WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-drug treatment excluding

  1. A Non-Drug Treatment for Post–Herpetic Neuralgia (PHN): A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report demonstrates the therapeutic efficacy of a non-drug treatment modality (shortwave diathermy – SWD) in the management of a patient who had suffered ... The remarkable decrease in pain perception experienced by this patient is therefore, an indication that SWD therapy may be a treatment of choice for PHN.

  2. Non-drug Non-invasive Treatment in the Management of Low Back ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of functional independence and quality of life. Aim: The main purpose of this study was to assess the results of non-drug non-invasive treatment in the management of LBP. Subjects and Methods: This was prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopedics in M. M. Medical College, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, ...

  3. Non-drug Non-invasive Treatment in the Management of Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Rl

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major medical problem. World-wide, from 60% to 80% of people will have it during their lifetime and 2-5% will have it at any given time. The disease impacts upon activities of daily living ultimately leading to a loss of functional independence and quality of life. The main purpose of this study was to assess the results of non-drug non-invasive treatment in the management of LBP. This was prospective study conducted in the Department of Orthopedics in M. M. Medical College, Mullana, Ambala, Haryana, India from June 2005 to June 2010. A total of 251 out-patients of LBP with a mean age of 45 years were studied. They were managed with non-invasive treatment and were followed for 24 months. Objective Lumbar Spine Assessments up to the age of 40 years at 2 years were excellent. At 40-60 years of age, it was good to excellent. Over the age of 60 years, it was good. The back pain functional scale were found very good up to the age of 40 years at 2-year follow-up, good to very good between 40 and 60 years and over the age of 60 years it was good. Non-drug non-invasive interventions can reduce pain and improve function in LBP.

  4. 26 CFR 1.167(a)-14 - Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from section 197.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the contract or governmental grant is treated as the acquisition of a separate intangible asset. (4... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment of certain intangible property... for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(a)-14 Treatment of certain intangible property excluded from...

  5. The potential benefits and inherent risks of vibration as a non-drug therapy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, M Ete; Uzer, Gunes; Rubin, Clinton T

    2013-03-01

    The delivery of mechanical signals to the skeleton using vibration is being considered as a non-drug treatment of osteoporosis. Delivered over a range of magnitudes and frequencies, vibration has been shown to be both anabolic and anti-catabolic to the musculoskeletal tissues, yet caution must be emphasized as these mechanical signals, particularly chronic exposure to higher intensities, is a known pathogen to many physiological systems. In contrast, accumulating preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that low intensity vibration (LIV) improves bone quality through regulating the activity of cells responsible for bone remodeling, as well as biasing the differentiation fate of their mesenchymal and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors. In vitro studies provide insights into the biologic mechanisms of LIV, and indicate that cells respond to these low magnitude signals through a distinct mechanism driven not by matrix strain but acceleration. These cell, animal, and human studies may represent the foundation of a safe, non-drug means to protect and improve the musculoskeletal system of the elderly, injured, and infirmed.

  6. Long-Term Outcome of the GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis for Treatment of Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poublon, Claire G.; Holewijn, Suzanne; van Sterkenburg, Steven M. M.; Tielliu, Ignace F. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term outcome of GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, Arizona) for elective treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms and to evaluate performance of different generations of the device. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was

  7. Long-Term Outcome of the GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis for Treatment of Infrarenal Aortic Aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poublon, Claire G; Holewijn, Suzanne; van Sterkenburg, Steven M M; Tielliu, Ignace F J; Zeebregts, Clark J; Reijnen, Michel M P J

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate long-term outcome of GORE EXCLUDER AAA Endoprosthesis (W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc, Flagstaff, Arizona) for elective treatment of infrarenal aortic aneurysms and to evaluate performance of different generations of the device. A retrospective analysis was performed of 248 patients undergoing elective endovascular aneurysm repair with the GORE EXCLUDER between January 2000 and December 2015 in 2 hospitals. Primary endpoint was reintervention-free survival. Secondary endpoints were technical success, overall survival, rupture-free survival, endoleaks, sac diameter change (> 5 mm), limb occlusion, and migration (> 5 mm). Median follow-up time was 26 months (range, 1-190 months). Assisted primary technical success was 96.8%. Reintervention-free survival for 5 and 10 years was 85.2% and 75.6%, respectively. Independent risk factors for reintervention were technical success (P GORE EXCLUDER compared with the low permeability GORE EXCLUDER (P = .001) and in the presence of type I, II, and V endoleaks (P GORE EXCLUDER is effective with acceptable reintervention rates in the long-term and few device-related adverse events or ruptures up to 10 years. Observed late adverse events and new-onset endoleaks emphasize the need for long-term surveillance. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Balneological outpatient treatment for patients with knee osteoarthritis; an effective non-drug therapy option in daily routine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkuk, Kağan; Gürdal, Hatice; Karagülle, Mine; Barut, Yasemin; Eröksüz, Rıza; Karagülle, Müfit Zeki

    2017-04-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of balneological treatments applied at consecutive and intermittent sessions without interfering with their daily routine in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This is a randomized, controlled, single-blind clinical trial. Fifty patients diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were included. The patients were divided into two groups. All patients were given a total of ten sessions of balneological treatment consisting of hydrotherapy and mud pack therapy. Group 1 received consecutive treatment for 2 weeks, while group 2 received intermittent treatment for 5 weeks. Local peloid packs at 45 °C were applied for 20 min, after a tap water (38 °C) bath. Evaluations were conducted before, after treatment, and at 12th week of post-treatment by Pain (VAS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Both balneological treatment regimens of knee osteoarthritis had statistically significant clinical effects as well as effects on the quality of life. Patients' well-being continued at 3 months, except for joint stiffness (WOMAC), role-emotional (SF-36), and vitality (SF-36) in group 1 and for mental health (SF-36) in both groups. Both patient groups had improved compared to baseline. However, at 3 months after the treatment, the well-being of group 2 was unable to be maintained in terms of role-physical (SF-36) parameter, while the well-being of group 1 was unable to be maintained in terms of pain, WOMAC (pain, physical functions, total), and SF-36 (physical functioning, role-physical, pain, role-emotional, and mental health) variables, compared to data obtained immediately after treatment. Our study suggests that traditional and intermittent balneological therapies have similar efficacy in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  9. Assessment of adherence to drug and non-drug treatments and its changes under the influence of an education program in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E V Orlova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess awareness of drug and non-drug treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA and compliance in patients before and after their participation in an education program, as well as the survival of the knowledge and the need for retraining. Subjects and methods. The study included 43 patients with RA: 23 study group patients were trained according to an education program (Rheumatoid Arthritis Health School, 20 patients formed a control group. The education program consisted of 4 daily 90-min studies. Adherence to drug and non-drug treatments was assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months. Results. In the study group, the basic therapy remained stably high (about 100% within 6 months. At 3 months after studies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs could be discontinued in 23.8% (p < 0.05. After 6 months, the proportion of patients using laser therapy increased by 57.1% (p < 0.01 and accounted for 47.8%; the use of electric and ultrasound treatments showed a 55.6% increase (p < 0.01 and was 60.9%. The number of patients who were compliant to the procedures for shaping a correct functional stereotype increased by 14 and 10 times following 3 and 6 months (60.9% and 43.5%, respectively; p < 0.01. After 3 months, there was a rise in the number of patients using hand ortheses by 75.0% (30.4%; p < 0.01; knee ortheses by 50.0% (39.1%; p < 0.01; individual inner soles by 71.4% (52.2%; p < 0.01; and walking sticks and crutches by 60.0% (34.8%; p < 0.01. Following 6 months, the positive changes remained only after the relative use of inner soles (60.9% and support means (34.8%; p < 0.05. The number of patients who regularly did physical activity increased by 5.3 (69.6%; р < 0.01 and 3.7 (47.8%; p < 0.01 times at 3 and 6 months, respectively. The trend in the control group was less pronounced, determining statistically significant differences between the groups in most indicators (р < 0.05. Conclusion. The education program retains high

  10. Stainless-steel wires exclude gulls from a wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Daniel E.; Koenen, Kiana K. G.; MacKenzie, Kenneth G.; Pereira, Jillian W.; DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    There is growing concern about the prevalence of pathogens and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the environment and the role wildlife plays in their transmission and dissemination. Gulls feeding at wastewater treatment plants may provide a route for transmission of pathogens and bacteria to public water supplies or other critical areas. The authors identified gulls routinely feeding at a wastewater treatment plant in Millbury, Mass., and tested the effectiveness of overhead stainless-steel wires in excluding gulls from the plant. The number of gulls in certainstructures was compared before and after wiring and during an experimental approach using simultaneous treatments and controls. Stainless-steel wires spaced at 0.9-3.3 m (3-10 ft) effectively prevented gulls from using treatment structures (p 24 months. Materials costs to wire all structures was about $5,700, and labor costs were $4,020. Overhead stainless-steel wires can provide a long-term, cost-efficient method of excluding ring-billed gulls from wastewater treatment plants.

  11. Non-drug therapies for lower limb muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyton, Fiona; Chuter, Vivienne; Walter, Kate E L; Burns, Joshua

    2012-01-18

    About one in every three adults are affected by lower limb muscle cramps. For some people, these cramps reduce quality of life, quality of sleep and participation in activities of daily living. Many interventions are available for lower limb cramps, but some are controversial, no treatment guidelines exist, and often people experience no benefit from the interventions prescribed. To assess the effects of non-drug, non-invasive treatments for lower limb cramp. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (13 September 2011) using the terms: cramp, spasm, contracture, charley horse and lower limb, lower extremity, foot, calf, leg, thigh, gastrocnemius, hamstring, quadriceps. We also searched CENTRAL (2011, Issue 3), MEDLINE (January 1966 to August 2011) and EMBASE (January 1980 to August 2011) and the reference lists of included studies. There were no language or publication restrictions. All randomised controlled trials of non-drug, non-invasive interventions trialled over at least four weeks for the prevention of lower limb muscle cramps in any group of people. We excluded, for example, surgery, acupuncture and dry-needling, as invasive interventions. We selected only trials that included at least one of the following outcomes: cramp frequency, cramp severity, health-related quality of life, quality of sleep, participation in activities of daily living and adverse outcomes. Two authors independently selected trials, assessed risk of bias and cross checked data extraction and analysis. A third author was to arbitrate in the event of disagreement. We asked the authors of five trials for information to assist with screening studies for eligibility and received four responses. One trial was eligible for inclusion.  All participants were age 60 years or over and had received a repeat prescription from their general practitioner of quinine for nighttime cramps in the preceding three months. This review includes data from only those

  12. A study of the frequency and pattern of non-drug therapies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.93% Allium sativum, 0.56% Cola acuminate. There was a significant difference in the frequency of Non-drug therapies ... There is need for public health education on the benefits or otherwise of non-drug therapies; to enhance treatment outcomes. Keywords: Pattern; Non-drug therapies; lifestyle; hypertension; diabetes; ...

  13. Challenges and approaches in planning fuel treatments across fire-excluded forested landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.M. Collins; S.L. Stephens; J.J. Moghaddas; J. Battles

    2010-01-01

    Placing fuel reduction treatments across entire landscapes such that impacts associated with high-intensity fire are lessened is a difficult goal to achieve, largely because of the immense area needing treatment. As such, fire scientists and managers have conceptually developed and are refining methodologies for strategic placement of fuel treatments that...

  14. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    PATIENT EDUCATION patienteducation.osumc.edu Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  15. Prevention of non-drug addictions

    OpenAIRE

    PELECHOVÁ, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Non-drug addictions are part of us, including children and youth. It is important to realize that non-drug addictions influence us and are underestimated despite their seriousness. They constitute serious social-pathological phenomenon of the present. This Bachelor Thesis deals particularly with prevention and the present situation of socially undesired behaviour that is very widespread in current society. With pathological gambling, mobile phone addiction, virtual addictions, alimentary diso...

  16. Health technology reassessment of non-drug technologies: current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Laura; Noseworthy, Tom W; Zarrabi, Mahmood; Lorenzetti, Diane; Sutherland, Lloyd R; Clement, Fiona M

    2012-07-01

    Obsolescence is a natural phase of the lifecycle of health technologies. Given increasing cost of health expenditures worldwide, health organizations have little choice but to engage in health technology reassessment (HTR); a structured, evidence-based assessment of the medical, social, ethical, and economic effects of a technology, currently used within the healthcare system, to inform optimal use of that technology in comparison to its alternatives. This research was completed to identify and summarize international HTR initiatives for non-drug technologies. A systematic review was performed using the terms disinvestment, obsolescence, obsolete technology, ineffective, reassessment, reinvestment, reallocation, program budgeting, and marginal analysis to search PubMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL until November 2011. Websites of organizations listed as members of INAHTA and HTAi were hand-searched for gray literature. Documents were excluded if they were unavailable in English, if the title/abstract was irrelevant to HTR, and/or if the document made no mention of current practices. All citations were screened in duplicate with disagreements resolved by consensus. Sixty full-text documents were reviewed and forty were included. One model for reassessment was identified; however, it has never been put into practice. Eight countries have some evidence of past or current work related to reassessment; seven have shown evidence of continued work in HTR. There is negligible focus on monitoring and implementation. HTR is in its infancy. Although health technology reassessments are being conducted, there is no standardized approach. Future work should focus on developing and piloting a comprehensive methodology for completing HTR.

  17. Effective non-drug interventions for improving outcomes and quality of maternal health care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekesah, Frederick M; Mbada, Chidozie E; Muula, Adamson S; Kabiru, Caroline W; Muthuri, Stella K; Izugbara, Chimaraoke O

    2016-08-15

    Many interventions have been implemented to improve maternal health outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Currently, however, systematic information on the effectiveness of these interventions remains scarce. We conducted a systematic review of published evidence on non-drug interventions that reported effectiveness in improving outcomes and quality of care in maternal health in SSA. African Journals Online, Bioline, MEDLINE, Ovid, Science Direct, and Scopus databases were searched for studies published in English between 2000 and 2015 and reporting on the effectiveness of interventions to improve quality and outcomes of maternal health care in SSA. Articles focusing on interventions that involved drug treatments, medications, or therapies were excluded. We present a narrative synthesis of the reported impact of these interventions on maternal morbidity and mortality outcomes as well as on other dimensions of the quality of maternal health care (as defined by the Institute of Medicine 2001 to comprise safety, effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness, patient centeredness, and equitability). Seventy-three studies were included in this review. Non-drug interventions that directly or indirectly improved quality of maternal health and morbidity and mortality outcomes in SSA assumed a variety of forms including mobile and electronic health, financial incentives on the demand and supply side, facility-based clinical audits and maternal death reviews, health systems strengthening interventions, community mobilization and/or peer-based programs, home-based visits, counseling and health educational and promotional programs conducted by health care providers, transportation and/or communication and referrals for emergency obstetric care, prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and task shifting interventions. There was a preponderance of single facility and community-based studies whose effectiveness was difficult to assess. Many non-drug interventions have been

  18. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    with future explicitly present in the formalism and influencing in principle the past is not excluded phenomenologically, because the effects are argued to be very small in the present era. Furthermore, we explicitly derive the Hamiltonian for the future state via a path integral, and confirm that it is given...

  19. Non-drug therapies for dementia: an overview of the current situation with regard to proof of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräsel, Elmar; Wiltfang, Jens; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2003-01-01

    An overview will be presented of music therapy, art therapy, movement therapy and reminiscence therapy, memory training, reality orientation, validation therapy, self-maintenance therapy, behaviour therapy, milieu therapy and staff training. The overview will examine the aims of each, the principles on which procedures are based and the proof of their effectiveness. The principal aim of non-drug therapies is to influence symptomatic dementia beneficially and to improve the abilities remaining to the patient. The potential benefits are usually deduced from studies made without control groups. At the present time, proof of the effectiveness of these therapies is still lacking as controlled, randomized studies have yet to be conducted, and so a fundamental evaluation of the therapeutic benefits of non-drug therapies in the treatment of dementia cannot yet be made. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. ROLE OF NON-DRUG THERAPIES OF METABOLIC SYNDROME: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Strelkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal obesity (and the closely related metabolic syndrome is one of the most common diseases in the world. The urgency of the problem of the progression of abdominal obesity is not only in its high prevalence, but also in the formation of a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes type 2. The main reasons for the rapid development of obesity are considered high-calorie food (which includes not only the quantity but also the quality of edible products, sedentary lifestyle and genetic predisposition. Until now there are underway great controversies about the procedures of fast and trouble-free weight loss. There are many studies on the treatment of various components of metabolic syndrome. Despite a number of different pharmaceutical drugs developed for the treatment of abdominal obesity, non-drug therapies come first as well as the organization of the right way of life, which is difficult and sometimes impossible task for the clinician. One of the main reasons is the lack of time in doctor during outpatient consultations. To resolve this issue the role of "School of Health" is considered in order to effectively reduce the body weight of patients with metabolic syndrome and maintaining long-term results. It is expected that the implementation of the "School of Health" in the complex treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome will more broadly inform patients about their disease, improve the motivational and cognitive components of plants, and increase compliance to carry out the doctor's prescription. A review of the prevalence and root causes of abdominal obesity is presented, as well as analysis of the effectiveness of existing “Schools of Health” in the clinical practice for the treatment of various chronic diseases.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of early irbesartan treatment versus control (standard antihypertensive medications excluding ACE inhibitors, other angiotensin-2 receptor antagonists, and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers) or late irbesartan treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Andrew J; Annemans, Lieven; Roze, Stéphane; Lamotte, Mark; Lapuerta, Pablo; Chen, Roland; Gabriel, Sylvie; Carita, Paulo; Rodby, Roger A; de Zeeuw, Dick; Parving, Hans-Henrik

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the most cost-effective time point for initiation of irbesartan treatment in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes and renal disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study was a Markov model-simulated progression from microalbuminuria to overt

  2. Real-world performance of the new C3 Gore Excluder stent-graft: 1-year results from the European C3 module of the Global Registry for Endovascular Aortic Treatment (GREAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, E L G; Katsargyris, A; Bachoo, P; Larzon, T; Fisher, R; Ettles, D; Boyle, J R; Brunkwall, J; Böckler, D; Florek, H-J; Stella, A; Kasprzak, P; Verhagen, H; Riambau, V

    2014-08-01

    The European C3 module of the Global Registry for Endovascular Aortic Treatment (GREAT) provides "real-world" outcomes for the new C3 Gore Excluder stent-graft, and evaluates the new deployment mechanism. This report presents the 1-year results from 400 patients enrolled in this registry. Between August 2010 and December 2012, 400 patients (86.8% male, mean age 73.9 ± 7.8 years) from 13 European sites were enrolled in this registry. Patient demographics, treatment indication, case planning, operative details including repositioning and technical results, and clinical outcome were analyzed. Technical success was achieved in 396/400 (99%) patients. Two patients needed intraoperative open conversion, one for iliac rupture, the second because the stent-graft was pulled down during a cross-over catheterization in an angulated anatomy. Two patients required an unplanned chimney renal stent to treat partial coverage of the left renal artery because of upward displacement of the stent-graft. Graft repositioning occurred in 192/399 (48.1%) patients, most frequently for level readjustment with regard to the renal arteries, and less commonly for contralateral gate reorientation. Final intended position of the stent-graft below the renal arteries was achieved in 96.2% of patients. Thirty-day mortality was two (0.5%) patients. Early reintervention (≤30 days) was required in two (0.5%) patients. Mean follow-up duration was 15.9 ± 8.8 months (range 0-37 months). Late reintervention (>30 days) was required in 26 (6.5%) patients. Estimated freedom from reintervention at 1 year was 95.2% (95% CI 92.3-97%), and at 2 years 91.5% (95% CI 86.8-94.5%). Estimated patient survival at 1 year was 96% (95% CI 93.3-97.6%) and at 2 years 90.6% (95% CI 85.6-93.9%). Early real-world experience shows that the new C3 delivery system offers advantages in terms of device repositioning resulting in high deployment accuracy. Longer follow-up is required to confirm that this high deployment accuracy

  3. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  4. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anticholinergic drugs versus non-drug active therapies for non-neurogenic overactive bladder syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Cody, June D; Alhasso, Ammar; Stewart, Laurence

    2012-12-12

    Overactive bladder syndrome is defined as urgency with or without urgency incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Pharmacotherapy with anticholinergic drugs is often the first line medical therapy, either alone or as an adjunct to various non-pharmacological therapies after conservative options such as reducing intake of caffeine drinks have been tried. Non-pharmacologic therapies consist of bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback, behavioural modification, electrical stimulation and surgical interventions. To compare the effects of anticholinergic drugs with various non-pharmacologic therapies for non-neurogenic overactive bladder syndrome in adults. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (searched 4 September 2012), which includes searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and MEDLINE, and the reference lists of relevant articles. All randomised or quasi-randomised, controlled trials of treatment with anticholinergic drugs for overactive bladder syndrome or urgency urinary incontinence in adults in which at least one management arm involved a non-drug therapy. Trials amongst patients with neurogenic bladder dysfunction were excluded. Two authors evaluated the trials for appropriateness for inclusion and risk of bias. Two authors were involved in the data extraction. Data extraction was based on predetermined criteria. Data analysis was based on standard statistical approaches used in Cochrane reviews. Twenty three trials were included with a total of 3685 participants, one was a cross-over trial and the other 22 were parallel group trials. The duration of follow up varied from two to 52 weeks. The trials were generally small and of poor methodological quality. During treatment, symptomatic improvement was more common amongst those participants on anticholinergic drugs compared with bladder training in seven small trials (73/174, 42% versus 98/172, 57% not

  6. AFSC/ABL: 2009 Chinook Excluder Samples

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project genetically analyzed 1,620 chinook salmon samples from the 2009 spring salmon excluder device test. These samples were collected over a short period of...

  7. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  8. 7 CFR 58.137 - Excluded milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... level of 750,000 per ml. (1,000,000 per ml. for goat milk) (§ 58.133 (b)(6)); or (d) The producer's milk... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Excluded milk. 58.137 Section 58.137 Agriculture... Milk § 58.137 Excluded milk. A plant shall not accept milk from a producer if: (a) The milk has been in...

  9. What is the Right to Exclude Immigrants?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    It is normally taken for granted that states have a right to control immigration into their territory. When immigration is raised as a normative issue two questions become salient, one about what the right to exclude is, and one about whether and how it might be justified. This paper considers...... the first question. The paper starts by noting that standard debates about immigration have not addressed what the right to exclude is. Standard debates about immigration furthermore tend to result either in fairly strong cases for open borders or in denials that considerations of justice apply...... to immigration at all, which results in state discretion positions. This state of debate is both theoretically unsatisfactory and normatively implausible. The paper therefore explores an alternative approach to the right to exclude immigrants from the perspective of recent debates about the territorial rights...

  10. Polyelectrolyte solutions: Excluded-volume considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattoussi, Hedi; Karasz, Frank E.

    1993-12-01

    We provide experimental evidence for the electrostatically related excluded-volume effects on the colligative properties and the single chain behavior of polyelectrolyte solutions in the dilute regime. The data are compared to the theory developed by Fixman, Skolnick, Odijk, and Houwaart. Good agreement between these theoretical considerations and the experimental data is observed.

  11. The Paradox of the Excluded Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    A paradox seems to exist where a child, of compulsory schooling age, is excluded from a school. The practice of exclusion has evolved over the almost two centuries of compulsory schooling. Abolition of corporal punishment in Western Australia and elsewhere has tended to focus attention on exclusion and the grounds justifying such action by school…

  12. Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our grandmothers, excluded from history, preservers and transmitters of indegenous values: ecomaternalistic approach. ... Journal of Religion and Human Relations ... It further calls for the retrieval of the said hidden histories of women which would hopefully be a lesson for the contemporary and future women.

  13. An Exploration of Treatment and Supervision Intensity among Drug Court and Non-Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Krebs, Christopher P.; Warner, Tara D.; Lattimore, Pamela K.

    2009-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that drug court programs appear effective in reducing the substance use and recidivism of drug-involved offenders. As there is no single drug court model, programs vary from site to site and the extent to which individual programs are fully implemented is not well documented. The extent to which drug court programs deliver…

  14. Medicine, a threat to health: limitations of drug, non drug treatments and protocolized medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atiqi, R.

    2011-01-01

    Een behoorlijk aantal ziekenhuisopnamen is niet het gevolg van een acute aandoening, maar van ernstige bijwerkingen van medicijnen. Roya Atiqi onderzocht onder meer opnamen op de afdelingen Inwendige Geneeskunde, Cardiologie en Longziekten van het Albert Schweitzer Ziekenhuis in Dordrecht. Bijna

  15. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  16. Extended Excluded Volume: Its Origin and Consequences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Rouha, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2013), s. 201-210 ISSN 0033-4545. [International Conference on Solution Chemistry (ICSC-32) /32./. La Grande Motte, 28.08.2011-02.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : excluded volume * partial molar volume * primitive models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.112, year: 2013

  17. A pilot study of loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities in cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Justin C; Beckmann, Joshua S; Rush, Craig R; Stoops, William W

    2017-11-01

    Numerous studies in behavioral economics have demonstrated that individuals are more sensitive to the prospect of a loss than a gain (i.e., loss aversion). Although loss aversion has been well described in "healthy" populations, little research exists in individuals with substance use disorders. This gap is notable considering the prominent role that choice and decision-making play in drug use. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate loss aversion in active cocaine users. Current cocaine users (N=38; 42% female) participated in this within-subjects laboratory pilot study. Subjects completed a battery of tasks designed to assess loss aversion for drug and non-drug commodities under varying risk conditions. Standardized loss aversion coefficients (λ) were compared to theoretically and empirically relevant normative values (i.e., λ=2). Compared to normative loss aversion coefficient values, a precise and consistent decrease in loss aversion was observed in cocaine users (sample λ≈1). These values were observed across drug and non-drug commodities as well as under certain and risky conditions. These data represent the first systematic study of loss aversion in cocaine-using populations and provide evidence for equal sensitivity to losses and gains or loss equivalence. Futures studies should evaluate the specificity of these effects to a history of cocaine use as well as the impact of manipulations of loss aversion on drug use to determine how this phenomenon may contribute to intervention development efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine Acutely Enhances Reinforcement from Non-Drug Rewards in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth A. Perkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical research documents that, aside from the primary and secondary reinforcing effects of nicotine intake itself, nicotine also acutely enhances the reinforcing efficacy of non-drug reinforcers (“rewards”. Study of these effects in humans has largely been overlooked, but very recent findings suggest they may have clinical implications for more fully understanding the persistence of tobacco dependence. This overview first outlines the topic and notes some recent human studies indirectly addressing nicotine effects on related responses (e.g., subjective ratings, explaining why those findings do not directly confirm enhancement of behavioral reinforcement per se due to nicotine. Then, the methodology used in the subsequently presented studies is described, demonstrating how those studies specifically did demonstrate enhancement of reinforced responding for non-drug rewards. The main section focuses on the limited controlled research to date directly assessing nicotine’s acute reinforcement-enhancing effects in humans, particularly as it relates to reinforced behavioral responding for non-drug rewards in non-human animal models. After detailing those few existing human studies, we address potential consequences of these effects for dependence and tobacco cessation efforts and then suggest directions for future research. This research indicates that nicotine per se increases responding in humans that is reinforced by some rewards (auditory stimuli via music, visual stimuli via video, but perhaps not by others (e.g., money. These reinforcement-enhancing effects in smokers are not due to dependence or withdrawal relief and can be restored by a small amount of nicotine (similar to a smoking lapse, including from e-cigarettes, a non-tobacco nicotine product. Future clinical research should examine factors determining which types of rewards are (or are not enhanced by nicotine, consequences of the loss of these nicotine effects after quitting

  19. Decrease of anxio-depressive disorders in cancer with non drug psychotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Frédérique Bacqué

    2015-12-01

    non drug psychotherapies. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2015; 3(4:3403.[This abstract was presented at the BIT’s 8th Annual World Cancer Congress, which was held from May 15-17, 2015 in Beijing, China.

  20. [Manual for the design of non-drug trials in primary care, taking account of Good Clinical Practice (GCP) criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Stefanie; Bleidorn, Jutta; Haasenritter, Jörg; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Peters-Klimm, Frank; Gágyor, Ildikó

    2013-01-01

    In recent years studies not falling under the German Pharmaceutical Law ("non-drug trials") have also been increasingly expected to be conducted according to Good Clinical Practice (GCP) in order to ensure that uniform standards are maintained for data quality and patient safety. However, simple transfer of the GCP criteria is not always possible and often not useful. Given the fact that research questions regarding non-drug interventions are common in primary care (e.g., general practice), the "Network for Clinical Studies in General Practice" has developed a manual for planning and conducting non-drug trials. This manual is based on the GCP guideline, taking account of the conditions and circumstances in primary care settings. Both structure and relevant content of the manual are presented in the article. (As supplied by the authors). Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  1. 31 CFR 19.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Excluded Parties List System 19.950 Section 19.950 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.950 Excluded Parties List System Excluded Parties...

  2. 29 CFR 778.225 - Talent fees excludable under regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Talent fees excludable under regulations. 778.225 Section... Payments That May Be Excluded From the âRegular Rateâ Talent Fees in the Radio and Television Industry § 778.225 Talent fees excludable under regulations. Section 7(e)(3) provides for the exclusion from the...

  3. 26 CFR 1.1563-2 - Excluded stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded stock. 1.1563-2 Section 1.1563-2...) INCOME TAXES Certain Controlled Corporations § 1.1563-2 Excluded stock. (a) Certain stock excluded. For purposes of sections 1561 through 1563 and the regulations thereunder, the term “stock” does not include...

  4. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  5. Anemias excluding cobalamin and folate deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublis, Stephanie; Shah, Shefali; Nand, Sucha; Anderes, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Anemias are one of the commonest maladies affecting humans. They result from either a failure of production by the bone marrow (hypoproliferative), or from premature destruction or loss (hyperproliferative) of red cells. Hypoproliferative anemias typically result from deficiencies of essential nutrients, stem cell abnormalities or deficiency, and infiltrative processes of the bone marrow. In the hyperproliferative forms, the bone marrow function is normal and anemia results from bleeding or shortened erythrocyte lifespan due to hemoglobinopathies, red cell enzyme disorders, membrane defects, or external factors such as antibodies, trauma, or heat injury. The etiology of anemia is frequently obvious, but when obscure, a systematic diagnostic approach frequently yields the answer. It is important to realize that anemias are usually a consequence of another disease process, which must be identified. Without correction of the underlying disease process, the treatment is likely to fail. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond Cue Reactivity: Non-Drug-Related Motivationally Relevant Stimuli Are Necessary to Understand Reactivity to Drug-Related Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versace, Francesco; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Deweese, Menton M; Robinson, Jason D; Green, Charles E; Lam, Cho Y; Minnix, Jennifer A; Karam-Hage, Maher A; Wetter, David W; Schembre, Susan M; Cinciripini, Paul M

    2017-06-01

    Neurobiological models of addiction posit that drug use can alter reward processes in two ways: (1) by increasing the motivational relevance of drugs and drug-related cues and (2) by reducing the motivational relevance of non-drug-related rewards. Here, we discuss the results from a series of neuroimaging studies in which we assessed the extent to which these hypotheses apply to nicotine dependence. In these studies, we recorded smokers’ and nonsmokers’ brain responses to a wide array of motivationally relevant visual stimuli that included pleasant, unpleasant, cigarette-related, and neutral images. Based on these findings, we highlight the flaws of the traditional cue reactivity paradigm and we conclude that responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the motivational relevance of cigarette-related cues and to identify smokers attributing higher motivational relevance to drug-related cues than to non-drug-related rewards. Identifying these individuals is clinically relevant as they achieve lower rates of long-term smoking abstinence when attempting to quit. Finally, we show how this approach may be extended beyond nicotine dependence to inform theoretical and clinical research in the study of obesity. The cue reactivity paradigm (ie, comparing responses evoked by drug-related cues to those evoked by neutral cues) cannot provide conclusive information about the motivational relevance of drug-related cues. Responses to non-drug-related motivationally relevant stimuli should be used to appropriately gauge the level of motivational relevance that substance-dependent individuals attribute to drug-related cues. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. 20 CFR 404.1313 - World War II service excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false World War II service excluded. 404.1313... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services World War II Veterans § 404.1313 World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service of the United...

  8. 8 CFR 1241.20 - Aliens ordered excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aliens ordered excluded. 1241.20 Section 1241.20 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens...

  9. 24 CFR 3282.12 - Excluded structures-modular homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Capable of transferring all design loads imposed by or upon the structure into soil or bedrock without... Excluded structures—modular homes. (a) The purpose of this section is to provide the certification... structure that meets the definition of manufactured home at 24 CFR 3282.7(u) is excluded from the coverage...

  10. 48 CFR 733.103-73 - Protests excluded from consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protests excluded from consideration. 733.103-73 Section 733.103-73 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... excluded from consideration. (a) Contract administration. Disputes between a contractor and USAID are...

  11. Incomplete Excluder limb graft deployment: cause and solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonaris, Chris; Katsargyris, Athanasios; Koutsoumpelis, Andreas; Kouvelos, George; Georgopoulos, Sotiris

    2014-01-01

    The Excluder stent graft (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) is one of the most frequently used devices for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and offers the advantage of a simple and reliable deployment mechanism. We report an unexpected complication during deployment of an Excluder limb graft; the "rip cord" deployment system broke during pulling, most probably because of interference with a previously placed common iliac artery stent, thereby resulting in incomplete graft deployment. This report notes that problems may rarely arise when deploying an Excluder limb graft within already stented iliac arteries and provides technical considerations to manage such events successfully. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Office of Inspector General List of Excluded Individuals and Entities

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The objective is to ensure that providers who bill Federal health care programs do not submit claims for services furnished, ordered or prescribed by an excluded...

  13. Drug-like and non drug-like pattern classification based on simple topology descriptor using hybrid neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-Mamat, Wan Mohd Fahmi; Isa, Nor Ashidi Mat; Wahab, Habibah A; Wan-Mamat, Wan Mohd Fairuz

    2009-01-01

    An intelligent prediction system has been developed to discriminate drug-like and non drug-like molecules pattern. The system is constructed by using the application of advanced version of standard multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network called Hybrid Multilayer Perceptron (HMLP) neural network and trained using Modified Recursive Prediction Error (MRPE) training algorithm. In this work, a well understood and easy excess Rule of Five + Veber filter properties are selected as the topological descriptor. The main idea behind the selection of this simple descriptor is to assure that the system could be used widely, beneficial and more advantageous regardless at all user level within a drug discovery organization.

  14. Prehospital non-drug assisted intubation for adult trauma patients with a Glasgow Coma Score less than 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Christopher Charles Douglas; Brison, Robert J; Howes, Daniel; Stiell, Ian G; Pickett, William

    2013-11-01

    Prehospital airway management for adult trauma patients remains controversial. We sought to review the frequency that paramedic non-drug assisted intubation or attempted intubation is performed for trauma patients in Ontario, Canada, and determine its association with mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the Ontario Trauma Registry's Comprehensive Data Set for 2002-2009. Eligible patients were greater than 16 years of age, had an initial Glasgow Coma Score of less than 9 and were cared for by ground-based non-critical care paramedics. The primary outcome was mortality. Outcomes were compared between patients undergoing prehospital intubation versus basic airway management. Logistic regression analyses were used to quantify the association between prehospital intubation and mortality. Of the 2229 patients included in the analysis, 671 (30.1%) underwent prehospital intubation. Annual rates of prehospital intubation declined from 33.7% to 14.0% (ptrendtrauma is being performed less frequently in Ontario, Canada. Within our study population, paramedic non-drug assisted intubation or attempted intubation was associated with a heightened risk of mortality.

  15. Excluded volume versus hydrogen bonding: complementary or incompatible concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezbeda, Ivo; Škvor, Jiří

    2012-12-01

    An attempt has been made to assess individual effects of the repulsive and attractive interactions on the structure of associating fluids using short-range models descending from parent realistic models. It is shown that neither the excluded volume (repulsive interactions) nor the hydrogen bonding (attractive interactions) considered separately are able to produce the correct structure. However, when both these types of interactions are considered together, they faithfully reproduce the structure of water and other associating fluids. Consequently, although some properties of aqueous systems can be explained qualitatively/intuitively by hydrogen bonding only, disregarding simultaneously the excluded volume effects may be misleading.

  16. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society

  17. Excluded-volume effects in the diffusion of hard spheres

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-03

    Excluded-volume effects can play an important role in determining transport properties in diffusion of particles. Here, the diffusion of finite-sized hard-core interacting particles in two or three dimensions is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The result is a nonlinear diffusion equation for the one-particle distribution function, with excluded-volume effects enhancing the overall collective diffusion rate. An expression for the effective (collective) diffusion coefficient is obtained. Stochastic simulations of the full particle system are shown to compare well with the solution of this equation for two examples. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  18. 8 CFR 1240.38 - Fingerprinting of excluded aliens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fingerprinting of excluded aliens. 1240.38 Section 1240.38 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Exclusion of...

  19. The public space and the right to exclude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Urzúa Bastida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper raises that the notion of «public space», as is currently used, legitimize, at the same time is the base of what might be called the right to exclude. This is not happening by law, but culture. To argue this, there will develop three ideas: comfort, planning and civic order, presents in the above mentioned notion.

  20. Listening to the socially excluded: the European national action plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, David

    2007-12-01

    Over the past two years, Help the Aged has worked with colleagues across Europe, through the Age network of 160 aging organizations, to help excluded older people feed their views into the European National Action Plans on Social Exclusion; to better understand the barriers faced when consulting older people.

  1. 21 CFR 1404.950 - Excluded Parties List System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded Parties List System 1404.950 Section 1404.950 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION... other information about persons who are ineligible. The EPLS system includes the printed version...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-7 - Freight Excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Excluded. 52.247-7... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-7 Freight... contracts for transportation or for transportation-related services when any commodities or types of...

  3. Empowering the digitally excluded: learning initiatives for (invisible groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Seale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that some digitally excluded groups of learners are receiving more attention than others. Discussions regarding why some digitally excluded learners are more visible than others and therefore worthy of more committed digital inclusion interventions raises important questions about how we define and conceptualise digital inclusion and digital inclusion practice; particularly in relation to empowerment. In this article, we draw on a range of research, practice and policy literature to examine two important questions: what is empowerment and in whose hands does empowerment lie? We argue that empowerment involves making informed choices about technology use, but that learners often require support- human intervention- to make these choices. However, current digital inclusion research has failed to produce a detailed critique of what constitutes empowering support from educational institutions and their staff. A lack of open and reflexive accounts of practice means that we are no closer to identifying and understanding the kinds of empowering practices that are required to challenge the kinds of prejudices, stereotypes, risk-aversiveness and low aspirations associated with the most invisible of digitally excluded learners.

  4. Serratia liquefaciens Infection of a Previously Excluded Popliteal Artery Aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coelho

    Full Text Available : Introduction: Popliteal artery aneurysms (PAAs are rare in the general population, but they account for nearly 70% of peripheral arterial aneurysms. There are several possible surgical approaches including exclusion of the aneurysm and bypass grafting, or endoaneurysmorrhaphy and interposition of a prosthetic conduit. The outcomes following the first approach are favorable, but persistent blood flow in the aneurysm sac has been documented in up to one third of patients in the early post-operative setting. Complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms include aneurysm enlargement, local compression symptoms, and sac rupture. Notably infection of a previously excluded and bypassed PAA is rare. This is the third reported case of PAA infection after exclusion and bypass grafting and the first due to Serratia liquefaciens. Methods: Relevant medical data were collected from the hospital database. Results: This case report describes a 54 year old male patient, diagnosed with acute limb ischaemia due to a thrombosed PAA, submitted to emergency surgery with exclusion and venous bypass. A below the knee amputation was necessary 3 months later. Patient follow-up was lost until 7 years following surgical repair, when he was diagnosed with aneurysm sac infection with skin fistulisation. He had recently been diagnosed with alcoholic hepatic cirrhosis Child–Pugh Class B. The patient was successfully treated by aneurysm resection, soft tissue debridement and systemic antibiotics. Conclusion: PAA infection is a rare complication after exclusion and bypass procedures but should be considered in any patient with evidence of local or systemic infection. When a PAA infection is diagnosed, aneurysmectomy, local debridement, and intravenous antibiotic therapy are recommended. The “gold standard” method of PAA repair remains controversial. PAA excision or endoaneurysmorrhaphy avoids complications from incompletely excluded aneurysms, but is associated with

  5. Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Don N., E-mail: profdonpage@gmail.com [Department of Physics, 4-183 CCIS, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.

  6. Technique for determining cesium-137 in milk excluding ashing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonova, V.A.; Prokof'ev, O.N.

    1984-01-01

    For the purpose of simplification of the method of milk sample preparation for the radiochemical analysis for 137 Cs in laboratory sanitary and higienic investigations rapid analysis technique excluding sample ashing is developed. The technique comprises sample mixing with silica gel during an hour, 137 Cs desorption from silica gel into the 1N solution of hydrochloric acid, radiochemical analysis of hydrochloric solution for determining 137 Cs. The comparison of the results obtained by the above method and that with ashing provides perfect agreement. For taking into account the incompleteness of 137 Cs adsorption by silica gel a correction factor is applied in calculation formulae

  7. Verification of Carbon Sink Assessment. Can We Exclude Natural Sinks?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, G.; Yamagata, Y

    2004-01-01

    Any human-induced terrestrial sink is susceptible to the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, nitrogen deposition, climate variability and other natural or indirect human-induced factors. It has been suggested in climate negotiations that the effects of these factors should be excluded from estimates of carbon sequestration used to meet the emission reduction commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. This paper focuses on the methodologies for factoring out the effects of atmospheric and climate variability/change. We estimate the relative magnitude of the non-human induced effects by using two biosphere models and discuss possibilities for narrowing estimate uncertainty

  8. Diffusion of multiple species with excluded-volume effects

    KAUST Repository

    Bruna, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic models of diffusion with excluded-volume effects are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of the population may be described by a continuum model based on partial differential equations. In this paper we consider multiple interacting subpopulations/species and study how the inter-species competition emerges at the population level. Each individual is described as a finite-size hard core interacting particle undergoing Brownian motion. The link between the discrete stochastic equations of motion and the continuum model is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The system for two species leads to a nonlinear cross-diffusion system for each subpopulation, which captures the enhancement of the effective diffusion rate due to excluded-volume interactions between particles of the same species, and the diminishment due to particles of the other species. This model can explain two alternative notions of the diffusion coefficient that are often confounded, namely collective diffusion and self-diffusion. Simulations of the discrete system show good agreement with the analytic results. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  9. Diffusion of multiple species with excluded-volume effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Maria; Chapman, S Jonathan

    2012-11-28

    Stochastic models of diffusion with excluded-volume effects are used to model many biological and physical systems at a discrete level. The average properties of the population may be described by a continuum model based on partial differential equations. In this paper we consider multiple interacting subpopulations/species and study how the inter-species competition emerges at the population level. Each individual is described as a finite-size hard core interacting particle undergoing brownian motion. The link between the discrete stochastic equations of motion and the continuum model is considered systematically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The system for two species leads to a nonlinear cross-diffusion system for each subpopulation, which captures the enhancement of the effective diffusion rate due to excluded-volume interactions between particles of the same species, and the diminishment due to particles of the other species. This model can explain two alternative notions of the diffusion coefficient that are often confounded, namely collective diffusion and self-diffusion. Simulations of the discrete system show good agreement with the analytic results.

  10. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  11. The Gore Excluder US multi-center trial: analysis of adverse events at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbe, Melina R; Matsumura, Jon S

    2003-06-01

    Although open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms remains the standard of care, endovascular repair is becoming an attractive alternative as more long-term outcome data become available to show its safety and efficacy. The authors review data on the 2-year outcome of the pivotal US multicenter, prospective Gore Excluder Trial. Patients treated with the Excluder endograft (W.L. Gore, Flaggstaff, AZ) had less blood loss (310 +/- 19 v 1,590 +/- 124 mL; P <.0001), required fewer homologous transfusions (6% v 32%; P <.0001), and had faster inpatient recovery (2.0 +/- 0.1 v 9.8 +/- 1.4 days; P <.0001) compared with those treated with open repair. Early major adverse events were reduced significantly in the patients treated with the endograft (14% v 57% in control; P <.0001), and this persisted at 2 years. There was no difference in overall survival rate (P =.13). There were no deployment failures, early conversions, or aneurysm ruptures. At the 2-year time-point, trunk migration occurred in 1%, limb migration in 1%, limb narrowing in 1%, endoleak in 20%, and aneurysm growth in 14%. There was a 7% annual reintervention rate in the endograft group in the first 2 years. The Excluder endograft is a safe and effective treatment compared with open surgical repair for infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms with appropriate anatomy.

  12. Only MR can safely exclude patients from arthroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincken, Patrice W.J.; Braak, Bert P.M. ter; Erkel, Arian R. van; Bloem, Johan L. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Bloem, Rolf M. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Leiden (Netherlands); Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Delft (Netherlands); Luijt, Peter A. van [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Traumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Coene, L.N.J.E.M. [HAGA Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands); Lange, Sam de [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, The Hague (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of this study was to determine in patients with subacute knee complaints and normal standardized physical examination the fraction of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies showing arthroscopically treatable intra-articular pathology. There were 290 consecutive patients (between 16 and 45 years) with at least 4 weeks of knee complaints and low clinical suspicion of intra-articular pathology based on physical exam. Two hundred seventy-four patients were included. Sixteen patients with prior knee surgery, rheumatic arthritis, or severe osteoarthritis were excluded. MRI was used to assign patients to group 1 (treatable abnormalities) or group 2 (normal or no treatable findings), depending on whether MR demonstrated treatable pathology. Arthroscopy was performed in group 1 patients. If symptoms persisted for 3 months in group 2 patients, cross over to arthroscopy was allowed. MR showed treatable pathology in 73 patients (26.6%). Arthroscopy was performed in 64 patients of 73 patients (group 1). In 52 patients (81.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 71.4-91.1%), arthroscopy was therapeutic. Of the 13 arthroscopies (6.5%) in group 2, four were therapeutic (30.8%, 95% CI 1.7-59.8). The highest fraction of MR studies showing treatable pathology was found in males, aged over 30 years, with a history of effusion (54.5%, six of 11 patients). Authors believe that the negative predictive value of clinical assessment in patients with subacute knee complaints is too low to exclude these patients from MR. MR should at least be considered in male patients aged 30 years and over with a history of effusion. (orig.)

  13. Identification of cadmium-excluding Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars and their mechanisms of low cadmium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuhui; Zhou, Qixing; Wei, Shuhe; Ren, Wenjie

    2012-06-01

    Screening out cadmium (Cd) excluding cultivars of a crop in agricultural production is an effective way to prohibit Cd entering into food chain. A judging criterion for Cd-excluding cultivars based on food safety was suggested and used in the identification of Cd-excluding welsh onion (Allium fistulosum L.) cultivars. A pot culture experiment was carried out to screen out Cd-excluding cultivars, of which the results were confirmed by plot experiments. The relevant factors of Cd accumulation in the pseudostem were analyzed and used in the correlation analysis aiming to study the low Cd accumulation mechanisms. The concentration of Cd in the pseudostem of welsh onions was 0.08-0.20, 0.18-0.41, and 0.26-0.61 mg/kg fresh weight (FW) under three treatments (1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/kg), respectively. The significant (p onion cultivars, but Cd contamination in soil had little influence on biomass and the contents of soluble sugar, NO(3)(-)-N, and eight other elements in the tested welsh onion cultivars. Two cultivars were identified as Cd-excluding cultivars, mainly because the accumulation of Cd in their pseudostem was only 0.041 ± 0.003 and 0.046 ± 0.002 mg/kg FW, and 0.054 ± 0.001 and 0.066 ± 0.011 mg/kg FW, when growing in plots with Cd concentration of 0.49 and 0.99 mg/kg, respectively. Ribentiegancongwang and Wuyeqi could be identified as Cd-excluding cultivars. Low bioaccumulation factor of the roots was the main mechanism of Cd-excluding welsh onion cultivars.

  14. Tuberculosis peer educators: personal experiences of working with socially excluded communities in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, L A; Hayward, A C; Story, A

    2013-10-01

    Peer education is a relatively unexplored intervention for tuberculosis (TB) control, particularly among socially excluded communities. In London, peer educators are used to raise awareness of TB and promote uptake of radiological screening among people using homeless and/or drug and alcohol treatment services. To understand the motivation and personal impact of being a peer educator on people with experience of anti-tuberculosis treatment, homelessness and addiction. In-depth semi-structured interviews with peer educators were recorded and transcribed, and then analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify themes. Reflexivity and thick description were used to support transparency of findings. Becoming a peer educator supports individuals in making sense of past experiences and renewing their sense of self. The role places value on personal experience and the communication approach this supports. The project environment is an important motivator, providing the peer with structure, social support and respect. Being a peer educator with experience of homelessness and addiction can be beneficial and empowering and help long-term recovery. Peers are an underused resource for strengthening TB control among socially excluded populations. There is a need for further research into the contribution of peers to TB control, including analyses of economic effectiveness.

