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Sample records for non-destructive trace element

  1. Non-destructive trace element microanalysis of as-received cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron x ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Synchrotron X ray Fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory, will be an excellent instrument for non-destructive trace element analyses of cometary nucleus samples. Trace element analyses of as-received cometary nucleus material will also be possible with this technique. Bulk analysis of relatively volatile elements will be important in establishing comet formation conditions. However, as demonstrated for meteorites, microanalyses of individual phases in their petrographic context are crucial in defining the histories of particular components in unequilibrated specimens. Perhaps most informative in comparing cometary material with meteorites will be the halogens and trace metals. In-situ, high spatial resolution microanalyses will be essential in establishing host phases for these elements and identifying terrestrial (collection/processing) overprints. The present SXRF microprobe is a simple, yet powerful, instrument in which specimens are excited with filtered, continuum synchrotron radiation from a bending magnet on a 2.5 GeV electron storage ring. A refrigerated cell will be constructed to permit analyses at low temperatures. The cell will consist essentially of an air tight housing with a cold stage. Kapton windows will be used to allow the incident synchrotron beam to enter the cell and fluorescent x rays to exit it. The cell will be either under vacuum or continuous purge by ultrapure helium during analyses. Several other improvements of the NSLS microprobe will be made prior to the cometary nucleus sample return mission that will greatly enhance the sensitivity of the technique

  2. Application of neutron activation analysis to biological materials. Pt. 4. Approach to simultaneous determination of trace elements in human eye tissues with non-destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, T; Bando, M; Nakajima, A [Juntendo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Terai, M [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science; Suzuki-Yasumoto, M [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen trace elements (short-lived nuclides: Al, Br, Cu, Mn and V; long-lived nuclides: Ag, Au, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Sc, Se and Zn) in human eye tissues are determined simultaneously by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The quantity of Al, Br, Fe, Se and Zn in the eye tissues (about 1 to more than 10 ..mu..g/g dry weight tissue) seems to be higher than that of other trace elements, although the content of each trace element in individual tissue is scattered in a wide range. Conjunctiva, iris (+ciliary body) and choroid (+pigment epithelium) seem to contain larger amount of various trace elements than other eye tissues. From correlation studies it is evident that the relative distribution of 14 trace elements in various eye tissues are similar, and furthermore the content of trace elements in the eye tissues may be correlated in each of the three groups (group A: Cd, Se and Zn; group B: Al, Cr, Fe, Se and V; group C: Al, Au, Fe and Se).

  3. Comparative study of destructive and non-destructive methods in the activation analysis of rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcellos, M.B.A.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative study between non-destructive thermal neutron activation analysis and activation analysis with radiochemical group separation is made Both methods are applied to the determination of trace elements minor and major elements in rocks. The treatment of the rocks, with special reference to the problems related to grinding and contamination by foreign elements is described. The choice of standards for multielement trace activation analysis is discussed. Two types of computer programs for the evalution of data obtained through Ge-li detector counting are used. All the phases of the destructive and non destructive analysis are described. In the destructive analysis, an adaptation of the group separation scheme developed by Morrison et al for the activation analysis of geological samples is made. The changes introduced make the radiochemical separation simpler and more rapid. Both destructive and non destructive methods are tested by means of the analysis of the United States Geological Survey standard rock AGV-1, which has been analysed by many authors. The same procedure is then applied to some alcaline rocks taken from the apatite mine of Jacupiranga, in the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The knowledge of the trace element concentration in these rocks is important for geochemical studies. A detailed study of the possible interferences encountered in the neutron activation analysis of these rocks is made, considering the interferences due to major activities, and to the proximity of the several gamma ray energies of the radioisotopes produced. Finally, the comparative study between the two methods is presented, using statistical tests for the quantitative evalution of results. (Author) [pt

  4. Comparative evaluation of trace elements in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Tjioe, P.S.; Pries, C.; Zwiers, J.H.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Interuniversitair Reactor Instituut and the Centraal Laboratorium TNO have carried out a common investigation on neutron-activation-analytical procedures for the determination of trace elements in blood. A comparative evaluation of five methods, destructive as well as non-destructive, is given. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the procedures are discussed. By combining some of the methods it is possible, starting with 1 ml blood, to give quantitative information on 14 important trace elements: antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, cobalt, gold, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, iron and zinc. The methods have also been applied to sodium, chromium and potassium

  5. Completely non-destructive elemental analysis of bulky samples by PGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oura, Y.; Nakahara, H.; Sueki, K.; Sato, W.; Tomizawa, T.

    1998-01-01

    A new non-destructive method is proposed for the elemental analysis of bulk samples. It is essentially a combination of PGA and NAA by a single neutron irradiation, and allows determinations of elemental contents of both major and minor constituents relative to that of some reference element. Major elements and some trace elements such as B, Sm, and Gd are mostly determined by the measurement of prompt gamma rays emitted when a bulky sample in its original form, namely, without any reduction of the sample size, is placed in the beam of neutrons guided from a nuclear reactor. Minor elements are then determined by the off-line measurements of gamma rays emitted from the radioactive nuclides produced within the sample by neutron capture reactions. As the radioactivity remaining in the sample becomes negligibly small after a few weeks cooling, the proposed method will be most usefully applied for the elemental analysis of bulky precious samples such as archaeological samples, and arts and crafts. In this presentation, applicability of the method will be demonstrated for porcelain and bronze samples. (author)

  6. Non-destructive determination of trace-element concentrations. Annual progress report, September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.

    1977-01-01

    Equipment has been assembled at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) reactor by the University of Maryland group in cooperation with the NBS staff in order to initiate studies of a new analytical technique, neutron-capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis. According to this technique one observes prompt γ-rays while the sample is under neutron bombardment, rather than observing γ rays from decay of radioactive species produced. It is expected that this technique will make possible the non-destructive determination of a number of elements in several classes of samples that cannot be measured by present analytical methods. A beam thimble has been built for insertion into the reactor. A beam stop and target holder have been designed and are under construction. The detection system has been designed and is on order. The pulse-height analyzer system has been obtained and debugged and most of the software needed has been written

  7. Non-destructive determination of trace elements. Final progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.L.; Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.; Lindstrom, R.M.

    1984-05-01

    In the course of this project we have successfully designed, built, and tested the first neutron beam facility dedicated to routine multielement neutron capture prompt-γ activation analysis (PGAA). This technique is capable of accurately measuring concentrations of up to 20 elements in a number of sample types, and is an extremely valuable complement to instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods. We have found PGAA to have some major advantages over INAA: (1) the sample is subjected to neutron fluxes about five orders of magnitude less than in PGAA, with essentially no radiation or heating damage; (2) as the data are taken during sample irradiation, analyses can be performed immediately instead of waiting up to four weeks as in INAA; (3) it is capable of measuring all major elements, except oxygen, in many samples, including H, C, N, and Si, which cannot be done by INAA; and (4) it is especially sensitive for the trace elements B, Cd, Sm and Gd. In addition, we have characterized the overall capabilities of PGAA and the corrections necessary to make it an extremely accurate technique. We have applied PGAA in a number of studies in which it has proved to be extremely valuable and, at times, even providing crucial information that other techniques were incapable of supplying. 1 fig., 6 tabs

  8. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G D; Smallwood, A [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  9. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1996-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs

  10. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  11. Neutron activation analysis of trace elements in IAEA reference materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheema, M.N.; Hasany, S.M.; Hanif, I.; Chaudhry, M.S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    1978-09-01

    Analytical Chemistry Group of Nuclear Chemistry Division at PINSTECH has been participating in IAEA Intercomparison programme of analytical quality control since 1972. So far fifteen samples of a variety of materials received from the Agency have been analyzed for different minor and trace elements. Mostly destructive and non-destructive neutron activation analysis techniques have been used for elemental analysis. In this report the description of the samples and the experimental procedures employed have been mentioned. The results of elemental analysis have been reported and compared with IAEA values which are based on the average computed from the results of different participating laboratories. (authors)

  12. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F.J.

    2004-01-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes

  13. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H. S.; Zhang, Z. Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F. J.

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  14. Distribution of trace and minor elements in Hungarian spice paprika plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sziklai, I L; Oerdoegh, M; Szabo, E; Molnar, E

    1988-06-01

    Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. (author) 8 refs.; 3 tabs.

  15. Trace element composition of hair in the Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, G.F.; Cigna Rossi, L.

    1979-01-01

    The content of the trace elements Ag, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hg, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se and Zn has been evaluated in hair samples collected from five different groups of subjects in Italy. All the measurements were performed by means of non-destructive neutron activation analysis of the hair samples that were carefully washed before analysis. In most of the samples the Cs, Rb and Sc content was below the detection limit of the analytical method. Each population group was formed of about five individuals of each sex, selected to be representative of the adult population living in a well-defined community. The five groups were chosen from distinct regions with different socio-economical living habits in order to detect the variability, if any, of the trace element burden among the Italian population. The trace element hair concentration of each subject was correlated with the trace element blood concentration and daily urinary excretion in order to differentiate the trace element content due to exogenous deposition on hair from that due to endogenous absorption routes. The results obtained show that the variability of the hair content among the various groups is strongly linked to local environmental factors. The histograms of the individual values of the hair concentration are given for all trace elements measured, together with a statistical analysis of all data. (author)

  16. Trace element concentrations in higher fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.; Ravnik, V.; Kosta, L.

    1976-01-01

    The concentrations of ten trace elements, As, Br, Cd, Cu, Hg, I, Mn, Se, Zn and V, have been determined in up to 27 species of higher fungi from several sites in Slovenia, Yugoslavia. Analyses were based on destructive neutron activation techniques. Data are presented and compared with the concentrations found in soils. Previously values were non-existent or scanty for these elements, so that the data represent typical levels for basidiomycetes. In addition to confirming high levels of mercury in many species, the survey also found that cadmium is accumulated to a surprising extent by most fungi, the average value being 5 ppm. Among other accumulations found was bromine by the genus Amanita, and selenium by edible Boletus. Correlation analysis between all pairs of trace elements gave values for r of from 0.75 to 0.43 for 7 pairs (Cu and Hg, 0.75; Se and As, 0.69). As well as these features of biochemical interest, the values found and the pattern of accumulation suggest potential uses of fungi in environmental studies

  17. Non-destructive control of cladding thickness of fuel elements for research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlov, Y.; Zhukov, Y.; Chashchin, S

    1997-07-01

    The control method of fuel elements for research reactors by means of measuring beta particles back scattering made it possible to perform complete automatic non-destructive control of internal and external claddings at our plant. This control gives high guarantees of the fuel element correspondence to the requirements. The method can be used to control the three-layer items of different geometry, including plates. (author)

  18. Chemical characteristics and trace element concentration of non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study investigates the details on the aspects of Coal quality such as proximate, ultimate, calorific value and trace element concentration and its impact on human health. Trace elements are present in very low percentage in coal but their concentration increases manifold after coal combustion and utilization.

  19. Trace element ink spiking for signature authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistavros, V.S.; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Signature authentication is a critical question in forensic document examination. Last years the evolution of personal computers made signature copying a quite easy task, so the development of new ways for signature authentication is crucial. In the present work a commercial ink was spiked with many trace elements in various concentrations. Inorganic and organometallic ink soluble compounds were used as spiking agents, whilst ink retained its initial properties. The spiked inks were used for paper writing and the documents were analyzed by a non destructive method, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The thin target model was proved right for quantitative analysis and a very good linear relationship of the intensity (X-ray signal) against concentration was estimated for all used elements. Intensity ratios between different elements in the same ink gave very stable results, independent on the writing alterations. The impact of time both to written document and prepared inks was also investigated. (author)

  20. Trace element distribution in the rat cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Long, G.J.; Pounds, J.G.; Reuhl, K.R.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.

    1989-10-01

    Spatial distributions and concentrations of trace elements (TE) in the brain are important because TE perform catalytic structural functions in enzymes which regulate brain function and development. We have investigated the distributions of TE in rat cerebellum. Structures were sectioned and analyzed by the Synchrotron Radiation Induced X-ray Emission (SRIXE) method using the NSLS X-26 white-light microprobe facility. Advantages important for TE analysis of biological specimens with x-ray microscopy include short time of measurement, high brightness and flux, good spatial resolution, multielemental detection, good sensitivity, and non-destructive irradiation. Trace elements were measured in thin rat brain sections of 20-micrometers thickness. The analyses were performed on sample volumes as small as 0.2 nl with Minimum Detectable Limits (MDL) of 50 ppb wet weight for Fe, 100 ppb wet weight for Cu, and Zn, and 1 ppM wet weight for Pb. The distribution of TE in the molecular cell layer, granule cell layer and fiber tract of rat cerebella was investigated. Both point analyses and two-dimensional semi-quantitative mapping of the TE distribution in a section were used

  1. Automatic non-destructive system for quality assurance of welded elements in the aircraft industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chady, Tomasz; Waszczuk, Paweł; Szydłowski, Michał; Szwagiel, Mariusz

    2018-04-01

    Flaws that might be a result of the welding process have to be detected, in order to assure high quality thus reliability of elements exploited in aircraft industry. Currently the inspection stage is conducted manually by a qualified workforce. There are no commercially available systems that could support or replace humans in the flaw detection process. In this paper authors present a novel non-destructive system developed for quality assurance purposes of welded elements utilized in the aircraft industry.

  2. Trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials in 'Non-traditional fertilizers' used in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assibey, E. O.

    2013-07-01

    Fertilizers have been implicated for being contaminated with toxic trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) even though they are an indispensable component of our agriculture. This phenomenon of contamination has been investigated and established world-wide in various forms of fertilizers (i.e., granular or 'traditional' type and liquid/powder or 'non-traditional type'). In Ghana, the crop sub-sector has seen a gradual rise in the importation and use of 'non-traditional fertilizers' which are applied to both the foliar parts and roots of plants. This notwithstanding, research on fertilizers has been largely skewed towards the 'traditional' types, focusing principally on the subjects of yield, effects of application and their quality. This study was, therefore, undertaken to bridge the knowledge gap by investigating the levels of trace elements and NORMs found in the 'non-traditional' fertilizers used in Ghana. The principal objective of the study was to investigate the suitability of the 'non-traditional fertilizers' for agricultural purposes with respect to trace elements and NORMs contamination. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry and instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis were employed to determine the trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Na, Al, Br, Ni, Cd, As, Hg, Co, Pb, La, Mn, Si, Ca, Cl, S, K, Ba and V) and NORMs ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) concentrations in thirty-nine (39) fertilizer samples taken from two major agro-input hubs in the country (Kumasi-Kejetia and Accra). Multivariate statistical analyses (cluster analysis, principal component analysis and pearson's correlation) were applied to the data obtained in order to identify possible sources of contamination, investigate sample/ parameter affinities and groupings and for fingerprinting. The toxic trace element concentrations determined in all samples were found to be in the order Fe>Cu>Co>Cd>Cr >Ni>Pb>As>Hg. The study found most of the trace elements determined to be within limits set

  3. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calligaro, T.; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G.

    1999-01-01

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations

  4. Trace element fingerprinting of jewellery rubies by external beam PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calligaro, T. E-mail: calli@culture.nl; Poirot, J.-P.; Querre, G

    1999-04-02

    External beam PIXE analysis allows the non-destructive in situ characterisation of gemstones mounted on jewellery pieces. This technique was used for the determination of the geographical origin of 64 rubies set on a high-valued necklace. The trace element content of these gemstones was measured and compared to that of a set of rubies of known sources. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allowed us to infer the provenance of rubies: one comes from Thailand/Cambodia deposit while the remaining are attributed to Burma. This highlights the complementary capabilities of PIXE and conventional geological observations.

  5. Non-destructive Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Jin Hyeon; Ryu, Taek In; Ko, Jun Bin; Hwang, Yong Hwa

    2006-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of non-destructive engineering on outline of non-destructive test, weld defects, radiographic inspection radiography, ultrasonic inspection, magnetic particle testing, liquid penetrant testing, eddy current inspection method, strain measurement, acoustic emission inspection method, other non-destructive testing like leakage inspection method, and non-destructive mechanics for fault analysis such as Griffiths creaking theory, and stress analysis of creaking.

  6. Trace Elements in Human Tooth Enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, G. S. [Turner Dental School, University Of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Smith, H.; Livingston, H. D. [Department of Forensic Medicine, University Of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    1967-10-15

    The trace elements are considered to play a role in the resistance of teeth to dental caries. The exact mechanism by which they act has not yet been fully established. Estimations of trace elements have been undertaken in sound human teeth. By means of activation analysis it has been possible to determine trace element concentrations in different layers of enamel in the same tooth. The concentrations of the following elements have been determined: arsenic, antimony, copper, zinc, manganese, mercury, molybdenum and vanadium. The distribution of trace elements in enamel varies from those with a narrow range, such as manganese, to those with a broad range, such as antimony. The elements present in the broad range are considered to be non-essential and their presence is thought to result from a chance incorporation into the enamel. Those in the narrow range appear to be essential trace elements and are present in amounts which do not vary unduly from other body tissues. Only manganese and zinc were found in higher concentrations in the surface layer of enamel compared with the inner layers. The importance of the concentration of trace elements on this surface layer of enamel is emphasized as this layer is the site of the first attack by the carious process. (author)

  7. European Non Destructive Examination Forum (ENDEF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffrennes, M.; Engl, G.; Estorff, U. von

    1998-01-01

    Non destructive examination (NDE) during fabrication, Pre-service inspection (PSI) and In service inspection (ISI) are considered key issues for the safe use of nuclear energy. They are important elements of plant lifetime management which is a critical item in decision making on nuclear policies. The European non destructive examination forum (ENDEF) founded by European Commission provides a platform for open discussion between representatives of the European industries with the purpose to establish cooperation between EU, Central and Eastern European Countries and New Independent States in the field of NDE and ISI

  8. Nuclear fuel and/or fertile material element suitable for non-destructive determination of burn-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.

    1976-01-01

    The invention refers to a nuclear fuel and/or fertile material element suitable for non-destructive burn-up analysis, where an isotope or a mixture of isotopes capable of being activated is provided for measuring the intensity of radiation emitted from radioactive nuclides, especially the intensity of gamma rays. The half-life of radioactive decay of the isotope or the mixture mentioned above after being activated is sufficiently large compared with the irradiation of the fuel and/or fertile material element in the nuclear reactor. (orig.) [de

  9. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Mullett, Ruth; Ferri, Laurent; Woll, Arthur R.

    2017-07-01

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment.

  10. Trace elements in natural azurite pigments found in illuminated manuscript leaves investigated by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence and diffraction mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smieska, Louisa M.; Woll, Arthur R. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Wilson Laboratory, Ithaca, NY (United States); Mullett, Ruth [Cornell University, Medieval Studies Program, Ithaca, NY (United States); Ferri, Laurent [Cornell University, Cornell Library Rare and Manuscript Collections, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2017-07-15

    We present trace-element and composition analysis of azurite pigments in six illuminated manuscript leaves, dating from the thirteenth to sixteenth century, using synchrotron-based, large-area x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) and diffraction (SR-XRD) mapping. SR-XRF mapping reveals several trace elements correlated with azurite, including arsenic, zirconium, antimony, barium, and bismuth, that appear in multiple manuscripts but were not always detected by point XRF. Within some manuscript leaves, variations in the concentration of trace elements associated with azurite coincide with distinct regions of the illuminations, suggesting systematic differences in azurite preparation or purification. Variations of the trace element concentrations in azurite are greater among different manuscript leaves than the variations within each individual leaf, suggesting the possibility that such impurities reflect distinct mineralogical/geologic sources. SR-XRD maps collected simultaneously with the SR-XRF maps confirm the identification of azurite regions and are consistent with impurities found in natural mineral sources of azurite. In general, our results suggest the feasibility of using azurite trace element analysis for provenance studies of illuminated manuscript fragments, and demonstrate the value of XRF mapping in non-destructive determination of trace element concentrations within a single pigment. (orig.)

  11. Investigation on trace elements in crude oil and organic matter extracted from rocks with instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Zuguo; Chai Zhifang

    1990-01-01

    Solvent extraction, column chromatography and instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA) have been used to investigate the trace elements in crude oil, organic matter extracted from rocks and their related fractions. With these methods, about 70 crude oil samples from eight different oil fields in China and 6 extracted asphaltene samples of the lower paleozoic from the upper Yangtze region have been analyzed, and about 40 elements of interest have been determined. Those elements include Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, Ir, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Rb, Re, S, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Zn, V and parts of REE. The experimental results show that the method possesses several advantages, i.e. non-destructive, multi-elements, sensitive, precise and accurate. Without ashing samples, the loss of volatile elements such as Cl, S, Se and Sb are avoided. The column chromatography makes it possible to study the distributions of trace elements in different fractions of crude oil and organic matter extracted. Meanwhile, the characters of trace elements in them have also been discussed

  12. The destruction of organic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, T T

    1970-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 39: The Destruction of Organic Matter focuses on the identification of trace elements in organic compounds. The monograph first offers information on the processes involved in the determination of trace elements in organic matters, as well as the methods not involving complete destruction of these elements. The text surveys the sources of errors in the processes responsible in pinpointing elements in organic compounds. These processes include sampling, disruption of the samples, manipulation, and measurements. The book

  13. Determination of trace elements in BCR single cell protein via destructive neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Nooijen, J.L.; Kroon, J.J.

    1978-10-01

    The amount of some trace elements in single cell protein (SCP), a product of BP Research Centre at Sunbury-at-Thames, England, was determined by neutron activation analysis. The SCP-samples were irradiated in the reactor of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute at Delft in a neutron flux of 1.0x10 13 n/cm 2 s for 12 hours. Samples of Bowen's Kale were used as reference material. After a decay of two or three days the samples were chemically destroyed, and the trace elements were separated. The quantity of the following elements was determined by measuring the γ-activity by means of a scintillation counter: antimony, cadmium, mercury, arsenic and selenium. The amounts of these elements in the SCP and in the reference material were tabled

  14. Trace Dynamics and a non-commutative special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Singh, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    Trace Dynamics is a classical dynamical theory of non-commuting matrices in which cyclic permutation inside a trace is used to define the derivative with respect to an operator. We use the methods of Trace Dynamics to construct a non-commutative special relativity. We define a line-element using the Trace over space-time coordinates which are assumed to be operators. The line-element is shown to be invariant under standard Lorentz transformations, and is used to construct a non-commutative relativistic dynamics. The eventual motivation for constructing such a non-commutative relativity is to relate the statistical thermodynamics of this classical theory to quantum mechanics. -- Highlights: → Classical time is external to quantum mechanics. → This implies need for a formulation of quantum theory without classical time. → A starting point could be a non-commutative special relativity. → Such a relativity is developed here using the theory of Trace Dynamics. → A line-element is defined using the Trace over non-commuting space-time operators.

  15. Modified emission-transmission method for determining trace elements in solid samples using the XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.; Alvarez, M.; Hermosilla, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a study of an analysis of trace elements in medium thick solid samples, by the modified transmission emission method, using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). The effects of absorption and reinforcement are the main disadvantages of the EDXRF technique for the quantitative analysis of bigger elements and trace elements in solid samples. The implementation of this method and its application to a variety of samples was carried out using an infinitely thick multi-element white sample that calculates the correction factors by absorbing all the analytes in the sample. The discontinuities in the masic absorption coefficients versus energies association for each element, with medium thick and homogenous samples, are analyzed and corrected. A thorough analysis of the different theoretical and test variables are proven by using real samples, including certified material with known concentration. The simplicity of the calculation method and the results obtained show the method's major precision, with possibilities for the non-destructive routine analysis of different solid samples, using the EDXRF technique (author)

  16. Determination of trace elements in dried sea-plant homogenate (SP-M-1) and in dried copepod homogenate (MA-A-1) by means of neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Bruin, M. de.

    1977-07-01

    Two marine environmental reference materials were investigated in an intercalibration study of trace elements. According to the specifications from the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity at Monaco two samples, a sea-plant homogenate and a copepod homogenate, were analysed by neutron activation analysis. The results of the trace-element analyses were based on dry weight. The moisture content was measured on separate aliquots. For the intercalibration study the following elements were listed as elements of primary interest: mercury, cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc, copper, chromium, silver, iron and nickel. For the 14 elements normally analysed with the routine destructive method, the element gold could not be measured in the two marine samples. This was due to the high residual bromine-82 activity in fraction 13, which contains gold that distills over. With the nondestructive method, nine elements could be assessed, of which only three coincide with the 14 elements of the destructive method. A survey of all measured (trace) elements is presented. The 20 (trace) elements measured in the sea-plant homogenate and in the copepod homogenate comprise 8 out of the 10 trace elements of primary interest, all 5 trace elements of secondary interest (arsenic, cobalt, antimony, selenium and vanadium), and 5 additional (trace) elements. The trace-element determination in both marine biological materials via the destructive procedure was carried out in twelve-fold. In the nondestructive procedure quadruple measurements were performed. For all trace-element levels analysed an average value was calculated

  17. Trace elements in two marine fish species during estuarine residency: Non-essential versus essential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieiro, C.L.; Coelho, J.P.; Pacheco, M.; Duarte, A.C.; Pereira, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We assessed essential and non-essential trace elements loads in two marine fish. ► We found similarly low levels of Zn, Cr, and As in both sites and species. ► We compared recommended daily allowances with the estimated daily intake. ► Arsenic was higher than tolerable commercial levels and USA average daily intake. - Abstract: Trace element levels in fish are of particular interest, owing the potential risk to human health. In accordance, juveniles of Dicentrarchus labrax and of Liza aurata were sampled and arsenic, cadmium, chromium, selenium and zinc were determined in the muscle. The levels of trace elements in muscle demonstrated to be similar for both species and sites, with the exception of selenium levels at reference, which seemed to be higher in D. labrax. Moreover, apart from arsenic levels in muscle, all elements were in conformity with the existent regulatory guidelines for fish consumption. The dietary intake of each element was also calculated, with arsenic and selenium showing intakes above the recommended dietary allowances. Nevertheless, no arsenic speciation was carried out and thus no accurate risk evaluation could be established. Additionally, selenium levels never exceeded the dietary allowances more than five times, which are considered safe.

  18. Non-destructive determination of trace-element concentrations. Annual progress report, August 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, G.E.; Zoller, W.H.; Walters, W.B.

    1979-08-01

    Development and testing of the neutron-capture prompt γ-ray activation analysis method continued. A wide range of NBS Standard Reference Materials, USGS Standard Rocks, and other materials have been analyzed in order to identify elements whose lines can be observed, to determine interferences and detection limits for each important γ ray of observable elements and to measure concentrations of observable elements for comparison with certified or other previous results. In most crustal samples, concentrations of 16 to 20 elements can be determined

  19. Comparative trace elemental analysis of cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients using PIXE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naga Raju, G. J.; Sarita, P.; Murthy, K. S. R.

    2017-08-01

    Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), an accelerator based analytical technique has been employed in this work for the analysis of trace elements in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectal cancer patients. A beam of 3 MeV protons generated from 3 MV Pelletron accelerator at the Ion Beam Laboratory of Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used as projectile to excite the atoms present in the tissues samples. PIXE technique, with its capability to detect simultaneously several elements present at very low concentrations, offers an excellent tool for trace element analysis. The characteristic X-rays emitted by the samples were recorded by a high resolution Si (Li) detector. On the basis of the PIXE spectrum obtained for each sample, the elements Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, and Br were identified and their relative concentrations were estimated in the cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of rectum. The levels of Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and As were higher (p < 0.005) while the levels of Ca, Cr and Ni were lower (p < 0.005) in the cancer tissues relative to the normal tissues. The alterations in the levels of the trace elements observed in the present work are discussed in this paper with respect to their potential role in the initiation, promotion and inhibition of cancer of the rectum.

  20. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  1. Intercomparison and determination of trace elements in urban dust by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Park, Kwang Won; Kang, Sang Hun

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in air samples artificially loaded on filters with urban dust and the bulk material of urban dust as an environmental sample were determined non-destructively using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Standard reference material (Urban Dust, SRM 1648) of the National Institute of Standard and Technology was used for the analytical quality control. The relative error for 37 elements was less than 15% and the standard deviation was less than 10%. 29 elements in the urban dust and 21 elements in the loaded filter sample were determined respectively. To evaluate the proficiency and reliability of the measurement, data intercomparison was performed and 39 analytical laboratories participated in the analysis using different analytical methods; neutron activation analysis, particle induced X-ray emission analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. Z-scores were calculated using the standard deviation of the laboratory's mean as target standard deviation, and a good result was obtained that the values fall between-1 and +1 except some elements. (author)

  2. A search for losses of chromium and other trace elements during lyophilization of human liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeij, J.J.M. de; Volkers, K.J.; Tjioe, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    Human liver tissues were investigated for possible trace-element losses during lyophilization by comparison of concentrations of lyophilized and untreated (wet) samples. When destructive neutron activation analysis (n.a.a.) was used, no significant losses were observed for As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Sb, Se, and Zn. The advantages of n.a.a. over radio-tracer techniques for studies of trace-element volatility are discussed. (Auth.)

  3. A study on human hair element content as monitor for trace elements pollution in Eg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadros, N.; Metwally, E.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element content in human is a suitable indicator of exposure to trace element pollutants. Concentration levels of 12 trace elements in human head hair samples collected from more than 23 individuals have been determined. The collected hair samples were classified into four groups collected from workers at nuclear research center and others far away from the center. Neutron activation analysis technique was used in the preset study. The data reported for trace elements content in different hair samples were discussed. Significant differences were observed for several elements levels. comparative studies demonstrated that the concentration of some elements in hair of exposed workers, are greater than those corresponding to non exposed workers. Also, there was no clear significant correlation between the elements content of different hair samples and the age of the donors

  4. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  5. Burn up determination of IEAR-1 fuel elements by non destructive gamma ray spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear fuel burn up by non destructive gamma ray spectrometry is discussed, and results of such measurements, made at the Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA), are given. Specifically, the burn up of an MTR (Material Testing Reactor) fuel element removed from the IEAR-1 swimming pool reactor in 1958 is evaluated from the measured Cs-137 activity, which gives a single 661,6 keV gamma ray. Due to the long decay time of the test element, no other fission decay product activity could be detected. Analysis of measurements, made with a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) detector at 330 distinct points of the element, showed the total burn up to 3.3 +- -+ 0.8 mg. This is in agreement with a calculated value. As the maximum temperature of IEAR-1 fuel elements is of the order of 40 0 C, migration effects of Cs-137 was not considered, this being significant only at fuel temperature in excess of 1000 0 C [pt

  6. Trace Elements in Teeth by ICPMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, N.F.; Helal, A.I.; Amr, M.A.; Amr, M.A.; Al-saad, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth are reported to be suitable indicators of trace element exposure from environment and nutritional status. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used to compare the trace element content of children's primary teeth and adult teeth. Primary teeth are collected from 28 children and 42 adult from non-industrial City. The data are assessed statistically using t-tests. The adult teeth contained significantly greater concentrations of Na, Mg, Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Sr, Cd, Ba, Pb and U and significantly less Mn, Co, As, Se, Mo and Bi than the children teeth. Additional measurements on adult teeth pulps are performed. Comparison between trace element concentrations in health and caries teeth pulps show that the mean concentrations of Na, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Mo, Ag, Bi and U are lower in caries than healthy teeth pulps. On the other hand, the mean concentrations of Mg, Cd and Pb are higher in caries samples than healthy teeth pulps

  7. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days

  8. Evaluation of some procedures relevant to the determination of trace elemental components in biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a simplified procedure for the analysis of biological materials by destructive neutron activation analysis (DNAA) is described. The sample manipulations preceding gamma ray assay were investigated as five specific stages of processing: (1) pre-irradiation treatment; (2) sample irradiation; (3) removal of the organic matrix; (4) removal of interfering radioactivities; and (5) concentration and separation of analyte activities. Each stage was evaluated with respect to susceptibility to sample contamination, loss of trace elemental components, and compatibility with other operations in the overall DNAA procedures. A complete DNAA procedure was proposed and evaluated for the analysis of standard bovine liver and blood samples. The DNAA system was effective for the determination of As, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mo, Rb, Sb, Se, and Zn without yield determinations and with a minimum turn-around time of approximately 3 days.

  9. Nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in squamate reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H.; Snodgrass, J.W.; Jackson, B.P.; Kling, D.E.; Rowe, C.L.; Congdon, J.D. [University of Georgia, Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Ecology Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Compared with birds, mammals, fish, and even amphibians, very little is known about the effects of contaminants on reptiles. The current study experimentally evaluated the utility of shed skins, tail clips, and blood samples as nondestructive indices of trace element exposure in banded water snakes, Nerodia fasciata. For 13.5 months, snakes were either fed fish from a coal ash-contaminated site or uncontaminated food from a reference site. Snakes fed contaminated prey accumulated As, Cd, Se, Sr, and V in various organs (i.e. liver, kidney, and/or gonads). Moreover, non-parametric discriminant function analysis revealed that snakes could be placed in two groups that reliably reflected their experimental diet based upon Se, Sr, and As concentrations in tail clips, blood, and/or shed skins. It is suggested that nondestructive sampling techniques, particularly analyses of blood and tail clips, may be easily applied in evaluations of contaminant exposure in the field and laboratory and may prevent excessive destructive sampling of potentially threatened reptile species.

  10. The measurement of trace elements in interplanetary dust and cometary particles by ultra-high sensitivity INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolensky, M.E.; Lindstrom, D.J.; Lindstrom, R.M.; Lindstrom, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    Today the major elemental composition of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) is routinely determined in many laboratories. These and mineralogical studies have revealed the presence of at least two major types of IDPs, chondritic and refractory. Preliminary results of a successful attempt to determine abundances of a large suite of trace elements from both chondritic and refractory IDPs are reported. The analytical procedure can be used in the grain-by-grain analysis of returned cometary samples. Chondritic and refractory IDPs are characterized by standard scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) techniques. With this system, detection limits for many elements are well below picogram levels, and some approach femtogram levels. This technique is non-destructive, although some sample handling is required, so particles can be analyzed by other techniques after instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) is completed. Data is presently being reduced from the analyses of 7 IDPs. These are U2015E10, U2015F1, W7029-A2, W7029-A3, W7013A8, LACl (all chondritic) and 705 (refractory). So far, 17 different major and trace elements were detected and measured in these particles, including rare earths and some very volatile elements (Br and Zn)

  11. Non-destructive inservice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauppinen, P.; Sarkimo, M.; Lahdenperae, K.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the possible damages occurring in the components and structures of operating nuclear power plants during service the main components and structures are periodically inspected by non-destructive testing techniques. The reliability of non-destructive testing techniques applied in these inservice inspections is of major importance because the decisions concerning the needs for repair of components are mainly based on the results of inspections. One of the targets of this research program has been to improve the reliability of non-destructive testing. This has been addressed in the sub-projects which are briefly summarised here. (author)

  12. Trace elemental analysis of human breast cancerous blood by advanced PC-WDXRF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranjit; Kainth, Harpreet Singh; Prasher, Puneet; Singh, Tejbir

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the trace elements of healthy and non-healthy blood samples by using advanced polychromatic source based wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (PC-WDXRF) technique. The imbalances in trace elements present in the human blood directly or indirectly lead to the carcinogenic process. The trace elements 11Na, 12Mg, 15P, 16S, 17Cl, 19K, 20Ca, 26Fe, 29Cu and 30Zn are identified and their concentrations are estimated. The experimental results clearly discuss the variation and role of various trace elements present in the non-healthy blood samples relative to the healthy blood samples. These results establish future guidelines to probe the possible roles of essential trace elements in the breast carcinogenic processes. The instrumental sensitivity and detection limits for measuring the elements in the atomic range 11 ≤ Z ≤ 30 have also been discussed in the present work.

  13. Modelling and simulation of eddy current non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansir, H.; Burais, N.; Nicolas, A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the practical configuration for detecting cracks in conducting materials by eddy current non destructive testing. An electromagnetic field formulation is proposed using Maxwell's relations. Geometrical and physical properties of the crack are taken into account by several models, particularly with a new finite element called ''crack element''. Modelisation is applied to sensor impedance calculation with classical numerical methods [fr

  14. Trace elements in airborne particles in internal industrial environments: spectrometric analysis of x-ray fluorescence (XRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar Matarrita, Alfonso

    2001-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy x-ray, is a technique of non-destructive analysis, that allows quantitative determination of the absolute concentration of chemical elements that make up a given matrix. The detected elements depend on atomic number and energy of the secondary target used for irradiation of samples. X-rays are detected and counted in a spectroscopy system based on a multichannel analyzer, that discriminates by energy and form a spectrum of independent photopeaks, whose energy identifies the element and its intensity is proportional to its concentration. The quantification requires the irradiation and counting of a set of pattern comparators, of the same elements identified in the samples. The x-ray emission shows only during the time that the selected sample is subjected to irradiation by x-ray tube. This irradiation does not change the structure nor the chemical composition of the matrix, so the sample remains unchanged, after irradiation. This condition non-destructive characterizes the fluorescence x-ray. The trace elements present in airborne particles, are determined and collected on a Nuclepore filter. The collection sites selected are: Taller de Mecanica de Precision de la Escuela de Fisica, Universidad de Costa Rica; Taller J. V. G. Precision, San Antonio de Coronado; Taller de Muflas, MUFLASA, Alto de Guadalupe; Industria Silvania S. A., Pavas. In addition, it is attached the service rendered to the enterprise Sellos Generales S. A. The working conditions and physical conditions of facilities were considered. An aerosol sampler with a temporal variation was used. Irradiation of samples and an evaluation of the concentrations have been made. (author) [es

  15. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  16. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J L; Jamieson, D N; Weiser, P S [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1997-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  17. Non-destructive characterization using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womble, P.C.

    1995-01-01

    Explosives, illicit drugs, and other contraband materials contain various chemical elements in quantities and ratios that differentiate them from each other and from innocuous substances. Furthermore, the major chemical elements in coal can provide information about various parameters of importance to the coal industry. In both examples, the non-destructive identification of chemical elements can be performed using pulsed fast-thermal neutrons that, through nuclear reactions, excite the nuclei of the various elements. This technique is being currently developed for the dismantling of nuclear weapons classified as trainers, and for the on-line coal bulk analysis. (orig.)

  18. Trace elements record complex histories in diogenites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, J. B.; Beck, A. W.; McSween, H. Y.

    2012-12-01

    Diogenite meteorites are cumulate rocks composed mostly of orthopyroxene and chemically linked to eucrites (basaltic) and howardites (brecciated mixtures of diogenites and eucrites). Together, they represent the largest single family of achondrite meteorites delivered to Earth, and have been spectrally linked to the asteroid 4 Vesta, the largest remaining basaltic protoplanet. However, this spectral link is non-unique as many basaltic asteroids likely formed and were destroyed in the early solar system. Recent work suggested that Vesta may be an unlikely parent body for the diogenites based on correlations between trace elements and short-lived isotope decay products, which would be unlikely to survive on a body as large as Vesta due to its long cooling history [1]. Recent analyses of terrestrial and martian olivines have demonstrated that trace element spatial distributions can preserve evidence of their crystallization history even when major elements have been homogenized [2]. We have mapped minor elements including Cr, Al, and Ti in seemingly homogeneous diogenite orthopyroxenes and found a variety of previously unobserved textures. The pyroxenes in one sample (GRA 98108) are seemingly large grains of variable shapes and sizes, but the trace elements reveal internal grain boundaries between roughly-equal sized original subgrains, with equilibrated metamorphic triple junctions between them and trace element depletions at the boundaries. These trends suggest extraction of trace elements by a magma along those relict grain boundaries during a reheating event. Two other samples show evidence of fracturing and annealing, with trace element mobility within grains. One sample appears to have remained a closed system during annealing (MET 01084), while the other has interacted with a fluid or magma to move elements along annealed cracks (LEW 88679). These relict features establish that the history of diogenite pyroxenes is more complex than their homogeneous major

  19. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C.G.; Van Achterbergy, E. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C.A. [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T.P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K. [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. The non-destructive analysis of fluid inclusions in minerals using the proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, C G; Van Achterbergy, E [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience; Heinrich, C A [ETH Zentrum, Zurich, (Switzerland). Department Erdwissenschaften; Mernagh, T P [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut), Mainz (Germany); Zaw, K [Tasmania Univ., Sandy Bay, TAS (Australia)

    1997-12-31

    The study of ore forming fluids trapped as fluid inclusions in minerals is the key to understanding fluid flow paths at the time of ore formation and to predicting the location of ore bodies within large-scale magmatic hydrothermal systems. The large penetration depths and the predictable nature of MeV proton trajectories and X-ray absorption enables reliable modelling of PIXE yields and the development of standardless quantitative analytical methods. This permits quantitative microanalysis of minerals at ppm levels, and more recently has enabled the development of methods for quantitative trace-element imaging and the quantitative, non-destructive analysis of individual fluid inclusions. This paper reports on recent developments in Proton Microprobe techniques with special emphasis on ore systems and fluid inclusion analysis. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis such as, e.g., neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilisators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicium in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalysators. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Time Domain Terahertz Axial Computed Tomography Non Destructive Evaluation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate key elements of feasibility for a high speed automated time domain terahertz computed axial tomography (TD-THz CT) non destructive...

