme plasminogen, the urokinase type plasminogen activator uPA and its pro-enzyme pro-uPA, the uPA inhibitor PAI-1, the cell surface uPA receptor uPAR, and the plasmin inhibitor a2 -antiplasmin. Furthermore...

  2. Activation analysis in numismatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrandon, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that two nuclear methods permit a non-destructive determination of major, minor and trace elements in three important ''archaeological'' metals: gold, silver, copper and alloys. The first one neutron activation analysis with a 252 Cf neutron source, enables a fast and accurate determination of three important elements of the coin's composition, viz. gold, silver and copper. With the second one, proton activation analysis, trace elements at ppm level in gold, silver and copper metals can be determined. Using these two techniques of activation analysis two important numismatic problems can be studied: the evolution of the fineness; characterization or differentiation by the trace elements of the metal used to mint the coin. Examples of each numismatic problem are also given. (author)

  3. CEREM activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This 1997 issue of the activity report of the CEREM (CEA) gives a general overview of the CEREM organization, activities and human resources with some budgetary information. The main activities described concern the materials fabrication for the nuclear and automotive industries, the powders metallurgy (molding by injection, cold pressing modelling), the simulation of the hot and cold working processes, the surface treatments, the joining (brazed joints, sintering, welding), the electrochemical storage of the energy (fuel cells, lithium accumulators), the corrosion and the physico-chemistry of fluids, the mechanical properties and the cracks, the robots for nuclear units dismantlement, the alteration mechanisms of properties under different solicitations (thermal, mechanical, chemical, irradiation) and the solidification-crystallogenesis. (O.M.)

  4. Role of the circadian clock gene Per2 in adaptation to cold temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappuis, Sylvie; Ripperger, Jürgen Alexander; Schnell, Anna; Rando, Gianpaolo; Jud, Corinne; Wahli, Walter; Albrecht, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive thermogenesis allows mammals to resist to cold. For instance, in brown adipose tissue (BAT) the facultative uncoupling of the proton gradient from ATP synthesis in mitochondria is used to generate systemic heat. However, this system necessitates an increase of the Uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) and its activation by free fatty acids. Here we show that mice without functional Period2 (Per2) were cold sensitive because their adaptive thermogenesis system was less efficient. Upon cold-exposure, Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) induced Per2 in the BAT. Subsequently, PER2 as a co-activator of PPARα increased expression of Ucp1. PER2 also increased Fatty acid binding protein 3 (Fabp3), a protein important to transport free fatty acids from the plasma to mitochondria to activate UCP1. Hence, in BAT PER2 is important for the coordination of the molecular response of mice exposed to cold by synchronizing UCP1 expression and its activation.

  5. Andra 1997 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-07-01

    This activity report comprises two parts. The first part describes the missions and activities of the ANDRA (the French agency for the management of radioactive wastes): quality control of wastes produced by EdF, CEA, Cogema and the 1100 other small producers, design, construction and management of storage centres, anticipation and development of new management solutions, research and evaluation studies on deep storage facilities, inventory and control of all radioactive materials present in the French territory. The second part is a presentation of financial data. (J.S.)

  6. Intergovernmental Organisation Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section treats of the following activities, sorted by Organisation: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Proposed binding instruments, Adopted legally binding instruments, Non-legally binding instruments; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety, Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management, International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability, Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Appointment of new Director-General, International experts in Japan to review safety after Fukushima Daiichi, China Atomic Energy Authority co-operation workshop

  7. Intergovernmental organisation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Intergovernmental organisation activities: 1 - European Atomic Energy Community: Non-legally binding instruments; International relations; 2 - International Atomic Energy Agency: Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS); Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management (JC); The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage (CSC); International Expert Group on Nuclear Liability (INLEX); Legislative assistance activities; 3 - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA): GIF Framework Agreement extended for ten years; Technology Road-map: Nuclear Energy; Steering Committee Policy Debate: Health Effects of Low-dose Radiation

  8. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  9. IPSN activity report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The IPSN (Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire) carries out for the Government, studies and inspections on nuclear installations at many life steps (design, realisation, exploitation, shutdown and dismantling). To obtain quality researches, the Institut performs studies in all domains concerned by the safety and its improvement. The main projects of the year 1999, in the following topics are presented: the nuclear installations and the radioactive wastes safety, the crisis and nuclear materials management, the human and the environment protection, the international activities and cooperation, the quality insurance. It provides also information on the cooperation, the budget, the human resource policy and the communication activities. (A.L.B.)