  15. Health care institutions should not exclude smokers from employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddle, Thomas S; Kertesz, Stefan G; Nash, Ryan R

    2014-06-01

    Some health care institutions, including academic health centers, have adopted policies excluding smokers from employment. Claims advanced on behalf of these policies include financial savings from reduced health costs and absenteeism as well as advantages consonant with their message of healthy living. The authors suggest that the institutional savings from these policies are speculative and unproven. Also, in settings where large medical schools operate, it is likely to be the poor, including members of minority groups, who, under an employee smoker ban, will lose the opportunity to work for an employer that offers health insurance and other benefits. In response to the incentives created by such bans, some will quit smoking, but most will not. Thus, at the community level, employee smoker bans are more likely to be harmful than beneficial.Although private businesses may rightly choose not to hire smokers in the 19 states where such policies are legal, health care institutions, including academic health centers, should consider hiring choices in light of the values they profess. The traditional values of medicine include service to all persons in need, even when illness results from addiction or unsafe behavior. Secular academic communities require a shared dedication to discovery without requiring strict conformity of private behavior or belief. The authors conclude that for health care institutions, policies of hiring smokers and helping them to quit are both prudent and expressive of the norms of medical care, such as inclusion, compassion, and fellowship, that academic health professionals seek to honor.

  16. Vertical HIV transmission should be excluded from criminal prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Pearshouse, Richard; Symington, Alison

    2009-11-01

    Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) is an important part of global and national responses to HIV and AIDS. In recent years, many countries have adopted laws to criminalise HIV transmission and exposure. Many of these laws are broadly written and have provisions that enable criminal prosecution of vertical transmission in some circumstances. Even if prosecutions have not yet materialised, the use of these laws against HIV-positive pregnant women could compound the stigma already faced by them and have a chilling effect on women's utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes. Although criminal laws targeting HIV transmission have often been proposed and adopted with the intent of protecting women, such laws may disadvantage women instead. Criminal laws on HIV transmission and exposure should be reviewed and revised to ensure that vertical transmission is explicitly excluded as an object of criminal prosecution. Scaling up PMTCT services and ensuring that they are affordable, accessible, welcoming and of good quality is the most effective strategy for reducing vertical transmission of HIV and should be the primary strategy in all countries.

  17. Connectivity and Excluded Volume Effects in Polymeric Complex Coacervates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles; Radhakrishna, Mithun

    Oppositely-charged polyelectrolytes in salt solutions can undergo phase separation to form complex coacervates. This charge-driven phase behavior is the basis for emerging motifs in self-assembly. Traditional uses for coacervates are in food and personal care products, while applications in technologies for drug delivery and sensory materials are being developed. One of the primary theories driving understanding of complex coacervates is the Voorn-Overbeek (V-O) theory, which is a precursor to more sophisticated field theories. We present both theory and simulation that provides an alternate picture of coacervates, specifically addressing the limitations of V-O. Our theoretical approach is based on PRISM, which is a liquid-state theory that specifically accounts for connectivity. This is compared with Monte Carlo-based simulations, which likewise provide a molecular picture of coacervation. We demonstrate that a combination of connectivity-based correlations and excluded volume has a profound effect on coacervation phase behavior, suggesting that favorable comparison of V-O to experiment benefits from a cancellation of errors. The influence of connectivity on coacervate phase behavior hints at new opportunities for molecular-based design in electrostatically-driven self-assembly.

  18. Determinants of prosocial behavior in included versus excluded contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther eCuadrado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosocial behavior is increasingly becoming necessary as more and more individuals experience exclusion. In this context it is important to understand the motivational determinants of prosocial behavior. Here we report two experiments which analyzed the influence of dispositional (prosocialness; rejection sensitivity and motivational variables (prosocial self-efficacy; prosocial collective efficacy; trust; anger; social affiliation motivation on prosocial behavior under neutral contexts (Study 1, and once under inclusion or exclusion conditions (Study 2. Both studies provided evidence for the predicted mediation of prosocial behavior. Results in both neutral and inclusion and exclusion conditions supported our predictive model of prosocial behavior. In the model dispositional variables predicted motivational variables, which in turn predicted prosocial behavior. We showed that the investigated variables predicted prosocial behavior; this suggests that to promote prosocial behavior one could (1 foster prosocialness, prosocial self and collective efficacy, trust in others and affiliation motivation and (2 try to reduce negative feelings and the tendency to dread rejection in an attempt to reduce the negative impact that these variables have on prosocial behavior. Moreover, the few differences that emerged in the model between the inclusion and exclusion contexts suggested that in interventions with excluded individuals special care emphasis should be placed on addressing rejection sensitivity and lack of trust.

  19. 42 CFR 412.23 - Excluded hospitals: Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all patients, including both Medicare and non-Medicare inpatients (less leave or pass days) by the... diagnosis and treatment of mentally ill persons; and (3) Meet the conditions of participation for hospitals... whom at least 60 percent required intensive rehabilitation services for treatment of one or more of the...

  20. The politics of corruption, inequality, and the socially excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Salas, Anna

    2013-07-01

    In this article, the production of knowledge in the context of socially excluded people exposed to inequality, oppression, and exploitation is problematized. The analysis follows Enrique Dussel's philosophical exegesis of the politics of power and corruption and his vision of a critical transformation of the social political order. The argument is also informed by the work of critical educator Paulo Freire, who elucidates the conditions of oppression and marginalization and highlights the importance of conscientization to develop a critical awareness of these conditions. Hannah Arendt's work on the politics of understanding totalitarianism also assists in the elucidation of the machinery that operates behind oppression to sustain power and inequality. The article emphasizes the need to recognize the inequality of conditions that exists between the producer of knowledge and those who live through inequality and oppression in their lived corporality. A critical transformation of the process of production of knowledge is needed to both acknowledge the conditions that sustain this endeavour in the first place and avoid the corruption of knowledge. A work of conscientization is also necessary among knowledge producers to undertake a critical analysis of inequality that exposes the corruption of power. This analysis needs to examine and unmask the hidden mechanisms that perpetuate inequality and oppression and serve only the interests of a few. The abysmal gaps between the wealthy and the poor within and among countries bespeak a degree of human indifference that reflects a most serious and complex phenomenon that perverts something profoundly human in our societies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. 42 CFR 411.15 - Particular services excluded from coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... following: (i) Routine foot care, such as the cutting or removal of corns, or calluses, the trimming of... withdrawing of medical treatment or care, nutrition or hydration or to the provision of a service for the...

  2. 75 FR 49528 - Freescale Semiconductor, Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (“NMG”) Excluding the Multimedia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ..., Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (``NMG'') Excluding the Multimedia Applications Division..., Inc., Networking and Multimedia Group (``NMG''), excluding the Multimedia Applications Division... services for chips used in networking and multimedia products. The company reports that workers leased from...

  3. 29 CFR 98.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 98.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information about persons... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  5. Revisions of African Moraceae (excluding Dorstenia, Ficus, Musanga and Myrianthus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    1977-01-01

    In continuation of de Ruiter’s treatment of Myrianthus and Musanga (Bull. Jard. Bot. Nat. Belg. 46: 471-510.1976), the present paper gives a revision of the African representatives of 17 genera of the Moraceae. The area studied not only consists of the African Continent, but also includes

  6. Percutaneous endoscopy to diagnose malignancy in gastric outlet obstruction of excluded stomach after gastric bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Waseem; Rubin, Joshua; Kwong, Wilson

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer in the excluded stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is a rare finding and most reported diagnoses are made via surgery. Endoscopic access to the excluded stomach is difficult, even with balloon-assisted enteroscopy. We present the case of a 74-year-old woman with malignant gastric outlet obstruction of the excluded stomach, 41 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach was obtained by placement of a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, followed by insertion of a pediatric gastroscope through the gastrostomy tube tract. This novel approach provides minimally invasive access to the excluded stomach in patients with high suspicion of pathology in the excluded stomach, when balloon-assisted enteroscopy is not technically feasible or available.

  7. 22 CFR 1006.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System (EPLS)? 1006.500 Section 1006.500 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1006.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information...

  8. 2 CFR 180.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 180.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information... List System (EPLS)? 180.500 Section 180.500 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

  9. 5 CFR 919.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Parties List System (EPLS)? 919.500 Section 919.500 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 919.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information about persons who are...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System (EPLS)? 1404.500 Section 1404.500 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1404.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most...

  11. 7 CFR 3017.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 3017.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information about... System (EPLS)? 3017.500 Section 3017.500 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  12. 22 CFR 208.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... List System (EPLS)? 208.500 Section 208.500 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 208.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most...

  13. 22 CFR 1508.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... System (EPLS)? 1508.500 Section 1508.500 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 1508.500 What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? The EPLS is a widely available source of the most current information...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1323 - Post-World War II service excluded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Post-World War II service excluded. 404.1323... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Wage Credits for Veterans and Members of the Uniformed Services Post-World War II Veterans § 404.1323 Post-World War II service excluded. Your service was not in the active service...

  15. Psychiatric Disorder or Impairing Psychology in Children Who Have Been Excluded from School: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whear, Rebecca; Marlow, Ruth; Boddy, Kate; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Parker, Claire; Ford, Tamsin; Thompson-Coon, Jo; Stein, Ken

    2014-01-01

    When children with special educational needs are excluded from school, it should raise the concern that these children are not receiving adequate help and support. This systematic review aims to identify the prevalence of psychiatric disorder or impairing psychopathology among children who are excluded from school compared to children who are not…

  16. 21 CFR 1.362 - What records are excluded from this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What records are excluded from this subpart? 1.362 Section 1.362 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... Requirements § 1.362 What records are excluded from this subpart? The establishment and maintenance of records...

  17. 31 CFR 19.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? 19.500 Section 19.500 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System...

  18. 34 CFR 85.500 - What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Excluded Parties List System (EPLS)? 85.500 Section 85.500 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Excluded Parties List System § 85.500 What is the purpose of the...

  19. Bias towards dementia: are hip fracture trials excluding too many patients? A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hebert-Davies, Jonah; Laflamme, G.-Yves; Rouleau, Dominique; Bhandari, Mohit; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Heetveld, Martin J.; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Richardson, Martin J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen; Mohit, Bhandari; Sprague, Sheila; Viveiros, Helena; Simunovic, Nicole; Swinton, Marilyn; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Agel, Julie; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Goslings, J. Carel; Haverlag, Robert; Ponsen, M. J.; de Rijcke, P. A. R.; Koppert, C. L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, I.; de Rycke, P. A. R.; Tetteroo, G. W. M.; Bruijninckx, M. M. M.; Doornebosch, P.; deGraaf, E. J. R.; Patka, Peter; Eversdijk, Martin; Peters, Rolf; van Waes, Oscar; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, O.; Oprel, P.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockmann, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, J. P.; Rybroek, A.; Scheepers, J. J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, M. P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, H. L. F.; Ryna, H.; van Laarhoven, H. A. J.; Haag, Den; Rhemrev, S.; Bosman, C. H. R.; van Otterloo, Alexander Mol; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; Idenburg, Floris; de Vries, A. C.; Meylaerts, S. A. G.; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, H.; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, P. P.; Kuiken, H.; Boxma, H.; Cleffken, B. I.; Liem, Ronald; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, F. H. W. M.; Willems, W. J.; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor; Tarkan, K.; Festen, S.; de Nies, F.; Out, N. J. M.; Bosma, J.; de Graaf Gasthuis, Reinier; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van't Reit, Martyne; Karsten, T. M.; de Vries, M. R.; Stassen, P. S.; Schep, N.; Schmidt, Ben; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, J. M.; Zijl, Jacco; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; Wille, J.; Govaert, Lonnek; Wittich, Phillippe; Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wittish, H.; Wessel, R. N.; Hammacher, E. R.; Ziekenhuis, Elisabeth; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joast M. R.; van Egmond, Teun; van den Heijden, F. H. W. M.; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; van Kampen, A.; Biert, J.; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael; Blokhuis, Taco; Frolke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraidts, L.; de Waal Malefyt, M. C.; Schreurs, B.; Simmermacher, Roger K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Bronovo, Ziekenhuis; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, O. R.; Frihagen, Frede; Nordsletten, Lars; Kibsgaard, Thomas; Haug, Knut Jorgen; Lona, Tariei; Ugland, Stein; Nilsen, Kenneth; Brekke, Anne Christin; Vesterhus, Elise Berg; Tetsworth, Kevin; Weinrauch, Patrick; Pincus, Paul; Donald, Geoff; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dowrick, Adam; Donohue, Craig; Bedi, Harvinder; Li, Doug; Edwards, Elton; Csonguray, Steven; Miller, Russell; Wang, Otis; Chia, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Mammen, Mathan; Moaveni, Ash; Murdock, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Bahadur, Tegh; Jain, Anil Kumar; Pankaj, Amite; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Martinez, Adriana; Novoa, Catherine; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Johnston, Kelly; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; Avram, Victoria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Wood, Gavin; Lambert, Sue; Sanders, David W.; Howard, Jamie; Macleod, Mark; Lawendy, Abdel; Bartley, Debra; Laney, Tim; Tieszer, Christina; Peterson, Devin; Zalzal, Paul; Naumetz, Victor; Brien, Heather; Weening, Brad; Wai, Eugene K.; Papp, Steven; Roffey, Darren; McCormack, Robert; Stone, Trevor; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Boyer, Dory; Moola, Farhad; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; McKee, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; Ahn, Henry; Vicente, Milena R.; Wild, Lisa M.; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Nousianinen, Markku; Kunz, Monica; Syed, Khalid; Azad, Tania; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Johnstone, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Coady, Cathy; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicky; Ronan, James; Brown, Desmond T.; Carlilse, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Schwappach, John; Davis, Craig A.; Weingarten, Peter; Weinerman, Stewart; Newman, Heike; Baker, Janell; Browner, Kieran; Hurley, Meghan; Payton, Krystal; Zura, Robert; Manson, Maria J.; Goetz, David; Broderick, Scott J.; Porter, Scott; Pace, Thomas; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Becky; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Haas, Jonathan; Templeman, David; Westberg, Jerald R.; Mullis, Brian; Ertl, J. P.; Shively, Karl; Frizzel, Valda; Moore, Molly M.; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Lobo, Margaret; Kain, Michael; Specht, Lawrence; Tilzey, John; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joe; Lawless, Mathew; DiPaola, Matt; Gayton, Chris; Dulaney-Cripe, Liz; Vallier, Heather A.; Wilber, John; Wilber, Roger G.; Sontich, John H.; Patterson, Brendan; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, E.; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Chris; McDonald, Michael; Hoffman, Jodi; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Tim; Edison, Matt; Musapatika, Dana; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrance; Gelbke, Martin; Jabara, Michael; Sietsema, Debra L.; Engerman, Susan M.; Switzer, Julie A.; Li, Mangnai; Marston, Scott; Cole, Peter; Vang, Sandy X.; Ly, Thuan; Anderson, Sarah; Foley, Amy; McBeth, Jessica; Comstock, Curt; Ziran, Navid; Shaer, James; Hileman, Barbara; Karges, David; Cannada, Lisa; Kuldjanov, Djoldas; Watson, John Tracy; Mills, James Jackman Emily; Hill, Leslie; Simon, Tiffanya; Abdelgawad, Amr; Shunia, Juan; Jenkins, Mark; Zumwalt, Mimi; Romero, Amanda West; Lowe, Jason; Goldstein, Jessica; Zamorano, David P.; Lawson, Deanna; Archdeacon, Michael; Wyrick, John; Hampton, Shelley; Lewis, Courtland G.; Ademi, Arben; Sullivan, Raymond; Caminiti, Stephanie; Graves, Matthew; Smith, Lori; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne; Anderson, Linda K.; Kliewer, Toni K.; McPherson, Melinda K.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Jarrett, Sharon L.; Sagebien, Carlos; Seuffert, Patricia; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Tjoumakaris, Fotios; Horan, Annamarie D.; Kaminski, Christine; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Luther, Arlene; Irrgang, James; Farrell, Dana J.; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Kates, Stephen Lloyd; Colosi, Jen; Hibsch, Nancy; Noble, Krista; Neu, Sarah; Agarwal, Animesh; Wright, Rebecca; Hsu, Joseph R.; Randall, Gayle M.; Ficke, James R.; Charlton, Michael; Fan, Mary; Garcia, Socorro H.; Obremskey, William T.; Richards, Justin Edward; Robinson, Kenya; Carroll, Eben; Kulp, Brenda; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Devereaux, Philip James; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Koval, Ken J.; Tetsworth, Kevin D.; Culgin, Sarah; Desjardin, Heather; Beimers, Lijkele; de Vries, Jasper; Zurcher, Arthur W.; Albers, G. H. Rob; Rademakers, Maarten; Breugem, Stefan; van der Haven, Ibo; Damen, Peter Jan; Bulstra, Gythe H.; Somford, P.; Haverkamp, Daniël; Gasthuis, Onze Lieve Vrouwe; Molekamp, Willem Jan Kleyn; Kleipool, E. B.; Keizer, Stefan B.; Swen, Jan-Willem A.; Nelissen, Eelco M.; Hollander, Peter H. C. den; Metsaars, Weineke; Thomassen, J. W.; Fontijne, W. Peter J.; Wiersma, Saskia C.; Boetes, Bastiaan; JT, Edgar; Ziekenhuis, Spaarne; Nolte, Peter A.; de Jong, Tjitte; van Noort, Arthur; Vergroesen, Diederik A.; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Schutte, Bernard G.; Schuman, Lein; Hillen, Robert Jan; Cheung, John; van der Heide, Huub J. L.; Nagels, Jochem; Krips, Rover; Mullers, J. Bernard; Schüller, Hans; Ziekenhuis, Amphia; van den Hout, Joost A. A. M.; Joosten, Adrianus J. P.; van der Broek, Chris M.; Bolder, Stefan B. T.; Eygendaal, Denise; Moonen, Adrianus F. C. M.; van Geenen, Rutger C. I.; Hoebink, Eric A.; Wagenmakers, Robert; van Helden, Wouter; Kooijman, Rob; Postema, Roelf R.; Lampe, Harald I. H.; Ziekenhuizen, Gelre; Bolhuis, Hugo W.; Bullens, Pieter H. J.; Hogervorst, Mike; de Kroon, Karin E.; Jansen, Rob H.; Raven, Eric E. J.; van Jonbergen, Hans-Peter W.; Reuver, Joost M.; Barnaart, Alexander F. W.; Roerdink, W. Herbert; van Erve, Ruud H. G. P.; Koorevaar, Rinco; Frima, Anthony Hans; Flikweert, Elvira R.; Falke, Mark L. M.; Kurek, Frans J.; Slingerland, Adrianus C. H.; Vallei, Gelderse; van Dijk, Jan P.; van Helden, Wouter H.; Mauer-Hansen, Espen; Boee, Berte; Clarke-Jensen, Jon; Brekke, Anne Christine; Vestergaard, Elise Berg; Carr, Ashley; Russ, Matthias; Li, Douglas; Doig, Stephen; Laflamme, Yves; Fernandes, Julio C.; Poirier, Marie-France; Bogoch, Earl; Kreder, Hans; Axelrod, Terry; Jenkinson, Richard; Wadey, Veronica; Nousiainen, Markku; Stephen, David; Macnevin, Melanie; Richardson, Glen C.; Biddulph, Michael; Gross, Michael; Dunbar, Michael; Dobbin, Gwen; Zarin, Jeffrey; Parvataneni, Hari; Baker, Janell K.; Roberson, James R.; Erens, Greg; Montelione, Anita; Woodard, Shawndra; Ertl, Janos; Cummings, Judd; Worman, Ripley; Webster, Mark; Parr, Andrew; Frizzell, Valda; Moore, Molly; Wilk, Richard; Torchia, Michael; Cross, William; Sems, Andrew; Taunton, Michael; Sanchez-Satelo, Joaquin; Sierrz, Rafsel; Timm, Kimberly; Foreman, Barbara; DePaolo, Charles; Hill, Rocky; Lewis, Coutland; Srivastava, Ajay; Bakeman, James; Sietsema, Deb; Strathy, Gregg; Johnson, Paul; Peter, Kathleen; Morton, Maeghan E.; Parvizi, Javad; Austin, Matthew; Morrison, Tiffany; Mont, Michael; Copeland, Carol; Delanois, Ronald; Khanuja, Harpal; Weddington, Shaquita; Bacon, Madeline; Mullen, Marylou; Kanlic, Enes; Abdelgawad, Amr Atef; Shunia, Juan Gerardo; Horan, Annamarie

    2012-01-01

    Patients with hip fractures are older and often present many co-morbidities, including dementia. These patients cannot answer quality of life questionnaires and are generally excluded from trials. We hypothesized that a significant number of patients are being excluded from these studies and this

  20. 8 CFR 241.21 - Stay of deportation of excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Stay of deportation of excluded alien. 241.21 Section 241.21 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Deportation of Excluded Aliens (for Hearings Commenced...

  1. 46 CFR 148.04-13 - Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding stainless steel).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-13 Ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings (excluding... described as ferrous metal borings, shavings, turnings, or cuttings on board vessels (excluding stainless...

  2. Preventing Inclusion? Inclusive Early Childhood Education and the Option to Exclude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cologon, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    While there is increasing international commitment to inclusive education, as outlined in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD), many children remain excluded at school. One marginalised and frequently excluded group of people are people who experience disability. In the recently released first report on…

  3. 22 CFR 40.102 - Guardian required to accompany excluded alien.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. 40.102 Section 40.102 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH... Guardian required to accompany excluded alien. INA 212(a)(9)(B) is not applicable at the time of visa...

  4. 41 CFR 101-30.302 - Types of items excluded from cataloging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-FEDERAL CATALOG SYSTEM 30.3-Cataloging Items of Supply § 101-30.302 Types of items excluded from... Catalog System except when an agency determines that Federal item identification data will be of value in...

  5. Gore excluder device with the C3 delivery system for management of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morasch MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cheong J Lee, Mark L Keldahl, Mark D MoraschDivision of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The GORE Excluder stent-graft is one of the currently available devices approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in endovascular aortic repair. Recently, a new delivery system modification has been applied to the Excluder device which allows repositioning of the stent-graft to adjust for accurate proximal landing and facilitate gate cannulation. In this review, we examine the Excluder device with the new C3 delivery system and its potential benefit in the management of abdominal aortic aneurysms.Keywords: gore excluder, abdominal aortic aneurysm, repair, C3 delivery system

  6. NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. Salmonellosis (excluding typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever) to Shigellosis - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable...

  7. Thermodynamics of the low-density excluded-volume hadron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Krzysztof; Zalewski, Kacper

    2016-01-01

    We consider the thermodynamics of excluded-volume particles at finite temperature and chemical potential in the low-density approximation. We assume Boltzmann statistics and study the influence of the excluded volume on an ideal gas thermodynamics at the same temperature, pressure, and number of particles. We show that considering the change of the free enthalpy due to the excluded volume, and using the Maxwell identities, one can derive relevant thermodynamic functions and parameters of multicomponent gases. The derivation is quite general, because particles may have different sizes and shapes which can also depend on their momenta. Besides its simplicity and generality, our approach has the advantage of eliminating the transcendental equations occurring in earlier studies. A representative example of the excluded-volume thermodynamics is the single-component gas of hard spheres. For this case, using a virial expansion, the validity limits of the low-density approximation are also discussed.

  8. Gore excluder device with the C3 delivery system for management of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    OpenAIRE

    Morasch, Mark; Cheong J. Lee,; Mark L. Keldahl,

    2012-01-01

    Cheong J Lee, Mark L Keldahl, Mark D MoraschDivision of Vascular Surgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: The GORE Excluder stent-graft is one of the currently available devices approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use in endovascular aortic repair. Recently, a new delivery system modification has been applied to the Excluder device which allows repositioning of the stent-graft to adjust for accurate proximal landing and facilitate...

  9. Metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull: CNS involvement excluded by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taets ven Amerongen, A.H.M.; Kaiser, M.C.; Waal, F.C. de

    1987-01-01

    A case of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma to the skull is presented, demonstrating the superiority of magnetic resonance imaging over other imaging modalities to exclude CNS involvement. Precise delineation of different tumor components in extradural location contained in an intact dural rim together with compressed cortex showing no signs of tumorous involvement constituted an MRI appearance allowing us to exclude tumor outgrowth into the brain. (orig.)

  10. Oxytocin biases men but not women to restore social connections with individuals who socially exclude them

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xiaolei; Yao, Shuxia; Xu, Lei; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Kou, Juan; Luo, Ruixue; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2017-01-01

    We normally react to individuals who exclude us socially by either avoiding them or increasing our attempts to interact with them. The neuropeptide oxytocin can promote social bonds and reduce social conflict and we therefore investigated whether it facilitates more positive social responses towards individuals who exclude or include us. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design 77 healthy Chinese male and female participants received intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) or placebo...

  11. Acting on social exclusion: neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of excluders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A; Güroğlu, Berna

    2015-02-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study examined the neural correlates of punishment and forgiveness of initiators of social exclusion (i.e. 'excluders'). Participants divided money in a modified Dictator Game between themselves and people who previously either included or excluded them during a virtual ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Participants selectively punished the excluders by decreasing their outcomes; even when this required participants to give up monetary rewards. Punishment of excluders was associated with increased activation in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and bilateral anterior insula. Costly punishment was accompanied by higher activity in the pre-SMA compared with punishment that resulted in gains or was non-costly. Refraining from punishment (i.e. forgiveness) was associated with self-reported perspective-taking and increased activation in the bilateral temporoparietal junction, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These findings show that social exclusion can result in punishment as well as forgiveness of excluders and that separable neural networks implicated in social cognition and cognitive control are recruited when people choose either to punish or to forgive those who excluded them. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Excluded segmental duct bile leakage: the case for bilio-enteric anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrono, Damiano; Tandoi, Francesco; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-06-01

    Excluded segmental duct bile leak is the rarest type of post-hepatectomy bile leak and presents unique diagnostic and management features. Classical management strategies invariably entail a significant loss of functioning hepatic parenchyma. The aim of this study is to report a new liver-sparing technique to handle excluded segmental duct bile leakage. Two cases of excluded segmental duct bile leak occurring after major hepatic resection were managed by a Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy on the excluded segmental duct, avoiding the sacrifice of the liver parenchyma origin of the fistula. In both cases, classical management strategies would have led to the functional loss of roughly 50 % of the liver remnant. Diagnostic and management implications are thoroughly discussed. Both cases had an uneventful postoperative course. The timing of repair was associated with a different outcome: the patient who underwent surgical repair in the acute phase developed no long-term complications, whereas the patient who underwent delayed repair developed a late stenosis requiring percutaneous dilatation. Roux-en-Y hepatico-jejunostomy on the excluded bile duct is a valuable technique in selected cases of excluded segmental duct bile leakage.

  13. Why people living with HIV/AIDS exclude individuals from their chosen families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant JS

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan S Grant,1 David E Vance,1 Worawan White,2 Norman L Keltner,1 James L Raper3 1School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, 2Department of Nursing, Pensacola State College, Pensacola, Florida, 3School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA Abstract: Health professionals can gain a better understanding of key elements of social support by examining reasons why people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (PLWH exclude individuals from their chosen families (ie, families of choice. Our study identified reasons why PLWH excluded specific individuals from their chosen families. This mixed-method design was drawn from a larger study of 150 PLWH, in which 94 self-reported why they excluded individuals from their chosen families. Physical and emotional distance (n = 64; 68.1%; nonsupport, nonacceptance, and harm (n = 25; 26.6%; conditional caring and trust (n = 22; 23.4%; and no blood/familial relationship (n = 13; 13.8% were the reasons PLWH excluded individuals from their chosen families. Demographic and personal characteristics were unrelated to these themes, supporting the conclusion that reasons for excluding family members are universal and not dependent on particular participant characteristics. For chosen family relationships to develop and exist, these findings emphasize the value of physical and emotional contact between individuals.Keywords: families, stigma, social networks, human immunodeficiency virus, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  14. Oxytocin biases men but not women to restore social connections with individuals who socially exclude them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaolei; Yao, Shuxia; Xu, Lei; Geng, Yayuan; Zhao, Weihua; Ma, Xiaole; Kou, Juan; Luo, Ruixue; Kendrick, Keith M

    2017-01-12

    We normally react to individuals who exclude us socially by either avoiding them or increasing our attempts to interact with them. The neuropeptide oxytocin can promote social bonds and reduce social conflict and we therefore investigated whether it facilitates more positive social responses towards individuals who exclude or include us. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subject design 77 healthy Chinese male and female participants received intranasal oxytocin (40 IU) or placebo before playing a modified virtual ball-tossing game with three fictitious partners who either showed exclusion, inclusion or neutral behavioral interactions with them. Results showed that both male and female subjects threw the ball more often to individuals who excluded rather than included them, although oxytocin did not alter this or awareness/feelings of exclusion or inclusion. However, when subjects returned a week later males, but not females, in the oxytocin group exhibited an increased liking for, and preference for playing again with, players who had previously excluded them. This oxytocin effect was positively associated with independent traits. Our findings suggest that in a collectivist culture oxytocin may promote the desire of males, but not females, with a stronger independent orientation to rebuild social connections with individuals who have previously excluded them.

  15. Schedules of Controlled Substances: Table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products: Vicks® VapoInhaler®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-08

    This final rule adopts the interim final rule, with a correction to spelling of the manufacturer's name that was published in the Federal Register on October 27, 2015. The Drug Enforcement Administration is amending the table of Excluded Nonnarcotic Products to update the listing for Vicks® VapoInhaler®, containing 50 mg levmetamfetamine in a nasal decongestant inhaler, marketed by The Procter & Gamble Company. This over-the-counter, non-narcotic drug product is excluded from provisions of the Controlled Substances Act.

  16. 29 CFR 98.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true When do I check to see if a person is excluded or... When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary tier covered...

  17. 7 CFR 3017.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 3017.430 Section 3017.430 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or...

  18. 34 CFR 85.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded or... When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary tier covered...

  19. 29 CFR 1471.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or... Officials Regarding Transactions § 1471.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified in two ways: (a) You as an agency official...

  20. 29 CFR 1471.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded or... Officials Regarding Transactions § 1471.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a...

  1. Diagnostic strategies for excluding pulmonary embolism in clinical outcome studies - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, Marieke J. H. A.; Leclercq, Monique G. L.; van der Heul, Cees; Prins, Martin H.; Büller, Harry R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Pulmonary embolism is a common clinical disorder that is associated with high morbidity and mortality if untreated. It is important to confirm or rule out the diagnosis in patients with clinical suspicion of the disease. Purpose: To evaluate various diagnostic strategies for excluding

  2. Hybrid Endograft Solution for Complex Iliac Anatomy : Zenith Body and Excluder Limbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Wendy T.; Tielliu, Ignace F.; Sondakh, Arthur O.; Vourliotakis, Georgios; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-center results with selective use of Gore Excluder limbs (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) in a Cook Zenith body (Cook Inc, Bloomington, IN) for elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A prospectively held database for

  3. Hybrid endograft solution for complex iliac anatomy: Zenith body and Excluder limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Wendy T; Tielliu, Ignace F; Sondakh, Arthur O; Vourliotakis, Georgios; Bracale, Umberto M; Verhoeven, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate single-center results with selective use of Gore Excluder limbs (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, AZ) in a Cook Zenith body (Cook Inc, Bloomington, IN) for elective endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. A prospectively held database for patients with AAA, who were treated endovascularly between March 1999 and July 2008, was queried for patients treated with a Cook Zenith body and one or two Gore Excluder limbs. Indication, technical success, late limb occlusion, and disconnection were evaluated. From 276 patients who were treated with a Zenith body, 29 underwent repair with hybrid graft components with, in total, 41 Gore Excluder limbs. The indication was always complex iliac anatomy. The primary technical success rate in this group was 89% (26 of 29 patients), with a primary assisted technical success rate of 100%. Mortality at 30 days was 0%. The mean follow-up was 19.4 months (range 2-64 months). Late mortality was 13.8% (4 of 29), with no aneurysm-related death. No graft limb occlusion or disconnection occurred during follow-up. No reintervention was needed in the hybrid endograft group. The use of a Cook Zenith body with Gore Excluder limb(s) in case of adverse iliac anatomy is feasible and showed no adverse effects at the midterm follow-up.

  4. 20 CFR 668.650 - Can INA grantees exclude segments of the eligible population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... eligible population? 668.650 Section 668.650 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION... population? (a) No, INA grantees cannot exclude segments of the eligible population. INA grantees must document in their Two Year Plan that a system is in place to afford all members of the eligible population...

  5. 'To each according to his needs': public libraries and socially excluded people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicken, Mandy

    2004-09-01

    To deliver a comprehensive and efficient service to all the community, public libraries must first identify needs and allocate an appropriate level of resources. This article focuses on public libraries in England. It outlines: the Government's policy on social inclusion; the needs of the various socially excluded groups; partnerships and funding; staff training and motivation; and examples of good practice.

  6. Average crossing number of Gaussian and equilateral chains with and without excluded volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesinger, P. M.; Heermann, D. W.

    2008-03-01

    We study the influence of excluded volume interactions on the behaviour of the mean average crossing number (mACN) for random off-lattice walks. We investigated Gaussian and equilateral off-lattice random walks with and without ellipsoidal excluded volume up to chain lengths of N = 1500 and equilateral random walks on a cubic lattice up to N = 20000. We find that the excluded volume interactions have a strong influence on the behaviour of the local crossing number at very short distances but only a weak one at large distances. This behaviour is the basis of the proof in [ Y. Diao et al., Math. Gen. 36, 11561 (2003); Y. Diao and C. Ernst, Physical and Numerical Models in Knot Theory Including Applications to the Life Sciences] for the dependence of the mean average crossing number on the chain length N. We show that the data is compatible with an Nln(N)-bahaviour for the mACN, even in the case with excluded volume.

  7. Acting on Observed Social Exclusion: Developmental Perspectives on Punishment of Excluders and Compensation of Victims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Geert-Jan; Crone, Eveline A.; van den Bos, Wouter; Güroglu, Berna

    2013-01-01

    This study examined punishment of excluders and compensation of victims after observing an instance of social exclusion at various phases of adolescent development. Participants (n = 183; age 9 to 22 years) were first included in a virtual ball-tossing game, Cyberball, and then "observed" the exclusion of a peer. Subsequently, they…

  8. 40 CFR 152.6 - Substances excluded from regulation by FIFRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substances excluded from regulation by FIFRA. 152.6 Section 152.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... purposes and no other pesticidal purposes. For purposes of this section, living organisms are not...

  9. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN...

  10. Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) of Konza Prairie excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of a survey of Doryctinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) at Konza Prairie, excluding species of Heterospilus Haliday, are reported. Eleven sites representing prairie and woodland/wetland areas, including gallery forest, were sampled in 2001 and 2005 using Malaise and canopy traps. Topographic...

  11. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation in Excluder Thlaspi arvense and various accessions of hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seregin, I.V.; Kozhevnikova, A.D.; Zhukovskaya, V.; Schat, H.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation and tolerance were analyzed in hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens F.K. Mey and excluder Thlaspi arvense L. Five accessions of N. caerulescens (La Calamine (LC, Belgium), Saint Félix de Palliéres (SF, France), Col du Mas de l’Aire (CMA, France), Ganges (GA, France) from

  12. Unanimous versus partial rejection: How the number of excluders influences the impact of ostracism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, M.J.; Deutz, M.H.F.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Noorden, T.H.J. van; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown that ostracism - the experience of being ignored and excluded - has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs

  13. Unanimous versus partial rejection : How the number of excluders influences the impact of ostracism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J.; Deutz, Marike H F; Lansu, Tessa A M; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Karremans, Johan C.; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    Previous research has shown that ostracism-the experience of being ignored and excluded-has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs

  14. 42 CFR 419.22 - Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital outpatient services excluded from payment under the hospital outpatient prospective payment system. 419.22 Section 419.22 Public Health CENTERS... PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR HOSPITAL OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT SERVICES Categories of Hospitals and Services...

  15. 17 CFR 37.4 - Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Election to trade excluded and exempt commodities. 37.4 Section 37.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING... commodities. A board of trade that is or elects to become a registered derivatives transaction execution...

  16. Addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from trial analysis: a guide for systematic reviewers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie A Akl

    Full Text Available Systematic reviewer authors intending to include all randomized participants in their meta-analyses need to make assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data.The objective of this paper is to provide systematic reviewer authors with a relatively simple guidance for addressing dichotomous data for participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials.This guide is based on a review of the Cochrane handbook and published methodological research. The guide deals with participants excluded from the analysis who were considered 'non-adherent to the protocol' but for whom data are available, and participants with missing data.Systematic reviewer authors should include data from 'non-adherent' participants excluded from the primary study authors' analysis but for whom data are available. For missing, unavailable participant data, authors may conduct a complete case analysis (excluding those with missing data as the primary analysis. Alternatively, they may conduct a primary analysis that makes plausible assumptions about the outcomes of participants with missing data. When the primary analysis suggests important benefit, sensitivity meta-analyses using relatively extreme assumptions that may vary in plausibility can inform the extent to which risk of bias impacts the confidence in the results of the primary analysis. The more plausible assumptions draw on the outcome event rates within the trial or in all trials included in the meta-analysis. The proposed guide does not take into account the uncertainty associated with assumed events.This guide proposes methods for handling participants excluded from analyses of randomized trials. These methods can help in establishing the extent to which risk of bias impacts meta-analysis results.

  17. Psychopharmacologic treatment of children prenatally exposed to drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulvershorn, Leslie A; Schroeder, Kristen M; Wink, Logan K; Erickson, Craig A; McDougle, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    This pilot study compared the pharmacologic treatment history and clinical outcomes observed in pediatric outpatients with psychiatric disorders exposed to drugs of abuse in utero to those of an age-matched, sex-matched and psychiatric disorder-matched, non-drug-exposed group. In this matched cohort study, medical records of children treated at an academic, child and adolescent psychiatry outpatient clinic were reviewed. Children with caregiver-reported history of prenatal drug exposure were compared with a non-drug-exposed control group being cared for by the same providers. Patients were rated with the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S) throughout treatment. The changes in pre-treatment and post-treatment CGI-S scores and the total number of medication trials were determined between groups. The drug-exposed group (n = 30) had a higher total number of lifetime medication trials compared with the non-drug-exposed group (n = 28) and were taking significantly more total medications, at their final assessment. Unlike the non-drug-exposed group, the drug-exposed group demonstrated a lack of clinical improvement. These results suggest that in utero drug-exposed children may be more treatment-refractory to or experience greater side effects from the pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric disorders than controls, although we cannot determine if early environment or drugs exposure drives these findings. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Trust and cooperation in the public sphere: why Roma people should not be excluded?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş DRAGOMAN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent political developments in Romania and other Central and East European countries, marked by rising populism and political extremism, shed light on the essential issue of building a free, tolerant and inclusive public sphere, which is willing to let arguments to be decisive instead of power, status, race or wealth. The current tendencies of socially excluding Roma, indiscriminately taken by populists for unjustified social burden and intolerable racial difference, are a warning for more radical political action that could undermine on the long-run the effort to set up a democratic public space. Excluding from start an entire minority would only encourage future exclusions based on ideology, ethnicity or religion, according to the narrow definition populists use to give to the concept of ‘people’.

  19. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  20. Ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume effects on spherical electric double layers: A density functional approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medasani, Bharat; Ovanesyan, Zaven; Thomas, Dennis G.; Sushko, Maria L.; Marucho, Marcelo

    2014-05-01

    In this article, we present a classical density functional theory for electrical double layers of spherical macroions that extends the capabilities of conventional approaches by accounting for electrostatic ion correlations, size asymmetry, and excluded volume effects. The approach is based on a recent approximation introduced by Hansen-Goos and Roth for the hard sphere excess free energy of inhomogeneous fluids [J. Chem. Phys. 124, 154506 (2006); Hansen-Goos and Roth, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 8413 (2006)]. It accounts for the proper and efficient description of the effects of ionic asymmetry and solvent excluded volume, especially at high ion concentrations and size asymmetry ratios including those observed in experimental studies. Additionally, we utilize a leading functional Taylor expansion approximation of the ion density profiles. In addition, we use the mean spherical approximation for multi-component charged hard sphere fluids to account for the electrostatic ion correlation effects. These approximations are implemented in our theoretical formulation into a suitable decomposition of the excess free energy which plays a key role in capturing the complex interplay between charge correlations and excluded volume effects. We perform Monte Carlo simulations in various scenarios to validate the proposed approach, obtaining a good compromise between accuracy and computational cost. We use the proposed computational approach to study the effects of ion size, ion size asymmetry, and solvent excluded volume on the ion profiles, integrated charge, mean electrostatic potential, and ionic coordination number around spherical macroions in various electrolyte mixtures. Our results show that both solvent hard sphere diameter and density play a dominant role in the distribution of ions around spherical macroions, mainly for experimental water molarity and size values where the counterion distribution is characterized by a tight binding to the macroion, similar to that

  1. "Atmospheric Neutrino" and "Proton Decay" Data Exclude Some New Dark Matter Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Goldman, Itzhak; Nussinov, Shmuel

    2004-01-01

    Models in which the "dark" halo particles have mutual and potentially also appreciable nuclear interactions have been considered by various authors. In this note we briefly point out strategies for a most sensitive search for these particles. We show that a particular matter/anti-matter symmetric variant due to Farrar et al. is excluded by combining bounds on proton decay from various experiments and from super-Kamiokande and atmospheric neutrino measurements at super-Kamiokande.

  2. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohan Wang; Minyi Lin; Dan Xu; Daowan Lai; Ligang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and ...

  3. Coil–globule transition of a polymer involved in excluded-volume interactions with macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odagiri, Kenta; Seki, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Polymers adopt extended coil and compact globule states according to the balance between entropy and interaction energies. The transition of a polymer between an extended coil state and compact globule state can be induced by changing thermodynamic force such as temperature to alter the energy/entropy balance. Previously, this transition was theoretically studied by taking into account the excluded-volume interaction between monomers of a polymer chain using the partition function. For binary mixtures of a long polymer and short polymers, the coil-globule transition can be induced by changing the concentration of the shorter polymers. Here, we investigate the transition caused by short polymers by generalizing the partition function of the long polymer to include the excluded-volume effect of short polymers. The coil-globule transition is studied as a function of the concentration of mixed polymers by systematically varying Flory’s χ-parameters. We show that the transition is caused by the interplay between the excluded-volume interaction and the dispersion state of short polymers in the solvent. We also reveal that the same results can be obtained by combining the mixing entropy and elastic energy if the volume of a long polymer is properly defined

  4. Excluded-Mean-Variance Neural Decision Analyzer for Qualitative Group Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Young Song

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many qualitative group decisions in professional fields such as law, engineering, economics, psychology, and medicine that appear to be crisp and certain are in reality shrouded in fuzziness as a result of uncertain environments and the nature of human cognition within which the group decisions are made. In this paper we introduce an innovative approach to group decision making in uncertain situations by using a mean-variance neural approach. The key idea of this proposed approach is to compute the excluded mean of individual evaluations and weight it by applying a variance influence function (VIF; this process of weighting the excluded mean by VIF provides an improved result in the group decision making. In this paper, a case study with the proposed excluded-mean-variance approach is also presented. The results of this case study indicate that this proposed approach can improve the effectiveness of qualitative decision making by providing the decision maker with a new cognitive tool to assist in the reasoning process.

  5. Use of resting myocardial scintigraphy during chest pain to exclude diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbirato, Gustavo Borges; Azevedo, Jader Cunha de; Felix, Renata Christian Martins; Correa, Patricia Lavatori; Volschan, Andre; Viegas, Monica; Pimenta, Lucia; Dohmann, Hans Fernando Rocha; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco

    2009-01-01

    Background: Images of myocardial perfusion taken during an episode of chest pain have been used for patients in the emergency department. Objective: To evaluate the operating characteristics of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintigraphy during an episode of chest pain to exclude the diagnosis of cute myocardial infarction. Methods: One hundred and eight patients admitted with chest pain, or up to four hours after the end of symptoms and non diagnostic electrocardiogram, underwent resting scintigraphy and measurement of troponin I concentrations. Patients with a history of myocardial infarction (MI) were not excluded (24 patients). Troponin I concentrations were determined at admission and 6 hours later. Nuclear physicians performed a blind analysis of the images, and myocardial infarction was confirmed whenever troponin I level increase was three times that of the control. Results: Resting perfusion image was abnormal in all 6 patients with MI. Only 1 patient had a normal image and increased troponin levels. Fifty-five patients had positive images without MI, and 46 patients had normal images and troponin levels. The prevalence of the disease was 6.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of the resting images during an episode of chest pain to diagnose MI was 85.7% and 45.5%, respectively. The negative predictive value was 97.7%. Conclusion: Patients undergoing chest pain protocol with SPECT showed an excellent negative predictive value to exclude diagnosis of myocardial infarction. These results suggest that resting perfusion image is an important tool at the chest pain unit. (author)

  6. Effect of excluded volume on the force-extension of wormlike chains in slit confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolan; Dorfman, Kevin

    We will present a quantitative phase diagram for the stretching of a wormlike chain confined in a slit with excluded volume interactions. Using pruned-enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM) simulations, we demonstrate the existence of a ``confined Pincus'' regime in slit confinement. This regime is similar to the Pincus regime in free solution, where excluded volume effects are sensible. The lower bound for the confined Pincus regime in the force-contour length plane and the dependence of the extension with force and slit size are in agreement with scaling theory. The upper bound of the confined Pincus regime depends on the confinement strength; it ends in strong confinement when the Pincus blobs do not have excluded volume, while it ends in weak confinement when the Pincus blobs do not fit in the slit. We also show the existence of a free-solution Pincus regime in weak confinement that exists before ideal chain behavior sets in under strong forces. We will discuss the implication of our results on the analysis of experiments on the ``tug-of-war'' stretching of DNA partially confined to a slit.

  7. Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa M. Raghab

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this study is to utilize a natural low cost material “as an accelerator additive to enhance the chemical treatment process using Alum coagulant and the accelerator substances were Perlite and Bentonite. The performance of the chemical treatment was enhanced using the accelerator substances with 90 mg/l Alum as a constant dose. Perlite gave better performance than the Bentonite effluent. The removal ratio for conductivity, turbidity, BOD and COD for Perlite was 86.7%, 87.4%, 89.9% and 92.8% respectively, and for Bentonite was 83.5%, 85.0%, 86.5% and 85.0% respectively at the same concentration of 40 mg/l for each.

  8. 21 CFR 1404.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded or... Officials Regarding Transactions § 1404.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a...

  9. 22 CFR 1508.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true When do I check to see if a person is excluded... § 1508.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary tier...

  10. 21 CFR 1404.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or... Officials Regarding Transactions § 1404.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified in two ways: (a) You as an agency official...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true When do I check to see if a person is excluded... Transactions § 1006.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary...

  12. 22 CFR 208.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded... Transactions § 208.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary...