  3. Innovation in Non Destructive Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, C.H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In many established companies the pace of innovation is low. The Non-Destructive Testing sector is an example of a sector where the pace of innovation is very slow. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) refers to the set of non-invasive activities used to determine the condition of objects or installations

  4. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Trace elements in wine and other beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschnauer, H.

    1974-01-01

    Survey of the mostly physical methods of analysis (e.g. activation analysis) for the dectection of trace elements in wine and in other alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages as well as for detection of radioactivity (natural and man-made) in these beverages. (HP) [de

  6. Can liming change root anatomy, biomass allocation and trace element distribution among plant parts of Salix × smithiana in trace element-polluted soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2017-08-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are considered to be effective for the phytoremediation of trace elements from contaminated soils, but their efficiency is limited in heavily polluted soils because of poor growth. Liming can be a desirable measure to decrease the plant availability of elements, resulting in improved plant development. Notably, large root area and maximum soil penetration are basic parameters that improve the efficiency of phytoremediation. The impact of soil chemical properties on willow root anatomy and the distribution of trace elements below-ground have rarely been studied. The effect of liming on root parameters, biomass allocation and trace element distribution in non-harvestable (coarse roots, fine roots, stumps) and harvestable plant parts (twigs and leaves) of Salix × smithiana was assessed at the end of a 4-year pot experiment with two trace element-polluted soils that differed in terms of soil pH. Stump biomass predominated in weakly acidic soil. In neutral soil, the majority of biomass was located in fine roots and stumps; the difference from other plant parts was minor. Trace elements were the most concentrated in fine roots. Translocation to above-ground biomass increased as follows: Pb roots roots). Lime application decreased the concentrations of mobile Cd and Zn and related levels in plants, improved biomass production and root parameters and increased the removal of all trace elements in weakly acidic soil. None or minimum differences in the monitored parameters were recorded for dolomite treatments in both soils. The dose and source of liming had crucial effects on root anatomy. Growing willows in limed trace element-polluted soils is a suitable measure for combination of two remediation strategies, i.e. phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and assisted phytostabilization of As and Pb.

  7. Trace element analysis: a diagnostic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Cheema, M.N.

    1976-09-01

    The human mody continuously assimilates a variety of elements from the environment, and the concentration of these elements in the blood is regulated by means of various homeostatic mechanisms. Some of the elements, though present in very small amounts, have highly specialized functions in initiating many biochemical reactions. These elements, known as essential trace elements, are closely related to human diseases since their deficiency or excess induces physiological changes. Many diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, etc., are related to an imbalance in trace element. The measurement of trace elements in body fluids and tissues can, therefore, be effectively employed for diagnostic tests

  8. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  9. Trace-element analysis of Antarctic H chondrites: Chemical weathering and comparisons with their non-Antarctic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Large numbers of meteorites have been discovered in Antarctica over the last decade (7000 fragments probably representing over 1200 separate events). They are important for their numbers and for their complement of unique or rare specimens; they also have long terrestrial ages (up to 1,000,000 years) compared to non-Antarctic falls (usually < 200 years). We report compositional data for mobile/volatile trace elements Ag, Au, Bi, Cd, Co, Cs, In, Rb, Sb, Se, Te, Ti, U, and Zn in a suite of Antarctic H chondrites. Our data show that heavily oxidized H chondrites are leached of a portion of their trace elements and, therefore, have been chemically compromised by their stay in Antarctica. The less oxidized specimens seem to have retained their chemical integrity. We suggest possibilities for using chemical data to measure the degree of a chondrite's chemical weathering. We compare our data to that obtained previously for non-Antarctic H chondrites (Linger et al., 1986), by petrologic type (H4, H5, H6, H4-6) and shock-loading (moderately shocked facies a-c, heavily shocked facies d-f). Many statistically significant differences are found between non-Antarctic and Victoria Land, Antarctica H chondrites of each petrologic type and of shock facies d-f

  10. Application of trace element analysis to determine trace element concentrations in the field of medicine. [Neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasperek, K; Feinendegen, L E

    1976-01-01

    Applied trace elements research in medicine requires a sensitive and efficient technique of trace elements analysis, such as neutron activation analysis. Essential trace elements act as stabilizators (iron in haem), structural elements (silicon in fibrous tissue), in hormones (iodine in thyroid hormone), in vitamins (cobalt in vitamin B 12), and in enzymes. Most of the essential trace elements act as coenzymes or in coenzymes or directly as metabolic catalyzers. For example, selenium deficiency in PKU and maple syrup patients receiving dietary treatment can be detected by determining the selenium content of the serum, while low selenium values in the whole blood indicate liver cirrhosis. Acrodermatitis enteropathica can be diagnosed by determinig zinc in the serum, and pancreatic insufficiency by determining zinc in the pancreatic juice. Zinc also plays a part in disturbances of growth, in the healing of wounds, and in the insulin metabolism. Cobalt is important in some types of anaemia and in myocardiopathies. Trace elements are also necessary in the treatment of diseases, e.g. iron cobalt in some types of anaemia, and zinc in the delayed healing of wounds in the postoperative phase and in acrodermatitis enteropathica. Chromium is now being tested for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, and fluorides may be of interest in the treatment of osteoporosis. Finally, trace elements are important in the aetiology of acute poisoning, in nutrition, and in environmental protection.

  11. Trace element determination in plant material by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) with special reference to molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnier, C.; Schnug, E.

    1981-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) permits a non-destructive multielement determination of minute trace element concentrations in organic material. No sample preparation except drying is required. Especially for the determination of molybdenum the INAA offers great advantages compared to the methods used in agricultural chemistry where complicated enrichment and extraction steps are needed. Contamination by reagents or loss of elements are not potential sources of errors. The principle, the advantages and disadvantages of INAA are described. The method is demonstrated with the example of celery samples from an experiment with five different nitrogen fertilizers on contaminated soil and of cabbage samples from an uncontaminated region. Besides molybdenum, 19 other elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Cd, Sb, Ba, La, W, Au, Th) are determined. (orig.) [de

  12. Major and Trace Element Analysis of Natural and Experimental Igneous Systems using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Frances E.; Arevalo, Ricardo D., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Major- and trace-element compositions of minerals provide valuable information on a variety of global Earth-system processes, including melting of distinct mantle reservoirs, the growth and evolution of the Earths crust and the formation of economically viable ore deposits. In the mid-1980s and early 1990s, attempts were made to couple laser ablation (LA) systems to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) instruments (e.g. Fryer et al. 1995; Jackson et al. 1992). The goal was to develop a rapid, highly sensitive in situ analytical technique to measure abundances and spatial distributions of trace elements in minerals and other geological samples. Elemental analysis using LAICPMS was envisaged as a quicker and less destructive means of chemical analysis (requiring only g quantities) than labour-intensive sample digestion and solution analysis (requiring mg-levels of material); and it would be a more cost-effective method than secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) for the routine analysis of trace elements from solid samples. Furthermore, it would have lower limits-of-detection than electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) (e.g. Jackson et al. 1992; Eggins 2003).

  13. Trace elements in human milk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Life Sciences

    1983-06-01

    Trace elements are those elements having a concentration lower than 10 ppm in body fluids or tissues. A total of 24 elements, both trace and minor elements, present in human milk have been analysed in this study, employing neutron activation analysis and absorption spectroscopy. The analyses have been carried out collaboratively by several different laboratories and the Agency which has also served as a coordinating centre. Although the evaluation of the results, altogether 8500 separate values, is still in progress, enough evidence is already available, however, to show some very interesting differences between different study areas and, in some cases, between different socio-economic groups within a single country. The main value of these data will probably be to throw new light on the nutritional requirements of young babies for trace elements.

  14. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  15. Determination of trace elements: Neutron-activation analysis in geochemistry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Geochemistry, like cosmochemistry, open-quotes studies chemical elements hor-ellipsis of the crust and hor-ellipsis the Earth hor-ellipsis their history, their distribution hor-ellipsis their genetic hor-ellipsis connectionsclose quotes and is based on data on the abundance and distribution of elements obtained by various analytical methods. Neutron-activation analysis (NAA) plays a particular role in this respect. This is due to its high sensitivity (detection limit as small as 10 -14 g), which makes possible the use of samples of arbitrary mass, and also due to the possibility of obtaining information about composition without destruction of the object, conserving, if required, the unique material under investigation. Of the most interest are the data on the contents for a number of trace elements (at a level of 10 -7 - 10 -4 %), among which are rare-earth elements (REE), U, Th, Zr, Hf, Ta, W, Ga, Ni, Rb, Cs, platinum-group metals, Ag, Au, etc. These elements are considered as indicators of geochemical processes associated with the genesis and evolution of solar system bodies in early and more recent stages of evolution; they are also used to study processes and phenomena at zone boundaries: river-sea, ocean-atmosphere, and so on. The aim of this work is to show the capabilities of NAA in the determination of trace elements

  16. Trace element analysis of whole blood and urine samples of diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodhi, A S; Rashiduzzaman Khan, M [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre

    1979-01-01

    A number of samples of whole blood, and urine from diabetic and non-diabetic persons have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents using the proton-induced X-ray emission. The elemental contents of the diabetic and non-diabetic samples are compared.

  17. Elemental chemical characterization of coins of currently national circulating by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivera, Paula; Calcina, Esly

    2013-01-01

    Given the frequent counterfeit bills and coins is proposed in this paper to identify the elemental chemical composition; for now, the current official currencies circulating in our country, by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique and non-destructive methods, the goal is to compare with the false and establish the differences that could help identify them immediately taking advantage of the fast response of this technique. Have been identified the elements Al in the coins of 5 cents, Cu and Zn for 10 and 20 cents, Ni, Cu and Zn for 50 cents and a Un Nuevo Sol and Cr, Cu and Zn 2 coins 5 Nuevos Soles. 57 Peruvian coins of different production years and a counterfeit coin of 5 Nuevos Soles have been analyzed, finding Cu and Zn in central part and Fe in circulating edge ring, looking for this one the absence of Ni and Cr, which in the official currency was found. (authors).

  18. Trace Elements and Vitamin D in Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genova Mariana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, one of the most common pregnancy complications, is defined as glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy. Its prevalence varies worldwide in dependence on characteristics of the underlying population and applied diagnostic criteria. The etiology is multifactorial and not sufficiently elucidated. Available evidence suggests that the base of pathogenesis is relatively diminished insulin secretion coupled with pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. Modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for development have been identified. Trace elements and vitamin D could be contributed to modifiable factors for prediction the risk in a large population. Essential trace elements in pregnancy are necessary to overcome systemic oxidative, metabolic and inflammatory stress. Evidence, still inconclusive, has been accumulated about the relation between higher incidence of vitamin D failure/deficiency during pregnancy and GDM. The lower level of 25-OH vitamin D could be associated with increased risk for anemia development, also including pregnant women. This review intends to provide an overview of the possible link between both vitamin D and trace elements as risk factors for GDM development.

  19. Non-destructive controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouvet, A.

    1978-01-01

    The non-destructive controls permit, while respecting their integrity, the direct and individual examination of parts or complete objects as they are manufactured, as well as to follow the evolution of their eventual defects while in operation. The choice of control methods depends on the manufacturing process and shapes of parts, on the physical properties of their components as well as the nature, position and size of the defects which are likely to be detected. Whether it is a question of controls by means of ionizing radiation, flux of neutrons, ultrasons, acoustic source, sweating, magnetoscopy. Foucault currents, thermography, detection of leaks or non-destructive metallography, each has a limited field of application such that they are less competitive than complementary [fr

  20. Movement of Trace Elements During Residence in the Antarctic Ice: a Laboratory Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Melissa M.

    1991-01-01

    Recent work has determined that differences in the trace element distribution between Antarctic eucrites and non-Antarctic eucrites may be due to weathering during residence in the ice, and samples that demonstrate trace element disturbances do not necessarily correspond to eucrites that appear badly weathered to the naked eye. This study constitutes a preliminary test of the idea that long-term residence in the ice is the cause of the trace element disturbances observed in the eucrites. Samples of a non-Antarctic eucrite were leached in water at room temperature conditions. Liquid samples were analyzed for rare earth element abundances using ion chromatography. The results for the short-term study showed little or no evidence that leaching had occurred. However, there were tantalizing hints that something may be happening. The residual solid samples are currently being analyzed for the unleached trace metals using instrumental neutron activation analysis and should show evidence of disturbance if the chromatography clues were real. In addition, another set of samples continues to be intermittently sampled for later analysis. The results should give us information about the movement of trace elements under our conditions and allow us to make some tentative extrapolations to what we observe in actual Antarctic eucrite samples.

  1. Nonconventional concrete hollow blocks evaluation by destructive and non-destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Rodrigues

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate cementitious matrices properties by partial replacement of Portland cement by silica fume (SF or by rice husk ash (RHA, and their application in nonbearing hollow blocks, tested by destructive and non-destructive methods. The following mixtures were produced: reference (100% of Portland cement and Portland cement replacement (10% by mass with SF or RHA. The non-destructive testing showed that the highest values of UPV were obtained for SF-based blocks and RHA-based blocks. The destructive test showed better results for SF-based blocks, but there was no statistical difference between the RHA-based and control ones.

  2. Development of an approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace elements present in canine breast tumors by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozer, Thamara C.; Conceicao, Andre L.C.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Rocha, Anna S.S. da; Fagundes, Alana C.F.; Maciel, Karla F.R.; Pimentel, Gustavo R.O.; Badelli, Juliana C.

    2015-01-01

    Studies performed with canines indicate that one of the main neoplasia which affect these animals are the breast tumors, representing from 25% to 50% of all kinds of tumors. Moreover, half of them are classified as malignant. In this sense, recent researches on humans have been associated the presence of certain trace elements with the development of breast neoplasia in those individuals. Then, as the breast tissue composition in canines is very similar to the humans, it is expected the same behavior. In this direction, a very effective technique to identify and to determinate trace elements concentration is the EDXRF. However, studies on this area are scarce in the literature. Therefore, in this work it was developed an approach to quantify the main trace elements present into these tumors with high sensitivity. For this purpose, it was determined calibration curves of standards samples diluted in water, with concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, ranging from 400mg/kg to 35mg/kg, from 20mg/kg to 2mg/kg, from 10mg/kg to 1mg/kg and from 100mg/kg to 10mg/kg, respectively. All calibration curves were linearly fitted and on basis in this behavior it was determined the sensitivity of our approach to quantify the concentration of the trace elements mentioned above. In addition, it is important to mention that studies in this area are of great potential, because EDXRF represents a quickly practical and non-destructive alternative to quantify trace elements. (author)

  3. Development of an approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis of trace elements present in canine breast tumors by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozer, Thamara C.; Conceicao, Andre L.C.; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Rocha, Anna S.S. da; Fagundes, Alana C.F.; Maciel, Karla F.R.; Pimentel, Gustavo R.O.; Badelli, Juliana C., E-mail: thamara.cozer@gmail.com, E-mail: alconceicao@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: anna@utfpr.edu.br, E-mail: alanacarolinef@gmail.com, E-mail: karla_rimanski@hotmail.com, E-mail: g_rop@hotmail.com, E-mail: jubadellin@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Espectroscopia de Raio-X

    2015-07-01

    Studies performed with canines indicate that one of the main neoplasia which affect these animals are the breast tumors, representing from 25% to 50% of all kinds of tumors. Moreover, half of them are classified as malignant. In this sense, recent researches on humans have been associated the presence of certain trace elements with the development of breast neoplasia in those individuals. Then, as the breast tissue composition in canines is very similar to the humans, it is expected the same behavior. In this direction, a very effective technique to identify and to determinate trace elements concentration is the EDXRF. However, studies on this area are scarce in the literature. Therefore, in this work it was developed an approach to quantify the main trace elements present into these tumors with high sensitivity. For this purpose, it was determined calibration curves of standards samples diluted in water, with concentrations of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn, ranging from 400mg/kg to 35mg/kg, from 20mg/kg to 2mg/kg, from 10mg/kg to 1mg/kg and from 100mg/kg to 10mg/kg, respectively. All calibration curves were linearly fitted and on basis in this behavior it was determined the sensitivity of our approach to quantify the concentration of the trace elements mentioned above. In addition, it is important to mention that studies in this area are of great potential, because EDXRF represents a quickly practical and non-destructive alternative to quantify trace elements. (author)

  4. Heavy metals and related trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leland, H.V.; Luoma, S.N.; Wilkes, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of heavy metals and related trace elements in the aquatic environment. Other reviews and bibliographies are cited, dealing with the metabolism and transport of metal ions and with the toxic effects of stable and radioactive trace metals on aquatic organisms. The sources of trace elements in natural waters are discussed. It is suggested that atmospheric inputs of several trace metals comprise sizable fractions of total inputs to the Great Lakes and continental shelf waters. Information on stack emissions of trace elements from a coal-fired steam plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and inputs to a forested watershed in Tennessee. Some basic concepts of cycling of elements through aquatic communities were examined, such as the Pb, Mn and Zn concentrations in sediment and estuarine plants and animals colonizing dredge-spoil disposal areas. The use of plants as biological indicators of trace element contamination was outlined, as well as bioaccumulation in aquatic fauna. The effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of element exchange were noted, for example the influx rates of Cs 137 in tubificid worms, and Co 60 and Zn 65 in shrimp were shown to be temperature dependent. The toxicity of heavy metals on aquatic fauna was discussed, such as the histopathological lesions in the kidney and liver of fishes caused by heavy metals, and the effects of Hg and Cu on the olfactory response of rainbow trout

  5. [Trace elements of bone tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, V M; Zaĭchik, V E; Bizer, V A

    1983-01-01

    Due to activation analysis involving the use of neutrons from a nuclear reactor, the concentrations of 11 trace elements: scandium, iron, cobalt, mercury, rubidium, selenium, silver, antimony, chrome, zinc and terbium in intact bone and skeletal tumors were measured. 76 specimens of bioptates and resected material of operations for bone tumors and 10 specimens of normal bone tissue obtained in autopsies of cases of sudden death were examined. The concentrations of trace elements and their dispersion patterns in tumor tissue were found to be significantly higher than those in normal bone tissue. Also, the concentrations of some trace elements in tumor differed significantly from those in normal tissue; moreover, they were found to depend on the type and histogenesis of the neoplasm.

  6. Non-destructive provenance differentiation of prehistoric pigments by external PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Salomon, H.; Lahlil, S.; Lebon, M.; Odin, G.P.; Coquinot, Y.; Pichon, L.

    2012-01-01

    The elemental analysis of minerals/rocks has been often used for the determination of their geological origin. When these natural rocks were exploited by prehistoric civilizations as objects, weapons, or pigments, the composition of the minerals can provide information on the mobility, the exchanges and the interaction between groups of population. In this paper, we will present results obtained from archaeological samples of prehistoric pigments, mainly iron and manganese oxides. PIXE analysis has been applied to samples of the prehistoric cave “La grotte du Renne” in Arcy-sur-Cure, France (Chatelperronian, 38,000–34,000 BP). Because most of the archaeological objects are decorated or display some use marks, it is not possible to take samples. Consequently, we have used a non-destructive technique thanks to the external beam of AGLAE (C2RMF, Paris). In order to improve the limits of detection (LOD less than 10 ppm from Cu to Sb), a metal absorber has been placed on the X-ray detector to preferentially filter the Fe–K or Mn–K lines. Based on the quantitative analysis of major and trace elements, we have obtained groups of compositions corresponding to different geological sources. We demonstrate in this study that it is possible to extend PIXE analysis to the characterization of prehistoric pigments such as iron and manganese oxides for differentiating potential sources of pigments in archaeological contexts.

  7. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  8. Non-destructive testing; Examenes no destructivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva, Mauricio; Loske, Achim [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    The application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in several technical and industrial fields is pointed out, standing out its utilization in the detection of future failures without affecting the examined element. Likewise, the different types of NDTs and their processes, such as x-rays, ultrasoud, magnetic particles, induced currents, penetrating fluids, and optical means, are described. The Non-Destructive Tests Laboratory of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), plans to create new and more reliable systems independent from the operator`s capacity, to contribute to fulfill the inspection and quality control needs of the generating Mexican power plants. [Espanol] Se senala la aplicacion de los examenes no destructivos (END) a diversos campos tecnicos e industriales, destacando su utilizacion en la deteccion de futuras fallas sin afectar el elemento examinado. Asimismo, se describen los diferentes tipos de END y sus procesos, tales como radiografia, ultrasonido, particulas magneticas, corrientes inducidas, liquidos penetrantes y metodos opticos. El Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), planea crear sistemas novedosos mas confiables, que no dependan de la capacidad del operador, para contribuir a satisfacer las necesidades de inspeccion y control de calidad que se presentan en las plantas generadoras de energia mexicanas.

  9. Non-destructive testing; Examenes no destructivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calva, Mauricio; Loske, Achim [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1987-12-31

    The application of non-destructive testing (NDT) in several technical and industrial fields is pointed out, standing out its utilization in the detection of future failures without affecting the examined element. Likewise, the different types of NDTs and their processes, such as x-rays, ultrasoud, magnetic particles, induced currents, penetrating fluids, and optical means, are described. The Non-Destructive Tests Laboratory of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), plans to create new and more reliable systems independent from the operator`s capacity, to contribute to fulfill the inspection and quality control needs of the generating Mexican power plants. [Espanol] Se senala la aplicacion de los examenes no destructivos (END) a diversos campos tecnicos e industriales, destacando su utilizacion en la deteccion de futuras fallas sin afectar el elemento examinado. Asimismo, se describen los diferentes tipos de END y sus procesos, tales como radiografia, ultrasonido, particulas magneticas, corrientes inducidas, liquidos penetrantes y metodos opticos. El Laboratorio de Pruebas no Destructivas, del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), planea crear sistemas novedosos mas confiables, que no dependan de la capacidad del operador, para contribuir a satisfacer las necesidades de inspeccion y control de calidad que se presentan en las plantas generadoras de energia mexicanas.

  10. The chemical speciation and analysis of trace elements in sediment with Neutron Activation Analytical method(NAA) and atomic mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang-Ho; Kim, Jae-Jin; Chung, Yong-Sam; Kim, Sun-Ha

    2003-01-01

    In this research, first of all, the analytical methods for the determination of major elements in sediment have been developed with ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The analytical results of major elements (Al, Ca, K, Fe, Mg) with Cool ICP-MS were much better than those with normal ICP-MS. The analytical results were compared with those of NAA (Neutron Activation Analysis). NAA were a little superior to ICP-MS for the determination of major elements in sediment as a non-destructive trace analytical trace analytical method. The analytical methods for the determination of minor elements (Cr, Ce, U, Co, Pb, As, Se) have been also developed with ICP-MS. The analytical results by standard calibration curve with ICP-MS were not accurate due to the matrix interferences. Thus, the internal standard method was applied, then the analytical results for minor elements with ICP-MS were greatly improved. The analytical results obtained by ICP-MS were compared with those obtained by NAA. It showed that the two analytical methods have great capabilities for the determination of minor elements in sediments. Accordingly, the NAA will plan an important role in analysis of environment sample with complex matrix. ICP-MS also will play an important role because it has a great capability for the determination of Pb that could not be determined by NAA

  11. Determination of trace elements in tea by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chunhui; Zeng Guoqiang; Ge Liangquan; Li Jun; Wen Ziqiang

    2013-01-01

    Background: Measuring trace elements in tea can determine its nutritional value, verify the authenticity and place of origin, and detect the poisonous and harmful elements remaining in tea due to the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Purpose: In order to reduce the time for sample preparation and the costs of equipment maintenance, wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy was used to determine the trace elements in tea which is rapid, non-destructive and accurate. The contents of more than 20 elements can be measured simultaneously. Methods: Sample pieces were made by the sample preparation method of boric acid rebasing. To avoid the exogenous environmental pollution subjected in the growth of tea, we removed the residual dust of the tea by cleaning it. According to the principle that the standard samples should be similar types with the samples to be analyzed to select standard samples. The curves were built by SuperQ, which contained compiling the measurement conditions, establishing the measurement conditions, checking the angles, determining the measurement times, checking PHD and adding the contents and the names of sample pieces. The accuracy of the method can be obtained by comparing the measured values with the trace element contents of standard samples. The contents of trace elements in tea determined by WDXRF can be used to classify the tea attribution and the tea species through cluster analysis of SPSS software. Results: (1) The results show that the biggest relative standard deviation is 0.43% of Pb, and the precision is very good. (2) Five kinds of tea are taken separately in Fujian and Yunnan, measured three times with the established working curves. And tree diagram of cluster analysis can be obtained with SPSS software to analyze the measured average values with cluster analysis, coupling method between groups and Minkowski distance measurement techniques. It can be seen that in the tree diagram, when the

  12. Can non-destructive inspection be reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, M.G.; Stoneham, A.M.; Temple, J.A.G.

    1988-01-01

    The paper on inspection is based on the book ''The reliability of non-destructive inspection: assessing the assessment of structures under stress'' by the present authors (published by Adam Hilger 1987). Emphasis is placed on the reliability of inspection and whether cracks in welds or flaws in components can be detected. The need for non-destructive testing and the historical attitudes to non-destructive testing are outlined, along with the case of failure. Factors influencing reliable inspection are discussed, and defect detection trials involving round robin tests are described. The development of reliable inspection techniques and the costs of reliability and unreliability are also examined. (U.K.)

  13. Trace elements levels in centenarian ‘dodgers’

    OpenAIRE

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchís-Gomar, Fabián; Pareja Galeano, Helios; Fiuza Luces, María del Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-01-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or ‘dodgers’ (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant ...

  14. New markers to identify the provenance of lapis lazuli: trace elements in pyrite by means of micro-PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Re, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Angelici, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Lo Giudice, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Torino, Torino (Italy); Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Maupas, E. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Torino (Italy); Giuntini, L.; Calusi, S.; Massi, M.; Mando, P.A. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Fisica, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Borghi, A. [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino (Italy); Gallo, L.M. [Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino (Italy); Pratesi, G. [Universita di Firenze, Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Firenze (Italy); Museo di Storia Naturale, Firenze (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Lapis lazuli has been used for glyptics and carving since the fifth millennium BC to produce jewels, amulets, seals, inlays, etc; the identification of the origin of the stone used for carving artworks may be valuable for reconstructing old trade routes. Since ancient lapis lazuli art objects are precious, only non-destructive techniques can be used to identify their provenance, and ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques allow us to characterise this stone in a fully non-invasive way. In addition, by using an ion microprobe, we have been able to focus the analysis on single crystals, as their typical dimensions may range from a few microns to hundreds of microns. Provenance markers, identified in previous IBA studies and already presented elsewhere, were based on the presence/absence of mineral phases, on the presence/quantity of trace elements inside a phase and on characteristic features of the luminescence spectra. In this work, a systematic study on pyrite crystals, a common accessory mineral in lapis lazuli, was carried out, following a multi-technique approach: optical microscopy and SEM-EDX to select crystals for successive trace element micro-PIXE measurements at two Italian facilities, the INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro and the INFN LABEC laboratory in Firenze. The results of this work allowed us to obtain new markers for lapis lazuli provenance identification. (orig.)

  15. The non-easily ionized elements as spectrochemical buffers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripkovic, M.; Radovanov, S.; Holclajtner-Antunovic, I.; Todorovic, M.

    1985-01-01

    A method is developed for determining trace elements (In, Ga, B, V, Mo, Mn, Pt, P, Be) in graphite with the aid of a low current d.c. arc. The method makes use of the enhancement of the radiation intensities of trace elements by non-easily ionized elements (NEIE). As a NEIE, this method uses Cd which is added up to a concentration of 150 mg/g sample. The absolute detection limits for all of the above mentioned elements are at the ng-level. (orig.) [de

  16. Trace elements in the sea surface microlayer: rapid responses to changes in aerosol deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina M. Ebling

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural and anthropogenic aerosols are a significant source of trace elements to oligotrophic ocean surface waters, where they provide episodic pulses of limiting micronutrients for the microbial community. However, little is known about the fate of trace elements at the air-sea interface, i.e. the sea surface microlayer. In this study, samples of aerosols, sea surface microlayer, and underlying water column were collected in the Florida Keys during a dusty season (July 2014 and non-dusty season (May 2015 and analyzed for the dissolved and particulate elements Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb. Microlayer samples were collected using a cylinder of ultra-pure SiO2 (quartz glass, a novel adaptation of the glass plate technique. A significant dust deposition event occurred during the 2014 sampling period which resulted in elevated concentrations of trace elements in the microlayer. Residence times in the microlayer from this event ranged from 12 to 94 minutes for dissolved trace elements and from 1.3 to 3.4 minutes for particulate trace elements. These residence times are potentially long enough for the atmospherically derived trace elements to undergo chemical and biological alterations within the microlayer. Characterizing the trace element distributions within the three regimes is an important step towards our overall goals of understanding the rates and mechanisms of the solubilization of trace elements following aeolian dust deposition and how this might affect microorganisms in surface waters.

  17. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P., E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  18. Trace elements distribution in environmental compartments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, Juliana C. de; Peres, Sueli da Silva; Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements term defines the presence of low concentrations metals at environment. Some of them are considered biologically essential, as Co, Cu and Mn. Others can cause detriment to environment and human health, as Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Ti and U. A large number of them have radioactive isotopes, implying the evaluation of risks for human health should be done considering the precepts of environmental radiological protection. The ecosystem pollution with trace elements generates changes at the geochemistry cycle of these elements and in environmental quality. Soils have single characteristics when compared with another components of biosphere (air, water and biota), cause they introduce themselves not only as a drain towards contaminants, but also as natural buffer that control the transport of chemical elements and other substances for atmosphere, hydrosphere and biota. The main purpose of environmental monitoring program is to evaluate the levels of contaminants in the various compartments of the environment: natural or anthropogenic, and to assess the contribution of a potential contaminant source on the environment. Elemental Composition for the collected samples was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the map baseline of concentration of interest trace elements in environmental samples of water, sediment and soil from Environmental Monitoring Program of Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD). The samples were analyzed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) at IRD. >From the knowledge of trace elements concentrations, could be evaluated the environmental quality parameters at the studied ecosystems. The data allowed evaluating some relevant aspects of the study of trace elements in soil and aquatic systems, with emphasis at the distribution, concentration and identification of main anthropic sources of contamination at environment. (author)

  19. Non-destructive testing at Chalk River

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilborn, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    In 1969 CRNL recognized the need for a strong group skilled in non-destructive test procedures. Within two years a new branch called Quality Control Branch was staffed and working. This branch engages in all aspects of non-destructive testing including development of new techniques, new applications of known technology, and special problems in support of operating reactors. (author)

  20. Trace element analysis of soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Michio; Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mu, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of bromine about 160 ppm. (author)

  1. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-06-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  2. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barapatre, Nirav; Morawski, Markus; Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo

    2010-01-01

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  3. Trace element mapping in Parkinsonian brain by quantitative ion beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barapatre, Nirav, E-mail: barapatre@physik.uni-leipzig.d [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Morawski, Markus [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnalle 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, Tilman; Reinert, Tilo [Nukleare Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    The role of iron in the pathogenesis of the Parkinson's disease (PD) is a current subject of research in Neurochemistry, since an abnormal increase in iron is reported in the substantia nigra (SN) of Parkinsonian patients. A severe loss of the cells containing dopamine in the SN in the PD has also drawn attention towards the function of a browny-black pigment called neuromelanin, which accumulates predominantly in these dopaminergic neurons. The neuromelanin has an ability to chelate metal ions, which, in free state, may cause considerable damage to cells by reacting with their lipid-rich membranes. However, it could also potentiate free radical production if it releases the bound metal ions. The highly sensitive and non-destructive micro-PIXE method suits best to quantify and map the trace elements in the SN. The accuracy in charge measurement for such microanalysis studies is of utmost importance for quantitative analysis. Since a Faraday cup is usually placed behind the thin biological sample to measure the charge, the primary and the secondary electrons, knocked out from the sample by traversing ion beam, hamper an exact charge determination. Hence, a new non-interceptive technique was developed for precise charge measurement and for continuous monitoring of beam current.

  4. Influence of trace elements in human tissue in low-energy photon brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Shane A; Landry, Guillaume; Van Gils, Francis; Verhaegen, Frank; Reniers, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the dosimetric impact of trace elements in human tissues for low-energy photon sources used in brachytherapy. Monte Carlo dose calculations were used to investigate the dosimetric effect of trace elements present in normal or cancerous human tissues. The effect of individual traces (atomic number Z = 11–30) was studied in soft tissue irradiated by low-energy brachytherapy sources. Three other tissue types (prostate, adipose and mammary gland) were also simulated with varying trace concentrations to quantify the contribution of each trace to the dose distribution. The dose differences between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues were calculated in single- and multi-source geometries. The presence of traces in a tissue produces a difference in the dose distribution that is dependent on Z and the concentration of the trace. Low-Z traces (Na) have a negligible effect ( 3%). There is a potentially significant difference in the dose distribution between cancerous and healthy prostate tissues (4%) and even larger if compared to the trace-free composition (15%) in both single- and multi-sourced geometries. Trace elements have a non-negligible (up to 8% in prostate D 90 ) effect on the dose in tissues irradiated with low-energy photon sources. This study underlines the need for further investigation into accurate determination of the trace composition of tissues associated with low-energy brachytherapy. Alternatively, trace elements could be incorporated as a source of uncertainty in dose calculations. (paper)

  5. Homogeneity test of the ceramic reference materials for non-destructive quantitative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Fong Songlin; Zhu Jihao; Feng Xiangqian; Xie Guoxi; Yan Lingtong

    2010-01-01

    In order to study elemental composition of ancient porcelain samples, we developed a set of ceramic reference materials for non-destructive quantitative analysis. In this paper,homogeneity of Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe contents in the ceramic reference materials is investigated by EDXRF. The F test and the relative standard deviation are used to treat the normalized net counts by SPSS. The results show that apart from the DY2 and JDZ4 reference materials, to which further investigation would be needed, homogeneity of the DH, DY3, JDZ3, JDZ6, GY1, RY1, LQ4, YJ1, YY2 and JY2 meets the requirements of ceramic reference materials for non-destructive quantitative analysis. (authors)

  6. Determination of burnup for IEAR-1 fuel elements by non destructive method of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, T.; Holland, L.

    1982-01-01

    Burnup determination, by non-destructive gamma spectrometry of spent fuel with high and low activity of IEAR-1 reactor, using Cs-137 as burnup monitor, were done. To measure the Cs-137 distribution in these elements a Ge(Li) detector, with volume equal to 73,7 cm 3 , in two measurement systems with defined geometry and good colimation, was used. The IEA-14 taken from the core about 20 years ago, presents a gamma spectra due to Cs-137. The IEA-80, with cooling time approximately to 5 years, shows a more complex gamma spectrum due to other fission products still found in significant quantities. The IEA-14 measures were done in a measurement system used outside the reactor pool (S.I.), being the global efficiency of this system obtained by using a plane, calibrated and extense Ag-110 m source. Detailed measures of gamma transmission, using Cs-137 as a calibrated and punctiforme source, showed the high homogenity of the fuel plates. (E.G.) [pt

  7. Mantle End-Members: The Trace Element Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willbold, M.; Stracke, A.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2004-12-01

    On the basis of their isotopic composition, ocean island basalts (OIB) have been classified into three to four end-members; HIMU with the most radiogenic Pb isotope ratios of OIB and Enriched Mantle 1 and 2 (EM1, EM2) with less radiogenic but variable Pb isotope and highly radiogenic Sr isotope signatures. It has also been argued that each of these isotopic families has common trace element characteristics that distinguish them from one another and so substantiated this classification. Here, we present new high-precision trace element data for samples from St. Helena, Tristan da Cunha and Gough in the Atlantic Ocean. The overall data-set is augmented by OIB data from the GEOROC database and includes data from all major isotopic families (HIMU: St. Helena, Mangaia, Tubuai, and Rururtu; EM1: Tristan da Cunha, Gough, Pitcairn; and EM2: Samoa, Marquesas, and Society). For each locality we use only islands defining the most extreme isotopic compositions. The entire data-set has been screened to exclude altered and highly differentiated samples. HIMU basalts have a very uniform trace element composition. Compared to HIMU-type basalts, EM-type basalts are enriched in Rb, Ba, and K, and depleted in U, Nb, and Ta, relative to La. Different EM-type OIBs from the same isotopic family (EM1 or EM2), have distinct trace element characteristics that can ultimately only be caused by different source compositions. For example, Ba/Th ratios in samples from both Tristan da Cunha (EM1) and Samoa (EM2) are similarly high (ca. 110) whereas Ba/Th ratios in samples from Pitcairn (EM1) and Society (EM2) samples are consistently lower (ca. 70). Thus on the basis of their trace element composition, EM-type OIB cannot be classified into EM1 and EM2 type basalts, nor can any other grouping be identified. The remarkably uniform isotopic and trace element composition of HIMU-type basalts suggests derivation from a single common source reservoir, most likely subduction-modified oceanic crust

  8. Non-destructive testing. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farley, J.M.; Nichols, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The book entitled 'Non-destructive Testing' Volume 2, contains the proceedings of the fourth European Conference, organized by the British Institute of Non-Destructive Testing and held in London, September 1987. The volume contains seven chapters which examine the reliability of NDT, the economics of NDT and the use of NDT in:- civil engineering; oil, gas, coal and petrochemical industries; iron and steel industries; aerospace industry; and the nuclear and electricity supply industries. The seven chapters contain 78 papers, of which 19 are selected for INIS and indexed separately. (U.K.)

  9. Trace elements as paradigms of developmental neurotoxicants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Herz, Katherine T

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements have contributed unique insights into developmental neurotoxicity and serve as paradigms for such adverse effects. Many trace elements are retained in the body for long periods and can be easily measured to assess exposure by inexpensive analytical methods that became available...

  10. Trace element fingerprinting of emeralds by PIXE/PIGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinpei; MacArthur, J.D.; Roeder, P.L.; Mariano, A.N.

    1993-01-01

    Gemologists consider the mineral beryl, beryllium aluminium silicate, to be the gem, emerald, when it contains sufficient chromium, >0.1%, to colour it a strong green. Emeralds usually contain other trace elements. To investigate the feasibility of distinguishing an emerald's country of origin through its trace content, the trace elements in emeralds and a few beryls from sixteen locations have been determined with a single nondestructive measurement using PIXE and PIGE. From the database established with this limited number of samples, distinguishing trace element patterns were found. (orig.)

  11. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  12. Trace element analysis in liquids by proton induced x-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconninck, G.

    Proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) from liquid has been developed for quantitative and simultaneous analysis of trace elements. Liquid drops and trickles are bombarded at atmospheric pressure, x-rays are detected in a non dispersive Si(Li) solid state detector. Absolute determinations are made by comparison with standard solutions. Detection limits in a 5 minutes run are in the ppm range for a single drop (0.05 ml). The application of this technique to the determination of trace elements in biological liquids is investigated (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, in plant extracts, haemocyanine, albumins...). (author)

  13. Occurrence of trace elements in respirable coal dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Inhalation of fine particles of coal dust contributes significantly to the occurrence of the disease, pneumoconiosis, prevailing in coal mining community. It is not presently known whether only the coal dust or specific chemical compounds or synergistic effects of several compounds associated with respirable coal dust is responsible for the disease, pneumoconiosis. The present paper describes the quantitative determination of ten minor and trace elements in respirable coal dust particles by atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The respirable coal dust samples are collected at the mine atmosphere during drilling in coal scams by using Messrs. Casella's Hexlet apparatus specially designed and fitted with horizontal elutriator to collect the respirable coal dust fraction simulating as near as possible to the lung's retention of the coal miners. After destruction of organic matter by wet oxidation and filtering off clay and silica, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni were determined directly in the resulting solution by atomic absorption spectrophotometric procedures. The results show that the trace metals are more acute in lower range of size spectrum. Correlation coefficient, enrichment factor and linear regression values and their inverse relationship between the slope and EF values suggest that, in general, the trace metals in respirable particulates are likely to be from coal derived source if their concentrations are likewise high in the coal. The trace metal analytical data of respirable particulates fitted well to the linear regressive equation. The results of the studies are of importance as it may throw some light on the respirable lung disease 'pneumoconiosis' which are predominant in coal mining community. (author). 13 refs., 6 tabs

  14. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  15. Trace element measurements with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Mills, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the application of synchrotron radiation to trace element determinations by x-ray fluorescence have been investigated using beams from the Cornell facility, CHESS. Fluoresced x rays were detected with a Si(Li) detector placed 4 cm from the target at 90 0 to the beam. Thick samples of NBS Standard Reference Materials were used to calibrate trace element sensitivity and estimate minimum detectable limits for this method

  16. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  17. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherif, M.K.; Awadallah, R.M.; Amrallah, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppm to ppb). (author)

  18. Preconcentration and Speciation of Trace Elements and Trace-Element Analogues of Radionuclides by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a number of preconcentration neutron activation analysis (PNAA) methods in our laboratory for the determination of trace elements in a variety of complex sample matrices. We developed a number of cocrystallization and coprecipitation methods for the determination of trace elements in water samples. We developed several methods for the determination of I in foods and diets. We have developed a number of PNAA methods in our laboratory We determined As and Sb in geological materials and natural waters by coprecipitation with Se and Au in silicate rocks and ores by coprecipitation with Te followed by NAA. We developed an indirect NAA method for the determination of B in leachates of borosilicate glass. We have been interested in studying the speciation of Am, Tc, and Np in simulated vitrified groundwater leachates of high-level wastes under oxid and anoxic conditions using a number of techniques. We then used PNAA methods to study speciation of trace-element analogues of radionuclides. We have been able to apply biochemical techniques and NAA for the separation, preconcentration, and characterization of metalloprotein and protein-bound trace-element species in subcellular fractions of bovine kidneys. Lately, we have concentrated our efforts to develop chemical and biochemical methods in conjunction with NAA, NMR, and MS for the separation and identification of extractable organohalogens (EOX) in tissues of beluga whales, cod, and northern pink shrimp

  19. Trace and ultratrace level elemental and speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arunachalam, J.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determination of elements present at parts per million and billion levels in various matrices is a growing requirement in different fields. In environmental sciences various trace elements need to be analyzed so as establish the dispersal models of pollutants or the adequacy of effluent treatment prior to discharge into water bodies. The issues of bioaccumulation and magnification are important in aquatic systems. In nutrition and biochemistry one has to establish the bio-availability of essential and toxic elemental species as toxic elements prevent assimilation of essential elements. Fission and fusion technologies use a variety of structural materials requiring many trace elements to be present at levels strictly below the specified levels. Ultra-pure bulk semiconductor materials are required for fabrication devices. In metallurgy and materials sciences too, various trace elements are known to influence the properties. In the emerging fields like nanotechnology, it is necessary to understand the passage and accumulation of nano-particles inside the cells, through trace analysis. Many analytical techniques exist which can provide the concentration information in the bulk materials with good accuracy. They include ICP-AES, FAAS, and ICP-MS, which are solution based techniques. Direct solid state analytical techniques are Glow Discharge Mass Spectrometry (GDMS) and XRF. Accelerator based ion-beam analysis techniques can provide information on concentration and depth profiles of different elements in layered structures. Hyphenated techniques such as HPLC/lC-ICPMS, are helpful in identifying various chemical oxidation states in which a given element might be present in a matrix, which is termed as speciation analysis. This presentation will include the existing analytical competencies and the laboratory requirements for trace and ultra trace element elemental and speciation analyses and their applications. (author)

  20. Determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite samples, by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing activation analysis with thermal neutron was developed for the determination of minor and trace elements in magnesite samples from the states of Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. A qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. The experimental part includes a non-destructive analysis of manganese and analysis with chemical separation of the other elements, individually or in groups, after sample dissolution, The dissolutions were made with concentrated HCl and the further separations were carried out in 8 N HCl medium. Iron was separated by means of an extraction of HFeCl 4 with isopropyl ether. Scandium and calcium were determined by retention of scandium with di-(2-ehylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP). The activities of 46 Sc and 47 Sc (a 47 Ca descendant) were employed for the analysis of scandium and calcium in the sample. In the effluent of the kieselguhr column copper and cobalt were determined, after retention in an anionic resin of the CuCl - 3 and CoCl - 3 complexes. Finally, in the effluent of the resin, the lanthanide group was separated by oxalate precipitation. In the gamma-ray spectrum of this precipitate the elements europium, cerium, samarium and lanthanum were determined. A detailed study of the possible interferences in the neutron activation analysis of the elements analysed was also made. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  1. Trace element metabolism in man and animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.

    1977-01-01

    Uptake, distribution, storage, excretion of different trace elements and resulting disturbances are investigated in blood and organs in animal experiments and in human diagnostics with the aid of radioisotopes. Apart from this, untritional disturbances are mentioned. Finally, future aspects of physiological trace element examinations are listed. (AJ) 891 AJ [de

  2. Integrated non-destructive assessment of relevant structural elements of an Italian heritage site: the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainieri, C; Marra, A; Gargaro, D; Fabbrocino, G; Rainieri, G M; Pepe, M

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of historical structures in need of preservation and restoration interventions is a very complex task due to the large uncertainties in the characterization of structural properties and detailing in view of the structural response. Moreover, the predictive performance of numerical analyses and simulations depend on the availability of information about the constructional properties of the architectural complex, crack patterns and active degradation phenomena. In particular, local changes in material properties or damage due to past events (such as earthquakes) can affect individual structural elements. They can be hardly detected as a result of the maintenance interventions carried out over the centuries and the possibility to carry out limited or even no destructive investigations due to the historical relevance of the structure. Thus, non-destructive investigations play a fundamental role in the assessment of historical structures minimizing, at the same time, the invasiveness of interventions. The present paper deals with an explanatory case study concerning the structural investigations carried out in view of the seismic assessment of an Italian historical monument, the Carthusian monastery of Trisulti in Collepardo, erected in 1204 under Pope Innocenzo HI. The relevance of the case study is due to the application, in combination, of different NDT methods, such as sonic tests, and active and passive infrared thermography, in order to characterize relevant masonry elements. Moreover, an advanced system for the in-situ nondestructive vibration-based estimation of the tensile loads in ancient tie-rods is described and the main results obtained from its application for the characterization of the tie-rods of the cloister are presented. (paper)

  3. Instrumental trace element analysis of California market milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragaini, R.C.; Langhorst, A.L.; Ralston, H.R.; Heft, R.

    1975-01-01

    Trace element analysis for 15 elements (Zn, Na, Br, Rb, Sr, Mg, Al, Ca, Cl, I, K, Fe, Co, Se, Cs) was carried out on 32 samples of California market milk and 6 samples of Colorado milk in a pilot study of toxic and nutrient trace elements in the soil-forage-cow-milk food chain. The techniques of instrumental neutron activation analysis and x-ray fluorescence analysis are described. Sample collection, preparation, analysis, and data reduction procedures are discussed. The mean values and variations of trace element concentrations in milk are compared to data from other studies. (U.S.)

  4. Dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philibert, Alain; Saint-Pierre, Francois; Turcotte, Bernard [Le Groupe S.M. International Inc., Sherbrooke, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Dams built at the beginning of the twentieth century include concrete structures that were put in under rehabilitation works. In some cases, the details of the structures are not well documented. In other cases, concrete damage can be hidden under new layers of undamaged material. This requires that the dam safety review in a real investigation gather the information necessary for carrying out the hydraulic and stability studies required by the Dam Safety Act. This paper presented the process of dam safety review using non-destructive methods for reinforced concrete structures. Two reinforced concrete dams built in the 1900's, the Eustic dam on the Coaticook River and the Frontenac dam on the Magog River near Sherbrooke, were evaluated by S.M. International using non-destructive methods such as sonic and ground penetrating radar methods. The studies allowed mapping of concrete damage and provided geometric information on some non visible structure elements that were part of previous reinforcement operations.

  5. Non-destructive depth profiling of solid samples by atomic and nuclear interactions induced by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demortier, Guy

    2003-01-01

    The study of complex materials (non-homogeneous matrices containing medium and/or heavy atoms as major elements) by Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) requires the tailoring of the experimental set up to take into account the high X-ray intensity produced by these main elements present at the surface, as well as the expected low intensity from other elements 'buried' in the substrate. The determination of traces is therefore limited and the minimum detection limit is generally higher by at least two orders of magnitude in comparison with those achievable for low Z matrices (Z≤20). Additionally, those high Z matrices, having a high absorption capability, are not always homogeneous. The non-homogeneity may be, on the one hand, a layered structure (which is uneasy to profile by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) if the material contains elements of neighbouring atomic masses or if the layered structure extends on several microns). PIXE measurements at various incident energies (and with various projectiles (p, d, He 3 , He 4 )) are an alternative method to overcome those difficulties. The use of special filters to selectively decrease the intensity of the most intense X-ray lines, the accurate calculation of the characteristic X-ray intensity ratios (Kα/Kβ, Lα/Lβ) of individual elements, the computation of the secondary X-ray fluorescence induced in thick targets are amongst the most important parameters to be investigated in order to solve these analytical problems. Examples of Al, Si, Cu, Ag, Au based alloys as encountered in industrial and archaeological metallurgy are discussed. The non-destructive aspect of the ion beam techniques is proved by applying the method in vivo for the study of fluorine migration in tooth enamel. Preliminary results on the composition of the blocks of the pyramid of Cheops are presented in the scope of a complete revision of the procedure of its construction

  6. Complementary use of PIXE-alpha and XRF portable systems for the non-destructive and in situ characterization of gemstones in museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, L.; Karydas, A. G.; Kotzamani, N.; Pappalardo, G.; Romano, F. P.; Zarkadas, Ch.

    2005-09-01

    Gemstones on gold Hellenistic (late 4th century BC, 1st AD) jewelry, exhibited at the Benaki Museum of Athens, were analyzed in situ by means of two non-destructive and portable analytical techniques. The composition of major and minor elements was determined using a new portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer. The analytical features of this spectrometer allow the determination of matrix elements from Na to Zn through the K-lines and the determination of higher atomic number elements via the L- or M-lines. The red stones analyzed were revealed as red garnets, displaying a compositional range from Mg-rich garnet to Fe-rich garnet. The complementary use of a portable XRF spectrometer provided additional information on some trace elements (Cr and Y), which are considered to be important for the chemical separation between different garnet groups. A comparison of our results with recent literature data offers useful indications about the possible geographical provenance of the stones. The analytical techniques, their complementarity and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

  7. Complementary use of PIXE-alpha and XRF portable systems for the non-destructive and in situ characterization of gemstones in museums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pappalardo, L. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, LANDIS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy) and CNR, Sezione di Catania dell' Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via A. di Sangiuliano 62, 95100 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: lighea@lns.infn.it; Karydas, A.G. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Ag. Paraskevi, Athens 153 10 (Greece); Kotzamani, N. [Benaki Museum, 1 Koumbari Street, Athens 106 74 (Greece); Pappalardo, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, LANDIS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); Universita di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica a Astronomia, Viale A. Doria 6, 95125 Catania (Italy); Romano, F.P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, LANDIS, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Sezione di Catania dell' Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via A. di Sangiuliano 62, 95100 Catania (Italy); Zarkadas, Ch. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Ag. Paraskevi, Athens 153 10 (Greece)

    2005-09-15

    Gemstones on gold Hellenistic (late 4th century BC, 1st AD) jewelry, exhibited at the Benaki Museum of Athens, were analyzed in situ by means of two non-destructive and portable analytical techniques. The composition of major and minor elements was determined using a new portable PIXE-alpha spectrometer. The analytical features of this spectrometer allow the determination of matrix elements from Na to Zn through the K-lines and the determination of higher atomic number elements via the L- or M-lines. The red stones analyzed were revealed as red garnets, displaying a compositional range from Mg-rich garnet to Fe-rich garnet. The complementary use of a portable XRF spectrometer provided additional information on some trace elements (Cr and Y), which are considered to be important for the chemical separation between different garnet groups. A comparison of our results with recent literature data offers useful indications about the possible geographical provenance of the stones. The analytical techniques, their complementarity and the results obtained are presented and discussed.

  8. Trace elements levels in centenarian 'dodgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alis, Rafael; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Garatachea, Nuria; Lucia, Alejandro; Emanuele, Enzo

    2016-05-01

    Trace element bioavailability can play a role in several metabolic and physiological pathways known to be altered during the aging process. We aimed to explore the association of trace elements with increased lifespan by analyzing the circulating levels of seven trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) in a cohort of healthy centenarians or 'dodgers' (≥100 years, free of major age-related diseases) in comparison with sex-matched younger elderly controls. Centenarians showed significant lower Cu (783.7 (76.7, 1608.9) vs 962.5 (676.3, 2064.4)μg/mL, Pdodgers', and, therefore, at least partly, be involved in the healthy aging phenotype shown by these subjects. These results should be confirmed in larger cohorts of other geographic/ethnic origin and the potential cause-effect association tested in mechanistic experimental settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain trace elements and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebbrecht, Geert; Maenhaut, Willy; Reuck, Jacques de

    1999-01-01

    Degenerative mechanisms involved in the aging process of the brain are to a certain extent counteracted by repair mechanisms. In both degenerative and recovery processes, trace elements are involved. The present study focused on the role of two minor (i.e., K and Ca) and six trace elements (i.e., Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se and Rb) in the aging process. The elements were determined by PIXE in cerebral cortex and white matter, basal ganglia, brainstem and cerebellar cortex of 18 postmortem human brains, from persons without a history of neurologic or psychiatric disease who deceased between the age of 7 and 79. This age range allowed us to study the relationship between elemental concentrations and age. The most prominent findings were a concentration decrease for K and Rb and a concentration increase for the elements Ca, Fe, Zn and Se. The study supports recent findings that Ca and Fe are involved in brain degenerative processes initiated by oxygen free radicals, whereas Zn and Se are involved in immunological reactions counteracting the aging process

  10. Determination of nuclear fuel burnup by non-destructive gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of nuclear fuel burnup by the non-destructive gamma spectroscopy method is studied. A MTR (Materials Testing Reactor) -type fuel element is used in the measurement. The fuel element was removed from the reactor core in 1958 and, because of the long decay time, show only one peak in is gamma spectrum at 661.6 Kev. Corresponding to 137 Cs. Measurements are made at 330 points of the element using a Nal detector and the final result revealed that the quantity of 235 U consumed was 3.3 +- 0,8 milligram in the entire element. The effect of the migration of 137 Cs in the element is neglected in view of the fact that it occurs only when the temperature is above 1000 0 C, which is not the case in IEAR-1. (Author)

  11. Seasonal variations of trace elements in precipitation at the largest city in Tibet, Lhasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Qianggong; Tripathee, Lekhendra; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-02-01

    Precipitation samples were collected from March 2010 to August 2012 at an urban site in Lhasa, the capital and largest city of Tibet. The volume weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of 17 trace elements in precipitation were higher during the non-monsoon season than in the monsoon season, but inverse seasonal variations occurred for wet deposition fluxes of most of the trace elements. Concentrations for most of trace elements were negatively correlated with precipitation amount, indicating that below-cloud scavenging of trace elements was an important mechanism contributing to wet deposition of these elements. The elements Al, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Mn, Ni, and U displayed low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), whereas Co, Cu, Zn, As, Cd Sn, Pb, and Bi showed high EF values in precipitation, suggesting that anthropogenic activities might be important contributors of these elements at Lhasa. However, this present work indicates a much lower anthropogenic emission at Lhasa than in seriously polluted regions. Our study will not only provide insights for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in Lhasa but also enhance our understanding for updating the baseline for environmental protection over the Tibetan Plateau.

  12. Determination of trace elements of Egyptian crops by neutron activation analysis. Pt. 3. Trace elements in African tea, ginger, canella bark, black pepper, sesame, lady's fingers, jew's mallow, tomatos, cucumber and marrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherif, M K; Awadallah, R M; Amrallah, A H [Assiut Univ. (Egypt)

    1980-01-01

    Multielemental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of Al, As, Au, Br, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, Mn, Mo, Sb, Se, W and Zn in African tea and lady's fingers (Malvaceae Family), ginger (Zingiperanceae Family), canella bark (Laureceae Family), black pepper (Piperaceae Family), cucumber seeds and vegetable marrow seeds (Cucurbitaceae Family), tomatos seed (Solanaceae Family), safflower seeds (Compositae Family), jew's mallow seed (Tiliaceae Family) and sesame (Pedaliaceae Family). Trace elements determination was made for the analysis of destructive (using super pure nitric acid and adsorbing the metal-APDC and metal-Dz complexes on activated charcoal) and nondestructive (dry seeds) samples. The method is simple, precise and sensitive for the determination of microamounts of the elements (ppM to ppB).

  13. Non-destructive synchrotron X-ray diffraction mapping of a Roman painting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dooryhee, E.; Anne, M.; Hodeau, J.-L.; Martinetto, P.; Rondot, S.; Bardies, I.; Salomon, J.; Walter, P.; Vaughan, G.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    The history and the properties of materials are deduced not only from their elemental and molecular signatures, but also from their exact phase compositions, and from the structures and the defects of their constituents. Here we implement a non-destructive synchrotron X-ray based method, which combines both the quantitative structural content of diffraction and the imaging mode. As a demonstration case, the pigments of a Roman wall painting are examined. The joined elemental and mineral maps mimic the major features of the painting. Different structural phases made of common atomic elements are differentiated. Textures and graininess are measured and related to the artist's know-how. (orig.)

  14. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  15. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A.; Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Dutta, R.K.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  16. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  17. Interactive ultrasonic field simulations for complex non-destructive testing configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouh, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    In order to fulfill increasing reliability and safety requirements, non-destructive testing techniques are constantly evolving and so does their complexity. Consequently, simulation is an essential part of their design. We developed a tool for the simulation of the ultrasonic field radiated by any planar probes into non-destructive testing configurations involving meshed geometries without prominent edges, isotropic and anisotropic, homogeneous and heterogeneous materials, and wave trajectories that can include reflections and transmissions. We approximate the ultrasonic wave fronts by using polynomial interpolators that are local to ultrasonic ray pencils. They are obtained using a surface research algorithm based on pencil tracing and successive subdivisions. Their interpolators enable the computation of the necessary quantities for the impulse responses on each point of a sampling of the transducer surface that fulfills the Shannon criterion. By doing so, we can compute a global impulse response which, when convolved with the excitation signal of the transducer, results in the ultrasonic field. The usage of task parallelism and of SIMD instructions on the most computationally expensive steps yields an important performance boost. Finally, we developed a tool for progressive visualization of field images. It benefits from an image reconstruction technique and schedules field computations in order to accelerate convergence towards the final image. (author) [fr

  18. Influence of trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhri, M A [Austin Hospital, Heidelberg (Australia). Dept. of Medical Physics; Melbourne Univ., Austin (Australia). Dept. of Medicine); Crawford, A [Melbourne Univ., Parkville (Australia). School of Physics

    1981-03-01

    To investigate the effect of various trace elements on fluoride uptake by teeth, the concentrations of F and other trace elements have been simultaneously determined in different regions of the teeth from children of South Australia. Teeth cross sectioned along the median plane have been used in these investigations, and their inside enamel, dentine and amelodentinal junctions investigated separately for the trace elemental composition. Fluoride has been determined by observing the 6-7 MeV gammas for the /sup 19/F(p,..cap alpha gamma..)/sup 16/O reaction, C by activation through the /sup 12/C(/sup 3/He,n)/sup 14/O reaction, while other trace elements have been measured by the thick target PIXE technique. Linear correlation coefficients have been calculated between the F concentrations in teeth and those of other trace elements observed. Fluoride is found to correlate best with C, Cu and Pb, poorly with Fe, Sr, Ni and Ag, while with Br and Zn it has-ve coefficients. Student's t-test has been applied to the data to examine the significance of the variation of Fand other trace elements amongst different dental tissues from healthy and diseased teeth.

  19. Trace elements evaluation of some medicinal herbs by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Fatima, I.; Qureshi, I.H.; Subhani, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used for the analysis of seven varieties of medicinal herbs generally used by the people of South Asian region. Twenty-one trace elements (essential, toxic and non-essential) were determined. This data should not only be helpful in establishing the base-line values in these medicinal herbs but also in correlating their role as therapeutic agents. A comparison of our data with literature values shows variation in trace element contents of same species of different origin which can be attributed to ecological and geographical variations to some extent; however an exact interpretation demands further extensive investigations. (orig.)

  20. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  1. Use of nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques in studies of trace and minor elements in air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smodis, Borut; Stropnik, Boris

    1994-01-01

    Among nuclear and nuclear-related analytical techniques, neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis are particularly useful for environmental studies owing to their non-destructive character and multi-element capability. In this work, procedures for k o -standardized instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry for trace and minor elements in air pollution studies were investigated. The methods applied were validated by the analysis of suitable reference materials. Using INAA, 20 experimentally obtained elemental values out of 21 certified and all 29 experimentally obtained values compared with 'consensus' values (for the elements where no certified numbers are available) in two SRMs were statistically indistinguishable. Also, the contents of 28 elements in candidate NIST SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves are reported. The EDXRF results were statistically indistinguishable from certified values for eight out of nine elements in NIST SRM 3087. The detection limit for this method is around at 0.1 μg cm -2 per element, so in BCR CRM No. 128, which is intended for ambient air pollution data, only Fe and Zn out of 14 elements reported in the certificate were detected with acceptable precision (i.e., 10%) owing to the very low air particulate matter loading, lying in the region of only 250 μg cm -2 . (Author)

  2. Analysis of trace elements in chicken embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Zhijun; Wang Jiqing; Guo Panlin; Li Xiaolin; Zhu Jieqing; Lu Rongrong

    2002-01-01

    A scanning proton microprobe (SPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements in chicken embryo forebrain neutron cell and skeletal muscle myotube cell. The absorption of the two different cells to zinc ions, correlation of elements and trace elemental distributions in the cells were studied. The results indicate that the absorptive capacity of the chicken embryo forebrain neuron cell to zinc ions is larger than that of the chicken embryo skeletal muscle myotube cell, and the concentrations of intracellular trace elements such as Cr, Fe, Ni are explicitly higher. The correlations of elements such as S and Zn or Fe and Zn are positive, but the correlations of P and Ni or Cr and Fe are negative. From the maps of cellular elemental distribution the contents of the different elements are different in the intracellular parts, for example, the contents of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, potassium in the cell membranes are higher than that in the cells

  3. Non-destructive control of castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutault, J.; Mascre, C.

    1978-01-01

    The object of non-destructive control in foundries is to verify the metal structure, the absence of unacceptable discontinuity, total tightness, etc. This leads to a range of very varied controls according to the importance of the series, the quality level required by the specifications, the nature of the alloy. The originality of the solutions which are imperative for castings is shown through examples: casting of high quality complex forms in short series; very thick unit parts; very large series of parts requiring on efficient automation of non-destructive control. Lastly the publishing of testing methods and interpretating rules, which are the base of a friendly understanding between constructors and founders are recalled [fr

  4. Evaluation of trace element status of food articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Ahmad, S.; Zaidi, S.J.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Fatima, I.; Arif, M.; Rahman, A.

    1996-01-01

    Food is the main source of major, minor and micro nutrients required for human beings. Food articles, due to environmental pollution may also contain some toxic elements which would adversely affect their health. In order to assess the adequacy and safety of human diet main food items were analyzed for the measurement of essential and toxic trace elements employing neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrometry. The data so obtained will serve as baseline values and will be helpful to monitor the changes in the trace element contents of these items in future. The dietary intake of essential and toxic trace elements through these items was estimated and compared with the recommended values. This study indicates that the intake of essential elements except for co is fairly adequate and that of toxic elements in well well within the permissible limits. (author)

  5. Rare earth element distributions in the West Pacific: Trace element sources and conservative vs. non-conservative behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Melanie K.; Pahnke, Katharina; Paffrath, Ronja; Schnetger, Bernhard; Brumsack, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies suggest that transport and water mass mixing may play a dominant role in controlling the distribution of dissolved rare earth element concentrations ([REE]) at least in parts of the North and South Atlantic and the Pacific Southern Ocean. Here we report vertically and spatially high-resolution profiles of dissolved REE concentrations ([REE]) along a NW-SE transect in the West Pacific and examine the processes affecting the [REE] distributions in this area. Surface water REE patterns reveal sources of trace element (TE) input near South Korea and in the tropical equatorial West Pacific. Positive europium anomalies and middle REE enrichments in surface and subsurface waters are indicative of TE input from volcanic islands and fingerprint in detail small-scale equatorial zonal eastward transport of TEs to the iron-limited tropical East Pacific. The low [REE] of North and South Pacific Tropical Waters and Antarctic Intermediate Water are a long-range (i.e., preformed) laterally advected signal, whereas increasing [REE] with depth within North Pacific Intermediate Water result from release from particles. Optimum multiparameter analysis of deep to bottom waters indicates a dominant control of lateral transport and mixing on [REE] at the depth of Lower Circumpolar Deep Water (≥3000 m water depth; ∼75-100% explained by water mass mixing), allowing the northward tracing of LCDW to ∼28°N in the Northwest Pacific. In contrast, scavenging in the hydrothermal plumes of the Lau Basin and Tonga-Fiji area at 1500-2000 m water depth leads to [REE] deficits (∼40-60% removal) and marked REE fractionation in the tropical West Pacific. Overall, our data provide evidence for active trace element input both near South Korea and Papua New Guinea, and for a strong lateral transport component in the distribution of dissolved REEs in large parts of the West Pacific.

  6. Nutritional values of trace elements in dried desserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyritsis, A.; Kanias, G.D.; Tzia, C.

    1997-01-01

    Desserts are the most aromatic and delicious parts of meals, and also a source of nutrient trace elements for the human body. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied to determine the trace elements antimony, chromium, cobalt, iron, manganese, potassium, rubidium, scandium, sodium and zinc in creme caramel, ice-creams, jellies and mousse dried desserts from the Greek market. According to our results, their classification as nutrient trace element sources for the human body is: mousse>ice-cream> creme caramel> jelly. Among the different studied flavours, chocolate and its derivatives are the richest in nutrient trace elements. Moreover, the consumption of one portion of a chocolate mousse dessert can offer to the human body about 60% of the daily required chromium, 40% of the daily required iron, 10% of the daily required manganese and potassium and 4% of the daily required sodium. (author)

  7. Trace element analysis in the serum and hair of Antarctic leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Rachael [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 Australia (Australia); Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia)], E-mail: rgray@vetsci.usyd.edu.au; Canfield, Paul [Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rogers, Tracey [Australian Marine Mammal Research Centre PO Box 20 Mosman, NSW 2088 (Australia); Evolution and Ecology Research Centre and School of Biological Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2008-07-25

    Leopard seal, Hydrurga leptonyx, and Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, occupy an upper trophic level within the Antarctic ecosystem and are useful indicator species in the Southern Ocean of trace element concentrations. Reference values for the concentration of 19 trace elements were determined in the serum and hair of leopard and Weddell seals sampled in Eastern Antarctica. These reference values can be used as 'baseline' levels for monitoring trace element concentrations in these species. Greater trace element concentrations were determined in hair compared to serum, indicating different time scales of trace element accumulation in these samples. For the majority of trace elements, except for Se in the leopard seal samples and Cr in the Weddell seal samples, significant regression relationships for trace element concentrations in hair and serum were not elucidated. Significant differences were determined in the concentrations of seven out of 15 elements with hair type, moult and new, in the leopard seal; concentrations in moult hair were determined to be greater than in new hair for all elements except Zn. Hair analysis was determined to be useful for monitoring exposure to trace elements and when collected off the ice from moulting seals, hair can be employed as a non-invasive sample for trace element analysis in leopard and Weddell seals.

  8. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  9. Non-destructive testing of electronic parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenhorn, G.

    1980-01-01

    The requirements on quality, safety, faultlessness and reliability of electric components increase because of the high complexity of the appliances in which they are used. By means of examples a survey is given on the common non-destructive testing methods, testing operation and evaluation of test results on electric components which must meet in their application high requirements on quality and reliability. Defective components, especially those with hidden failures are sorted out by non-destructive testing and the failure frequency of the appliances and plants in testing and operation is greatly reduced. (orig.) [de

  10. Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum Trace Element Presentation in Female Wistar Rats administered with Paracetamol & Paracetamol/Methionine. AA Iyanda, FAA Adeniyi. Abstract. A number of therapeutic agents are known to alter serum trace element levels with dangerous consequences. An earlier study had demonstrated significant alteration in the ...

  11. Trace-element speciation and partitioning in environmental geochemistry and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J.G.; Gibson, M.J.; Lovell, M.A.

    1983-09-01

    Establishment of the chemical form and associations of trace elements is important in the scientifc and medical fields related to environmental geochemistry and health. Fundamental understanding of trace-element behavior, the realistic formulation of historical perspectives of trace-element contamination, an assessment of environmental transformation processes and a thorough appraisal of environment-related ill health and disease all depend on knowledge of the chemical speciation and partitioning of trace elements. These topics and the development of analytical speciation techniques and procedures are discussed with reference to trace-element studies in the Department of Forensic Medicine and Science, University of Glasgow, on lacustrine sediments and water, the atmosphere, soil and street dirt of an urban environment, and human biological fluids. 206 references, 4 figures.

  12. Trace elements in oral health and disease: An updated review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noopur Kulkarni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of trace elements are an important part of certain biological and chemical reactions. They work in harmony with proteins and often with certain other co enzymes. They attract substrate molecules and enable their conversion to a specific end product. Some trace elements are involved in redox reactions. Modern day diet, comprising of refined foods is a cause of concern, as it may not have a sufficient amount of these trace elements. Dietary supplements may be of required to combat this shortage. The present paper has thoroughly discussed trace elements, as this area of research has not received the deserved attention. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of these trace elements is essential and significant for disease control and for maintaining optimal health.

  13. An evaluation of trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, P.J.; Yelton, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The determination of trace element release from geologic materials, such as oil shale and coal overburden, is important for proper solid waste management planning. The objective of this study was to determine a correlation between release using the following methods: (1) sequential selective dissolution for determining trace element residencies, (2) toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and (3) humidity cell weathering study simulating maximum trace element release. Two eastern oil shales were used, a New Albany shale that contains 4.6 percent pyrite, and a Chattanooga shale that contains 1.5 percent pyrite. Each shale was analyzed for elemental concentrations by soluble, adsorbed, organic, carbonate, and sulfide phases. The results of the results of the selective dissolution studies show that each trace element has a unique distribution between the various phases. Thus, it is possible to predict trace element release based on trace element residency. The TCLP results show that this method is suitable for assessing soluble trace element release but does not realistically assess potential hazards. The results of the humidity cell studies do demonstrate a more reasonable method for predicting trace element release and potential water quality hazards. The humidity cell methods, however, require months to obtain the required data with a large number of analytical measurements. When the selective dissolution data are compared to the trace element concentrations in the TCLP and humidity cell leachates, it is shown that leachate concentrations are predicted by the selective dissolution data. Therefore, selective dissolution may represent a rapid method to assess trace element release associated with acid mine drainage

  14. Trace element analysis in soy sauce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomiya, Michio

    1993-01-01

    Trace elements in soy sauce have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. Six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Cu and Br. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn and Br which were observed in all samples, have been determined. Each analyzed sample contained considerable amount of Br about 160 ppm. Comparison of Br content of the imported raw materials with those of the domestic ones suggested that the large amount of Br was the residual fumigation chemicals in the imported raw materials. (author)

  15. Trace element analysis in soy sauce. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyama, Yoichi; Saito, Manabu; Tomita, Michio; Yoshida, Koji.

    1994-01-01

    Trace elements in four kinds of soybean and three kinds of salt have been measured by means of in-air PIXE. In soybeans, which were made in Japan, America, Canada and China, six kinds of trace elements were detected, such as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Br. The concentration of these elements varied depending on the place they were made. American soybean showed characteristic feature compared with other soybeans. As to the bromine concentration, American soybean contains ten times as much as Japanese one. In salts Br and Sr were detected. (author)

  16. Loess as an environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazina, T.; Winkel, L. H.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental archives such as ice cores, lake sediment cores, and peat cores have been used extensively to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition of trace elements. These records have provided information about how anthropogenic activities such as mining and fossil fuel combustion have disturbed the natural cycles of various atmospherically transported trace elements (e.g. Pb, Hg and Se). While these records are invaluable for tracing human impacts on such trace elements, they often provide limited information about the long term natural cycles of these elements. An assumption of these records is that the observed variations in trace element input, prior to any assumed anthropogenic perturbations, represent the full range of natural variations. However, records such as those mentioned above which extend back to a maximum of ~400kyr may not capture the potentially large variations of trace element input occurring over millions of years. Windblown loess sediments, often representing atmospheric deposition over time scales >1Ma, are the most widely distributed terrestrial sediments on Earth. These deposits have been used extensively to reconstruct continental climate variability throughout the Quaternary and late Neogene periods. In addition to being a valuable record of continental climate change, loess deposits may represent a long term environmental archive of atmospheric trace element deposition and may be combined with paleoclimate records to elucidate how fluctuations in climate have impacted the natural cycle of such elements. Our research uses the loess-paleosol deposits on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) to quantify how atmospheric deposition of trace elements has fluctuated in central China over the past 6.8Ma. The CLP has been used extensively to reconstruct past changes of East Asian monsoon system (EAM). We present a suite of trace element concentration records (e.g. Pb, Hg, and Se) from the CLP which exemplifies how loess deposits can be used as an

  17. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by radioisotope injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Schwarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    The metabolism of trace elements is subject to certain mechanisms of homeostatic regulation. The supply status of the trace elements, iron, copper, zinc and manganese has definite effects on their respective extent of intestinal absorption, retention and intestinal excretion. Experimental studies show that there is an increase in intestinal absorption and retention, and a decrease in turnover rate and endogenous excretion of these trace elements in response to deficient dietary intake. On the basis of these results, three models are discussed for the use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of situations of trace element deficiency: (1) Determination of the intestinal absorption of an orally administered radioisotope dose by measuring the activity of blood; (2) Determination of the retention of a parenterally administered dose in blood or plasma; and (3) Determination of the endogenous faecal excretion of a parenterally administered dose. The advantages and disadvantages of these models are discussed. Determination of the endogenous secretion of the trace element after intravenous injection of its radioisotope may be considered as the simplest and most informative method. (author)

  18. Simultaneous Determination of 30 Trace Elements in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissue Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K; Brune, D; Wester, P O

    1963-10-15

    The following trace elements were quantitatively determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in T samples of non-cancerous and 5 samples of cancerous human tissue: P, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, La, Au, and Hg. In some of the samples the following elements were qualitatively determined: Ti+Sc, Ga, Sr, In, Ba, Ce, Hf, Os, Pt, and U. Most of the trace elements were found to be present in much higher concentrations in the non-cancerous than in the corresponding cancerous liver samples. In a typical run one sample each of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue was irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal flux of 2.10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. for 24 hours. The radioactive trace elements were separated into 16, and in some cases 18, groups by means of a chemical group separation method. Subsequently, the gamma spectrometric measurements were performed. Two persons can manage the chemical separations and measure the different activities from a run in 1,5 days. A new method of comparing unknown samples with standards was developed.

  19. Trends in trace element emission legislation - an international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloss, L.L.

    2003-07-01

    Emissions of trace elements have decreased for a variety of reasons in many developed countries. However, the application of more successful control strategies in other industry sectors means that coal combustion is still a relatively important source of some trace elements, especially mercury. International and national legislation is increasingly being applied to trace element emissions. International programmes for trace element reduction are generally in the form of voluntary action plans with recommendations and targets for reduction. National legislation in Europe is commonly in the form of emission limits for specific sources. New legislation in the USA may take the form of best available technology or a minimum emission reduction requirement. It is also possible that mercury could be included in multi-pollutant emissions trading schemes. 52 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  1. Volatile characteristic of trace elements during microwave pyrolysis of oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Kong, Ling-wen; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Oil shale is abundant in the world. Today, the industry of oil shale retorting for producing shale oil is developing owing to high price of oil in the world. In order to study migratory behavior of trace elements in oil shale at microwave pyrolysis, tests were performed in laboratory with oil shale of the Huadian deposit of China at different powers from 400 to 700 W. The trace elements As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Pb, Se, Cr, Cu, Ni, V, Zn, Ba, Co, Mn present in oil shale and shale char were determined by the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). By comparing the content of trace elements in oil shale and shale char, distribution characteristics of trace elements at retorting were studied. The overall trends of volatile ratio of trace elements are ascending with higher microwave power and higher than the conventional pyrolysis. The differences in the volatile ratio indicate that the trace elements investigated are bound with the oil shale kerogen and its mineral matter in different manner. So Float-sink experiments (FSE) were performed on oil shale. Huadian oil shale has more included mineral. The volatilization of organic matter is not the main reason for the volatilization of trace elements in oil shale. The trace elements combined with the mineral elements may be also certain volatility.

  2. Toxic and trace elements in foodstuffs in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Y.; Sumiya, M.; Ohmomo, Y.

    1988-01-01

    From the viewpoint of environmental safety assessment it is important to have information on the levels of toxic and trace elements in foodstuffs. It is also essential to develop suitable analytical methods for these elements in order to obtain accurate analytical data. In this paper, two analytical methods were used, inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), for analysing toxic and trace elements in several food samples. 3 tabs

  3. Trace-element content of human scalp hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordus, A.A.; Wysocki, C.M.; Maher, C.C. III; Wieland, R.C.

    1974-01-01

    The importance of some of the factors that could affect the measured trace-element content of human scalp hair have been evaluated. Included are frequency of hair washing and swimming, shampoos used, gross differences in diet, and the variation in content along the strands of hair. The data for length-content variation suggest that, for some elements, eccrine sweat may contribute significantly to the measured trace-element content of hair and that such variation must be taken into account in assessing data for historical hair samples, many of which represent clippings of distal segments of hair

  4. Trace element and stable isotope analysis of fourteen species of marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Matthew D; Robertson, Gregory J; Mallory, Mark L

    2015-12-15

    The Bay of Fundy, Canada, is a macrotidal bay with a highly productive intertidal zone, hosting a large abundance and diversity of marine invertebrates. We analysed trace element concentrations and stable isotopic values of δ(15)N and δ(13)C in 14 species of benthic marine invertebrates from the Bay of Fundy's intertidal zone to investigate bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements in the lower level of this marine food web. Barnacles (Balanus balanus) consistently had significantly greater concentrations of trace elements compared to the other species studied, but otherwise we found low concentrations of non-essential trace elements. In the range of trophic levels that we studied, we found limited evidence of bioaccumulation or biodilution of trace elements across species, likely due to the species examined occupying similar trophic levels in different food chains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Radiation Accident of Non-destructive Inspection and Rational Preparing Bills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Junwoo; Yoo, Donghan; Kim, Hee Reyoung

    2013-01-01

    After 2006, according to enactment of Non-destructive Inspection Promotion Act, the number of non-destructive inspection companies and corresponding accident is increased sharply. In this research, it includes characteristic analysis of field of the non-destructive inspection. And from the result of analysis, the purpose of this research is discovering reason for 'Why there is higher accident ratio in non-destructive inspection field, relatively' and preparing effective bill for reducing radiation accidents. The number of worker for non-destructive inspect is increased steadily and non-destructive inspect worker take highest dose. Corresponding to these, it must be needed to prepare bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers. By analysis of accident case, there are many case of carelessness that tools are too heavy to carry it everywhere workers go. And there are some cases caused by deficiency of education that less understanding of radiation and poor operation by less understanding of structure of tools. Also, there is no data specialized to non-destructive inspect field. So, it has to take information from statistical data. Because of this, it is hard to analyze nondestructive inspect field accurately. So, it is required to; preparing rational bills to protect non-destructive inspect workers nondestructive inspect instrument lightening and easy manual which can understandable for low education background people accurate survey data from real worker. To accomplish these, we needs to do; analyze and comprehend the present law about non-destructive inspect worker understand non-destructive inspect instruments accurately and conduct research for developing material developing rational survey to measuring real condition for non-destructive inspect workers

  6. Trace elements in the atmosphere over South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.B.; Van As, D.

    1976-01-01

    Natural sources of trace elements in the atmosphere are suspended soil particles, the evaporation of sea spray and smoke from veld fires. In urban and industrialised areas the main sources are fossil-fuel power plants, metallurgical smelters, blast furnaces, incinerators, automobiles, fossil-fueled locomotives and open fires in the Black townships. Often a source can be recognised by the relative concentrations of particular trace elements. A monitoring programme was established in 1974 by the Air Pollution Research Group of the CSIR and the Isotope and Radiation Division of the Atomic Energy Board in order to study the levels of trace elements in urban areas such as Johannesburg, Cape Town, and Durban, to measure the effects of industrialisation on trace elements levels in developing areas such as Richards Bay and Saldanha Bay and also to determine baseline values in rural areas. Extremely sensitive analytical techniques, e.g. neutron activation and atomic absorption were used for the analyses of filter samples. Methods of sampling and analysis are discussed and the preliminary results of this programme are presented

  7. Development of hotcell non-destructive examination techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Uhn; Yu, S. C.; Kang, B. S.; Byun, K. S. [Chungbuk National University, Chungju (Korea)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to establish non-destructive examination techniques which needs to determine the status of spent nuclear fuel and/or bundles. Through the project, we will establish an image reconstruction tomography which is a kind of non-destructive techniques in Hotcell. The tomography technique can be used to identify the 2-dimensional density distribution of fission products in the spent fuel rods and/or bundles. And form results of the measurement and analysis of magnetic properties of neutron irradiated material in the press vessel and reactor, we will develop some techniques to test its hardness and defects. In 2001, the first year, we have established mathematical background and necessary data and informations to develop the techniques. We will try to find some experimental results that are necessary in developing the Hotcell non-destructive examination techniques in the coming year. 14 refs., 65 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  8. Uptakes of trace elements in Zn-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, T.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshida, T.; Maetsu, H.; Suganuma, H.; Omori, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multitracer technique was used to obtain uptake rates of essential trace elements in various organs and tissues in Zn-deficient mice. A multitracer solution, containing more than 20 radioisotopes, was injected intraperitoneally into Zn-deficient state mice and control ones. Uptake rates of the radioisotopes were compared with concentrations of trace elements determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to study a specific metabolism of Zn and other essential trace elements, such as Mn, Co, Se, Rb, and Sr. The result suggests that Zn is supplied from bone to other organs and tissues and an increase in Co concentration in all organs and tissues depends on its chemical form, under the Z-deficient state. (author)

  9. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g -1 ), Mg (440-2490 µg g -1 ), Al (9-2030 µg g -1 ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g -1 ), Fe (32-41850 µg g -1 ), Zn (69-2610 µg g -1 ), As (0.4-120 µg g -1 ), Sr (101-815 µg g -1 ), Ba (8-880 µg g -1 ), Hg (7-78730 ng g -1 ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g -1 ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators. Migrating

  10. Scandium - problem of ultra-trace-element essentiality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A.A.; Zkuk, L.I.; Danilova, E.A.; Makhmudov, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    manifestations of the dysfunction after addition of deficient element. This is very convincing criterion but hardly acceptable for ultra trace elements as follows from the model given in the present paper. It is very simple to prepare diet with decreased level for constitutional essential and some trace-elements according to this criterion. It is enough to reduce some constitutional elements uptake for 50% to observe the organism dysfunction. For such trace elements like Mn, Cu, Zn it is enough to reduce its intake 1.5 - 5 times to reach the same effect. For Sc the factor of removal for humans should be about 500-1000. It is clear that preparation of nutrition which removal of ultra-trace elements with a purification factor of hundreds and thousands is practically impossible and there is a necessity to elaborate additional criteria for ultra-trace elements. (author)

  11. Advanced non-destructive methods for an efficient service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Clossen-von Lanken Schulz, M.; Oberlin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the power generation industry's desire to decrease outage time and extend inspection intervals for highly stressed turbine parts, advanced and reliable Non-destructive methods were developed by Siemens Non-destructive laboratory. Effective outage performance requires the optimized planning of all outage activities as well as modern Non-destructive examination methods, in order to examine the highly stressed components (turbine rotor, casings, valves, generator rotor) reliably and in short periods of access. This paper describes the experience of Siemens Energy with an ultrasonic Phased Array inspection technique for the inspection of radial entry pinned turbine blade roots. The developed inspection technique allows the ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine blades without blade removal. Furthermore advanced Non-destructive examination methods for joint bolts will be described, which offer a significant reduction of outage duration in comparison to conventional inspection techniques. (authors)

  12. Newer trace elements measured by RNAA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, quite attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intake. These traces are: aluminum, nickel, vanadium and tin. Al and Ni have been measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and the two latter ones measured by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) in few references laboratories. Here, scandium was also analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These measurements were made for the most of the Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets under the framework of a co-ordinated research project (CRP) of the IAEA during the period 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of above mentioned trace elements are given and discussed while the results of 20 other nutritionally important trace elements appeared somewhere else. (author)

  13. Newer trace elements measured by RNNA and AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Very recently, special attention has been made on a few more trace elements in foodstuff as newer essential for animal and human health in certain ranges of concentration or intakes. These traces are namely: Aluminium, Nickel, Vanadium and Tin. A1 and Ni have been measured by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and two latter ones measured by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis in some references laboratories. Here also scandium was analyzed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis as well. These measurements were made for the most of Iranian diets and other participant countries' diets in frame of coordinated research project led by International Atomic Energy Agency period of 1986-1994, but practically it took more years. Here in this work the daily dietary intakes of aforesaid trace elements are given and discussed while the results of other 20 more nutritionally important trace elements were appeared somewhere else

  14. The effects of trace element content on pyrite oxidation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, D. D.; Lyons, T.; Cliff, J. B.; Perea, D. E.; Johnson, A.; Romaniello, S. J.; Large, R. R.