  10. Activity report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drent, W.

    1985-07-01

    For the fiscal year 1984, the technical activities of Eurochemic were: a) the cleaning of the vessels having contained medium level liquid wastes and the incorporation into bitumen of the resulting solution, b) the conditioning of plutonium contaminated solid waste, c) the civil engineering works of Building 29 were completed and the mounting of equipment was begun. The installation will assure the surface storage of the blocks resulting from vitrification, by means of Pamela installation of the high-level liquid wastes. The report includes administrative matters as well as health and safety activity. (AF)

  11. Activity report CEREM 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The CEREM (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur les Materiaux) is one of the departments in CEA. The aim of this report is to outline the main developments in the department activities. It si divide din three main chapters. The first one presents the material design and processing, the researches on the energy electrochemical storage and a presentation of the robotic activities. The chapter 2 deals with the material characterization and testing. The last chapter presents the works of simulation on Material Science. The report is completed by some data on the budget and the staff. (A.L.B.)

  12. Cosmogenic activation of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amare, J.; Beltran, B.; Carmona, J.M.; Cebrian, S.; Garcia, E.; Irastorza, I.G.; Gomez, H.; Luzon, G.; Martinez, M.; Morales, J.; Ortiz de Solorzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedon, J.; Rodriguez, A.; Ruz, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Torres, L.; Villar, J.A.; Capelli, S.; Capozzi, F.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of cosmogenic activation produced at sea level in materials typically used in underground experiments looking for rare events is being studied. Several nuclear data libraries have been screened looking for relevant isotope production cross-sections and different codes which can be applied to activation studies have been reviewed. The excitation functions for some problems of interest like production of 60Co and 68Ge in germanium and production of 60Co in tellurium have been obtained taking into account both measurements and calculations and a preliminary estimate of the corresponding rates of production at sea level has been performed

  13. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the ...

  14. Bonus Activity Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Elementary level activity book presents suggestions for teaching students about endangered and threatened species worldwide. Students learn about what is causing the rapid extinction rate and what needs to be done. They also discover the value of rainforests and why conservationists are fighting to save them. (SM)

  15. Activities: Preparing for Pythagoras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Three worksheets are provided to help secondary students explore relationships among the areas of a variety of similar figures constructed on the sides of right triangles. The activity is extended to include the relationship among the lengths of the sides of the right triangle. Included are several student worksheets. (DC)

  16. Activated Sludge Rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Horn, Willi; Helmus, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Rheological behaviour is an important fluid property that severely impacts its flow behaviour and many aspects related to this. In the case of activated sludge, the apparent viscosity has an influence on e.g. pumping, hydrodynamics, mass transfer rates, sludge-water separation (settling and filtr...

  17. Chemistry activities at VECC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Guin, R.; Choudhury, D.P.

    2009-01-01

    Since the commissioning of the cyclotron, chemists have been involved in different research activities. Potential of chemistry to separate elements from each other has been utilized to measure mass and charge distribution in medium energy fission. Mechanism of nuclear reactions with light and heavy ion projectiles has been studied with special reference to the incomplete fusion process. Radiochemical separation of radioisotopes in carrier-free form from the bulk target material is an important activity chemists are involved in. Fullerene research with reference to the synthesis of endofullerene has been carried out by implanting radioisotopes into the C 60 cage using nuclear reactions with heavy ions. These radioendofullerenes have important applications. Charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) using both light and heavy ions has been utilized to estimate impurity in the level of sub ppm in different matrices. Thin layer activation (ILA) has been used for wear analysis of different materials. Heavy ions in the higher energy regime from the forthcoming Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) would be used for the synthesis of multitracer mixture which has important uses in nuclear medicine. Heavy ions from SCC would also be used to produce and study the defects in different materials using hyperfine technique. High current particle beam from medical cyclotron would be used to synthesize a number of radioisotopes which would be utilized in various basic research and applications. (author)

  18. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  19. Active Citizenship? Forget It!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Berlogar

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt about the need for the realisation of active citizenship concept and for practical education for it. Realisation itself might be utopian but the reason for that is less our inability and more wrong understanding of the concept itself. Socio-technical participation and “economic democracy” are self-deception about the active citizenship reality. Active citizenship does not mean to save national identitity and sacred things of that nation. It is neither training for the economic welfare of community and getting rid of problematic individuals. The latter is nothing but serving. The goal must be political participation, even resistence and changes. That is what we should educate for. We are perhaps not allowed to, but it is of crucial importance to ask ourselves (educators if we want and dare to do it. We should do both - ask ourselves and act as proposed. No state itself » produces « active citizens. It creates them according to their interests. Political awakening is not among those interests.