  13. The Edinburgh Addiction Cohort: recruitment and follow-up of a primary care based sample of injection drug users and non drug-injecting controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Jo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use is an important public health problem. Epidemiological understanding of this problem is incomplete as longitudinal studies in the general population are difficult to undertake. In particular little is known about early life risk factors for later drug injection or about the life course of injection once established including the influence of medical and social interventions. Methods Individuals thought to be drug injectors were identified through a single primary medical care facility in Edinburgh between 1980 and 2006 and flagged with the General Registry Office. From October 2005 - October 2007, these cases were traced and invited to undergo interview assessment covering early life experience, substance use, health and social histories. Age and sex matched controls for confirmed cases (alive and dead were later recruited through the same health facility. Controls for living cases completed the same structured interview schedule. Data were also collected on cases and controls through linkage to routine primary care records, death registrations, hospital contact statistics and police and prison records. All interviews were conducted with the knowledge and permission of the current GP. Results The initial cohort size was 814. At start of follow up 227 had died. Of the remaining 587: 20 had no contact details and 5 had embarked from the UK; 40 declined participation; 38 did not respond to invitations; 14 were excluded by their GP on health or social grounds and 22 had their contact details withheld by administrative authorities. 448 were interviewed of whom 16 denied injection and were excluded. Of 191 dead cases with medical records 4 were excluded as their records contained no evidence of injection. 5 interviewed cases died before follow up was concluded though these individuals were counted as "live" cases. 1 control per case (dead and alive was recruited. Linkage to Scottish Morbidity Records data

  14. The effect of excluding juveniles on apparent adult olive baboons (Papio anubis) social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedurek, Piotr; Lehmann, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been much interest in investigating the social structure of group living animals using social network analysis. Many studies so far have focused on the social networks of adults, often excluding younger, immature group members. This potentially may lead to a biased view of group social structure as multiple recent studies have shown that younger group members can significantly contribute to group structure. As proof of the concept, we address this issue by investigating social network structure with and without juveniles in wild olive baboons (Papio anubis) at Gashaka Gumti National Park, Nigeria. Two social networks including all independently moving individuals (i.e., excluding dependent juveniles) were created based on aggressive and grooming behaviour. We used knockout simulations based on the random removal of individuals from the network in order to investigate to what extent the exclusion of juveniles affects the resulting network structure and our interpretation of age-sex specific social roles. We found that juvenile social patterns differed from those of adults and that the exclusion of juveniles from the network significantly altered the resulting overall network structure. Moreover, the removal of juveniles from the network affected individuals in specific age-sex classes differently: for example, including juveniles in the grooming network increased network centrality of adult females while decreasing centrality of adult males. These results suggest that excluding juveniles from the analysis may not only result in a distorted picture of the overall social structure but also may mask some of the social roles of individuals belonging to different age-sex classes. PMID:28323851

  15. Social exclusion and punishment of excluders: neural correlates and developmental trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moor, Bregtje Gunther; Güroğlu, Berna; Op de Macks, Zdeňa A; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Van der Molen, Maurits W; Crone, Eveline A

    2012-01-02

    Social exclusion is a distressing experience and can result in a reduction of prosocial behavior. In this fMRI study we examined the neural networks involved in social exclusion and subsequent fairness considerations across adolescent development. Participants from 3 age groups (10-12, 14-16 and 19-21 year olds) participated in the study and performed two tasks; first, participants played Cyberball to induce feelings of social inclusion and exclusion, followed by a Dictator game in which participants were asked to divide coins between themselves and the players who previously included or excluded them. Results revealed a network of regions associated with social exclusion, which involve the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), subgenual ACC and the lateral PFC, as well as the insula and the dorsal ACC. Although social exclusion generated strong distress for all age groups, 10-12 year olds showed increased activity in the subgenual ACC in the exclusion game, which has been associated in previous studies with negative affective processing. Results of the Dictator game revealed that all age groups selectively punished the excluders by making lower offers. These offers were associated with activation in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the lateral PFC. Age comparisons revealed that adults showed additional activity in the insula and dorsal ACC when making offers to the excluders. The results are discussed in the light of recent findings on neural networks involved in social exclusion and the development of social brain regions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spick, Claudio, E-mail: claudio.spick@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Waehringer-Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Szolar, Dieter H.M.; Preidler, Klaus W.; Tillich, Manfred; Reittner, Pia [Diagnostikum Graz-Südwest, Weblinger Guertel 25, 8054 Graz (Austria); Baltzer, Pascal A., E-mail: pascal.baltzer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Waehringer-Guertel 18-20, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases (NPV: 100%). • Malignancy rate in the BI-RADS 0 population is substantial with 13.5%. • Breast MRI used as a problem-solving tool reliably excludes malignancy. - Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast MRI if used as a problem-solving tool in BI-RADS 0 cases. Material and methods: In this IRB-approved, single-center study, 687 women underwent high-resolution-3D, dynamic contrast-enhanced breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) between January 2012 and December 2012. Of these, we analyzed 111 consecutive patients (mean age, 51 ± 12 years; range, 20–83 years) categorized as BI-RADS 0. Breast MRI findings were stratified by clinical presentations, conventional imaging findings, and breast density. MRI results were compared to the reference standard, defined as histopathology or an imaging follow-up of at least 1 year. Results: One hundred eleven patients with BI-RADS 0 conventional imaging findings revealed 30 (27%) mammographic masses, 57 (51.4%) mammographic architectural distortions, five (4.5%) mammographic microcalcifications, 17 (15.3%) ultrasound-only findings, and two palpable findings without imaging correlates. There were 15 true-positive, 85 true-negative, 11 false-positive, and zero false-negative breast MRI findings, resulting in a sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of 100% (15/15), 88.5% (85/96), 57.7% (15/26), and 100% (85/85), respectively. Breast density and reasons for referral had no significant influence on the diagnostic performance of breast MRI (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Breast MRI reliably excludes malignancy in conventional BI-RADS 0 cases resulting in a NPV of 100% (85/85) and a PPV of 57.7% (15/26)

  17. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Tommy J [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  18. Externality costs by emission. B. Sulfur dioxide (excluding acid rain effects)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter reviews various direct costing studies of the damage caused by SO 2 and sulfate deposition to human health, materials, crops and visibility. Since so much has been written about SO 2 's contributions to acid rain, the costs of acid rain are discussed in Chapter 5D of this report. Acid rain effects have been excluded from the estimates presented here, whenever possible. The methodology, scope and results of each study are set forth, and where possible a cost per lb of SO 2 is extracted from the data. All dollar figures are stated in the year in which they were reported in the respective study, unless otherwise noted

  19. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ARACHNIDS IN THE YUCATAN PENINSULA, MEXICO (EXCLUDING ARANAE AND ACARI)

    OpenAIRE

    Hugo Delfin Gonzalez; Virginia Meléndez-Ramírez; Pablo C. Manrique-Saide; Abdiel Martin-Park; Carlos Arisqueta-Chablé

    2017-01-01

    The Chelicerata are the second group of arthropods with the highest diversity after insects and they can inhabit almost all types of environments. The most current classification recognizes 11 orders and estimates in the number of species vary from 52,000 to 100,000. We have made an extensive literature review on the diversity of arachnids in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP) (excluding spiders and ticks). In Mexico there are 834 known species which represent 6% of the worldwide diversity. In the YP...

  20. Chip-excluding in Lathe Cutting 1st. Report : Chip Form Geometry I

    OpenAIRE

    小尾, 誠; 岩里, 茂; 丹沢, 常正

    1981-01-01

    The cfficiency of chip-excluding in lathe cutting is very often determined by chip forms. So, the relation between the chip form and cutting conditions must be explained from the point of view of not only practical experiences but also theoretical studies. Here in the paper, the basic equation for chip forms has been derived analytically and the chip forms are simulated on the basis of an assumption that the chip is formed by certain herahedrons which are piled. By this study the following re...

  1. SPECKLE IMAGING EXCLUDES LOW-MASS COMPANIONS ORBITING THE EXOPLANET HOST STAR TRAPPIST-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Steve B.; Scott, Nicholas J. [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Everett, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Horch, Elliott P. [Department of Physics, Southern Connecticut State University, 501 Crescent Street, New Haven, CT, 06515 (United States); Winters, Jennifer G. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, 02138 (United States); Hirsch, Lea [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, 510 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Nusdeo, Dan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302 (United States)

    2016-09-20

    We have obtained the highest-resolution images available of TRAPPIST-1 using the Gemini-South telescope and our speckle imaging camera. Observing at 692 and 883 nm, we reached the diffraction limit of the telescope providing a best resolution of 27 mas or, at the distance of TRAPPIST-1, a spatial resolution of 0.32 au. Our imaging of the star extends from 0.32 to 14.5 au. We show that to a high confidence level, we can exclude all possible stellar and brown dwarf companions, indicating that TRAPPIST-1 is a single star.

  2. 22 CFR 1508.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 1508.430 Section 1508.430 Foreign Relations AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE....430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is...

  3. 34 CFR 85.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 85.430 Section 85.430 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education GOVERNMENTWIDE... How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is...

  4. 7 CFR 3017.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 3017.425 Section 3017.425 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see...

  5. 5 CFR 919.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do I check to see if a person is...) Responsibilities of OPM Officials Regarding Transactions § 919.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified...

  6. 22 CFR 208.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 208.430 Section 208.430 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT... Transactions § 208.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a...

  7. 29 CFR 98.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 98.430 Section 98.430 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND... How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is...

  8. 2 CFR 1125.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do I check to see if a person is... DoD Officials Regarding Transactions § 1125.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or... Component official must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you obligate additional...

  9. 31 CFR 19.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I check to see if a person is... Treasury Officials Regarding Transactions § 19.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you...

  10. 41 CFR 105-68.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I check to see...) Responsibilities of GSA Officials Regarding Transactions § 105-68.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As an agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or...

  11. 9 CFR 130.17 - User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. 130.17 Section 130.17... FEES USER FEES § 130.17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL... Pathobiology Laboratory at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites are listed in the following table. The...

  12. Computer assisted strain-gauge plethysmography is a practical method of excluding deep venous thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, A.J.P.; Chakraverty, S.; Wright, J

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate a computed strain-gauge plethysmograph (CSGP) as a screening tool to exclude above knee deep venous thrombosis (DVT). METHODS: The first phase took place in the Radiology department. One hundred and forty-nine patients had both Doppler ultrasound and CSGP performed. Discordant results were resolved by venography where possible. The second phase took place in an acute medical admissions ward using a modified protocol. A further 173 patients had both studies performed. The results were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Phase 1. The predictive value of a negative CSGP study was 98%. There were two false-negative CSGP results (false-negative rate 5%), including one equivocal CSGP study which had deep venous thrombosis on ultrasound examination. Two patients thought to have thrombus on ultrasound proved not to have acute thrombus on venography. Phase 2. The negative predictive value of CSGP using a modified protocol was 97%. There were two definite and one possible false-negative studies (false-negative rate 4-7%). CONCLUSION: Computer strain-gauge plethysmograph can provide a simple, cheap and effective method of excluding lower limb DVT. However, its use should be rigorously assessed in each hospital in which it is used. Goddard, A.J.P., Chakraverty, S. and Wright, J. (2001)

  13. Excluding access to invasion hubs can contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florance, Daniel; Webb, Jonathan K; Dempster, Tim; Kearney, Michael R; Worthing, Alex; Letnic, Mike

    2011-10-07

    Many biological invasions do not occur as a gradual expansion along a continuous front, but result from the expansion of satellite populations that become established at 'invasion hubs'. Although theoretical studies indicate that targeting control efforts at invasion hubs can effectively contain the spread of invasions, few studies have demonstrated this in practice. In arid landscapes worldwide, humans have increased the availability of surface water by creating artificial water points (AWPs) such as troughs and dams for livestock. By experimentally excluding invasive cane toads (Bufo marinus) from AWP, we show that AWP provide a resource subsidy for non-arid-adapted toads and serve as dry season refuges and thus invasion hubs for cane toads in arid Australia. Using data on the distribution of permanent water in arid Australia and the dispersal potential of toads, we predict that systematically excluding toads from AWP would reduce the area of arid Australia across which toads are predicted to disperse and colonize under average climatic conditions by 38 per cent from 2,242,000 to 1,385,000 km(2). Our study shows how human modification of hydrological regimes can create a network of invasion hubs that facilitates a biological invasion, and confirms that targeted control at invasion hubs can reduce landscape connectivity to contain the spread of an invasive vertebrate.

  14. Prejudice in practitioners who work with socially excluded people in Andalusia: A dual process approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Álvarez-Castillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that the professional profile of those who work with socially excluded people is not compatible with the maintenance of prejudices against the group they help. The current study tested this hypothesis regarding the Dual Process Cognitive-Motivational Model of Duckitt (2001 and Duckitt and Sibley (2010. Data from 565 Andalusian professionals were collected in a cross-sectional survey, using measures of socio-demographics, personality, values, ideological attitudes, political position, and prejudice. The model fitted to data reproduced the basic relations in the hypothesized model, although its explanatory power was limited. Prejudice was significantly explained by both paths (authoritarianism and dominance, leading to the conclusion that the reduced level of prejudice held by professionals corresponds to the perception of socially excluded people as a dissident group. This suggests that professional identity as a broad construct may moderate the variance in prejudice. Finally, these findings also suggest that the professional development of social workers should be promoted.

  15. Unanimous versus partial rejection: How the number of excluders influences the impact of ostracism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Marlene J; Deutz, Marike H F; Lansu, Tessa A M; van Noorden, Tirza H J; Karremans, Johan C; Cillessen, Antonius H N

    2017-04-01

    Previous research has shown that ostracism-the experience of being ignored and excluded-has negative effects on all of us, young and old. Using a Cyberball paradigm, the present research replicates the effects of ostracism on the moods (anger, anxiety, happiness, and anger) and fundamental needs (belongingness, control, meaningful existence, and self-esteem) of children (Study 1) and then extends the literature by examining the role of the number of ostracizers and inclusive members in this process by randomly assigning children to conditions varying in degree of ostracism (Study 2). Results of both studies showed that experiencing ostracism strongly and negatively affected all moods and fundamental needs-with the exception of anxiety. Study 2 in addition showed that the ratio of excluders to inclusive group members had different effects across outcomes. In all cases, complete ostracism produced the worst outcomes, suggesting that the presence of even a single ally reduces children's distress. For sadness, unanimous ostracism seemed particularly toxic. In some cases, facing two ostracizers produced significantly worse outcomes than only one, suggesting that consensual rejection might drive the negative effects on happiness, and sense of belonging, control, and meaningful existence. For self-esteem, only one ostracizer (in the presence of two inclusive members) was sufficient to induce a negative effect. Aggr. Behav. 43:190-203, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Are Concerns About Irremediableness, Vulnerability, or Competence Sufficient to Justify Excluding All Psychiatric Patients from Medical Aid in Dying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, William; Schuklenk, Udo; van de Vathorst, Suzanne

    2017-06-17

    Some jurisdictions that have decriminalized assisted dying (like Canada) exclude psychiatric patients on the grounds that their condition cannot be determined to be irremediable, that they are vulnerable and in need of protection, or that they cannot be determined to be competent. We review each of these claims and find that none have been sufficiently well-supported to justify the differential treatment psychiatric patients experience with respect to assisted dying. We find bans on psychiatric patients' access to this service amount to arbitrary discrimination. Proponents of banning the practice ignore or overlook alternatives to their proposal, like an assisted dying regime with additional safeguards. Some authors have further criticized assisted dying for psychiatric patients by highlighting allegedly problematic practices in those countries which allow it. We address recent evidence from the Netherlands, showing that these problems are either misrepresented or have straightforward solutions. Even if one finds such evidence troubling despite our analysis, other jurisdictions need not adopt every feature of the Dutch system.

  17. Accuracy of transthoracic sonography in excluding post-interventional pneumothorax and hydropneumothorax Comparison to chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reissig, Angelika; Kroegel, Claus

    2005-03-01

    Objective: Transthoracic sonography (TS) has evolved as an important imaging technique for diagnosing pleural and pulmonary conditions. However, the value of TS in either excluding or diagnosing pneumothorax is still under debate. This study was conducted to examine whether TS could replace chest radiography for the diagnosis of post-interventional pneumothorax and hydropneumothorax. Methods: 53 patients (21 females, 32 males; median age 64 years, range 37-94 years), 35 of whom underwent transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and 18 patients who had an ultrasound-guided chest tube placement (U-GCTP) were enrolled in the study. TS was performed three hours after either TBB or removal of a chest tube, followed by postero-anterior chest radiograph (CRX). If any discrepancy between TS, the clinical presentation and the CRX became apparent, either a lateral CRX or a computed tomography (CT) of the thorax was performed. TS was assessed according to the presence of the following criteria: (1) ''gliding sign'' of the pleural line, (2) comet tail artifacts, (3) reverberation artifacts, (4) air/fluid mirror, (5) hyperechoic reflectors within the pleural effusion and (6) ''lung point''. Results: In four out of the 53 patients (7.5%) a post-interventional pneumothorax or hydropneumothorax occurred. One out of the 35 patients (2.9%) developed a pneumothorax after TBB, requiring chest tube placement. Three patients (16.7%) developed a hydropneumothorax due to U-GCTP which was detected by sonography but was missed by postero-anterior CRX in one patient. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of TS were 100% in excluding post-interventional pneumothorax/hydropneumothorax. Conclusion: TS is a cost-effective and safe bed-side-method, allowing for an immediate exclusion or diagnosis of post-interventional pneumothorax/hydropneumothorax in patients who have undergone TBB or U-GCTP. Thus, these preliminary results suggest that CXR may only be required in

  18. Excluded and avoided: racial microaggressions targeting Asian international students in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houshmand, Sara; Spanierman, Lisa B; Tafarodi, Romin W

    2014-07-01

    This qualitative study explored East and South Asian international students' (N = 12) experiences with racial microaggressions at one Canadian university. Data were collected through unstructured, individual interviews. Using a modified version of the consensual qualitative research method (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997), we identified six racial microaggressions themes: (a) excluded and avoided, (b) ridiculed for accent, (c) rendered invisible, (d) disregarded international values and needs, (e) ascription of intelligence, and (f) environmental microaggressions (structural barriers on campus). In addition, we used the same approach to identify themes pertaining to the ways in which students coped with racial microaggressions: (a) engaging with own racial and cultural groups, (b) withdrawing from academic spheres, and (c) seeking comfort in the surrounding multicultural milieu. Microaggressions and coping themes differed based on country of origin and language proficiency. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  19. Preoperative CT staging of colon carcinoma (excluding the recto-sigmoid region)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acunas, B.; Rozanes, I.; Acunas, G.; Sayi, I.; Gokmen, E.; Celik, L.

    1990-01-01

    28 Patients with colon carcinoma (excluding the recto-sigmoid region) underwent preoperative staging with computed tomography (CT). The CT had a sensitivity of 60 and 67 per cent for detection of extramural invasion, 75 per cent sensitivity and specificity for lymph node metastases and a sensitivity of 87 per cent and specificity of 95 per cent for liver metastases. Compared with the modified Dukes classification, CT correctly staged 50 per cent of the patients with Dukes A lesions; 40 per cent with Dukes B, 75 per cent with Dukes C and 85 per cent with Dukes D lesions. The data presented in this study showed that CT has limitations in the sensitivity and accuracy of staging local colonic carcinoma. However, the authors recommend its use for patients who are clinically suspected of having extensive disease. (author). 10 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  20. What works in inclusion health: overview of effective interventions for marginalised and excluded populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchenski, Serena; Maguire, Nick; Aldridge, Robert W; Hayward, Andrew; Story, Alistair; Perri, Patrick; Withers, James; Clint, Sharon; Fitzpatrick, Suzanne; Hewett, Nigel

    2017-11-10

    Inclusion health is a service, research, and policy agenda that aims to prevent and redress health and social inequities among the most vulnerable and excluded populations. We did an evidence synthesis of health and social interventions for inclusion health target populations, including people with experiences of homelessness, drug use, imprisonment, and sex work. These populations often have multiple overlapping risk factors and extreme levels of morbidity and mortality. We identified numerous interventions to improve physical and mental health, and substance use; however, evidence is scarce for structural interventions, including housing, employment, and legal support that can prevent exclusion and promote recovery. Dedicated resources and better collaboration with the affected populations are needed to realise the benefits of existing interventions. Research must inform the benefits of early intervention and implementation of policies to address the upstream causes of exclusion, such as adverse childhood experiences and poverty. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Dyslexic adults can learn from repeated stimulus presentation but have difficulties in excluding external noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L Beattie

    Full Text Available We examined whether the characteristic impairments of dyslexia are due to a deficit in excluding external noise or a deficit in taking advantage of repeated stimulus presentation. We compared non-impaired adults and adults with poor reading performance on a visual letter detection task that varied two aspects: the presence or absence of background visual noise, and a small or large stimulus set. There was no interaction between group and stimulus set size, indicating that the poor readers took advantage of repeated stimulus presentation as well as the non-impaired readers. The poor readers had higher thresholds than non-impaired readers in the presence of high external noise, but not in the absence of external noise. The results support the hypothesis that an external noise exclusion deficit, not a perceptual anchoring deficit, impairs reading for adults.

  3. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohan; Lin, Minyi; Xu, Dan; Lai, Daowan; Zhou, Ligang

    2017-11-27

    Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring) reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus , Penicillium , Fusarium , Acremonium and Amanita . Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  4. Structural Diversity and Biological Activities of Fungal Cyclic Peptides, Excluding Cyclodipeptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohan Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic peptides are cyclic compounds formed mainly by the amide bonds between either proteinogenic or non-proteinogenic amino acids. This review highlights the occurrence, structures and biological activities of fungal cyclic peptides (excluding cyclodipeptides, and peptides containing ester bonds in the core ring reported until August 2017. About 293 cyclic peptides belonging to the groups of cyclic tri-, tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona-, deca-, undeca-, dodeca-, tetradeca-, and octadecapeptides as well as cyclic peptides containing ether bonds in the core ring have been isolated from fungi. They were mainly isolated from the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Acremonium and Amanita. Some of them were screened to have antimicrobial, antiviral, cytotoxic, phytotoxic, insecticidal, nematicidal, immunosuppressive and enzyme-inhibitory activities to show their potential applications. Some fungal cyclic peptides such as the echinocandins, pneumocandins and cyclosporin A have been developed as pharmaceuticals.

  5. Macromolecular Stabilization by Excluded Cosolutes: Mean Field Theory of Crowded Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel

    2015-07-14

    We propose a mean field theory to account for the experimentally determined temperature dependence of protein stabilization that emerges in solutions crowded by preferentially excluded cosolutes. Based on regular solution theory and employing the Flory-Huggins approximation, our model describes cosolutes in terms of their size, and two temperature-dependent microscopic parameters that correspond to macromolecule-cosolute and bulk solution interactions. The theory not only predicts a "depletion force" that can account for the experimentally observed stabilization of protein folding or association in the presence of excluded cosolutes but also predicts the full range of associated entropic and enthalpic components. Remarkably, depending on cosolute identity and in accordance with experiments, the theory describes entropically as well as enthalpically dominated depletion forces, even those disfavored by entropy. This emerging depletion attraction cannot be simply linked to molecular volumes. Instead, the relevant parameter is an effective volume that represents an interplay between solvent, cosolute, and macromolecular interactions. We demonstrate that the apparent depletion free energy is often accompanied by significant yet compensating entropy and enthalpy terms that, although having a net zero contribution to stabilization, can obscure the underlying molecular mechanism. This study underscores the importance of including often-neglected free energy terms that correspond to solvent-cosolute and cosolute-macromolecule interactions, which for most typical cosolutes are expected to be temperature dependent. We propose that experiments specifically aimed at resolving the temperature-dependence of cosolute exclusion from macromolecular surfaces should help reveal the full range of the underlying molecular mechanisms of the depletion force.

  6. Modeling fibrous biological tissues with a general invariant that excludes compressed fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kewei; Ogden, Ray W.; Holzapfel, Gerhard A.

    2018-01-01

    Dispersed collagen fibers in fibrous soft biological tissues have a significant effect on the overall mechanical behavior of the tissues. Constitutive modeling of the detailed structure obtained by using advanced imaging modalities has been investigated extensively in the last decade. In particular, our group has previously proposed a fiber dispersion model based on a generalized structure tensor. However, the fiber tension-compression switch described in that study is unable to exclude compressed fibers within a dispersion and the model requires modification so as to avoid some unphysical effects. In a recent paper we have proposed a method which avoids such problems, but in this present study we introduce an alternative approach by using a new general invariant that only depends on the fibers under tension so that compressed fibers within a dispersion do not contribute to the strain-energy function. We then provide expressions for the associated Cauchy stress and elasticity tensors in a decoupled form. We have also implemented the proposed model in a finite element analysis program and illustrated the implementation with three representative examples: simple tension and compression, simple shear, and unconfined compression on articular cartilage. We have obtained very good agreement with the analytical solutions that are available for the first two examples. The third example shows the efficacy of the fibrous tissue model in a larger scale simulation. For comparison we also provide results for the three examples with the compressed fibers included, and the results are completely different. If the distribution of collagen fibers is such that it is appropriate to exclude compressed fibers then such a model should be adopted.

  7. Accountability and the pressures to exclude: A cautionary tale from England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rustique-Forrester

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have produced conflicting findings about whether test-based rewards and sanctions create incentives that improve student performance, or hurdles that increase dropout and pushout rates from schools. This article reports the findings from a study that examined the impact of England's accountability reforms and investigated whether the confluent pressures associated with increased testing, school ranking systems, and other sanctions contributed to higher levels of student exclusion (expulsion and suspension. The study found that England's high-stakes approach to accountability, combined with the dynamics of school choice and other curriculum and testing pressures led to a narrowing of the curriculum, the marginalization of low-performing students, and a climate perceived by teachers to be less tolerant of students with academic and behavioral difficulties. A comparison of higher- and lower-excluding schools, however, found that these effects were more pronounced in the higher-excluding schools, which lacked strong systems and internal structures for supporting staff communication, teacher collaboration, and students' individual needs. The study offers an international perspective on recent trends toward greater accountability in education, pointing to a complex inter-relationship between the pressures of national policies and the unintended consequences on schools' organizational and teachers' instructional capacities. The study's findings raise particular implications for the United States and show that in the design of accountability systems, attention must be paid to how the pressures from accountability will affect the capacity of schools and teachers to respond to students who are low-performing and struggling academically.

  8. Prevalence of Fructose Malabsorption in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome After Excluding Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kee Wook; Seo, Myeognsook; Cho, Young Hwan; Park, Young-Ok; Yoon, So-Yoon; Lee, Jungbok; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Yoon, In Ja; Seo, So Young; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Park, Sang Hyoung; Kim, Kyung Jo; Ye, Byong Duk; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2018-04-30

    Fructose malabsorption (FM) mimics symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its prevalence has increased. Diagnosing FM in IBS is challenging because of its overlap with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We assessed the prevalence of FM by comparing patients with IBS with asymptomatic control individuals after excluding SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (HBT). Patients diagnosed with IBS and asymptomatic control individuals were enrolled prospectively. Dietary habits were assessed with the Food Frequency Questionnaire. After excluding SIBO, participants underwent HBTs with both 15 g and 25 g of fructose. Thirty-five patients with IBS and 35 age- and sex-matched asymptomatic control individuals were enrolled. The 15-g fructose HBT yielded positive results in 7 of the 35 (20.0%) patients with IBS and in 2 of 35 (5.7%) controls ( P = 0.070). The 25-g fructose HBT was positive in 16 of the 35 (45.7%) patients with IBS and in 8 of the 35 (22.9%) controls ( P = 0.040). Analysis of the Food Frequency Questionnaire responses showed no significant differences between the 2 groups in dietary intake, although patients with IBS showed a significantly higher mean fiber intake than controls (21.24 ± 11.35 g vs 15.87 ± 7.07 g, respectively, P = 0.040). The 25-g fructose HBT identified FM in a significantly higher percentage of SIBO-negative patients with IBS than in asymptomatic control individuals, suggesting that FM may correlate with IBS. Education regarding dietary control of foods containing fructose may be useful for the management of patients with IBS.

  9. North sea: a quarter of total's reserves (excluding the Middle East)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    In 1994, for the fifth successive year, Total increased its proven reserves of hydrocarbons which reach 4.3 Gboe (+ 6% compared to 1993). Outside the Middle East, the reserves show a development of 9% and reach the threshold of 2 Gboe. In 1994, Total's production of hydrocarbons reached 633,000 boe/d (+ 4%), despite a fall of 3% in oil production in the Middle East. Excluding the Middle East, production was increased to 345,000 boe/d (+ 12%), including 212,000 boe/d for gas (+ 20%). Exploration/production investments were 5.8 GF in 1994 (excluding labour) and the development program for reserves and production for the coming years is based on yearly investments of some 6 GF. Total's production in Europe, essentially in the North Sea, was 154,000 boe/d in 1994 (+ 12%). This zone has potential for significant growth for the group which has undertaken exploration surveys in the Western Shetlands and in Haltenbanken. In the British zone, the Dunbar field and its neighbour Ellon were brought into production in December 1994. In the Norwegian zone, the Froy field, was brought into production last June. In the Lille-Frigg field, whose production started in May, initial reserves are estimated at 6,7 Bcm of gas. Total Norge AS also has interests in the producing fields of Ekofisk, Frigg, East-Frigg, Heimdal, Sleipner East, Veslefrikk, Oseberg, Brage, in those of Sleipner West and Huldra (start-up scheduled for 1997) and in Troll (phase 1) which should be producing in 1996. In the Dutch zone, the K4b and K5a blocks brought into production last November hold reserves estimated at 20 Bcm; their production could reach 2 Bcm/year as from 1995. (authors). 1 tab., 1 photo

  10. Increasing the efficiency of bacterial transcription simulations: When to exclude the genome without loss of accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMillen David R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simulating the major molecular events inside an Escherichia coli cell can lead to a very large number of reactions that compose its overall behaviour. Not only should the model be accurate, but it is imperative for the experimenter to create an efficient model to obtain the results in a timely fashion. Here, we show that for many parameter regimes, the effect of the host cell genome on the transcription of a gene from a plasmid-borne promoter is negligible, allowing one to simulate the system more efficiently by removing the computational load associated with representing the presence of the rest of the genome. The key parameter is the on-rate of RNAP binding to the promoter (k_on, and we compare the total number of transcripts produced from a plasmid vector generated as a function of this rate constant, for two versions of our gene expression model, one incorporating the host cell genome and one excluding it. By sweeping parameters, we identify the k_on range for which the difference between the genome and no-genome models drops below 5%, over a wide range of doubling times, mRNA degradation rates, plasmid copy numbers, and gene lengths. Results We assess the effect of the simulating the presence of the genome over a four-dimensional parameter space, considering: 24 min Conclusion Exclusion of the genome is shown to yield less than 5% difference in transcript numbers over wide ranges of values, and computational speed is improved by two to 24 times by excluding explicit representation of the genome.

  11. Some algebraic clues towards a syntactic view on the Principles of Non-Contradiction and Excluded-Middle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trillas, E.; García-Honrado, I.; Termini, S.

    2014-02-01

    This short paper just considers the possibility of a new view for posing and proving Aristotle's Principles of Non-Contradiction and Excluded-Middle. It is done by means of their refutability, or deducibility, respectively, under Tarski's Consequence Operators.

  12. 22 CFR 1006.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 1006.430 Section 1006.430 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT... Transactions § 1006.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a...

  13. 41 CFR 105-68.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I check to see if...) Responsibilities of GSA Officials Regarding Transactions § 105-68.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified in two ways: (a) You as an...

  14. 2 CFR 180.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false When do I check to see if a person is... § 180.425 When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? As a Federal agency official, you must check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified before you— (a) Enter into a primary...

  15. 5 CFR 919.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I check to see if a person is...) Responsibilities of OPM Officials Regarding Transactions § 919.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified in two ways: (a) You as an agency...

  16. 2 CFR 180.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 180.430 Section 180.430 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET... § 180.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is...

  17. 31 CFR 19.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I check to see if a person is... Treasury Officials Regarding Transactions § 19.430 How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? You check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified in two ways: (a) You as an agency...

  18. Outcomes of original and low-permeability Gore Excluder endoprosthesis for endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, William; Fillinger, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Because of concern about the percentage of enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) after endovascular repair with the Excluder device (W.L. Gore & Assoc, Inc, Sunnyvale, Calif), the graft material was modified to reduce its permeability and released for commercial use in mid-2004. We studied all AAA repairs with Excluder endografts performed at our institution, including the original-permeability (OP) version (n = 99) and the low-permeability (LP) version (n = 48). All patients were followed up with serial computed tomography (CT) angiography and three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction. Morphologic measurements, including AAA diameter and 3D volume, were prospectively entered into a database to evaluate changes in AAA size over time. Owing to the length of available follow-up for the LP version, the primary end point was AAA size change at 6 and 12 months, evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test for unpaired samples. Preoperative and postoperative anatomy was similar in the two groups, including AAA diameter (OP, 5.6 +/- 1 cm; LP, 5.8 +/- 2 cm; P = .3), aortic neck length (OP, 21 +/- 1 mm; LP, 22 +/- 2 mm; P = .9), postoperative aortic seal zone (OP, 18 +/- 1 mm; LP, 16 +/- 1 mm, P > .1) and iliac seal zone (OP, 33 +/- 1 mm, LP 31 +/- 1 mm, P = .2). The rate of sac shrinkage differed significantly. Orthogonal diameter measurements showed a significant difference in the rate of shrinkage by 12 months postoperatively (OP, -2.1 +/- 1 mm; LP, -5.1 +/- 1 mm; P = .01). By 3D volume, the rate of shrinkage was considerably different between the two groups at both 6 and 12 months (12 months: OP, -6% +/- 1%; LP, -20 +/- 4%; P = .0006). There was no enlargement by diameter in either group at 6 or 12 months postoperative. By standard volume criteria, however, 12 of 99 patients in the OP group and one of 48 patients in the LP group had significant AAA enlargement < or =12 months (P = .04). Of these, four of 12 patients in the OP group had enlargement without apparent endoleak, even

  19. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Muqing; Chen, Jeon-Hor; Wang, Xiaoyong; Su, Min-Ying; Chan, Siwa; Chen, Siping

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. Results: The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1.03%. The

  20. Should children with overweight or obesity be excluded from height references?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Júlíusson, Pétur B; Brannsether, Bente; Kristiansen, Hege; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Bjerknes, Robert; Roelants, Mathieu

    2015-11-01

    Growth reference charts are usually based on measurements of children free from a medical condition that affects growth. However, samples collected during the past decades often contain a large proportion of overweight or obese children. Because obesity increases linear growth, the question arises to what extent the percentiles curves for length/height are affected by the presence of children with overweight or obesity. Data from two cross-sectional samples of 2-year-old to 18-year-old children were analysed: 12,252 Belgian children, measured in 2002-2004, and 6159 Norwegian children, measured in 2003-2006. The LMS method was used to estimate height-for-age curves with and without children considered overweight or obese according to the International Obesity Task Force thresholds. The prevalence of overweight (including obesity) and obesity was 13.0% and 2.8% in the Belgian and 13.8% and 2.3% in the Norwegian sample. Children were taller when overweight (+0.49 and 0.43 SD, in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively) or obese (+0.73 and 0.72 SD in the Belgian and Norwegian sample, respectively). Effect sizes were smaller in younger and older children, which points to an advanced age of maturation as a possible cause. Excluding overweight and obese children had only a minor impact on the growth curves with largest difference in mean height SD scores -0.09 in the Belgian and -0.12 in the Norwegian sample with a corresponding increase of up to 0.5% and 1.2% in number of children >+2 SD. Current Belgian and Norwegian growth references for length/height were found to be largely unaffected by the current proportion of overweight and obese children. There is, therefore, no need for revised height charts that exclude overweight or obese children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  2. Strategies to exclude subjects who conceal and fabricate information when enrolling in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric G. Devine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials within the US face an increasing challenge with the recruitment of quality candidates. One readily available group of subjects that have high rates of participation in clinical research are subjects who enroll in multiple trials for the purpose of generating income through study payments. Aside from issues of safety and generalizability, evidence suggests that these subjects employ methods of deception to qualify for the strict entrance criteria of some studies, including concealing information and fabricating information. Including these subjects in research poses a significant risk to the integrity of data quality and study designs. Strategies to limit enrollment of subjects whose motivation is generating income have not been systematically addressed in the literature. The present paper is intended to provide investigators with a range of strategies for developing and implementing a study protocol with protections to minimize the enrollment of subjects whose primary motivation for enrolling is to generate income. This multifaceted approach includes recommendations for advertising strategies, payment strategies, telephone screening strategies, and baseline screening strategies. The approach also includes recommendations for attending to inconsistent study data and subject motivation. Implementing these strategies may be more or less important depending upon the vulnerability of the study design to subject deception. Although these strategies may help researchers exclude subjects with a higher rate of deceptive practices, widespread adoption of subject registries would go a long way to decrease the chances of subjects enrolling in multiple studies or more than once in the same study.

  3. My life as a pupil: The autobiographical memories of adolescents excluded from school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Shaalan

    2017-02-01

    Narrative psychology is founded on the premise that substantial insight can be gained into individuals' self-understanding and behaviour by studying the content of their autobiographical memories. This article contributes to this field of inquiry by suggesting that our understanding of adolescents' exclusion from mainstream education can be enhanced by examining their recollections of school using a narrative dialogical approach. In a research project the autobiographical memories of fifteen female and twenty male students, aged 15-16 years, who had been excluded from secondary schools in London, England were collected and analysed. The aim was to examine how in their narrated depictions of the past, the adolescents explained and justified their position and behaviour at different times in their lives at school. The findings highlight how adolescents perceive themselves to have become positioned by the voices of significant others, schools as institutions and themselves at earlier or later stages in their lives. Copyright © 2016 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innovation Chinese rice wine brewing technology by bi-acidification to exclude rice soaking process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiao Lu; Liu, Shuang Ping; Yu, Jian Shen; Yu, Yong Jian; Zhu, Sheng Hu; Zhou, Zhi Lei; Hu, Jian; Mao, Jian

    2017-04-01

    As a traditional fermented alcoholic beverage of China, Chinese rice wine (CRW) had a long history of more than 5000 years. Rice soaking process was the most crucial step during CRW brewing process, because rice soaking quality directly determined the quality of CRW. However, rice soaking water would cause the eutrophication of water bodies and waste of water. The longer time of rice soaking, the higher the content of biogenic amine, and it would have a huge impact on human health. An innovation brewing technology was carried out to exclude the rice soaking process and the Lactobacillus was added to make up for the total acid. Compared to the traditional brewing technology, the new technology saved water resources and reduced environmental pollution. The concentration of biogenic amine was also decreased by 27.16%, which improving the security of the CRW. The esters increased led to more soft-tasted CRW and less aging time; the quality of CRW would be improved with less alcohol. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CONTRIBUTION TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE ARACHNIDS IN THE YUCATAN PENINSULA, MEXICO (EXCLUDING ARANAE AND ACARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Delfin Gonzalez

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chelicerata are the second group of arthropods with the highest diversity after insects and they can inhabit almost all types of environments. The most current classification recognizes 11 orders and estimates in the number of species vary from 52,000 to 100,000. We have made an extensive literature review on the diversity of arachnids in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP (excluding spiders and ticks. In Mexico there are 834 known species which represent 6% of the worldwide diversity. In the YP 63 records were found (58 species and 5 genera of arachnids, which represent 6.8% of the Mexican species. According to our research, 28 of the 58 species (48% in the YP were also record in other parts of Mexico, the continent and the world. Undoubtedly, the state of Yucatan is the best represented of the YP. In order to have a better understanding of the diversity of arachnid species is important to promote biological compendiums and sampling programs, which will improve the representation of this group and probably increasing the number of local species.

  6. Tests of a system to exclude roots from buried radioactive waste in a warm, humid climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Corey, J.C.; Adriano, D.C.; Decker, O.D.; Griggs, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Vegetation is commonly used to stabilize the ground covering buried waste sites. However, constituents of buried waste can be brought to the surface if the waste is penetrated by plant roots. An ideal waste burial system would allow the use of vegetation to stabilize the soil above the buried waste but would exclude roots from the waste. One system that shows considerable promise is a slow release encapsulation of a root growth inhibitor (Trifluralin). Projected lifetimes of the capsule are in the order of 100 years. The capsule is bonded to a geotextile, which provides an easy means of distributing the capsule evenly over the area to be protected. Vegetation grown in the soil above the barrier has provided good ground cover, although some decrease in growth has been found in some species. Of the species tested the sensitivity to the biobarrier, as measured by the distance root growth stops near the barrier, is bamboo> bahia grass> bermuda grass> soybean. Potential uses for the biobarrier at the Savannah River Site (SRS) include the protection of clay caps over buried, low-level saltstone and protection of gravel drains and clay caps over decommissioned seepage basins. Trails of the biobarrier as part of waste site caps are scheduled to begin during the next 12 months

  7. Genome-wide association study of handedness excludes simple genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J AL; Davison, A; McManus, I C

    2014-01-01

    Handedness is a human behavioural phenotype that appears to be congenital, and is often assumed to be inherited, but for which the developmental origin and underlying causation(s) have been elusive. Models of the genetic basis of variation in handedness have been proposed that fit different features of the observed resemblance between relatives, but none has been decisively tested or a corresponding causative locus identified. In this study, we applied data from well-characterised individuals studied at the London Twin Research Unit. Analysis of genome-wide SNP data from 3940 twins failed to identify any locus associated with handedness at a genome-wide level of significance. The most straightforward interpretation of our analyses is that they exclude the simplest formulations of the ‘right-shift' model of Annett and the ‘dextral/chance' model of McManus, although more complex modifications of those models are still compatible with our observations. For polygenic effects, our study is inadequately powered to reliably detect alleles with effect sizes corresponding to an odds ratio of 1.2, but should have good power to detect effects at an odds ratio of 2 or more. PMID:24065183

  8. External Events Excluding Earthquakes in the Design of Nuclear Power Plants. Safety Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This Safety Guide provides recommendations and guidance on design for the protection of nuclear power plants from the effects of external events (excluding earthquakes), i.e. events that originate either off the site or within the boundaries of the site but from sources that are not directly involved in the operational states of the nuclear power plant units. In addition, it provides recommendations on engineering related matters in order to comply with the safety objectives and requirements established in the IAEA Safety Requirements publication, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It is also applicable to the design and safety assessment of items important to the safety of land based stationary nuclear power plants with water cooled reactors. Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Application of safety criteria to the design; 3. Design basis for external events; 4. Aircraft crash; 5. External fire; 6. Explosions; 7. Asphyxiant and toxic gases; 8. Corrosive and radioactive gases and liquids; 9. Electromagnetic interference; 10. Floods; 11. Extreme winds; 12. Extreme meteorological conditions; 13. Biological phenomena; 14. Volcanism; 15. Collisions of floating bodies with water intakes and UHS components; Annex I: Aircraft crashes; Annex II: Detonation and deflagration; Annex III: Toxicity limits.

  9. Two-year-olds exclude novel objects as potential referents of novel words based on pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Stracke, Marén; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Many studies have established that children tend to exclude objects for which they already have a name as potential referents of novel words. In the current study we asked whether this exclusion can be triggered by social-pragmatic context alone without pre-existing words as blockers. Two-year-old children watched an adult looking at a novel object while saying a novel word with excitement. In one condition the adult had not seen the object beforehand, and so the children interpreted the adult's utterance as referring to the gazed-at object. In another condition the adult and child had previously played jointly with the gazed-at object. In this case, children less often assumed that the adult was referring to the object but rather they searched for an alternative referent--presumably because they inferred that the gazed-at object was old news in their common ground with the adult and so not worthy of excited labeling. Since this inference based on exclusion is highly similar to that underlying the Principle of Contrast/Mutual Exclusivity, we propose that this principle is not purely lexical but rather is based on children's understanding of how and why people direct one another's attention to things either with or without language.

  10. Excluding the poor from accessing biomedical literature: a rights violation that impedes global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamey, Gavin

    2008-01-01

    Most biomedical journals charge readers a hefty access toll to read the full text version of a published research article. These tolls bring enormous profits to the traditional corporate publishing industry, but they make it impossible for most people worldwide--particularly in low and middle income countries--to access the biomedical literature. Traditional publishers also insist on owning the copyright on these articles, making it illegal for readers to freely distribute and photocopy papers, translate them, or create derivative educational works. This article argues that excluding the poor from accessing and freely using the biomedical research literature is harming global public health. Health care workers, for example, are prevented from accessing the information they need to practice effective medicine, while policymakers are prevented from accessing the essential knowledge they require to build better health care systems. The author proposes that the biomedical literature should be considered a global public good, basing his arguments upon longstanding and recent international declarations that enshrine access to scientific and medical knowledge as a human right. He presents an emerging alternative publishing model, called open access, and argues that this model is a more socially responsive and equitable approach to knowledge dissemination.

  11. In a long-term experimental demography study, excluding ungulates reversed invader's explosive population growth rate and restored natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalisz, Susan; Spigler, Rachel B; Horvitz, Carol C

    2014-03-25

    A major goal in ecology is to understand mechanisms that increase invasion success of exotic species. A recent hypothesis implicates altered species interactions resulting from ungulate herbivore overabundance as a key cause of exotic plant domination. To test this hypothesis, we maintained an experimental demography deer exclusion study for 6 y in a forest where the native ungulate Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) is overabundant and Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) is aggressively invading. Because population growth is multiplicative across time, we introduce metrics that correctly integrate experimental effects across treatment years, the cumulative population growth rate, λc, and its geometric mean, λper-year, the time-averaged annual population growth rate. We determined λc and λper-year of the invader and of a common native, Trillium erectum. Our results conclusively demonstrate that deer are required for the success of Alliaria; its projected population trajectory shifted from explosive growth in the presence of deer (λper-year = 1.33) to decline toward extinction where deer are excluded (λper-year = 0.88). In contrast, Trillium's λper-year was suppressed in the presence of deer relative to deer exclusion (λper-year = 1.04 vs. 1.20, respectively). Retrospective sensitivity analyses revealed that the largest negative effect of deer exclusion on Alliaria came from rosette transitions, whereas the largest positive effect on Trillium came from reproductive transitions. Deer exclusion lowered Alliaria density while increasing Trillium density. Our results provide definitive experimental support that interactions with overabundant ungulates enhance demographic success of invaders and depress natives' success, with broad implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function worldwide.

  12. Modern opportunities for the treatment of chronic prostatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Bozhedomov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the recommendations for chronic prostatitis treatment taking into the consideration the peculiarities of the pathogenesis and clinical picture of this disease. The paper demonstrates that the efficient chronic prostatitis treatment requires the new UPOINT prostatitis classification rather than traditional VIN NIDDK (1995 classification. The paper discusses the indications for various drug and non-drug interventions: antibiotics, alpha-blockers, M-cholinolytics, analgesics, antidepressants, phytodrugs, pelviс floor acupuncture and physiotherapy, psychotherapy.