    2017-12-01

    Pyrite acts as both an important source and sink for many different metals and metalloids in the environment, including many that are toxic. Oxidation of pyrite can release these elements while at the same time producing significant amounts of sulfuric acid. Such issues are common in the vicinity of abandoned mines and smelters, but, as pyrite is a common accessory mineral in many different lithologies, significant pyrite oxidation can occur whenever pyritic rocks are exposed to oxygenated water or the atmosphere. Accelerated exposure to oxygen can occur during deforestation, fracking for petroleum, and construction projects. Geochemical models for pyrite oxidation can help us develop strategies to mitigate these deleterious effects. An important component of these models is an accurate pyrite oxidation rate; however, current pyrite oxidation rates have been determined using relatively pure pyrite. Natural pyrite is rarely pure and has a wide range of trace element concentrations that may affect the oxidation rate. Furthermore, the position of trace elements within the mineral lattice can also affect the oxidation rate. For example, elements such as Ni and Co, which substitute into the pyrite lattice, are thought to stabilize the lattice and thus prevent pyrite oxidation. Alternatively, trace elements that are held within inclusions of other minerals could form a galvanic cell with the surrounding pyrite, thus enhancing pyrite oxidation rates. In this study, we present preliminary analyses from three different pyrite oxidation experiments each using natural pyrite with different trace element compositions. These results show that the pyrite with the highest trace element concentration has approximately an order of magnitude higher oxidation rate compared to the lowest trace element sample. To further elucidate the mechanisms, we employed microanalytical techniques to investigate how the trace elements are held within the pyrite. LA-ICPMS was used to determine the

  15. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  16. Elemental analysis of biological materials. Current problems and techniques with special reference to trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Selected techniques were reviewed for the assay of trace and minor elements in biological materials. Other relevant information is also presented on the need for such analyses, sampling, sample preparation and analytical quality control. In order to evaluate and compare the applicability of the various analytical techniques on a meaningful and objective basis, the materials chosen for consideration were intended to be typical of a wide range of biological matrics of different elemental compositions, namely Bowen's kale, representing a plant material, and NBS bovine liver, IAEA animal muscle, and blood serum, representing animal tissues. The subject is reviewed under the following headings: on the need for trace element analyses in the life sciences (4 papers); sampling and sample preparation for trace element analysis (2 papers); analytical techniques for trace and minor elements in biological materials (7 papers); analytical quality control (2 papers)

  17. Using the ion microprobe mass analyser for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Most techniques for the analysis of trace elements are capable of determining the concentrations in a bulk sample or solution, but without reflecting their distribution. In a bulk analysis therefore elements which occur in high concentration in a few precipitates would still be considered trace elements even though their local concentration greatly exceed the normally accepted trace elements concentration limit. Anomalous distribution is also shown by an oxide layer, a few hundred Angstrom thick, on an aluminium sample. A low oxide concentration would be reported if it were included in the bulk analysis, which contradicts the high surface concentration. The importance of a knowledge of the trace element distribution is therefore demonstrated. Distributional trace element analysis can be carried out using the ion microprobe mass analyser (IMMA). Since the analytical technique used in this instrument, namely secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), is not universally appreciated, the instrument and its features will be described briefly followed by a discussion of quantitative analysis and the related subjects of detection limit and sample consumption. Finally, a few examples of the use of the instrument are given

  18. Trace elements in human milk. Part of a coordinated programme on comparative methods for the study of trace elements in human nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosta, L.

    1981-01-01

    New analytical methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis were developed for the determination of Sn, V, I and Se at nanogram levels in biological materials, particularly in milk and other foodstuffs. By the application of these and similar methods, results for trace elements in human and cow's milk were collected from which the normal concentration ranges of up to 12 trace elements were established. Significant data on vanadium levels were also collected allowing assessment of the dietary intake and body pool of this element and a reappraisal of its significance in nutrition. Similar data on a smaller scale were also collected for tin. Results were also obtained for several different trace elements in a range of biological reference materials

  19. Determination of trace elements in airborne particulate matter. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.

    1975-04-01

    Several trace elements are being introduced into the atmosphere from various sources. Since many of the trace elements are highly toxic, the concentrations of them should be measured and controlled continuously for public health. Concentrations of trace elements have been determined in air samples collected from seven different districts of Ankara by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometer. (Pamuk, F.; Kahraman, N.; Kut, D.)

  20. Trace elements in natural drugs determined by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kehshaw; Tseng Chialiang; Lin Tehsien

    1993-01-01

    Natural drugs are widely used for diuretic, phlegm elimination and stomach invigoration purposes. Seventy-five of the most common remedies used by Chinese people have been subjected to trace element survey analysis by instrumental neutron activation. Within this large number of different natural products, fourteen trace elements (K, Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Zn, Br, Rb, Cs, La, Sm, Eu, Au and Th) are commonly detected. Among these elements, Fe had the highest concentration followed by Zn, and Rb, Sm, Eu and Au were found to have the lowest concentrations. Although the three groups of natural drugs exhibit a widely different therapeutic action, the concentration ranges of the fourteen elements were very similar. While this suggests no apparent specific role for the trace elements in the drug function, parallels are drawn between the known drug related functions of Rb, Zn, Br, Fe, Co and K and the levels of elements found in the natural drugs. It is concluded that the various natural drugs also provide human benefits through supplements of essential elements such as Fe, Zn, Cr, Sc, Rb and Co. (author) 13 refs.; 5 tabs

  1. Probing Trace-elements in Bitumen by Neutron Activation Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahar, S.N.; Schmets, A.J.M.; Scarpas, Athanasios

    Trace elements and their concentrations play an important role in both chemical and physical properties of bitumen. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) has been applied to determine the concentration of trace elements in bitumen. This method requires irradiation of the material with

  2. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  3. Trace Elements in Cardiovascular Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R. [Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1970-07-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in industrialized countries. Their incidence increases, apparently, as a, function of technological progress so that in the future they may become a major public health problem in developing countries too. Early diagnosis and prevention are the tools best suited to curb such an alarming trend, but our knowledge of these topics is unsatisfactory, Valuable information would be obtained through a systematic investigation of trace elements in relation to cardiovascular function and to various types of cardiovascular diseases. Such studies would provide clues to the following questions: 1. Why does the incidence and type of cardiovascular disease differ from one country to another? May this be related to differences in tissue mineral concentrations among various population groups? 2. Which trace elements if any are beneficial to cardiovascular health, and which are harmful ones that may act as aetiological agents for some cardiovascular diseases? 3. Is it possible to utilize measurements of mineral element concentration for diagnostic purposes in cardiovascular disease? (author)

  4. K-AR AGES, MINERALOGY, MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mafic rocks are characterised by high Fe2O3, TiO2, MgO, CaO and variable enrichment in compatible trace elements (Cr, Ni, Co) all of which abruptly decrease with increase in fractionation. Na2O, K2O and Al2O3 and the LILE increase with magma differentiation. Normalised incompatible trace elements show marked ...

  5. Design and fabrication of liner-arroy ultrasonic transducer using KLM and FEM simulation for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Yuk; Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a linear-array transducer capable of overcoming the faults of a single element and phased array transducers with convex shape for non-destructive ultrasonic testing was designed and fabricated. A 5.5 MHz linear-array transducer was designed using the PiezoCAD program based on the KLM analysis and the PZFlex program based on the FEM analysis. A 2-2 composite structure was employed to achieve broad-band characteristics. A 128 element linear-array transducer was fabricated and its performance was compared with the simulation results. The center frequency of the fabricated transducer was 5.5 Mhzand the -6 dB frequency bandwidth was 70 %. Thus, we expect that the designed transducer can provide an effective inner image of the test material during non-destructive ultrasonic testing.

  6. Design and fabrication of liner-arroy ultrasonic transducer using KLM and FEM simulation for non-destructive testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Yuk; Sung, Jin Ho; Jeong, Jong Seob [Dept. of Medical Biotechnology, Dongguk University Biomedi Campus, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In this paper, a linear-array transducer capable of overcoming the faults of a single element and phased array transducers with convex shape for non-destructive ultrasonic testing was designed and fabricated. A 5.5 MHz linear-array transducer was designed using the PiezoCAD program based on the KLM analysis and the PZFlex program based on the FEM analysis. A 2-2 composite structure was employed to achieve broad-band characteristics. A 128 element linear-array transducer was fabricated and its performance was compared with the simulation results. The center frequency of the fabricated transducer was 5.5 Mhzand the -6 dB frequency bandwidth was 70 %. Thus, we expect that the designed transducer can provide an effective inner image of the test material during non-destructive ultrasonic testing.

  7. Modelling, simulation and visualisation for electromagnetic non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilham Mukriz Zainal Abidin; Abdul Razak Hamzah

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art and the recent development of modelling, simulation and visualization for eddy current Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) technique. Simulation and visualization has aid in the design and development of electromagnetic sensors and imaging techniques and systems for Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Testing (ENDT); feature extraction and inverse problems for Quantitative Non-Destructive Testing (QNDT). After reviewing the state-of-the art of electromagnetic modelling and simulation, case studies of Research and Development in eddy current NDT technique via magnetic field mapping and thermography for eddy current distribution are discussed. (author)

  8. Trace elements and rare earth elements in wet deposition of Lijiang, Mt. Yulong region, southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junming; Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Sillanpää, Mika; Niu, Hewen; Sun, Xuejun; He, Yuanqing; Wang, Shijing; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2017-02-01

    In order to investigate the compositions and wet deposition fluxes of trace elements and rare earth elements (REEs) in the precipitation of the southeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, 38 precipitation samples were collected from March to August in 2012 in an urban site of Lijiang city in the Mt. Yulong region. The concentrations of most trace elements and REEs were higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, indicating that the lower concentrations of trace elements and REEs observed during monsoon had been influenced by the dilution effect of increased precipitation. The concentrations of trace elements in the precipitation of Lijiang city were slightly higher than those observed in remote sites of the Tibetan Plateau but much lower than those observed in the metropolises of China, indicating that the atmospheric environment of Lijiang city was less influenced by anthropogenic emissions, and, as a consequence, the air quality was still relatively good. However, the results of enrichment factor and principal component analysis revealed that some anthropogenic activities (e.g., the increasing traffic emissions from the rapid development of tourism) were most likely important contributors to trace elements, while the regional/local crustal sources rather than anthropogenic activities were the predominant contributors to the REEs in the wet deposition of Lijiang city. Our study was relevant not only for assessing the current status of the atmospheric environment in the Mt. Yulong region, but also for specific management actions to be implemented for the control of atmospheric inputs and the health of the environment for the future. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Trace element content of precipitation in a remote area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Rain and snow, sampled over a period of 18 months at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, were analysed for 40 elements by thermal neutron activation analysis. Correlation analysis revealed that the elements detected could be divided into groups of similar behaviour. Storm tracks for the events sampled were obtained, but only generalizations as to the probable origin of the trace elements could be made. Deuterium content of the samples was not correlated with levels of trace elements. (author)

  10. Distribution of trace elements in whole blood of Syrian lymphomas patients using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakir, M. A.; Serhil, A.; Mohammad, A.; Habil, K.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, there had been much interest in the concentrations of trace metals occurring in human and animal tissues and in the manner in which these concentrations may alter in malignant and other diseases. Neutron activation analysis is consider one of several methods that have been described for the determination of trace elements in biological materials. This method possesses the sensitivity and specificity necessary for the estimation at the concentrations existing naturally in most tissues, particularly when only small samples are available for analysis. The purpose of this study was to compare blood concentrations of trace elements Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Sc, Se, Th, and Zn of lymphomas Syrian patients with those of healthy volunteers. Also, determine the relationships between trace elements concentration and the histological type of lymphomas. The blood samples were collected from 39 healthy volunteers and 49 patients with histologically confirmed lymphomas (29 Hodgkin's HL and 20 non-Hodgkin's lymphomas NHL), and analyzed to obtain the concentration of the trace elements in blood. Then, comparison between the healthy volunteers and lymphomas patients (both HL and NHL) was made to elucidate differences of the concentration distributions of the elements in blood. However, statistical analysis using Student's t test revealed significantly high concentrations of Co, Cr, Sc, and Th in lymphoma patients. Whereas Fe and Rb were found significantly decreased in lymphomas patient comparing to control group. Increasing or decreasing concentrations of Se and Zn in lymphoma patients was found not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas patients reveled that Co, Cr, Sc, and Th were significantly elevated whereas, Rb only one trace element was decreased and all change in concentrations (elevating or decreasing) of Se and Zn were not significant. Comparison between the healthy volunteers and Hodgkin

  11. Trace Elements in Parenteral Nutrition: Considerations for the Prescribing Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jennifer; Mulesa, Leanne; Carrilero Rouillet, Mariana

    2017-04-28

    Trace elements (TEs) are an essential component of parenteral nutrition (PN). Over the last few decades, there has been increased experience with PN, and with this knowledge more information about the management of trace elements has become available. There is increasing awareness of the effects of deficiencies and toxicities of certain trace elements. Despite this heightened awareness, much is still unknown in terms of trace element monitoring, the accuracy of different assays, and current TE contamination of solutions. The supplementation of TEs is a complex and important part of the PN prescription. Understanding the role of different disease states and the need for reduced or increased doses is essential. Given the heterogeneity of the PN patients, supplementation should be individualized.

  12. Removal of trace element by isolates of Aspergillus brasiliensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee beans processing generates a large volume of wastewater composed of trace elements which can be detrimental to human health. The present study aimed at evaluating the capacity of strains of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Penicillium citrinum in tolerating and removing trace elements namely: Cu, Mn and Zn from ...

  13. use of x-ray fluorescence spectrometry to determine trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Abstract. This paper deals with application of X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for the detection of trace elements in graphic. An X-ray spectrometer was constructed and used to carry out measurements on graphite spheres impregnated with different chemical elements. The intensities of the lines of these trace elements, ...

  14. Trace elements in brazilian soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar

    1995-01-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties

  15. Enhanced identification of trace element fingerprint of prehistoric pigments by PIXE mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, M.; Pichon, L.; Beck, L.

    2018-02-01

    The elemental composition of Fe rich rocks used as pigment during prehistoric periods can provide valuable information about the type of material used and their geological origin. However, these materials present several analytical constraints since their patrimonial value involve using non-invasive techniques maintaining a high sensitivity of the detection and the quantification of trace elements. Micro-beam techniques also require to take into account the heterogeneity of these geomaterials from the macroscopic to microscopic scales. Several previous studies have demonstrated that PIXE analysis satisfies these analytical conditions. However, application of micro-PIXE analysis is still complex when thin and discontinuous layer of pigment is deposed on the surface of other materials such as rocks or bones. In such case, PIXE imaging could improve the ability to take into account the high heterogeneity of such archaeological objects. In study, we used PIXE imaging system developed at the NewAGLAE facility in order to visualize distribution of elements associated with iron-rich pigment phase. The results obtained show that PIXE maps can improve the identification of the main trace elements specific to the iron mineral phase. By grouping pixels of iron-rich areas and performing quantitative treatment, it was possible to reveal additional trace elements associated to pigment. This study highlights the contribution of PIXE imaging to the identification of elements associated with mineral phases of interest and to use them as proxies to discriminate different geological materials used in archaeological context.

  16. Identifying sources of groundwater pollution using trace element signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmez, I.; Hayes, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    A simple receptor modeling approach has been applied to groundwater pollution studies and has shown that marker trace elements can be used effectively in source identification and apportionment. Groundwater and source materials from one coal-fired and five oil-fired power plants, and one coal-tar deposit site have been analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for more than 20 minor and trace elements. In one of the oil-fired power plants, trace element patterns indicated a leak from the hazardous waste surface impoundments owing to the failure of a hypolon liner. Also, the extent and spatial distribution of groundwater contamination have been determined in a coal-tar deposit site

  17. Non-destructive analyses of cometary nucleus samples using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, G.J.; Sutton, S.R.; Rivers, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    Trace element abundances and abundance patterns in meteorites have proven to be diagnostic indicators of nebular and parent body fractionations, formation temperature, thermal metamorphism and, co-genesis. If comets are more primitive samples of the solar nebula than the meteorites, then trace element abundances in the returned comet nucleus samples should be better indicators of primitive solar nebula conditions than those of meteorites. Comet nucleus samples are likely to consist of a mixture of ices and mineral grains. To provide a complete picture of the elemental distributions, trace element abundance data on the bulk material, as well as separated mineral grains and ices, will be required. This paper discusses the present and future analytical capabilities. 22 refs., 2 figs

  18. Analysis of trace elements in serum from human eating irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi; Chen Shijie; Gao Sumei

    1987-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AEC) in serum from human eating food preserved by irradiation is described. Trace element analysis in human serum is one of the research projects concerning the wholesomeness. 78 serum samples of the human eating food preserved by irradiation were collected. After ashing and solving ICP-AES analysis of serum is performed for detecting 12 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitations are in the range of 10 -2 - 10 -3 ppm for differemt elements. The recoveries of elements are over 73%. Concentrations of 12 trace elements in 78 human serum has been calculated with F and t tests at PDP 11/70 computer and it was concluded that there is no significant difference between testing group and control group

  19. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E.

    2017-01-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60–70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. - Highlights: • Column experiments examined fate of trace elements derived from poultry litter leachate in soils from Delaware, USA. • Influent solutions included poultry litter leachate and simulated solution without DOC. • Results showed increased mobility of litter-derived As, Cu, Zn and P in solution in the presence of DOC. • Mass balance showed all of Cu mass remained in solution but most (60–70%) of the Zn, As and P mass was associated with soil. • Study results show that DOC

  20. Economic importance of non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebert, P.

    1979-01-01

    On May 21 to 23, 1979, the annual meeting of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefung took place in Lindau near the Bodensee lake. About 600 experts from Germany and abroad participated in the meeting, whose general subject was 'The Economic Importance of Non-Destructive Testing'. Theoretical problems and practical investigations were discussed in a number of papers on special subjects. Apart from the 33 papers, there was also a poster show with 53 stands with texts, drawings, diagrams, and figures where the authors informed those interested on the latest state of knowledge in testing. The short papers were read in six sessions under the headings of rentability of non-destructive testing, X-ray methods, electromagnetic methods, and ultrasonic methods 1 and 2. (orig.) [de

  1. Application of neutron activation analysis to trace elements determinations in lung samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogero, S.O.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to apply the instrumental neutron activation analysis method to determine trace elements in lung samples from smokers and non smokers. Samples of lung tissues and lymph nodes from pulmonary hilum analyzed were collected from autopsies by researchers from Faculdade de Medicina da USP. (author)

  2. PIXE trace element analysis of a selection of wines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P.F.; Martin, J.P.; Belhadfa, A.

    1987-01-01

    The University of Montreal EN Tandem accelerator and a Si (Li) X-ray detector were used for a PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray emission) trace element analysis of a selection of wines. Quantitative measurements of the concentrations of the sixteen trace elements Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Br were made. To optimize the sensitivity, spectra were recorded at 1.0 MeV proton energy for elements with Z 19. The absolute concentrations of the trace elements were determined by doping the samples of wine with 1000 ppm of vanadium for the 1.0 MeV bombardments, and 1000 ppm of yttrium for the 3.0 MeV irradiations. The targets were prepared by depositing a few microliters of the wine onto a Nuclepore filter

  3. Trace elements in Australian opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Fardy, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 42 samples of black, grey and white opals taken from a number of recognised Australian field. The results were evaluated to determine if a relationship exited between trace element content and opal colour. (author) 12 refs.; 12 figs.; 3 tabs

  4. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Pyrovan, H.; Raoffi, N.J.; Taherpoor, H.

    1985-01-01

    This work is part of project with the IAEA in a coordinated program on 'Trace Elements in Human and Bio-environmental Systems' to evaluate their nutritional requierements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism, etc. Cow's milk is regarded to be one of the most important and most nutritious foodstuffs of mankind. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out: a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of the project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. AAS, PIXE and NAA are presented here. The latter was applied both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is, however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. PIXE analysis is very fast and rather routine, but the technique for trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and improvement. (author)

  6. Trace elements in Taiwanese diet in different seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng-Ming Liu; Chien Chung

    1992-01-01

    The trace element contents of Taiwanese diet were determined using conventional neutron activation analysis. Sample were prepared with duplicate portion technique by collecting food items ate and drank during a 3 day period in winter. Samples were homogenized, freeze-dried, and elemental concentration of trace elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The interference from fast neutron induced reactions were corrected. Concentrations and daily dietary intake of the elements were compared with those collected in the summer, resulting less daily intake of K, Ca, Mn, Fe and Zn among Taiwanese than the values recommended by WHO and RDA. Alarming low intake of Fe for females and Zn among Taiwanese were indicated. (author) 6 refs.; 2 figs.; 5 tabs

  7. Oceanic distribution and geochemistry of several trace elements at GEOSECS stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The biogeochemical and physical processes operating in the oceans create substantial geographical and vertical variations in the oceanic distribution of many trace elements. These variations are brought about by diverse mechanisms and involve trace elements of a wide spectrum of physicochemical and biological behavior. Thus, a knowledge of these trace element distributions can help characterize some of the ocean processes in which they participate. (auth)

  8. Trace elements and protein in human milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abusamra, Y.I.H.

    1995-01-01

    The trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb and some related major elements which are Ca, Cl K and total protein contents of human samples from ninety mothers were examined in this study. Samples were collected from Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman, from the second day of delivery up to the third month where the milk reaches a relatively stable levels. These samples representing different stages of lactation which are colostrum ( 1-3 days ), tranitional ( up to 14 days ) and mature milk. The principle aim of this study is to measure the trace elements and protein contents in relation to stage of lactation and to compare with the literature. Atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence were used to measure trace elements in the samples. The methods were found to be quite reliable as proved by the analysis of the standard reference material HM-1. Whereas neutron activation analysis was used for measurements of total protein. Colostrum was found to have the highest amounts of trace elements and protein. Fe mean concentration was 273 g/dm 3 at colostrum stage and it decreased to 146 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 49% ). Zn decreased from 6000 g/dm 3 in colostrum to 1300 g/dm 3 in mature stage ( 78% ). Mn was 12g/dm 3 in colostrum, and it decreased to 2.9 g/dm 3 in mature milk ( 75% ). Cu decreased from 370 g/dm 3 to 117 g/dm 3 ( 68% ). Ni decreased from 24 g/dm 3 to 8.8 g/dm 3 ( 63% ) and Pb from 12 g/dm 3 to 2.6 g/dm 3 ( 76% ). Total protein was 37.3% of the dry milk in colostrum and it was 12.2% in mature milk. (author). 75 refs., 25 tabs., 30 figs

  9. Study on trace and rare earth elements in Indonesian oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Jing-ru; Wang, Qing; Liu, Hong-peng; Bai, Zhang [Northeast Dianli Univ., Jilin (China). Engineering Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    Major, trace elements and rare earth and mineral composition of the oil sand samples (ST1, ST2, ST3) and the oil sand retorting residue (semi-coke: SC1, SC2, SC3) from Indonesian were determined by XFS, ICP-MS and XRD methods. The trace elements content in oil sand is pretty much the same thing in Earth's Clarke value. The trace element is abundantly in earth's Clarke, in oil sand yet, for Ti, Mn, Ba, Sr, but these elements are lower enrichment. However, the Cr (EF = 16.8) and Mo (EF = 11.8) are ''enrichment'' in ST1; the Ni (EF =10.5), Se (EF = 17.5), Sr (EF = 28.7), Mo (EF = 106.5), Sc (EF = 12.8) and U (EF = 43.2) are ''enrichment'' in ST2; the Se (EF = 12.6), Sr (EF = 18.4), Mo (EF = 47.5), and U (EF = 27.8) are ''enrichment'' in ST3. Calculations show that trace elements in sime-coke have lower evaporation rate during Fischer Assay. Trace elements in raw oil sand are so stable that trace elements can't move easily to other pyrolysis product but enrich to sime-coke. After retorting, more elements are EF > 10, such as B, V, Ni, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Hg, Cs and U. It is essential to take the pollution produced by trace elements in sime-coke during the sime-coke utilization into consideration. The REEs content had a high correlation with the ash in oil sand. The REE is closely related to terrigenous elastic rocks.

  10. Progress of pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Mei-Zi; Tang, Jie; Liu, Zhao-Qian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics explores the variations in both the benefits and the adverse effects of a drug among patients in a target population by analyzing genomic profiles of individual patients. Minerals and trace elements, which can be found in human tissues and maintain normal physiological functions, are also in the focus of pharmacogenomic research. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect the metabolism, disposition and efficacy of minerals and trace elements in humans, resulting in changes of body function. This review describes some of the recent progress in pharmacogenomic research related to minerals and trace elements.

  11. Effects of trace elements on urease activity in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabatabai, M A

    1977-01-01

    Disposal of sewage sludges and effluents on agricultural land is becoming a widespread practice. Most sludge samples disposed on soils contain large quantities of various trace elements. Studies of 20 trace elements commonly found in sludge samples showed that they inhibit the activity of urease in soils and that their order of effectiveness as inhibitors of urease depends on the soil. When the trace elements were compared by using 5 ..mu..mol . g/sup -1/ soil, however, some of them showed the same order of effectiveness as urease inhibitors in the six soils studied i.e., for the monovalent and divalent ions. Ag/sup +/ greater than or equal to Hg/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cd/sup 2 +/ > Zn/sup 2 +/ > Sn/sup 2 +/ > Mn/sup 2 +/, and generally, Fe/sup 3 +/ > Fe/sup 2 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ > Cu/sup +/. Other trace element ions that inhibited urease were Ni/sup 2 +/, Co/sup 2 +/, Pb/sup 2 +/, Ba/sup 2 +/, As/sup 3 +/, B/sup 3 +/, Cr/sup 3 +/, Al/sup 3 +/, V/sup 4 +/, Se/sup 4 +/, and Mo/sup 6 +/. Of the trace element ions studied, only As/sup 5 +/ and W/sup 6 +/ did not inhibit urease activity in soils. Studies on the distribution of urease activity showed that it is concentrated in surface soils and decreases with depth. Urease activity was proportional to organic C distribution in each soil profile and was significantly correlated with organic C in the surface soils studied.

  12. Role of nuclear analytical probe techniques in biological trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Pounds, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    Many biomedical experiments require the qualitative and quantitative localization of trace elements with high sensitivity and good spatial resolution. The feasibility of measuring the chemical form of the elements, the time course of trace elements metabolism, and of conducting experiments in living biological systems are also important requirements for biological trace element research. Nuclear analytical techniques that employ ion or photon beams have grown in importance in the past decade and have led to several new experimental approaches. Some of the important features of these methods are reviewed here along with their role in trace element research, and examples of their use are given to illustrate potential for new research directions. It is emphasized that the effective application of these methods necessitates a closely integrated multidisciplinary scientific team. 21 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  13. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 . The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  14. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  15. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  16. A comparison between destructive and non-destructive techniques in determining coating thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, F. I.; Suryanto; Ani, M. H.; Mahmood, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    Measuring coating thickness is an important part in research works related to coating applications. In general, techniques for measuring coating thickness may be divided into destructive and non-destructive methods which are commonly used depending on the applications. The objective of this study is to compare two methods measuring the coating thickness of electroplating copper coating on the austenitic stainless-steel substrate. The electroplating was carried out in a solution containing 200 g/L CuSO4, 100 g/L H2SO4 at room temperature and current of 40mA/cm2 during 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mins as coating periods. And the coating thickness was measured by two methods, cross sectional analysis as a destructive technique and weight gain as a non-destructive technique. The results show that at 20 mins coating time interval, the thickness measured by cross sectional method was 16.67 μm and by weight gain method was 17.37 μm, with difference of 0.7 μm and percentage error of 4.11%. This error increased to 5.27% at 100mins time interval, where the values of the thickness measured by cross sectional and weight gain were 86.33 μm and 81.9 μm respectively, and the difference was 4.43 μm. Moreover, though the weight gain method is fast and gives the indication for the termination of a coating process, information regarding the uniformity, porosity and the presence of cracks cannot be obtained. On the other hand, determining the coating thickness using destructive method will damage the sample.

  17. Long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste stabilized by trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Korean food waste was found to contain low level of trace elements. ► Stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved by adding trace elements. ► Iron played an important role in anaerobic digestion of food waste. ► Cobalt addition further enhanced the process performance in the presence of iron. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine if long-term anaerobic digestion of food waste in a semi-continuous single-stage reactor could be stabilized by supplementing trace elements. Contrary to the failure of anaerobic digestion of food waste alone, stable anaerobic digestion of food waste was achieved for 368 days by supplementing trace elements. Under the conditions of OLR (organic loading rates) of 2.19–6.64 g VS (volatile solid)/L day and 20–30 days of HRT (hydraulic retention time), a high methane yield (352–450 mL CH 4 /g VS added ) was obtained, and no significant accumulation of volatile fatty acids was observed. The subsequent investigation on effects of individual trace elements (Co, Fe, Mo and Ni) showed that iron was essential for maintaining stable methane production. These results proved that the food waste used in this study was deficient in trace elements.

  18. Biomonitor-Reflection of Large-Distance Air Mass Transported Trace Elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henriques Vieira, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    The present thesis’ topic is the biomonitoring of atmospheric trace elements with attention focused on the long-range transported trace elements. The aim was to provide improved understanding of aerosol characteristics under the atmospheric transport dynamics of Central North Atlantic at different

  19. Dietary intake of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins of patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Viola, Antonella; Leo, Alessandra; Carlomagno, Giusy; Monteburini, Tania; Cenerelli, Stefano; Santarelli, Stefano; Boggi, Rolando; Miggiano, Giacinto; Vulpio, Carlo; Mele, Cristina; Tazza, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    We aimed to estimate dietary intakes of trace elements, minerals, and vitamins in hemodialysis patients (HDP) of three centers in one metropolitan and two urban areas of Italy. Daily dietary intake was assessed using a 3-day diet diary in 128 HDP. Mean daily intakes of trace elements were as follows: zinc, 7.6 ± 5.4 mg; copper, 14.3 ± 11.8 mg; selenium, 28.3 ± 18.1 μg; and iron, 7.2 ± 4.1 mg (7.8 ± 2.6 mg in women, 6.9 ± 2.4 mg in men). The distribution of patients by daily intakes of trace elements showed most were under the recommended values, with the exception of copper intake, which was much higher. Mean daily intakes of minerals were as follows: magnesium, 174.4 ± 94.3 mg; phosphorus, 842.6 ± 576.8 mg; calcium, 371.8 ± 363.7 mg; potassium, 1,616.2 ± 897.3 mg; and sodium, 1,350 ± 1,281 mg. Mean daily intakes of vitamins were as follows: vitamin A, 486.1 ± 544.6 μg; vitamin B1, 0.86 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B2, 1.1 ± 0.7 mg; vitamin B3, 13.3 ± 8.1 mg; vitamin C, 47.8 ± 50.3 mg; and vitamin E, 9.5 ± 3.6 mg. The distribution of patients by daily intakes of vitamins showed most were under the recommended values. Daily intakes of trace elements and vitamins were similar among the three centers and did not differ between dialysis and non-dialysis days. Many HDP have daily dietary intakes of trace elements and vitamins below the recommended values, whereas the intake of copper is much higher.

  20. Composition of bracken: some major- and trace-element constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J G

    1953-01-01

    Periodic samples of bracken taken during the growing season have shown that the concentration of major elements (except calcium and sodium) decreases with age in fronds, and remains relatively constant in rhizomes, whereas trace-element concentration varies widely. Soil type has little effect on the mineral composition of fronds. Examination of three rhizome types revealed no wide differences in the content of major elements; pinnules generally contained higher concentrations of major and trace elements than fronds. Comparison of results with those published elsewhere for moorland plants grown under similar conditions indicates that bracken contains more potassium and less molybdenum.

  1. Non-destructive microstructural analysis with depth resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolotoyabko, E. E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.il; Quintana, J.P

    2003-01-01

    A depth-sensitive X-ray diffraction technique has been developed with the aim of studying microstructural modifications in inhomogeneous polycrystalline materials. In that method, diffraction profiles are measured at different X-ray energies varied by small steps. X-rays at higher energies probe deeper layers of material. Depth-resolved structural information is retrieved by comparing energy-dependent diffraction profiles. The method provides non-destructive depth profiling of the preferred orientation, grain size, microstrain fluctuations and residual strains. This technique is applied to the characterization of seashells. Similarly, energy-variable X-ray diffraction can be used for the non-destructive characterization of different laminated structures and composite materials.

  2. PIXE analysis of trace elements in cetacean teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Yoko; Arai, Nobuaki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Yoshida, Koji

    1997-01-01

    PIXE was adopted for analysis of trace elements in teeth of two species of cetaceans, sperm whale (Physeter microcephalus) and pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata). The analyses were performed along with the growth layer of the teeth, which is formed annually, suitable for age determination. Mn, Fe, Cu, Zu and Sr were detected in the teeth of sperm whale and pantropical spotted dolphin. Among these trace elements, gradual increase was observed for Zn/Ca ratio in the sperm whale's teeth. (author)

  3. Trace element studies at University of Pittsburgh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.L.; Chan, K.C.; Shabason, L.; Wedberg, G.; Rudolph, H.

    1974-01-01

    Seven areas of research are discussed. A method was developed for analyzing samples for their major constituent elements by irradiating with protons and detecting prompt gamma rays, mostly produced in (p,p'γ) reactions. Among other applications, the method was used to analyze air particulates for C, N, O, Al, Si, S, Co, and Fe. Trace element analysis by proton or alpha particle induced x-ray fluorescence was used on thin samples in a study of the variations of Pb, Br, Fe, and Zn in air particulates as a function of time. Among other applications this method was also used in studying trace elements in rainwater. An x-ray fluorescence method that is effective in the analysis of thick samples was developed. A method based on measuring energies of elastically scattered protons was developed for the analysis of light elements. The use of proton and neutron activation analyses, as well as methods for studying depth profiles for hydrogen and helium in materials are discussed

  4. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  5. Optimal trace inequality constants for interior penalty discontinuous Galerkin discretisations of elliptic operators using arbitrary elements with non-constant Jacobians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, A. R.; Kópházi, J.; Eaton, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, a new method to numerically calculate the trace inequality constants, which arise in the calculation of penalty parameters for interior penalty discretisations of elliptic operators, is presented. These constants are provably optimal for the inequality of interest. As their calculation is based on the solution of a generalised eigenvalue problem involving the volumetric and face stiffness matrices, the method is applicable to any element type for which these matrices can be calculated, including standard finite elements and the non-uniform rational B-splines of isogeometric analysis. In particular, the presented method does not require the Jacobian of the element to be constant, and so can be applied to a much wider variety of element shapes than are currently available in the literature. Numerical results are presented for a variety of finite element and isogeometric cases. When the Jacobian is constant, it is demonstrated that the new method produces lower penalty parameters than existing methods in the literature in all cases, which translates directly into savings in the solution time of the resulting linear system. When the Jacobian is not constant, it is shown that the naive application of existing approaches can result in penalty parameters that do not guarantee coercivity of the bilinear form, and by extension, the stability of the solution. The method of manufactured solutions is applied to a model reaction-diffusion equation with a range of parameters, and it is found that using penalty parameters based on the new trace inequality constants result in better conditioned linear systems, which can be solved approximately 11% faster than those produced by the methods from the literature.

  6. The role of high-energy synchrotron radiation in biomedical trace element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounds, J.G.; Long, G.J.; Kwiatek, W.M.; Jones, K.W.; Gordon, B.M.; Hanson, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will present the results of an investigation of the distribution of essential elements in the normal hepatic lobule. the liver is the organ responsible for metabolism and storage of most trace elements. Although parenchymal hepatocytes are rather uniform histologically, morphometry, histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and microdissection with microchemical investigations have revealed marked heterogeneity on a functional and biochemical level. Hepatocytes from the periportal and perivenous zones of the liver parrenchyma differ in oxidative energy metabolism, glucose uptake and output, unreagenesis, biotransformation, bile acid secretion, and palsma protein synthesis and secretion. Although trace elements are intimately involved in the regulation and maintenance of these functions, little is known regarding the heterogeneity of trace element localization of the liver parenchyma. Histochemical techniques for trace elements generally give high spatial resolution, but lack specificity and stoichiometry. Microdissection has been of marginal usefulness for trace element analyses due to the very small size of the dissected parenchyma. The characteristics of the high-energy x-ray microscope provide an effective approach for elucidating the trace element content of these small biological structures or regions. 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Essential and trace elements in differential pulses, spices and vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, M.Z.A.

    2004-01-01

    The amounts of bio-chemically important elements for human bodies such as Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Cu in some widely used pulses and spices in Chittagong were determined by using flame photometry and UV-Visible spectrophotometry. Similarly, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in some leafy and non-leafy vegetable in Chittagong were determined by the UV-Visible spectrophotometric method. The essential elements such as Na, K, Ca and P were found in mg/kg levels. The amounts of trace metal such as Mg, Fe and Cu in pulses and species were just within the range of human necessity. However, the amounts of Mg, Fe and Cu in leafy and non-leafy vegetables were so negligible that they can not be considered as adequate for health, except their food-values constituted by the higher contents of starch. (author)

  8. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to

  9. Determination of trace elements in drinking tea by various analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chufang; Ke Chenghsiung; Yang Jenqyann

    1993-01-01

    Tea has been one of the most popular simulating beverages which is both heavily produced and consumed in Taiwan. The determination of minor or trace elements in drinking tea and tea leaves is therefore important for estimating the daily intake of Taiwanese considered as a safety indicator. In order to accurately and precisely determine the concentrations of trace elements in samples, several analytical methods such as AAS, NAA and ICP-AES are suggested. This paper attempts to utilize all three methods to determine the concentrations of minor or trace elements in different types of tea leaves and the extracts percolated from them. The influence of fermentation processes on the concentration levels of minor or trace elements in tea samples is investigated. Because only free metal ions are bioavailable for the human body, it is necessary to determine their concentrations in drinking tea. The dissolution of trace elements in drinking tea is therefore studied by simulating the common Chinese style of tea percolation. Concentrations of thirteen elements including Zn, Mn, Ca, Cu, Ni, Al, K, Mg, Cd, Pb, Na, Co and Sc are determined. (author) 14 refs.; 1 fig.; 6 tabs

  10. Trace elements in human pituitary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanabrocki, E.L.; Greco, J.; Graham, L.A.; Kaplan, E.; Rubnitz, M.E.; Oester, Y.T.; Brar, S.; Gustafson, P.S.; Nelson, D.M.; Molinari, F.; Moore, C.E.; Kanabrocki, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine several trace elements in human pituitaries from adult subjects aged 42 to 83 years who had died of ischemic heart disease, carcinoma and cirrhosis of the liver. None of these subjects suffered from mental disease. The concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Se, Br, Cr, Hg, Cs and Co in dried tissue showed no correlation with the diseases, and the results may therefore be representative of the general population. These elements may play a very fundamental role in pituitary function. (U.K.)