  20. Dimensions of network activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenvlied, R.; Akkerman, A.; Meier, K.; O'Toole, L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies in public management show that agencies draw different types of support from different actors and organizations in their environment. If this is true, we would expect that managers differentiate their networking activity toward different types of external actors and organizations. However,

  1. Rapport-Building Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzieff, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This article defines rapport in a teaching context as knowing your students, their different learning styles, and using that relationship with them to teach on a personal level. The author describes an activity using playdough. While giving learners opportunities to interact with others it naturally appeals to a variety of learning styles,…

  2. Charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisach, M.

    1977-01-01

    The techniques of prompt and delayed activation analysis are outlined. Methods using cyclotron beams are suitable for delayed A.A., but prompt methods with relatively low energy beams serve a useful purpose for analysis of thin layers and surfaces. Multi-element analyses with prompt X-rays, generally applicable analysis by backscattering and specific analyses by nuclaer reactions are described [af

  3. Sexual activity and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. Copyright © 2013 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  5. Nutrition. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carolyn

    This learning activity package on nutrition is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  7. 85 Engaging Movement Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikart, Phyllis S.; Carlton, Elizabeth B.

    This book presents activities to keep K-6 students moving in a variety of ways as they learn. The movement experiences are planned around key curriculum concepts in movement and music as well as in academic curriculum areas. The experiences develop students' basic timing, language abilities, vocabulary, concentration, planning skills, and…

  8. Diagramming Complex Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2005-01-01

    We increasingly live in heterogeneous ever-changing webs of activities where human actions are intertwined with events created by automatic machines.  In order to make such webs understandable to its human participants, their structure should be represented by displays emphasizing their action...

  9. Active-bridge oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2001-01-01

    An active bridge oscillator is formed from a differential amplifier where positive feedback is a function of the impedance of one of the gain elements and a relatively low value common emitter resistance. This use of the nonlinear transistor parameter h stabilizes the output and eliminates the need for ALC circuits common to other bridge oscillators.

  10. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  11. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  12. Activities in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrochna, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    HTGR Activities in Europe: • Stimulated and coordinated by Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative (NC21) • a part of Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform (SNETP) • SNETP has 68 members: industry, research, TSO, ... Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative: Contribute to clean and competitive energy beyond electricity by facilitating deployment of nuclear cogeneration plants

  13. Heavy ion activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lass, B.D.; Roche, N.G.; Sanni, A.O.; Schweikert, E.A.; Ojo, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    A report on radioactivation with ion beams of 3 6 Li and 14 N is presented with some analytical applications: the determination of C via 12 C( 6 Li,αn) 13 N; the determination of Li and Be, using 14 N activation. Next, examples, with limitations in selectivity. The detection limits using a 1 μA h of activation irradiation are 5 ppm for C and 1 ppm for Li or Be. With 9 Be suitable for analytical applications are: sup(10,11)B( 9 Be,xn) 18 F and 14 N( 9 Be,αn) 18 F. Assuming a 1 μA h irradiation the detection limits for N and B are 1.5 ng and 0.5 ng, respectively, using a 7.8 MeV 9 Be beam. For activation with 12 C, experimental results with 12 MeV 12 C beam demonstrate that the beam is best suited for 7 Li analysis by the reaction 7 Li( 12 C,n) 18 F. The detection limit for a 1 μA h irradiation is 1 ng and the only other low Z elements activated are B and C. Finally, 12 C radioactivation was further combined with autoradiography for positional analysis. The spatial resolution of the technique was estimated to be 40 μm for an exposure corresponding to 6x10 5 disintegrations. As low as 10 -12 g of Li was readily detected by autoradiography. (author)

  14. PLANNING OF HOSPITAL ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Tihomira Zlatanova; Ralitsa Zlatanova-Velikova; Angelina Cheshmedzieva; Natalia Shtereva

    2014-01-01

    In this article are presented and analyzed planning of hospital activity. Introduced planning process depending on the type of health care system - countries with national health systems there is a tendency to set targets backed by norms, while in countries with fully or partially liberalized system developed a variety of techniques for strategic planning.

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water aerobics Bicycling slower than 10 miles per hour ...