  13. Template-based automatic breast segmentation on MRI by excluding the chest region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Muqing [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China); Chen, Jeon-Hor [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 and Department of Radiology, E-Da Hospital and I-Shou University, Kaohsiung 82445, Taiwan (China); Wang, Xiaoyong; Su, Min-Ying, E-mail: msu@uci.edu [Tu and Yuen Center for Functional Onco-Imaging, Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697-5020 (United States); Chan, Siwa [Department of Radiology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 40407, Taiwan (China); Chen, Siping [National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, 518060 China (China)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Methods for quantification of breast density on MRI using semiautomatic approaches are commonly used. In this study, the authors report on a fully automatic chest template-based method. Methods: Nonfat-suppressed breast MR images from 31 healthy women were analyzed. Among them, one case was randomly selected and used as the template, and the remaining 30 cases were used for testing. Unlike most model-based breast segmentation methods that use the breast region as the template, the chest body region on a middle slice was used as the template. Within the chest template, three body landmarks (thoracic spine and bilateral boundary of the pectoral muscle) were identified for performing the initial V-shape cut to determine the posterior lateral boundary of the breast. The chest template was mapped to each subject's image space to obtain a subject-specific chest model for exclusion. On the remaining image, the chest wall muscle was identified and excluded to obtain clean breast segmentation. The chest and muscle boundaries determined on the middle slice were used as the reference for the segmentation of adjacent slices, and the process continued superiorly and inferiorly until all 3D slices were segmented. The segmentation results were evaluated by an experienced radiologist to mark voxels that were wrongly included or excluded for error analysis. Results: The breast volumes measured by the proposed algorithm were very close to the radiologist's corrected volumes, showing a % difference ranging from 0.01% to 3.04% in 30 tested subjects with a mean of 0.86% ± 0.72%. The total error was calculated by adding the inclusion and the exclusion errors (so they did not cancel each other out), which ranged from 0.05% to 6.75% with a mean of 3.05% ± 1.93%. The fibroglandular tissue segmented within the breast region determined by the algorithm and the radiologist were also very close, showing a % difference ranging from 0.02% to 2.52% with a mean of 1.03% ± 1

  14. Oscillometric casual blood pressure normative standards for Swedish children using ABPM to exclude casual hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krmar, Rafael T; Holtbäck, Ulla; Bergh, Anita; Svensson, Eva; Wühl, Elke

    2015-04-01

    Casual blood pressure (CBP) is considered a reliable proxy for cardiovascular health. Although the auscultatory technique is the reference standard method for measuring CBP, oscillometric devices are increasingly being used in children. We sought to establish oscillometric CBP normative standards for Swedish children. Cross-sectional oscillometric CBP readings were obtained by the Welch Allyn Spot Vital Signs 420 monitor and measured according to the International Guidelines' recommendations. Participants with elevated oscillometric CBP levels underwent verification by the auscultatory method. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was used to exclude casual hypertension. Data on 1,470 (772 males) apparently healthy Swedish schoolchildren aged 6-16 years were analyzed and sex-specific reference charts normalized to age or height were constructed. Systolic and diastolic CBP values were significantly higher with age, height, height standard deviation score (SDS), body mass index (BMI), and BMI SDS. Gender differences for systolic CBP were present starting from age of 15 years and revealed significantly higher values in boys than in girls, whereas for diastolic CBP, the differences were apparent at the age of 12 years, with higher values in girls. Increased BMI and BMI SDS were positively associated with CBP levels. Positive parental history of hypertension turned out to be a risk factor for higher systolic and diastolic CBP across all ages. Our normative standard for CBP can be used for blood pressure screening and control programs in Swedish children. The use of ABPM should be considered to confirm the diagnosis of casual hypertension. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Grasses and browsers reinforce landscape heterogeneity by excluding trees from ecosystem hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porensky, Lauren M; Veblen, Kari E

    2012-03-01

    Spatial heterogeneity in woody cover affects biodiversity and ecosystem function, and may be particularly influential in savanna ecosystems. Browsing and interactions with herbaceous plants can create and maintain heterogeneity in woody cover, but the relative importance of these drivers remains unclear, especially when considered across multiple edaphic contexts. In African savannas, abandoned temporary livestock corrals (bomas) develop into long-term, nutrient-rich ecosystem hotspots with unique vegetation. In central Kenya, abandoned corral sites persist for decades as treeless 'glades' in a wooded matrix. Though glades are treeless, areas between adjacent glades have higher tree densities than the background savanna or areas near isolated glades. The mechanisms maintaining these distinctive woody cover patterns remain unclear. We asked whether browsing or interactions with herbaceous plants help to maintain landscape heterogeneity by differentially impacting young trees in different locations. We planted the mono-dominant tree species (Acacia drepanolobium) in four locations: inside glades, far from glades, at edges of isolated glades and at edges between adjacent glades. Within each location, we assessed the separate and combined effects of herbivore exclusion (caging) and herbaceous plant removal (clearing) on tree survival and growth. Both caging and clearing improved tree survival and growth inside glades. When herbaceous plants were removed, trees inside glades grew more than trees in other locations, suggesting that glade soils were favorable for tree growth. Different types of glade edges (isolated vs. non-isolated) did not have significantly different impacts on tree performance. This represents one of the first field-based experiments testing the separate and interactive effects of browsing, grass competition and edaphic context on savanna tree performance. Our findings suggest that, by excluding trees from otherwise favorable sites, both herbaceous

  16. Patients with computed tomography-proven acute diverticulitis require follow-up to exclude colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafquat Zaman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Traditionally, patients with acute diverticulitis undergo follow-up endoscopy to exclude colorectal cancer (CRC. However, its usefulness has been debated in this era of high-resolution computed tomography (CT diagnosis. We assessed the frequency and outcome of endoscopic follow-up for patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, according to the confidence in the CT diagnosis.Methods: Records of patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis between October 2007 and March 2014 at Sandwell & West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust were retrieved. The National Cancer Registry confirmed the cases of CRC. Endoscopy quality indicators were compared between these patients and other patients undergoing the same endoscopic examination over the same period.Results: We identified 235 patients with CT-proven acute diverticulitis, of which, 187 were managed conservatively. The CT report was confident of the diagnosis of acute diverticulitis in 75% cases. Five of the 235 patients were subsequently diagnosed with CRC (2.1%. Three cases of CRC were detected in the 187 patients managed conservatively (1.6%. Forty-eight percent of the conservatively managed patients underwent follow-up endoscopy; one case of CRC was identified. Endoscopies were often incomplete and caused more discomfort for patients with diverticulitis compared with controls.Conclusions: CRC was diagnosed in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis at a higher rate than in screened asymptomatic populations, necessitating follow-up. CT reports contained statements regarding diagnostic uncertainty in 25% cases, associated with an increased risk of CRC. Follow-up endoscopy in patients with CT-proven diverticulitis is associated with increased discomfort and high rates of incompletion. The use of other follow-up modalities should be considered.

  17. Beyond the sticker price: including and excluding time in comparing food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yanliang; Davis, George C; Muth, Mary K

    2015-07-01

    An ongoing debate in the literature is how to measure the price of food. Most analyses have not considered the value of time in measuring the price of food. Whether or not the value of time is included in measuring the price of a food may have important implications for classifying foods based on their relative cost. The purpose of this article is to compare prices that exclude time (time-exclusive price) with prices that include time (time-inclusive price) for 2 types of home foods: home foods using basic ingredients (home recipes) vs. home foods using more processed ingredients (processed recipes). The time-inclusive and time-exclusive prices are compared to determine whether the time-exclusive prices in isolation may mislead in drawing inferences regarding the relative prices of foods. We calculated the time-exclusive price and time-inclusive price of 100 home recipes and 143 processed recipes and then categorized them into 5 standard food groups: grains, proteins, vegetables, fruit, and dairy. We then examined the relation between the time-exclusive prices and the time-inclusive prices and dietary recommendations. For any food group, the processed food time-inclusive price was always less than the home recipe time-inclusive price, even if the processed food's time-exclusive price was more expensive. Time-inclusive prices for home recipes were especially higher for the more time-intensive food groups, such as grains, vegetables, and fruit, which are generally underconsumed relative to the guidelines. Focusing only on the sticker price of a food and ignoring the time cost may lead to different conclusions about relative prices and policy recommendations than when the time cost is included. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Normal pancreatic exocrine function does not exclude MRI/MRCP chronic pancreatitis findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkaade, Samer; Cem Balci, Numan; Momtahen, Amir Javad; Burton, Frank

    2008-09-01

    Abnormal pancreatic function tests have been reported to precede the imaging findings of chronic pancreatitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is increasingly accepted as the primary imaging modality for the detection of structural changes of early mild chronic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate MRI/MRCP findings in patients with symptoms consistent with chronic pancreatitis who have normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function test. A retrospective study of 32 patients referred for evaluation of chronic abdominal pain consistent with chronic pancreatitis and reported normal standard abdominal imaging (ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI). All patients underwent Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing and pancreatic MRI/MRCP at our institution. We reviewed the MRI/MRCP images in patients who had normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing. MRI/MRCP images were assessed for pancreatic duct morphology, gland size, parenchymal signal and morphology, and arterial contrast enhancement. Of the 32 patients, 23 had normal Secretin Endoscopic Pancreatic Function testing, and 8 of them had mild to marked spectrum of abnormal MRI/MRCP findings that were predominantly focal. Frequencies of the findings were as follows: pancreatic duct stricture (n=3), pancreatic duct dilatation (n=3), side branch ectasia (n=4), atrophy (n=5), decreased arterial enhancement (n=5), decreased parenchymal signal (n=1), and cavity formation (n=1). The remaining15 patients had normal pancreatic structure on MRI/MRCP. Normal pancreatic function testing cannot exclude abnormal MRI/MRCP especially focal findings of chronic pancreatitis. Further studies needed to verify significance of these findings and establish MRI/MRCP imaging criteria for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis.

  19. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote adherence. However, non-drug costs of obtaining treatment may limit access. We estimated the costs that South African patients incur in obtaining antiretroviral therapy ...

  20. What is the quality of economic evaluations of non-drug therapies? A systematic review and critical appraisal of economic evaluations of radiotherapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, M; Weatherly, H L A; Ara, R; Basarir, H; Sculpher, M; Adams, R; Ahmed, H; Coles, C; Guerrero-Urbano, T; Nutting, C; Powell, M

    2014-10-01

    Breast, cervical and colorectal cancers are the three most frequent cancers in women, while lung, prostate and colorectal cancers are the most frequent in men. Much attention has been given to the economic evaluation of pharmaceuticals for treatment of cancer by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the UK and similar authorities internationally, while economic analysis developed for other types of anti-cancer interventions, including radiotherapy and surgery, are less common. Our objective was to review methods used in published cost-effectiveness studies evaluating radiotherapy for breast, cervical, colorectal, head and neck and prostate cancer, and to compare the economic evaluation methods applied with those defined in the guidelines used by the NICE technology appraisal programme. A systematic search of seven databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CDSR, NHSEED, HTA, DARE, EconLit) as well as research registers, the NICE website and conference proceedings was conducted in July 2012. Only economic evaluations of radiotherapy interventions in individuals diagnosed with cancer that included quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) or life-years (LYs) were included. Included studies were appraised on the basis of satisfying essential, preferred and UK-specific methods requirements, building on the NICE Reference Case for economic evaluations and on other methods guidelines. A total of 29 studies satisfied the inclusion criteria (breast 14, colorectal 2, prostate 10, cervical 0, head and neck 3). Only two studies were conducted in the UK (13 in the USA). Among essential methods criteria, the main issue was that only three (10%) of the studies used clinical-effectiveness estimates identified through systematic review of the literature. Similarly, only eight (28%) studies sourced health-related quality-of-life data directly from patients with the condition of interest. Other essential criteria (e.g. clear description of comparators, patient group indication

  1. Identification of symptoms that indicate a pelvic examination is necessary to exclude PID in adolescent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D R; Fletcher, K; Joshi, N; Emans, S J

    2003-02-01

    evaluated for cervical and vaginal infections with urine and directly obtained vaginal swabs. Although some of these patients might have required a pelvic examination to exclude other causes of abnormal vaginal bleeding, at least 30% of the total sample could have been evaluated without a speculum and bimanual examination. If further studies support these findings, patients with symptoms suggestive of uncomplicated genitourinary infection (e.g., vaginal discharge, vaginal pruritus, or dysuria) who deny lower abdominal pain and dyspareunia can be evaluated with urine and vaginal samples in place of a speculum and bimanual examination.

  2. Radiology of the diaphragm, pleura, thoracic cage, and upper air passages (excluding the larynx)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    1. Abnormalities in function. 2. Abnormalities in position. 3. Abnormalities in shape (configuration). 4. Abnormalities in size or integrity. 5. Abnormalities in density and architecture (both internal and external). 6. Abnormalities in number. 7. Changes in respect to time. 8. Changes as a result of treatment, surgery, or medication. They are described in this chapter

  3. 22 CFR 208.325 - What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction? 208.325 Section 208.325 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL... Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 208.325 What happens if I do business with an...

  4. 31 CFR 19.325 - What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What happens if I do business with an excluded person in a covered transaction? 19.325 Section 19.325 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the... Participants Regarding Transactions Doing Business with Other Persons § 19.325 What happens if I do business...

  5. Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae): sister taxa excluded from Spermacoceae s.s., featuring a remarkable case of convergent evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dessein, S.; Andersson, L.; Geuten, K.; Smets, E.; Robbrecht, E.

    2005-01-01

    The genera Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax (Rubiaceae) have been invariably placed in the tribe Spermacoceae s.s. based on the uni-ovulate ovary locules and pluri-aperturate pollen grains. Sequence data from the rps16 intron and the rbcL gene here presented exclude Gomphocalyx and Phylohydrax from

  6. 2 CFR 2700.137 - Who in the Small Business Administration may grant an exception to let an excluded person...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who in the Small Business Administration may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered transaction? 2700.137 Section 2700.137 Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND...

  7. 21 CFR 1.327 - Who is excluded from all or part of the regulations in this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... products to all other buyers. (4) A “retail food establishment” includes grocery stores, convenience stores... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is excluded from all or part of the regulations in this subpart? 1.327 Section 1.327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 29 CFR 1471.135 - May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude a person who is not currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service exclude....135 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) General § 1471.135 May the Federal Mediation and...

  9. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etsuji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level and individual (lower level exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure. More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure. In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models.Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure.Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions.When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation

  10. Clarifying the use of aggregated exposures in multilevel models: self-included vs. self-excluded measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Takao, Soshi; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S V

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel analyses are ideally suited to assess the effects of ecological (higher level) and individual (lower level) exposure variables simultaneously. In applying such analyses to measures of ecologies in epidemiological studies, individual variables are usually aggregated into the higher level unit. Typically, the aggregated measure includes responses of every individual belonging to that group (i.e. it constitutes a self-included measure). More recently, researchers have developed an aggregate measure which excludes the response of the individual to whom the aggregate measure is linked (i.e. a self-excluded measure). In this study, we clarify the substantive and technical properties of these two measures when they are used as exposures in multilevel models. Although the differences between the two aggregated measures are mathematically subtle, distinguishing between them is important in terms of the specific scientific questions to be addressed. We then show how these measures can be used in two distinct types of multilevel models-self-included model and self-excluded model-and interpret the parameters in each model by imposing hypothetical interventions. The concept is tested on empirical data of workplace social capital and employees' systolic blood pressure. Researchers assume group-level interventions when using a self-included model, and individual-level interventions when using a self-excluded model. Analytical re-parameterizations of these two models highlight their differences in parameter interpretation. Cluster-mean centered self-included models enable researchers to decompose the collective effect into its within- and between-group components. The benefit of cluster-mean centering procedure is further discussed in terms of hypothetical interventions. When investigating the potential roles of aggregated variables, researchers should carefully explore which type of model-self-included or self-excluded-is suitable for a given situation, particularly

  11. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  12. Can Radiography Be Used to Exclude Negative Margins in Breast Cancer Specimens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    carcinoma in-situ (DCIS) cases were included in this study. There were 66 (68%) invasive cancers, 29 (30%) cases of DCIS only, and 2 phyllodes tumors ...Achieving tumor -free margins is an important clinical goal in breast conservation surgery for the treatment of breast cancer. This prospective...cancers: invasive, in-situ, and phyllodes Invasive cancer Invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified 44 (45%) Invasive carcinoma, mixed

  13. A review of surgical methods (excluding hair transplantation and their role in hair loss management today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep S Sattur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is more than one way to manage hair loss surgically. Apart from hair transplantation, there are other techniques which have been used by many to treat baldness. This article attempts to review the surgical methodology and philosophy that have acted as guiding lights in the approach to surgical treatment of baldness over the years and reviews the current role of other techniques in the armamentarium of hair restoration surgeons today.

  14. Does the detection of primordial gravitational waves exclude low energy inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Fujita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We show that a detectable tensor-to-scalar ratio (r≥10−3 on the CMB scale can be generated even during extremely low energy inflation which saturates the BBN bound ρinf≈(30MeV4. The source of the gravitational waves is not quantum fluctuations of graviton but those of SU(2 gauge fields, energetically supported by coupled axion fields. The curvature perturbation, the backreaction effect and the validity of perturbative treatment are carefully checked. Our result indicates that measuring r alone does not immediately fix the inflationary energy scale.

  15. Does the detection of primordial gravitational waves exclude low energy inflation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Tomohiro; Namba, Ryo; Tada, Yuichiro

    2018-03-01

    We show that a detectable tensor-to-scalar ratio (r ≥10-3) on the CMB scale can be generated even during extremely low energy inflation which saturates the BBN bound ρinf ≈(30MeV) 4. The source of the gravitational waves is not quantum fluctuations of graviton but those of SU (2) gauge fields, energetically supported by coupled axion fields. The curvature perturbation, the backreaction effect and the validity of perturbative treatment are carefully checked. Our result indicates that measuring r alone does not immediately fix the inflationary energy scale.

  16. [Granulomatous spondylodiscitis: due mainly to tuberculosis but lymphoma cannot be excluded].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinebi, Ali; Rkiouak, Adil; Akhouad, Yousef; Reggad, Ahmed; Kasmy, Zohour; Boudlal, Mostafa; Lho, Abdelhamid Nait; Rabhi, Moncef; Sinaa, Mohamed; Ennibi, Khalid; Chaari, Jilali

    2016-01-01

    Lower back pain is due to multiple etiologies that make diagnosis difficult. Primitive spinal lymphoma is rare and its diagnosis often requires ultrasound-guided biopsy. A 30-year old man hospitalized for inflammatory lumbago evolving within the context of an impaired general condition. Phisical examination revealed pain on palpation of the L2-L3 vertebral apophysis without peripheral tumor syndrome. Laboratory tests showed an inflammatory syndrome. Morphological assessment was in favour of a spondylodiscitis. The first biopsy showed granulomatous osteitis.Clinical and radiological worsening during antibacillary treatment led to reconsider the original diagnosis and a second biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of lymphoma. The diagnosis of skeletal tuberculosis in particular spinal tuberculosis requires bacteriological or histological confirmation in order not to overlook a primitive bone lymphoma.

  17. Size, flexibility, and scattering functions of semiflexible polyelectrolytes with excluded volume effects: Monte Carlo simulations and neutron scattering experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannavacciuolo, L.; Sommer, C.; Pedersen, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    outlined in the Odijk-Skolnick-Fixman theory, in which the behavior of charged polymers is described only in terms of increasing local rigidity and excluded volume effects. Moreover, the Monte Carlo data are found to be in very good agreement with experimental scattering measurements with equilibrium......We present a systematic Monte Carlo study of the scattering function S(q) of semiflexible polyelectrolytes at infinite dilution, in solutions with different concentrations of added salt. In the spirit of a theoretical description of polyelectrolytes in terms of the equivalent parameters, namely......, persistence length and excluded volume interactions, we used a modified wormlike chain model, in which the monomers are represented by charged hard spheres placed at distance a. The electrostatic interactions are approximated by a Debye-Huckel potential. We show that the scattering function is quantitatively...

  18. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  19. The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus: can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, Grant A.; Levi, Christopher R.; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C.; Schofield, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Variable results are obtained from the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) by shunt insertion. There is a high correlation between NPH and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain biopsy. There is an overlap between AD and vascular dementia (VaD), suggesting that a correlation exists between NPH and other forms of dementia. This study seeks to (1) understand the physiological factors behind, and (2) define the ability of, the aqueduct stroke volume to exclude dementia co-morbidity. Twenty-four patients from a dementia clinic were classified as having either early AD or VaD on the basis of clinical features, Hachinski score and neuropsychological testing. They were compared with 16 subjects with classical clinical findings of NPH and 12 aged-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects. MRI flow quantification was used to measure aqueduct stroke volume and arterial pulse volume. An arterio-cerebral compliance ratio was calculated from the two volumes in each patient. The aqueduct stroke volume was elevated in all three forms of dementia, with no significant difference noted between the groups. The arterial pulse volume was elevated by 24% in VaD and reduced by 35% in NPH, compared to normal (P=0.05 and P=0.002, respectively), and was normal in AD. There was a spectrum of relative compliance with normal compliance in VaD and reduced compliance in AD and NPH. The aqueduct stroke volume depends on the arterial pulse volume and the relative compliance between the arterial tree and brain. The aqueduct stroke volume cannot exclude significant co-morbidity in NPH. (orig.)

  20. The pathophysiology of the aqueduct stroke volume in normal pressure hydrocephalus: can co-morbidity with other forms of dementia be excluded?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Grant A. [John Hunter Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Newcastle (Australia); Levi, Christopher R.; Wang, Yang; Lovett, Elizabeth C. [Hunter Medical Research Institute, Clinical Neurosciences Program, Newcastle (Australia); Schofield, Peter [James Fletcher Hospital, Neuropsychiatry Unit, Newcastle (Australia)

    2005-10-01

    Variable results are obtained from the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) by shunt insertion. There is a high correlation between NPH and the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on brain biopsy. There is an overlap between AD and vascular dementia (VaD), suggesting that a correlation exists between NPH and other forms of dementia. This study seeks to (1) understand the physiological factors behind, and (2) define the ability of, the aqueduct stroke volume to exclude dementia co-morbidity. Twenty-four patients from a dementia clinic were classified as having either early AD or VaD on the basis of clinical features, Hachinski score and neuropsychological testing. They were compared with 16 subjects with classical clinical findings of NPH and 12 aged-matched non-cognitively impaired subjects. MRI flow quantification was used to measure aqueduct stroke volume and arterial pulse volume. An arterio-cerebral compliance ratio was calculated from the two volumes in each patient. The aqueduct stroke volume was elevated in all three forms of dementia, with no significant difference noted between the groups. The arterial pulse volume was elevated by 24% in VaD and reduced by 35% in NPH, compared to normal (P=0.05 and P=0.002, respectively), and was normal in AD. There was a spectrum of relative compliance with normal compliance in VaD and reduced compliance in AD and NPH. The aqueduct stroke volume depends on the arterial pulse volume and the relative compliance between the arterial tree and brain. The aqueduct stroke volume cannot exclude significant co-morbidity in NPH. (orig.)

  1. The use of X Rays in diagnostic and interventional imaging, excluding radiotherapy. Report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubousset, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The X-Ray discovery (W.C. Roentgen, 1895) offers an immediate progress to the medical efficiency. Today, the medical diagnostic imaging knows a considerable and constant growing when becoming 'interventional', as a surgical help in the operating room. These 'ionizing' radiations, simultaneously, are the first treatment for cancers (A. Beclere, 1900's). But their use in diagnostic presents a potential danger, in children and young people who are the most sensible. The medical and paramedical members of the team are dangerously exposed, too, through the accumulative exposure. Our group reminds the consequences of the ionizing radiations. Invisible, they do not create the suspicion. Therefore, the radioprotection is mandatory because of the all-lifelong cumulative dose of exposure. Many Rules and obligations, international (WHO), European (EU), and national (Agencies, HAS, Ministry of health) with the close cooperation of Societe Francaise de Radiologie (SFR) and Societe Francaise de Radioprotection (SFRP) either in radiodiagnosis or in interventional (500.000 procedures each year in France). Closely concerned by the observance of this radioprotection, the ANM had given information and texts from more than 10 years. Alas, as a pediatric orthopedist surgeon, we observe that today half of the irradiation complications (in the past from radiotherapy) went from interventional radiological procedures (and dental exercise). We went to a 30 years bibliography about this question and to a memorandum about the new indications in modern imaging and its indications with minimization of the dose delivery. We insist on the non-ionizing radiations (MRI, echography, photonic techniques). Five guidelines, concluding the text are underlined. (authors)

  2. Who is excluded and how? An analysis of community spaces for maternal and child health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Ayesha; Khan, Fazal Ali; Wood, Geof

    2015-11-25

    The maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) indicators of Pakistan depict the deplorable state of the poor and rural women and children. Many MNCH programmes stress the need to engage the poor in community spaces. However, caste and class based hierarchies and gendered social norms exclude the lower caste poor women from accessing healthcare. To find pathways for improving the lives of the excluded, this study considers the social system as a whole and describes the mechanisms of exclusion in the externally created formal community spaces and their interaction with the indigenous informal spaces. The study used a qualitative case study design to identify the formal and informal community spaces in three purposively selected villages of Thatta, Rajanpur, and Ghizer districts. Community perspectives were gathered by conducting 37 focus group discussions, based on participatory rural appraisal tools, with separate groups of women and men. Relevant documents of six MNCH programmes were reviewed and 25 key informant interviews were conducted with programme staff. We found that lower caste poor tenants and nomadic peasants were excluded from formal and informal spaces. The formal community spaces formed by MNCH programmes across Pakistan included fixed, small transitory, large transitory, and emerging institutional spaces. Programme guidelines mandated selection of community notables in groups/committees and used criteria that prevented registration of nomadic groups as eligible clients. The selection criteria and adverse attitude of healthcare workers, along with inadequacy of programmatic resources to sustain outreach activities also contributed to exclusion of the lower caste poor women from formal spaces. The informal community spaces were mostly gender segregated. Infrequently, MNCH information trickled down from the better-off to the lower caste poor women through transitory interactions in the informal domestic sphere. A revision of the purpose and

  3. Equitable access to health insurance for socially excluded children? The case of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gemma A; Parmar, Divya; Dkhimi, Fahdi; Asante, Felix; Arhinful, Daniel; Mladovsky, Philipa

    2017-08-01

    To help reduce child mortality and reach universal health coverage, Ghana extended free membership of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) to children (under-18s) in 2008. However, despite the introduction of premium waivers, a substantial proportion of children remain uninsured. Thus far, few studies have explored why enrolment of children in NHIS may remain low, despite the absence of significant financial barriers to membership. In this paper we therefore look beyond economic explanations of access to health insurance to explore additional wider determinants of enrolment in the NHIS. In particular, we investigate whether social exclusion, as measured through a sociocultural, political and economic lens, can explain poor enrolment rates of children. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey of 4050 representative households conducted in Ghana in 2012. Household indices were created to measure sociocultural, political and economic exclusion, and logistic regressions were conducted to study determinants of enrolment at the individual and household levels. Our results indicate that socioculturally, economically and politically excluded children are less likely to enrol in the NHIS. Furthermore, households excluded in all dimensions were more likely to be non-enrolled or partially-enrolled (i.e. not all children enrolled within the household) than fully-enrolled. These results suggest that equity in access for socially excluded children has not yet been achieved. Efforts should be taken to improve coverage by removing the remaining small, annually renewable registration fee, implementing and publicising the new clause that de-links premium waivers from parental membership, establishing additional scheme administrative offices in remote areas, holding regular registration sessions in schools and conducting outreach sessions and providing registration support to female guardians of children. Ensuring equitable access to NHIS will contribute substantially

  4. [Modern treatment approaches to gambling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A Iu

    2014-01-01

    Compulsive gambling has received widespread attention in the last decade. Gambling has become the first non-chemical addiction, which went down to the section "Addiction and related disorders" of the modern DSM-V. The review considers non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches to the treatment of gambling. Among non-drug approaches, cognitive-behavioral therapy and 12-step programs have gained the most popularity in the "Gamblers Anonymous" community. Among pharmacological approaches, three classes of drugs: antidepressants (mainly SSRIs), opiate antagonists (naltrexone and nalmefene) and mood stabilizers (valproate, lithium, topiramate) proved to be effective in treatment of gambling. No differences in the efficacy of the three classes of psychotropic drugs have been identified. Preliminary results for N-acetylcysteine and memantine cause optimism in terms of perspective.

  5. Type specimens of Hymenoptera deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (excluding Aculeata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena C. Onody

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper lists the type specimens of Hymenoptera, excluding Aculeata, deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil. We record all labels contents and also additional information from MZSP registers, published material, and other available sources. High resolution photographs of holotypes, lectotypes and syntypes are available through links to Specimage - the image database of The Ohio State University, where they are archived. The collection comprises a total of 332 type-specimens (32 holotypes, 266 paratypes, 12 syntypes, 20 paralectotypes and two lectotypes of eight superfamilies, 18 families, 31 subfamilies, 43 genera and 83 species.

  6. How does the use of mobile phones by 16-24 year old socially excluded women affect their capabilities?

    OpenAIRE

    Faith, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This research looks at the impact of mobile phone use on the lives and opportunities of 16-24 year-old socially excluded women, using a novel, cross-disciplinary framework of the capability approach and affordances. \\ud \\ud Fieldwork took the form of semi-structured interviews in 2013-14 with 30 women between the ages of 16-24, and four youth workers. The instrumental affordances of mobile phones are examined to understand whether they provide a means to address issues relating to work, healt...

  7. Excluded volume effects caused by high concentration addition of acid generators in chemically amplified resists used for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kyoko; Matsuoka, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Komuro, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Daisuke; Yamazaki, Akiyoshi

    2017-08-01

    The resolution of lithography used for the high-volume production of semiconductor devices has been improved to meet the market demands for highly integrated circuits. With the reduction in feature size, the molecular size becomes non-negligible in the resist material design. In this study, the excluded volume effects caused by adding high-concentration acid generators were investigated for triphenylsulfonium nonaflate. The resist film density was measured by X-ray diffractometry. The dependences of absorption coefficient and protected unit concentration on acid generator weight ratio were calculated from the measured film density. Using these values, the effects on the decomposition yield of acid generators, the protected unit fluctuation, and the line edge roughness (LER) were evaluated by simulation on the basis of sensitization and reaction mechanisms of chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet resists. The positive effects of the increase in acid generator weight ratio on LER were predominant below the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3, while the negative effects became equivalent to the positive effects above the acid generator weight ratio of 0.3 owing to the excluded volume effects.

  8. Excluding scalar gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koller, K.; Krasemann, H.

    1979-08-01

    We investigate the Dalitz plot population and thrust angular distribution for the Orthoquarkonium decay Q anti Q → 3 scalar gluons. The Dalitz plot for scalar gluons is populated in corners where events are 2 jet like and this disagrees with existing Upsilon data. The scalar gluon thrust angular distribution is also in striking disagreement with the UPSILON data and so scalar gluons are completely ruled out. (orig.)

  9. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural p...

  10. Groups as a part of integrated treatment plans : Inpatient psychotherapy for outpatients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, H

    2005-01-01

    Group psychotherapy in Germany is well established as part of an integrative treatment plan in inpatient treatment. Outpatient group psychotherapy, however, is conceptualized as a separate treatment option in competition with individual therapy. German guidelines for outpatient psychotherapy exclude

  11. Causes and Treatment Outcomes of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis in 82 Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-In; Park, Ga-Young; Kwon, Eu-Gene; Kim, Hyo-Hoon; Jeong, Ju-Young; Chang, Hyun-Ha; Lee, Jong-Myung; Kim, Neung-Su

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are predominantly known as medication-induced diseases. However, at our institution, we have experienced more cases of non-drug-related SJS and TEN than expected. Therefore, we studied the difference between non-drug-related and drug-related SJS and TEN in terms of clinical characteristics and prognoses. Methods The etiologies, clinical characteristics, and treatment outcomes for 82 adult patients with SJS and TEN were retrospectively reviewed. Results A total of 71 patients (86.6%) were classified as having SJS, and the other 11 patients (13.4%) were classified as having TEN. Drug-related cases were more common (43, 52.4%) than non-drug-related cases (39, 47.6%). Anticonvulsants (12/82, 14.6%) and antibiotics (9/82, 11%) were the most common causative medications. Anemia (p = 0.017) and C-reactive protein of ≥ 5 mg/dL (p = 0.026) were more common in the drug-related cases than in the non-drug-related cases. Intravenous steroid therapy was used as the main treatment regimen (70/82, 85.4%). Of the 82 patients, 8 (9.8%) died during the clinical course. A univariate analysis for mortality showed statistical significance for the following: kidney function abnormality, pneumonia, hemoglobin of < 10 g/dL, and combined underlying diseases. In a multivariate analysis, only pneumonia was statistically significant (odds ratio, 25.79; p = 0.009). Conclusions Drugs were the most frequent cause of these diseases. However, non-drug-related causes also contributed to a significant proportion of cases. Physicians should keep this in mind when documenting patient history. In addition, early recognition and treatment may be important for better outcomes. PMID:22707893

  12. Radiographic signs of radiolesions of the pelvis (excluding the femur) after irradiation for epithelioma of the cervix uteri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenny, J.C.; Bergiron, C.; Chassagne, D.; Couanet, D.; Ibrahim, E.; Masselot, J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiolesions of the pelvic bones (excluding the femur) were observed in 29 patients after irradiation therapy for cervix uteri cancer. Three regions can be affected corresponding to the areas irradiated: the sacrum and internal part of the iliac wings, the pubis, and the cotyles. In most cases the lesions appeared after 1 to 4 years. Their radiological appearances are characteristic, the principal sign being irregular bone condensation in a demineralized bone, without true cavitation. The only lytic lesions observed were in the pubis. Calcification of soft tissues may occur and fractures are frequent. There is a slow progression of the lesions over long periods. Clinical, radiological, and progression signs differentiate radiolesions from other affections: metastases, invasion by contiguity, infections, and radio-induced sarcoma [fr

  13. Recommendation to Exclude Bile-Duct-Cannulated Rats with Hyperbilirubinemia for Proper Conduct of Biliary Drug Excretion Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Koji; Hasegawa, Yoshitaka; Iwata, Katsuya; Ichikawa, Takuya; Yahara, Tohru; Tsuji, Satoshi; Sugiura, Masayuki; Yamaguchi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia (HB) is sometimes encountered following bile-duct cannulation in rats. It possibly originates from the reduced functioning of multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) and subsequent adaptive alterations in the expression of Mrp3 and the organic anion transporting polypeptides (Oatps). Our aim was to clarify the importance of excluding bile-duct-cannulated (BDC) rats with HB for proper conduct of drug excretion studies. We detected HB [serum total bilirubin concentration (TBIL) ≥0.20 mg/dl] in 16% of all BDC rats prepared. The serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, leucine aminopeptidase, and alkaline phosphatase were within the respective normal ranges in the BDC rats with mild HB (TBIL, 0.20-0.79 mg/dl), indicating the absence of hepatic failure. In the pharmacokinetics of pravastatin, an Oatps/Mrp2 probe drug in the BDC rats, the apparent volume of distribution and the clearance were smaller in the mild HB group as compared with the normal group, suggesting the reduction of apparent hepatic uptake and hepatobiliary elimination. The biliary excretion (percentage of dose) was significantly reduced by 54%, suggesting that the biliary efflux activity via Mrp2 was reduced to a greater extent relative to metabolic activity in hepatocytes. The serum γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity correlated with TBIL and inversely correlated with biliary excretion of pravastatin, a finding which could serve as a clue to uncover the regulatory system involving cooperation between GGT and Mrp2. In conclusion, BDC rats with HB, however mild, should be excluded from drug excretion studies to avoid the risk of underestimation of the biliary excretion of drugs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  14. Ion-ion correlation, solvent excluded volume and pH effects on physicochemical properties of spherical oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Aljzmi, Amal; Almusaynid, Manal; Khan, Asrar; Valderrama, Esteban; Nash, Kelly L; Marucho, Marcelo

    2016-01-15

    One major source of complexity in the implementation of nanoparticles in aqueous electrolytes arises from the strong influence that biological environments has on their physicochemical properties. A key parameter for understanding the molecular mechanisms governing the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles is the formation of the surface charge density. In this article, we present an efficient and accurate approach that combines a recently introduced classical solvation density functional theory for spherical electrical double layers with a surface complexation model to account for ion-ion correlation and excluded volume effects on the surface titration of spherical nanoparticles. We apply the proposed computational approach to account for the charge-regulated mechanisms on the surface chemistry of spherical silica (SiO2) nanoparticles. We analyze the effects of the nanoparticle size, as well as pH level and electrolyte concentration of the aqueous solution on the nanoparticle's surface charge density and Zeta potential. We validate our predictions for 580Å and 200Å nanoparticles immersed in acid, neutral and alkaline mono-valent aqueous electrolyte solutions against experimental data. Our results on mono-valent electrolyte show that the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations contribute significantly to the surface charge density and Zeta potential of the nanoparticle at high electrolyte concentration and pH levels, where the solvent crowding effects and electrostatic screening have shown a profound influence on the protonation/deprotonation reactions at the liquid/solute interface. The success of this approach in describing physicochemical properties of silica nanoparticles supports its broader application to study other spherical metal oxide nanoparticles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the value of clinical features to exclude radiographic pneumonia in febrile neutropenic episodes in children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Bob; Wade, Ros; Westwood, Marie; Riley, Richard; Sutton, Alex J

    2012-08-01

      Children and young people who present with febrile neutropenia (FNP) secondary to malignancies or their treatment frequently do not undergo routine chest radiography. With shorter courses of antibiotic therapy, failure to recognise pneumonia and consequent under-treatment could produce significant problems.   The review was conducted determine the value of the absence of clinical features of lower respiratory tract infection in excluding radiographic pneumonia at presentation of FNP using Centre for Reviews and Dissemination methods. It was registered with the HTA Registry of systematic reviews, CRD32009100453. Ten bibliographic databases, conference proceedings, reference lists and citations were searched. Cohort studies which compared clinical examination to radiographic findings were included. Results were summarised by random-effects meta-analysis.   Four studies were included. Synthesis of the three higher-quality studies gave imprecise estimates of the average sensitivity (75%; 95% CI 52% to 89%) and average specificity (69%; 95% CI 57% to 78%) for clinical examination in the detection of radiographic pneumonia. If the prevalence of pneumonia is 5%, these estimates produce a negative predictive value of 98% (95% CI 96% to 99%). Alternatively, there remains a 1.9% probability of pneumonia (95% CI 0.7% to 4.2%).   Signs and symptoms of lower respiratory infection have only moderate sensitivity and specificity for pneumonia; the low prevalence of the condition justifies the routine withholding of chest radiographs. However, for those with a predisposition to pneumonia, or re-presenting after a short course of antibiotic therapy, a chest X-ray should be performed despite an absence of signs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  16. Compendium of shock wave data. Section C. Organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons. Section D. Mixtures. Section E. Mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Compendium index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Thiel, M.; shaner, J.; Salinas, E.

    1977-06-01

    This volume lists thermodynamic data for organic compounds excluding hydrocarbons, mixtures, and mixtures and solutions without chemical characterization. Alloys and some minerals are included among the mixtures. This volume also contains the index for the three-volume compendium

  17. A descriptive analysis of demographic and behavioral data from Internet gamblers and those who self-exclude from online gambling platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, Simo; Percy, Christian; Kudic, Aleksandar; Parke, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    As the popularity of internet gambling increases, the increased opportunities to participate serve to heighten concerns about the potential for gambling related harm. This paper focuses on self-exclusion as one of the main responsible gaming interventions, and is split into three sections. Firstly, we set out a three-tier model for assessing at-risk gambling behaviors which examines player exhibited, declared and inferred behavior. Secondly, we present a literature review relating to who self-excludes and whether self-exclusion is effective. Finally, we report the results of an analysis of the exhibited behavior of internet self-excluders as sampled from a research cohort of over 240,000 internet gaming accounts. Our analysis of self-excluders (N = 347) versus a control group (N = 871) of gamblers indicates self-excluders are younger than the control group, more likely to suffer losses and more likely to adopt riskier gambling positions. Unlike some previous studies, there was little difference in terms of mean gambling hours per month or minutes per session. Some self-excluders (N = 306) can be tracked from the date their account was created through their self-exclusion history, indicating a large number of very quick self-exclusions (e.g., 25 % within a day) and a small set of serial self-excluders. Younger and older males are likely to self-exclude faster than middle-aged males (N = 242), but there is no such age pattern across female self-excluders (N = 63).

  18. TLR activation excludes circulating naive CD8+ T cells from gut-associated lymphoid organs in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Simon; Kirchner, Sophie-Kathrin; Stephan, Nicolas; Bohn, Bernadette; Suhartha, Nina; Hotz, Christian; Anz, David; Sandholzer, Nadja; Stecher, Bärbel; Rüssmann, Holger; Endres, Stefan; Bourquin, Carole

    2013-05-15

    The trafficking of effector T cells is tightly regulated by the expression of site-specific sets of homing molecules. In contrast, naive T cells are generally assumed to express a uniform pattern of homing molecules and to follow a random distribution within the blood and secondary lymphoid organs. In this study, we demonstrate that systemic infection fundamentally modifies the trafficking of circulating naive CD8(+) T cells. We show that on naive CD8(+) T cells, the constitutive expression of the integrin α4β7 that effects their entry into GALT is downregulated following infection of mice with Salmonella typhimurium. We further show that this downregulation is dependent on TLR signaling, and that the TLR-activated naive CD8(+) T cells are blocked from entering GALT. This contrasts strongly with Ag-experienced effector T cells, for which TLR costimulation in the GALT potently upregulates α4β7 and enhances trafficking to intestinal tissues. Thus, TLR activation leads to opposite effects on migration of naive and effector CD8(+) T cells. Our data identify a mechanism that excludes noncognate CD8(+) T cells from selected immune compartments during TLR-induced systemic inflammation.

  19. “Not Designed for Us”: How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059

  20. Excluding the light dark matter window of a 331 model using LHC and direct dark matter detection data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cogollo, D.; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Teles, P. Rebello

    2014-01-01

    We sift the impact of the recent Higgs precise measurements, and recent dark matter direct detection results, on the dark sector of an electroweak extension of the Standard Model that has a complex scalar as dark matter. We find that in this model the Higgs decays with a large branching ratio into dark matter particles, and charged scalars when these are kinematically available, for any coupling strength differently from the so called Higgs portal. Moreover, we compute the abundance and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section, which are driven by the Higgs and Z ' boson processes. We decisively exclude the 1–500 GeV dark matter window and find the most stringent lower bound in the literature on the scale of symmetry breaking of the model namely 10 TeV, after applying the LUX-2013 limit. Interestingly, the projected XENON1T constraint will be able to rule out the entire 1 GeV–1000 GeV dark matter mass range. Lastly, for completeness, we compute the charged scalar production cross section at the LHC and comment on the possibility of detection at current and future LHC runnings

  1. "Not Designed for Us": How Science Museums and Science Centers Socially Exclude Low-Income, Minority Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Emily

    2014-11-01

    This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants' attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group ( n = 21), a Latin American group ( n = 18), a Somali group ( n = 6), and an Asian group ( n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors' scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were "not for us." The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities.

  2. World wide web-based cytological analysis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade intraepithelial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washiya, Kiyotada; Takamizu, Ryuichi; Kumagai, Yukie; Himeji, Yukari; Kobayashi, Takako; Iwai, Muneo; Watanabe, Jun

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that the low level of consistency of diagnosis of atypical squamous cells cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (ASC-H) in uterine cervical cancer screening using the Bethesda System, indicating the necessity of a large-scale survey. We presented cases cytologically judged as ASC-H on our website and invited our members to give their opinions regarding the diagnosis by voting online. The Web voting results were analyzed and ASC-H was cytologically investigated. Virtual slides of atypical cells in cytology preparations of 53 cases were prepared and presented on a website. ASC-H cases were divided into 42 cases sampled by brush scraping and 11 cases sampled by cotton swab scraping. Fifty-three cases cytologically judged as ASC-H were classified into benign and CIN2/3, and their patterns of arrangement of atypical cells and 8 cytological parameters were morphologically investigated. The frequency of ASC-H diagnosis in the Web votes was low: 29.2% for brush-scraped and 26.2% for cotton swab-scraped cases. Three-dimensionality, coarse chromatin and irregular nuclei were significantly different between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. Web-based surveys showed the difference of cytological findings between high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and benign cases. To increase interobserver consistency, it may be useful to share information online, which avoids geographical and temporal limitations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Liver dysfunction assessed by model for end-stage liver disease excluding INR (MELD-XI scoring system predicts adverse prognosis in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Abe

    Full Text Available AIMS: Liver dysfunction due to heart failure (HF is often referred to as cardiac or congestive hepatopathy. The composite Model for End-Stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI is a robust scoring system of liver function, and a high score is associated with poor prognosis in advanced HF patients with a heart transplantation and/or ventricular assist device. However, the impact of MELD-XI on the prognosis of HF patients in general remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: We retrospectively analyzed 562 patients who were admitted to our hospital for the treatment of decompensated HF. A MELD-XI score was graded, and patients were divided into two groups based on the median value of MELD-XI score: Group L (MELD-XI <10, n = 289 and Group H (MELD-XI ≥10, n = 273. We compared all-cause mortality and echocardiographic findings between the two groups. In the follow-up period (mean 471 days, 104 deaths (62 cardiac deaths and 42 non-cardiac deaths were observed. The event (cardiac death, non-cardiac death, all-cause death-free rate was significantly higher in group L than in group H (logrank P<0.05, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazard analysis, a high MELD-XI score was found to be an independent predictor of cardiac deaths and all-cause mortality in HF patients. Regarding echocardiographic parameters, right atrial and ventricular areas, inferior vena cava diameter, and systolic pulmonary artery pressure were higher in group H than in group L (P<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The MELD-XI scoring system, a marker of liver function, can identify high-risk patients with right heart volume overload, higher pulmonary arterial pressure and multiple organ failure associated with HF.

  4. Different tolerances to chemical contaminants between unicellular and colonial morph of Microcystis aeruginosa: excluding the differences among different strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nkrumah, Philip Nti; Peng, Qiang

    2015-03-21

    In order to ascertain the different tolerances to chemical contaminants in one strain of Microcystis with different morphology, unicellular and colonial Microcystis in one strain was obtained from different conditions of light intensity and temperature. The samples were divided into 8 groups including control (no chemical addition), CuSO4, chloromycetin, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonatelas (LAS) treatments. The cell density, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malonaldehyde of Microcystis were analyzed. It was observed that cell density of both unicellular and colonial Microcystis increased from the beginning to day-5 in the control and the CuSO4 treatments. However, the growth of Microcystis was significantly inhibited in the culture with chloromycetin and LAS treatments. Notably, the inhibition rate was significantly high in unicellular Microcystis relative to the colonial Microcystis. The esterase activity in all the treatments decreased dramatically relating to the control. In addition, the esterase activity in colonial Microcystis was significantly higher than that of the unicellular Microcystis in all the treatments. Although there were no significant differences in activities of SOD between the two morphologies in the control treatments, in all the other treatments, significant differences were observed. The results proved that colony formation of Microcystis could be considered as a strategy in response to chemical stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternative preparation of inclusion bodies excludes interfering non-protein contaminants and improves the yield of recombinant proinsulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackin, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    The goal of simple, high-yield expression and purification of recombinant human proinsulin has proven to be a considerable challenge. First, proinsulin forms inclusion bodies during bacterial expression. While this phenomenon can be exploited as a capture step, conventionally prepared inclusion bodies contain significant amounts of non-protein contaminants that interfere with subsequent chromatographic purification. Second, the proinsulin molecules within the inclusion bodies are incorrectly folded, and likely cross-linked to one another, making it difficult to quantify the amount of expressed proinsulin. Third, proinsulin is an intermediate between the initial product of ribosomal translation (preproinsulin) and the final product secreted by pancreatic beta cells (insulin). Therefore, to be efficiently produced in bacteria, it must be produced as an N-terminally extended fusion protein, which has to be converted to authentic proinsulin during the purification scheme. To address all three of these problems, while simultaneously streamlining the procedure and increasing the yield of recombinant proinsulin, we have made three substantive modifications to our previous method for producing proinsulin:.•Conditions for the preparation of inclusion bodies have been altered so contaminants that interfere with semi-preparative reversed-phase chromatography are excluded while the proinsulin fusion protein is retained at high yield.•Aliquots are taken following important steps in the procedure and the quantity of proinsulin-related polypeptide in the sample is compared to the amount present prior to that step.•Final purification is performed using a silica-based reversed-phase matrix in place of a polystyrene-divinylbenzene-based matrix.

  6. Patterns of severe acute renal failure in a referral center in Sudan: Excluding intensive care and major surgery patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaballo, Babikir G.; Khogali, Mohamed S.; Khalifa, Eman H.; Khalil, Eltahir A.G.; El-Hasaan, Ahmad M.; Abu-Aisha, H.