  11. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, honey, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were evaluated to determine the relationship between trace elements content and opal colour. (author). 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pit, Iris R.; Dekker, Stefan C.; Kanters, Tobias J.; Wassen, Martin J.; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of

  13. Non destructive nuclear measurements for control and characterization purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyoussi, Abdallah

    2002-01-01

    In this report for accreditation to supervise researches, the author proposes a large and rather precise overview of his research works which dealt with the upstream and downstream parts of the nuclear fuel cycle. After having discussed the different needs associated with non destructive nuclear measurements during the fuel cycle, the author describes his past research activities. In the following parts, he discusses control and characterization methods associated with the upstream and downstream parts of the fuel cycle: fuel density variation measurement, non destructive control of uranium-235 content of enriched uranium ingots, examination of induced photo-fissions in radioactive waste parcels, use of electron accelerator for simultaneous neutron and photon examination, measurement of the spatial distribution of the photonic component from the Mini Linatron, association of non destructive measurement techniques

  14. Trace elements in relation to cardiovascular diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masironi, R [World Health Organization, Cardiovascular Diseases Unit, Geneva (Switzerland); Parr, R M [International Atomic Energy Agency, Medical Applications Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1973-07-01

    For the past four years the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy-Agency have been jointly coordinating investigations at an international level on the role possibly played by stable trace elements in the aetiology of cardiovascular diseases, and the use of nuclear techniques in studying these elements. (author)

  15. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Simon, R.; Tamborini, G.; Bildstein, O.; Marquez, R. Carlos; Kehl, S. R.; Hamilton, T. F.; Ranebo, Y.; Betti, M.

    2006-08-01

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low 240Pu/ 239Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of 137Cs ( 239 + 240 Pu/ 137Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average 241Am/ 239Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 × 10 - 3 ± 0.2 × 10 - 3 (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  16. Issues of weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation in Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.

    2010-01-01

    This article is devoted to issues of weapons of mass destruction non-proliferation in Tajikistan. Over a period of 20 century, starting from First World War, the weapons of mass destruction arouse serious concern of world community. Geneva protocol of 1925 prohibits the use of chemical and biological weapons. Once nuclear weapon was created, the weapons of mass destruction distributions become the subject of high concern. Besides, during the end of 'cold war', regional conflicts, collapse of Soviet Union, as well as access to sensitive technologies considerably increase the danger of weapons of mass destruction distribution. More than 10 countries have active programs, relating to weapons of mass destruction and, possibly, more than ten countries have potential to start implementing such kinds of programs. Nowadays, trans national organized criminal groups and international terrorist networks are appeared in the world scene, which show interest in obtaining an access to sensitive materials, technologies, weapons and their distribution. After 11 September events, the risk of such weapons of mass destruction components use by such forces for Governments blackmail become real scene, which, despite of low possibility of this threat implementation, could have very serious and disastrous consequences. International community responded to these problems and challenges, basically through the following actions, which is detailed regime development of multilateral international treaties, directed to weapons of mass destruction distribution prevention. Non-proliferation treaty of nuclear weapons, Convention on prohibition of chemical weapons and Convention on prohibition of biological and toxin weapons are some of them. As it is known, Tajikistan signed all these treaties. For different reasons these treaties were subject of serious tests. Nuclear weapons tests in India and Pakistan in 1998 year, actual Israel status as state having nuclear weapon and North Korean program on

  17. Determination of trace elements in chicken feeds in Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, Salma Yahya Mohammed

    2017-03-01

    Trace elements are very important for chicken because thy contribute in biochemical processes required for normal growth, development and formation of the eggshell. The deficiency or the elevation of these trace elements may affect the normal physiological activity and biochemical process of their bodies. In this study the concentrations of trace elements in chicken feed samples were determined by X RF spectrometry. The results showed that there were 9 trace elements in sample ( K, Ca Mn, Fe Cu Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr) the mean concentration were K ( 2.12 x 10 4 ), Ca (2.22x10 4 ), Mn (48.1). Fe (191), Cu(9.81), Zn (24.6), Pb (1.63), Rb (7.79), Sr(4.09) ppm. Comparing the trace elements concentrations obtained in this study with the recommended values showed that some of them e.g Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe were found higher concentration than the recommended values, which stipulated by national research council NRC European Union. While lead concentration was in the permissible limit (5mg/kg). However, the statistical Alan's revealed than there were no significant difference between all concentrations of trace elements in the two types of chicken feeds i.e layer and broiler. The pearson correlation test displayed a strong correlation between K-Rb (0.885), Mn-Zn (0.874). The negative correlation between Mn-Rb (0.680), K-Mn (0.6000), K-Ca (0.565), Zn-Rb (-0.541). Ca-Rb (0.458) were found . Further investigations were performed using the principal component analysis (PCA) which involved the extraction of principal factor to study the total variance in the feed samples in terms of the trace elements concentrations in each. The obtained results revealed that the first principal component have a positive correlation with the elements Ca, Mn, Pb, and Zn, while K and Rb showed negative correlation with it. Similarly, the second principal compound showed positive correlation with the elements Mn, PB and Zn, while Ca and Sr showed negative, on the perth hand the third component was found to

  18. Effect of a three-month football training program on trace element ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... physical exercise and trace element metabolism (Marrella et al., 1993; McDonald ..... induced stress and immune function. Exerc Immunol Rev. ... aerobic exercise upon the trace element levels in blood. Neuro. Endocrinol.

  19. Trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, K.; Thangavel, S.; Dhavile, S.M.; Sahayam, A.C.; Chaurasia, S.C.

    2002-11-01

    Analytical methodologies for the trace element characterisation and purification of quartz powder of Indian origin have been described. Metallic impurities (11 elements) in ∼700 quartz samples have been analysed using different instrumental techniques. The values are cross-validated by American and British analytical laboratories. A special multi channel vapour phase digestion (MCVPD) chamber has been designed to reduce the process blank levels for the determination of ultra trace impurities in high purity silicon matrix. In this vessel 21 samples can be digested at a time in a period of 8 hrs. at normal pressure and low temperature (∼ 80 degC). Analytical methodologies for the determination of non-metals (phosphorus, boron and chloride) at very low levels <1 ppm) have also been described. A highly cost effective, single step, room temperature purification procedure is developed based on chemical leaching. Around 300 raw quartz powders (3-4N) from various mines have been purified to 5N pure ( optical grade ). (author)

  20. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  1. Non-destructive testing and evaluation for structural integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Jayakumar, T.; Rao, B.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, a brief description of the physical concepts of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods and the physical/derived parameters that are used for assessing defects, stresses and microstructures are given. A few case studies highlighting the importance of non-destructive testing and evaluation for structural integrity assessment are also discussed based on the investigations carried out. Emerging concepts like intelligent processing of materials, expert systems, neural networks, use of multisensors with fusion of data and exploitation of signal analysis and imaging approaches are also addressed in this paper. (author). 92 refs., 1 tab

  2. Quality evaluation of soil-cement-plant residue bricks by the combination of destructive and non-destructive tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regis de C. Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Residues from agricultural activity can be used to improve the quality of soil-based bricks, constituting an interesting alternative for their destination. The technical quality of soil-cement-plant residue bricks was evaluated by the combination of non-destructive and destructive methods. A predominant clayey soil, Portland cement and residues of husks of both rice and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, in mass, in substitution to the 10% cement content were used. The bricks were submitted to destructive (water absorption and compressive strength and nondestructive (ultrasound tests for their physical and mechanical characterization. Results from both destructive and non-destructive tests were combined to determine the quantitative parameter named “anisotropic resistance” in order to evaluate the quality of the bricks. The addition that promoted best technical quality was 10% residue content, regardless of the residue type. The anisotropic resistance proved to be adequate for the technical quality evaluation of the bricks.

  3. Design of eddy current probes and signal inversion for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravat, C.

    2008-01-01

    Non destructive testing is widely used in aerospace industry and nuclear industry. The growing complexity of industrial processes and manufactured parts, the increasing need of safety in service and the will of life span optimization, require more and more complex quality evaluations to be set up. Among the different anomalies to consider, sub-millimetric breaking surface notches have to be subject to special care. Indeed, it often constitutes a start to larger notches, which can cause the destruction of parts. Penetrant testing is nowadays widely used for that kind of defect, owing to its good performances. Nevertheless, it should be eventually dropped because of environmental norms. Among the possible substitution solutions, the use of eddy currents (EC) for conductive parts is a reliable, fast and inexpensive alternative. The study is about the conception and the use of multi-elements EC probe structures featuring microsensors for non destructive testing of surface breaking defects. A methodology has been established in order to develop such structures and to compare their performances within the framework of sub-millimetric surface breaking notch research. These structures has been employed for calibrated notches evaluation with a specific acquisition bench. Original detection and defect characterization algorithms have been designed and implemented on acquired signals. The most efficient structure has been determined, the notch detection quality has been quantified, and the geometric characteristics of notches has been estimated. (author)

  4. Non-destructive isotopic uranium assay by multiple delayed neutron measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, N.N.; Tsagas, N.F.

    1991-01-01

    The high accuracy and precision required in nuclear safeguards measurements can be achieved by an improved neutron activation technique based on multiple delayed fission neutron counting under various experimental conditions. For the necessary ultrahigh counting statistics required, cyclic activation of multiple subsamples has been applied. The home-made automated flexible analytical system with neutron flux and spectrum differentiation by irradiation position adjustment and cadmium screening, permits the non-destructive determination of the U235 abundance and the total U element concentration needed in nuclear safeguards sample analysis, with a high throughout and a low operational cost. Careful experimental optimization led to considerable improvement of the results

  5. ICP-AES determination of trace elements in carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Rajeswari, B.; Kadam, R.M.; Babu, Y.; Godbole, S.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Carbon steel, a combination of the elements iron and carbon, can be classified into four types as mild, medium, high and very high depending on the carbon content which varies from 0.05% to 2.1%. Carbon steel of different types finds application in medical devices, razor blades, cutlery and spring. In the nuclear industry, it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. A strict quality control measure is required to monitor the trace elements, which have deleterious effects on the mechanical properties of the carbon steel. Thus, it becomes imperative to check the purity of carbon steel as a quality control measure before it is used in feeder pipes in the reactor. Several methods have been reported in literature for trace elemental determination in high purity iron. Some of these include neutron activation analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is widely recognized as a sensitive technique for the determination of trace elements in various matrices, its major advantages being good accuracy and precision, high sensitivity, multi-element capability, large linear dynamic range and relative freedom from matrix effects. The present study mainly deals with the direct determination of trace elements in carbon steel using ICP-AES. An axially viewing ICP spectrometer having a polychromator with 35 fixed analytical channels and limited sequential facility to select any analytical line within 2.2 nm of a polychromator line was used in these studies. Iron, which forms one of the main constituents of carbon steel, has a multi electronic configuration with line rich emission spectrum and, therefore, tends to interfere in the determination of trace impurities in carbon steel matrix. Spectral interference in ICP-AES can be seriously detrimental to the accuracy and reliability of trace element determinations, particularly when they are performed in the presence of high

  6. Influence of S186 on trace elements in organs of dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Meichu; Li Landi; Chen Guibao; Zhang Meizhen

    1993-01-01

    The authors report the influence of a radiostrontium de-cooperating agents, S186 (calcium sodium N-acetylproplysmine 1, 1-diphosphonate), on trace elements in internal organs of dogs. The trace elements contents were determined with a PE-3030 atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Compared with the control group, the trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) contents and the Cu/Zn ratio in organs of Beagle dogs after intramuscular injection of S186 for 30 days did not change obviously except the Cu content in the liver increased

  7. Study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H. (Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre)

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''trace elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of trace elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk is regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence, as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is very fast and rather routine, the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments.

  8. Comparison of trace element contamination levels (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... Chemical analysis of the trace elements in the soft tissues. The trace elements of interest (Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd) were then determined in the digested solutions, using Thermoelemental type. M6 brand of an atomic absorption Spectrometer equipped with a flame operated atomisation system and a deuterium ...

  9. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  10. Concentration of trace elements in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Takaaki; Suzuki, Hamaji; Iimura, Mitsue; Koyanagi, Taku

    1976-01-01

    Information on the quality and quantity of stable trace elements in marine environments is frequently required to analyze the radioecological behavior of radionuclides released from nuclear facilities into the sea. In the present work, special attention was concentrated in determination of stable Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Rb and Cs in marine organisms to estimate the concentration factors for these elements and corresponding radionuclides. Marine organisms (fishes, marine invertebrates and seaweeds) were collected at the seashore of Ibaragi prefecture and provided for chemical analysis after dry-ashing and wet-ashing. Atomic absorption spectrophotometry and neutron activation analysis were applied to determine the concentration of elements. The concentration of stable elements in fish muscle was independent on species of the fishes though slightly higher trends were observed in ''Usumebaru'', Sebastes nivosus for Cs, ''Ishimochi'', Nibea mitsukurii for Zn and Fe compared with other species. The concentration of Co, Zn and Fe in muscle of marine invertebrates was one order of magnitude higher than fish muscles especially in shellfishes for Co. Seaweeds showed peculiar species specificity for the concentration of stable trace elements and remarkable differences was observed between the species even among the same genus. (auth.)

  11. Speciation of trace elements in the environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    Elements present at trace levels, often referred as trace elements, play an important role in the environment and in the functioning of life on our planet. Trace elements in environment present as free metal ions or incorporated into colloids or attached to particulate matter or exist in different physical and chemical forms. It is well established that some elements are highly toxic and some are essential, but can become toxic at higher doses. It is also now known that the forms of elements (speciation) and their amounts are more important than the chemical dose of the elements as their interaction depends on different species. For example, Cr(VI) ions are considered far more toxic than Cr(III), whereas As(III) is more toxic than As(V). Similarly, in the case of mercury, both methylmercury and inorganic mercury are toxic but they show different levels of toxicity. Thus the adverse effects depend on the nature of species of the elements and therefore speciation studies are of paramount importance in many areas like toxicology, environmental chemistry and geochemisty. In view of this, speciation studies is a challenge to analytical chemists as the measurement methodologies have to be carefully developed, validated and applied. The grand challenge is to obtain quality data ensuring traceability, as the data obtained will be used in modeling for predicting the environmental impacts. In this talk importance of speciation and challenges to environmental analytical chemists will be discussed along with the following three speciation studies on Cr, U and Hg which were carried out in our laboratories

  12. Improved PIXE analysis of micro- and trace elements in dental composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoteasa, E. A.; Ciortea, C.; Fluerasu, D.; Enescu, S. E.; Preoteasa, E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the interactions occurring at the solid-solid and solid-liquid interfaces of a tooth's filling, the mineral elements of the restorative composite may induce a complex response of the organism. To study such problems, sensitive surface trace element analysis is required. Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has a detection limit one order of magnitude lower than XRF and has been used for hard dental tissues, but not yet for dental composites. We evaluated the potential of PIXE in a study of ten types of composites used in restorative dentistry, some of them with two color shades each. The samples were prepared as described for XRF. The measurements were performed with 3 MeV protons from a van de Graaff tandem linear accelerator, using a hyper pure Ge detector and collecting the spectra for 1.5-4 hours. The spectra were processed with the program Leone. The proton route in the sample calculated with the Trim program (∼ 50-100 μm) exceeded the size of mineral particles (0.02-30 μm), thus granularity did not affect the analysis. The PIXE analysis detected Z ≥ 19 elements in all composites, and Z≥14 elements in only one low Z material. PIXE detected generally the same dominant elements, but many more trace elements than XRF. Thus both Charisma (Kulzer) and Pekafill (Bayer) contained Ba as the major element, but trace elements were Ni, Zn, In, in the first, and Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Ag in the second. In other glass- and ceramics-based materials we found: Ca, Zr, Ba, Yb and traces of Sr, In, and possibly Ti in Tetric Ceram and in Ariston (both from Vivadent); Ca, Zr, Ba, Hf, possibly Mn, and traces of Ni, Ho, Ti, Fe, Cr in Valux Plus (3M Dental); Sr, Ba (major), K, Fe, Mn (minor), and traces of Ni, Zn, In, in F2000 Compomer (3M Dental); Ba (major) and traces of Fe, Ni, Sr in Surefil (Dentsply). In quartz-based materials we detected: Si, Ca, Ti, Fe and traces of K, Cl, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn in Evicrol (Spofa); low and trace levels of Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu in

  13. The Role of Trace Elements in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Mehmet; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Karakükçü, Çiğdem; Güneri, Erhan; Doğan, Murat; Sağıt, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of three trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, and lead, in tinnitus by analyzing the serum level of copper and lead and both the serum and tissue level of zinc. Eighty patients, who applied to outpatient otolaryngology clinic with the complaints of having tinnitus, and 28 healthy volunteers were included. High-frequency audiometry was performed, and participants who had hearing loss according to the pure tone average were excluded; tinnitus frequency and loudness were determined and tinnitus reaction questionnaire scores were obtained from the patients. Of all the participants, serum zinc, copper, and lead values were measured; moreover, zinc levels were examined in hair samples. The levels of trace elements were compared between tinnitus and control groups. The level of copper was found to be significantly lower in the tinnitus group (p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of zinc, neither in serum nor in hair, and lead in serum (p > 0.05). The lack of trace elements, especially that of "zinc," have been doubted for the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus in the literature; however, we only found copper levels to be low in patients having tinnitus.

  14. Assay of Uranium Isotopic Ratios 234U/238U, 235U/238U in Bottom Sediment Samples Using Destructive and Non Destructive Techniques (Nasser Lake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, A.R.; El-Mongy, S.A.; Kandel, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    Nasser Lake is the greatest man-made lake in the World. It is considered as the main source of water where the Nile water is impounded behind the Aswan high dam.. Uranium has three naturally occurring isotopes 234 U, 235 U and 238 U with isotopic abundance 0.00548, 0.7200 and 99.2745 atom percent. Dissolved uranium in the lake is primary due to weathering process. Monitoring of the isotopic ratios of uranium is used as a good indicator to trace and evaluate the origin and activities associated with any variation of uranium in the lake environment. The main objective of the present study is to clarify any potential variation of natural uranium 234 U/ 238 U, 235 U/ 238 U ratios in sediment samples of Nasser Lake by using destructive alpha and non destructive gamma- techniques. The results show that the uranium isotopic activity ratios are very close to the natural values. This study can also be used for radiological protection and safety evaluation purposes.

  15. The effect of pasteurization on trace elements in donor breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Taufek, N; Cartwright, D; Davies, M; Hewavitharana, A K; Koorts, P; McConachy, H; Shaw, P N; Sumner, R; Whitfield, K

    2016-10-01

    Premature infants often receive pasteurized donor human milk when mothers are unable to provide their own milk. This study aims to establish the effect of the pasteurization process on a range of trace elements in donor milk. Breast milk was collected from 16 mothers donating to the milk bank at the Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital. Samples were divided into pre- and post-pasteurization aliquots and were Holder pasteurized. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to analyze the trace elements zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), iodine (I), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo) and bromine (Br). Differences in trace elements pre- and post-pasteurization were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the trace elements tested pre- and post-pasteurization, except for Fe (Ppasteurization aliquots were-Zn: 1639 (888-4508), 1743 (878-4143), Cu: 360 (258-571), 367 (253-531), Se: 12.34 (11.73-17.60), 12.62 (11.94-16.64), Mn: (1.48 (1.01-1.75), 1.49 (1.11-1.75), I (153 (94-189), 158 (93-183), Fe (211 (171-277), 194 (153-253), Mo (1.46 (0.37-2.99), 1.42 (0.29-3.73) and Br (1066 (834-1443), 989 (902-1396). Pasteurization had minimal effect on several trace elements in donor breast milk but high levels of inter-donor variability of trace elements were observed. The observed decrease in the iron content of pasteurized donor milk is, however, unlikely to be clinically relevant.

  16. A survey of atmospheric trace elements in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawse, P.A.

    1976-08-01

    Concentrations of some 36 trace and major elements were measured in air particulate, rainwater and dry deposition samples collected each month at seven non-urban sites in the U.K. from January to December 1975. The samples were bulked for analysis each quarter year, and the majority were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main objectives were to provide information on concentrations of elements in air to compare with urban measurements, to study the longer term trends in atmospheric concentrations, and to record the deposition inventory to the ground. Continuity of data from the sampling station network has been maintained since January 1972, but at the Wraymires site in north-west England operations began one year earlier. (author)

  17. Fracture-mechanical results of non-destructive testing - function, goals, methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herter, K.H.; Kockelmann, H.; Schuler, X.; Waidele, H.

    2004-01-01

    Non-destructive testing provides data for fracture-mechanical analyses, e.g. defect size and orientation. On the other hand, fracture-mechanical analyses may help to define criteria for non-destructive testing, e.g. sensitivity, inspection intervals and inspection sites. The criteria applied differ as a function of the safety relevance of a component. (orig.) [de

  18. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  19. Trace elements in precious and common opals using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A.

    1997-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 44 precious and 52 common opals sampled from a number of recognised fields within Australia. The purpose of this study was to determine if precious and common opals of the same colour and location have the same or a different trace element profile. Similar numbers of black, white and grey samples were studied in each case. In most cases, common opals had a significantly higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with precious opals. (author)

  20. Trace elements in the human endometrium and decidua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenfeldt, K.; Landgren, B.-M.; Plantin, L.-O.; Diczfalusy, E.

    1977-01-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, 25 trace elements, which are usually present in biological material, were estimated in 31 specimens of human endometrial tissue obtained at various phases of the menstrual cycle and in 14 specimens of decidua from the 12th to 18th week of pregnancy. Among the 13 trace elements invariably found in all specimens, the levels of copper, potassium, rubidium, antimony and zinc were significantly higher and those of bromine, selenium and sodium significantly lower in the endometrium than in the decidua. No difference was found in the levels of gold, calcium, cobalt, cesiuj and iron. Among the 12 trace elements which were found only occasionally, chromium, mercury, silver and cadmium were detected in approximately half and cerium and scandium in approximately one-fourth of the 45 samples studied. Arsenic, barium, lanthanum, molybdenum, samarium and strontium were detected only rarely. The cyclic variations in the endometrial levels of calcium, rubidium and copper were highly significant and those in the levels of gold, cesium, iron, potassium and zinc probably significant. (author)

  1. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  2. Biological trace element measurements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giauque, R.D.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-07-01

    The feasibility of performing x-ray fluorescence trace element determinations at concentrations substantially below the ppM level for biological materials is demonstrated. Conditions for achieving optimum sensitivity were ascertained. Results achieved for five standard reference materials were, in most cases, in excellent agreement with listed values. Minimum detectable limits of 20 ppM were measured for most elements

  3. The Destructive/Non-Destructive Identification of Enameled Pottery, Glass Artifacts and Associated Pigments—A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Colomban

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The birth of Chemistry can be found in two main practices: (i the Arts du feu (ceramic and glass, metallurgy, i.e., inorganic and solid state chemistry and (ii the preparation of remedies, alcohols and perfumes, dyes, i.e., organic and liquid state chemistry. After a brief survey of the history of (glazed pottery and (enameled glass artifacts, the development of destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques during the last few centuries is reviewed. Emphasis is put on mobile non-destructive Raman microspectroscopy of pigments and their glass/glaze host matrices for chronological/technological expertise. The techniques of white opacification, blue, yellow, green, red, and black coloring, are used as examples to point out the interest of pigments as chronological/technological markers.

  4. Study of trace elements distribution in various tissues structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, W.M.; Marczewska, E.

    1994-01-01

    Many papers have been written during the past ten years about TE study in cancer and normal tissues describing the use of different methods for detection of trace elements. Concentration of TE depends strongly on the sample measured. However, according to our knowledge, the role of TE in cancerous tissue is still known. Therefore, we propose to perform an experiment which will hopefully given us more information about the relationship between the concentration of elements in different tissues. The developing industry localised near Cracow becomes a serious danger for health of it's inhabitants. The negative influence of the air pollution to the living organisms is seen not only in the nature but also in humans. Therefore we want to analyse the trace element contents in the air. Such investigation will give the information about the pollution level in the City. The pollution has its obvious negative influence to health and toxic element concentration level in blood. It is interesting to check if placenta plays an effective role in foetus protection against toxic metals. In order to study this problem, the trace element analysis of placenta tissues will be done by means of synchrotron microbeam. (author). 1 ref

  5. Trace elements in groundwater used for water supply in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retike, Inga; Kalvans, Andis; Babre, Alise; Kalvane, Gunta; Popovs, Konrads

    2014-05-01

    Latvia is rich with groundwater resources of various chemical composition and groundwater is the main drinking source. Groundwater quality can be easily affected by pollution or overexploitation, therefore drinking water quality is an issue of high importance. Here the first attempt is made to evaluate the vast data base of trace element concentrations in groundwater collected by Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Centre. Data sources here range from National monitoring programs to groundwater resources prospecting and research projects. First available historical records are from early 1960, whose quality is impossible to test. More recent systematic research has been focused on the agricultural impact on groundwater quality (Levins and Gosk, 2007). This research was mainly limited to Quaternary aquifer. Monitoring of trace elements arsenic, cadmium and lead was included in National groundwater monitoring program of Latvia in 2008 and 2009, but due to lack of funding the monitoring was suspended until 2013. As a result there are no comprehensive baseline studies regarding the trace elements concentration in groundwater. The aim of this study is to determine natural major and trace element concentration in aquifers mainly used for water supply in Latvia and to compare the results with EU potable water standards. A new overview of artesian groundwater quality will be useful for national and regional planning documents. Initial few characteristic traits of trace element concentration have been identified. For example, elevated fluorine, strontium and lithium content can be mainly associated with gypsum dissolution, but the highest barium concentrations are found in groundwaters with low sulphate content. The groundwater composition data including trace element concentrations originating from heterogeneous sources will be processed and analyzed as a part of a newly developed geologic and hydrogeological data management and modeling system with working name

  6. Catalogue of test specimens for non-destructive examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-05-01

    One of the key elements in assuring the integrity of reactor primary circuits is the availability of trustworthy non-destructive methods for detecting dangerous defects that may be present. Various approaches to making such examinations are being developed, including the use of ultrasonic and radiographic techniques. To demonstrate their capability and reliability, they must be tested on steel specimens reproducing the various types of faults which may arise in real primary circuit vessels and piping. Such specimens are costly to fabricate. It is therefore clearly desirable that existing specimens should be made accessible to as many organisations as possible for testing. This catalogue contains detailed Information on forty-odd deliberately flawed plates, blocks, vessels, etc. which have been produced in OECD countries, along with the name of a contact person to whom inquiries should be directed in each case

  7. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.A.

    1981-01-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks). (orig.)

  8. Trace element determination in presolar SiC grains by synchrotron x-ray fluorescence: Commencement of a coordinated multimethod study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, K.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Newville, M.; Davis, A.M.; Dauphas, N.; Lewis, R.S.; Amari, S.; Steele, I.M.; Savina, M.R.; Pellin, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    We determined trace element compositions of individual ∼1-3 ?m presolar SiC grains from 6 KJG grains and 26 additionally cleaned KJG grains from the Murchison CM chondrite using nondestructive synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Presolar SiC grains are robust remnants of stellar matter ejected from stars. They survived processing in the early solar system and retain the nucleosynthetic fingerprints of their stellar progenitors. As such, they represent unique physical probes of the interiors of stars. Presolar SiC grains are commonly analyzed by mass spectrometric techniques that determine isotopic compositions and, to some degree, elemental concentrations. These techniques, however, are destructive, and can be subject to matrix effects. Elemental composition data on presolar grains remain scarce and affected by contamination and analytical artifacts. In addition, contamination has plagued isotopic characterization of some elements such as Mo and Ba. We determined trace element compositions of individual ∼1-3 (micro)m presolar SiC grains from the Murchison CM chondrite using nondestructive synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF). Samples included the KJG fraction, and a second KJG fraction that underwent additional cleaning. As every cleaning step results in some grain loss, one goal of this study was to justify additional cleaning of grains. Six KJG grains and 26 additionally cleaned KJG grains were analyzed, with location and identities of individual grains noted for future correlated isotopic study.

  9. Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques. 2013 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The IAEA promotes industrial applications of radiation technology, including non-destructive testing (NDT), through activities such as Technical Cooperation Projects (national and regional) and Coordinated Research Projects. Through this cooperation, Member States have initiated national programmes for the training and certification of NDT personnel. National certifying bodies have also been established based on International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. As part of these efforts, the IAEA has been actively involved in developing training materials. Consequently, IAEA-TECDOC-407, Training Guidelines in Non-destructive Testing Techniques, was published in 1987, then revised and expanded as IAEA-TECDOC-628 in 1991. Revisions of IAEA-TECDOC-628 were considered essential to meet the demands of end-user industries in Member States, and revised and expanded versions were issued in 2002 and 2008. These latter versions included work conducted by the International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT) and many national NDT societies. It is one of the publications referred to in ISO 9712:2005, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of Personnel, which in turn is an internationally accepted standard, revised as ISO 9712:2012, Non-destructive Testing: Qualification and Certification of NDT Personnel. This publication is an updated version of IAEA-TECDOC-628. The content of which has been revised following the changes of ISO 9712 converging with EN 473 and becoming EN ISO 9712:2012, based on the experience of experts and comments from end-user industries. The details of the topics on each subject have been expanded to include the latest developments in the respective methods. The incorporated changes will assist the end-user industries to update their NDT qualification and certification schemes and course materials. This publication, like the previous versions, will continue to play an important role in international harmonization

  10. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  11. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14 C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14 C dating.

  12. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  13. Monitoring of trace-levels of herbicides in the Cachoeira River in Bahia State, Brazil, by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severo, Maria Isabel; Oliveira, Eduardo; Caribe, Ana Cristina; Revel, Gilles; Oliveira, Arno Heeren

    1995-01-01

    A systematic study was undertaken in order to find out which of the most relevant elements can be determined in water normal conditions by non-destructive neutron activation and a suitable mono standard method. Standardized water from Cachoeira river and croustaceous samples were brought to dryness by freeze-drying and irradiated in quartz at a neutron flux of 10 14 cm -2 s -1 . Trace element contents in quartz ampoules from different origins were determined separately. The following elements were preliminarily identified: Cr, Co, Cu, Br, Sb, Cs, Ce, Nb, Au, Pa, Zn, La, Sm. (author). 10 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Report on intercomparison IAEA/V-10 of the determination of trace elements in hay powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.

    1985-07-01

    Hay plays an important role in the natural production circle of human nutrition. The level of its pollution is an important factor which can effect various branches of the food industry. The aim of the reported exercise organized by the IAEA was to provide the participating laboratories an opportunity to check their analytical performance by comparing their results with the results of other laboratories and to establish the concentration level of trace elements for certification purposes. The hay powder was analyzed by 50 laboratories from 25 countries for 42 elements. Neutron activation, atomic absorption, atomic emission and X-ray spectroscopy were predominantly used as analytical methods. The results provided by the participants of the reported intercomparison exercise have enabled to certify the concentration of eighteen trace and minor elements and to establish non-certified information values for the concentration of an additional twelve elements in Hay Powder IAEA/V-10

  15. Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasdemir, Yuecel; Kural, Can

    2005-01-01

    Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth, greased, knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes of crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24 230 (Ca) μg m -2 d -1 . The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas. In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously with flux samples and concentrations of trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m -3 for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 2.3±1.7 cm s -1 (Pb) to 11.1±6.4 cm s -1 (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probably due to contamination of local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples. - Mechanical turbulence has an important influence on re-suspension and dry deposition of trace elements in an urban area

  16. Uptake of 15 trace elements in arbuscular mycorrhizal marigold measured by the multitracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, H.; Kumagai, H.; Oohashi, K.; Sakamoto, K.; Inubushi, K.; Enomoto, S.; Ambe, F.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonization on the uptake of trace elements in marigold (Tagetes patula L.) was studied using a multitracer consisting of radionuclides of 7 Be, 22 Na, 46 Sc, 51 Cr, 54 Mn, 59 Fe, 56 Co, 65 Zn, 74 As, 75 Se, 83 Rb, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 88 Zr, and 95m Tc. Marigold plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in sand culture either without mycorrhizas or in association with an AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum. The multitracer was applied to the pot, and plants were harvested at 7 and 21 d after tracer application. We found that the uptake of 7 Be, 22 Na, 51 Cr, 59 Fe, 65 Zn, and 95m Tc was higher in the mycorrhizal marigolds than in the non-mycorrhizal ones, while that of 46 Sc, 56 Co, 83 Rb, and 85 Sr was lower in the mycorrhizal marigolds than in the non-mycorrhizal ones. Thus, the multitracer technique enabled to analyze the uptake of various elements by plant simultaneously. It is suggested that this technique could be used to analyze the effects of AM colonization on the uptake of trace elements by plant. (author)

  17. Qualifying program on Non-Destructive Testing, Visual Inspection of the welding (level 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafee, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    Nondestructive testing is a wide group of analysis technique used in science and industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. Common Non-Destructive Testing methods include ultrasonic, magnetic-particle, liquid penetrate, radiographic, visual inspection and eddy-current testing. AAEA put the new book of the Non-Destructive Testing publication series that focused on Q ualifying program on Non-Destructive Testing, visual inspection of welding-level 2 . This book was done in accordance with the Arab standard certification of Non-Destructive Testing (ARAB-NDT-CERT-002) which is agreeing with the ISO-9712 (2005) and IAEA- TEC-DOC-487. It includes twenty one chapters dealing with engineering materials used in industry, the mechanical behavior of metals, metal forming equipments, welding, metallurgy, testing of welds, introduction to Non-Destructive Testing, defects in metals, welding defects and discontinuities, introduction to visual inspection theory, properties and tools of visual testing, visual testing, quality control regulations, standards, codes and specifications, procedures of welding inspections, responsibility of welding test inspector, qualification of Non-Destructive Testing inspector and health safety during working.

  18. Trace elements in animal nutrition: Can a great potential be realized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, W.

    1976-01-01

    Few of the advances in trace element research have found universal application to practical problems of animal nutrition in the field. Environmental or man-made imbalances of trace elements can result in significant reduction of animal performance resulting in substantial economic loss and, indirectly, in a poorer nutritional status of human populations. Extrapolation of existing data suggests that wide areas of the world will be found to have considerable problems of animal trace element nutrition. Once diagnosed, correction of existing imbalances is feasible and inexpensive, with a resulting improvement of animal productivity and of human health. (author)

  19. PIXE determination of essential trace elements in some traditional Chinese medicines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, L.; Qin, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    The essential trace elements in 30 traditional Chinese medicines, (24 tonics and 6 nontonics) were determined by proton-induced X-ray emission. The authors' previous suggestion that traditional Chinese medicines may be classified by the order of magnitude of their essential trace elements, thus indicating their pharmacological effects, is not justified. The pharmacological effect of a trace element or its essentiality may be dependent on some ligand that can be chelated with it. A nonlinear mapping algorithm, however, shows that the 30 traditional Chinese medicines are nearly separated into two groups, indicating their tonic or nontonic pharmacological effects

  20. Wet deposition flux of trace elements to the Adirondack region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.; Keskin, S.S.; Gullu, G.; Olmez, I.

    2001-01-01

    Wet deposition samples from two locations in the Adirondack region of New York were analyzed for trace elemental composition by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Annual fluxes of the measured species were determined by precipitation-weighted and linear-regression methods. Despite several episodes of high deposition fluxes, the cumulative areal wet deposition of trace elements increased fairly linearly (r 2 > 0.9) over the two year sampling period at both sites. This implies that short duration sampling programs may be used to estimate long-term fluxes and cumulative wet deposition impacts. Based on the magnitude of their fluxes, the measured species have been divided into four groups: acidic anions, electroneutral balancing cations, and minor and trace elements of anthropogenic origin. (author)

  1. The study of trace elements in milk by nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharib, A.; Rahimi, H.; Peyrovan, H.; Raofei, H.N.J.; Taherpour, H.

    1983-01-01

    This work is part of a project with the IAEA, in a coordinated programme on ''Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Bio-Environmental Systems'' to evaluate their nutritional requirements, interrelations and the role of Trace Elements in health, metabolism etc. Cow's milk being regarded as one of the most important and nutritious foodstuffs consumed by people. Hence as a first step, an elemental analysis for milk was carried out for this purpose so a few samples of pasteurized milk and local samples were investigated for essential and toxic trace elements. The secondary aim of this project was the assessment of various analytical techniques involved. However, in the present work, the methods involved were AAS, PIXE and NAA. The latter method applied, both instrumentally and radiochemically. Although the results pertaining to the various methods employed are not in good agreement, there is however, some justification to clarify this internal inconsistency. The precision for NAA and AAS allows greater degree of acceptance respectively. Although PIXE is a very fast and rather a routine but the technique of trace element analysis needs certain adaptations and developments

  2. Determination of trace and ultra-trace elements in Dergaon meteorite by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaram, V.; Gnaneswara Rao, T.; Anjaiah, K.V.; Phukon, N.; Majumdar, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed methodology for high precision measurement of several trace and ultra-trace elements including REE and PGE have been presented using effective sample preparation techniques and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Discussion is focussed on aspects, such as total dissolution and recovery of all elements, minimization of oxide and doubly-charged and other polyatomic ion interferences, calibration by matrix matching standards, accuracy and precision

  3. Trace Elements in Marine Sediment and Organisms in the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worakhunpiset, Suwalee

    2018-01-01

    This review summarizes the findings from studies of trace element levels in marine sediment and organisms in the Gulf of Thailand. Spatial and temporal variations in trace element concentrations were observed. Although trace element contamination levels were low, the increased urbanization and agricultural and industrial activities may adversely affect ecosystems and human health. The periodic monitoring of marine environments is recommended in order to minimize human health risks from the consumption of contaminated marine organisms. PMID:29677146

  4. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 5: non-destructive determination by x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.H.; Hurtado, O.; Toro, P.

    1995-01-01

    A procedure for non-destructive analysis of airborne particular matter using X ray fluorescence is presented. The elements Fe, Pb and Zn were determined and their concentration compared with the results reported by other techniques. The homogeneity of the distribution of Fe in the samples was investigated. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs

  5. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  6. Non-destructive nuclear forensics of radioactive samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogge, R.B. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Alexander, Q.; Bentoumi, G.; Dimayuga, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Flacau, R. [Canadian Neutron Beam Centre, Chalk River, ON (Canada); Li, G.; Li, L.; Sur, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    It is a matter of public safety and security to be able to examine suspicious packages of unknown origin. If the package is radioactive and sealed (i.e., the radioactive materials contained in the package, including their chemical and physical forms, are unknown), there is a significant risk on how to handle the package and eventually safely dispose of its contents. Within the context of nuclear security, nuclear forensics helps address the key issue of identifying the nature and origin of radioactive and nuclear material in order to improve physical protection measures and prevent future theft or diversion of these materials. Nuclear forensics utilizes analytical techniques, destructive and non-destructive, developed for applications related to nuclear fuel cycles. This paper demonstrates the non-destructive examination techniques that can be used to inspect encapsulated radioactive samples. Results of γ spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, neutron imaging, neutron diffraction, and delayed neutron analysis as applied to an examination of sealed capsules containing unknown radioactive materials are presented. The paper also highlights the value of these techniques to the overall nuclear forensic investigation to determine the origin of these unknown radioactive materials. (author)

  7. Comparison of gated and non-gated detectors for double-pulse laser induced plasma analysis of trace elements in iron oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilbrunner, H.; Huber, N.; Wolfmeir, H.; Arenholz, E.; Pedarnig, J.D.; Heitz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging technique for accurate compositional analysis of many different materials. We present results of collinear double-pulse LIBS for analysis of the trace elements aluminum, phosphorus and boron in sintered iron oxide targets. The samples were ablated in air by double-pulse Nd:YAG laser radiation (6 ns pulse duration, laser wavelength of 532 nm) and spectra were recorded with an Echelle spectrometer equipped either with a CCD (charge coupled device) or an ICCD (intensified charge coupled device) camera. For the trace elements aluminum and phosphorus, the use of the CCD detector system resulted in considerable higher signal-to-noise ratios and/or better limits of detection compared to the results achieved with the ICCD detector. The use of CCD double-pulse LIBS enables to detect low concentrations of phosphorus with a limit of detection of 10 ppm by evaluating the UV line at 214.91 nm, which overlaps with a Fe I line. Compared to the ICCD system, the CCD system requires the accumulation of a higher number of laser double-pulses to achieve acceptable signal quality. This can be disadvantageous for elements showing pronounced depletion effects as for the trace element boron in sintered iron oxide targets. - Highlights: ► Direct comparison of double-pulse LIBS analysis using CCD and ICCD detectors ► Double-pulse LIBS technique for monitoring of trace elements in iron oxide ► CCD detector can result in better signal-to-noise ratios and limits of detection. ► Low P concentrations detectable by CCD double-pulse LIBS of the line at 214.91 nm ► CCD system disadvantageous for elements showing pronounced depletion effects

  8. Non-destructive methods of control of thermo-physical properties of fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruglov, A B; Kruglov, V B; Kharitonov, V S; Struchalin, P G; Galkin, A G

    2017-01-01

    Information about the change of thermal properties of the fuel elements needed for a successful and safe operation of the nuclear power plant. At present, the existing amount of information on the fuel thermal conductivity change and “fuel-shell” thermal resistance is insufficient. Also, there is no technique that would allow for the measurement of these properties on the non-destructive way of irradiated fuel elements. We propose a method of measuring the thermal conductivity of the fuel in the fuel element and the contact thermal resistance between the fuel and the shell without damaging the integrity of the fuel element, which is based on laser flash method. The description of the experimental setup, implementing methodology, experiments scheme. The results of test experiments on mock-ups of the fuel elements and their comparison with reference data, as well as the results of numerical modeling of thermal processes that occur during the measurement. Displaying harmonization of numerical calculation with the experimental thermograms layout shell portions of the fuel cell, confirming the correctness of the calculation model. (paper)

  9. Behaviour of trace element concentration in human organs in dependence of age and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persigehl, M.; Schicha, H.; Kasperek, K.; Feinendegen, L.E.; Kernforschungsanlage Juelich G.m.b.H.