  16. Acid-activated bentonite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, we propose Maghnite-H + , as an ecological, cost-effective and easily renewable catalyst, for the polymerization of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5). The Maghnite is a clay consisting primarily of smectite minerals (montmorillonite group), which can be activated/reactivated through a simple process, ...

  17. Implementing Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Kevin; Nato, Sandy; Ernst, Jeremy; Clark, Aaron; DeLuca, V. William; Kelly, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    When students walk into a classroom, often the first question is, "What are we going to do today?" It is easy for educators to fall into the trap of using activities exclusively without considering the value or intent of the content. After all, the students are engaged, and if they are busy they must be learning. Simply being busy,…

  18. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  19. DPHPE activities during 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978 [fr

  20. DPHPE activities during 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1977 [fr

  1. Institutional investor activism : Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mc Cahery, Joseph; Bratton, William; Bratton, William; McCahery, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in institutional ownership of recent decades has been accompanied by an enhanced role played by institutions in monitoring companies’ corporate governance behaviour. Activist hedge funds and private equity firms have achieved a degree of success in actively shaping the business plans of

  2. Seismology of active stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekker, S.; García, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this review we will discuss the current standing and open questions of seismology in active stars. With the longer photometric time series data that are, and will become, available from space-missions such as Kepler we foresee significant progress in our understanding of stellar internal

  3. NEA activities in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report describes the main features of the Agency's work during 1981 and discusses the state and prospects of the nuclear industry in OECD countries. Trends in nuclear power, radiological and environmental impacts of nuclear fuel cycle activities, nuclear safety research and licensing, nuclear law, nuclear development and fuel cycle studies technical co-operation, nuclear science organisation and administration are reviewed

  4. Bacteriology of activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van H.W.

    1964-01-01

    The bacteriology and biochemistry of activated sludge grown in domestic waste water or fed with synthetic media were studied. The nature of the flocs was investigated by determining morphological and physiological characteristics of many strains isolated.

    Predominant bacteria were

  5. Activities of the ILO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Niels; And Others

    1981-01-01

    A series of articles reviews educational activities of the International Labour Organisation (ILO), including international seminars on workers' education, a study of women workers, trade union training courses at the ILO Turin Centre, and the importance of information dissemination to trade unions. (SK)

  6. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jets in active galaxies are signatures of energy supply via collimatedbeams of plasma from the galactic nucleus to the extendedregions of emission. These jets, which occur acrossthe electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassiveblack holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seenon the scale of parsecs ...

  7. Morse Code Activity Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Janeen S.

    This activity packet offers simple directions for setting up a Morse Code system appropriate to interfacing with any of several personal computer systems. Worksheets are also included to facilitate teaching Morse Code to persons with visual or other disabilities including blindness, as it is argued that the code is best learned auditorily. (PB)

  8. Active Math Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The presentation is concerned with general course planning philosophy and a specific case study (boomerang flight geometro-dynamics) for active learning of mathematics via computer assisted and hands-on unfolding of first principles - in this case the understanding of rotations and Eulers equations...

  9. Activity report 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delande, E.; Drent, W.

    1984-07-01

    The reports presents an account of the activities of the Eurochemic Company for the chemical processing of irradiated fuels, in the fiscal year l982. It deals with legal and administrative matters, industrial development, plant operation, new works, health and safety, library and documentation, and conferences and symposia. (AF)

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stair Usage Project Checklist CDC’s Example Related Resources Walking Step It Up! Surgeon General’s Call to Action ... doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but ...

  11. Mast cell activation disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Blood basophils also participate in allergic and other inflammatory reactions in the same way as mast cells.4. The capacity of mast cells and basophil to release mediators of anaphylaxis in response to cell activation, also termed releasability, depends on a number of different factors, including the primary underlying disease ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Word file Microsoft Excel file Audio/Video file Apple Quicktime file RealPlayer file Text file Zip Archive file SAS file ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , ...