    2007-01-01

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a common health problem worldwide. There is limited data on the pattern of ARF in Sudan. Moreover, glomerular diseases, which are a well known cause of ARF, have not been accurately and adequately diagnosed previously. A retrospective study on the patterns of ARF was carried out in a general nephrology referral center in Sudan during the period from February 2003 to February 2004.Patients from intensive care units with ARF and those who developed ARF after massive surgery were excluded from the study. Renal biopsy was performed when indicated and studied with light and immunofluorescent microscopy. Eighty-nine patients (57 (64%) cases were males and mean age was 39+-19.4 years) fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of advanced renal failure requiring renal function replacement therapy. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) was diagnosed in 50 (56%) patients; 33 (66%) ATN patients had renal failure as a complication of volume depletion, fulminant infections (particularly malaria and typhoid fever) or snakebites, and 12 (13.4%) patients ingested paraphenylene-diamine (PPD) (hair/Henna dye) in suicidal attempts. Eight (9%) patients of the total study group had glomerural diseases and 11 (12.3%) had obstructive uropathy associated with ARF; cause of ARF could not be determined in 17 (19%) patients. Fifty-three (60%) patients recovered their renal function, six (6.7%) patients progressed to chronic kidney disease (CKD), 16(18%) died and 14(16%) were lost to follow-up. In conclusion, patients with ARF associated with ATN had a favorable prognosis except when ATN was associated PPD poisoning. (author)

  7. Laboratory parameter-based machine learning model for excluding non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, T C-F; Ma, A J; Wong, V W-S; Tse, Y-K; Chan, H L-Y; Yuen, P-C; Wong, G L-H

    2017-08-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects 20%-40% of the general population in developed countries and is an increasingly important cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. Electronic medical records facilitate large-scale epidemiological studies, existing NAFLD scores often require clinical and anthropometric parameters that may not be captured in those databases. To develop and validate a laboratory parameter-based machine learning model to detect NAFLD for the general population. We randomly divided 922 subjects from a population screening study into training and validation groups; NAFLD was diagnosed by proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the basis of machine learning from 23 routine clinical and laboratory parameters after elastic net regulation, we evaluated the logistic regression, ridge regression, AdaBoost and decision tree models. The areas under receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of models in validation group were compared. Six predictors including alanine aminotransferase, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, haemoglobin A 1c , white blood cell count and the presence of hypertension were selected. The NAFLD ridge score achieved AUROC of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83-0.90) and 0.88 (0.84-0.91) in the training and validation groups respectively. Using dual cut-offs of 0.24 and 0.44, NAFLD ridge score achieved 92% (86%-96%) sensitivity and 90% (86%-93%) specificity with corresponding negative and positive predictive values of 96% (91%-98%) and 69% (59%-78%), and 87% of overall accuracy among 70% of classifiable subjects in the validation group; 30% of subjects remained indeterminate. NAFLD ridge score is a simple and robust reference comparable to existing NAFLD scores to exclude NAFLD patients in epidemiological studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Sensitivity of Early Brain Computed Tomography to Exclude Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosh, Nicole M; Bellolio, M Fernanda; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrating the high sensitivity of early brain computed tomography (CT) brings into question the necessity of always performing lumbar puncture after a negative CT in the diagnosis of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Our objective was to determine the sensitivity of brain CT using modern scanners (16-slice technology or greater) when performed within 6 hours of headache onset to exclude SAH in neurologically intact patients. After conducting a comprehensive literature search using Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, and Scopus, we conducted a meta-analysis. We included original research studies of adults presenting with a history concerning for spontaneous SAH and who had noncontrast brain CT scan using a modern generation multidetector CT scanner within 6 hours of symptom onset. Our study adheres to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). A total of 882 titles were reviewed and 5 articles met inclusion criteria, including an estimated 8907 patients. Thirteen had a missed SAH (incidence 1.46 per 1000) on brain CTs within 6 hours. Overall sensitivity of the CT was 0.987 (95% confidence intervals, 0.971-0.994) and specificity was 0.999 (95% confidence intervals, 0.993-1.0). The pooled likelihood ratio of a negative CT was 0.010 (95% confidence intervals, 0.003-0.034). In patients presenting with thunderclap headache and normal neurological examination, normal brain CT within 6 hours of headache is extremely sensitive in ruling out aneurysmal SAH. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. The accuracy of Gram stain of respiratory specimens in excluding Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottesman, Tamar; Yossepowitch, Orit; Lerner, Evgenia; Schwartz-Harari, Orna; Soroksky, Arie; Yekutieli, Daniel; Dan, Michael

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the Gram stain of deep tracheal aspirate as a tool to direct empiric antibiotic therapy, and more specifically as a tool to exclude the need for empiric antibiotic coverage against Staphylococcus aureus in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A prospective, single-center, observational, cohort study. All wards at a community hospital. Adult patients requiring mechanical ventilation, identified as having VAP in a 54-month prospective surveillance database. Sampling of lower airway secretions by deep endotracheal aspiration was taken from each patient who developed VAP. Samples were sent immediately for Gram stain and qualitative bacterial cultures. Demographic and relevant clinical data were collected; Gram stain, culture, and antibiotic susceptibility results were documented; and outcome was followed prospectively. The analysis included 114 consecutive patients with 115 episodes of VAP from June 2007 to January 2012. Sensitivity of Gram stain compared with culture was 90.47% for gram-positive cocci, 69.6% for gram-negative rods, and 50% for sterile cultures. Specificity was 82.5%, 77.8%, and 79%, respectively. Negative predictive value was high for gram-positive cocci (97%) and sterile cultures (96%) but low for gram-negative rods (20%). Acinetobacter baumanii (45%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (38 %) were the prevailing isolates. S aureus was found in 18.3% of the patients. Most isolates were multiresistant. Absence of gram-positive bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value. These data can be used to narrow the initial empiric antibiotic regimen and to avoid unnecessary exposure of patients to vancomycin and other antistaphyloccocal agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aspects concerning the lengths of the excluded shareholder’s liability towards third parties in the case of limited liability companies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Stoican

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current context of reinventing the trading company law, at the end of a lengthy and extremely difficult economic crisis, when every participant in the economic life tried to find their own way to adapt and make their activity survive the new social and commercial realities, not few were the cases when some of the Shareholders were excluded and their liability was drawn onto the legal person itself. Nevertheless, there is a type of legal liability of the former Shareholders, excluded from the Company, that still is quite deficiently regulated and, despite the sound argumentation and comprehensive regulation of Law no. 31/1990, it fails to provide a clear and detailed explanation of the consequences, namely, of the consequences the exclusion of a Shareholder has over the Third Parties of good-faith that the legal person (the Company had or continues to have legal relations with. This paper thus aims at analysing one of the main effects of excluding Shareholders from the company, namely the extent of their liability towards the Third Parties, and it is structured in five parts, as follows: 1 Introduction, 2 About the Shareholders’ exclusion, 3 The effects of excluding a Shareholder from the Limited Liability Company, 4 The excluded Shareholder’s liability towards the Third Parties and 5 Conclusions.

  11. Radioiodine treatment for non-toxic goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    There is no ideal treatment for benign multinodular goitre. Besides surgery, which is recommended for large goitres or when malignancy cannot be excluded, the non-surgical treatment options are levothyroxine therapy and radioiodine ((131)I) therapy. Conventional (131)I therapy [without recombinant...

  12. Diagnostic performance of computed tomography coronary angiography to detect and exclude left main and/or three-vessel coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dharampal, Anoeshka S; Papadopoulou, Stella L; Rossi, Alexia

    2013-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic performance of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in detecting and excluding left main (LM) and/or three-vessel CAD ("high-risk" CAD) in symptomatic patients and to compare its discriminatory value with the Duke risk score and calcium score.......To determine the diagnostic performance of CT coronary angiography (CTCA) in detecting and excluding left main (LM) and/or three-vessel CAD ("high-risk" CAD) in symptomatic patients and to compare its discriminatory value with the Duke risk score and calcium score....

  13. A revised checklist species of the Curculionoidea (Coleoptera, excluding Scolytinae of Rostov Oblast and Kalmykia, the southern part of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri G. Arzanov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a list of 703 species of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea, excluding Scolytinae recorded in two adjacent administrative regions in the southern part of European Russia: Rostov Oblast and the Republic of Kalmykia. The species diversity of the ten recorded families is as follows: Nemonychidae (1, Anthribidae (10, Rhynchitidae (12, Attelabidae (2, Apionidae (70, Nanophyidae (12, Brachyceridae (2, Dryophthoridae (4, Erirhinidae (13, Curculionidae (577, excluding Scolytinae. In total, 151 species are added to the faunal list of the southern European Russia.

  14. NIKEI: a new inexpensive and non-invasive scoring system to exclude advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münevver Demir

    Full Text Available AIMS: To develop, validate and compare a non-invasive fibrosis scoring system for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD derived from routinely obtained clinical and biochemical parameters. METHODS: 267 consecutive patients with biopsy proven fatty liver or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis were randomly assigned to the estimation (2/3 or validation (1/3 group to develop a model for the prediction of advanced fibrosis. Univariate statistics were performed to compare patients with and without advanced fibrosis, and following a multivariate logistic regression analysis a new scoring system was constructed. This non-invasive Koeln-Essen-index (NIKEI was validated and compared to the FIB-4 index by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC. We evaluated a stepwise combination of both scoring systems for the precise prediction of advanced fibrosis. To set in contrast, we additionally tested the diagnostic accuracy of the AST/ALT ratio, BARD score and the NAFLD fibrosis score in our cohort. RESULTS: Age, AST, AST/ALT ratio, and total bilirubin were identified as significant predictors of advanced fibrosis and used to construct the NIKEI with an AUC of 0.968 [0.937; 0.998] compared to 0.929 [0.869; 0.989] for the FIB-4 index. The absence of advanced fibrosis could be confirmed with excellent accuracy (99-100%. The positive predictive value of the FIB-4 index was higher (100% vs. 60%, however, the false negative rate was also high (33%. With a stepwise combination of both indices 82%-84% of biopsies would have been avoidable without a single misclassification. The AUROC for AST/ALT ratio, the NAFLD fibrosis score, and the BARD score were 0.81 (95% CI, 0.72-0.90, 0.96 (95% CI 0.92-0.99, and 0.67 (95% CI 0.55-0.78, respectively. CONCLUSION: The NIKEI can reliably exclude advanced fibrosis in subjects with NAFLD. In combination with the FIB-4 index misclassification with inadequate clinical management can be avoided while

  15. Endovascular repair of posttraumatic multiple femoral-femoral and popliteal-popliteal arteriovenous fistula with Viabahn and excluder stent graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarac Momir

    2011-01-01

    . Also, numerous metallic balls - grains of shotgun were present. After the preoperative preparation under local infiltrative anesthesia, transfemoral endovascular reconstruction was done of the surface femoral and popliteal artery by the use of stent grafts Viabahn 6 × 50 mm and excluder PXL 161 007. Within the immediate postoperative course a significant reduction of the leg edema and disappearance of thrill occurred, and, latter, healing of ulceration, and disappearance of signs of the foot ischemia. Also, patient's both cardiac and breathing functions became normal. Conclusion. In patients with chronic traumatic AV fistulas in the femoropopliteal region, especially with multiple fistulas, the gold standard is their endovascular reconstruction which, although being minimally traumatic and invasive, offers a complete reconstruction besides keeping integrity of both distal and proximal circulation in the leg.

  16. Mapping the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon using parasitological, serological, and clinical evidence to exclude other causes of lymphedema.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis is a non-filarial elephantiasis, which causes massive swelling of the lower legs. It was identified as a neglected tropical disease by WHO in 2011. Understanding of the geographical distribution of the disease is incomplete. As part of a global mapping of podoconiosis, this study was conducted in Cameroon to map the distribution of the disease. This mapping work will help to generate data on the geographical distribution of podoconiosis in Cameroon and contribute to the global atlas of podoconiosis.We used a multi-stage sampling design with stratification of the country by environmental risk of podoconiosis. We sampled 76 villages from 40 health districts from the ten Regions of Cameroon. All individuals of 15-years old or older in the village were surveyed house-to-house and screened for lymphedema. A clinical algorithm was used to reliably diagnose podoconiosis, excluding filarial-associated lymphedema. Individuals with lymphoedema were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen and specific IgG4 using the Alere Filariasis Test Strips (FTS test and the Standard Diagnostics (SD BIOLINE lymphatic filariasis IgG4 test (Wb123 respectively, in addition to thick blood films. Presence of DNA specific to W. bancrofti was checked on night blood using a qPCR technique.Overall, 10,178 individuals from 4,603 households participated in the study. In total, 83 individuals with lymphedema were identified. Of the 83 individuals with lymphedema, two were found to be FTS positive and all were negative using the Wb123 test. No microfilaria of W. bancrofti were found in the night blood of any individual with clinical lymphedema. None were found to be positive for W. bancrofti using qPCR. Of the two FTS positive cases, one was positive for Mansonella perstans DNA, while the other harbored Loa loa microfilaria. Overall, 52 people with podoconiosis were identified after applying the clinical algorithm. The overall prevalence of podoconiosis was

  17. Surgical management for the first 48 h following blunt chest trauma: state of the art (excluding vascular injuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lesquen, Henri; Avaro, Jean-Philippe; Gust, Lucile; Ford, Robert Michael; Beranger, Fabien; Natale, Claudia; Bonnet, Pierre-Mathieu; D'Journo, Xavier-Benoît

    2015-03-01

    This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D). All traumatic pneumothoraces are considered for chest tube insertion. However, observation is possible for selected patients with small unilateral pneumothoraces without respiratory disease or need for positive pressure ventilation (Grade C). Symptomatic traumatic haemothoraces or haemothoraces >500 ml should be treated by chest tube insertion (Grade D). Occult pneumothoraces and occult haemothoraces are managed by observation with daily chest X-rays (Grades B and C). Periprocedural antibiotics are used to prevent chest-tube-related infectious complications (Grade B). No sign of life at the initial assessment and cardiopulmonary resuscitation duration >10 min are considered as contraindications of Emergency Department Thoracotomy (Grade C). Damage Control Thoracotomy is performed for either massive air leakage or refractive shock or ongoing bleeding enhanced by chest tube output >1500 ml initially or >200 ml/h for 3 h (Grade D). In the case of haemodynamically stable patients, early video-assisted thoracic surgery is performed for retained haemothoraces (Grade B). Fixation of flail chest can be considered if mechanical ventilation for 48 h is probably required (Grade B). Fixation of sternal fractures is performed for displaced fractures with overlap or comminution, intractable pain or respiratory insufficiency (Grade D). Lung herniation, traumatic diaphragmatic rupture and pericardial rupture are life

  18. Joint effects of arsenic and cadmium on plant growth and metal bioaccumulation: A potential Cd-hyperaccumulator and As-excluder Bidens pilosa L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yuebing; Zhou Qixing; Liu Weitao; An Jing; Xu Zhiqiang; Wang Lin

    2009-01-01

    Joint effects of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) on the growth of Bidens pilosa L. and its uptake and accumulation of As and Cd were investigated using the field pot-culture experiment. The results showed that single Cd (≤25 mg kg -1 ) and As (≤50 mg kg -1 ) treatments could promote the growth of B. pilosa, resulting in 34.5-104.4% and 21.0-43.0%, respectively, increase in the dry biomass of shoots while compared with that under the control conditions. However, under the co-contamination of As and Cd, there was an antagonistic effect on the growth of the plant. The concentrations of As and Cd accumulated in tissues of the plant increased with an increase of As and Cd in soils. In particular, the levels of Cd in stems and leaves reached 103.0 and 110.0 mg kg -1 , respectively, when soil Cd was 10 mg kg -1 . Furthermore, the BF and TF values of Cd were greater than 1.0. However, the highest content of As in roots of the plant was only 13.5 mg kg -1 when soil As was at a high level, i.e. 125 mg kg -1 , and the TF values of As were less than 0.1, indicating that B. pilosa can be considered as a potential Cd hyperaccumulator and As excluder. The presence of As had inhibitory effects on Cd absorption by the plant, in particular, the accumulation of Cd in stems, leaves and shoots decreased significantly, with 42.8-53.1, 49.3-66.4 and 37.6-59.5%, respectively, reduction when the level of soil As was up to 125 mg kg -1 compared with that under no addition of As. Whereas, when Cd was added to soils, it could facilitate As accumulation in tissues of the plants and the As concentrations in shoots increased with increasing Cd spiked in soils. The interactive effects of Cd and As may be potential for phytoremediation of Cd and/or As contamination soils.

  19. Candy-Plug Technique Using an Excluder Aortic Extender for Distal Occlusion of a Large False Lumen Aneurysm in Chronic Aortic Dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yukihisa; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Murakami, Kenji; Sakurai, Yuka; Fujiwara, Keishi; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    To describe the candy-plug technique using an Excluder aortic extender for distal occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. A 60-year-old female patient with a history of chronic type B aortic dissection and high-dose steroid use for Churg-Strauss syndrome developed a large 6.2 cm maximum diameter false lumen aneurysm. She underwent thoracic endovascular aortic repair from the left common carotid artery to the descending aorta to cover the proximal entry at the level of distal arch, with coil embolization of the left subclavian artery. To occlude the large false lumen from the reentry just below the level of the left renal artery ostium, a modified 32×45-mm Excluder aortic extender was deployed in the false lumen through the reentry, and a 16-mm Amplatzer Vascular Plug I was deployed in the waist of the modified Excluder aortic extender for complete occlusion. No obvious technical complication was seen. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography at 1 and 14 months revealed no endoleaks and showed complete false lumen thrombosis. The candy-plug technique using the Excluder aortic extender is feasible for occlusion of a large false lumen aneurysm in chronic aortic dissection. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. 2 CFR 3700.137 - Who in the Peace Corps may grant an exception to let an excluded person participate in a covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who in the Peace Corps may grant an... and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements PEACE CORPS NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION § 3700.137 Who in the Peace Corps may grant an exception to let an excluded person...

  1. 26 CFR 1.955A-1 - Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 10 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shareholder's pro rata share of amount of... rata share of amount of previously excluded subpart F income withdrawn from investment in foreign base... foreign corporation must include in his gross income his pro rata share of such amount as determined in...

  2. Qualitative point-of-care D-dimer testing compared with quantitative D-dimer testing in excluding pulmonary embolism in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lucassen, W. A. M.; Erkens, P. M. G.; Geersing, G. J.; Büller, H. R.; Moons, K. G. M.; Stoffers, H. E. J. H.; van Weert, H. C. P. M.

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners can safely exclude pulmonary embolism (PE) by using the Wells PE rule combined with D-dimer testing. To compare the accuracy of a strategy using the Wells rule combined with either a qualitative point-of-care (POC) D-dimer test performed in primary care or a quantitative

  3. Performance of a checklist to exclude pregnancy at the time of contraceptive initiation among women with a negative urine pregnancy test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jaspur; Buckel, Christina; Secura, Gina M; Peipert, Jeffrey F; Madden, Tessa

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to measure the sensitivity and specificity of a six-item "pregnancy checklist" at excluding early- or luteal-phase pregnancy among women with a negative urine pregnancy test who were initiating contraception. This was a secondary analysis of the Contraceptive CHOICE Project, a prospective cohort study of 9256 women in the St. Louis region. Women who had a negative urine pregnancy test on the day of enrollment were included in this analysis. Women with a positive urine pregnancy test or without urine pregnancy testing were excluded. We identified all luteal-phase pregnancies that occurred among women with a negative urine pregnancy test. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) and likelihood ratios of the pregnancy checklist for excluding luteal-phase pregnancies. There were 6929 women included in this analysis; 69% of these women met at least one checklist criterion to exclude pregnancy ("negative screen"). There were 36 luteal-phase pregnancies (0.5%) subsequently diagnosed among women with a negative urine pregnancy test. The sensitivity and specificity of the checklist were 77.7% and 69.1%, respectively. The NPV of the checklist was 99.8% and the positive predictive value was 1.3%. Among women with a negative urine pregnancy test, the pregnancy checklist can be used to safely exclude more than 99% of early pregnancies at the time of contraceptive initiation. In patients with a negative urine pregnancy test, a pregnancy checklist using six criteria based on patient history has high NPV in excluding early pregnancy. This checklist can be used to facilitate same-day initiation of contraceptive methods, including long-acting reversible contraception. Although the checklist had a high false positive rate, initiation of contraception should not be delayed in women with a "positive screen." Rather women who desire an intrauterine device or implant can be "bridged" with a shorter

  4. [Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes): Guidelines for clinical practice - Text of the Guidelines (short text)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentilhes, L; Sénat, M-V; Ancel, P-Y; Azria, E; Benoist, G; Blanc, J; Brabant, G; Bretelle, F; Brun, S; Doret, M; Ducroux-Schouwey, C; Evrard, A; Kayem, G; Maisonneuve, E; Marcellin, L; Marret, S; Mottet, N; Paysant, S; Riethmuller, D; Rozenberg, P; Schmitz, T; Torchin, H; Langer, B

    2016-12-01

    To determine the measures to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (excluding preterm premature rupture of membranes)and its consequences. The PubMed database, the Cochrane Library and the recommendations from the French and foreign obstetrical societies or colleges have been consulted. In France, premature birth concerns 60,000 neonates every year (7.4 %), half of them are delivered after spontaneous onset of labor. Among preventable risk factors of spontaneous prematurity, only cessation of smoking is associated to a decrease of prematurity (level of evidence [LE] 1). This is therefore recommended (grade A). Routine screening and treatment of vaginal bacteriosis in general population is not recommended (grade A). Asymptomatic women with single pregnancy without history of preterm delivery and a short cervix between 16 and 24 weeks is the only population in which vaginal progesterone is recommended (grade B). A history-indicated cerclage is not recommended in case of only past history of conisation (grade C), uterine malformation (Professional consensus), isolated history of pretem delivery (grade B) or twin pregnancies in primary (grade B) or secondary (grade C) prevention of preterm birth. A history-indicated cerclage is recommended for single pregnancy with a history of at least 3 late miscarriages or preterm deliveries (grade A).). In case of past history of a single pregnancy delivery before 34 weeks gestation (WG), ultrasound cervical length screening is recommended between 16 and 22 WG in order to propose a cerclage in case of lengthpremature rupture of membranes. Maintenance tocolysis is not recomended (grade B). Antenatal corticosteroid administration is recommended to every woman at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (grade A). After 34 weeks, evidences are not consistent enough to recommend systematic antenatal corticosteroid treatment (grade B), however, a course might be indicated in the clinical situations associated with the

  5. Immunotherapy (excluding checkpoint inhibitors) for stage I to III non-small cell lung cancer treated with surgery or radiotherapy with curative intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianwei; Li, Rui; Tiselius, Eva; Roudi, Raheleh; Teghararian, Olivia; Suo, Chen; Song, Huan

    2017-12-16

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer, accounting for approximately 80% to 85% of all cases. For patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III), it has been speculated that immunotherapy may be helpful for reducing postoperative recurrence rates, or improving the clinical outcomes of current treatment for unresectable tumours. While several new agents have now entered phase III clinical trials, we felt a systematic review was needed to address the question of the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy in patients with stages I to III NSCLC. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of immunotherapy (excluding checkpoint inhibitors) in patients with localised NSCLC (stages I to III) who received surgery or radiotherapy with curative intent. We searched the following databases (from inception to 20 January 2017): CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL, and five trial registers. We also manually checked abstracts or reports from relevant conference proceedings and the reference lists of included trials. We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults (≥ 18 years) with histologically-confirmed early-stage (stages I to III) NSCLC after surgical resection, and those with unresectable locally advanced stage III NSCLC who had received radiotherapy with curative intent. For patients who had received primary surgical treatment, postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy was allowed if it was used for both experimental and control groups. Two review authors independently selected eligible trials, assessed risk of bias, and extracted data. We used survival analysis to pool time-to-event data, expressing the intervention effect as a hazard ratio (HR). We calculated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous data, and mean differences for continuous data, with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Due to clinical heterogeneity (immunotherapeutic agents with different underlying mechanisms), we used random-effects models for our meta-analyses. We

  6. Nursing diagnosis Noncompliance to treatment in men with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talliton Uchôa de Araújo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : to identify the frequency of occurrence of nursing diagnosis Noncompliance of treatment in men with high blood pressure, its defining characteristics, and related factors. Methods : a Cross-sectional study involving 44 men with hypertension by applying a validated instrument for identification of nursing diagnosis. Results : the diagnosis frequency of occurrence was 56.8%, the most present defining characteristics were the inadequate management of nonpharmacological treatment (p=0.000 and adherence failure of indicative behavior (p=0.000. The most common related factors were deficient knowledge for the monitor of the non- drug treatment regimen (p=0.000 and insufficient teaching ability of health staff (p=0.002. Conclusion : it was found a high frequency of diagnosis in men and the data point to the need for training of health professionals for the development of skills in promoting adherence of men to the treatment of hypertension.

  7. The effect of endograft relining on sac expansion after endovascular aneurysm repair with the original-permeability Gore Excluder abdominal aortic aneurysm endoprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodney, Philip P; Fillinger, Mark F

    2007-04-01

    Endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) with the original-permeability Excluder (W.L. Gore & Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) has been associated with postoperative sac expansion in the absence of endoleak. In these cases, we have performed an endovascular revision, relining the original endograft with another Excluder, in an effort to arrest sac expansion by reducing permeability. We have studied these cases to determine the effect of relining on aneurysm expansion. Patients who demonstrated sac expansion (>or=5 mm diameter, >or=5% three-dimensional volume) after EVAR with the original Excluder were evaluated. Between 1999 and 2004, the original-permeability endoprosthesis was used in 97 patients who underwent EVAR for asymptomatic abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Sac expansion occurred in 24 patients, of which multiple imaging modalities showed 12 had expansion without demonstrable endoleak. Nine of the 12 have had endovascular relining, and five of these nine have >6 months follow-up to form the primary basis for this report. AAA size was stable or smaller in the first 6 months after the original EVAR for all patients. Once expansion began (typically in the time frame of 6 to 12 months), multimodality imaging showed no aneurysm spontaneously decreased in size without intervention, despite the absence of endoleak (n = 12). Expansion exceeded clinically significant thresholds at 30 months (mean) by diameter criteria and 22 months (mean) by three-dimensional volume criteria for the five patients with >6 months follow-up after relining. Endovascular relining was performed at a mean of 36 months, with a mean hospital stay of 1 day, and no morbidity or mortality. Over the entire duration of expansion (mean, 26 months), aneurysms expanded by 6.0 +/- 1 mm/year diameter and by 12% +/- 2%/year by three-dimensional volume. At a mean of 16 months follow-up after relining with another Excluder, the mean diameter decrease was 2.0 mm/year (P 6 months follow-up after

  8. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  9. A systematic search for linkage with nonsyndromic recessive deafness in two large Middle Eastern inbred kindreds excludes more than 30% of the genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, S.; Korostishevsky, M. [Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Ramat-Aviv (Israel); Frydman, M. [Haim Sheba Medical Center, Tel-Hashomer (Israel)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    It has been estimated that as many as 35 loci may individually cause autosomal recessive non-syndromic deafness. The extreme genetic heterogeneity, limited clinical differentiation and phenotypic assortative mating in many western countries make many families unsuitable for genetic linkage studies. Recently the first of those loci was mapped (to 13q) in two consanguineous families from northern Tunisia. We are studying two large highly consanguineous Middle Eastern kindreds (a total of 26 deaf in 98 sampled individuals). Examination in each family showed no evidence of clinical heterogeneity and indicated an uncomplicated profound bilateral sensorineural deafness. We have been able to exclude the 13q locus as the cause of deafness in each kindred and have also excluded such `candidate` loci as regions as those causing Usher`s syndrome type 1 (11q13)(11p), Usher`s syndrome type II (1q32-q41), Waardenburg syndrome type I (2q37), branchio-oto-renal syndrome (8q12-q13), Monge`s deafness (5q31), and Treacher Collins syndrome (5q31.3-q33.3). To date, no lod scores greater than 1 have been obtained in either kindred using 150 RFLT`s, VNTR`s and highly polymorphic microsatellite markers (CA repeats and tetranucleotides). By Morton`s criterion a minimum of 30% of the autosomal genome can be excluded for each kindred separately.

  10. Following-up the efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (excluding medullary) - Moroccan situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rais Aouad, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Since 1985, the department of nuclear medicine of IBN SINA Hospital in the Rabat University hospital centre is the only centre in Morocco, where all patients of differentiated thyroid carcinoma after surgery are treated with 3.7 GBq of Iodine-131. The number of patients on follow-up is more than two thousands. The endemic zone represents the main origin of thyroid carcinoma. The sex ratio (F/M) is 3.5/1; the mean age is 42.5 years. The papillary carcinoma constitutes about 65.5% of the 26% of well-differentiated carcinoma and 12.5 of moderately differentiated carcinoma (MDC). The tumour size at diagnosis was more than 2 cm in 70% of cases. Prognosis factors are the age, the histology and tumour size. After the surgery, the patients receive 131-Iodine therapy (3.7 GBq) and a regular follow-up by clinical examination, neck ultrasonography and thyroglobulin (Tg) blood level. The aim is to obtain a negative whole body scan (WBS) and undetectable Tg. All the patients also receive a suppressive hormone therapy (thyroxin: 2.4 μg/kg/day). In the same patient, the Tg level is also compared with and without suppression therapy, but taking TSH levels into account. The efficiency of 131-Iodine treatment and the following up, depends on the type of patients: (a) Patients without metastasis: the success of Iodine-131 therapy depended on surgery and it was more than 92% (b) Patients with local metastasis to lymph nodes: the success of 131-Iodine therapy depended of nodal status and complete dissection is possible in 70% cases only. (c) Patients with distant metastasis: The efficiency of 131-Iodine therapy depended on the uptake, the homogeneity and the size of metastasis. In lung metastasis, the efficiency of 131-Iodine is about 40-42% (70%: miliary and micro nodules) and only 6.6% in bone metastasis. After treatment, the patients were regularly followed-up clinically till the next WBS and Tg estimation. In some cases, it was interesting to compare WBS and MIBI

  11. The German day-care study: multicomponent non-drug therapy for people with cognitive impairment in day-care centres supplemented with caregiver counselling (DeTaMAKS) - study protocol of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Elisa-Marie; Straubmeier, Melanie; Seidl, Hildegard; Book, Stephanie; Graessel, Elmar; Luttenberger, Katharina

    2017-07-17

    It is the wish of both people with cognitive impairment and their informal caregivers for the impaired person to live at home for as long as possible. This is also in line with economic arguments about health. The existing structure of day-care services for the elderly can be used to achieve this. Due to the current lack of empirical evidence in this field, most day-care centres do not offer a scientifically evaluated, structured intervention, but instead offer a mixture of individual activities whose efficacy has not yet been established. Informal caregivers of people with dementia use day-care centres primarily to relieve themselves of their care tasks and as a support service. The present study therefore investigates the effectiveness of a combination of a multicomponent activation therapy for people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild to moderate dementia at day-care centres and a brief telephone intervention for their informal caregivers. The study is conducted as a cluster-randomised intervention trial at 34 day-care centres in Germany with a 6-month treatment phase. The centres in the waitlist control group provide "care as usual". A power analysis indicated that 346 people should initially be included in the study. The primary endpoints of the study include the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) and cognitive capacities on the side of the day-care centre users and the subjectively perceived burden and well-being of the informal caregivers. The total duration of the study is 3 years, during which data are collected both by the psychometric testing of the people with cognitive impairment and by telephone interviews with informal caregivers. The project has three distinctive quality features. First, it is embedded in real care situations since the day-care services have already been established for this target group. Second, due to the large number of cases and the fact that the participating day-care centres are spread across the

  12. Novel computational approach for studying ph effects, excluded volume and ion-ion correlations in electrical double layers around polyelectrolytes and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven

    Highly charged cylindrical and spherical objects (macroions) are probably the simplest structures for modeling nucleic acids, proteins and nanoparticles. Their ubiquitous presence within biophysical systems ensures that Coulomb forces are among the most important interactions that regulate the behavior of these systems. In these systems, ions position themselves in a strongly correlated manner near the surface of a macroion and form electrical double layers (EDLs). These EDLs play an important role in many biophysical and biochemical processes. For instance, the macroion's net charge can change due to the binding of many multivalent ions to its surface. Thus, proper description of EDLs near the surface of a macroion may reveal a counter-intuitive charge inversion behavior, which can generate attraction between like-charged objects. This is relevant for the variety of fields such as self-assembly of DNA and RNA folding, as well as for protein aggregation and neurodegenerative diseases. Certainly, the key factors that contribute to these phenomena cannot be properly understood without an accurate solvation model. With recent advancements in computer technologies, the possibility to use computational tools for fundamental understanding of the role of EDLs around biomolecules and nanoparticles on their physical and chemical properties is becoming more feasible. Establishing the impact of the excluded volume and ion-ion correlations, ionic strength and pH of the electrolyte on the EDL around biomolecules and nanoparticles, and how changes in these properties consequently affect the Zeta potential and surface charge density are still not well understood. Thus, modeling and understanding the role of these properties on EDLs will provide more insights on the stability, adsorption, binding and function of biomolecules and nanoparticles. Existing mean-field theories such as Poisson Boltzmann (PB) often neglect the ion-ion correlations, solvent and ion excluded volume effects

  13. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, Su Jeong; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. (orig.)

  14. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT is highly effective for excluding bone metastases even in patients with equivocal bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortot, Daniel C.; Amorim, Barbara J.; Oki, Glaucia C.; Santos, Allan O.; Lima, Mariana C.L.; Etchebehere, Elba C.S.C.; Ramos, Celso Dario [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Avenue Zeferino Vaz, S/N., PO Box 6149, Campinas (Brazil); Gapski, Sergio B. [Medicina Nuclear Diagnostico e Terapia, Nuclear Medicine Clinic, Campinas (Brazil); Barboza, Marycel F.; Mengatti, Jair [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN)-CNEN, Radiopharmacy Directory, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Bone scintigraphy (BS) has been used extensively for many years for the diagnosis of bone metastases despite its low specificity and significant rate of equivocal lesions. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT has been proven to have a high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of malignant bone lesions, but its effectiveness in patients with inconclusive lesions on BS is not well documented. This study evaluated the ability of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT to exclude bone metastases in patients with various malignant primary tumours and nonspecific findings on BS. We prospectively studied 42 patients (34-88 years of age, 26 women) with different types of tumour. All patients had BS performed for staging or restaging purposes but with inconclusive findings. All patients underwent {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT. All abnormalities identified on BS images were visually compared with their appearance on the PET/CT images. All the 96 inconclusive lesions found on BS images of the 42 patients were identified on PET/CT images. {sup 18}F-Fluoride PET/CT correctly excluded bone metastases in 23 patients (68 lesions). Of 19 patients (28 lesions) classified by PET/CT as having metastases, 3 (5 lesions) were finally classified as free of bone metastases on follow-up. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT were, respectively, 100 %, 88 %, 84 % and 100 % for the identification of patients with metastases (patient analysis) and 100 %, 82 % and 100 % for the identification of metastatic lesions (lesion analysis). The factors that make BS inconclusive do not affect {sup 18}F-fluoride PET/CT which shows a high sensitivity and negative predictive value for excluding bone metastases even in patients with inconclusive conventional BS. (orig.)

  15. Digital tomosynthesis as a problem-solving imaging technique to confirm or exclude potential thoracic lesions based on chest X-ray radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaia, Emilio; Baratella, Elisa; Poillucci, Gabriele; Kus, Sara; Cioffi, Vincenzo; Cova, Maria Assunta

    2013-05-01

    To assess the capability of digital tomosynthesis (DTS) as a problem-solving imaging technique to confirm or exclude potential thoracic lesions based on chest x-ray radiography (CXR). Four hundred and-sixty five patients (263 male, 202 female; age, 72.47 ± 11.33 years) with suspected thoracic lesion(s) after the initial onsite analysis of CXR underwent DTS. Two independent readers prospectively analyzed in consensus CXR and DTS images on a picture archiving and communications system-integrated workstation and proposed a diagnosis according to a confidence score for each lesion: 1 or 2 = definite or probable pulmonary or pleural benign lesion or pseudolesion deserving no further diagnostic work-up; 3 = indeterminate; 4 or 5 = probable or definite pulmonary lesion deserving further diagnostic work-up by computed tomography (CT). In patients who did not undergo chest CT, the DTS findings had to be confirmed by 6 to 12 months' imaging follow-up. Finally, 229 pulmonary lesions (193 thoracic and 36 pleural lesions) and 236 pseudolesions were identified. Based on DTS images, readers correctly classified all pseudolesions except for 10/236 (reader 1) or 11/236 (reader 2) pseudolesions and 7 (reader 1) or 6 (reader 2) pulmonary subpleural lesions located in the anterior or posterior lung region close to the thoracic wall. Chest CT was performed in 127/465 (27%) patients, whereas in 338/465 patients (73%) CXR doubtful findings were resolved by DTS. DTS allowed to exclude most pseudolesions initially considered as potential thoracic lesions on the preliminary onsite assessment of CXR and allowed to exclude pulmonary lesions deserving CT assessment in about three fourths of the patients. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative axillary lymph node evaluation in breast cancer patients by breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): Can breast MRI exclude advanced nodal disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, Su Jeong [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hallym University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Kangnam Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Breast Cancer Clinic, Severance Hospital, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative evaluation of axillary lymph node metastasis (ALNM) in breast cancer patients and to assess whether breast MRI can be used to exclude advanced nodal disease. A total of 425 patients were included in this study and breast MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed. The diagnostic performance of breast MRI for diagnosis of ALNM was evaluated in all patients, patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and those without NAC (no-NAC). We evaluated whether negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude advanced nodal disease (pN2-pN3) using the negative predictive value (NPV) in each group. The sensitivity and NPV of breast MRI in evaluation of ALNM was 51.3 % (60/117) and 83.3 % (284/341), respectively. For cN0 cases on MRI, pN2-pN3 manifested in 1.8 % (6/341) of the overall patients, 0.4 % (1/257) of the no-NAC group, and 6 % (5/84) of the NAC group. The NPV of negative MRI findings for exclusion of pN2-pN3 was higher for the no-NAC group than for the NAC group (99.6 % vs. 94.0 %, p = 0.039). Negative MRI findings (cN0) can exclude the presence of advanced nodal disease with an NPV of 99.6 % in the no-NAC group. (orig.)

  17. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  18. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  19. Cost-saving effects of olanzapine as long-term treatment for bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting

    2008-09-01

    Promoters of new medications often argue that using newer drug can reduce use of non-drug medical services and therefore reduce total healthcare spending. This cost-offset argument is plausible both in theory and in practice, but rigorous research on specific drugs or drug categories is needed to make targeted and efficient policy and management decisions. I examined the drug-offset hypothesis for bipolar disorder, an important yet under-studied clinical condition where effective medication treatments can service as substitutes for non-drug medical treatments. I compared two first line long-term treatments, a new atypical antipsychotic medication, olanzapine, and a traditional mood stabilizer, lithium. I used private sector insurance claims data collected from a nationally representative sample of U.S. health plans between January 1998 and December 2001. I first selected a cohort of patients with bipolar disorder who were continuously enrolled for at least two years. I then used a propensity-score method to match individuals taking each drug on observed variables that are known to affect medication choices. The central challenge for estimation is that drug treatments are not randomly assigned among patients with bipolar disorder. To identify a causal link between choice of drugs and non-drug medical spending, I employed three different advanced econometrics techniques to assess the robustness of findings; namely interrupted time series, differencing strategies, and an instrumental variables approach. I found that compared to similar lithium users, olanzapine users spent approximately $330 more on monthly average non-drug medical services during the first year after initiation of drug treatment. The higher spending for olanzapine users was accounted for by both higher rates of re-hospitalization and more outpatient visits. In addition, olanzapine cost $153 per month while lithium cost $16 per month. Including the direct cost of the drugs, compared to similar

  20. economic aspects of treatment of paediatric femoral shaft fractures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Icha I.Onche

    radiographs. Patients receipts for payment of hospital. Bills were summed up in calculating the final bill at discharge after completion of treatment. Patients treated for other injuries and complications that might increase cost were excluded. The duration of treatment is the time from operation to becoming fully weight bearing.

  1. A Component Analysis of Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Neil S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Tested Beck's theory explaining efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy (CT) for depression. Involved randomly assigning 150 outpatients with major depression to a treatment focused on the behavioral activation (BA) component of CT, a treatment including BA and teaching skills to modify automatic thoughts, but excluding the components of CT…

  2. 7 CFR 15b.31 - Treatment of students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Treatment of students. 15b.31 Section 15b.31... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Postsecondary Education § 15b.31 Treatment of students. (a) General. No qualified handicapped student shall, on the basis of handicap, be excluded from participation...

  3. Linkage analysis of bipolar illness with X-chromosome DNA markers: A susceptibility gene in Xq27-q28 cannot be excluded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De bruyn, A.; Raeymaekers, P.; Raes, G. [Univ. of Antwerp (Belgium)] [and others

    1994-12-15

    Transmission studies have supported the presence of a susceptibility gene for bipolar (BP) illness on the X-chromosome. Initial linkage studies with color blindness (CB), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency, and the blood coagulation factor IX (F9) have suggested that a gene for BP illness is located in the Xq27-q28 region. We tested linkage with several DNA markers located in Xq27-q28 in 2 families, MAD3 and MAD4, that previously were linked to F9, and 7 newly ascertained families of BP probands. Linkage was also examined with the gene encoding the {alpha}3 subunit of the gamma-amino butyric acid receptor (GABRA3), a candidate gene for BP illness located in this region. The genetic data were analyzed with the LOD score method using age-dependent penetrance of an autosomal dominant disease gene and narrow and broad clinical models. In MAD3 and MAD4 the multipoint LOD score data suggested a localization of a BPI gene again near F9. In the 7 new families the overall linkage data excluded the Xq27-q28 region. However, if the families were grouped according to their proband`s phenotype BPI or BPII, a susceptibility gene for BPI disorder at the DXS52-F8 cluster could not be excluded. 48 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Turco's injury: diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Simões da Silva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to alert doctors to the existence of Turco's injury and discus the existing treatments that have been described in the worldwide literature. A bibliographic survey of Lisfranc's injury and Turco's injury covering from 1985 to 2013 was conducted in the SciELO and PubMed databases. Among the 193 articles, those relating to bone-ligament injuries of the Lisfranc joint and high-energy trauma were excluded, as were the case reports. The patients selected were professional or amateur athletes who solely presented a ligament injury to the Lisfranc joint (Turco's injury, which was diagnosed from the history, physical examination, radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Non-athletic patients and those with associated bone injuries were excluded (10. According to the injury classification, the patients were treated by means of either an open or a closed procedure and then a standard rehabilitation protocol. Out of the 10 patients, five underwent conservative treatment and five underwent surgical treatment using different techniques and synthesis materials. We obtained two poor results, one satisfactory, five good and two excellent. We conclude that the correct diagnosis has a direct influence on the treatment and on the final result obtained, and that lack of knowledge of this injury is the main factor responsible for underdiagnosing Turco's injury. There is a need for randomized prospective studies comparing the types of synthesis and evolution of treated cases, in order to define the best treatment for this injury.

  5. When apparent schizophrenia is excluded

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bloodwork, and booked for an MRI; all this was part of the standard work-up for difficult-to-diagnose movement disorders. Her working diagnosis remained that of severe side-effects owing to typical antipsychotics. .... revisited as family planning is vital in HD. ... Ms JL did not attend the follow-up at the end of January 2012,.

  6. [Non-drug psycho-active substance use and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ammouri, A; Sabir, M; Ahid, S; Toufiq, J; El Omari, F

    2015-09-01

    The consumption of psycho-active substances (PAS) by pregnant women is in a growing increase around the world. It is a major problem of public health in some countries due to serious and negative consequences for children and society as well as for pregnant women. This problem has also increased among women in Morocco. However, it is still neglected and underrated in the absence of any official statistical data. This is the first study leading to a better profiling of pregnant women who may consume psycho-active substances during their pregnancy; it would permit better medical and psychosocial care of both women and children. To determine the prevalence and the factors associated with the psycho-active substances used by pregnant women and describe their socio-demographic characteristics. A trans-sectional study was carried out from September to October 2010, including pregnant women consulting at the obstetrical service of the provincial hospital Moulay Abdellah in the city of Salé. The study included women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, and not having any serious mental disorders that could have upset their cognitive abilities. The data was collected through a straight questionnaire of 25 items specifying the socio-demographic characteristics, data about pregnancy and habits of using psycho-active substances. One hundred and fifty pregnant women were included in the study. The majority of them (83.2%) were aged 20 to 40 years old, 94.6% were married, 96% were unemployed and depended on their spouses for their financial resources and 80% had normal domestic relationships (from average to good quality). Among the women, 31.3% of them reported traumatic events in the past. The prevalence of psycho-active substance consumption by the pregnant women of our sample was 11.3%. The used substances were tobacco (9.3%) and cannabis (4%). These women were more likely to have a low level of education (47.1 vs 16.5). They were victims of abuse or neglect in their past (82.3 vs 24.9), and their relationships with their spouses were bad (70.6 vs 13.5) with a lack of desired pregnancy (47.1 vs 27.8) and poor follow-up (47.1 vs 3.8). The results show statistically significant differences. Not only should decision-makers draw attention to the seriousness of the problem because of the relatively high rate of psycho-active substance consumption, but also they should increase obstetric team's awareness to look systematically for psycho-active substance use. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Combined treatment for complex intracranial aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiriac A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Complex aneurysms often cannot be completely excluded by a single approaches. Today successful treatment of these lesions requires a combination between microsurgical and endovascular techniques. Planning of combined treatment require a very good understanding of aneurysm anatomy and a close collaboration between neurosurgeon and neuroendovascular interventionist. Endovascular coiling can usually be used as early treatment for a partially aneurysm occlusion including the ruptured area and followed by definitive clipping. On the other hand microsurgical clipping also can be used as first treatment for complex aneurysm neck reconstruction, allowing successful secondary placement of coils inside the remnant aneurysm sac

  8. Steatorrhea cannot be excluded where there is a fecal weight below 0.200 kg per day and a high fecal consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirup, P

    1998-01-01

    We surveyed one year's results of fecal fat (feces alifatic carboxylates) analyses, which are used in the diagnosis of malabsorption (steatorrhea), by calculating the relationship between fecal fat, fecal weight (fecal mass excretion rate) and fecal consistency (in terms of the volume of water...... used: 7% at 0.180 kg/24 h, 3% at 0.140 kg/24 h and 0% at 0.120 kg/24 h. There was no correlation between fecal fat and consistency. The mean volume of added water was not different in normal and steatorrheic feces. The fat content could be predicted as normal only in the seven specimens (3.5% (1......-7%)) that had more than 3.8 L/kg water added. Thus, an abnormal fecal fat content cannot reliably be excluded, in a routine setting, on the basis of a fecal weight below 0.200 kg/24 h and a high fecal consistency....

  9. Enhanced magnetic field probe array for improved excluded flux calculations on the C-2U advanced beam-driven field-reversed configuration plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, T., E-mail: troche@trialphaenergy.com; Thompson, M. C.; Mendoza, R.; Allfrey, I.; Garate, E.; Romero, J.; Douglass, J. [Tri Alpha Energy, P.O. Box 7010, Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    External flux conserving coils were installed onto the exterior of the C-2U [M. W. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)] confinement vessel to increase the flux confinement time of the system. The 0.5 in. stainless steel vessel wall has a skin time of ∼5 ms. The addition of the external copper coils effectively increases this time to ∼7 ms. This led to better-confined/longer-lived field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasmas. The fringing fields generated by the external coils have the side effect of rendering external field measurements invalid. Such measurements were key to the previous method of excluded flux calculation [M. C. Thompson et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10D709 (2012)]. A new array of B-dot probes and Rogowski coils were installed to better determine the amount of flux leaked out of the system and ultimately provide a more robust measurement of plasma parameters related to pressure balance including the excluded flux radius. The B-dot probes are surface mountable chip inductors with inductance of 33 μH capable of measuring the DC magnetic field and transient field, due to resistive current decay in the wall/coils, when coupled with active integrators. The Rogowski coils measure the total change in current in each external coil (150 A/2 ms). Currents were also actively driven in the external coils. This renders the assumption of total flux conservation invalid which further complicates the analysis process. The ultimate solution to these issues and the record breaking resultant FRC lifetimes will be presented.

  10. Prevalence of Eligibility Criteria for the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial in US Adults Among Excluded Groups: Age Diabetes Mellitus, or a History of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bress, Adam P; Tanner, Rikki M; Hess, Rachel; Gidding, Samuel S; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Shimbo, Daichi; Muntner, Paul

    2016-07-12

    Adults diabetes mellitus, or a history of stroke were not enrolled in the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). Estimating the size and characteristics of these excluded groups who meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria may provide information on the potential impact of providers extending the SPRINT findings to these populations. We analyzed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2012 (n=25 076) to estimate the percentage and characteristics of US adults ≥20 years in 3 populations (age diabetes mellitus, or history of stroke) excluded from SPRINT who otherwise meet the trial eligibility criteria: age ≥50 years, systolic blood pressure (SBP) 130-180 mm Hg, high cardiovascular disease risk, and not having trial exclusion criteria. Overall, 1.0% (95% CI 0.8-1.3) of US adults age diabetes mellitus, and 19.0% (95% CI 16.0-22.4) with history of stroke met the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. Among US adults with SBP ≥130 mm Hg, other SPRINT eligibility criteria were met by 7.5% (95% CI 6.1-9.2) of those age diabetes mellitus, and 23.0% (95% CI 19.4-27.0) with history of stroke. Among US adults meeting the other SPRINT eligibility criteria, antihypertensive medication was being taken by 31.0% (95% CI 23.9-41.3) of those diabetes mellitus, and 68.9% (95% CI 59.4-77.1) with a history of stroke. A substantial percentage of US adults with diabetes mellitus or history of stroke and a small percentage <50 years old meet the other SPRINT eligibility criteria. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Substance Use and Mental Health Outcomes for Comorbid Patients in Psychiatric Day Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Magura

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study's purpose was to determine treatment outcomes for patients who present with drug use vs. those presenting with no drug use at admission to a psychiatric day treatment program. Consecutively admitted patients completed confidential interviews which included psychological distress and quality of life measures and provided urine specimens for toxicology at admission and six month follow-up. Subjects positive by past 30 day self-report or urinalysis were categorized as drug users. Major psychiatric diagnoses were: major depression 25%; bipolar, 13%; other mood 13%; schizoaffective 13%; schizophrenia 13%. Drug use at admission was: cocaine 35%; marijuana 33%; opiates 18%, (methamphetamines, 6% For each of these drugs, the percentage of patients positive at admission who remitted from using the drug significantly exceeded the percentage negative at baseline who initiated using the drug. Overall, there were significant decreases in psychological distress and significant improvement on quality of life, but no change on positive affect. There were no significant differences between drug users and non-drug users on symptom reduction and improvement in quality of life. Psychiatric day treatment appears to benefit comorbid patients by reducing the net number of patients who actively use certain common drugs and by improving psychological status and quality of life to the same degree as for non-drug using patients.

  12. [Bronchial thermoplasty; a new treatment modality in asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Erdoğan

    2014-01-01

    Bronchial thermoplasty is a non-drug treatment modality for moderate-to-severe asthma that involves the delivery of radio frequency energy to the airway wall in a precisely controlled manner to reduce excessive airway smooth muscle. Bronchial thermoplasty is performed under conscious sedation and completed in three bronchoscopy sessions, each lasting less than one hour, and each spaced apart by about three weeks. Bronchial thermoplasty has been demonstrated to reduce severe exacerbations, emergency rooms visits for respiratory symptoms, and time lost from work, school and other daily activities and improve asthma control and quality of life in patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. Adequate patient management is important for patient comfort and safety. In this review, we aim to discuss clinical studies , the evidence for the efficacy of bronchial thermoplasty, the importance of careful patient selection, patient preparation, patient management, procedure.