    1977-01-01

    To study the behaviour of trace elements in dependence of age and environment, samples of skin, lung, heart, aorta, kidney, liver and brain were assayed for concentrations of Fe, Zn, Rb, Co, Cr, Se, Sc, Sb, Cs, Al and partly Eu. All samples were dried at 100 deg C for two days. Instrumental neutron-activation analysis was used to determine the element concentrations. The neutron flux was 5 x 10 13 n cm -2 sec -1 . After decay of the short lived radioisotopes, the Al-concentration was measured following a second irradiation of 1 minute and directly comparing with a standard sample. Nearly all element concentrations changed with processing age, but they showed no clear correlation to either parameter assessed. The non-essential elements Se, Sb and Sc were increasingly concentrated in all organs except the skin. Comparing lung samples of patients from highly industrialized regions with those of lesser industrialization, the elements Sc, Al, Sb, Eu and Co were accumulated by a factor of 10 to 100. Thus the concentrations of trace elements in human organism also depend on the degree of industrialization. (T.G.)

  10. Non-destructive elecrochemical monitoring of reinforcement corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    been widely accepted as a non-destructive ”state of the art” technique for detection of corrosion in concrete structures. And, over the last decade, the trend in corrosion monitoring has moved towards quantitative non-destructive monitoring of the corrosion rate of the steel reinforcement. A few...... corrosion rate measurement instruments have been developed and are commercially available. The main features of these instruments are the combined use of an electrochemical technique for determining the corrosion rate and a so-called ”confinement technique”, which in principle controls the polarised surface...... area of the reinforcement, i.e. the measurement area. Both on-site investigations and laboratory studies have shown that varying corrosion rates are obtained when the various commercially available instruments are used. And in the published studies, conflicting explanations are given illustrating...

  11. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  12. Dietary intake of trace elements and magnesium by local population around tailings pond at Jaduguda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, V.N.; Sethy, N.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Shukla, A.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2007-01-01

    Dietary intake of trace elements by local population residing within 0.5 Kms from tailings pond was assessed. Intake of Zn, Cu and Fe through processed whole meal vegetarian was estimated to be 28%, 45% and 18% of the Indian national average intake. Intake of manganese is more than the national average. This can be attributed to its elevated concentration in abiotic components of the ecosystem and easy bioavailability in the concerned environment. Intake of trace elements through non-veg meal is Zn: 0.94%, Cu: 0.75%, Mn: 1.83%, Fe: 0.72% whereas, intake through total vegetable is Zn: 1.85%, Cu: 1.8%, Mn: 4.5%, Fe 1% of the national average. (author)

  13. Trends in Trace Element Fractionation Between Foraminiferal Species and the Role of Biomineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, G. J.; Nooijer, L. D.; Geerken, E.; Mezger, E.; van Dijk, I. V.; Daemmer, L. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reconstructions of past climate and environments are largely based on stable isotopes and trace element concentrations measured on fossil foraminiferal calcite. Their element and isotope composition roughly reflects seawater composition and physical conditions, which in turn, are related to paleoceanographic parameters. More recently, attempts are being made to infer ranges in environmental parameters using the observed differences in the composition within individual tests. Remarkably, inter-species differences in trace element incorporation are well-correlated over a wide range of environmental conditions. This is particularly remarkable knowing that different environmental factors influence incorporation of these elements at various magnitudes. Most likely the complex biomineralization of foraminifera potentially offsets trace elements similarly at all these scales and also between different species. This suggests that at least parts of the mechanisms underlying foraminiferal biomineralization are similar for all species, which in turn provides important clues on the cellular mechanisms operating during calcification. Moreover, the systematics in trace element partitioning between species could potentially provide important clues for unravelling past changes in trace element composition of the ancient ocean.

  14. Trace elements in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) stranded in mainland Portugal: Bioaccumulation and tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, Lídia; Monteiro, Sílvia S; Pereira, Andreia T; Marçalo, Ana; Ferreira, Marisa; Torres, Jordi; Vingada, José; Eira, Catarina

    2017-07-01

    Pollution is among the most significant threats that endanger sea turtles worldwide. Waters off the Portuguese mainland are acknowledged as important feeding grounds for juvenile loggerheads. However, there is no data on trace element concentrations in marine turtles occurring in these waters. We present the first assessment of trace element concentrations in loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) occurring off the coast of mainland Portugal. Also, we compare our results with those from other areas and discuss parameters that may affect element concentrations. Trace element concentrations (As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, Zn) were determined in kidney, liver and muscle samples from 38 loggerheads stranded between 2011 and 2013. As was the only element with higher concentrations in muscle (14.78 μg g -1 ww) than in liver or kidney. Considering non-essential elements, Cd presented the highest concentrations in kidney (34.67 μg g -1 ) and liver (5.03 μg g -1 ). Only a weak positive link was found between renal Cd and turtle size. Inter-elemental correlations were observed in both liver and kidney tissues. Hepatic Hg values (0.30 ± 0.03 μg g -1 ) were higher than values reported in loggerheads in the Canary Islands but lower than in Mediterranean loggerheads. Cd concentrations in the present study were only exceeded by values found in turtles from the Pacific. Although many endogenous and exogenous parameters related with complex life cycle changes and wide geographic range may influence trace element accumulation, the concentrations of Cd are probably related to the importance of crustaceans in loggerhead diet in the Portuguese coast. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. New tasks for non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The proceedings contain 29 lectures and 43 posters which were presented in Trier at the annual meeting of the DGZfP in May 1990. The contributions report on further development of non-destructive testing methods towards more reliability, both of inspections and with regard to interpretation of the results. (MM) [de

  16. Log-stable concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Kuternoga, E.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, which follows our earlier observation that the asymmetric and long-tailed concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, measured by the X-ray fluorescence techniques, can be modeled by the log-stable distributions, further specific aspects of this observation are discussed. First, we demonstrate that, typically, for a quite substantial fraction (10-20%) of trace elements studied in different kinds of biomedical samples, the measured concentration distributions are described in fact by the 'symmetric' log-stable distributions, i.e. the asymmetric distributions which are described by the symmetric stable distributions. This observation is, in fact, expected for the random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in the biomedical samples. The log-stable nature of concentration distribution of trace elements results in several problems of statistical nature, which have to be addressed in XRF data analysis practice. Consequently, in the present paper, the following problems, namely (i) the estimation of parameters for stable distributions and (ii) the testing of the log-stable nature of the concentration distribution by using the Anderson-Darling (A 2 ) test, especially for symmetric stable distributions, are discussed in detail. In particular, the maximum likelihood estimation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used, respectively, for estimation of stable distribution parameters and calculation of the critical values for the Anderson-Darling test. The discussed ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, which were obtained by using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF, TXRF) methods

  17. National seminar on non-destructive evaluation techniques: proceedings cum souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, N.G.; Kulkarni, P.G.; Purushotham, D.S.C.

    1994-01-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the National Seminar on Non-Destructive Evaluation Techniques held at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during December 8-9, 1994. The papers covered a wide spectrum of non-destructive evaluation activities including that for quality assurance of various nuclear components and structures with the focal theme being computerization and robotics. The papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. The separation and determination of trace elements in iron ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    The separation, concentration, and determination of trace elements in iron ores are described. After the sample has been dissolved, the iron is separated by liquid-liquid extraction with a liquid cation-exchanger, di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid. The trace elements aluminium, cadmium, calcium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, potassium, sodium, vanadium, and zinc are determined in the aqueous phase by atomic-absorption spectrophotometry

  19. Potential for acid emissions affecting trace element nutrition of livestock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smart, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The role of sour gas emissions in trace element nutrition of livestock is discussed. Trace mineral nutrition and the evaluation of factors affecting it is very complex. Some trace minerals are antagonistic to each other, for example a dietary sulfur content of greater than 0.4% will suppress the availability of copper to ruminants. Dietary plants, age, pregnancy, and disease can all alter trace element concentrations. Species and breed of animal play a significant role in copper metabolism. Clinical signs associated with copper and zinc deficiency are discussed. These symptoms include lameness, lack of hair pigmentation, infertility, and scouring. Some of these symptoms may be caused by excess molybdenum. Clinical features associated with zinc deficiency include parakeratosis and inflammation of the skin. 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Trace elements distribution in the Amazon floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, E.A.N.; Ferraz, E.S.B.; Oliveira, H.

    1994-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was performed on aluvial soil samples from several sites on the foodplains of the Amazon River and its major tributaries for trace elements determination. The spatial and temporal variations of chemical composition of floodland sediments in the Amazon basin are discussed. No significant difference was found in trace elemental distribution in the floodland soils along the Amazon main channel, even after the source material has been progressively diluted with that from lowland draining tributaries. It was also seen that the average chemical composition of floodplain soils compares well with that of the suspended sedimets. (author) 12 refs.; 5 figs.; 2 tabs

  1. Trace elements determinations in cancerous and non-cancerous human tissues using instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Insup.

    1989-01-01

    Recent improvements in analyzing techniques when coupled to the growing knowledge of trace element biochemistry provide a powerful tool to investigate the relationship between trace elements and cancer. It is hoped that selective delivery or restriction of specific minerals may aid in cancer prevention or treatment. Tissues were collected at the time of surgery of various cancer patients including colon cancer and breast cancer. Three kinds of tissues were taken from a patient; cancerous, noncancerous, and transitional tissue obtained from a region located between the cancer and healthy tissues. A total of 57 tissues were obtained from 19 cancer patients. Seven of them were colon cancer patients, and 5 of them were breast cancer patients. Nine elements were determined using instrumental activation analysis. Cancerous colon tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium and iron than healthy tissues. Cancerous breast tissue had significantly higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and rubidium than healthy tissues. Iron can be enriched in cancer tissue because cancer tissue retains more blood vessels. Selenium is enriched in cancer tissue, possibly in an effort of the body to inhibit the growth of tumors. The manganese enrichment can be explained in the same manner as selenium considering its suspected anticarcinogenicity. It is not certain why rubidium was enriched in cancer tissue. It could be that this is the result of alteration of cell membrane permeability, change in extracellular matrix, or increased metabolism in cancer tissue

  2. Survey of chemical speciation of trace elements using synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Information concerning the chemical state of trace elements in biological systems generally has not been available. Such information for toxic elements and metals in metalloproteins could prove extremely valuable in the elucidation of their metabolism and other biological processes. The shielding of core electrons by binding electrons affect the energy required for creating inner-shell holes. Furthermore, the molecular binding and the symmetry of the local environment of an atom affect the absorption spectrum in the neighborhood of the absorption edge. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) using synchrotron radiation excitation can be used to provide chemical speciation information for trace elements at concentrations as low as 10 ppM. The structure and position of the absorption curve in the region of an edge can yield vital data about the local structure and oxidation state of the trace element in question. Data are most easily interpreted by comparing the observed edge structure and position with those of model compounds of the element covering the entire range of possible oxidation states. Examples of such analyses are reviewed. 14 refs., 1 fig

  3. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  4. Trace element determination in beauty products by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneyers, L.; Verheyen, L.; Vermaercke, P.; Bruggeman, M.

    2009-01-01

    A recent study on trace elements in beauty products and cosmetics sold on the Asian market has shown the presence of high levels of U, Th and rare earth elements in so called 'Hormesis cosmetics'. For the purpose of comparison, some more information about trace elements in European cosmetics would be useful. In this paper the results obtained using k 0 -standardised Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (k 0 -INAA) for more than 20 trace elements in 20 different beauty products collected from the European market are presented. We found traces of Ba, As and Sb which is in breach with European legislation. For some of the other elements like Cr and Co further speciation is needed in order to evaluate their presence in beauty products. (author)

  5. Trace element correlations with age and sex in human fingernails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, K.

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of 17 elements in fingernails of 92 control individuals with ages ranging from 4 months to 93 years living in a relatively non-industrial environment were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Statistical analysis demonstrated several different patterns of trace element correlation with age and sex. Bromine, Co, Cr, Fe, Na and Sb were found to be negatively correlated (p.<0.05) with age, while Zn was positively correlated (p.<0.05). Silver, Au, Se, and Zn concentrations were found to be higher in females than in males. Males had higher concentrations of Na and K than females. Significant interelement correlations were also observed. The age and sex variations observed should prove to be useful in proper interpretation of elemental imbalances associated with degenerative neurological diseases, especially in view of recent reports that markers for AD have been detected in external tissue. (author). 22 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Characterization and source term assessments of radioactive particles from Marshall Islands using non-destructive analytical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernstroem, J. [Laboratory of Radiochemistry, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: jussi.jernstrom@helsinki.fi; Eriksson, M. [IAEA-MEL, International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratory, 4 Quai Antoine 1er, MC 98000 Monaco (Monaco); Simon, R. [Institute for Synchrotron Radiation, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tamborini, G. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bildstein, O. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquez, R. Carlos [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kehl, S.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Hamilton, T.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551-0808 (United States); Ranebo, Y. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany); Betti, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: maria.betti@ec.europa.eu

    2006-08-15

    Six plutonium-containing particles stemming from Runit Island soil (Marshall Islands) were characterized by non-destructive analytical and microanalytical methods. Composition and elemental distribution in the particles were studied with synchrotron radiation based micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray detector and with wavelength dispersive system as well as a secondary ion mass spectrometer were used to examine particle surfaces. Based on the elemental composition the particles were divided into two groups: particles with pure Pu matrix, and particles where the plutonium is included in Si/O-rich matrix being more heterogenously distributed. All of the particles were identified as nuclear fuel fragments of exploded weapon components. As containing plutonium with low {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio, less than 0.065, which corresponds to weapons-grade plutonium or a detonation with low fission yield, the particles were identified to originate from the safety test and low-yield tests conducted in the history of Runit Island. The Si/O-rich particles contained traces of {sup 137}Cs ({sup 239+240}Pu/{sup 137}Cs activity ratio higher than 2500), which indicated that a minor fission process occurred during the explosion. The average {sup 241}Am/{sup 239}Pu atomic ratio in the six particles was 3.7 x 10{sup -3} {+-} 0.2 x 10{sup -3} (February 2006), which indicated that plutonium in the different particles had similar age.

  7. Levels of trace elements in MWSS drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andal, T.T.

    1998-01-01

    As a water supplier for the metropolis, vigilance over the water quality has not been taken for granted at the Metropolitan Waterworks and Sewerage System (MWSS). By the early 1980's, a control laboratory equipped with modern facilities had been set up to supplement the already existing control laboratory at Filter Plant II handling physical, chemical, bacteriological, biological and mineral analyses and examinations, efficiently. The new central laboratory is intended to monitor trace elements, organic constituents and other elements with health related impact so as to assure the consumers of a safe drinking water supply at all times. This presentation reviews the levels of trace element pollution in MWSS tap water, then and now, in justification of the rehabilitation projects along the distribution network, in the treatment plants and other pertinent innovations corresponding to budgeted capital outlays as invested by the system. (author)

  8. Assessing mixed trace elements in groundwater and their health risk of residents living in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Kongkea; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Suy, Bunseang; Wong, Ming Hung; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in shallow Cambodian groundwater. Groundwater and hair samples were collected from three provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia and analyzed by ICP-MS. Groundwater from Kandal (n = 46) and Kraite (n = 12) were enriched in As, Mn, Ba and Fe whereas none of tube wells in Kampong Cham (n = 18) had trace elements higher than Cambodian permissible limits. Risk computations indicated that 98.7% and 12.4% of residents in the study areas of Kandal (n = 297) and Kratie (n = 89) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects from exposure to multiple elements, yet none were at risk in Kampong Cham (n = 184). Arsenic contributed 99.5%, 60.3% and 84.2% of the aggregate risk in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. Sustainable and appropriate treatment technologies must therefore be implemented in order for Cambodian groundwater to be used as potable water. -- Highlights: •We investigated the potential contamination of trace elements in Cambodian groundwater. •Residents of Kandal (98.7%) and Kratie (12.4%) were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects. •Significant positive correlation between As, Mn and Ba in groundwater and hair were found. -- Risk assessment indicated that 98.7% of residents in Kandal and 12.4% of Kratie study areas were at risk of non-carcinogenic effects of multiple elements in groundwater

  9. Studies of trace element imbalances in Alzheimer's disease using sequential NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehmann, W.D.; Markesbery, W.R.; Thompson, C.M.; Vance, D.E.; Mao, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Evidence has accumulated in the literature that trace elements may be implicated in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurological diseases. Even if elemental imbalances do not prove to be causative factors, observed perturbations may be markers that could aid in diagnosis, or help elucidate pathological processes. In this paper the authors present new data for trace element levels in three areas of the human brain most severely affected by AD (hippocampus, amygdala, and nucleus basalis) and in AD hair and nail samples. In some cases the specific imbalances seen previously in the bulk brain analyses are amplified in these regions. Elevated bromine levels seen in AD brain are also observed in AD hair and nail. Significant alkali metal and mercury imbalances with respect to controls occur in AD nail samples. The role of these trace element alterations in the etiology of AD has still not been determined. However, some possible physiological effects include: membrane dysfunction (alkali metals), enzyme inhibition (mercury and bromine), and interference with neurotransmitter functions (mercury, bromine, and alkali metals). The simultaneous multielement capability of this sequential NAA procedure also permits interelement correlation studies. Elemental associations may help identify potential environmental factors that could contribute to the observed trace element imbalances

  10. Application of lock-in thermography non destructive technique to CFC armoured plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Constans, S.; Courtois, X.; Durocher, A.

    2007-01-01

    A non destructive testing technique - so called modulated photothermal thermography or lock-in thermography - has been set-up for plasma facing components examination. Reliable measurements of phase contrast were obtained on 8 mm carbon fiber composite (CFC) armoured W7-X divertor component with calibrated flaws. A 3D finite element analysis allowed the correlation of the measured phase contrast and showed that a 4 mm strip flaw can be detected at the CFC/copper interface

  11. Trace elemental analysis of bituminous coals using the Heidelberg proton microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J R; Kneis, H; Martin, B; Nobiling, R; Traxel, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.); Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Physikalisches Inst.); Chao, E C.T.; Minkin, J A [Geological Survey, Reston, VA (USA)

    1981-03-01

    Trace elements in coal can occur as components of either the organic constituents (macerals) or the inorganic constituents (minerals). Studies of the concentrations and distribution of the trace elements are vital to understanding the geochemical milieu in which the coal was formed and in evaluating the attempts to recover rare but technologically valuable metals. In addition, information on the trace element concentrations is important in predicting the environmental impact of burning particular coals, as many countries move toward greater utilization of coal reserves for energy production. Traditionally, the optical and the electron microscopes and more recently the electron microprobe have been used in studying the components of coal. The proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) microprobe offers a new complementary approach with an order of magnitude or more better minimum detection limit. We present the first measurements with a PIXE microprobe of the trace element concentrations of bituminous coal samples. Elemental analyses of the coal macerals-vitrinite, exinite, and inertinite - are discussed for three coal samples from the Eastern U.S.A., three samples from the Western U.S.A., and one sample from the Peoples Republic of China.

  12. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost......-preserved insect fossil remains tested, where DNA was obtained from samples up to ca. 26,000 years old. The non-frozen sediment DNA approach appears to have great potential for recording the former presence of insect taxa not normally preserved as macrofossils and opens new frontiers in research on ancient...

  13. A Global Overview of Exposure Levels and Biological Effects of Trace Elements in Penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Winfred; Celis, José E; GonzÃlez-Acuña, Daniel; Banegas, Andiranel; Barra, Ricardo; Chiang, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical contaminants that can be present almost anywhere on the planet. The study of trace elements in biotic matrices is a topic of great relevance for the implications that it can have on wildlife and human health. Penguins are very useful, since they live exclusively in the Southern Hemisphere and represent about 90% of the biomass of birds of the Southern Ocean. The levels of trace elements (dry weight) in different biotic matrices of penguins were reviewed here. Maps of trace element records in penguins were included. Data on exposure and effects of trace elements in penguins were collected from the literature. The most reported trace elements in penguins are aluminum, arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury, copper, zinc, and manganese. Trace elements have been measured in 11 of the 18 species of penguins. The most studied biotic matrices are feathers and excreta. Most of the studies have been performed in Antarctica and subantarctic Islands. Little is known about the interaction among metals, which could provide better knowledge about certain mechanisms of detoxification in penguins. Future studies of trace elements in penguins must incorporate other metals such as vanadium, cobalt, nickel, and chromium. Data of metals in the species such as Eudyptes pachyrhynchus, Eudyptes moseleyi, Eudyptes sclateri, Eudyptes robustus, Eudyptes schlegeli, Spheniscus demersus, Spheniscus mendiculus, and Megadyptes antipodes are urged. It is important to correlate levels of metals in different biotic matrices with the effects on different species and in different geographic locations.

  14. Study of the elemental content in mollusk from Uruguayan's coast by X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernasconi, G.; Odino, R.; Souto, B.; Mendez, Silvia

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to establish a starting point on the content of trace elements, either with a toxic and/or nutritional interest, in Uruguayan coastal mollusks. The River Plate is located between Argentina and Uruguay and has an estuarine nature. It is thus a zone with distinctive features among the South American Atlantic coasts. The analysis techniqe employed is X-ray fluroescence, which is non-destructive and multi-elemental. A simple way of sample preparation is proposed, which does not use reagents that may introduce foreign elements, and is therefore low cost. tabs

  15. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H R; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-15

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography-a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique-can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  16. High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Mirko; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Tsai, Esther H. R.; Dinapoli, Roberto; Müller, Elisabeth; Bunk, Oliver; Raabe, Jörg; Aeppli, Gabriel

    2017-03-01

    Modern nanoelectronics has advanced to a point at which it is impossible to image entire devices and their interconnections non-destructively because of their small feature sizes and the complex three-dimensional structures resulting from their integration on a chip. This metrology gap implies a lack of direct feedback between design and manufacturing processes, and hampers quality control during production, shipment and use. Here we demonstrate that X-ray ptychography—a high-resolution coherent diffractive imaging technique—can create three-dimensional images of integrated circuits of known and unknown designs with a lateral resolution in all directions down to 14.6 nanometres. We obtained detailed device geometries and corresponding elemental maps, and show how the devices are integrated with each other to form the chip. Our experiments represent a major advance in chip inspection and reverse engineering over the traditional destructive electron microscopy and ion milling techniques. Foreseeable developments in X-ray sources, optics and detectors, as well as adoption of an instrument geometry optimized for planar rather than cylindrical samples, could lead to a thousand-fold increase in efficiency, with concomitant reductions in scan times and voxel sizes.

  17. Distribution of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern delta, egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, M.S.; Aly, A.I.M.; Swailem, F.M.; Elreedy, W.; Nada, A.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution pattern of uranium and some trace elements in groundwater of eastern Nile delta indicate general trend of increasing trace element concentration from west and south to North and east direction. This trend is most probably due to extensive leaching from the soil due to recharge from irrigation water. The geochemical correlation among trace elements was also investigated. Possible industrial pollution in bahtim area was detected.1 fig.,4 tab

  18. Validation of a field filtration technique for characterization of suspended particulate matter from freshwater. Part II. Minor, trace and ultra trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odman, Fredrik; Ruth, Thomas; Rodushkin, Ilia; Ponter, Christer

    2006-01-01

    A field filtration method for the concentration and separation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) from freshwater systems and the subsequent determination of minor, trace and ultra trace elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Ga, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Tl, U, V, W, Zn and Zr) is validated with respect to detection limits, precision and bias. The validation comprises the whole procedure including filtration, sample digestion and instrumental analysis. The method includes two digestion procedures (microwave acid digestion and alkali fusion) in combination with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS). Total concentrations of these 27 trace and minor elements have been determined in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from lake and river water with low levels of suspended solids ( -1 DW), and a wide range of element concentrations. The precision of the method including filtration, digestion and instrumental determination ranges between 8% and 18% RSD for most elements on a dry weight basis. Higher recovery after acid digestion is found for some elements, probably because of volatilization or retention losses in the fusion procedure. Other elements show higher recovery after fusion, which is explained by more efficient decomposition of refractory mineral phases relative to the non-total acid digestion. Non-detectable concentrations of some elements are reported due to small differences between blank filter levels and the amounts of elements present on the filters after sampling. The method limits of detection range between 0.7 ng and 2.65 μg, as estimated from the blank filter samples. These detection limits are 10-550 times higher compared to the corresponding instrumental limits of detection. The accuracy and bias of the overall analytical procedure was assessed from replicate analysis of certified reference materials. A critical evaluation of

  19. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma forms the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. The task of the trace element geochemist is to solve mathematically the inverse problem. Given trace element abundances in a magma, what is the ode of its source region. The most successful modeling has been performed for small planetary bodies which underwent relatively simple igneous differentiation events. An example is the eucrite parent body, a planet which produced basals at approx. =4.6 Gy. and has been quiescent ever since. This simple differentiation history permits the calculation of its bulk composition (a feldspathic peridotite) and has led to the tentative identification of asteroid 4 Westa as the eucrite parent body. The differentiation of iron meteorite groups in parent body cores is amenable to similar treatment. The 'anomalous' behavior of Cr, suggests that IIIA, B irons and main group pallasites equilibrated with troilite, spinel, ferromagnesian silicates, or some combination thereof. The moon has undergone more complex differentiation, and quantitative geochemical modeling is correspondingly more difficult. Nevertheless, modeling the two-stage evolution of mare basals raises the possibility that the primordial moon did not have chondritic relative abundances of such refractory elements as Ca, Al, U, and the rare-earth elements. The nonchondritic element ratios are characteristic of planetary, not nebular, fractionation processes and are consistent with the derivation of the moon from a precursor planet, possibly the earth

  20. Concentration distribution of trace elements: from normal distribution to Levy flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Majewska, U.; Pajek, M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses a nature of concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, which were measured by using the X-ray fluorescence techniques (XRF, TXRF). Our earlier observation, that the lognormal distribution well describes the measured concentration distribution is explained here on a more general ground. Particularly, the role of random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, is discussed in detail. It is demonstrated that the lognormal distribution, appearing when the multiplicative process is driven by normal distribution, can be generalized to the so-called log-stable distribution. Such distribution describes the random multiplicative process, which is driven, instead of normal distribution, by more general stable distribution, being known as the Levy flights. The presented ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, obtained by using the conventional (XRF) and (TXRF) X-ray fluorescence methods. Particularly, the first observation of log-stable concentration distribution of trace elements is reported and discussed here in detail

  1. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S. [University of Connecticut, Department of Physics, Unit 3046 Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)]. E-mail: schweitz@phys.uconn.edu; Trombka, Jacob I. [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Floyd, Samuel [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Selavka, Carl [Massachusetts State Police Crime Laboratory, 59 Horse Pond Road, Sudbury, MA 01776 (United States); Zeosky, Gerald [Forensic Investigation Center, Crime Laboratory Building, 22 State Campus, Albany, NY 12226 (United States); Gahn, Norman [Assistant District Attorney, Milwaukee County, District Attorney' s Office, 821 West State Street, Milwaukee, WI 53233-1427 (United States); McClanahan, Timothy [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Burbine, Thomas [Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes.

  2. Portable generator-based X RF instrument for non-destructive analysis at crime scenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, Jeffrey S.; Trombka, Jacob I.; Floyd, Samuel; Selavka, Carl; Zeosky, Gerald; Gahn, Norman; McClanahan, Timothy; Burbine, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Unattended and remote detection systems find applications in space exploration, telemedicine, teleforensics, homeland security and nuclear non-proliferation programs. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) have teamed up to explore the use of NASA developed technologies to help criminal justice agencies and professionals investigate crimes. The objective of the program is to produce instruments and communication networks that have application within both NASA's space program and NIJ, together with state and local forensic laboratories. A general-purpose X-ray fluorescence system has been built for non-destructive analyses of trace and invisible material at crime scenes. This portable instrument is based on a generator that can operate to 60 kV and a Schottky CdTe detector. The instrument has been shown to be successful for the analysis of gunshot residue and a number of bodily fluids at crime scenes

  3. Sources and distribution of trace elements in Estonian peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orru, Hans; Orru, Mall

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of the distribution of trace elements in Estonian mires. Sixty four mires, representative of the different landscape units, were analyzed for the content of 16 trace elements (Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb using AAS; Cd by GF-AAS; Hg by the cold vapour method; and V, Co, As, Sr, Mo, Th, and U by XRF) as well as other peat characteristics (peat type, degree of humification, pH and ash content). The results of the research show that concentrations of trace elements in peat are generally low: V 3.8 ± 0.6, Cr 3.1 ± 0.2, Mn 35.1 ± 2.7, Co 0.50 ± 0.05, Ni 3.7 ± 0.2, Cu 4.4 ± 0.3, Zn 10.0 ± 0.7, As 2.4 ± 0.3, Sr 21.9 ± 0.9, Mo 1.2 ± 0.2, Cd 0.12 ± 0.01, Hg 0.05 ± 0.01, Pb 3.3 ± 0.2, Th 0.47 ± 0.05, U 1.3 ± 0.2 μg g - 1 and S 0.25 ± 0.02%. Statistical analyses on these large database showed that Co has the highest positive correlations with many elements and ash content. As, Ni, Mo, ash content and pH are also significantly correlated. The lowest abundance of most trace elements was recorded in mires fed only by precipitation (ombrotrophic), and the highest in mires fed by groundwater and springs (minerotrophic), which are situated in the flood plains of river valleys. Concentrations usually differ between the superficial, middle and bottom peat layers, but the significance decreases depending on the type of mire in the following order: transitional mires - raised bogs - fens. Differences among mire types are highest for the superficial but not significant for the basal peat layers. The use of peat with high concentrations of trace elements in agriculture, horticulture, as fuel, for water purification etc., may pose a risk for humans: via the food chain, through inhalation, drinking water etc.

  4. Trace element patterns in lichens following uranium mine closures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahselt, D.; Wu, T.W.; Mott, B.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to determine trace elements in Cladina mitis (Sandst). Hale ampersand Culb. along transects extending from uranium mines at Elliot Lake and Agnew Lake in central Ontario, Canada. Levels of 11 elements were reported and the presence of uranium (U) was confirmed, although U concentrations were much less than in Cladina rangiferina 10 years earlier. Among the elements identified in lichen thalli was Th, which occurred in higher concentrations than U. All trace elements, including the two radionuclides, were found in deteriorating thallus parts as well as living podetia, and five of these seem to have originated as airborne particulates from minesites. In spite of mine closures, levels of Th and U remained higher near sources of ore dust and there was little relationship between radionuclide concentrations in thallus and substrate. 24 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Trace element supplementation in the biogas production from wheat stillage--optimization of metal dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas; Nelles, Michael; Scholwin, Frank; Pröter, Jürgen

    2014-09-01

    A trace element dosing strategy for the anaerobic digestion of wheat stillage was developed in this study. Mesophilic CSTR reactors were operated with the sulfuric substrate wheat stillage in some cases under trace element deficiency. After supplementing trace elements during the start-up, one of the elements of Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, and W were depleted in one digester while still augmenting the other elements to determine minimum requirements for each element. The depletion of Fe and Ni resulted in a rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids while Co and W seem to have a long-term effect. Based on the results it was possible to reduce the dosing of trace elements, which is positive with reference to economic and environmental aspects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Non-destructive and destructive examination of the retired North Anna 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahluwalia, Kawaljit; Barnes, Robert; Rao, Gutti; Cattant, Francois; Peat, Noel

    2006-09-01

    Stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 and nickel-based weld materials has been the single biggest challenge facing the PWR industry. A fundamental and thorough knowledge was needed to properly explain this phenomenon and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Non Destructive Examination (NDE) of the North Anna Unit 2 Reactor Vessel Head (RVH) during the 2002 fall outage identified widespread crack indications in the Alloy 600 CRDM penetrations and associated Alloy 182 and 82 J-groove attachment welds. When the Utility decided to replace the RVH, a rare opportunity was provided to the industry to undertake in-depth studies of representative defective CRDM penetrations from a retired RVH. Accordingly, the Materials Reliability Program, undertook a two-phase program on the retired North Anna 2 Alloy 600 RVH. The first phase involved selection and removal of six penetrations from the RVH and penetration decontamination, replication and laboratory NDE. The second phase consisted of a detailed destructive examination of penetration number 54. This paper provides a summary of work undertaken during this program. Criteria for selection of penetrations for removal and procedures used in removal of the penetrations are described. Extreme care was undertaken in decontamination of the penetrations to facilitate laboratory NDE. Penetration number 54 was then subjected to destructive examination to establish a correlation between NDE findings (from both field and laboratory inspections) and actual flaws. Additional objectives of the destructive examination included mechanistic assessment of defect formation and investigation of the annulus environment and wastage characterization. Data obtained from these studies is invaluable in validating safety assessment statements by developing the correlation between field NDE and actual defects. In addition, information gathered from non-destructive and destructive examinations is used to assess accuracy of the NDE techniques

  7. Trace element mobility at the slab-mantle interface: constraints from "hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marocchi, M.; Tropper, P.; Mair, V.; Bargossi, G. M.; Hermann, J.

    2009-04-01

    Subduction mélanges and hybrid rocks are considered, together with mafic rocks, metasediments and serpentinite as an important volatile-bearing portion of subducting slabs (cf. Spandler et al., 2008 and references therein; Miller et al., 2009). In particular, metasomatic rocks occurring in exhumed HP mélanges have recently attracted growing interest for two main reasons: i) metasomatic rocks forming at the interface between ultramafic and crustal rocks of subducting slabs constitute new bulk compositions which can affect the redistribution of major and trace elements and modify the composition of slab fluids moving to the mantle wedge and ii) these mineral assemblages, consisting mainly of hydrous phases can potentially store and transport water at great depth in subduction zones. Ultramafic rocks belonging to the Hochwart peridotite (Ulten Zone, central-eastern Italian Alps) preserve a series of metasomatic mineral zones generated by infiltration of hydrous fluids/melts, which occurred at the gneiss-peridotite interface (Tumiati et al., 2007; Marocchi et al., 2009). The peridotite body of Mt. Hochwart represents an almost unique occurrence where subduction-related mantle metasomatism can be studied on an outcrop scale. The ultramafic body consists of metaperidotites exposed as a hectometre-size lens along a steep gully, associated to monomineralic zones that developed at the contact between the peridotite body and the garnet-bearing gneiss country rocks. The formation of the metasomatic zones composed exclusively of hydrous phases involved extensive H2O-metasomatism as already documented for the Ulten peridotites (Scambelluri et al., 2006; Marocchi et al., 2007). Whole-rock geochemistry and trace element composition of hydrous phases (phlogopite and amphibole) in different metasomatic zones indicate mobility of many elements, including elements such as Ta, which are considered to have scarce mobility in fluids. Trace element composition of accessory minerals in

  8. Relationship between trace element content in human organs and hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinova, L.

    1993-01-01

    Autopsy samples from 22 clinically healthy human males between the ages of 20 to 52 were collected from Bulgaria for the investigation of possible correlations between trace elements in hair and body organs. Samples of heart, spleen, liver, kidney, and hair were analyzed by neutron activation analysis to determine trace element concentrations. Statistical analysis of the data did not indicate any significant correlations between elemental concentrations in hair and internal organs, probably due to the limited number of available samples. However, lower than normal selenium concentrations were found in the organ samples, indicating possible selenium deficiency. (author). 6 refs, 4 tabs

  9. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yanqun; Bock, Laurent; Schvartz, Christian; Colinet, Gilles; Li, Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Chenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 mg/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil) of Pb and Zn > or =1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu related to relief, stoniness, soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu. Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M > L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  10. Determination of toxic trace elements in body fluid reference samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gills, T.E.; McClendon, L.T.; Maienthal, E.J.; Becker, D.A.; Durst, R.A.; LaFleur, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    The measurement of elemental concentration in body fluids has been widely used to give indication of exposures to certain toxic materials and/or a measure of body burden. To understand fully the toxicological effect of these trace elements on our physiological system, meaningful analytical data are required along with accurate standards or reference samples. The National Bureau of Standards has prepared for the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) a number of reference samples containing selected toxic trace elements in body fluids. The reference samples produced include mercury in urine at three concentration levels, five elements (Se, Cu, As, Ni and Cr) in freeze-dried urine at two levels, fluorine in freeze-dried urine at two levels and lead in blood at two concentration levels. These reference samples have been found to be extremely useful for the evaluation of field and laboratory analytical methods for the analysis of toxic trace elements. In particular the use of at least two calibration points (i.e., ''normal'' and ''elevated'' levels) for a given matrix provides a more positive calibration for most analytical techniques over the range of interest for occupational toxicological levels of exposure. (U.S.)

  11. Development of a non-destructive method to identify different grades of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2004-01-01

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyze a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no tedious sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results obtained from this analysis with certified reference standards show very small differences between them. (Author)

  12. Seasonal and temporal evolution of nutrient composition of pastures grown on remediated and non remediated soils affected by trace element contamination (Guadiamar Valley, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madejon, P.; Dominguez, M. T.; Murillo, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    Elevated trace element concentrations in soils can affect the solubility and uptake of essential elements, resulting in nutrient deficiencies in plant tissues. The present paper deals with nutrient composition of pastures established on polluted and remediated soils (Green Corridor of the Guadiamar river Valley), in order to check the potential nutritional disorders that could derive from the soil pollution. In addition, nutrient composition of a representative grass, Cynodon dactylon, collected in 1999 and 2008 was compared in remediated and non-remediated sites of the polluted area. In general, nutrient concentrations of pastures were similar or even higher in polluted sites compared to control sites. Therefore, the estimated potential ingestion of main nutrients by horses (the most abundant animals in the area) was also greater in the polluted and remediated soils and covered their nutritional requirements (more than 300 (N), 70 (S), 35 (P), 400 (K), 175 (Ca) and 30 (Mg) mg kg{sup -}1 body weight day {sup -}1 in spring and autumn). Temporal evolution of nutrients and physiological ratios (N/S, Ca/P, K/Na, K/Ca+Mg) in C. dactylon showed a significant variation from 1999 to 2008, especially in the non-remediated area, leading to a recovery of the nutritional quality of this grass. The reasonable nutritional quality of pastures and the absence of negative interactions between nutrients and trace elements seem to indicate a stabilisation of soil pollutants in the affected area. (Author) 41 refs.

  13. Non-invasive and micro-destructive investigation of the Domus Aurea wall painting decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Catia; Ciocan, Valeria; Vagnini, Manuela; Doherty, Brenda; Tabasso, Marisa Laurenzi; Conti, Cinzia; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Miliani, Costanza

    2011-10-01

    The paper reports on the exploitation of an educated multi-technique analytical approach based on a wide non invasive step followed by a focused micro-destructive step, aimed at the minimally invasive identification of the pigments decorating the ceiling of the Gilded Vault of the Domus Aurea in Rome. The combination of elemental analysis with molecular characterization provided by X-ray fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopies, respectively, allowed for the in situ non-invasive identification of a remarkable number of pigments, namely Egyptian blue, green earth, cinnabar, red ochre and an anthraquinonic lake. The study was completed with the Raman analysis of two bulk samples, in particular, SERS measurements allowed for the speciation of the anthraquinonic pigment. Elemental mapping by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectrometer combined with micro-fluorimetry on cross-section gave an insight into both the distribution of different blend of pigments and on the nature of the inorganic support of the red dye.