  13. Activity report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This activity report of the DSIN ( Direction of Nuclear Installations Safety) is divided into 4 parts bearing on: (1) Organisation, Safety principles, Regulations (2) Nuclear basis installations following (3) Surveillance by the regional directions of the Ministry of Industry, Research and Environment (4) Other missions of the DSIN

  14. Active Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    Present generation students are primarily active learners with varied learning experiences and lecture courses may not suit all their learning needs. Effective learning involves providing students with a sense of progress and control over their own learning. This requires creating a situation where learners have a chance to try out or test their…

  15. Grooming. Learning Activity Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Pamela

    This learning activity package on grooming for health workers is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics are…

  16. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  17. Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerantzis, Nikolaos; Mitrouda, Aikaterini; Reizopoulou, Ioanna; Sidiropoulou, Eirini; Hatzidimitriou, Antonios

    2016-04-01

    On November 9th, 2015, three didactical hours were dedicated to Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities (http://wp.me/p6Hte2-1I). Our students and their teachers formed three groups and in rotation, were engaged with the following activities: (a) viewing unique images of the Cosmos in the mobile planetarium STARLAB (http://www.planitario.gr/tholos-starlab-classic-standard.html), (b) watching the following videos: Journey to the end of the universe (https://youtu.be/Ufl_Nwbl8xs), Rosetta update (https://youtu.be/nQ9ivd7wv30), The Solar System (https://youtu.be/d66dsagrTa0), Ambition the film (https://youtu.be/H08tGjXNHO4) in the school's library. Students and teachers were informed about our solar system, the Rosetta mission, the universe, etc. and (c) tactile activities such as Meet our home and Meet our neighbors (http://astroedu.iau.org, http://nuclio.org/astroneighbours/resources) and the creation of planets' 3D models (Geology-Geography A' Class Student's book, pg.15). With the activities above we had the pleasure to join the Cosmic Light Edu Kit / International Year of Light 2015 program. After our Interdisciplinary Astronomy Activities, we did a "small" research: our students had to fill an evaluation about their educational gains and the results can be found here http://wp.me/p6Hte2-2q. Moreover, we discussed about Big Ideas of Science (http://wp.me/p3oRiZ-dm) and through the "big" impact of the Rosetta mission & the infinity of our universe, we print posters with relevant topics and place them to the classrooms. We thank Rosa Doran (Nuclio - President of the Executive Council) for her continuous assistance and support on innovative science teaching proposals. She is an inspiration.

  18. Defining active progressive multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sellebjerg, Finn; Börnsen, Lars; Ammitzbøll, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether disease activity according to consensus criteria (magnetic resonance imaging activity or clinical relapses) associate with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) changes in progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). OBJECTIVE: To compare CSF biomarkers in active and inactive...

  19. Regulation of Brown and White Adipocyte Transcriptome by the Transcriptional Coactivator NT-PGC-1α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyun Kim

    Full Text Available The β3-adrenergic receptor (AR signaling pathway is a major component of adaptive thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue during cold acclimation. The β3-AR signaling highly induces the expression of transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant N-terminal (NT-PGC-1α, which in turn activate the transcription program of adaptive thermogenesis by co-activating a number of transcription factors. We previously reported that NT-PGC-1α is able to increase mitochondrial number and activity in cultured brown adipocytes by promoting the expression of mitochondrial and thermogenic genes. In the present study, we performed genome-wide profiling of NT-PGC-1α-responsive genes in brown adipocytes to identify genes potentially regulated by NT-PGC-1α. Canonical pathway analysis revealed that a number of genes upregulated by NT-PGC-1α are highly enriched in mitochondrial pathways including fatty acid transport and β-oxidation, TCA cycle and electron transport system, thus reinforcing the crucial role of NT-PGC-1α in the enhancement of mitochondrial function. Moreover, canonical pathway analysis of NT-PGC-1α-responsive genes identified several metabolic pathways including glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. In order to validate the identified genes in vivo, we utilized the FL-PGC-1α-/- mouse that is deficient in full-length PGC-1α (FL-PGC-1α but expresses a slightly shorter and functionally equivalent form of NT-PGC-1α (NT-PGC-1α254. The β3-AR-induced increase of NT-PGC-1α254 in FL-PGC-1α-/- brown and white adipose tissue was closely associated with elevated expression of genes involved in thermogenesis, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism, glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis. Increased adipose tissue thermogenesis by β3-AR activation resulted in attenuation of adipose tissue expansion in FL-PGC-1α-/- adipose tissue under the high-fat diet condition. Together, the data strengthen our previous findings that NT-PGC-1

  20. Light Intensity Physical Activity Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    Diabetes Mellitus; Physical Exercise; Light Intensity Physical Activity; Arterial Stiffness; Aortic Stiffness; Pulse Wave Velocity; Type2 Diabetes; Sedentary Lifestyle; Artery Disease; Physical Activity