  13. Catalog of type specimens of recent mammals: orders Didelphimorpha through Chiroptera (Excluding Rodentia) in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert D.; Ludwig, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    The type collection of Recent Mammals in the Division of Mammals, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, contains 820 specimens bearing names of 809 species-group taxa of Didelphimorphia through Chiroptera, excluding Rodentia, as of June 2014. This catalog presents an annotated list of these holdings comprised of 788 holotypes, 26 lectotypes, 11 syntypes (22 specimens), and 4 neotypes. Included are several specimens that should be in the collection but cannot be found or are now known to be in other collections. One hundred and twenty-seven of the names are new since the last type catalog covering these orders, Poole and Schantz (1942). Five specimens reported in Poole and Schantz (1942) were subsequently sent to the Vertebrate Paleontology collection and are not included here. Orders and families are ordered as in Wilson and Reeder (2005); within families, currently recognized genera are arranged alphabetically; within each currently recognized genus, accounts are arranged alphabetically by original published name. Information in each account includes original name and abbreviated citation thereto, current name if other than original, citation for first use of current name combination for the taxon (or new name combination if used herein for the first time), type designation, U.S. National Museum catalog number(s), preparation, age and sex, date of collection and collector, original collector number, type locality, and remarks as appropriate. Digital photographs of each specimen will serve as a condition report and will be attached to each electronic specimen record.

  14. Trends in Deaths Involving Heroin and Synthetic Opioids Excluding Methadone, and Law Enforcement Drug Product Reports, by Census Region - United States, 2006-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Julie K; Gladden, R Matthew; Seth, Puja

    2017-09-01

    Opioid overdose deaths quadrupled from 8,050 in 1999 to 33,091 in 2015 and accounted for 63% of drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2015. During 2010-2015, heroin overdose deaths quadrupled from 3,036 to 12,989 (1). Sharp increases in the supply of heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF) are likely contributing to increased deaths (2-6). CDC examined trends in unintentional and undetermined deaths involving heroin or synthetic opioids excluding methadone (i.e., synthetic opioids)* by the four U.S. Census regions during 2006-2015. Drug exhibits (i.e., drug products) obtained by law enforcement and reported to the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA's) National Forensic Laboratory Information System (NFLIS) that tested positive for heroin or fentanyl (i.e., drug reports) also were examined. All U.S. Census regions experienced substantial increases in deaths involving heroin from 2006 to 2015. Since 2010, the South and West experienced increases in heroin drug reports, whereas the Northeast and Midwest experienced steady increases during 2006-2015. † In the Northeast, Midwest, and South, deaths involving synthetic opioids and fentanyl drug reports increased considerably after 2013. These broad changes in the U.S. illicit drug market highlight the urgent need to track illicit drugs and enhance public health interventions targeting persons using or at high risk for using heroin or IMF.

  15. Jane Austen's lifelong health problems and final illness: New evidence points to a fatal Hodgkin's disease and excludes the widely accepted Addison's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upfal, A

    2005-06-01

    Jane Austen is typically described as having excellent health until the age of 40 and the onset of a mysterious and fatal illness, initially identified by Sir Zachary Cope in 1964 as Addison's disease. Her biographers, deceived both by Cassandra Austen's destruction of letters containing medical detail, and the cheerful high spirits of the existing letters, have seriously underestimated the extent to which illness affected Austen's life. A medical history reveals that she was particularly susceptible to infection, and suffered unusually severe infective illnesses, as well as a chronic conjunctivitis that impeded her ability to write. There is evidence that Austen was already suffering from an immune deficiency and fatal lymphoma in January 1813, when her second and most popular novel, Pride and Prejudice, was published. Four more novels would follow, written or revised in the shadow of her increasing illness and debility. Whilst it is impossible now to conclusively establish the cause of her death, the existing medical evidence tends to exclude Addison's disease, and suggests there is a high possibility that Jane Austen's fatal illness was Hodgkin's disease, a form of lymphoma.

  16. Completion of hepatitis C virus replication cycle in heterokaryons excludes dominant restrictions in human non-liver and mouse liver cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Frentzen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is hepatotropic and only infects humans and chimpanzees. Consequently, an immunocompetent small animal model is lacking. The restricted tropism of HCV likely reflects specific host factor requirements. We investigated if dominant restriction factors expressed in non-liver or non-human cell lines inhibit HCV propagation thus rendering these cells non-permissive. To this end we explored if HCV completes its replication cycle in heterokaryons between human liver cell lines and non-permissive cell lines from human non-liver or mouse liver origin. Despite functional viral pattern recognition pathways and responsiveness to interferon, virus production was observed in all fused cells and was only ablated when cells were treated with exogenous interferon. These results exclude that constitutive or virus-induced expression of dominant restriction factors prevents propagation of HCV in these cell types, which has important implications for HCV tissue and species tropism. In turn, these data strongly advocate transgenic approaches of crucial human HCV cofactors to establish an immunocompetent small animal model.

  17. A review of New Zealand and southeast Australian echinothurioids (Echinodermata: Echinothurioida)-excluding the subfamily Echinothuriinae-with a description of a new species of Tromikosoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Owen F

    2016-03-17

    An examination of a large collection of echinothurioid echinoids (excluding the subfamily Echinothuriinae Thomson) from museum collections in New Zealand and Australia has expanded the known diversity of the group in New Zealand from three species in two genera to seven species in five genera, and revealed a new species in the genus Tromikosoma Mortensen.New records for New Zealand and Australia are reported for Sperosoma obscurum Agassiz and Clark, 1907 and S. nudum Shigei, 1978 and new records for New Zealand are reported for Tromikosoma australe (Koehler, 1922) and Kamptosoma asterias (A. Agassiz, 1881). Tromikosoma rugosum sp. nov., remarkable for its unusual wrinkled appearance and exceedingly thin test, is described from deep water in the northeast of New Zealand. No evidence for the existence of Phormosoma rigidum A. Agassiz, 1881 as a species separate from P. bursarium A. Agassiz, 1881 was found, and synonymy with P. bursarium is proposed.Previous records of these echinoid species were rare, as they live mostly in deep water (>1000 m), and three species were previously known from the type material alone. Tromikosoma rugosum sp. nov. now falls into that category, but new material of the other species greatly expands both the number of known records and their geographical distribution. The majority of these new records are from the New Zealand region, with several additional records from south-east Australia.An updated key to the echinothurioids of New Zealand is provided.

  18. Murine Tim-1 is excluded from the immunological synapse [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/QSgUx0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Lin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between T cells and APCs bearing cognate antigen results in the formation of an immunological synapse (IS. During this process, many receptors and signaling proteins segregate to regions proximal to the synapse. This protein movement is thought to influence T cell function. However, some proteins are transported away from the IS, which is controlled in part by ERM family proteins. Tim-1 is a transmembrane protein with co-stimulatory functions that is found on many immune cells, including T cells. However, the expression pattern of Tim-1 on T cells upon activation by APCs has not been explored. Interestingly, in this study we demonstrate that the majority of Tim-1 on activated T cells is excluded from the IS. Tim-1 predominantly resides outside of the IS, and structure/function studies indicate that the cytoplasmic tail influences Tim-1 polarization. Specifically, a putative ERM binding motif (KRK 244-246 in the Tim-1 cytoplasmic tail appears necessary for proper Tim-1 localization. Furthermore, mutation of the KRK motif results in enhanced early tyrosine phosphorylation downstream of TCR/CD28 stimulation upon ectopic expression of Tim-1. Paradoxically however, the KRK motif is necessary for Tim-1 co-stimulation of NFAT/AP-1 activation and co-stimulation of cytokine production. This work reveals unexpected complexity underlying Tim-1 localization and suggests potentially novel mechanisms by which Tim-1 modulates T cell activity.

  19. Role of nondrug methods in a package of measures for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Badalov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review represents the results of investigations into the role of nondrug methods in the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis (OA. The data available in the literature suggest that a number of non-drug technologies, first of all exercise therapy, aquatic therapy, reflexotherapy, electrical stimulation, and electromagnetic therapy, have proven efficiency and a certain potential for reducing the risk of osteoporosis and its complications and for improving bone metabolism. Expanding the range of these methods and increasing their validity for clinical introduction are very promising.

  20. clinico-pathologic characteristics and treatment outcomes in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-01

    Dec 1, 2009 ... CLINICO-PATHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT OUTCOMES OF CHILDREN WITH. NEUROBLASTOMA AT THE KENYATTA ... In a study involving 787 cases of childhood cancers at. KNH, (excluding ... value in neuroblastoma include the MYCN oncogene over expression, present in ...

  1. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav, E-mail: ryan.j.oelkers@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10{sup 3} au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10{sup 3} and 10{sup 5.5} au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  2. Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SLoWPoKES (GAMBLES): Identifying Ultra-wide Binary Pairs with Components of Diverse Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, Ryan J.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Dhital, Saurav

    2017-01-01

    The formation and evolution of binary star systems are some of the remaining key questions in modern astronomy. Wide binary pairs (separations >10 3 au) are particularly intriguing because their low binding energies make it difficult for the stars to stay gravitationally bound over extended timescales, and thus to probe the dynamics of binary formation and dissolution. Our previous SLoWPoKES catalogs, I and II, provided the largest and most complete sample of wide-binary pairs of low masses. Here we present an extension of these catalogs to a broad range of stellar masses: the Gaia Assorted Mass Binaries Long Excluded from SloWPoKES (GAMBLES), comprising 8660 statistically significant wide pairs that we make available in a living online database. Within this catalog we identify a subset of 543 long-lived (dissipation timescale >1.5 Gyr) candidate binary pairs, of assorted mass, with typical separations between 10 3 and 10 5.5 au (0.002–1.5 pc), using the published distances and proper motions from the Tycho -Gaia Astrometric Solution and Sloan Digital Sky Survey photometry. Each pair has at most a false positive probability of 0.05; the total expectation is 2.44 false binaries in our sample. Among these, we find 22 systems with 3 components, 1 system with 4 components, and 15 pairs consisting of at least 1 possible red giant. We find the largest long-lived binary separation to be nearly 3.2 pc; even so, >76% of GAMBLES long-lived binaries have large binding energies and dissipation lifetimes longer than 1.5 Gyr. Finally, we find that the distribution of binary separations is clearly bimodal, corroborating the findings from SloWPoKES and suggesting multiple pathways for the formation and dissipation of the widest binaries in the Galaxy.

  3. The candidate genes TAF5L, TCF7, PDCD1, IL6 and ICAM1 cannot be excluded from having effects in type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vella Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As genes associated with immune-mediated diseases have an increased prior probability of being associated with other immune-mediated diseases, we tested three such genes, IL23R, IRF5 and CD40, for an association with type 1 diabetes. In addition, we tested seven genes, TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7, IL12B, IL6, ICAM1 and TBX21, with published marginal or inconsistent evidence of an association with type 1 diabetes. Methods We genotyped reported polymorphisms of the ten genes, nonsynonymous SNPs (nsSNPs and, for the IL12B and IL6 regions, tag SNPs in up to 7,888 case, 8,858 control and 3,142 parent-child trio samples. In addition, we analysed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium genome-wide association study to determine whether there was any further evidence of an association in each gene region. Results We found some evidence of associations between type 1 diabetes and TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7 and IL6 (ORs = 1.05 – 1.13; P = 0.0291 – 4.16 × 10-4. No evidence of an association was obtained for IL12B, IRF5, IL23R, ICAM1, TBX21 and CD40, although there was some evidence of an association (OR = 1.10; P = 0.0257 from the genome-wide association study for the ICAM1 region. Conclusion We failed to exclude the possibility of some effect in type 1 diabetes for TAF5L, PDCD1, TCF7, IL6 and ICAM1. Additional studies, of these and other candidate genes, employing much larger sample sizes and analysis of additional polymorphisms in each gene and its flanking region will be required to ascertain their contributions to type 1 diabetes susceptibility.

  4. A plan to reduce volatile organic compound emissions from consumer products in Canada (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) : final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report highlights the recommendations made by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment for the development of a guideline to provide a means by which to reduce (VOC) emissions from consumer products (excluding windshield washer fluid and surface coatings) in Canada. VOCs and nitrogen oxides react photochemically in the presence of sunlight to create ground-level ozone, a primary component of urban smog which has a detrimental effect on human health, agricultural crops and building materials. In recent years, most urban areas of Canada have shown an annual increase in the maximum acceptable air quality levels for ground level ozone. Reducing emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from consumer products was first suggested in 1990 by the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment in phase one of their program entitled the 'Management plan for nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds'. Phase 2 of the program was implemented in 1997 to harmonize the emissions reduction program with the United States Environmental Protection Agency regulations. The Canadian Environmental Protection Agency (CEPA) recommended the following control options: (1) a CEPA guideline should be developed which states the maximum VOC and high-volatility organic compound (HVOC) content in Canadian consumer products including hair care products, herbicides, insecticides, air fresheners, deodorants, fungicides, surface cleaners, fragrance products, anti-microbial agents, laundry products and automotive detailing products. These limits should be identical to those found in the 1998 U.S. Final Rule for Consumer Products, (2) the CEPA guideline should require that records specifying VOC content in weight-per cent be maintained for a period of three years, (3) the CEPA guideline should include a declaration procedure for Canadian importers and manufacturers of consumer products to report to Environment Canada regarding the VOC content of their products, and

  5. 9 CFR 166.3 - Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation of swine from the garbage... Provisions § 166.3 Separation of swine from the garbage handling and treatment areas. (a) Access by swine to garbage handling and treatment areas shall be prevented by construction of facilities to exclude all ages...

  6. Model for End-stage Liver Disease excluding INR (MELD-XI score in critically ill patients: Easily available and of prognostic relevance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Wernly

    Full Text Available MELD-XI, an adapted version of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD score excluding INR, was reported to predict outcomes e.g. in patients with acute heart failure. We aimed to evaluate MELD-XI in critically ill patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU for prognostic relevance.A total of 4381 medical patients (66±14 years, 2862 male admitted to a German ICU between 2004 and 2009 were included and retrospectively investigated. Admission diagnoses were e.g. myocardial infarction (n = 2034, sepsis (n = 694 and heart failure (n = 688. We divided our patients in two cohorts basing on their MELD-XI score and evaluated the MELD-XI score for its prognostic relevance regarding short-term and long-term survival. Optimal cut-offs were calculated by means of the Youden-Index.Patients with a MELD-XI score >12 had pronounced laboratory signs of organ failure and more comorbidities. MELD-XI >12 was associated with an increase in short-term (27% vs 6%; HR 4.82, 95%CI 3.93-5.93; p<0.001 and long-term (HR 3.69, 95%CI 3.20-4.25; p<0.001 mortality. In a univariate Cox regression analysis for all patients MELD-XI was associated with increased long-term mortality (changes per score point: HR 1.06, 95%CI 1.05-1.07; p<0.001 and remained to be associated with increased mortality after correction in a multivariate regression analysis for renal failure, liver failure, lactate concentration, blood glucose concentration, oxygenation and white blood count (HR 1.04, 95%CI 1.03-1.06; p<0.001. Optimal cut-off for the overall cohort was 11 and varied remarkably depending on the admission diagnosis: myocardial infarction (9, pulmonary embolism (9, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (17 and pneumonia (17. We performed ROC-analysis and compared the AUC: SAPS2 (0.78, 95%CI 0.76-0.80; p<0.0001 and APACHE (0.76, 95%CI 0.74-0.78; p<0.003 score were superior to MELD-XI (0.71, 95%CI 0.68-0.73 for prediction of mortality.The easily calculable MELD-XI score is a robust and reliable

  7. Bone marrow transplantation from genetically HLA-nonidentical donors in children with fatal inherited disorders excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies: use of two monoclonal antibodies to prevent graft rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabado, N; Le Deist, F; Cant, A; De Graeff-Meeders, E R; Fasth, A; Morgan, G; Vellodi, A; Hale, G; Bujan, W; Thomas, C; Cavazzana-Calvo, M; Wijdenes, J; Fischer, A

    1996-09-01

    For children with life-threatening inborn errors of metabolism without a matched related bone marrow donor, transplantation from an HLA genetically nonidentical donor is the only therapeutic option. To reduce the high risk of graft rejection in this setting without increasing the conditioning regimen, a protocol based on the infusion of an antiadhesion antibody directed against the CD11a (leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) molecule was performed by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group with promising results. To optimize engraftment, and thereby survival, further, the additional blockade of a second important leukocyte adhesion and signalization pathway mediated by the CD2 and LFA-3 interaction was attempted in a multicenter protocol conducted by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group. Results of this study (ie, engraftment and survival) were compared with a historical control group that received the anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. Factors that may have affected engraftment and survival were also considered in this study. Forty-four children with inborn errors, including inherited immunodeficiencies (excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies), Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and malignant osteopetrosis, received bone marrow from HLA-nonidentical related donors or from HLA-identical unrelated donors at 13 European centers between August 1990 and June 1993. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by use of either erythrocyte (E) rosetting or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to prevent graft-versus-host disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide for all patients plus etoposide for patients with osteopetrosis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Infusions of MoAbs specific for the CD11a and the CD2 molecules were started 4 and 3 days, respectively, before and

  8. A Novel Polymyxin Derivative That Lacks the Fatty Acid Tail and Carries Only Three Positive Charges Has Strong Synergism with Agents Excluded by the Intact Outer Membrane▿

    OpenAIRE

    Vaara, Martti; Siikanen, Osmo; Apajalahti, Juha; Fox, John; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; He, Hui; Poudyal, Anima; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L.; Vaara, Timo

    2010-01-01

    Polymyxins are cationic lipopeptides (five cationic charges) and the last resort for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections caused by multiresistant strains. NAB741 has a cyclic peptide portion identical to that of polymyxin B but carries in the linear peptide portion a threonyl-d-serinyl residue (no cationic charges) instead of the diaminobutyryl-threonyl-diaminobutyryl residue (two cationic charges). At the N terminus of the peptide, NAB741 carries an acetyl group instead of a mi...

  9. PROSE treatment of corneal ectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Inna; Bradley, James A; Alipour, Fateme; Rosenthal, Perry; Le, Hong-Gam; Jacobs, Deborah S

    2012-10-01

    Prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) uses custom designed and fabricated prosthetic devices in a treatment that restores vision, supports healing, reduces symptoms and improves quality of life in patients with complex corneal disease. We report the success rate for PROSE treatment of corneal ectasia. Records of 59 patients with corneal ectasia seen in consultation over 6 months were reviewed. Candidacy for treatment, topographic indices, change in visual acuity, achievement of satisfactory fit, device wear status and change in visual function at 6 months were recorded. Sixteen eyes were non-candidates because conventional correction was adequate. Trial devices were inserted but not dispensed for 13 eyes. No eyes were excluded for severity of ectasia. In the remaining 89 eyes, satisfactory fit was achieved and a device was dispensed. Twenty-one eyes (15 patients) had undergone penetrating keratoplasty. Device wear at 6 months was documented in 78/89 eyes (88%). NEI VFQ-25 score improved 27.6 points (pcorneal ectasia could be fitted with a PROSE device. PROSE treatment has a high success rate when measured by ability to achieve satisfactory fit, impact on visual acuity and 6 month data on both rate of continued wear and impact on visual function. PROSE treatment is an alternative to penetrating keratoplasty for patients with corneal ectasia who are contact lens intolerant. Copyright © 2012 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of Medicaid policies on the diagnosis and treatment of children's mental health problems in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lesley J

    2015-02-01

    Primary care physicians play a substantial role in diagnosing and treating children's mental health disorders, but Medicaid managed care policies may limit these physicians' ability to serve low-income children. Using data from the universe of Medicaid recipients in three states, I evaluate how Medicaid managed care policies impact primary care diagnosis and treatment of children's mental health disorders. Specific policies examined include the presence of a behavioral carve-out, traditional health maintenance organization, or primary care case management program. To alleviate concerns of endogenous patient sorting, my preferred identification strategy uses variation in Medicaid policy penetration to instrument for individual plan choices. I show that while health maintenance organizations reduce diagnosis and non-drug treatment of mental health disorders, primary care case management program policies shift in diagnosis and treatment from within primary care to specialist providers such as psychiatrists, where serious mental health conditions are more likely to be identified. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Treatment Wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Dotro, Gabriela; Langergraber, Günter; Molle, Pascal; Nivala, Jaime; Puigagut, Jaume; Stein, Otto; Von Sperling, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    Overview of Treatment Wetlands; Fundamentals of Treatment Wetlands; Horizontal Flow Wetlands; Vertical Flow Wetlands; French Vertical Flow Wetlands; Intensified and Modified Wetlands; Free Water Surface Wetlands; Other Applications; Additional Aspects.

  12. Depression Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Infertility White Paper CDC Programs and Activities Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) Depression Among Women Depression Treatment ... department for emergency medical treatment. Call the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (8255), ...

  13. Stroke Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Month Infographic Stroke Hero F.A.S.T. Quiz Stroke Treatment Stroke used to rank fourth in leading causes of ... type of treatment depends on the type of stroke. Ischemic stroke happens when a clot blocks a ...

  14. Treatment of Glioblastoma in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Kelly; Ahluwalia, Manmeet S

    2017-10-26

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor diagnosed in the USA and is associated with a poor prognosis. The outcomes in elderly patients (more than 65 years of age) are worse when compared to those younger than age 65 at the time of diagnosis. Older patients are not always offered treatments that would otherwise be considered standard of care due to comorbidities and concerns about toxicity and tolerability. The initial European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer study that led to approval of temozolomide in glioblastoma excluded patients more than 70 years of age. This review outlines challenges that arise in the treatment of glioblastoma in the elderly population and discusses results of recent studies that established the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in addition to radiation and surgery. There is evidence that these patients can benefit from a more aggressive and safe resection, from hypofractionated radiation treatments, and from adjuvant temozolomide.

  15. Treatment Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heckman, James J.; Lopes, Hedibert F.; Piatek, Rémi

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the emerging Bayesian literature on treatment effects. It derives treatment parameters in the framework of a potential outcomes model with a treatment choice equation, where the correlation between the unobservable components of the model is driven by a low-dimensional v...... easily be applied....

  16. Prognostic value of O‐6‐methylguanine–DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) protein expression in glioblastoma excluding nontumour cells from the analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Dowsett, Joseph; Fosmark, Sigurd

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: It is important to predict response to treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. Both MGMT protein expression and MGMT promoter methylation have been reported to predict the response to TMZ. We investigated the prognostic value of quantified MGMT protein levels...... in tumour cells and the prognostic importance of combining information of MGMT protein level and MGMT promoter methylations status. METHODS: MGMT protein expression was quantified in tumour cells in 171 GBMs from the population-based Region of Southern Denmark (RSD)-cohort using a double immunofluorescence.......5, P = 0.01). Similar results were observed in the subgroup of patients receiving the Stupp regimen (HR 2.0, P = 0.001). In the NS-cohort a trend towards superior survival (HR 1.6, P = 0.08) was seen in patients with AF-low. Including MGMT promoter methylation status, we found for both cohorts...

  17. Complete resolution of systemic venous baffle obstruction and baffle leak using the Gore Excluder covered stent in two patients with transposition of the great arteries and prior Mustard procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kevin D; Fudge, J Curt; Rhodes, John F

    2010-11-15

    We present two patients with a history of Mustard repair of transposition of the great arteries. Both patients presented with exertional limitation and demonstrated superior systemic venous baffle obstruction as well as multiple baffle leaks. In both patients stent relief of obstruction and baffle leak exclusion was accomplished using a combination of bare metal stents and the aortic extension portion of the Gore Excluder covered stent (W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, Arizona). Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. First report of closantel treatment failure against Fasciola hepatica in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Novobilský

    2015-12-01

    Closantel treatment failure was confirmed on two of the farms. As the animals were housed 12–16 weeks before treatment and thereafter during the entire study, failure due to the presence of juvenile flukes was excluded. Although the cause of closantel failure currently remains unclear, development of resistance or/and absorption failure of topical administration should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first report of closantel treatment failure against F. hepatica in cattle.

  19. A qualitative study of transgender individuals? experiences in residential addiction treatment settings: stigma and inclusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Tara; Shannon, Kate; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Kr?si, Andrea; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background While considerable research has been undertaken on addiction treatment, the experiences of transgender individuals who use drugs are rarely explored in such research, as too often transgender individuals are excluded entirely or grouped with those of sexual minority groups. Consequently, little is known about the treatment experiences in this population. Thus, we sought to qualitatively investigate the residential addiction treatment experiences of transgender individuals who us...

  20. Osteoporosis treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazianas, Michael; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The findings of the Women's Health Initiative study in 2002 marginalized the use of hormone replacement therapy and established bisphosphonates as the first line of treatment for osteoporosis. Denosumab could be used in selected patients. Although bisphosphonates only maintain the structure of bone...... to their benefits/harm ratio. Treatment of osteoporosis is a long process, and many patients will require treatment with more than one type of drug over their lifetime....

  1. Safety evaluation of combination toceranib phosphate (Palladia®) and piroxicam in tumour-bearing dogs (excluding mast cell tumours): a phase I dose-finding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, E; McCartan, L; Kubicek, L N; Vail, D M

    2012-09-01

    Toceranib phosphate and piroxicam have individually demonstrated antineoplastic activity. Additionally, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory therapy is often warranted in aged cancer-bearing dogs for management of osteoarthritis comorbidity. As concurrent use may be warranted for a given individual and the adverse event (AE) profile for each can be overlapping (gastrointestinal), a phase I trial was performed in tumour-bearing (non-mast cell) dogs to establish the safety of the combination using a standard 3+3 cohort design. Five dose-escalating cohorts, up to and including approved label dosage for toceranib and standard dosage for piroxicam, were completed without observing a frequency of dose-limiting AEs necessitating cohort closure. Therefore, the combination of standard dosages of both drugs (toceranib, 3.25 mg kg(-1), every other day; piroxicam, 0.3 mg kg(-1) daily) is generally safe. Several antitumour responses were observed. As with single-agent toceranib, label-indicated treatment holidays and dose reductions (e.g. 2.5-2.75 mg kg(-1)) may occasionally be required owing to gastrointestinal events. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Effect of Thin Prep® imaging system on laboratory rate and relative sensitivity of atypical squamous cells, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke R Koltz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Automated screening of Thin Prep ® Papanicolaou Tests has become increasingly common in clinical practice. Increased productivity has initiated laboratory use of the Thin Prep ® Imaging System (TIS. Increased sensitivity is a potential additional benefit of TIS. Published studies have shown an increase in discovery of dysplastic cells. This study evaluates the effect of TIS on the incidence of atypical squamous cells high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion not excluded (ASC-H and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL results on Thin Prep ® Pap Tests by comparing TIS-assisted and manual screening findings and the diagnoses on subsequent follow-up in a screening population over a 1-year time period. Materials and Methods: A compilation of all ASC-H and HGSIL cases was prepared by conducting a computerized search over a 1-year period (7/06-6/07. The accumulated cases include Thin Prep Pap tests that were both TIS and manually screened. Follow-up results of cytologic and histologic cervical specimens were obtained for a time period extending to 2010. Interpretation utilizing TIS was in place 10 months prior to the study′s initiation. Results: During the study period 70,522 Pap tests were performed in our laboratory. One third (33% of Pap tests were screened with assistance of TIS. Manual screening was performed on 47,380 Pap tests of which 153 (0.32% were interpreted as ASC-H and 164 (0.35% were interpreted as HGSIL. During the same time period automated screening (TIS was performed on 23,111 Pap tests. Interpretation of 62 (0.27% cases provided an ASC-H result, while 71 (0.31% were HGSIL. Follow-up cervical dysplasia by colposcopic biopsy and cone biopsy was distributed proportionally between TIS and manual screening for both ASC-H and HGSIL categories. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN II/III was identified on follow-up biopsy of 41% TIS cases and 45% manually screened cases for ASC-H. In the HGSIL subset 71

  3. The importance of images in radiotherapy treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Felipe; Usuga, Franz

    2007-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in developed countries excluding skin cancer. Its treatment (surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy) has evolved enormously allowing less radical treatments and improving the rates of local control and global survival. Furthermore, new technologies in diagnostic imaging have contributed greatly to the advance of radiotherapy treatments through a more precise definition of tumor, tumor channel, lymph nodes compromise, and organs at risk. with techniques such as conformal radiotherapy, IMRT, or radiotherapy guided by imaging, the toxicity have been diminished with equal or better local and regional control

  4. A novel polymyxin derivative that lacks the fatty acid tail and carries only three positive charges has strong synergism with agents excluded by the intact outer membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Martti; Siikanen, Osmo; Apajalahti, Juha; Fox, John; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; He, Hui; Poudyal, Anima; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Vaara, Timo

    2010-08-01

    Polymyxins are cationic lipopeptides (five cationic charges) and the last resort for the treatment of serious Gram-negative infections caused by multiresistant strains. NAB741 has a cyclic peptide portion identical to that of polymyxin B but carries in the linear peptide portion a threonyl-D-serinyl residue (no cationic charges) instead of the diaminobutyryl-threonyl-diaminobutyryl residue (two cationic charges). At the N terminus of the peptide, NAB741 carries an acetyl group instead of a mixture of methyl octanoyl and methyl heptanoyl residues. NAB741 sensitized Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Acinetobacter baumannii to antibiotics against which the intact outer membrane is an effective permeability barrier. When tested by using Etest strips on plates containing increasing concentrations of NAB741, the fractional inhibition concentration index (FICI) of the combination of NAB741 with rifampin ranged from

  5. [Appliance of viscosupplementation in osteoarthritis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlak, Tonko; Jungić, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    Viscosupplementation or intraarticular appliance of hyaluronic acid is one of the methods in the treatment of patients with OA. Application is indicated in OA grade I-III according to Kellgren. Medical devices of hyaluronic acid, present on Croatian market, are produced by extraction from rooster combs or by biofermentation from nonpathogenic streptococcus strains. Boifermentative production excludes present of animal origin proteins and prions in medical device, same as possibility of unwanted alergic reactions appearance. Numerous researches have proved that this kind of treatment is safe, effective, well tolerated and it can be repeated if needed. Alleviation of the symptoms is proved up to one year after the last i.a. injection of hyaluronic acid. Appliance of viscosupplementation significantly slows down progression of OA and more invasive treatment methods are usually prolonged or delayed.

  6. Antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify whether antihypertensive treatment has any effect on the rate of progression of kidney disease in patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy. Six insulin-dependent diabetic men with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin excretion above 15 micrograms....../min and total protein excretion below 0.5 g/24 h) were first given metoprolol (200 mg daily) with the subsequent addition of hydroflumethiazide. At the start of antihypertensive treatment, mean patient age was 32 +/- 4.2 years (SD) and mean duration of diabetes was 18 +/- 1.2 years. The patients were followed...... with repeated measurements of urinary albumin excretion for a mean of 5.4 +/- 3.1 years prior to, and for 4.7 +/- 1.3 years (SD) during treatment. Mean arterial blood pressure declined significantly during treatment, e.g., the values at 6 months before initiation of treatment being compared with values during...

  7. Accelerated treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, H T

    1985-05-01

    In the first third of this century, the prevailing concept was that malignant cells had a brief period of sensitivity and radiation treatments were ideally given in overall times of 2 weeks or less. Following the Second World War, routine treatment times were extended to 5 to 8 weeks to avoid severe acute normal tissue reactions and achieve higher tumor doses. In reaction to these prolonged overall times, a series of large-fraction, shortened-overall-time clinical experiments were attempted, with disastrous normal tissue effects and poor tumor control. More recently, attempts to accelerate treatment have been accomplished by utilizing multiple fractions per day or semicontinuous irradiation. Unfortunately, the majority of these attempts have been forced by the occurrence of unacceptable normal tissue reactions to significantly reduce total dose or introduce lengthy splits in treatment. These results suggest that in our current state of knowledge accelerated schedules be reserved for use in the treatment of rapidly proliferating neoplasms or for palliation.

  8. Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ali H.; Al-Saeed, Samar H.; Al-Maghlouth, Basma A.; Bahammam, Maha A.; Linjawi, Amal I.; El-Bialy, Tarek H.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review the literature to assess the quality of evidence related to corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment (CAOT) as adjunctive treatment in orthodontics. Methods: The study was conducted in the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2013 and 2014. Various electronic databases were searched and abstracts were retrieved. Defined inclusion criteria were then applied to the obtained original articles for further evaluation by 2 examiners independently. The criteria of selection included human, or animal studies, which assessed some aspects of CAOT and/or the biological principles behind it. Case reports and series were excluded. The quality of the studies was evaluated by the methodological score for clinical trials developed. Results: Fourteen articles were retrieved initially, but only 12 articles were finally selected for the study. The CAOT was found to accelerate tooth movement by 2-2.5 folds when compared with conventional orthodontic tooth movement. The CAOT was found safe on periodontal health and exhibits no or little risk of root resorption. A localized turnover of alveolar spongiosa and the absence of a hyalinized zone was the acceptable biological explanation of CAOT. There is no evidence to support that CAOT enhances the movement of ankylosed teeth, closing old extraction sites, post-orthodontic stability, or transverse expansion. Conclusions: Corticotomy-assisted orthodontic treatment should be considered with caution. Long term randomized clinical trials are still needed. PMID:26108582

  9. TACROLIMUS OINTMENT FOR TREATMENT OF VKC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navin Chandra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC is a bilateral recurrent chronic allergy inflammatory disorder of ocular surface, which is seasonally exacerbated mostly involving tarsal and bulbar conjunctiva in chronic and severe cases involves cornea as well. Affects mostly children and young adults with male predominance. Tacrolimus (FK-506 is a highly potent immune modulatory agent produced by the fungus Streptomyces tsukubaensis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective, nonrandomised case series enrolled 20 patients (40 eyes with severe VKC who were treated with tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. The mean age of the patients was 18.25 ± 4.2 years (range, 9-31 years. Each patient completed a follow-up period of at least 12 months. The main outcome measure was the clinical response to treatment. RESULTS Significant improvements in clinical signs and symptoms were achieved in all patients 6 weeks after starting treatment with topical tacrolimus. Treatment was gradually reduced with increasing intervals between applications. VKC recurred in all patients who attempted to discontinue treatment. No additional medications were required and no significant changes in visual acuity or refraction were documented. Five patients discontinued treatment due to a severe burning sensation and were excluded from the study. CONCLUSION Tacrolimus 0.1% ointment is a safe and effective treatment for VKC refractory to standard treatment and maybe used as a substitute for steroid treatments used to controlled-disease activity. However, adverse effects could cause poor patient compliance.

  10. Waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.; Hooper, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of wastes, such as liquid radioactive effluents, it is known to remove radionuclides by successive in situ precipitation of cobalt sulphide, an hydroxide, barium sulphate and a transition element ferrocyanide, followed by separation of the thereby decontaminated effluent. In this invention, use is made of precipitates such as obtained above in the treatment of further fresh liquid radioactive effluent, when it is found that the precipitates have additional capacity for extracting radionuclides. The resulting supernatant liquor may then be subjected to a further precipitation treatment such as above. Decontamination factors for radionuclides of Ce, Ru, Sr and Cs have been considerably enhanced. (author)

  11. Tuberculosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabahi, Marcelo Fouad; da Silva, José Laerte Rodrigues; Ferreira, Anna Carolina Galvão; Tannus-Silva, Daniela Graner Schuwartz; Conde, Marcus Barreto

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tuberculosis treatment remains a challenge due to the need to consider, when approaching it, the context of individual and collective health. In addition, social and economic issues have been shown to be variables that need to be considered when it comes to treatment effectiveness. We conducted a critical review of the national and international literature on the treatment of tuberculosis in recent years with the aims of presenting health care workers with recommendations based on the situation in Brazil and better informing decision-making regarding tuberculosis patients so as to minimize morbidity and interrupt disease transmission. PMID:29340497

  12. Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studied for lupus Many drugs, both old and new, are now being studied in people with lupus. article Complementary treatments for pain Although many pain relief medications exist, it can be useful to know other ...

  13. Rotavirus Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rotavirus Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rotavirus Home About Rotavirus Symptoms Transmission Prevention Treatment Photos ...

  14. Tuberculosis Treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Knowledge, Attitude and Compliance with ... Half of the respondents (49%) had average knowledge of TB treatment. Majority of the ..... Bank poverty assessment of Zambia has a household food security implication and is based on the cost of.

  15. Wastewater Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  16. Mechanisms of anorexia-cachexia syndrome and rational for treatment with selective ghrelin receptor agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Gelao, Lucia; Pravettoni, Gabriella; Locatelli, Marzia; Minchella, Ida; Di Leo, Maria; Liuzzi, Rita; Milani, Alessandra; Massaro, Mariangela; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-11-01

    Cancer cachexia is a multi-organ, multifactorial and often irreversible syndrome affecting many patients with cancer. Cancer cachexia is invariably associated with weight loss, mainly from loss of skeletal muscle and body fat, conditioning a reduced quality of life due to asthenia, anorexia, anaemia and fatigue. Treatment options for treating cancer cachexia are limited. The approach is multimodal and may include: treatment of secondary gastrointestinal symptoms, nutritional treatments, drug, and non-drug treatments. Nutritional counselling and physical training may be beneficial in delaying or preventing the development of anorexia-cachexia. However, these interventions are limited in their effect, and no definitive pharmacological treatment is available to address the relevant components of the syndrome. Anamorelin is a first-in-class, orally active ghrelin receptor agonist that binds and stimulates the growth hormone secretagogue receptor centrally, thereby mimicking the appetite-enhancing and anabolic effects of ghrelin. It represents a new class of drug and an additional treatment option for this patient group, whose therapeutic options are currently limited. In this review we examine the mechanisms of anamorelin by which it contrasts catabolic states, its role in regulation of metabolism and energy homeostasis, the data of recent trials in the setting of cancer cachexia and its safety profile. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics,

  18. Large cavernous hemangioma of the adrenal gland: Laparoscopic treatment. Report of a case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Agrusa

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is considered the standard treatment in case of diagnosis of benign lesions. In this case report we discussed a large adrenal cavernous hemangioma treated with laparoscopic approach. Fundamental is the study of preoperative endocrine disorders and radiologic findings to exclude signs of malignancy.

  19. Randomized phase II study of paclitaxel/carboplatin intercalated with gefitinib compared to paclitaxel/carboplatin alone for chemotherapy-naïve non-small cell lung cancer in a clinically selected population excluding patients with non-smoking adenocarcinoma or mutated EGFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Ji; Lee, Dae Ho; Choi, Chang Min; Lee, Jung Shin; Lee, Seung Jin; Ahn, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sang-We

    2015-01-01

    Considering cell cycle dependent cytotoxicity, intercalation of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) may be a treatment option in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This randomized phase 2 study compared the efficacy of paclitaxel and carboplatin (PC) intercalated with gefitinib (G) versus PC alone in a selected, chemotherapy-naïve population of advanced NSCLC patients with a history of smoking or wild-type EGFR. Eligible patients were chemotherapy-naïve advanced NSCLC patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0—2. Non-smoking patients with adenocarcinoma or patients with activating EGFR mutation were excluded because they could benefit from gefitinib alone. Eligible patients were randomized to one of the following treatment arms: PCG, P 175 mg/m 2 , and C AUC 5 administered intravenously on day 1 intercalated with G 250 mg orally on days 2 through 15 every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by G 250 mg orally until progressive disease; or PC, same dosing schedule for four cycles only. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR), and the secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity profile. A total of 90 patients participated in the study. The ORRs were 41.9 % (95 % confidence interval (CI) 27.0–57.9 %) for the PCG arm and 39.5 % (95 % CI 25.0–55.6 %) for the PC arm (P = 0.826). No differences in PFS (4.1 vs. 4.1 months, P = 0.781) or OS (9.3 vs. 10.5 months, P = 0.827) were observed between the PCG and PC arms. Safety analyses showed a similar incidence of drug-related grade 3/4 toxicity. Rash and pruritus were more frequent in the PCG than in the PC arm. PCG did not improve ORR, PFS, and OS compared to PC chemotherapy alone for NSCLC in a clinically selected population excluding non-smoking adenocarcinoma or mutated EGFR. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01196234). Registration date is 08/09/2010

  20. Treatment Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie; Krystal, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol dependence and associated health problems traditionally has been based on gaining a better understanding of the neuroscience underlying alcohol-drinking behavior. To date, three medications have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (Revia®, Vivitrol®, and Naltrel®), and acamprosate (Campral®). However, these medications have modest efficacy, and there is a great need for newer medications that target different neurochemical systems and which could be used either as adjunctive treatments or to treat subpopulations of drinkers. Furthermore, it also is important to improve current treatment options by understanding and incorporating differences in how people with certain genes respond to medication (i.e., pharmacogenetic differences). PMID:23584013

  1. [Dietary treatment of celiac disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvik, A; Fluge, G; Dybdahl, J H; Holsdal, E R; Ek, J; Røhme, R; Dahl, R

    1999-05-20

    Life-long gluten-free diet is the established therapy of coeliac disease. Patients suffering from dermatitis herpetiformis benefit from the same treatment. In Norway the gluten-free diet has excluded oats as well as wheat, rye and barley. The basis for this recommendation was a 1972 report indicating that ten out of 23 children consuming oats as part of their gluten-free diet for at least 18 months developed signs of damage to the intestinal mucosa. During the last decades, the clinical picture of coeliac disease has changed as a result of better diagnostic tools. Controlled clinical trials during the last few years indicate that some patients may tolerate small amounts of oats in their gluten-free diet. As a consequence, patients may be confused with regard to what dietary regime is recommended in coeliac disease. Compliance with gluten-free diet is important to secure growth and development, the all-round condition, fertility, bone density and a reduced risk of nutrient deficiency and malignancy. Consensus on dietary treatment is essential. A number of controlled trials are under way and the outcome of these studies will in a few years determine whether oats might be included in the standard gluten-free diet. So far oats are not recommended. The physician who makes the diagnosis is responsible for all patients getting adequate dietary counselling and management. Dietary advice given by health personnel must be consistent.

  2. 42 CFR 409.49 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... benefit. (1) A drug is any chemical compound that may be used on or administered to humans or animals as... pain or suffering or to control or improve any physiological pathologic condition. (2) A biological is...

  3. 42 CFR 403.768 - Excluded services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... PROVISIONS SPECIAL PROGRAMS AND PROJECTS Religious Nonmedical Health Care Institutions-Benefits, Conditions... that is not a RNHCI. (b) A supplier who is not providing RNHCI designated items under arrangement with...

  4. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    OpenAIRE

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered ‘improved sanitation’ or, in the current terminology, ‘basic sanitation’ by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapte...

  5. Shared sanitation: to include or to exclude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Duncan

    2016-05-01

    Just over 600 million people used shared sanitation in 2015, but this form of sanitation is not considered 'improved sanitation' or, in the current terminology, 'basic sanitation' by WHO/UNICEF, principally because they are typically unhygienic. Recent research has shown that neighbour-shared toilets perform much better than large communal toilets. The successful development of community-designed, built and managed sanitation-and-water blocks in very poor urban areas in India should be adapted and adopted throughout urban slums in developing countries, with a caretaker employed to keep the facilities clean. Such shared sanitation should be classified as 'basic', sometimes as 'safely-managed', sanitation, so contributing to the achievement of the sanitation target of the Sustainable Development Goals. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. University engagement with socially excluded communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Benneworth, P.

    2012-01-01

    There appears to be an almost overwhelming consensus that an increasingly important element of the role of universities in contemporary society is to provide useful knowledge and contribute to emerging societal problems. However, the scale of the academic analysis to date has been surprising in its

  7. Producing the voice of socially excluded people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houborg, Esben

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the practices of outreach workers, when they try to build bridges between drug addicts and homeless people living in the streets and welfare and health care institutions. The article uses tools from discourse analysis and governmentality analysis......An investigation of the practices of outreach workers, when they try to build bridges between drug addicts and homeless people living in the streets and welfare and health care institutions. The article uses tools from discourse analysis and governmentality analysis...

  8. 143 OUR GRANDMOTHERS, EXCLUDED FROM HISTORY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brings the initiate into a new life, roles, status and expectations. They do not only mark the transition between an individual's life stages but they reinforce the dominant religious views and values of a culture. In other words, they reinforce the world view of a people. Remarkeably, women are at the fore front of all these yet, ...

  9. 21 CFR 1310.08 - Excluded transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Colombia (6) Ecuador (7) French Guiana (8) Guyana (9) Panama (10) Paraguay (11) Peru (12) Suriname (13) Uruguay (14) Venezuela (c) Domestic transactions of Methyl Isobutyl Ketone (MIBK). (d) Import transactions...

  10. Hospital based Treatment for Internet Addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gioka, Sophia; Kefaliakos, Antonis; Ioannou, Andriani; Mechili, Aggelos; Diomidous, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The importance of recognizing the symptoms of Internet addiction constitutes the first step for treatment. Internet use can be pathological, and the percentage of addicted people is increasing while people become dependent on technology and Internet continues to develop. This study is a systematic litterature review. An electronic literature search was conducted using as keywords internet addiction, psychological implications, internet abuse etc. to the following databases: Medline, PubMed and Google Schoolar. The majority of research was conducted in Europe and in North America. We found 20 surveys. 9 were excluded on the basis of screening due to full text articles were not available. The final number of included surveys was 11. Hospitals and clinics have to emerge with outpatient treatment services for Internet addiction recovery, and in some cases there may be a need for addiction rehabilitation centers as admitted from people with Internet addiction into inpatient care.

  11. Environmental Consequences of Pig Slurry Treatment Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Hoeve, Marieke

    Manure is a valuable fertiliser since it contains nutrients that are crucial for crop growth. Furthermore soil quality might be maintained or improved by the use of manure instead of mineral fertiliser, due to the presence of organic matter in manure. On the other hand, emissions to the environment...... occur during manure storage and after field application. The main emissions are ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrate, phosphorus and odour. Slurry treatment technologies have been and are being developed in order to reduce the environmental impacts of manure. However, it is important...... and excluding biogenic carbon, marine and freshwater eutrophication potential, terrestrial acidification and eutrophication potential, and fossil resource depletion potential. The different types of treatment technologies showed varying environmental profiles, meaning that one type of technology was beneficial...

  12. Scabies Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Scabies Treatment Page Content Article Body Scabies is caused by a microscopic mite that burrows ... deposits its eggs. The rash that results from scabies is actually a reaction to the mite’s body, ...

  13. PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIKANAI-YASUDA, Maria Aparecida

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Considered to be an emerging endemic mycosis in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis is characterized by a chronic course and involvement of multiple organs in immunocompromised hosts. Infection sequelae are mainly related to pulmonary and adrenal insufficiency. The host-parasite interaction results in different expressions of the immune response depending on parasite pathogenicity, fungal load and genetic characteristics of the host. A few controlled and case series reports have shown that azoles and fast-acting sulfa derivatives are useful treatment alternatives in milder forms of the disease. For moderate/severe cases, more prolonged treatments or even parenteral routes are required especially when there is involvement of the digestive tract mucosa, resulting in poor drug absorption. Although comparative studies have reported that shorter treatment regimens with itraconazole are able to induce cure in chronically-infected patients, there are still treatment challenges such as the need for more controlled studies involving acute cases, the search for new drugs and combinations, and the search for compounds capable of modulating the immune response in severe cases as well as the paradoxical reactions. PMID:26465367

  14. WATER TREATMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, R.W.; Conley, W.R. Jr.

    1962-12-01

    An automated system for adding clarifying chemicals to water in a water treatment plant is described. To a sample of the floc suspension polyacrylamide or similar filter aid chemicals are added, and the sample is then put through a fast filter. The resulting filtrate has the requisite properties for monitoring in an optical turbidimeter to control the automated system. (AEC)

  15. Scabies: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present more than 2 to 4 weeks after treatment or if new burrows or pimple-like rash lesions continue to appear, retreatment may be necessary. Skin sores that become infected should be treated with an appropriate antibiotic prescribed by a doctor. Related Links For Health ...

  16. Subacute neuronopathy in a young man: a possible association with tetracycline treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Vrethem

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A young man with subacute neuronopathy following tetracycline treatment is described. The symptoms started as a sensory dorsal root affection but by time also involved motor nerves. He developed a severe sensory ataxia with pseudoathetotic movements. Other possible aetiologies were scrutinized and excluded. Tetracycline induced neuronopathy is hitherto not reported in the literature. We propose a possible association between treatment with tetracycline and the development of sensory neuronopathy in this patient.