  14. The content of minerals and trace elements in meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bognar, A.; Schelenz, R.; Gruenewald, T.; Frahm, H.; Heine, K.; Wiechen, A.; Bundesanstalt fuer Milchforschung, Kiel

    1981-07-01

    Within the frame work of the research programme 'School Feeding', 68 menu items of different producers were investigated for the content of the minerals calcium, chlorine, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, and for the trace elements antimony, barium, bromine, cesium, chromium, hafnium, iridium,cobalt, copper, manganese, mercury, rubidium, scandium, selenium, silver, strontium, tin and zinc. For the analytical determination of the elements, instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorometry were applied. The studies showed that a calculation of the content of minerals and trace elements in meals on the basis of recipes and nutritive tables for raw foods is not justified, expect for sodium and phosphorus, because incorrect results can be obtained for the majority of meals. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  16. Trace Elements in Apple Fruits of Several Regions in the Republic of Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boev, Blazho; Lepitkova, Sonja; Paneva-Zajkova, Vesna; Georgiev, Lazar

    2006-01-01

    Determination of macro elements and trace elements in apple fruits was carried out by ICP-AES method. Apples were picked up fresh in December 2005. Seven different types of apples from different parts of the country were selected. Apples were sliced into large pieces, dried, and after grinding were dissolved in nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and hydroperoxide (H 2 O 2 ). After digestion, multi-element analysis was carried out. Data obtained were compared to published values for trace elements in apples in other regions of the world. Data obtained indicated that the concentration of trace elements in apples were within the values and data in other regions of the world. (Author)

  17. Contributions to ultrasounds applications in non-destructive tests on materials used in nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanica, V.

    1979-01-01

    The problems expounded in the paper, besides servjng the practical purpose generated by the need to perform quality tests on fuel element compounds by means of the ultrasounds method, are also interesting to ultrasounds non-destructive tests applied in all industry branches as they assert the necessity of passing from manual to automation tests carried out by installations which should record the signals caused by failures, both to increase the productivjty and especially to transform it into an objective, effective test. (author)

  18. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  19. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  20. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  1. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1964-06-15

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected.

  2. Concentration of 24 Trace Elements in Human Heart Tissue Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1964-06-01

    By means of neutron-activation analysis, human heart tissue from autopsy of 20 victims of traumatic accidents has been investigated with respect to the concentration of 24 different trace elements. A recently developed ion-exchange technique combined with gamma spectrometry has been used, which permits simultaneous determination of a large number of trace elements. The following trace elements have been determined quantitatively: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br; Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Pt, Rb, Sb, Se, Se, Sm, Zn, W. In some heart samples, Hf and Os were determined qualitatively. The mean and standard deviation are given for the elements Cu, Fe, Se and Zn, Since none of the other quantitatively determined trace elements were normally distributed, the median is given as the central value. When possible, comparisons with values from other investigations have been made. No marked differences in the trace-element concentrations with age or sex could be detected

  3. Data fusion: a new concept in non-destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.; Lavayssiere, B.

    1995-01-01

    Non-destructive testing of some components (made of austenitic steel, or of a complex shape for example) requires quite often the use of several methods such as X-ray, ultrasonics, Eddy Currents. Then, a skilled operator is able to perform the expertise of the specimen. The main goal of this paper is to show that 3D diagnosis may be improved in term of reliability and precision by fusion of several NDT techniques. A data fusion algorithm is more that trying to improve the visualisation or the rendering of NDT data sets. It consists for each volume element, in computing a new value representing the combined information and in formulating a diagnosis on this basis. To achieve such a goal, know-how in modeling of physical phenomena and in applied mathematics is crucial. (authors). 4 refs., 2 figs

  4. Magnetic Non-destructive Testing of Plastically Deformed Mild Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Pala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Barkhausen noise analysis and coercive field measurement have been used as magnetic non-destructive testing methods for plastically deformed high quality carbon steel specimens. The strain dependence of root mean square value and power spectrum of the Barkhausen noise and the coercive field are explained in terms of the dislocation density. The specimens have been subjected to different magnetizing frequencies to show the overlapping nature of the Barkhausen noise. The results are discussed in the context of usage of magnetic non-destructive testing to evaluate the plastic deformation of high quality carbon steel products.

  5. Application of micro-PIXE analysis to investigate trace elements in deciduous teeth enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, K.; Takahashi, A.; Ando, H.

    2010-01-01

    The early life environment has widespread consequences for later health and disease. To prevent the disease in later life, the assessment of fetal environment is very important. In Japan, birthweight has fallen rapidly during recent two decades. The reduction of birthweight represents reduced fetal nutrition. Deciduous tooth enamel contains pre- and postnatal enamel and its chemical composition reflects the status of metabolism of trace elements during formation period. Deciduous tooth enamel is considered to be a suitable indicator of trace elements exposure in utero. We applied micro-PIXE analysis to investigate the trace elemental content in deciduous tooth enamel. Two deciduous canines from one healthy Japanese boy were used for this study. The enamel section including pre- and postnatal enamel was prepared for micro-PIXE analysis. Five trace elements (Na, Mg, Cl, Zn, and Sr) were detected in the scanning area of tooth. The distribution profiles of 5 elements were obtained as X-ray maps. The distribution profiles of zinc and chlorine were specific, and showed higher concentration in surface enamel. No elements showed different profiles of X-ray maps between pre- and postnatal enamel in this sample. The results of this study suggested that micro-PIXE analysis would be able to estimate the trace elements in prenatal and postnatal enamel, respectively. (author)

  6. Factor analytical approaches for evaluating groundwater trace element chemistry data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnham, I.M.; Johannesson, K.H.; Singh, A.K.; Hodge, V.F.; Stetzenbach, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis (QFA), and correspondence analysis (CA) were applied to a dataset containing trace element concentrations in groundwater samples collected from a number of wells located downgradient from the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. PCA results reflect the similarities in the concentrations of trace elements in the water samples resulting from different geochemical processes. QFA results reflect similarities in the trace element compositions, whereas CA reflects similarities in the trace elements that are dominant in the waters relative to all other groundwater samples included in the dataset. These differences are mainly due to the ways in which data are preprocessed by each of the three methods. The highly concentrated, and thus possibly more mature (i.e. older), groundwaters are separated from the more dilute waters using principal component 1 (PC 1). PC 2, as well as dimension 1 of the CA results, describe differences in the trace element chemistry of the groundwaters resulting from the different aquifer materials through which they have flowed. Groundwaters thought to be representative of those flowing through an aquifer composed dominantly of volcanic rocks are characterized by elevated concentrations of Li, Be, Ge, Rb, Cs, and Ba, whereas those associated with an aquifer dominated by carbonate rocks exhibit greater concentrations of Ti, Ni, Sr, Rh, and Bi. PC 3, and to a lesser extent dimension 2 of the CA results, show a strong monotonic relationship with the percentage of As(III) in the groundwater suggesting that these multivariate statistical results reflect, in a qualitative sense, the oxidizing/reducing conditions within the groundwater. Groundwaters that are relatively more reducing exhibit greater concentrations of Mn, Cs, Co, Ba, Rb, and Be, and those that are more oxidizing are characterized by greater concentrations of V, Cr, Ga

  7. Extended automated separation techniques in destructive neutron activation analysis; application to various biological materials, including human tissues and blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjioe, P.S.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Houtman, J.P.W.

    1976-09-01

    Neutron activation analysis may be performed as a multi-element and low-level technique for many important trace elements in biological materials, provided that post-irradiation chemical separations are applied. This paper describes a chemical separation consisting of automated procedures for destruction, distillation, and anion-chromatography. The system developed enables the determination of 14 trace elements in biological materials, viz. antimony, arsenic, bromine, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gold, iron, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc. The aspects of sample preparation, neutron irradiation, gamma-spectrum evaluation, and blank-value contribution are also discussed

  8. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  9. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  10. Use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition of trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinnes, E.

    2000-01-01

    Some basic facts about the use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric trace element deposition are reviewed, and advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed, largely on the basis of experience from regular use of this technique in Norway over the last 20 years. Topics discussed include different versions of the moss technique, mechanisms and efficiencies of trace element uptake, conversion of concentrations in moss to bulk deposition rates, and contribution from sources other than air pollution to the elemental composition of different elements. Suggestions are presented for further work in order to extend the use of mosses as biomonitors. (author)

  11. Non-destructive investigation of a time capsule using neutron radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, B.L., E-mail: macdonbl@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton (Canada); Vanderstelt, J., E-mail: joshv@nray.ca [Nray Services Inc., 56A Head Street, Dundas, ON (Canada); O’Meara, J. [University of Guelph, Department of Physics, Guelph (Canada); McNeill, F.E. [McMaster University, Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-01-15

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. This study applied two techniques: X-ray fluorescence and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a capped, tubular metal object recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton, Canada. The site is an urban park containing a World War I commemorative monument that underwent renovation and relocation. Historical documentation suggested that the object buried underneath the monument was a time capsule containing a paper document listing the names of 1800 Canadians who died during WWI. The purpose of this study was to assess the condition of the object, and to verify if it was what the historical records purported. XRF analysis was used to characterize the elemental composition of the metal artifact, while neutron radiography revealed that its contents were congruent with historical records and remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage.

  12. Non-destructive investigation of a time capsule using neutron radiography and X-ray fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, B. L.; Vanderstelt, J.; O'Meara, J.; McNeill, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Non-destructive analytical techniques are becoming increasingly important for the study of objects of cultural heritage interest. This study applied two techniques: X-ray fluorescence and neutron radiography, for the investigation of a capped, tubular metal object recovered from an urban construction site in Gore Park, Hamilton, Canada. The site is an urban park containing a World War I commemorative monument that underwent renovation and relocation. Historical documentation suggested that the object buried underneath the monument was a time capsule containing a paper document listing the names of 1800 Canadians who died during WWI. The purpose of this study was to assess the condition of the object, and to verify if it was what the historical records purported. XRF analysis was used to characterize the elemental composition of the metal artifact, while neutron radiography revealed that its contents were congruent with historical records and remained intact after being interred for 91 years. Results of this study demonstrate the value of non-destructive techniques for the analysis and preservation of cultural heritage.

  13. Trace elements in wild and orchard honeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida-Silva, M.; Canha, N.; Galinha, C.; Dung, H.M. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Sitoe, T. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The present study aims the identification and quantification of trace elements in two types of honey samples: Orchard honey and Wild honey from mainland Portugal. Chemical elements content was assessed by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Concentrations were determinated for Ag, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, U, V and Zn. The nutritional values of both honey types were evaluated since this product contains some elements that are essential dietary nutrients for humans. Physical properties of the honey samples, such as electrical conductivy and pH, were assessed as well.

  14. Mathematical considerations regarding the stability of the trace element systems by linear regressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihai, Maria; Popescu, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a mathematical model that would describe the stability and instability conditions, respectively of the organs of human body assumed as a living cybernetic system with feedback. We tested the theoretical model on the following trace elements: Mn, Zn and As. The trace elements were determined from the nose-pharyngeal carcinoma. We utilise the linear approximation to describe the dependencies between the trace elements determined in the hair of the patient. We present the results graphically. (authors)

  15. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial......Apparatus for treating raw water in a biofilter The present invention relates to an apparatus in which raw water is treated through microbial activity where microbial activity is controlled by nutrients and other parameters. Some of the nutrients controlling the microbial activity are trace...... elements such as certain metals (Cu, Co, Cr, Mo, Ni, W, Zn or a mixture thereof). The apparatus comprising - a volume provided with an inlet (2) for raw water and an outlet (3) for water having been subjected to microbial activity, a filter and a trace element dosage device (13) are placed in this volume...

  16. An ultrasonic methodology to non-destructively estimate the grain orientation in an anisotropic weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdelius Håkan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The initial step towards a non-destructive technique that estimates grain orientation in an anisotropic weld is presented in this paper. The purpose is to aid future forward simulations of ultrasonic NDT of this kind of weld to achieve a better result. A forward model that consists of a weld model, a transmitter model, a receiver model and a 2D ray tracing algorithm is introduced. An inversion based on a multi-objective genetic algorithm is also presented. Experiments are conducted for both P and SV waves in order to collect enough data used in the inversion. Calculation is conducted to fulfil the estimation with both the synthetic data and the experimental data. Concluding remarks are presented at the end of the paper.

  17. Status report on the destructive and non-destructive examinations of U-bends removed from Trojan steam generator D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspden, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    The last status report on the non-destructive examination of U-bends removed from Trojan steam generator D was dated July 7, 1980. As part of this activity, the measurement of wall thicknesses on selected U-bends was planned using an ultrasonic gage. These readings were not made because reproducible results could not be obtained using water as the coupling fluid which was necessary to avoid contamination. Three tubes from the same heat were selected for destructive examination at Westinghouse: one leaking U-bend (R1-C6) and two tubes with no indications (R1-C10 and R1-C22). Results of the examination procedure are presented. The non-destructive examination results from the July 7, 1980 report for 29 U-bends are included

  18. Neutron-activation analysis of trace elements in thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.F.; Petri, H.; Kanash, N.V.; Malenchenko, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis was used for routine measurement of trace elements in thyroids of inhabitants of Belarus as well as in thyroids of people operated for thyroid cancer. The method chosen allowed the analysis of 28 elements, among them essential and toxic ones, with a good accuracy. The results obtained showed significant differences in the elemental composition of thyroid from the different regions. The changes of elemental composition of thyroids of inhabitants of the Gomel region, where goiter is endemic, seem to be identical to those in the tumor tissue. (author)

  19. Trace elements in renal disease and hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Suwabe, Akira; Sera, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    A number of considerations suggest that trace element disturbances might occur in patients with renal disease and in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Using particle induced X-ray emission, we demonstrated the relations between serum concentration, urinary excretion of the trace elements and creatinine clearance (Ccr) in randomized 50 patients. To estimate the effects of HD, we also observed the changes of these elements in serum and dialysis fluids during HD. Urinary silicon excretion decreased, and serum silicon concentration increased as Ccr decreased, with significant correlation (r=0.702, p<0.001 and r=0.676, p<0.0001, respectively). We also observed the increase of serum silicon, and the decrease of silicon in dialysis fluids during HD. These results suggested that reduced renal function and also dialysis contributed to silicon accumulation. Although serum selenium decreased significantly according to Ccr decrease (r=0.452, p<0.01), we could detect no change in urinary selenium excretion and no transfer during HD. Serum bromine and urinary excretion of bromine did not correlate to Ccr. However we observed a bromine transfer from the serum to the dialysis fluid that contributed to the serum bromine decrease in HD patients

  20. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Health, a report of a. World Heatth Organisation Expert Committee, contains material contributed by numerous experts consulted in different specialised fields, together with the conClusions reached and recommendations made by the Expert. Consultation. The nineteen nutritionally ...

  1. Non destructive burn up determination of IEA-R1 reactor fuel elements by gamma-ray spectrometry using a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, T.

    1982-01-01

    A non destructive determination of burn up of low (IEA-14) and high (IEA-80) activity fuel elements used in the IEA-R1 pool reactor was made from the measured distribution of the Cs-137 gamma-ray activity in these elements. For both series of measurements a 73,7 c.c. Ge(Li) detector was used in 'well collimated' geometry. Where as IEA-14, removed from the reactor some 20 years, showed a gamma-ray spectrum essentially due to Cs-137, IEA-80, with a cooling time of 5 years, showed a more complex spectrum due to the greater number of fission products remaining. The S.I out-of-pool assembly was calibrated using Cs-137 and Co-60 point and Ag-110m plane sources. These measurements provided the necessary constants used to calculate fuel burn-up from measured relative activity distributions of fuel elements. Detailed fuel plate transmission measurements made with the Cs-137 source showed the plates to be highly homogeneous. High activity fuel elements were measured in the S.II in-pool assembly in which the detector was locate on the moveable pool bridge and the test element was positioned immediately below the detector 2.17m below the pool surface. Measurements made in the S.II assembly were normalised with respect to the measured activity of the IEA-14 element. The measured burn up of the IEA-14 and IEA-80 elements obtained in this work is 3.22.10 - 3 gms and 24.44gms. These values may be compared with respective values of 2.63.10 - 3 gms and 61.11gms given by 'total reactor energy/flux distribution' calculations. Calculated errors for the U-235 burn up are 7.4% (IEA-14) and 10.1% (IEA-80). A detailed evaluation of the errors associated with both sets of measurements is given. (Author) [pt

  2. Assessment of soil pollution through trace element contamination in a coal mine environment of Jharia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Shrivastava, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    Coal mining environment is associated with liberation of several trace elements. Soils in such regions particularly have been polluted with these trace elements from a wide range of sources. Trace elements such as lead, copper, iron, zinc, chromium, manganese, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, etc. have caused major human health problems in several parts of the world. Concern over such incidents has prompted numerous investigations into the metabolism and toxic effects of these elements. The trace element contamination of soils (e.g. roadside, overburden dump, residential area etc.) in a part of the Jharia coal field running through a large industrial zone was studied. Representative soil samples from several highly polluted spots of the mining areas were collected and analysed. Results of the investigation revealed that the soils are polluted with trace elements to an appreciable level. Pollution index for soil was developed on the basis of observed concentration levels of trace elements of the study area which may help in better understanding of pollution analysis in coal mining areas. (author)

  3. Determination of trace elements in electronic materials by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Kenji

    1986-01-01

    Trace amounts of elements in electronic materials were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), re-activation analysis and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis using gamma-ray spectrometry. Ten elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Zn, Co, Eu, Ir, Sb, Sc, Tb) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. Trace level of chromium (10 13 atoms/cm 3 ) and zinc (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in gallium arsenide single crystal were determined by INAA. The chromium concentrations in horizontal Bridgmangrown semi-insulating gallium arsenide ingot were ranged from 1.2 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at seed end to 3.5 x 10 16 atoms/cm 3 at tail end. The trace determinations of iron (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) and copper (10 14 atoms/cm 3 ) in silicon, gallium arsenide and indium phoshide single crystals were carried out by substoichiometric radioactivation analysis. The reactivation analysis for the multielement determination of indium phosphide single crystal was carried out and nineteen elements were determined simultaneously by gamma-ray spectrometry. Eleven elements (Ag, As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Sb, Sc, Zn) in four NIES standard reference materials (Pond Sediment, Chlorella, Mussel and Tea Leaves) and seven elements (Co, Cr, Eu, Fe, Sc, Tb, Yb) in two NBS glasses (SRM-615 and SRM-613) were determined by INAA and substoichiometric radioactivation analysis and the analytical results obtained by the methods were in good agreement with certified values by NIES and NBS. (author)

  4. Non-destructive testing of electronic component packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderle, C.

    1975-01-01

    A non-destructive method of investigating packaged parts of semiconductor components by X radiation is described and the relevant theoretical relations limiting this technique are derived. The application of the technique is demonstrated in testing several components. The described method is iNsimple and quick. (author)

  5. PIXE analysis of trace elements in relation to chlorophyll concentration in Plantago ovata Forsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Priyanka; Sen Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal

    2010-01-01

    Plantago ovata Forsk - an economically important medicinal plant - was analyzed for trace elements and chlorophyll in a study of the effects of gamma radiation on physiological responses of the seedlings. Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique was used to quantify trace elements in unirradiated and gamma-irradiated plants at the seedling stage. The experiments revealed radiation-induced changes in the trace element and chlorophyll concentrations.

  6. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  8. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Rael; Borell, Esther M; Fine, Maoz; Shaked, Yeala

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy) also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments-the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone's tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data suggests that A. viridis

  9. Spatial Distribution and Fuzzy Health Risk Assessment of Trace Elements in Surface Water from Honghu Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Qiu, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Chaoyang; Cai, Ying; Xiao, Minsi

    2017-09-04

    Previous studies revealed that Honghu Lake was polluted by trace elements due to anthropogenic activities. This study investigated the spatial distribution of trace elements in Honghu Lake, and identified the major pollutants and control areas based on the fuzzy health risk assessment at screening level. The mean total content of trace elements in surface water decreased in the order of Zn (18.04 μg/L) > Pb (3.42 μg/L) > Cu (3.09 μg/L) > Cr (1.63 μg/L) > As (0.99 μg/L) > Cd (0.14 μg/L), within limits of Drinking Water Guidelines. The results of fuzzy health risk assessment indicated that there was no obvious non-carcinogenic risk to human health, while carcinogenic risk was observed in descending order of As > Cr > Cd > Pb. As was regarded to have the highest carcinogenic risk among selected trace elements because it generally accounted for 64% of integrated carcinogenic risk. Potential carcinogenic risk of trace elements in each sampling site was approximately at medium risk level (10 -5 to 10 -4 ). The areas in the south (S4, S13, and S16) and northeast (S8, S18, and S19) of Honghu Lake were regarded as the risk priority control areas. However, the corresponding maximum memberships of integrated carcinogenic risk in S1, S3, S10-S13, S15, and S18 were of relatively low credibility (50-60%), and may mislead the decision-makers in identifying the risk priority areas. Results of fuzzy assessment presented the subordinate grade and corresponding reliability of risk, and provided more full-scale results for decision-makers, which made up for the deficiency of certainty assessment to a certain extent.

  10. [Determination and correlation analysis of trace elements in Boletus tomentipes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Yuan-zhong; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-li; Liu, Hong-gao

    2011-07-01

    The contents of eleven trace elements in Boletus tomentipes were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The results showed that the fruiting bodies of B. tomentipes were very rich in Mg and Fe (>100 mg x kg(-1)) and rich in Mn, Zn and Cu (>10 mg x kg(-1)). Cr, Pb, Ni, Cd, and As were relatively minor contents (0.1-10.0 mg x kg(-1)) of this species, while Hg occurred at the smallest content (< 0.1 mg x kg(-1)). Among the determined 11 trace elements, Zn-Cu had significantly positive correlation (r = 0.659, P < 0.05), whereas, Hg-As, Ni-Fe, and Zn-Mg had significantly negative correlation (r = -0.672, -0.610, -0.617, P < 0.05). This paper presented the trace elements properties of B. tomentipes, and is expected to be useful for exploitation and quality evaluation of this species.

  11. Selected trace elements in Stockton, New Zealand, waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarcon Leon, E.; Anstiss, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    Ni, Mn, As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Se, Al, Zn, Fe, SO 4 2- , hardness (calc.) in addition to pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured at 18 (11 surface and 7 subsurface) sampling sites (which were each assigned a semi-quantitative Mudstone Index (MI)) from 20 days over 9 months in the waters which drain the Stockton coal mine area on the Stockton Plateau, New Zealand. Trace element, TDS and TSS concentrations were found to be elevated and pH depressed consistent with acid mine drainage (AMD) and were characterised by significant variability due to environmental processes. Frequent concentration spikes in surface and subsurface waters occurred which sometimes exceeded maximum acceptable values (MAV) and/or aesthetic guideline values (GV) including a number of toxic trace elements. Mean concentrations of Ni and Mn in both surface and subsurface waters and As and Cd in subsurface waters exceeded MAVs. Mean concentrations of Mn, Al, Fe, SO 4 2- , and pH in both surface and subsurface waters exceeded GVs. There tends to be higher trace element and TDS concentrations where there are more mudstones (higher MI) with lower pHs. It is recommended that any further studies focus on geographic distribution, concentration fluctuation factors, movement, and possible exposure issues. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Non-destructive neutron activation analysis of atmospheric pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owlya, A.; Kasrai, M.; Massoumi, R.

    1976-01-01

    The concentration of elements in atmospheric particulate in an urban area were determined by means of a Ge(Li) detector. Samples were collected on a Millipore filter at a single location during three seasons of the year and the results compared. These results are compared with results for the same elements in other cities. It was concluded that in a dry climate, at least two parameters are related to seasonal changes in trace element concentration in the atmosphere-rain and snowfall, and the reducation of vertical diffusion of airborne particulates (author)

  13. Atmospheric deposition of trace elements recorded in snow from the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region, southern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Chen, Pengfei; Zhang, Guoshuai; Tripathee, Lekhendra

    2013-08-01

    In May 2009, snowpit samples were collected from a high-elevation glacier in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region on the southern Tibetan Plateau. A set of elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg and Pb) was analyzed to investigate the concentrations, deposition fluxes of trace elements, and the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources deposited on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Concentrations of most of the trace elements in snowpit samples from the Zhadang glacier are significantly lower than those examined from central Asia (e.g., eastern Tien Shan), with higher concentrations during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season. The elements of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni display low crustal enrichment factors (EFs), while Cu, Zn, Cd, Hg, and Pb show high EF values in the snow samples, suggesting anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote, high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau. Together with the fact that the concentration levels of such elements in the Mt. Nyainqêntanglha region are significantly higher than those observed on the south edge of the Tibetan Plateau, our results suggest that the high-elevation atmosphere on the southern Tibetan Plateau may be more sensitive to variations in the anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric trace elements than that in the central Himalayas. Moreover, the major difference between deposition fluxes estimated in our snow samples and those recently measured at Nam Co Station for elements such as Cr and Cu may suggest that atmospheric deposition of some of trace elements reconstructed from snowpits and ice cores could be grossly underestimated on the Tibetan Plateau. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Distribution of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments of Maslinica Bay, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulic, Nenad; Orescanin, Visnja; Elez, Loris; Pavicic, Ljiljana; Pezelj, Durdica; Lovrencic, Ivanka; Lulic, Stipe

    2008-02-01

    Spatial distributions of trace elements in the coastal sea sediments and water of Maslinica Bay (Southern Adriatic), Croatia and possible changes in marine flora and foraminifera communities due to pollution were investigated. Macro, micro and trace elements’ distributions in five granulometric fractions were determined for each sediment sample. Bulk sediment samples were also subjected to leaching tests. Elemental concentrations in sediments, sediment extracts and seawater were measured by source excited energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). Concentrations of the elements Cr, Cu, Zn, and Pb in bulk sediment samples taken in the Maslinica Bay were from 2.1 to over six times enriched when compared with the background level determined for coarse grained carbonate sediments. A low degree of trace elements leaching determined for bulk sediments pointed to strong bonding of trace elements to sediment mineral phases. The analyses of marine flora pointed to higher eutrophication, which disturbs the balance between communities and natural habitats.

  15. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Winter, Niels J; Snoeck, Christophe; Claeys, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  16. Trace elements in co-combustion of solid recovered fuel and coal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Trace element partitioning in co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was studied in an entrained flow reactor. The experiments were carried out at conditions similar to pulverized coal combustion, with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.% (wet basis), 14.8 wt.% and 25.0 wt.......%. In addition, the effect of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite on trace element partitioning was investigated. The trace elements studied were As, Cd, Cr, Pb, Sb and Zn, since these elements were significantly enriched in SRF as compared to coal. During the experiments, bottom ash...... was collected in a chamber, large fly ash particles were collected by a cyclone with a cut-off diameter of ~2.5 μm, and the remaining fly ash particles were gathered in a filter. It was found that when coal was co-fired with SRF, the As, Cd, Pb, Sb and Zn content in filter ash/cyclone ash increased almost...

  17. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Augmentation of Statin-Induced Cytotoxicity in Uremic Serum-Exposed Human Rhabdomyosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Uchiyama

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD are at higher risk for rhabdomyolysis induced by statin than patients with normal kidney function. Previously, we showed that this increase in the severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis was partly due to uremic toxins. However, changes in the quantity of various trace elements in ESKD patients likely contribute as well. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of trace elements on statin-induced toxicity in rhabdomyosarcoma cells exposed to uremic serum (US cells for a long time. Cell viability, apoptosis, mRNA expression, and intracellular trace elements were assessed by viability assays, flow cytometry, real-time RT-PCR, and ICP-MS, respectively. US cells exhibited greater simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity than cells long-time exposed with normal serum (NS cells (non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Intracellular levels of Mg, Mn, Cu, and Zn were significantly less in US cells compared to that in NS cells (p < 0.05 or 0.01. Pre-treatment with TPEN increased simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity and eliminated the distinction between both cells of simvastatin-induced cytotoxicity. These results suggest that Zn deficiencies may be involved in the increased risk for muscle complaints in ESKD patients. In conclusion, the increased severity of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis in ESKD patients may be partly due to trace elements deficiencies.

  19. Trace element geochemistry and surface water chemistry of the Bon Air coal, Franklin County, Cumberland Plateau, southeast Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, S.A.; Hower, J.C.; Eble, C.F.; McLamb, E.D.; Kuers, K.

    2006-01-01

    Mean contents of trace elements and ash in channel, bench-column, and dump samples of the abandoned Bon Air coal (Lower Pennsylvanian) in Franklin County, Tennessee are similar to Appalachian COALQUAL mean values, but are slightly lower for As, Fe, Hg, Mn, Na, Th, and U, and slightly higher for ash, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, REEs, Sr, and V, at the 95% confidence level. Compared to channel samples, dump sample means are slightly lower in chalcophile elements (As, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, and V) and slightly higher in clay or heavy-mineral elements (Al, K, Mn, REEs, Th, Ti, U, and Y), but at the 95% confidence level, only As and Fe are different. Consistent abundances of clay or heavy-mineral elements in low-Br, high-S, high-ash benches that are relatively enriched in quartz and mire-to-levee species like Paralycopodites suggest trace elements are largely fluvial in origin. Factor analysis loadings and correlation coefficients between elements suggest that clays host most Al, Cr, K, Ti, and Th, significant Mn and V, and some Sc, U, Ba, and Ni. Heavy accessory minerals likely house most REEs and Y, lesser Sc, U, and Th, and minor Cr, Ni, and Ti. Pyrite appears to host As, some V and Ni, and perhaps some Cu, but Cu probably exists largely as chalcopyrite. Data suggest that organic debris houses most Be and some Ni and U, and that Pb and Sb occur as Pb-Sb sulfosalt(s) within organic matrix. Most Hg, and some Mn and Y, appear to be hosted by calcite, suggesting potential Hg remobilization from original pyrite, and Hg sorption by calcite, which may be important processes in abandoned coals. Most Co, Zn, Mo, and Cd, significant V and Ni, and some Mn probably occur in non-pyritic sulfides; Ba, Sr, and P are largely in crandallite-group phosphates. Selenium does not show organic or "clausthalite" affinities, but Se occurrence is otherwise unclear. Barium, Mn, Ni, Sc, U, and V, with strongly divided statistical affinities, likely occur subequally in multiple modes. For study area

  20. Study of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, B.T.G.

    1979-01-01

    Various types of coal contain high levels of a number of trace elements. Little is known of the fates of these trace elements during the conversion of coal to liquid and gaseous products. Studies were undertaken of mobilization and speciation of trace elements in coal pyrolysis, one of the major coal conversion processes. The bituminous coal was pyrolyzed to produce liquid and gaseous products. The pyrolysis products were collected in traps in an inert gas stream. In addition mildly hydrogenated coal was prepared by mixing with tetralin, a hydrogen donor solvent, at boiling temperature. In order to characterize each element specifically during pyrolysis, base samples of coal and mildly hydrogenated coal (H-coal) were spiked with heavy metal sulfides, trace metals bound to partially oxidized coal (coal humates), and halide salts prior to carrying out pyrolysis. Eight elements were investigated in this research. They are As, Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and V. Pre-spiked hydrogenated coal, i.e., pulverized coal spiked with halide salts and heavy metal sulfides then hydrogenated with tetralin, was prepared and studied for the fates of these elements during pyrolysis. Chlorinated and brominated coals were also prepared to compare the volatility differences between organically and inorganically bound halogens during the pyrolysis reaction. These products and the coal char residues were analyzed for the spiked elements mainly by neutron activation analysis for the spiked elements to determine their degree of volatility. Volatility and recovery (mass balance) will be discussed for those elements that appeared highly volatile during pyrolysis. In order to understand the halogenated compounds in the pyrolysis products, gas chromatograms were taken to the collected pyrolysis products of coal, hydrogenated coal, NaCl spiked coal, NaBr spiked coal, chlorinated coal, and brominated coal

  1. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  2. Pipe robots for internal inspection, non-destructive testing and machining of pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Inspector Systems is a specialist in manufacturing of tethered self-propelled pipe robots for internal inspection, non-destructive testing and machining of pipeline systems. Our industrial sectors, which originates from 30 year experience in the nuclear industry, are Gas and Oil (On-/Offshore, Refineries), Chemical, Petrochemical, Water etc. The pipe robots are able to get inserted through poor access points (e.g. valves) and to pass in bi-directional travelling vertical sections and numerous bends with small arc radius. The paper describes the system concept and performance of the pipe robot technology. A modular construction allows to equip the robots with different operational elements for the respective application.

  3. Trace element evaluation of different varieties of chewing gum by radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I.; Ahmad, S.; Qureshi, I.H.

    2000-01-01

    Extensive use of chewing gums, by children in particular, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in them. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was successfully employed to determine the concentration of 35 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in eight different brands of chewing gum generally consumed in Rawalpindi/Islamabad area. Comparison of trace element data of our work with literature has been presented. None of the elements detected in the brands of chewing gum examined was found to be present at a level representing a substantial contribution to the total dietary intake of the element. (author)

  4. Trace element geochemistry of the South Atlantic Bight. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Windom, H.L.; Wallace, G.T.

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes research conducted during the past year under DOE Contract EY-76-S-09-0890. During this time, studies have been continued in the mid to outer continental shelf region. We have also initiated nearshore studies designed to elucidate processes influencing the fate of trace elements in estuaries and the coastal frontal zone. A smaller effort has been concerned with preliminary geochemical studies of uranium-thorium natural decay series radionuclides and with improvement, calibration, and expansion of our trace element laboratory procedures

  5. Effectiveness Analysis of a Non-Destructive Single Event Burnout Test Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Oser, P; Spiezia, G; Fadakis, E; Foucard, G; Peronnard, P; Masi, A; Gaillard, R

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to characterize power MosFETs regarding their tolerance to destructive Single Event Burnouts (SEB). Therefore, several non-destructive test methods have been developed to evaluate the SEB cross-section of power devices. A power MosFET has been evaluated using a test circuit, designed according to standard non-destructive test methods discussed in the literature. Guidelines suggest a prior adaptation of auxiliary components to the device sensitivity before the radiation test. With the first value chosen for the de-coupling capacitor, the external component initiated destructive events and affected the evaluation of the cross-section. As a result, the influence of auxiliary components on the device cross-section was studied. This paper presents the obtained experimental results, supported by SPICE simulations, to evaluate and discuss how the circuit effectiveness depends on the external components.

  6. Analysis of trace elements in human hair by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, G.B.; Montenegro, E.C.; Paschoa, A.S.; Barros Leite, C.V. de.

    1980-10-01

    The PIXE method was applied to the analysis of trace elements in scalp hair using two methods for target preparation. In the first method eigth hair strands each with nearly cylindrical geommetry and approximately the same diameter were selected and placed on an aluminum frame. In the second method a given mass of hair was dissolved with nitric acid and a known amount of strontium was added to the solution and dripped on a membrane filter using a micropipet. The results for the concentrations of trace elements in hair obtained by the two methods are compared and several aspects of the analysis is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. The role of plant-associated bacteria in the mobilization and phytoextraction of trace elements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessitsch, Angela; Kuffner, Melanie; Kidd, Petra; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Wenzel, Walter W; Fallmann, Katharina; Puschenreiter, Markus

    2013-05-01

    Phytoextraction makes use of trace element-accumulating plants that concentrate the pollutants in their tissues. Pollutants can be then removed by harvesting plants. The success of phytoextraction depends on trace element availability to the roots and the ability of the plant to intercept, take up, and accumulate trace elements in shoots. Current phytoextraction practises either employ hyperaccumulators or fast-growing high biomass plants; the phytoextraction process may be enhanced by soil amendments that increase trace element availability in the soil. This review will focus on the role of plant-associated bacteria to enhance trace element availability in the rhizosphere. We report on the kind of bacteria typically found in association with trace element - tolerating or - accumulating plants and discuss how they can contribute to improve trace element uptake by plants and thus the efficiency and rate of phytoextraction. This enhanced trace element uptake can be attributed to a microbial modification of the absorptive properties of the roots such as increasing the root length and surface area and numbers of root hairs, or by increasing the plant availability of trace elements in the rhizosphere and the subsequent translocation to shoots via beneficial effects on plant growth, trace element complexation and alleviation of phytotoxicity. An analysis of data from literature shows that effects of bacterial inoculation on phytoextraction efficiency are currently inconsistent. Some key processes in plant-bacteria interactions and colonization by inoculated strains still need to be unravelled more in detail to allow full-scale application of bacteria assisted phytoremediation of trace element contaminated soils.

  8. Mobilisation of toxic trace elements under various beach nourishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pit, Iris R; Dekker, Stefan C; Kanters, Tobias J; Wassen, Martin J; Griffioen, Jasper

    2017-12-01

    To enhance protection and maintain wide beaches for recreation, beaches are replenished with sand: so-called beach nourishments. We compared four sites: two traditional beach nourishments, a mega beach nourishment and a reference without beach nourishment. Two sites contain calcareous-rich sand, whereas the other two sites have calcareous-poor sand. We aimed to understand hydrogeochemical processes to indicate factors critical for the mobility of trace elements at nourishments. We therefore analysed the chemical characteristics of sediment and pore water to ascertain the main drivers that mobilise toxic trace elements. With Dutch Quality Standards for soil and groundwater, the characteristics of sediment and pore water were compared to Target Values (the values at which there is a sustainable soil quality) and Intervention Values (the threshold above which the soil's functions are at risk). The pore water characteristics revealed that Target Values were regularly exceeded, especially for the nourishment sites and mainly for Mo (78%), Ni (24%), Cr (55%), and As (21%); Intervention Values for shallow groundwater were occasionally exceeded for As (2%), Cr (2%) and Zn (2%). The sediment characteristics did not exceed the Target Values and showed that trace elements were mainly present in the fine fraction of <150 μm. The oxidation of sulphide minerals such as pyrite resulted into the elevated concentration for all nourishment sites, especially when an unsaturated zone was present and influence of rainwater was apparent. To prevent trace metal mobility at a mega beach nourishment it is important to retain seawater influences and limit oxidation processes. In this respect, a shoreface nourishment is recommended rather than a mega beach nourishment with a thick unsaturated zone. Consequently, we conclude that whether a site is carbonate-rich or carbonate-poor is unimportant, as the influence of seawater will prevent decalcification, creating a low risk of mobilisation

  9. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  10. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Campos, Pedro H.O.V.; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabeth A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Since 2003, the analysis of art, historical and cultural heritage objects has being performed at the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais of the Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI-USP). Initially the studies were restricted to non-destructive methods using ion beams to characterize the chemical elements present in the objects. Recently, new analytical techniques and procedures have been incorporated to the better characterization of the objects and the examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques such as portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), digitalized radiography, high resolution photography with visible, UV (ultraviolet) light and reflectography in the infrared region. These non-destructive analytical techniques systematically applied to the objects are helping the better understanding of these objects and allow studying them by examining their main components; their conservation status and also the creative process of the artist, particularly in easel paintings allow making new discoveries. The setup of the external beam in the LAMFI laboratory is configured to allow different simultaneous analysis by PIXE / PIGE (Particle Induced X-ray emission / Particle Induced gamma rays emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) and IBL (Ion Beam Luminescence) and to expand the archaeometric results using ion beams. PIXE and XRF analysis are important to characterize the elements presents in the objects, pigments and others materials. The digitized radiography has provided important information about the internal structure of the objects, the manufacturing process, the internal particles existing and in case of easel paintings it can reveal features of the artist's creative process showing hidden images and the first paintings done by the artist in the background. Some Brazilian paintings studied by IR imaging revealed underlying drawings, which allowed us to discover the process of creation and also some

  11. Art, historical and cultural heritage objects studied with different non-destructive analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, Marcia A.; Tabacniks, Manfredo H.; Added, Nemitala; Campos, Pedro H.O.V.; Curado, Jessica F.; Kajiya, Elizabeth A.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IF/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Since 2003, the analysis of art, historical and cultural heritage objects has being performed at the Laboratorio de Analise de Materiais of the Instituto de Fisica of the Universidade de Sao Paulo (LAMFI-USP). Initially the studies were restricted to non-destructive methods using ion beams to characterize the chemical elements present in the objects. Recently, new analytical techniques and procedures have been incorporated to the better characterization of the objects and the examinations were expanded to other non-destructive analytical techniques such as portable X-Ray fluorescence (XRF), digitalized radiography, high resolution photography with visible, UV (ultraviolet) light and reflectography in the infrared region. These non-destructive analytical techniques systematically applied to the objects are helping the better understanding of these objects and allow studying them by examining their main components; their conservation status and also the creative process of the artist, particularly in easel paintings allow making new discoveries. The setup of the external beam in the LAMFI laboratory is configured to allow different simultaneous analysis by PIXE / PIGE (Particle Induced X-ray emission / Particle Induced gamma rays emission), RBS (Rutherford Backscattering) and IBL (Ion Beam Luminescence) and to expand the archaeometric results using ion beams. PIXE and XRF analysis are important to characterize the elements presents in the objects, pigments and others materials. The digitized radiography has provided important information about the internal structure of the objects, the manufacturing process, the internal particles existing and in case of easel paintings it can reveal features of the artist's creative process showing hidden images and the first paintings done by the artist in the background. Some Brazilian paintings studied by IR imaging revealed underlying drawings, which allowed us to discover the process of creation and also some

  12. Application of ICT in the non-destructive inspection of explosive device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhe; Li Tiantuo; Liu Zhiqiang; Pei Zhihua; Wang Zhiping

    2003-01-01

    The inspection of explosive device is an important task in the store of the weapons. The technique of non-destructive examination with radial, especially the ICT, is an effective method. The paper mainly introduces the design and the theories on the inspection system and software system of the application of industrial ICT in the non-destructive examination of explosive device, and gives a reference to the work in such fields

  13. Optical generation,detection and non-destructive testing applications of terahertz waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Weili; LIANG; Dachuan; TIAN; Zhen; HAN; Jiaguang; GU; Jianqiang; HE; Mingxia; OUYANG; Chunmei

    2016-01-01

    Optoelectronic terahertz generation and detection play a key role in the applications of non-destructive testing,which involves different areas such as physics,biological,material science,imaging,explosions detection,astronomy applications,semiconductor technology and superconductiong electronics. In this article,we present a reviewof the principle and performance of typical terahertz sources,detectors and non-destructive testing applications. On this basis,the newdevelopment and trends of terahertz radiation detectors are also discussed.