  17. Recommendations for standardized diagnostics, treatment and following care in tumor diseases. Geriatric patient with tumor disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagmueller, E.; Neises, M.; Queisser, W.; Richter, H.; Schneider, G.

    2001-01-01

    The recommendations for the treatment of geriatric patients with tumor disease, presented in the paper, cover: surgery; chemotherapy; radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Radiotherapy is recommended for skin tumors, pain treatment in the bone metastases (40 - 50 Gy), system diseases (with reduction of the usual size of the irradiated area), small size tumors etc. It is considered as an appropriate method (excluding wide fields) for geriatric outpatients

  18. Surgical treatment of polymicrogyria-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossu, Massimo; Pelliccia, Veronica; Gozzo, Francesca; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Francione, Stefano; Nobili, Lino; Mai, Roberto; Castana, Laura; Sartori, Ivana; Cardinale, Francesco; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Tassi, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The role of resective surgery in the treatment of polymicrogyria (PMG)-related focal epilepsy is uncertain. Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the seizure outcome in a consecutive series of patients with PMG-related epilepsy who received, or did not receive, surgical treatment, and to outline the clinical characteristics of patients who underwent surgery. We evaluated 64 patients with epilepsy associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-documented PMG. After presurgical evaluation, 32 patients were excluded from surgical treatment and 32 were offered surgery, which was declined by 8 patients. Seizure outcome was assessed in the 40 nonsurgical and 24 surgical patients. Of 40 nonsurgical patients, 8 (20%) were seizure-free after a mean follow-up of 91.7 ± (standard deviation) 59.5 months. None of the eight patients who declined surgical treatment was seizure-free (mean follow-up: 74.3 ± 60.6 months). These seizure outcomes differ significantly (p = 0.000005 and p = 0.0003, respectively) from that of the 24 surgical patients, 18 of whom (66.7%) were Engel's class I postoperatively (mean follow-up: 66.5 ± 54.0 months). Of the eight patients excluded from surgery for seizure control at first visit, two had seizure recurrence at last contact. At last contact, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) had been withdrawn in 6 of 24 surgical and in one of 40 nonsurgical cases (p = 0.0092). The present study indicates that, at least in a subset of adequately selected patients with PMG-related epilepsy, surgery may provide excellent seizure outcomes. Furthermore, it suggests that surgery is superior to AEDs for achieving seizure freedom in these cases. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. Interventions for the treatment of Frey's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjie; Wu, Fanglong; Zhang, Qi; Gao, Qinghong; Shi, Zongdao; Li, Longjiang

    2015-03-17

    assessment of the full-text reports we excluded all of them due to the absence of randomisation or because the patients did not have Frey's syndrome. We excluded one randomised controlled trial that compared two different doses of botulinum toxin in patients with Frey's syndrome because the comparator was not an alternative treatment. We are unable to establish the efficacy and safety of the different methods used for the treatment of Frey's syndrome.RCTs are urgently needed to assess the effectiveness of interventions for the treatment of Frey's syndrome. Future RCTs should include patients with Frey's syndrome of different ranges of severity and report these patients separately. Studies should investigate all possibly effective treatments (such as anticholinergics, antiperspirants and botulinum toxin) compared to control groups using different treatments or placebo. Subjective assessment of Frey's syndrome should be considered as one of the outcome measures.

  20. Implications of Eligibility Criteria on the Generalizability of Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Research: A Study of Real-World Treatment Seekers in Sweden and in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbjörk, Jessica; Garfield, Joshua B B; Larner, Andrew

    2017-03-21

    Clinical studies of alcohol and drug treatment outcomes frequently apply participant eligibility criteria (EC), which may exclude real-world treatment seekers, impairing the representativeness of studied samples. Some research exists on the impact of EC on alcohol treatment seekers. Little is known about drug treatment and country differences. We tested and compared the degree to which commonly used EC exclude real-world treatment seekers with problem alcohol and drug use in Sweden and Australia, and compared the impact of EC on outcomes. Two large naturalistic and comparative service user samples were used. Respondents were recruited in Stockholm County (n = 1,865; data collection 2000-2002), and Victoria and Western Australia (n = 796; in 2012-2013). Follow-up interviews were conducted after 1 year. Cross-tabulations, Chi-square (χ 2 ) tests and logistic regressions were used. Percentages of the samples excluded by individual EC ranged from 5% (lack of education/literacy) to 70% (social instability) among Swedish alcohol cases and from 2% (low alcohol problem severity) to 69% (psychiatric medication) among Australian counterparts; and from 2% (age 60+ years) to 82% (social instability) among Swedish drug cases and from 1% (age 60+ years) to 67% (psychiatric medication) among Australian counterparts. Country differences and differences across substances appeared independent of country effect. Co-morbid psychiatric medication, noncompliance, poly drug use, and low education EC caused positive 1-year outcome bias; whereas female sex and old age introduced negative outcome bias. Conclusions/Importance: Commonly used EC exclude large proportions of treatment seekers. This may impair generalizability of clinical research, and the effects of many EC differ by country and drug type.

  1. Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie; Krystal, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Developing pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol dependence and associated health problems traditionally has been based on gaining a better understanding of the neuroscience underlying alcohol-drinking behavior. To date, three medications have been approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence: disulfiram (Antabuse®), naltrexone (Revia®, Vivitrol®, and Naltrel®), and acamprosate (Campral®). However, these medications have modest efficacy, and there is a great need for newer medications that t...

  2. Wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranđel N. Kitanović

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Quality of life on Earth in the future will largely depend on the amount of safe water. As the most fundamental source of life, water is relentlessly consumed and polluted. To halt this trend, many countries are taking extensive measures and investing substantial resources in order to stop the contamination of water and return at least tolerably good water quality to nature. The goal of water purification is to obtain clean water with the sewage sludge as a by-product. Clean water is returned to nature, and further treatment of sludge may be subject to other procedures. The conclusion of this paper is simple. The procedure with purified water is easily achievable, purified water is discharged into rivers, lakes and seas, but the problem of further treatment of sludge remains. This paper presents the basic methods of wastewater treatment and procedures for processing the products from contaminated water. The paper can serve as a basis for further elaboration. Water Pollution In order to ensure normal life of living creatures, the water in which they live or the water they use must have a natural chemical composition and natural features. When, as a result of human activities, the chemical composition of water and the ratio of its chemical elements significantly change, we say that water is polluted. When the pollutants come from industrial plants, we are talking about industrial wastewater, and when they come from households and urban areas, we are talking about municipal wastewater. Both contain a huge amount of pollutants that eventually end up in rivers. Then, thousands of defenseless birds, fish and other animals suffer, and environmental consequences become immeasurable. In addition, the waste fed to the water often ends up in the bodies of marine animals, so they can return to us as food. Thermal water pollution also has multiple effects on the changes in the wildlife composition of aquatic ecosystems. Polluted water can be purified by

  3. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  4. ROLE OF METABOLIC THERAPY IN TREATMENT OF MYOCARDIUM DYSTROPHY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Frolenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present research was studying of influence of co-enzyme Q10 (Kudesan on cardiovascular system in children with myocardial dystrophy (MCD. Patients were divided on two comparable groups (n = 20 and n = 28 according to clinical symptoms of MCD, changes on electrocardiogram (ECG and results of echocardiography. Patients received non-drug means (massage, physical training in treatment regimen, psycho- and reflexotherapy and vasoactive, nootropic and sedative medications; patients from 2nd group were additionally treated with co-enzyme Q10 during 4 weeks. It was shown that inclusion of co-enzyme Q10 in complex treatment of MCD resulted in beneficial effect on self-feeling of child, favored to disappearance of repolarization disorders on ECG and increase of ejectional fraction. Thus, using of co-enzyme Q10 in complex treatment of children with MCD is reasonable. Key words: children, myocardial dystrophy, co-enzyme Q10, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:18-23

  5. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  6. Sewage Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    In the early 1970's, National Space Technology Laboratories discovered that water hyacinths literally thrive on sewage; they absorb and digest nutrients and minerals from wastewater, converting sewage effluents to clean water. They offer a means of purifying water at a fraction of the cost of a conventional sewage treatment plant, and provide a bonus value in byproducts. Hyacinths must be harvested at intervals; the harvested plants are used as fertilizers, high-protein animal feed and a source of energy. Already serving a number of small towns, the "aquaculture" technique has significantly advanced with its adoption by a major U.S. city.

  7. The contemporary treatment of odontoid injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maak, Travis G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2006-05-15

    Review article. To outline current concepts regarding the assessment and treatment of odontoid fractures. Odontoid fractures account for 9% to 15% of adult, cervical spine fractures. These injuries usually result from hyperflexion or hyperextension of the cervical spine during low-energy impacts in the elderly or high-energy impacts in the young and middle aged. Neurologic injury associated with these fractures is rare. A review of pertinent literature was conducted. The information gleaned from this review was summarized. Odontoid fractures should be evaluated with appropriate imaging to assess the fracture itself as well as exclude other contiguous or noncontiguous fractures. The Anderson and D'Alonzo classification system is most commonly used. True type I and III odontoid fractures are generally thought to be relatively stable and are often treated nonoperatively with immobilization. Type II fractures at the base of the odontoid are less stable, and there are differing opinions regarding the precise definition and optimal treatment of these injuries. Nonoperative treatment options for odontoid fractures include external immobilization with a collar or halo. Operative treatment options for odontoid fractures include one of several posterior C1-C2 fusion constructs or anterior odontoid fixation if the fracture pattern is amenable. Despite the frequency of odontoid fractures, there is still much debate regarding the optimal treatment of these fractures, especially the type II fractures. This fact may be because of the absence of an ideal solution for this clinical problem. Certainly, prospective controlled clinical studies are needed.

  8. Baseline depression levels do not affect efficacy of cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment for insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van den Bout, J.; van Straten, A.; Spoormaker, V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy can effectively treat insomnia (CBT-I). Randomized controlled trials have shown efficacy of self-help CBT-I, but unclear is whether excluding depressive patients boosted treatment effects. Method: We administered unsupported self-help CBT-I to insomnia

  9. Baseline depression levels do not affect efficacy of cognitive-behavioral self-help treatment for insomnia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lancee, J.; van den Bout, J.; van Straten, A.; Spoormaker, V.I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive-behavioral therapy can effectively treat insomnia (CBT-I). Randomized controlled trials have shown efficacy of self-help CBT-I, but unclear is whether excluding depressive patients boosted treatment effects. Method We administered unsupported self-help CBT-I to insomnia patients

  10. Are different groups of patients with stroke more likely to be excluded from the new UK general medical services contract? A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of a large primary care population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Paul N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In April 2004, an incentive based contract was introduced to UK primary care. An important element of the new contract is the ability to exclude individuals from quality indicators for a variety of reasons (known as 'exception reporting'. Exception of patients with stroke or TIA from the recording and achievement of quality indicators may have important consequences in terms of stroke recurrence and mortality. Methods A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of anonymised patient data was performed using 312 Scottish primary care practices. Results Patients recorded as unsuitable for inclusion in the contract were more likely to be female (odds ratio (OR 1.51, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.36–1.68, older (>75 years:OR 3.15, 95%CI 2.69–3.69, and have dementia (OR 4.40, 95%CI 3.57–5.43 when compared to those patients without such a code. Patients were less likely to be older (>75 years:OR 0.70, 95%CI 0.56–0.87 and were more likely to be from the most deprived areas of Scotland (Quintile 5: OR 2.02, 95%CI 1.50–2.70 if they refused to attend for review or did not reply to letters asking for attendance at primary care clinics. Patients with multiple co-morbidities were more likely to have exclusions for achieving diagnostic clinical targets such as cholesterol control (3 or more co-morbidities: OR 3.37, 95%CI 2.50–4.50. Conclusion Scottish practices have appeared to use exception reporting appropriately by excluding patients who are older or have dementia. However, younger or more socio-economically deprived patients were more likely to be recorded as having refused to attend for review or not replying to letters asking for attendance at primary care clinics. It is important for primary care practices to identify and monitor these individuals so that all patients fully benefit from the implementation of an incentive based contract and receive appropriate clinical care to prevent stroke recurrence, further disability

  11. Cocaine choice procedures in animals, humans, and treatment-seekers: Can we bridge the divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Scott J.; Stoops, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder chronically self-administer cocaine to the detriment of other rewarding activities, a phenomenon best modeled in laboratory drug-choice procedures. These procedures can evaluate the reinforcing effects of drugs versus comparably valuable alternatives under multiple behavioral arrangements and schedules of reinforcement. However, assessing drug-choice in treatment-seeking or abstaining humans poses unique challenges: for ethical reasons, these populations typically cannot receive active drugs during research studies. Researchers have thus needed to rely on alternative approaches that approximate drug-choice behavior or assess more general forms of decision-making, but whether these alternatives have relevance to real-world drug-taking that can inform clinical trials is not well-understood. In this mini-review, we (A) summarize several important modulatory variables that influence cocaine choice in nonhuman animals and non-treatment seeking humans; (B) discuss some of the ethical considerations that could arise if treatment-seekers are enrolled in drug-choice studies; (C) consider the efficacy of alternative procedures, including non-drug-related decision-making and ‘simulated’ drug-choice (a choice is made, but no drug is administered) to approximate drug choice; and (D) suggest opportunities for new translational work to bridge the current divide between preclinical and clinical research. PMID:26432174

  12. Epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shandir Ramlagan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to explore the epidemiology of drug abuse treatment in South Africa. Methods. Treatment demand statistics were analysed from South African National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use records, and a rapid situation assessment was conducted. Twenty-one key informant interviews were conducted in all 9 provinces among provincial substance abuse co-ordinators, and one manager per treatment centre from a sample of treatment centres. Three focus groups were conducted and 46 self-administered questionnaires were distributed among inpatients at 2 selected treatment centres in Free State and North West provinces. Qualitative data were analysed using grounded theory, and quantitative data analysed using SPSS. Results. Treatment records show that the most frequent substance of abuse was alcohol (51%, followed by cannabis (21%, crack/cocaine (9.6%, heroin/opiates (7.9%, methamphetamine (Tik (4.5%, prescription/over-the-counter drugs (2.0%, and cannabis/mandrax (1.7%. More substance abusers were male, of lower education, white or black, than were female, more highly educated, coloured and Indian/Asian. Key informant interviews showed that females are the ‘hidden’ substance abusers and tend not to be identified in research statistics and at treatment centres. Poverty, unemployment, lack of recreational facilities, being surrounded by substance abusers, and long work shifts were also mentioned as factors contributing to substance abuse. The age of initiation of substance abuse using non-drugs such as glue was 9 years old, alcohol 10 - 12 years old, dagga 11 - 12 years old, poly-drug use (alcohol, tobacco and dagga 14 years old, and harder drugs such as cocaine and heroin at 16 - 17 years old, as reported by key informants. Family care and support, improved socio-economic conditions and increased law enforcement would help to discourage substance

  13. Rituximab in treatment of idiopathic glomerulopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel El-Reshaid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to assess the role of rituximab (Mabthera in the treatment of patients with corticosteroid-resistant and calcineurin-inhibitors ± cellcept refractory idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS. A total of 83 patients who had required the previous treatment for a minimum of two years were included in the study. Our protocol included the use of rituximab in four-weekly slow infusions. Five patients were excluded as they could not tolerate rituximab infusion for allergic reaction. As expected, none of the patients had a decline in the total circulating lymphocyte counts yet all had achieved decline of their initially normal CD20 to < 0.5% one month after infusion. The decline persisted for eight to ten months later. In the minimal change disease (MCD group, 31 of the 32 patients had complete remission (CR and were off any immunosuppressive therapy and one of the previous non-responders (NR did not respond. Excluding two patients who had required retreatment, the others remained in CR (17 up to 28 months and six up to 36 months. Treatment with rituximab resulted in amelioration of NS in 17 of the 18 patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, while only one patient remained NR. Although renal function remained stable, proteinuria reappeared by eight to 12 months. Retreatment with rituximab resulted in a similar response with stable kidney function. In the 28 patients with membranous glomerulopathy (MG, 24 had achieved CR. Two patients failed to respond and two had partial remission. By 12 months, all patients relapsed. The response was within one month following treatment in patient with MCD, but was gradual within three months in FSGS and MG. Relapsers in all groups responded in a similar pattern to repeat dosing with the drug subsequently. Our prospective study represents an adequate number of patients with biopsy-proven subgroups of INS in both children and adults with long-term follow-up of treatment with rituximab

  14. Platform treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jammazi, Rochdi; M'henni, Wafa

    2008-01-01

    Our project consists of making of a punt forms test for the radioactive treatment in the research's unit of the CNSTN .First a complete functional analysis is carried out, this analysis comprises a comparative study between our work and a design already established in a preparatory project, it emphasizes the failures whose made proof the old design .Second the metallurgical study which must lead on the choice of materials is in its turn carried out. Thirdly the design with all the details and the plans is carried out by the intermediary of the software CATIA. This design is accompanied by the various bodies's dimensioning and the calculation of the various states of stresses to which the parts of the system are subjected: buckling, inflection fourthly an automatic study is carried out, this study contains the automation's step of the system using the software, SIMATIC STEP 7. It also contains the choice of the various position and velocity pick-ups. Finally we will finish by the presentation of maintenance and safety's instructions of the system and the operator working in this research's . (Author)

  15. Primary megaureter: outcome of surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, N.A.; Shaikh, G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical outcome after surgical treatment of primary megaureter. Methodology: A retrospective analysis of 15 patients who had reimplantation of primary megaureters between January 2007 and April 2012 was performed. Patients who had additional urinary tract pathology were excluded from the study. Results: Out of 15 patients, 10 presented with abdominal pain and febrile urinary tract infections, while five presented with failure to thrive and post feed vomiting. Diameter of the megaureter prior to operation was 20 mm (range 15-30 mm). On ultrasound, hydronephrosis decreased in 12 and was unchanged in three after 1 month, postoperatively. After three months postoperatively, hydroureter was no longer detected in 10 and was reduced in five patients. Conclusion: Reimplantation of a primary mega ureter resulted in improved clinical status, reduced dilation of the ureter and renal pelvis, and free drainage of the upper urinary tract. (author)

  16. QT dynamics during treatment with sertindole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Wang, Fan; Graff, Claus

    2015-01-01

    monitoring at baseline and after 3 weeks of treatment with sertindole 16 mg. The VR was calculated by dividing the standard deviation of QT intervals with the standard deviation of heart rates. Outcome measures were compared using paired t-test. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients participated in the study, two...... were excluded from further analysis due to low amplitude of the T-wave. When patients were shifted to sertindole, the VR increased from 0.192 (SD 0.045) to 0.223 (SD 0.061), p = 0.02. The QTcF interval increased from 388 (SD 16) to 403 ms (SD 14), p = 0.002. There was no difference in heart rate 78 bpm...

  17. Random duodenal biopsy to exclude coeliac disease as a cause of anaemia is not cost-efective and should be replaced with universally performed pre-endoscopy serology in patients on a suspected cancer pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrod, P J J; Lund, J N

    2018-02-01

    Random duodenal biopsy to exclude coeliac disease during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the investigation of iron deficiency anaemia remains a common procedure, but is expensive and time-consuming. Serological investigation for coeliac disease is also recommended, having excellent accuracy with the added benefit of lower cost. This study sought to examine the utility of duodenal biopsy and coeliac serology in the diagnosis of coeliac disease. A prospectively maintained database was interrogated to identify all patients having upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for the investigation of anaemia between January 01, 2016, and December 31, 2016. Of the 1131 patients having an endoscopy, coeliac serology was measured in only 412 (36%) and was positive in 9 cases (2%), leading to 6 histological diagnoses of coeliac disease and 3 false positives. Two-hundred and seventy-four patients with negative serology had biopsies taken which were all negative. Only 2/451 (0.4%) patients who had biopsies performed in the absence of a serology test were histologically positive for coeliac disease. The cost per diagnosis of a case of coeliac disease in those with either negative or absent coeliac serology was £18,839 (US$25,244, €21,196). Random duodenal biopsy is not a cost-effective method of diagnosing coeliac disease and should be replaced with pre-endoscopy coeliac serology.

  18. Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion: a category with an increased outcome of high-grade lesions: use as a quality assurance measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Ha T; Wilbur, David C; Tambouret, Rosemary H

    2012-08-01

    "Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL), cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (LSIL-H) is an increasingly used, equivocal interpretive category in gynecologic cytology. In an effort to evaluate its potential usefulness as a measure of quality assurance, we studied patterns of use of the LSIL-H diagnosis compared with "LSIL" and "high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion" (HSIL) with corresponding histologic outcomes for 10 cytopathologists in our practice. In our laboratory, while the overall rate of associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or greater on histologic follow-up for LSIL-H was intermediate between that of LSIL and HSIL, the outcomes for individual cytopathologists varied widely. Monitoring this particular utilization-outcome data with periodic confidential feedback to individual cytopathologists offers an opportunity for practice improvement within a laboratory and serves as an additional measure of quality assurance. These data may be useful for establishing and/or realigning the diagnostic criteria for this equivocal cytologic interpretation endorsed by a pathology practice.

  19. Group B Streptococcus infection: epidemiology, serotypes, and antimicrobial susceptibility of selected isolates in the population beyond infancy (excluding females with genital tract- and pregnancy-related isolates) at the University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunakaran, Rina; Raja, Nadeem Sajjad; Hafeez, Asma; Puthucheary, Savithri D

    2009-05-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection was studied in 49 patients collected at convenience (convenience sampling), excluding infants and women with genital tract- and pregnancy-related isolates, according to the availability of stocked isolates and easy accessibility to epidemiological data. The data were examined both prospectively and retrospectively from 2003-2005 at a tertiary-level multidisciplinary hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Skin and soft-tissue infections in 35 patients (71.4%) were the most common clinical presentation, while diabetes mellitus was the most common underlying condition (35 patients, 71.4%). All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin, and most isolates tested were sensitive to erythromycin (97.7%). Serotyping of 45 GBS isolates using a commercial serotyping kit revealed that the most common serotype was Ia (22.2%), followed by VI (17.8%), III and V (13.3% each). Others included Ib, II, IV, VIII, and VII; 13.3% were nontypeable. The findings of this pilot study are limited by the small sample size, the sampling method and the possibility that the cases are not wholly representative of the University Malaya Medical Centre population. Further studies from our hospital with larger numbers and using probabilistic sampling techniques are required to confirm the relatively high occurrence of serotype VI (the second most common serotype) in the population studied.

  20. Influência da irrigação de soluções nutricionais no colo excluso de trânsito intestinal: estudo experimental em ratos Influence of irrigation of nutritional solutions in the colon excluded of fecal stream: experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Guilherme Giazzi Nassri

    2008-09-01

    treatment of the colic mucosa inflammation. METHOD: There were used thirty Wistar males rats, with initial weight varying between 350 and 500 grammas, submitted to the derivation of the fecal stream through proximal colostomy and distal mucous fistula. The animals were divided in three groups with 10 animals according to the irrigation of the excluded colic segment had been carried out with: SF Group: 0.9 % physiologic solution; GH Group: hypertonic glucose solution of 50 % and AG Group: solution of short-chain fatty acids. In all the animals, the irrigation of the excluded colon was carried each four days and the animals were sacrificed ever in 21st post-operative day. The removed fragments of the intestinal segments were colored by the techniques of hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichromium. The histological variables studied were: thickness of the mucous layer, vascular congestion; inflammatory infiltrate and the level of tissue collagen. The considered results were subjected to statistical study considering signification level of 5 % (p <0.05. RESULTS: The obtained results showed that in the group where the excluded colon was irrigated with solution of short-chain fatty acids there was less vascular congestion, less inflammatory infiltrated and less collagen deposition when compared to another experimental groups. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study indicate that in the group receiving the short-chain fatty acid solution there was a decrease in the inflammatory infiltrate and the vascular congestion, as well as a reduction in the deposition of collagen tissue. The irrigation of segments without fecal stream with short-chain fatty acids it improves the inflammatory process found in the diversion colitis.

  1. Supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment: evidence from Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeoka, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Kiyohide

    2014-05-01

    We estimate the degree of supplier-induced demand for newborn treatment by exploiting changes in reimbursement arising from the introduction of the partial prospective payment system (PPS) in Japan. Under the partial PPS, neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) utilization became relatively more profitable than other procedures, since it was excluded from prospective payments. We find that hospitals have responded to PPS adoption by increasing NICU utilization and by more frequently manipulating infants' reported birth weights which in large part determine their maximum allowable stay in the NICU. This induced demand substantially increases the reimbursements received by hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Regnier, Stephane A; Larsen, Michael; Bezlyak, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). DESIGN: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of approved treatments for macular oedema secondary to BRVO were identified from....... Bevacizumab and triamcinolone were excluded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy outcomes were mean change in best corrected visual acuity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale) and the percentage of patients gaining ≥ 15 letters. Safety outcome was the percentage of patients with increased intraocular...

  3. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…

  4. A systematic approach for the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic peptic ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Chen-Shuan; Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Lee, Yi-Chia

    2015-09-01

    An idiopathic peptic ulcer is defined as an ulcer with unknown cause or an ulcer that appears to arise spontaneously. The first step in treatment is to exclude common possible causes, including Helicobacter pylori infection, infection with other pathogens, ulcerogenic drugs, and uncommon diseases with upper gastrointestinal manifestations. When all known causes are excluded, a diagnosis of idiopathic peptic ulcer can be made. A patient whose peptic ulcer is idiopathic may have a higher risk for complicated ulcer disease, a poorer response to gastric acid suppressants, and a higher recurrence rate after treatment. Risk factors associated with this disease may include genetic predisposition, older age, chronic mesenteric ischemia, smoking, concomitant diseases, a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists score, and higher stress. Therefore, the diagnosis and management of emerging disease should systematically explore all known causes and treat underlying disease, while including regular endoscopic surveillance to confirm ulcer healing and the use of proton-pump inhibitors on a case-by-case basis.

  5. Inducible protein-10 as a predictive marker of antiviral hepatitis C treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neesgaard, Bastian; Ruhwald, Morten; Weis, Nina

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To investigate interferon-γ-inducible protein-10's (IP-10) potential to anticipate rapid (RVR)- and sustained virological responses (SVR) to chronic hepatitis C (CHC) treatment. METHODS: We included case series examining RVR or SVR in relation to 24 or 48 wk treatment for CHC, in patients...... treatment free for at least six months, with genotype 1 or 4, and in relation to 24 wk treatment for genotype 2 and 3, with pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin. Patients had to have both a baseline IP-10 level as well as a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA determination 4 wk after treatment...... initiation or 24 wk after end of treatment. Studies including patients with liver diseases other than CHC, human immunodeficiency virus-infection, treatment with immunosuppresents or cytostatica, alcohol dependency or active intravenous drug-use were excluded. We found 81 articles by searching the MEDLINE...

  6. [Treatment of infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers in elderly patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintens, H; Guy, L; Mazerolles, C; Théodore, C; Amsellem, D; Roupret, M; Wallerand, H; Roy, C; Saint, F; Bernardini, S; Lebret, T; Soulié, M; Pfister, C

    2009-11-01

    Total cystectomy is the reference treatment for infiltrating nonmetastatic bladder cancers. With the progress in anesthesia and postoperative intensive care, this treatment can be applied to a population of elderly subjects provided there is a strict oncological and geriatric evaluation of the patient. Recent series reporting total cystectomies in subjects over 75 years of age report comparable morbidity and mortality rates to the general population. Strategies to preserve the vesical reservoir can be indicated in selected cases. Their objectives are to guarantee local control and follow-up identical to radical cystectomy, while preserving a functional bladder and good quality of life. The strategies including transurethral resection with radiochemotherapy are analyzed. Thus, with multidisciplinary consensus and adapted management, elderly patients with significant comorbidities should not be automatically excluded from access to effective treatment of these cancers. (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Treatment-related fluctuation in Guillain-Barre syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunavukkarasu Thivakaran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS is usually a monophasic illness but relapses occur. A 55-year-old female with hypertension and vitiligo presented with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. She improved with immunoglobulin treatment started on day 6 of illness, but relapsed on day 14 warranting repeat immunoglobulin therapy. Thereafter recovery was complete. Her relapse was due to treatment-related fluctuation (TRF. TRF is improvement in the GBS disability scale of at least one grade after completion of immunotherapy followed by worsening of the disability scale of at least one grade within the first 2 months after disease onset. Recurrent GBS and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy were excluded. During the peak of the illness ANA titres were transiently high. The presence of other medical conditions, predominant proximal weakness and the absence of preceding diarrhea are predictors for TRF seen in this patient. Early treatment and evidence of ongoing immune activation have contributed toward TRF.

  8. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in ... driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children ...

  9. Treatment for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Public Home » Treatment » Treatment Decisions and HIV HIV/AIDS Menu Menu HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Home ... here Enter ZIP code here Treatment Decisions and HIV for Veterans and the Public Treatment for HIV: ...

  10. Hypnosis for treatment of insomnia in school-age children: a retrospective chart review

    OpenAIRE

    Slothower Molly P; Anbar Ran D

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The purposes of this study are to document psychosocial stressors and medical conditions associated with development of insomnia in school-age children and to report use of hypnosis for this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed for 84 children and adolescents with insomnia, excluding those with central or obstructive sleep apnea. All patients were offered and accepted instruction in self-hypnosis for treatment of insomnia, and for other symptoms if...

  11. Treatment planning for permanent and temporary percutaneous implants with custom made templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osian, A.D.; Anderson, L.L.; Linares, L.A.; Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1989-01-01

    Nine patients who were presented at MSKCC with primary or recurrent pelvic or head and neck tumors and for whom surgery or further external radiation were excluded, were treated with percutaneous permanent or temporary implants, with individual pre-treatment planning and custom made templates. The tumor dose distributions achieved were as good as for implants performed at the time of surgical exploration. No serious complications have been encountered

  12. Carbohydrate antigen 549 in metastatic breast cancer during cytostatic treatment and follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sölétormos, G; Nielsen, D; Schiøler, V

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the serum tumour marker CA 549 gave early and reliable information about disease activity among metastatic breast cancer patients during cytostatic treatment and follow-up. 50 females with metastatic breast cancer were monitored clinically...... among 91% by marker progression. Clinical progression was excluded among 93% without marker progression. In conclusion, monitoring of metastatic breast cancer patients could include CA 549 if standardised criteria for marker evaluation are used....

  13. Prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of ankyloglossia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Lauren M.; Stephenson, Randolph; Dawes, Martin; Feldman, Perle

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the diagnostic criteria for, the prevalence of, and the effectiveness of frenotomy for treatment of ankyloglossia. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched for articles suitable for a methodologic review of studies on various aspects of ankyloglossia. STUDY SELECTION Studies that presented data on patients and addressed ankyloglossia in relation to breastfeeding were selected. Case reports, case series, retrospective studies, prospective controlled studies, and randomized controlled trials were included in the analysis. Opinion pieces, literature reviews, studies without data on patients, studies that did not focus on breastfeeding, position statements, and surveys were excluded. SYNTHESIS There is no well-validated clinical method for establishinga diagnosis of ankyloglossia. Five studies using different diagnostic criteria found a prevalence of ankyloglossia of between 4% and 10%. The results of 6 non-randomized studies and 1 randomized study assessing the effectiveness of frenotomy for improving nipple pain, sucking, latch, and continuation of breastfeeding all suggested frenotomy was beneficial. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Diagnostic criteria for ankyloglossia are needed to allow for comparative studies of treatment. Frenotomy is likely an effective treatment, but further randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm this. A reliable frenotomy decision rule is also needed. PMID:17872781

  14. Castlemans disease - surgical treatment, case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, I; Kala, Z; Zetelová, A; Kunovsky, L; Szturz, P; Kren, L; Mechl, M; Rehak, Z; Hanke, I

    The authors describe their experience with surgical treatment of benign rare lymph proliferation - Castlemans disease (CD). It occurs in unicentric and multicentric forms. The very low incidence of the disease makes it very difficult to design larger prospective studies. Cases of two leading localizations of the unicentric form of CD - intrathoracic and retroperitoneal with special emphasis on the preoperative diagnosis and imaging options are described. This article underlines the curative potential of surgical treatment where a complete resection of the affected lymph node leads to eradication in almost 100% of the cases. The discussion is focused on the forms of CD - different localization, clinical symptoms and course of disease. It discusses the differential diagnosis, particularly difficult in the multicentric form, emphasizing the need to exclude malignant lymphoma. The etiopathogenesis of the disease is presented, mentioning its association with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection and HHV-8 (Human herpers virus 8) infection and the importance of overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. The importance of surgical therapy for the unicentric form of CD is highlighted as compared to the multicentric form, where the surgeon´s task involves taking a biopsy - required for an accurate diagnosis.Key words: Castlemans disease - lymphoproliferation - lymphadenopathy - surgical treatment.

  15. [Evaluation on acupuncture treatment of primary insomnia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing-qing; Guo, Jing

    2010-04-01

    Acupuncture treatment of insomnia has been reported for many years, but its validity remains controversial up to now. In the present review, the authors took "Acupuncture", "Insomnia" as the key words to do a literature search from databases in both Chinese and English via computer retrieval system and also conducted a hand-made retrieval from journals of Chinese medicine as Chinese Acu-moxibustion, and collections of theses of the related academic conferences. Then, they made a systemic evaluation on the original articles from methodology, diagnosis, criteria for the enlisted and excluded patients, intervention methods of acupuncture and control groups, standards for assessing the curative efficacy, follow-up visit, etc. Of the retrieved 80 clinical articles, 20 are RCT (randomized controlled trails) composed of 1907 cases, including 4 high-quality trails and 16 lower-quality trails. Regarding the assessment of the therapeutic effect, measuring scales are often adopted in overseas studies, while in domestic researches, self-drawn standards are frequently used. In conclusion, there have had no high-quality clinical trails about acupuncture treatment of primary insomnia in China at the present, and the related evaluating methods could not definitely confirm the efficacy of acupuncture in relieving insomnia. Therefore, a strict and scientific clinical trail scheme being in line with evidence-based medicine is urgently needed in the coming studies on acupuncture treatment of primary insomnia.

  16. [Clinical practice guideline. Diagnosis and treatment of insomnia in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Chávez, Juan Humberto; Fuentes-Alexandro, Salvador Amadeo; Gil-Palafox, Irwin Bernardo; Adame-Galván, Lorena; Solís-Lam, Fernando; Sánchez-Herrera, Lucía Yveth; Sánchez-Narváez, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is the difficulty to initiate or to maintain sleep. It also has to do with waking up too early at least for a month. A patient with insomnia has daytime consequences such as fatigue, sleepiness, changes in mood, lose of concentration, as well as changes in his social performance and his family relationships, among others. The relationship between this disorder and physical and mental health is important due to the impact that it has on the quality of life and life expectancy of those who suffer from it. Unfortunately, insomnia usually goes unnoticed or untreated, which contributes to the onset or worsening of psychiatric and medical conditions. This exacerbates the problem of insomnia in the elderly people. In relation to the treatment it is recommended: 1) the search and management of secondary causes of insomnia, 2) a non-drug therapy that includes sleep hygiene measures, 3) pharmacotherapy. It is not recommended to start a treatment with a hypnotic drug without rule out medications or diseases that cause or exacerbate insomnia. It is not recommended the use of narcoleptics, melatonin, antihistamines or long half-life benzodiazepines. The consequences include limitations on activities of daily living, loss of functionality, impaired quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality, as well as the worsening of preexisting chronic conditions.

  17. Predicting the impact of adverse events and treatment duration on medical resource utilization-related costs in hepatitis C genotype 1 treatment-naïve patients receiving antiviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpo, Essè Ifèbi Hervé; Cerri, Karin; Kleintjens, Joris

    2015-04-01

    Studies on medical resource utilization (MRU) and related costs are important for evaluating the potential patient management and cost-effectiveness implications of antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The objectives of this study were (i) to compare the MRU and related costs for two treatment approaches; (ii) to identify the main drivers of resource use and costs; and (iii) to assess the effects of various treatment regimen attributes on MRU-related costs in a UK clinical setting. The analysis used data collected alongside the simeprevir (SMV) phase III trials for treatment-naïve genotype 1 HCV-infected patients; these data covered outpatient consultations with specialists, emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Logistic regressions were constructed to estimate the predictors of resource utilization, and a two-part multivariable analysis model was used to determine the total costs of treatment in the UK. Data on 731 patients receiving SMV plus pegylated interferon and ribavirin (SMV/PegIFN/R) or PegIFN/R were included in the analysis. While MRU was similar between the SMV and PegIFN/R groups, MRU-related costs were significantly lower in the SMV group than in the PegIFN/R group (P antiviral therapy characteristics as drivers of MRU-related costs for HCV patients following antiviral therapy. The shortened treatment duration and reduction in rash due to treatment with SMV triple therapy lead to substantial non-drug cost savings, compared with PegIFN/R treatment. This suggests that there are potential patient management and cost-effectiveness implications associated with the choice of specific antiviral treatments.

  18. Photodynamic Therapy in Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Diana; Tarakji, Bassel

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic immunologic mucocutaneous disorder. Although there are many presenting treatments, some of them proved its failure. Recently, the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been expanding due to its numerous advantages, as it is safe, convenient, and non-invasive and has toxic effect towards selective tissues. This article provides comprehensive review on OLP, its etiology, clinical features and recent non-pharmacological treatments. We also describe the topical PDT and its mechanisms. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of PDT in treatment of OLP through collecting the data of the related clinical studies. We searched in PubMed website for the clinical studies that were reported from 2000 to 2014 using specific keywords: “photodynamic therapy” and “treatment of oral lichen planus”. Inclusion criteria were English publications only were concerned. In the selected studies of photodynamic treatment, adult patients (more than 20 years) were conducted and the OLP lesions were clinically and histologically confirmed. Exclusion criteria were classical and pharmacological treatments of OLP were excluded and also the using of PDT on skin lesions of lichen planus. We established five clinical studies in this review where all of them reported improvement and effectiveness of PDT in treatment of OLP lesions. The main outcome of comparing the related clinical studies is that the photodynamic is considered as a safe, effective and promising treatment modality for OLP. PMID:25883701

  19. ROLE OF NON-DRUG THERAPIES OF METABOLIC SYNDROME: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. N. Strelkova; K. V. Ovsyannicov; N. I. Utkina

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal obesity (and the closely related metabolic syndrome) is one of the most common diseases in the world. The urgency of the problem of the progression of abdominal obesity is not only in its high prevalence, but also in the formation of a high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes type 2. The main reasons for the rapid development of obesity are considered high-calorie food (which includes not only the quantity but also the quality of edible products), sedentary lifest...

  20. Compulsivity across the pathological misuse of drug and non-drug rewards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Banca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral adaptation is required for the successful navigation of a constantly changing environment. Impairments in behavioral flexibility are commonly observed in psychiatric disorders including those of addiction. This study investigates two distinct facets of compulsivity, namely reversal learning and attentional set shifting, implicating orbitofrontal and lateral prefrontal regions respectively, across disorders of primary and secondary rewards. Obese subjects with and without binge eating disorder (BED, individuals with compulsive sexual behaviors (CSB, alcohol use disorder (AUD and pathological video-gaming (VG were tested with two computerized tasks: the Probabilistic Reversal Task (trials to criterion and win-stay/lose-shift errors and the Intra/Extra-dimensional Set Shift Task (IED. Individuals with AUD and pathological video-gaming were slower at reversal learning irrespective of valence, with AUD subjects more likely to perseverate after losses. Compared to obese subjects without BED, BED subjects were worse at reversal learning to wins but better at losses highlighting valence effects as a function of binge eating. CSB subjects demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to reward outcomes with faster acquisition and greater perseveration with higher magnitude rewards. We further show an impairment in attentional set shifting in individuals with BED and AUD relative to healthy volunteers. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. This study provides evidence for commonalities and differences in two distinct dimensions of behavioral inflexibility across disorders of compulsivity. We summarize studies on compulsivity subtypes within this same patient population. We emphasize commonalities in AUD and BED with impairments across a range of compulsivity indices, perhaps supporting pathological binge eating as a form of behavioral addiction. We further emphasize commonalities in reversal learning across disorders and the crucial role of valence effects. These findings highlight the role of behavioral inflexibility and compulsivity as a relevant domain in defining dimensional psychiatry and the identification of relevant cognitive endophenotypes as targets for therapeutic modulation.

  1. Protocol for a randomised trial on the effect of group education on skin-protective behaviour versus treatment as usual among individuals with newly notified occupational hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja Hvid; Agner, Tove; Lindschou, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of occupational hand eczema is approximately 0.32 per 1,000 person years. The burden of the disease is high, as almost 60% has eczema-related sick leave during the first year after notification, and 15% are excluded from the workforce 12 years after disease onset. New treatments...

  2. Niños, niñas y adolescentes excluidos y procesos de subjetivación: Una perspectiva desde los protagonistas Excluded children and teenagers and subjectivation processes: A protagonist's perspectiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Zaldúa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde una perspectiva crítica se analizan relatos de vida de adolescentes en situación de calle y su relación con los discursos sociales sobre la infancia y adolescencia. La hegemonía discursiva social que exige aumento de la punibilidad y encierro, relega a la niñez excluida al campo de la minoridad como figura sacrificial. Con una metodología cualitativa se trabajó en un diseño de estudio de caso para el abordaje de narrativas de niños, niñas y adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad social, con el objetivo de analizar procesos de subjetivación de dicha población. La ausencia de registro de necesidades y demandas, la sobredeterminación y goce del cuerpo infantil por el mundo adulto, las violencias desde los discursos sociales y los estereotipos de género, reproducen discriminaciones y desigualdades redeiniendo los límites de lo decible y pensable de los chicos y chicas en situación de calle. Dispositivos que propician otras historizaciones y la real eficacia de la Convención de los Derechos del Niño posibilitan otras identidades y otras trayectorias subjetivas.From a critical perspective, stories of homeless teenager's lives are analyzed including their relationship with social discourse about infancy and adolescence. The hegemony of social discourses, that demands punishment and confinement excludes childhood and fosters children's sacrifice. Qualitative methodology was employed to design case studies to generate narratives from children and teenagers in vulnerable social situations, to research the processes exploring processes of their subjectivity. The reproduction of discrimination and social inequality, are constructed from the lack of known needs and demands, the control and possession of children's bodies by adults, violence in social discourse and gender stereotypes. This is turn redefines what can be said and thought by homeless children and teenagers. Other identities and subjective change are made possible by

  3. Effect of early or delayed treatment upon healing of mandibular fractures: a systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Niels Ulrich; Hillerup, Søren; Kofod, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The possible relation between treatment delay and healing complications in mandibular fracture treatment (excluding condylar fractures) was reviewed systematically. Twenty-two studies were identified. No randomized studies focused on the effect of immediate or delayed treatment. The main focus...... of most studies was surgical repositioning and internal skeletal fixation. The healing complications analyzed in this study were infection in the fracture line and malocclusion. Statistical analysis of the influence of treatment delay upon healing complications was possible in six studies. Four studies...... showed no significant difference between immediate and delayed treatment. One study showed a preference for healing for cases treated within 3 days, whereas another study indicated that treatment time between 3 and 5 days were optimal with the lowest rate of complications. Finally, a few studies...

  4. An overview of women seeking substance abuse treatment in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautman, R P; Phillips, M E; Hallford, G; Borrell, G K; Nixon, S J

    2000-09-01

    Current studies of neurocognitive function in alcoholics are generally restricted to a relatively small subsample of persons seeking treatment. Subjects are typically excluded from study if reporting signs or symptoms of possibly confounding disorders such as comorbid psychiatric disorders, medical, or neurologic disorders. Thus, the question arises as to whether those individuals who actually participate in these reported studies are representative of the larger population of unselected persons. Studies of women are particularly subject to this concern due to higher rates of comorbid medical and psychiatric disorders in women. The current study was directed to contrasting treatment-seeking women who either were or were not selected for a laboratory study of neurocognitive function. Specifically, we compared subgroups of women identified on the basis of the presence of an alcohol use disorder and/or being selected for study. A total of 638 women were available for comparison. Contrary to anticipated concerns, analysis of basic demographic, alcohol and drug use, and affective/cognitive measures revealed considerable similarities among the groups. Consistent with other literature, the large majority of these women reported a family history of alcohol use disorders. They also reported a preference for stimulants as opposed to other illicit substances as evidenced in self-report of their most frequently used drug in the six months prior to treatment (excluding alcohol). These findings suggest that current selection procedures, although necessarily biasing samples in response to specific questions, do not result in samples that are significantly different from the majority of treatment-seeking women, at least on the basis of demographic and affective variables. Furthermore, as described herein, these findings have specific indications for primary care assessment and treatment referral.

  5. Treatment of phimosis with topical steroids and foreskin anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana C. Marques

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To correlate topical steroidal treatment of stenosed foreskin with the different degrees of glans exposure and the length of time the ointment is applied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied 95 patients with phimosis, divided according to the degree of foreskin retraction. Group A presented no foreskin retraction, group B presented exposure of only the urethral meatus, group C presented exposure of half of the glans, and group D presented exposure of the glans, which was incomplete because of preputial adherences to the coronal sulcus. Patients were submitted to application of 0.05% betamethasone ointment on the distal aspect of the prepuce twice daily for a minimum of 30 days and a maximum of 4 months. RESULTS: Of 95 patients, 10 (10.52% abandoned the treatment and 15 patients in groups C and D were excluded from the study. Among the remaining 70 patients, only 4 patients (5.7% in group A did not obtain adequate glans exposure after treatment. In group A (38 patients, fully retractable foreskins were obtained in 19 patients (50% after 1 month of treatment. In group B (28 patients, fully retractable foreskins were obtained in 18 patients (64.2% after 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment was successful in 94.2% of patients, irrespective of the type of foreskin anatomy. The improvement may require several months of treatment. Patients with impossibility of urethral meatus exposure present around 10% treatment failure.

  6. UK malaria treatment guidelines 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalloo, David G; Shingadia, Delane; Bell, David J; Beeching, Nicholas J; Whitty, Christopher J M; Chiodini, Peter L

    2016-06-01

    severe malaria should also be treated with empirical broad spectrum antibiotics until bacterial infection can be excluded (Grade 1B). 15. Haemolysis occurs in approximately 10-15% patients following intravenous artesunate treatment. Haemoglobin concentrations should be checked approximately 14 days following treatment in those treated with IV artemisinins (Grade 2C). 16. Falciparum malaria in pregnancy is more likely to be complicated: the placenta contains high levels of parasites, stillbirth or early delivery may occur and diagnosis can be difficult if parasites are concentrated in the placenta and scanty in the blood. 17. Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the second and third trimester of pregnancy should be treated with artemether-lumefantrine (Grade 2B). Uncomplicated falciparum malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy should usually be treated with quinine and clindamycin but specialist advice should be sought. Severe malaria in any trimester of pregnancy should be treated as for any other patient with artesunate preferred over quinine (Grade 1C). 18. Children with uncomplicated malaria should be treated with an ACT (artemether-lumefantrine or dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine) as first line treatment (Grade 1A). Quinine with doxycycline or clindamycin, or atovaquone-proguanil at appropriate doses for weight can also be used. Doxycycline should not be given to children under 12 years. 19. Either an oral ACT or chloroquine can be used for the treatment of non-falciparum malaria. An oral ACT is preferred for a mixed infection, if there is uncertainty about the infecting species, or for P. vivax infection from areas where chloroquine resistance is common (Grade 1B). 20. Dormant parasites (hypnozoites) persist in the liver after treatment of P. vivax or P. ovale infection: the only currently effective drug for eradication of hypnozoites is primaquine (1A). Primaquine is more effective at preventing relapse if taken at the same time as chloroquine (Grade 1C). 21

  7. Tuberculosis (TB): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Tuberculosis (TB) Tuberculosis: Treatment Tuberculosis: Treatment Make an Appointment Refer a Patient Ask ... or bones is treated longer. NEXT: Preventive Treatment Tuberculosis: Diagnosis Tuberculosis: History Clinical Trials For more than ...

  8. NIAAA Alcohol Treatment Navigator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What Is Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD)? What Types of Alcohol Treatment Are Available? ... What to Know About Alcohol Treatment What is alcohol use disorder (AUD)? A health condition that can improve with ...

  9. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back) no matter how it was treated the first time. Treatment options for recurrent childhood craniopharyngioma depend on the type of treatment that was given when the tumor was first diagnosed and the needs of the child. Treatment ...

  10. The Treatment of Melanoma Brain Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibbi, Nour; Kluger, Harriet

    2016-12-01

    Melanoma is the malignancy with the highest rate of dissemination to the central nervous system once it metastasizes. Until recently, the prognosis of patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBM) was poor. In recent years, however, the prognosis has improved due to high-resolution imaging that facilitates early detection of small asymptomatic brain metastases and early intervention with local modalities such as stereotactic radiosurgery. More recently, a number of systemic therapies have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration for metastatic melanoma, resulting in improved survival for many MBM patients. Registration trials for these newer therapies excluded patients with untreated brain metastases, and a number of studies specifically tailored to this population of patients have been conducted or are underway. Herein, we review contemporary locoregional and systemic therapies and describe the unique challenges posed by treatment of brain metastases, such as radionecrosis, cerebral edema, and pseudoprogression. Since the number of systemic and combined modality clinical trials has increased, we expect that the treatment landscape for patients with melanoma brain metastasis will change dramatically. In addition to ongoing clinical trials, which show great promise, we conclude that our understanding of intracranial metastasis remains quite limited. In addition to inter-disciplinary, multi-modality studies, bench-side work to better understand the process of cerebrotropism is needed to fuel more drug development and further improve outcomes.

  11. Inconsistent condom use among socially excluded heroin users Uso inconsistente del condón en los usuarios de heroina en situación de exclusión social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The study focused in sexual behaviour among socially excluded heroin users, identifying factors associated with inconsistent condom use. Data was collected in the cities of Granada and Seville between July and October 2000, through a structured questionnaire, to 391 participants. Twenty two and 15% of participants have made consistent use of condoms in vaginal sex in the last year with occasional and regular partners respectively. There is a greater likelihood of inconsistent condom use with occasional partners among users who had had oral sex, and who does not know if their partner(s inject or injected drugs. For regular partners those who have an injecting partner and do not speak with their sexual partners about AIDS have a higher probability to do not use always a condom. For both groups, when always the partner is who propose the use of condoms (when used and not themselves, the risk not to use it is near 4 times more than when thems elves propose to use it. Speaking about condoms and AIDS with mate, partners and family, and learning to negotiate the use of condoms seems to be the most important strategies to be approached for this sample, from the social and health care system in order to promote a protected sex.El objetivo del presente trabajo es analizar las conductas sexuales entre los usuarios de heroína, en situación de exclusión social, y conocer los factores asociados al uso inconsistente del condón en sus relaciones sexuales (coito vaginal con parejas ocasionales y estables. Los datos fueron recogidos en las ciudades de Granada y de Sevilla entre julio y octubre de 2000, a través de un cuestionario estructurado, a 391 participantes. El 22 y el 15% de los participantes han hecho un uso consistente del condón durante el último año con sus parejas ocasionales y estables, respectivamente. Se ha encontrado una mayor probabilidad de un uso inconsistente del condón con las parejas ocasionales entre usuarios que habían practicado

  12. [Current treatment for diverticulitis: state of affairs in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, S; Boermeester, M A

    2016-01-01

    - Uncomplicated diverticulitis does not routinely require antibiotic treatment and can even be managed in the outpatient setting.- As yet no medical therapies have proven themselves useful in the prevention of recurrence.- Complicated diverticulitis with an abscess smaller than 4 cm is treated with antibiotics, larger abscesses are treated by percutaneous drainage, and only if treatment fails surgery is required.- Laparoscopic lavage is no better than partial resection in purulent peritonitis.- Perforated diverticulitis with faecal peritonitis is treated by a Hartmann's procedure; in selected cases resection and primary anastomosis may be considered.- The decision whether a resection should be laparoscopic or open is based on the surgeon's experience.- The choice for elective resection for recurrent diverticulitis is still made on a patient-by-patient basis.- Only high-risk patients should have a follow-up colonoscopy to exclude malignancy. The remaining patients are referred back to the Dutch national colorectal cancer screening programme.

  13. Laparoscopic treatment of acute non traumatic abdomen syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, G.; Tellechea, M.; Antunez, C.; Perdomo, M.; Gateno, N.

    2003-01-01

    Laparoscopic treatment of acute non traumatic abdomen syndrome may be safely performed in the majority of cases.Results obtained cover the treatment of 155 patients through video laparoscopic approach, between February 1997 and March 2001.Twenty two patients were excluded because the laparoscopic performed was solely for the purpose of diagnosis.Seventy two patients were women and 61 men.Average age was 45 years old, the youngest being 7 and the oldest 86.Surgery indicators were 67 acute appendicitis; 51 acute cholecystitis; 8 diffuse peritonitis (5 due to perforated gastroduodenal ulcus, 1 of appendicular origin, another of biliary origin and still another as perforative complication of diverticular colopathy); 5 acute pancreatitis of biliary origin; 1 peri diverticular abscess and 1 bilioma.Twelve patients had to be convert to open surgery (9%).Global morbidity was 6% (4 post appendicectomy abscesses; 1 sub hepatic biblio ma, a biliary peritonitis and two infections of parietal abscesses.Mortality was null

  14. Diagnosis, treatment, and response assessment in solitary plasmacytoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caers, J; Paiva, B; Zamagni, E

    2018-01-01

    Solitary plasmacytoma is an infrequent form of plasma cell dyscrasia that presents as a single mass of monoclonal plasma cells, located either extramedullary or intraosseous. In some patients, a bone marrow aspiration can detect a low monoclonal plasma cell infiltration which indicates a high ris......, but studies exploring the potential benefit of systemic therapies for high-risk patients are urgently needed. In this review, a panel of expert European hematologists updates the recommendations on the diagnosis and management of patients with solitary plasmacytoma....... of early progression to an overt myeloma disease. Before treatment initiation, whole body positron emission tomography-computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be performed to exclude the presence of additional malignant lesions. For decades, treatment has been based on high-dose radiation...

  15. Cancer Terms: After Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gallery Cancer Terms: Cancer Basics Cancer Terms: Research Statistics Cancer Terms: Treatment Cancer Terms: After Treatment Online Medical Dictionaries Diagnosing Cancer Managing Your Care Financial Considerations How ...

  16. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinicians Public Health Officials Veterinarians Prevention History of Plague Resources FAQ Diagnosis and Treatment Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Detailed Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendations ...

  17. Water Treatment Group

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This team researches and designs desalination, water treatment, and wastewater treatment systems. These systems remediate water containing hazardous c hemicals and...

  18. Ronco: critérios diagnósticos e tratamento Snoring: diagnostic criteria and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio José Magalhães da Silveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O ronco é um problema importante com consequentes manifestações sociais e médicas. O passo inicial consiste em confirmar a presença do ronco e excluir qualquer doença respiratória noturna para que o tratamento adequado seja instituído. Este capítulo analisa o gerenciamento atual do ronco e seu tratamento.Snoring is a significant problem with social and medical manifestations. After snoring has been confirmed, other nocturnal respiratory diseases should be excluded so that the appropriate treatment can be instituted. This chapter addresses the current management of snoring and its treatment.

  19. Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouheshnia, Romin; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M; Reitsma, Johannes B; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2017-07-14

    Prognostic models often show poor performance when applied to independent validation data sets. We illustrate how treatment use in a validation set can affect measures of model performance and present the uses and limitations of available analytical methods to account for this using simulated data. We outline how the use of risk-lowering treatments in a validation set can lead to an apparent overestimation of risk by a prognostic model that was developed in a treatment-naïve cohort to make predictions of risk without treatment. Potential methods to correct for the effects of treatment use when testing or validating a prognostic model are discussed from a theoretical perspective.. Subsequently, we assess, in simulated data sets, the impact of excluding treated individuals and the use of inverse probability weighting (IPW) on the estimated model discrimination (c-index) and calibration (observed:expected ratio and calibration plots) in scenarios with different patterns and effects of treatment use. Ignoring the use of effective treatments in a validation data set leads to poorer model discrimination and calibration than would be observed in the untreated target population for the model. Excluding treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance only when treatment was randomly allocated, although this reduced the precision of the estimates. IPW followed by exclusion of the treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance in data sets where treatment use was either random or moderately associated with an individual's risk when the assumptions of IPW were met, but yielded incorrect estimates in the presence of non-positivity or an unobserved confounder. When validating a prognostic model developed to make predictions of risk without treatment, treatment use in the validation set can bias estimates of the performance of the model in future targeted individuals, and should not be ignored. When treatment use is random, treated

  20. Accounting for treatment use when validating a prognostic model: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romin Pajouheshnia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognostic models often show poor performance when applied to independent validation data sets. We illustrate how treatment use in a validation set can affect measures of model performance and present the uses and limitations of available analytical methods to account for this using simulated data. Methods We outline how the use of risk-lowering treatments in a validation set can lead to an apparent overestimation of risk by a prognostic model that was developed in a treatment-naïve cohort to make predictions of risk without treatment. Potential methods to correct for the effects of treatment use when testing or validating a prognostic model are discussed from a theoretical perspective.. Subsequently, we assess, in simulated data sets, the impact of excluding treated individuals and the use of inverse probability weighting (IPW on the estimated model discrimination (c-index and calibration (observed:expected ratio and calibration plots in scenarios with different patterns and effects of treatment use. Results Ignoring the use of effective treatments in a validation data set leads to poorer model discrimination and calibration than would be observed in the untreated target population for the model. Excluding treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance only when treatment was randomly allocated, although this reduced the precision of the estimates. IPW followed by exclusion of the treated individuals provided correct estimates of model performance in data sets where treatment use was either random or moderately associated with an individual's risk when the assumptions of IPW were met, but yielded incorrect estimates in the presence of non-positivity or an unobserved confounder. Conclusions When validating a prognostic model developed to make predictions of risk without treatment, treatment use in the validation set can bias estimates of the performance of the model in future targeted individuals, and

  1. Effectiveness, Safety, and Costs of a Treatment Switch to Dolutegravir Plus Rilpivirine Dual Therapy in Treatment-Experienced HIV Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta-Herrero, José Luis; Chamorro-de-Vega, Esther; Rodríguez-González, Carmen Guadalupe; Alonso, Roberto; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María

    2018-01-01

    Evidence about the use of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV) as an antiretroviral therapy (ART) in treatment-experienced patients is scarce. To explore the effectiveness, safety, and costs of switching to a DTG plus RPV regimen in this population. This observational, prospective study included all treatment-experienced patients who switched to DTG plus RPV between November 2014 and July 2016. Patients were excluded if resistance mutations to integrase inhibitors or RPV were found. The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved virological suppression (viral load [VL] 90% increased from 65.6% to 93.8% ( P = 0.004). The annual per-patient ART costs dropped by €665 ( P = 0.265). Switching to DTG plus RPV seems to be an effective and safe strategy. Significant improvements in patients' adherence and costs were achieved.

  2. [Lymph node tuberculosis treatment: from recommendations to practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanoix, J-P; Douadi, Y; Borel, A; Andrejak, C; El Samad, Y; Ducroix, J-P; Schmit, J-L

    2011-02-01

    Lymph node infection is the most frequent localization of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. However, there is still no consensus on the length of antimicrobial treatment. We conducted a retrospective study in the Department of infectious diseases and internal medicine in the Amiens Teaching Hospital, France. All patients diagnosed with lymph node tuberculosis between 1998 and 2007 were included; some patients presented with bi- or multifocal tuberculosis. The aim of the study was a practice analysis. We studied 48 medical records, 16 were excluded for lack of more than 40% of data or because lymph node tuberculosis was non-active. The mean age of the 32 patients included was 49 years. The mean duration of treatment was 10.9 months (standard deviation 2.6, median 11, range 6-18). There was no statistical age difference between subgroups (lymph node tuberculosis versus multifocal tuberculosis). There was no significant difference between the 6-month treatment group and the 9-month treatment group in term of clinical response. One relapse was diagnosed, eight patients (25%) were lost to follow-up at 1 year after treatment. DISCUSSION AND REVIEW: No reliable published data was found as to the optimal duration of treatment. A high quality clinical trial should be carried out to suggest a consensus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Retrospective study of ameloblastoma: the possibility of conservative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takumi; Imai, Yusuke; Takeda, Daisuke; Yasuoka, Daisuke; Ri, Shinshou; Shigeta, Takashi; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Shibuya, Yasuyuki; Komori, Takahide

    2013-11-09

    At our institutions, most cases of the solid or multicystic type were treated as conservatively as possible in order to avoid disadvantages of radical treatment. The aim of present study was to retrospectively analyze the ameloblastoma cases diagnosed at our two institutions, to classify them according to the criteria of the 2005 WHO classification, and to evaluate the possibility of using a conservative approach for the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma. Maxillary cases, unicystic cases, peripheral cases and resection-treated cases were excluded from this study. In 23 tumors of mandibular solid or multicystic ameloblastoma, a patient's age, gender, location, clinical signs, duration, radiographic appearance, preoperative diagnosis, ameloblastoma subtypes, treatment, and recurrence were investigated. The recurrence rate (48.7%) in this study was lower than the reported recurrence rate after conservative treatment for solid or multicystic ameloblastoma and was higher than the reported recurrence rate of ameloblastoma, inclusive of other types. However, all patients who were diagnosed with recurrences have maintained their quality of life and were satisfied for at least several years after the conservative treatment. In conclusion, we demonstrated one possibility that a conservative approach might be employed in the surgical treatment of ameloblastoma (even of the solid or multicystic type).

  4. Diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation in patients with dizziness and cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Antonenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Complaints of dizziness and instability are the common reason for seeking a neurologist's advice at an outpatient visit and can be the frequent reason for emergency hospitalization.Difficulty in diagnosing the causes of dizziness and instability is due to a diversity of diseases manifested by these symptoms. The list of etiological factors includes peripheral and central vestibular lesions and unrelated nervous system diseases. In a number of cases, dizziness and instability are concurrent with cognitive impairment. Complaints of poor concentration and memory, dizziness and instability can often be associated with brain degenerative and/or vascular lesions, as well as with pathological mood changes and anxiety disorder.The diagnosis of these diseases requires neurovestibular examination, cognitive testing, and assessment of the emotional status of patients. Early detection of the causes of dizziness and memory disorders ensures better treatment results. There are different approaches to therapy for dizziness and cognitive impairment: drug and non-drug correction techniques (vestibular rehabilitation and cognitive training. Biofeedback procedures were shown to be highly effective.The effect of tanakan in treating patients with involvement of the peripheral vestibular system and brain structures is discussed

  5. A comparative study of single-dose treatment of chancroid using thiamphenicol versus Azithromycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter B. Junior

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil, to compare azithromycin with thiamphenicol for the single-dose treatment of chancroid. In all, 54 men with chancroid were tested. The etiology was determined by clinical characterization and direct bacterioscopy with Gram staining. None of the patients had positive serology or dark-field examination indicating active infection with Treponema pallidum. Genital infections due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae and herpes simplex virus were excluded by polymerase chain reaction testing. For 54 patients with chancroid, cure rates with single-dose treatment were 73% with azithromycin and 89% with thiamphenicol. HIV seropositivity was found to be associated with treatment failure (p=0.001. The treatment failed in all HIV positive patients treated with azithromycin (p=0.002 and this drug should be avoided in these co-infected patients. In the view of the authors, thiamphenicol is the most indicated single-dose regimen for chancroid treatment.

  6. Effect of Female Body Mass Index on Oocyte Quantity in Fertility Treatments (IVF): Treatment Cycle Number Is a Possible Effect Modifier. A Register-Based Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Wulf; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Degn, Birte

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Overweight and obese women may require higher doses of gonadotrophin when undergoing In Vitro Fertilization Treatment (IVF). Consequently, one may expect a sub-optimal oocyte retrieval in the first treatment cycle and thus a larger compensation in gonadotrophin-dose in the following...... observed in oocyte yield for underweight, overweight and obesity compared to normal weight women when analyzing all treatment-cycles. Overweight women had significantly fewer mature (MII) oocytes (p = 0.009) than normal weight women, whereas no differences was observed for underweight and obese women......-cycles during the period 1999-2009. Exclusion criteria were missing information on BMI or treatment type. Further, women were excluded if they had ovulated before oocyte retrieval. According to baseline BMI, women were divided into four categories following the World Health Organization standards. Multiple...

  7. Evidence-based guideline update: Medical treatment of infantile spasms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, C.Y.; Mackay, M.T.; Weiss, S.K.; Stephens, D.; Adams-Webber, T.; Ashwal, S.; Snead, O.C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To update the 2004 American Academy of Neurology/Child Neurology Society practice parameter on treatment of infantile spasms in children. Methods: MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from 2002 to 2011 and searches of reference lists of retrieved articles were performed. Sixty-eight articles were selected for detailed review; 26 were included in the analysis. Recommendations were based on a 4-tiered classification scheme combining pre-2002 evidence and more recent evidence. Results: There is insufficient evidence to determine whether other forms of corticosteroids are as effective as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. However, low-dose ACTH is probably as effective as high-dose ACTH. ACTH is more effective than vigabatrin (VGB) for short-term treatment of children with infantile spasms (excluding those with tuberous sclerosis complex). There is insufficient evidence to show that other agents and combination therapy are effective for short-term treatment of infantile spasms. Short lag time to treatment leads to better long-term developmental outcome. Successful short-term treatment of cryptogenic infantile spasms with ACTH or prednisolone leads to better long-term developmental outcome than treatment with VGB. Recommendations: Low-dose ACTH should be considered for treatment of infantile spasms. ACTH or VGB may be useful for short-term treatment of infantile spasms, with ACTH considered preferentially over VGB. Hormonal therapy (ACTH or prednisolone) may be considered for use in preference to VGB in infants with cryptogenic infantile spasms, to possibly improve developmental outcome. A shorter lag time to treatment of infantile spasms with either hormonal therapy or VGB possibly improves long-term developmental outcomes. PMID:22689735

  8. [Preprosthetic orthodontic treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prahl-Andersen, B.; Prahl, C.; Baat, C. de; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of a preprosthetic orthodontic treatment is to position the teeth in such a way that a treatment with (fixed) dental prostheses is made possible or simplified or to affect the result of this treatment positively. Conceivable preprosthetic orthodontic treatments are: correcting primary

  9. Lasers in Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients CAM for Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Lasers in Cancer Treatment On This Page What is laser light? What is laser therapy, and how is it used in cancer treatment? ...

  10. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient......'s self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals....... The evaluation included a satisfaction questionnaire and the WHO-QoL BREF and WHO-5 well-being score. Overall, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot study. The patients were generally satisfied with the diary, found that it involved them more in their treatment and made it easier to set personal goals...

  11. Treatment diary for botulinum toxin spasticity treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Iversen, Helle K; Frederiksen, Inge M S

    2017-01-01

    's self-evaluation of achievement on the Goal Attainment Scale; which skeletal muscles were injected; physiotherapists' and occupational therapists' evaluation of the patients' achievement of objectives on the Goal Attainment Scale; and proposals for optimization of treatment and changing goals......The aim of this study is to develop a treatment diary for patients receiving spasticity treatment including botulinum toxin injection and physiotherapy and/or occupational therapy. The diary focuses on problems triggered by skeletal muscle overactivity; agreed goals for treatment and the patient....... The evaluation included a satisfaction questionnaire and the WHO-QoL BREF and WHO-5 well-being score. Overall, 10 patients were enrolled in the pilot study. The patients were generally satisfied with the diary, found that it involved them more in their treatment and made it easier to set personal goals...

  12. Health service utilisation by people living with chronic non-cancer pain: findings from the Pain and Opioids IN Treatment (POINT) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Suzanne; Campbell, Gabrielle; Peacock, Amy; Smith, Kimberly; Bruno, Raimondo; Hall, Wayne; Cohen, Milton; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2016-11-01

    Objective The aims of the present study were to describe the use, and barriers to the use, of non-medication pain therapies and to identify the demographic and clinical correlates of different non-opioid pain treatments. Methods The study was performed on a cohort (n=1514) of people prescribed pharmaceutical opioids for chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP). Participants reported lifetime and past month use of healthcare services, mental and physical health, pain characteristics, current oral morphine equivalent daily doses and financial and access barriers to healthcare services. Results Participants reported the use of non-opioid pain treatments, both before and after commencing opioid therapy. Services accessed most in the past month were complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs; 41%), physiotherapy (16%) and medical and/or pain specialists (15%). Higher opioid dose was associated with increased financial and access barriers to non-opioid treatment. Multivariate analyses indicated being younger, female and having private health insurance were the factors most commonly associated with accessing non-opioid treatments. Conclusions Patients on long-term opioid therapy report using multiple types of pain treatments. High rates of CAM use are concerning given limited evidence of efficacy for some therapies and the low-income status of most people with CNCP. Financial and insurance barriers highlight the importance of considering how different types of treatments are paid for and subsidised. What is known about the topic? Given concerns regarding long-term efficacy, adverse side-effects and risk of misuse and dependence, prescribing guidelines recommend caution in prescribing pharmaceutical opioids in cases of CNCP, typically advising a multidisciplinary approach to treatment. There is a range of evidence supporting different (non-drug) treatment approaches for CNCP to reduce pain severity and increase functioning. However, little is known about the non-opioid treatments

  13. Treatment of foregut fistula with biologic plugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgate, Rhys; Thomas, Alan; Ballal, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Enteric fistulas are a recognised complication of various diseases and surgical interventions. Non-operative medical management will result in closure of 60-70% of all fistulas over a six- to eight-week period, those that fail non-operative management will require operative intervention if they are to close. We present a series of upper gastrointestinal fistula managed with endoscopic intervention and insertion of biological fistula plug over a 3-year period across three Hospitals, both public and private, in Western Australia. Over a three-year period, 14 patients were referred for treatment of acute or persistent foregut fistulas. All fistulas were managed with endoscopic intervention and insertion of a porcine small intestine sub-mucosa plug (Biodesign (®) Cook medical Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA). No patients with fistula were excluded. Data were collected on patient demographics and underlying diagnosis. The biological plugs were deployed using three different endoscopic techniques (direct deployment via the endoscope, catheter-assisted endoscopic deployment, or a pull through via a guide wire using a rendezvous technique). Fourteen patients with foregut fistula were treated using biological plugs. The age of the fistulas treated ranged from 14 days to 3 years. The fistulas were predominantly gastric in origin (eight cases). Three oesophageal, one gastro-pleural-bronchial, and two jejunal fistulas were also managed using this technique. Of the 14 fistulas treated using this method, 13 resolved following the treatment. Median time to closure of the fistula was 2 days (range 1-120 days). Three patients required more than one intervention to complete closure. Biological plugs offer a further option for management of the traditionally difficult foregut fistula, without major morbidity associated with other treatment modalities. It is limited to the ability to deploy the plug endoscopically.

  14. Hormone levels in radiotherapy treatment related fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, B.M.; Mallik, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    Radiotherapy is known to cause debilitating treatment related fatigue. Fatigue in general is a conglomeration of psychological, physical, hematological and unknown factors influencing the internal milieu of the cancer patient. Radiotherapy can add stress at the cellular and somatic level to aggravate further fatigue in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. Stress related hormones might be mediating in the development of fatigue. This is an ongoing prospective study to evaluate if the hormonal profile related to stress is influenced by radiotherapy treatment related fatigue. The study was conducted from September 2002 onwards in the division of Radiotherapy and Oncology of our Medical School. Previously untreated patients with histopathology proof of malignancy requiring external beam radiotherapy were considered for this study. Selection criteria were applied to exclude other causes of fatigue. Initial fatigue score was obtained using Pipers Fatigue Score questionnaire containing 23 questions, subsequently final fatigue score was obtained at the end of radiotherapy. Blood samples were obtained to estimate the levels of ACTH, TSH, HGH, and cortisol on the final assessment. The hormone levels were compared with resultant post radiotherapy fatigue score. At the time of reporting 50 patients were evaluable for the study. The total significant fatigue score was observed among 12 (24%) patients. The individual debilitating fatigue score were behavioral severity 14 (28%), affective meaning 14(28%), Sensory 13 (26%) and cognitive mood 10 (20%) respectively. From the analysis of hormonal profile, growth hormone level > 1 ng/mL and TSH <0.03 appears to be associated with high fatigue score (though statistically not significant); whereas there was no correlation with ACTH and serum cortisol level. In our prospective study severe radiotherapy treatment related fatigue was found among our patient population. Low levels of TSH and high levels of GH appear to be associated

  15. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J; Hartman, J; Rodriguez, J; Maitland, D

    2008-01-16

    Aneurysm re-growth and rupture can sometimes unexpectedly occur following treatment procedures that were initially considered to be successful at the time of treatment and post-operative angiography. In some cases, this can be attributed to surgical clip slippage or endovascular coil compaction. However, there are other cases in which the treatment devices function properly. In these instances, the subsequent complications are due to other factors, perhaps one of which is the post-treatment hemodynamic stress. To investigate whether or not a treatment procedure can subject the parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. The simulations demonstrate that the treatment procedure produces a substantial increase in the wall shear stress. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the increase in wall shear stress is due to the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the aneurysm filling material and to the close proximity of a vortex tube to the artery wall. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stress shows that there is a region of the artery exposed to a level of wall shear stress that can cause severe damage to endothelial cells. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully excludes the aneurysm from the vascular system and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the immediately adjacent vessel wall.

  16. Riboflavin, MTHFR genotype and blood pressure: A personalized approach to prevention and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Hughes, Catherine F; Ward, Mary

    2017-02-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor contributing to mortality worldwide, primarily from cardiovascular disease (CVD), while effective treatment of hypertension is proven to reduce CVD events. Along with the well recognized nutrition and lifestyle determinants, genetic factors are implicated in the development and progression of hypertension. In recent years genome-wide association studies have identified a region near the gene encoding the folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) among eight loci associated with blood pressure. Epidemiological studies, which provide a separate line of evidence to link this gene with blood pressure, show that the 677C→T polymorphism in MTHFR increases the risk of hypertension by 24-87% and CVD by up to 40%, albeit with a large geographical variation in the extent of excess disease risk suggestive of a gene-environment interaction. Emerging evidence indicates that the relevant environmental factor may be riboflavin, the MTHFR co-factor, via a novel and genotype-specific effect on blood pressure. Randomized trials conducted in hypertensive patients (with and without overt CVD) pre-screened for this polymorphism show that targeted riboflavin supplementation in homozygous individuals (MTHFR 677TT genotype) lowers systolic blood pressure by 6 to 13 mmHg, independently of the effect of antihypertensive drugs. The latest evidence, that the blood pressure phenotype associated with this polymorphism is modifiable by riboflavin, has important clinical and public health implications. For hypertensive patients, riboflavin supplementation can offer a non-drug treatment to effectively lower blood pressure in those identified with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. For sub-populations worldwide with this genotype, better riboflavin status may prevent or delay the development of high blood pressure. Thus riboflavin, targeted at those homozygous for a common polymorphism in MTHFR, may offer a personalized treatment or

  17. [Identification, evaluation and treatment of dementia patients in society].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capildeo, R; Wallace, M G; Clifford Rose, F

    1983-12-29

    Patients with "mild to moderate" dementia might improve with appropriate drug therapy whereas patients with "severe" dementia are generally considered to have an irreversible condition, providing acute metabolic disorders have been excluded and appropriate investigations have been performed to exclude neurological conditions that might be amenable to neurosurgery. Since it is unlikely that this type of patient will be referred to the hospital outpatient clinics, it is necessary to identify these patients in the community. For this purpose, authors have used the Abbreviated Mental Test. A comparison between two observers (nurse and doctor) has been made. Subsequently, a 6 symptoms check-list, as abbreviated form of the Crichton Royal Rating Scale for geriatric patients, was used in an open pilot study on 260 patients completing a 12 weeks treatment by dihydroergotoxine mesylate (codergocrine mesylate, Hydergine) 4.5 mg once a day. Although this was an open pilot study, it does show that it is possible to identify and treat patients with "mild to moderate" dementia in the community. A single dose formulation in the elderly has obvious advantages. In this study, compliance was excellent and 88% of the patients showed significant improvement using the suggested rating scales.

  18. Prevalence and treatment outcome of cervicitis of unknown etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stephanie N; Lensing, Shelly; Schwebke, Jane; Lillis, Rebecca; Mena, Leandro A; Nelson, Anita L; Rinaldi, Anne; Saylor, Lisa; McNeil, Linda; Lee, Jeannette Y

    2013-05-01

    Mucopurulent cervicitis (MPC) is a clinical syndrome characterized by mucopurulent discharge from the cervix and other signs of inflammation. This was a phase III, multicenter study designed to evaluate the effectiveness of placebo versus empiric antibiotic treatment for clinical cure of MPC of unknown etiology at 2-month follow-up. Unfortunately, enrollment was terminated because of low accrual of women with cervicitis of unknown etiology, but important prevalence and outcome data were obtained. Five hundred seventy-seven women were screened for MPC. Women with MPC were randomized to the treatment or placebo arm of the study, and the 2 arms were evaluated based on the etiology, clinical cure rates, adverse events (AEs), and rates of pelvic inflammatory disease. One hundred thirty-one (23% [131/577]) screened women were found to have MPC. Eighty-seven were enrolled and randomized. After excluding women with sexually transmitted infections and other exclusions, 61% (53/87) had cervicitis of unknown etiology. The overall clinical failure rate was 30% (10/33), and the clinical cure rate was only 24% (8/33). Rates were not significantly different between the arms. There were 24 gastrointestinal AEs in the treatment arm compared with 1 AE in the placebo arm. More than half of the cases of MPC were of unknown etiology. Clinical cure rates for the placebo and treatment arms were extremely low, with most women concluding the study with a partial response. Gastrointestinal AEs were higher in the treatment arm.

  19. Diagnosis and treatment of chronic constipation – a European perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Müller-Lissner, S; Stanghellini, V; Boeckxstaens, G; Kamm, M A; Simren, M; Galmiche, J-P; Fried, M

    2011-01-01

    Background Although constipation can be a chronic and severe problem, it is largely treated empirically. Evidence for the efficacy of some of the older laxatives from well-designed trials is limited. Patients often report high levels of dissatisfaction with their treatment, which is attributed to a lack of efficacy or unpleasant side-effects. Management guidelines and recommendations are limited and are not sufficiently current to include treatments that became available more recently, such as prokinetic agents in Europe. Purpose We present an overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, current management and available guidelines for the treatment of chronic constipation, and include recent data on the efficacy and potential clinical use of the more newly available therapeutic agents. Based on published algorithms and guidelines on the management of chronic constipation, secondary pathologies and causes are first excluded and then diet, lifestyle, and, if available, behavioral measures adopted. If these fail, bulk-forming, osmotic, and stimulant laxatives can be used. If symptoms are not satisfactorily resolved, a prokinetic agent such as prucalopride can be prescribed. Biofeedback is recommended as a treatment for chronic constipation in patients with disordered defecation. Surgery should only be considered once all other treatment options have been exhausted. PMID:21605282

  20. Directly observed treatment, short course in tuberculous meningitis: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shri Ram Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effectiveness of intermittent short course chemotherapy for tuberculous meningitis (TBM has not been well studied. There are scarce reported studies on this issue in the world literature. Neurologists all over India are reluctant to accept Directly Observed Treatment Short course (DOTS for TBM since its introduction in India. Aim: We did a prospective study to assess effectiveness of Revised National TB Control Program (RNTCP-DOTS regimes among TBM patients. Materials and Methods: In this study we include the TBM patients admitted from September 2008 to March 2011. All were referred to RNTCP for treatment. Diagnostic Algorithm as per RNTCP guidelines was strictly followed and treatment outcome and follow-up status were recorded. We exclude HIV and pediatric age group. Results: A total of 42 cases registered for DOTS regimen were included in the study, of which 35 completed the treatment (83%. All the patients were started with DOTS but finally 78% received actual DOTS. All patients were given 9 months intermitted regimen as per RNTCP guidelines. Seven patients died during the treatment (16%. Conclusion: We found intermitted short course chemotherapy was effective in TBM.

  1. Land Treatment Digital Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, David S.; Welty, Justin L.

    2013-01-01

    The Land Treatment Digital Library (LTDL) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey to catalog legacy land treatment information on Bureau of Land Management lands in the western United States. The LTDL can be used by federal managers and scientists for compiling information for data-calls, producing maps, generating reports, and conducting analyses at varying spatial and temporal scales. The LTDL currently houses thousands of treatments from BLM lands across 10 states. Users can browse a map to find information on individual treatments, perform more complex queries to identify a set of treatments, and view graphs of treatment summary statistics.

  2. Patients with a history of infection and voiding dysfunction are at risk for recurrence after successful endoscopic treatment of vesico ureteral reflux and deserve long-term follow up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Coletta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: Preoperative recurrent IVU, together with high-grade reflux, seem to correlate to lower success rate of Deflux injection for primary VUR. Even after successful endoscopic treatment, long-term surveillance may be needed among these cases, mainly if voiding dysfunction is also recorded. Late recurring VUR must be actively excluded in case of new IVU episodes.

  3. Risk of bias from inclusion of patients who already have diagnosis of or are undergoing treatment for depression in diagnostic accuracy studies of screening tools for depression : systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Arthurs, Erin; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Meijer, Anna; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Steele, Russell J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the proportion of original studies included in systematic reviews and meta-analyses on the diagnostic accuracy of screening tools for depression that appropriately exclude patients who already have a diagnosis of or are receiving treatment for depression and to determine

  4. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child ... ADHD will continue to benefit from it as teenagers. In fact, many adults with ADHD also find ...

  5. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students and Residents Toggle Medical Student Resources Child Psychiatry Residents (Fellows) Early Career Psychiatrists Member Resources ... Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource Center Youth Resources Child and Adolescent Psychiatrist Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, ...

  6. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also have higher rates of cigarette and drug addiction, and more driving infractions. The good news is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ability ...

  7. Treatment of appendiceal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper; Skovdal, Jan; Qvist, Niels

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The treatment strategy for appendiceal mass is controversial, ranging from operation or image-guided drainage to conservative treatment with or without antibiotics. The aim of this study was to assess the various treatment modalities with respect to complications and treatment failure...... in total 3,772 patients. Operation for appendiceal mass was beset with a moderate to high risk of complications of up to 57% and a risk of intestinal resection of up to 25%. Major complications were observed in up to 18% of cases. Conservative treatment with or without antibiotics was associated...... with a treatment failure rate of 8-15%. Drainage was beset with a risk of complications of 2-15% and a risk of treatment failure of 2-13%. CONCLUSION: Operation with appendectomy for appendiceal mass carries a high risk of complications compared with conservative treatment or drainage. Drainage may lower the risk...

  8. HIV Treatment: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS Drugs Clinical Trials Apps skip to content HIV Treatment Home Understanding HIV/AIDS Fact Sheets HIV ... 4 p.m. ET) Send us an email HIV Treatment: The Basics Last Reviewed: March 22, 2018 ...

  9. Fertility Treatments for Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Females Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Fertility Treatments for Females Once a woman is diagnosed ... The presence or absence of male factor infertility Fertility treatments are most likely to benefit women whose ...

  10. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Demand Maintenance of Certification and Lifelong Learning Modules Online CME Pathways ... Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can ...

  11. Cholesterol - drug treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000314.htm Cholesterol - drug treatment To use the sharing features on ... treatment; Hardening of the arteries - statin Statins for Cholesterol Statins reduce your risk of heart disease, stroke, ...

  12. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is that effective treatment is available . With the right medical treatment, children with ADHD can improve their ... to pay attention and control their behavior. The right care can help them grow, learn, and feel ...

  13. Surgical Treatments for Fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NICHD Research Information Find a Study More Information Preeclampsia and Eclampsia About NICHD Research Information Find a ... Treatments Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print Surgical Treatments for Fibroids If you have moderate or severe ...

  14. Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Treatment for atrial fibrillation depends on how often you have symptoms, how ...

  15. HIV: Treatment and Comorbidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Rokx (Casper)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractClinicians worldwide strive to improve HIV care for their patients. Antiretroviral therapy prevents HIV related mortality and is lifelong. A clinical evaluation of these treatment strategies is necessary to identify strategies that may jeopardize treatment effectiveness and patient

  16. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having trouble with friendships. Family life may also suffer. Untreated ADHD can increase strain between ...

  17. Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The actual treatment areas for municipal, industrial, and semi-public wastewater treatment facilities in Iowa for the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System...

  18. Sleep Eduction: Treatment & Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... miles): 10 25 50 Share: Essentials in Sleep Insomnia Overview & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis & Self Tests Treatment Sleep Apnea Overview & Facts ... Self Test & Diagnosis Treatment Snoring Overview and Facts Causes and Symptoms Self Tests & ... Insomnia Short Sleeper Hypersomnias Narcolepsy Insufficient ...

  19. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  20. Getting Treatment for ADHD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Toggle search Toggle navigation Quick Links Family Resources ADHD Resource Center Resource Centers Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Resource ... Finder Getting Treatment Without treatment, a child with ADHD may fall behind in school and continue having ...

  1. Pertussis Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hospital. If Your Child Gets Treatment for Pertussis at Home Do not give cough medications unless ... from occurring. If Your Child Gets Treatment for Pertussis in the Hospital Your child may need help ...

  2. IV treatment at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other IV treatments you may receive after you leave the hospital include: Treatment for hormone deficiencies Medicines for severe nausea that cancer chemotherapy or pregnancy may cause Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) for pain (this is IV ...

  3. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain trace amounts of both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant and residuals.

  4. Prostate cancer - treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000403.htm Prostate cancer - treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treatment for your prostate cancer is chosen after a thorough evaluation. Your doctor ...

  5. [Treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdevant, A

    2002-04-01

    There are three main goals to the treatment of obesity: prevention and treatment of the complications, realistic reduction of excess weight, psychological well-being. Each individual is in a specific clinical situation and interindividual variability is wide so stereotypic therapeutic schemes are of little use. Treatment calls upon physical exercise, dietary counseling, drugs, and exceptionally surgery. Psychological support is an integral part of patient management. Treatment of respiratory complications focuses on preventing thromboembolism and management of sleep apnea syndrome and alveolar hypoventilation.

  6. Inventtional treatment of varicocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Varicocele is a dilatation of the veins in the pampiniform plexus and manifests as mass-effect, pain, testicular atrophy, or male infertility. Traditionally, surgical treatment has been the mainstay of treatment of varicocele, while interventional treatment, which is endovascular embolization of the testicular vein, has been gaining popularity recently. In this review, diagnosis of the disease, indications and procedure details of interventional treatment, results, and complications are discussed.

  7. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  8. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  9. Subconjunctival Bevacizumab Injection in Treatment of Pterygium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Besharati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the clinical effect of subconjunctival administration of bevacizumab in patients with primary and recurrent pterygium. The study was an off-label, single-dosing, interventional case series involving 22 patients with primary and recurrent pterygium. They received subconjunctival bevacizumab (0.2cc. Pterygium vascularity and thickness was graded. The size of the pterygium (measured by surface area in cm2 was recorded from baseline to 12 weeks, after injection. Treatment-related complications and adverse events were reported. The main outcome of measurements was the change in size, vascularity, thickness, color intensity. There were 15 males (68.2% and 7 females (31.8% of 22 patients with a mean age of 45.5 years (SD 11.68 years. One cases didn't cooperate, and excluded. There was a significant difference in the mean surface area of pterygium at different intervals (P 0.05. There was a significant reduction in the mean pterygium size of patients younger than 45 years in comparison to those older than 45 years after three month (P =0.037, but after 6 months, this difference was not significant (P = 0.338. Average changes in pterygium size for both eyes were not different. The reduction of color intensity in both eyes was significant (P =0.031. Subconjuctival bevacizumab injection is useful in management of patients with primary and recurrent pterygium without significant local or systemic adverse effects

  10. Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Adolescent and Young Adult Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guldane Cengiz Seval

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this review were to discuss standard and investigational treatment strategies for adolescent and young adult with acute myeloid leukemia, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML in adolescent and young adult patients (AYAs may need a different type of therapy than those currently used in children and older patients. As soon as AML is diagnosed, AYA patient should be offered to participate in well-designed clinical trials. The standard treatment approach for AYAs with AML is remission induction chemotherapy with an anthracycline/cytarabine combination, followed by either consolidation chemotherapy or stem cell transplantation, depending on the ability of the patient to tolerate intensive treatment and cytogenetic features. Presently, continuing progress of novel drugs targeting specific pathways in acute leukemia may bring AML treatment into a new era.

  11. Is initial (24 hours) lavage necessary in treatment of CAPD peritonitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejlersen, E; Brandi, L; Løkkegaard, H

    1991-01-01

    either initial 24 hours lavage before resumption of routine CAPD schedule (prior standard approach) or continued prolonged exchanges as in routine CAPD schedule. Median time to solved infection (normalization of white cell count in dialysis effluent) was identical (3 days) in the two groups. Treatment......A randomized trial was conducted to examine the influence of initial lavage on treatment of CAPD peritonitis. Patients with hypotension and shock were excluded from the trial. Thirty-six CAPD patients with acute peritonitis were randomized to treatment with intraperitoneal antibiotics including...... success rate was found to be 72% in the group with initial lavage and 89% in the group with prolonged exchanges. The difference in treatment success (17%) in favour of continued CAPD schedule was not found significant (95% confidence limits--1% to 35%). The results suggest lavage to be of no clinical...

  12. [Surgical treatment of the GER with Boix-Ochoa technique. Long term results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orgaz, A; López-Alonso, M

    2004-07-01

    The Boix-Ochoa technique enable hipercorrection of the gastroesophageal reflux (GER), avoiding the disphagia and allowing the eructing capability as a consequence of the fundoplication procedure. During the last decade 102 children were surgically treated using the Boix-Ochoa technique. The age range was 4.93 +/- 3.80 years. All patients have previously been studied with Xray, esophageal manometry, pHmetry during 24 h, and eventually with medical treatment. Failure of the medical treatment lead to the surgical treatment with the Boix-Ochoa technique. After surgery, 24 h controls of esophageal pHmetry showed reflux indexes greater than 5 in six patients. Two of them had neurological pathology and one of them suffered peptic stenosis previously treated by means of mechanical dilatation. The rest of patients showed normal value of reflux indexes after surgery. Excluding the esophageal atresia and caustic stenosis, the Boix-Ochoa technique is the best choice for the surgical treatment of GER.

  13. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J; Damkier, P; Lublin, H

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...

  14. Distributed Treatment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgonc, David; Plante, Luke

    2017-10-01

    This section presents a review of the literature published in 2016 on topics relating to distributed treatment systems. This review is divided into the following sections with multiple subsections under each: constituent removal; treatment technologies; and planning and treatment system management.

  15. Seed Treatment. Manual 92.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the seed treatment category. The text discusses pests commonly associated with seeds; seed treatment pesticides; labels; chemicals and seed treatment equipment; requirements of federal and state seed laws;…

  16. The Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Protection of the Patient in Medical Imaging Procedures for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Purposes (Excluding Radiotherapy) using X-Rays in Israel - Risk - Cost and Benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Shlomo, A.

    1998-10-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic radiology is playing a major role in modern medicine. The utilization of devices emitting ionizing radiation for medical diagnostic and therapeutic purposes is classified into three categories: a. Radiotherapy procedures for the treatment of malignant and benign tumors. b. Nuclear medicine procedures using radiopharmaceuticals that are introduced into the patient's body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. c. Diagnostic and therapeutic x-ray imaging procedures. This group includes conventional radiography, conventional fluoroscopy, cardiac catheterization, angiography, CT, mammography, dental, and fluoroscopy operation procedures. A survey was carried out on a sample of three major Israeli hospitals in order to: 1. Determine the status of radiation protection of patients in Israel with regard to the use of x-rays in medical imaging and interventional radiology. 2. Assess the extent of exposure of the population to medical x-rays, and assess the collective risk in Israel in this relation (based on Icr-60). 3. Carry out a cost-benefit optimization procedure related to the means that should be used to reduce the exposure of Israeli patients under x-ray procedures. 4. Establish a of practical recommendations to reduce the x-ray radiation exposure of patients and to increase the image quality. 5. Establish a number of basic rules to be utilized by health policy makers in Israel

  17. Effect of the transpalatal arch during extraction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Heather L; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2008-06-01

    The transpalatal arch (TPA) can be used as an adjunct during orthodontic treatment to help control the movement of the maxillary first molars in 3 dimensions, including producing molar rotation and uprighting, maintaining transverse dimensions posteriorly during treatment, and maintaining leeway spaces during the transition of the dentition. The purpose of this retrospective cephalometric study was to test an additional function of the TPA: its ability to enhance orthodontic anchorage during extraction treatment. Records consisting of pretreatment and posttreatment cephalograms were gathered from several orthodontic practices that used an .018 x .025-in preangulated appliance. All patients were white and had 4 first premolars extracted as part of their treatment protocol. Patients were treated either with or without a TPA of the soldered Goshgarian design. Patients were excluded if headgear or any other auxiliary anchorage device beside the TPA was used during treatment. Matched samples of 30 patients were identified based on sex, age at the start of treatment, treatment duration, and cervical vertebral maturation stage. Statistical comparisons were made with nonparametric statistical tests. Analysis of the changes from pretreatment to posttreatment for the TPA and the no-TPA groups showed no statistically significant differences in any of the variables examined. The net difference for both vertical and mesial movement of the maxillary first molar in relation to the maxilla between the 2 groups was 0.4 mm, with the no-TPA group in a more downward and forward position. Although the usefulness of the TPA for the abovementioned functions is not negated, it does not provide a significant effect on either the anteroposterior or the vertical position of the maxillary first molars during extraction treatment.

  18. Use of irradiation for phytosanitary treatment of fruit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Anuradha

    2013-01-01

    A major export barrier for food commodities is the incidence of insect pests on export agricultural products which are endemic to parts of the host country and that are not established in potential export destinations. Pest outbreaks influence trade, when trading partners revoke access for exports. Plant protection authorities enforce the use of various phytosanitary treatments or systems approach to counter the threat of insect pests. Methyl bromide is the most common phytosanitary treatment used in the fresh produce industry. It is a rapidly dispersing gas that targets a wide range of insect pests. Despite its effectiveness, it is being phased out due to its depleting effect on the ozone layer. Therefore, there is a need to explore postharvest treatments that can serve as alternatives to methyl bromide. Ionizing irradiation at low doses is a promising phytosanitary treatment that is increasing in use worldwide for various fruits such as guavas, papayas, sweet potato and mangoes. The USDA has approved a generic dose of 400 Gy for the sterilization of all insects excluding the pupae and adults of the insect order Lepidoptera. This is also the target dose for mangoes exported from India to the U.S. As with all phytosanitary treatments, the quality of the commodity may be affected by irradiation treatments as well has pre and post-harvest handling methods. In order to develop a practical treatment that can be used operationally, quality assessments must be conducted on each commodity, and in some cases, varieties of each commodity. In this presentation, I will present results of our work on phytosanitary irradiation on various fruit. The objectives of our research has been to determine the radiotolerance of various fruit, evaluate the effect of irradiation compared to other commercial treatments such as methyl bromide and modified atmosphere packaging, and determine the effect of phytosanitary dose on spoilage organisms as well as pathogens such as E. coli O157:H7

  19. Manual Therapy in the Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis. Analysis of Current Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaprowski, Dariusz

    2016-10-28

    Apart from the recommended specific physiotherapy, the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) also incorporates non-specific manual therapy (NMT). The aim of this paper is to assess the efficacy of NMT (manual therapy, chiropractic, osteopathy) used in the treatment of children and adolescents with IS. The study analysed systematic reviews (Analysis 1) and other recent scientific publications (Analysis 2). Analysis 1 encompassed papers on the use of NMT in patients with IS. Works concerning specific physiotherapy (SP) or bracing (B) and other types of scoliosis were excluded from the analysis. Inclusion criteria for Analysis 2 were: treatment with NMT; subjects aged 10-18 years with IS. The following types of papers were excluded: works analysing NMT combined with SP or B, reports concerning adult pa tients, analyses of single cases and publications included in Analysis 1. Analysis 1: six systematic reviews contained 6 papers on the efficacy of NMT in the treatment of IS. The results of these studies are contradictory, ranging from Cobb angle reduction to no treatment effects whatsoever. The papers analysed are characterised by poor methodological quality: small group sizes, incomplete descriptions of the study groups, no follow-up and no control groups. Analysis 2: in total, 217 papers were found. None of them met the criteria set for the analysis. 1. Few papers verifying the efficacy of manual therapy, chiropractic and osteopathy in the treatment of idiopathic scoliosis have been published to date. 2. The majority are experimental studies with poor methodology or observational case studies. 3. At present, the efficacy of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of patients with idiopathic scoliosis cannot be reliably evaluated. 4. It is necessary to conduct further research based on appropriate methods (prospective, rando mi s ed, controlled studies) in order to reliably assess the usefulness of non-specific manual therapy in the treatment of idiopathic

  20. Water supply and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacek, P.

    1987-01-01

    Experience is described with the operation of the water supply, the chemical water treatment systems and the unit condensate treatment at the V-2 nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice. The technology is described which is applied to obtain raw water from the Slnava water reservoir and the respective technological system for its treatment is described. Also described are the treatment of the make-up water for the primary and secondary coolant circuits, demineralization, regeneration of ion exchange filters, neutralization of regeneration waste, sludge dewatering and the treatment of steam turbine condensates. (B.S.)