  14. Using trace element concentrations in Corbicula fluminea to identify potential sources of contamination in an urban river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler Peltier, Gretchen; Meyer, Judith L.; Jagoe, Charles H.; Hopkins, William A.

    2008-01-01

    We used the biomonitor, Corbicula fluminea, to investigate the contributions of trace elements associated with different point sources and land uses in a large river. Trace elements were analyzed in tissues of clams collected from 15 tributary streams draining five land use or point source types: agriculture, forest, urban, coal-fired power plant (CFPP), and wastewater (WWTP). Clams from forested catchments had elevated Hg concentrations, and concentrations of arsenic and selenium were highest (5.0 ± 0.2 and 13.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 dry mass (DM), respectively) in clams from CFPP sites. Cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in clams from urban and CFPP sites (4.1 ± 0.2 and 3.6 ± 0.9 μg g -1 DM, respectively). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS) of tissue concentrations in clams clustered at CFPP and forest/agriculture sites at opposite ends of the ordination space, and the distribution of sites was driven by Cu, Zn, Cd, and Hg. - C. fluminea collected downstream of CFPPs had elevated tissue concentrations of trace elements

  15. NonDestructive Evaluation for Industrial & Development Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, James F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-12

    Provide overview of weld inspection for Non-Destructive Testing at LANL. This includes radiography (RT/DR/CR/CT for x-ray & neutron sources), ultrasonic testing (UT/PAUT), dye penetrant inspection (PT), eddy current inspection (ET) and magnetic particle testing (MT). Facilities and capabilities for weld inspection will be summarized with examples.

  16. Particulate Trace Element Cycling in a Diatom Bloom at Station ALOHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisend, R.; Morton, P. L.; Landing, W. M.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Hayes, C. T.; Boyle, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    Phytoplankton in oligotrophic marine deserts depend on remote sources to supply trace nutrients. To examine these sources, marine particulate matter samples from the central North Pacific (Station ALOHA) were collected during the July-August 2012 HOE-DYLAN cruises and analyzed for a suite of trace (e.g., Fe, Mn) and major (e.g. Al, P) elements. Daily surface SPM samples were examined for evidence of atmospheric deposition and biological uptake, while five vertical profiles were examined for evidence of surface vertical export and subsurface horizontal transport from nearby sources (e.g., margin sediments, hydrothermal plumes). Maxima in surface particulate P (a biological tracer) corresponded with a diatom bloom, and surprisingly also coincided with maxima in particulate Al (typically a tracer for lithogenic inputs). The surface particulate Al distributions likely result from the adsorption of dissolved Al onto diatom silica frustules, not from atmospheric dust deposition. In addition, a subsurface maximum in particulate Al and P was observed four days later at 75m, possibly resulting from vertical export of the surface diatom bloom. The distributions of other bioactive trace elements (e.g. Cd, Co, Cu) will be presented in the context of the diatom bloom and other biological, chemical and physical features. A second, complementary poster is also being presented which examines the cycling of trace elements in lithogenic particles (Morton et al., "Trace Element Cycling in Lithogenic Particles at Station ALOHA").

  17. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-01-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future

  18. Trace element load in cancer and normal lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubala-Kukus, A.; Braziewicz, J.; Banas, D.; Majewska, U.; Gozdz, S.; Urbaniak, A.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of malignant and benign human lung tissues were analysed by two complementary methods, i.e., particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TRXRF). The concentration of trace elements of P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Hg and Pb was determined in squamous cancer of lung tissue from 65 people and in the benign lung tumour tissue from 5 people. Several elements shows enhancement in cancerous lung tissue of women in comparison to men, i.e., titanium show maximum enhancement by 48% followed by Cr (20%) and Mn (36%). At the same time trace element concentration of Sr and Pb are declaimed by 30% and 20% in women population. Physical basis of used analytical methods, experimental set-up and the procedure of sample preparation are described

  19. Non-contact, non-destructive, quantitative probing of interfacial trap sites for charge carrier transport at semiconductor-insulator boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Wookjin; Miyakai, Tomoyo; Sakurai, Tsuneaki; Saeki, Akinori [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Yokoyama, Masaaki [Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Seki, Shu, E-mail: seki@chem.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Kaneka Fundamental Technology Research Alliance Laboratories, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan)

    2014-07-21

    The density of traps at semiconductor–insulator interfaces was successfully estimated using microwave dielectric loss spectroscopy with model thin-film organic field-effect transistors. The non-contact, non-destructive analysis technique is referred to as field-induced time-resolved microwave conductivity (FI-TRMC) at interfaces. Kinetic traces of FI-TRMC transients clearly distinguished the mobile charge carriers at the interfaces from the immobile charges trapped at defects, allowing both the mobility of charge carriers and the number density of trap sites to be determined at the semiconductor-insulator interfaces. The number density of defects at the interface between evaporated pentacene on a poly(methylmethacrylate) insulating layer was determined to be 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, and the hole mobility was up to 6.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1} after filling the defects with trapped carriers. The FI-TRMC at interfaces technique has the potential to provide rapid screening for the assessment of interfacial electronic states in a variety of semiconductor devices.

  20. Development of a non-destructive method to identify different grades of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2003-01-01

    One of the non-destructive methods used for the identification and verification of metals is by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. EDXRF analysis provides several important advantages such as simultaneous determination of the elements present, enable to analyse a very wide concentration range, fast analysis with no sample preparation. The paper shows how this technique is developed and applied in the identification and verification of different grades of stainless steels. Comparison of the results for certified reference standards obtained from this analysis and that of its certified value shows very small differences between them. (Author)

  1. Trace Elements Removal from Waster water by Ceratophyllum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of Trace elements. The aim of this study was ... such as electroplating, metal finishing, textile, storage batteries, lead .... metals, Randomized Complete Block Design was used. Statistical ...

  2. Edward's sword? - A non-destructive study of a medieval king's sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segebade, Chr.

    2013-04-01

    Non-destructive and instrumental methods including photon activation analysis were applied in an examination of an ancient sword. It was tried to find indication of forgery or, if authentic, any later processing and alteration. Metal components of the hilt and the blade were analysed by instrumental photon activation. Non-destructive metallurgical studies (hardness measurements, microscopic microstructure analysis) are briefly described, too. The results of these investigations did not yield indication of non-authenticity. This stood in agreement with the results of stylistic and scientific studies by weapon experts.

  3. Absorption and retention studies of trace elements and minerals in rats using radiotracers and whole-body counting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; de Goeij, J.J.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    A description is given of a whole-body counting technique using radiotracers, permitting the determination of true absorption and endogenous excretion of trace elements and minerals in the rat in vivo. This non-invasive counting method involves oral and intraperitoneal administration of tracer doses

  4. Radiometric measurements on the fabrication of non-destructive assay standards for WIPP-Performance Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, A.S.; Marshall, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The Inorganic Elemental Analysis Group of LANL has prepared several different sets of working reference materials (WRMs). These WRMs are prepared by blending quantities of nuclear materials (plutonium, americium, and enriched uranium) with diatomaceous earth. The blends are encapsulated in stainless steel cylinders. These WRMs are being measured as blind controls in neutron and gamma based non-destructive assay (NDA) instruments. Radiometric measurements on the blending homogeneity and verification on a set of sixty three plutonium based WRMs are discussed in this paper

  5. A new perspective of using sequential extraction: To predict the deficiency of trace elements during anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yafan; Wang, Jungang; Zhao, Yubin; Zhao, Xiaoling; Zheng, Zehui; Wen, Boting; Cui, Zongjun; Wang, Xiaofen

    2018-09-01

    Trace elements were commonly used as additives to facilitate anaerobic digestion. However, their addition is often blind because of the complexity of reaction conditions, which has impeded their widespread application. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate deficiencies in trace elements during anaerobic digestion by establishing relationships between changes in trace element bioavailability (the degree to which elements are available for interaction with biological systems) and digestion performance. To accomplish this, two batch experiments were conducted. In the first, sequential extraction was used to detect changes in trace element fractions and then to evaluate trace element bioavailability in the whole digestion cycle. In the second batch experiment, trace elements (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Mo and Se) were added to the reaction system at three concentrations (low, medium and high) and their effects were monitored. The results showed that sequential extraction was a suitable method for assessment of the bioavailability of trace elements (appropriate coefficient of variation and recovery rate). The results revealed that Se had the highest (44.2%-70.9%) bioavailability, while Fe had the lowest (1.7%-3.0%). A lack of trace elements was not directly related to their absolute bioavailability, but was instead associated with changes in their bioavailability throughout the digestion cycle. Trace elements were insufficient when their bioavailability was steady or increased over the digestion cycle. These results indicate that changes in trace element bioavailability during the digestion cycle can be used to predict their deficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The deposition of trace elements in the environs of a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godbeer, W.C.; Swaine, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The fate of trace elements during combustion is discussed, followed by the deposition of trace elements from the atmosphere and from coal firing. Methods of measuring deposition are described. Data from a four year long investigation of deposition around the Wallerawang power station is given. Sphagnum moss was used as a collector. 74 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  7. The major and trace element chemistry of fish and lake water within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... and Abanoz (2011), De La Calle et al. (2012) and Sannac et al. (2012) of the same reference material. Dilution factors were cho- sen to include both major and trace elements in the same analy- ses, which implies that the method was not sensitive enough to analyse some elements at ultra-trace levels.

  8. Trace elements and radon in groundwater across the United States, 1992-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Joseph D.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Apodaca, Lori E.

    2011-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations in groundwater were evaluated for samples collected between 1992 and 2003 from aquifers across the United States as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This study describes the first comprehensive analysis of those data by assessing occurrence (concentrations above analytical reporting levels) and by comparing concentrations to human-health benchmarks (HHBs). Data from 5,183 monitoring and drinking-water wells representing more than 40 principal and other aquifers in humid and dry regions and in various land-use settings were used in the analysis. Trace elements measured include aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), beryllium (Be), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), lithium (Li), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), strontium (Sr), thallium (Tl), uranium (U), vanadium (V), and zinc (Zn). Radon (Rn) gas also was measured and is included in the data analysis. Climate influenced the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in groundwater whereby more trace elements occurred and were found at greater concentrations in wells in drier regions of the United States than in humid regions. In particular, the concentrations of As, Ba, B, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, U, V, and Zn were greater in the drier regions, where processes such as chemical evolution, ion complexation, evaporative concentration, and redox (oxidation-reduction) controls act to varying degrees to mobilize these elements. Al, Co, Fe, Pb, and Mn concentrations in groundwater were greater in humid regions of the United States than in dry regions, partly in response to lower groundwater pH and (or) more frequent anoxic conditions. In groundwater from humid regions, concentrations of Cu, Pb, Rn, and Zn were significantly greater in drinking-water wells than in monitoring wells. Samples from drinking-water wells in dry regions had

  9. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  10. Determination of trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpramool, S.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the concentration of 22 trace elements in cigarette and tobacco by instrumental neutron activation analysis in which multielements can be analyzed simultaneously with high sensitivity and reliability as well as easy and rapid. It is well known that, trace toxic elements with high concentration may be harmful for health of smokers. Since they might damage the respiratory system and might cause other diseases. The finding for this report can be used as the basis of further study on toxic of trace elements to the smoker. The results of this analysis show that the bromine content in all samples is significantly high, but the concentration of the other elements are varying from one to another. Bromine concentration might come from soil and/or smoked tobacco leaves with methyl bromide as fungicide

  11. Application of hair as an indicator for trace element exposure in man. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive summary of what is known from the literature on the use of hair as a bioindicator for trace elements. It is split into two parts: The use of hair as a biopsy tissue for trace elements in the human body and the contribution of studies in animals to the application of hair as an indicator for metals and trace elements in man. A separate abstract is prepared for each part. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. Advanced uses of radiation in non-destructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj; Viswanathan, B.; Venkataraman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing demand for newer materials and stringency of specifications, have expanded the scope of advanced uses of radiation in non-destructive evaluation of materials and industrial components. This paper highlights the application of some of the advanced techniques of radiography and residual stress measurements, using x-ray diffraction, for materials characterisation and testing, based on the results obtained at the author's laboratory. The application of positron annihilation techniques based on the use of radioisotopes and high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy, is introduced as non-destructive tools for materials characterisation. Selective examples of significant results obtained using this technique, on the radiation damage and early stages of fatigue damage in technologically important steels are reviewed from recent works at the author's laboratory and elsewhere. The scope of application of charge particle based thin layer activation method is briefly outlined. (author)

  13. Trace element deficiency and its diagnosis by biochemical criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgessner, M.; Grassmann, E.; Roth, H.P.; Spoerl, R.; Schnegg, A.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of trace element deficiency on growth of rats and dairy cows is demonstrated using zinc and nickel. The effect of copper deficiency on reproductive performance is shown to be associated with increased death rates of pregnant animals and their foetuses. For the diagnosis of suboptimum states of trace element supply, biochemical criteria are needed. The mere analysis of the trace element content of various body tissues may lead to falase diagnoses because of the often slow response to varying intake and because of interactions with other dietary ingredients affecting absorption and metabolic efficiency of utilization. Thus copper deficiency is associated with a decrease in the serum level of both copper and iron, despite adequate iron intake, and simultaneously with an accumulation of iron in the liver of the animal. Enzymes and hormones containing the essential trace element as an integral constituent may serve as biochemical criteria. A sensitive response to zinc intake is exhibited by the activity of the alkaline phosphatase of serum or bones, and by the activity of the pancreatic carboxypeptidase A, all of which show a significant reaction to deficient intake within two to four days, and perhaps by the biopotency of insulin. Ceruloplasmin responds to the supply of copper. Its biosynthesis in the liver is possible only from copper available for this purpose. Thus, the determination of ceruloplasmin may take account of at least part of the copper available to the body for metabolic functions. Among various criteria, the catalase activity in blood may provide additional information on the state of iron supply. Malate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase respond to nickel-deficient intake. Nickel deficiency also involves anaemia due to disorders in iron absorption

  14. Storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for trace-element analysis in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blotcky, A.J.; Rack, E.P.

    1985-01-01

    The problems regarding storage and pre-neutron-activation-analysis treatment for the elements aluminum, calcium, vanadium, selenium, copper, iodine, zinc, manganese, and magnesium in a urine matrix are reviewed. The type of collection and storage procedure and pre-neutron activation analysis treatment of urine depend on the specific trace element; that is, its inherent physical and chemical properties. Specifically polyethylene in teflon containers are the most suitable for general determinations. Whether any preservative is added would depend upon the stability of the trace element and its tendency for surface adsorption. Preferably, preservatives should contain no radioactivatable elements for maximum efficacy. Freeze drying or packing urine shipments under dry ice needs to be explored on an individual basis. Each pre- or post-neutron activation analysis treatment is specific and optimized for the trace element analyzed

  15. Seasonal Cyclicity in Trace Elements and Stable Isotopes of Modern Horse Enamel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels J de Winter

    Full Text Available The study of stable isotopes in fossil bioapatite has yielded useful results and has shown that bioapatites are able to faithfully record paleo-environmental and paleo-climatic parameters from archeological to geological timescales. In an effort to establish new proxies for the study of bioapatites, intra-tooth records of enamel carbonate stable isotope ratios from a modern horse are compared with trace element profiles measured using laboratory micro X-Ray Fluorescence scanning. Using known patterns of tooth eruption and the relationship between stable oxygen isotopes and local temperature seasonality, an age model is constructed that links records from six cheek upper right teeth from the second premolar to the third molar. When plotted on this age model, the trace element ratios from horse tooth enamel show a seasonal pattern with a small shift in phase compared to stable oxygen isotope ratios. While stable oxygen and carbon isotopes in tooth enamel are forced respectively by the state of the hydrological cycle and the animal's diet, we argue that the seasonal signal in trace elements reflects seasonal changes in dust intake and diet of the animal. The latter explanation is in agreement with seasonal changes observed in carbon isotopes of the same teeth. This external forcing of trace element composition in mammal tooth enamel implies that trace element ratios may be used as proxies for seasonal changes in paleo-environment and paleo-diet.

  16. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C R; Casciotti, K A; Dutay, J-C; Heimbürger, L E; Jenkins, W J; Measures, C I; Mills, R A; Obata, H; Schlitzer, R; Tagliabue, A; Turner, D R; Whitby, H

    2016-11-28

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues.This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Soil amendments reduce trace element solubility in a contaminated soil and allow regrowth of natural vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madejon, Engracia; Perez de Mora, Alfredo; Felipe, Efrain; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    We tested the effects of three amendments (a biosolid compost, a sugar beet lime, and a combination of leonardite plus sugar beet lime) on trace element stabilisation and spontaneous revegetation of a trace element contaminated soil. Soil properties were analysed before and after amendment application. Spontaneous vegetation growing on the experimental plot was studied by three surveys in terms of number of taxa colonising, percentage vegetation cover and plant biomass. Macronutrients and trace element concentrations of the five most frequent species were analysed. The results showed a positive effect of the amendments both on soil chemical properties and vegetation. All amendments increased soil pH and TOC content and reduced CaCl 2 -soluble-trace element concentrations. Colonisation by wild plants was enhanced in all amended treatments. The nutritional status of the five species studied was improved in some cases, while a general reduction in trace element concentrations of the aboveground parts was observed in all treated plots. The results obtained show that natural assisted remediation has potential for success on a field scale reducing trace element entry in the food chain. - Soil amendments affect soil chemistry and allow revegetation of soils contaminated by trace elements

  18. The Determination Of Trace Element Levels In Diet By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukuh, Ratnawati; Djojosubroto, Harjoto

    2002-01-01

    Trace element levels in foodstuff are normally low. Although the levels are low, certain trace elements which are called essential trace elements have an important role in metabolism process. Deficiency or intoxication of essential trace elements may lead to abnormal health. In this study the levels of Zn, Fe, AI, Mn, and Co in diet samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, and then the daily intakes of these elements were estimated. The samples were prepared by duplicate diet method, representing those that were consumed by population from West, Central and East Java. Following the collection the respective samples were blended, then were freeze dried at-54 o c. The elemental quantification were performed by neutron activation analysis. The traceability of the determination was ensured using standard reference material NIST-SRM-1548a. The results show that the daily intake for Zn were 2.8-22.8 mg/day (reference value were 5- 40 mg/day), Fe were 3.1-26.5 mg/day (reference value were 6-40 mg/day), AI were 4,2-32.9 mg/day (reference value were 2-45 mg/day), Mn were 1.0-5,6 mg/day (reference value were 0.4-10,0 mg/day), and Co were 0,005-0,074 mg/day (reference value were 0.005 -1.8 mg/day

  19. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wester, P.O.

    1965-05-01

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce

  20. Trace Elements in Human Myocardial Infarction Determined by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, P O

    1965-05-15

    By means of neutron activation analysis, injured and adjacent uninjured human heart tissue from 12 autopsy cases with myocardial infarction are investigated with respect to the concentration of 23 trace elements. The bulk elements K, Na and P are also determined. A recently developed ion-exchange technique, combined with subsequent y-spectrometry, is used. The following trace elements are determined: Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, La, Mo, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Zn and W. In the injured tissue compared to the uninjured, calculation on a wet weight basis showed a decrease in Co, Cs, K, Mo, P, Rb and Zn, and an increase in Br, Ca, Ce, La, Na, Sb and Sm. The differences in Ca, La, Mo, P and Zn are dependent on the age of the myocardial infarction, and the regression lines for these elements are given. The concentration of the trace elements in uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts is compared to the concentration of these elements in normal heart tissue, determined in a previous study. In the uninjured tissue from infarcted hearts a decrease is found in Cu and Mo, and an increase in As and Ce.

  1. Hyperaccumulators of metal and metalloid trace elements: facts and fiction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ent, A.; Baker, A.J.M.; Reeves, R.D.; Pollard, A.J.; Schat, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Plants that accumulate metal and metalloid trace elements to extraordinarily high concentrations in their living biomass have inspired much research worldwide during the last decades. Hyperaccumulators have been recorded and experimentally confirmed for elements such as nickel, zinc,

  2. Major and trace elements in coal bottom ash at different oxy coal combustion conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of temperature on the concentration of 27 major and trace elements in bottom ash generated from oxy fuel-combustion. The major elements are Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca and Fe and the minor and trace elements...

  3. Applications of X-ray emission to elemental analysis of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocchini, R.G.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.; Perley, B.P.

    1996-01-01

    Trace element analysis via X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) techniques were applied to several samples of fresh and processed foods. Thin samples of fresh fruits and vegetables, processed dry foods, and spices were included in these analyses. The results indicate that XRF and/or PIXE analysis is applicable to these types of samples but require special and simple modifications in sample preparation techniques, and the inclusion of new matrix type corrections for data analysis. However, the non-destructive nature, reproducibility, efficiency and high sensitivity that characterize these multi-element analytical procedures can provide new potential methods for detecting trace elements in foods and in many agricultural commodities. Toxic metals such as Hg, Pb, and As were detected in some foods. In addition, other essential or neutral trace elements such as Na, K, Mg, Ca, Cu, Cr, V, Zn, Mo, Fe, Mn, Ni, Se, Cl, S, and P were also detected. These and other elements can be analyzed rapidly and with high sensitivity for applications in process control and for certification of food quality. Developing these techniques and procedures specifically for food and for various agricultural products may provide new analytical options and help mitigate the expected impact of forthcoming regulations intended to establish limits and tolerance levels for micro toxicants and other essential nutrients in foods and agricultural products. (author)

  4. Dietary patterns and trace elements intake evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, A.; Waheed, S.; Zaidi, J.H.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The dietary patterns and trace element contents of the integrated diets of middle income population in Gujranwala and of Islamabad have been studied and dietary intake of winter and summer are given. An overview of the elemental concentration in the two sets of integrated diets reveals similar zinc and manganese concentrations; comparatively higher nickel, selenium and potassium concentrations in Gujranwala and higher chromium, cesium, scandium, sodium and chlorine concentrations in Islamabad. These results undoubtedly reflect the difference in food selection and habits of the two populations, the influence of soil content and industrial pollution

  5. Distribution of Selected Trace Elements in the Bayer Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Vind

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to achieve an understanding of the distribution of selected bauxite trace elements (gallium (Ga, vanadium (V, arsenic (As, chromium (Cr, rare earth elements (REEs, scandium (Sc in the Bayer process. The assessment was designed as a case study in an alumina plant in operation to provide an overview of the trace elements behaviour in an actual industrial setup. A combination of analytical techniques was used, mainly inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and optical emission spectroscopy as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis. It was found that Ga, V and As as well as, to a minor extent, Cr are principally accumulated in Bayer process liquors. In addition, Ga is also fractionated to alumina at the end of the Bayer processing cycle. The rest of these elements pass to bauxite residue. REEs and Sc have the tendency to remain practically unaffected in the solid phases of the Bayer process and, therefore, at least 98% of their mass is transferred to bauxite residue. The interest in such a study originates from the fact that many of these trace constituents of bauxite ore could potentially become valuable by-products of the Bayer process; therefore, the understanding of their behaviour needs to be expanded. In fact, Ga and V are already by-products of the Bayer process, but their distribution patterns have not been provided in the existing open literature.

  6. Trace-Element Analysis by Use of PIXE Technique on Agricultural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, A.; Yokoyama, R.; Makisaka, K.; Kisamori, K.; Kuwada, Y.; Nishimura, D.; Matsumiya, R.; Fujita, Y.; Mihara, M.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.

    2009-10-01

    In order to examine whether a trace-element analysis by PIXE (Particle Induced X-ray Emission) gives a clue to identify production area of agricultural products, we carried out a study on soy beans as an example. In the present study, a proton beam at the energy of 2.3MeV was provided by Van de Graaff accelerator at Osaka University. We used a Ge detector with Be window to measure X-ray spectra. We prepared sample soy beans from China, Thailand, Taiwan, and 7 different areas in Japan. As a result of PIXE analysis, 5 elements, potassium, iron, zinc, arsenic and rubidium, have been identified. There are clear differences in relative amount of trace-elements between samples from different international regions. Chinese beans contain much more Rb than the others, while there are significant differences in Fe and Zn between beans of Thailand and Taiwan. There are relatively smaller differences among Japanese beans. This result shows that trace-elements bring us some practical information of the region where the product grown.

  7. Assessment of dietary intake of trace elements through Pakistani integrated diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.; Mannan, A.; Waheed, S.; Rehman, S.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-01-01

    A research study related to the determination and assessment of essential and potentially toxic trace elements in Pakistani integrated diets was undertaken at PINSTECH from 1986-90 under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP). During this period eight different integrated human diets of the residents of the Islamabad and Gujranwala were prepared by taking into consideration their respective food habits in summer and winter seasons. Instrumental as well as radiochemical neutron activation analyses in combination with the atomic absorption spectrometry were utilized for the precise and accurate determination of up to 23 elements in the diet samples. This work has helped us obtain the base line values for studying trace elements nutrition, inadequacy, imbalances and toxicity. Further, this would help, in future, to monitor the degree of contamination from foreign chemicals. The weekly dietary intake values were calculated which showed that our foods contain fairly adequate quantity of essential trace elements. The diet samples analyzed showed no contamination level to an extent to cause an adverse impact on human health. (author). 23 refs, 5 figs, 21 tabs

  8. Radioactivity and trace element contents of commercial chewing tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafauti, S.; Pulhani, V.; Dahiya, S.; Hegde, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactive elements uranium, thorium and their daughters are present ubiquitously in the environment and are transferred to man through various pathways. Both, U and Th can cause radiological and toxic hazards. The ingestion dose pathway calculations involve analysis of all kinds of food or edible materials. A large population in India and Asian subcontinent are addicted to commercially available chewing tobacco. This practice is reported to have lead to increased consequences of cancer. Trace elements (Fe, Co, Mn, Zn etc.) are essential but may also prove to be toxic if present in excess. Besides these the hazards of heavy elements like Pb and Cd have also increased in the current polluted environment. In this study most of the commercially available brands of gutkha and chewing tobacco were collected. The radioactive elements U and Th were analyzed in them by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis technique. Trace elements Fe, Co, Mn, Zn, and toxic heavy elements Pb, Cd, Ni etc. were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The levels of Th and U were in the range 0.02-0.11 mg/g and 0.02-0.08 mg/g respectively. The cancer risk due to U, Th, Pb and Cd were calculated and are found to be low. (author)

  9. Non-destructive control in nuclear construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banus; Barbier; Launay

    1978-01-01

    Having recalled the characteristics of the fundamental components of the main primary circuit of nuclear boilers (900 MW) and the means appropriated for their control, it is recalled that the 'French Electricity Board's specifications and control rules' often prescribe more severe criteria than those existing in the U.S.A. Then practical examples of non-destructive controls concerning the steam generator end plates, vessel stainless steel linings, pump attachements, steam generator pipes are given [fr

  10. Investigation of trace elements in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluskoter, H.J.; Cahil, R.A.; Miller, W.G.; Ruch, R.R.; Shimp, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of coal samples is currently being extensively analyzed for constituents, including many trace elements, at the Illinois State Geological Survey. The samples include whole coals, washed coals, and bench samples. Among the many determinations made on each sample are analyses for approximately 60 elements, almost twice the number of elements previously determined. The increase is in part the result of the addition of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) equipment to the laboratory. Twenty-five samples of Herrin (No. 6) Coal that had been analyzed previously were subjected to INAA analysis and were found to include Ba, Ce, Cs, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, I, In, La, Lu, Rb, Sm, Sc, Ag, Sr, Ta, Tb, Th, W, U, and Yb, none of which were reported by previous techniques. These elements generally are present in very small amounts and, with the exception of barium, exhibit no wide range in concentration. The rare earth elements are among those having the narrowest ranges. Wide variations in element content have been observed in bench sets of coals (samples of vertical segments of the coal seam). Many elements, notably germanium, are concentrated at the top and/or bottom of the seam, the high concentrations of Ge being found there in all four bench sets analyzed to date

  11. Analysis of trace elements in scalp hair for long-lived people, hypertensives and healthy students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhang Yurong; Zhang Longxing; Zhang Agen

    1989-01-01

    The XRF method was used to analyse nine kinds of trace elements in hair samples for three groups of people. While the information on long-lived people is used to explore the secret of long life, the work on hypertensives helps understand the effect of some trace elements on the disease. The normal values of trace elements for university students have been also set up

  12. Trace elements in tissues of cetacean species rarely stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham-Frider, Efrat; Kerem, Dan; Roditi-Elasar, Mia; Goffman, Oz; Morick, Danny; Yoffe, Olga; Kress, Nurit

    2014-06-15

    In this paper we present the concentrations of Hg, Cd, Se, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe in organs of 6 non-common specimens of cetaceans that were stranded along the Israeli Mediterranean coast (IMC), during 2002-2010: two fin whales, one minke whale, one Cuvier's beaked whale, one rough-toothed dolphin, and one Risso's dolphin. Most of the specimens were calves stranded by accident. Concentrations of Hg and Cd were low in tissues of the baleen whales and higher in the toothed whales, with maximum concentrations of 1067 mg kg(-1) Hg in the liver of the Risso's dolphin and 29 mg kg(-1) Cd in the kidney of the Cuvier's beaked whale. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of trace elements in baleen whales in the Eastern Mediterranean, and the first report of trace elements in minke whale and rough-toothed dolphin in the Mediterranean. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Selected trace elements in the Sacramento River, California: Occurrence and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Howard E.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; Roth, David A.; Dileanis, Peter D.; Alpers, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of trace elements from the Iron Mountain Superfund site on the Sacramento River and selected tributaries is examined. The concentration and distribution of many trace elements—including aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, cerium, cobalt, chromium, cesium, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, iron, gadolinium, holmium, potassium, lanthanum, lithium, lutetium, manganese, molybdenum, neodymium, nickel, lead, praseodymium, rubidium, rhenium, antimony, selenium, samarium, strontium, terbium, thallium, thulium, uranium, vanadium, tungsten, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium—were measured using a combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Samples were collected using ultraclean techniques at selected sites in tributaries and the Sacramento River from below Shasta Dam to Freeport, California, at six separate time periods from mid-1996 to mid-1997. Trace-element concentrations in dissolved (ultrafiltered [0.005-μm pore size]) and colloidal material, isolated at each site from large volume samples, are reported. For example, dissolved Zn ranged from 900 μg/L at Spring Creek (Iron Mountain acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir) to 0.65 μg/L at the Freeport site on the Sacramento River. Zn associated with colloidal material ranged from 4.3 μg/L (colloid-equivalent concentration) in Spring Creek to 21.8 μg/L at the Colusa site on the Sacramento River. Virtually all of the trace elements exist in Spring Creek in the dissolved form. On entering Keswick Reservoir, the metals are at least partially converted by precipitation or adsorption to the particulate phase. Despite this observation, few of the elements are removed by settling; instead the majority is transported, associated with colloids, downriver, at least to the Bend Bridge site, which is 67 km from Keswick Dam. Most trace elements are strongly associated with the colloid phase going

  14. Non-destructive evaluation of timber structures in a historical building of Tiradentes , MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to the durability of wood are commonly found in historical buildings structures. Preservation and conservation resolutions must be adopted, in order to avoid losses and substitutions, which mischaracterize buildings. Non-destructive methods for detecting deterioration should be used in order to substantiate decisions and increase the longevity of historical heritage. This work was carried out in order to perform non-destructive essays to infer about the integrity of a beam and a pillar of the original construction of the Sobrado Ramalho, a historical building of the city of Tiradentes, MG. The equipments utilized were the Stress Wave Timer and resistograph. Samples of the elements were taken for analysis of density. The results showed that, in both structures, to calculate the dynamic modulus of elasticity, there was no significant difference for the application of stress wave timer on the alignments studied. There was no significant difference between the directions of application of the resistograph on the pillar, due to its apparent entirety and regular sessions, practically square, and to not being loaded eccentrically. In the case of the beam, there was significant difference, presumably because it has cracks in its traction line. The equipments, unknown by professionals of heritage conservation allow promising methodologies for inspection of timber structures in service.

  15. Mathematical modelling of ultrasonic non-destructive evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Ju Fradkin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency asymptotics have been used at our Centre to develop codes for modelling pulse propagation and scattering in the near-field of the ultrasonic transducers used in NDE (Non-Destructive Evaluation, particularly of walls of nuclear reactors. The codes are hundreds of times faster than the direct numerical codes but no less accurate.

  16. Non-destructive controls in the mechanical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarlan, L

    1978-12-01

    The sequence of operations implicating the mechanical industries from the suppliers to their customers is briefly recalled; a description of the field of application of non-destructive control methods in these industries is given. Follows a description of some recent typical applications of the principal methods: radiography, ultrasonic waves, magnetism, acoustic emission, sonic control, tracer techniques.

  17. Non-invasive and non-destructive measurements of confluence in cultured adherent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busschots, Steven; O'Toole, Sharon; O'Leary, John J; Stordal, Britta

    2015-01-01

    Many protocols used for measuring the growth of adherent monolayer cells in vitro are invasive, destructive and do not allow for the continued, undisturbed growth of cells within flasks. Protocols often use indirect methods for measuring proliferation. Microscopy techniques can analyse cell proliferation in a non-invasive or non-destructive manner but often use expensive equipment and software algorithms. In this method images of cells within flasks are captured by photographing under a standard inverted phase contract light microscope using a digital camera with a camera lens adaptor. Images are analysed for confluence using ImageJ freeware resulting in a measure of confluence known as an Area Fraction (AF) output. An example of the AF method in use on OVCAR8 and UPN251 cell lines is included. •Measurements of confluence from growing adherent cell lines in cell culture flasks is obtained in a non-invasive, non-destructive, label-free manner.•The technique is quick, affordable and eliminates sample manipulation.•The technique provides an objective, consistent measure of when cells reach confluence and is highly correlated to manual counting with a haemocytometer. The average correlation co-efficient from a Spearman correlation (n = 3) was 0.99 ± 0.008 for OVCAR8 (p = 0.01) and 0.99 ± 0.01 for UPN251 (p = 0.01) cell lines.

  18. Non-destructive testing and radiation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodford, C; Ashby, P.

    2001-01-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) is a little known discipline which uses non-invasive and passive techniques to investigate the condition of materials and structures. Some of these techniques employ the use of radioisotopes. The penetrating radiations produced by these materials are applied in various ways to obtain the required information. This presentation is an overview of the application of radioisotopes within the scope of NDT. Notwithstanding the well established use of traditional materials, new forms of radioisotopes are being developed which will extend their capabilities

  19. Investigating Planetesimal Evolution by Experiments with Fe-Ni Metallic Melts: Light Element Composition Effects on Trace Element Partitioning Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, N. L.

    2017-12-01

    As planetesimals were heated up in the early Solar System, the formation of Fe-Ni metallic melts was a common occurrence. During planetesimal differentiation, the denser Fe-Ni metallic melts separated from the less dense silicate components, though some meteorites suggest that their parent bodies only experienced partial differentiation. If the Fe-Ni metallic melts did form a central metallic core, the core eventually crystallized to a solid, some of which we sample as iron meteorites. In all of these planetesimal evolution processes, the composition of the Fe-Ni metallic melt influenced the process and the resulting trace element chemical signatures. In particular, the metallic melt's "light element" composition, those elements present in the metallic melt in a significant concentration but with lower atomic masses than Fe, can strongly affect trace element partitioning. Experimental studies have provided critical data to determine the effects of light elements in Fe-Ni metallic melts on trace element partitioning behavior. Here I focus on combining numerous experimental results to identify trace elements that provide unique insight into constraining the light element composition of early Solar System Fe-Ni metallic melts. Experimental studies have been conducted at 1 atm in a variety of Fe-Ni systems to investigate the effects of light elements on trace element partitioning behavior. A frequent experimental examination of the effects of light elements in metallic systems involves producing run products with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases. Such solid-metal-liquid-metal experiments have been conducted in the Fe-Ni binary system as well as Fe-Ni systems with S, P, and C. Experiments with O-bearing or Si-bearing Fe-Ni metallic melts do not lend themselves to experiments with coexisting solid metal and liquid metal phases, due to the phase diagrams of these elements, but experiments with two immiscible Fe-Ni metallic melts have provided insight into

  20. Metallothionein is induced and trace element balance changed in target organs of a common viral infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilbaeck, Nils-Gunnar; Glynn, Anders W.; Wikberg, Lotta; Netzel, Elvy; Lindh, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    In experimental studies on the common human coxsackievirus B type 3 (CB3) infection, administered cadmium (Cd) is known to accumulate in the liver and kidneys. CB3 adapted to Balb/c mice was used to study whether infection affects the Cd-binding protein, metallothionein (MT) and if this alters the normal physiological trace element balance in the liver, kidney, spleen and brain. On day 3 of infection, degradation of liver proteins (44%, P<0.01) occurred, whereas in the spleen, protein increased (63%, P<0.05). The infection increased MT five-fold (P<0.01) in liver and kidneys, and in spleen by 34% (P<0.05). A redistribution of Cd and copper (Cu) from the liver to the kidney was associated with this increase in MT, resulting in an increased (P<0.01) kidney/liver ratio for both elements. The infection increased the zinc (Zn) concentration more in the kidney than in the liver, but the kidney/liver ratio was not significantly affected. Results show that MT is increased in several organs during the early phase of infection and is associated with redistribution of both essential and non-essential trace elements. This may be a normal response in common infections that could adversely influence the pathogenesis when the host is concomitantly exposed to potentially toxic trace elements, even at levels in the physiological range

  1. Biological and environmental reference materials for trace elements, nuclides and organic microcontaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortes Toro, E.; Parr, R.M.; Clements, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    This report has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of an earlier report, published in 1985, which focussed mainly on reference materials for trace elements. In the present version of the report, reference materials for trace elements still constitute the major part of the data; however, information is also now included on a number of other selected analytes of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes and organic microcontaminants. The database presently contains 2,694 analyte values for 117 analytes in 116 biological and 77 environmental (non-biological) reference materials produced by 20 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the material, the unit size supplied, (weight or volume), and the minimum weight of material recommended for analysis is also provided (if available to the authors). It is expected that this report will help analysts to select the reference material that matches as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the analytes of interest, the ''real'' samples that are to be analysed. Refs, 12 tabs

  2. Comparison of Elemental Composition in Korean Irradiated Foods using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Kim, Sun Ha; Sun, Gwang Min; Lim, Jong Myung; Moon, Jong Hwa; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Young Jin; Choi, Jong Il; Lee, Joo Eun

    2010-01-01

    The information and role of trace mineral elements from an intake of created and processed foodstuff are important as a indicator of human health and nutritional parameter, as well as a quality control of food and diet. Particularly, special food created for consumption by astronauts in outer space may differ with common food on the earth in order to compensate a decrease of taste and nutrition by strong cosmic rays, a state of nongravitation, low pressure, and enclosed space environment. In April 2008, Korea's first astronaut became a crew member of the international space station and she was brought special space versions of Korea's national dishes such as Kimchi, boiled rice, hot red paste, green tea, ramyun, and so on. Accurate quantitative analysis of trace elements in various kinds of biological samples is also important for data quality. Neutron activation analysis is a sensitive, non-destructive, multi-elemental analytical method, and is proper for tracing elements in a biological sample in order to avoid loss and contamination by chemical pretreatment. This study analyses the distribution of concentrations for both essential and toxic elements in six kinds of Korean space foods developed by KAERI. The quantitative analytical results from instrumental neutron activation analysis are presented

  3. Determination of trace elements in total particulate matter of cigarette smoke by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.; Shaikh, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains many trace elements hazardous for human body. Tobacco samples were analyzed for their trace element contents and the results were reported earlier. This paper presents results on the trace element content analyzed in cigarette smoke using an automatic smoking machine developed in laboratory to simulate actual smoking pattern. The trace element levels in the total particulate matter samples of the cigarette smoke collected on filter papers were measured and compared with those of cigarette smoke condensate reported in the literature. Both methods of collection give comparable results. (author)

  4. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R. [Department of Medical Bioscience, Universily of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa); Weilz, F. [Department of Biodiversily and Conservation Biology, University of the Weslern Cape, Bellville (South Africa)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  5. IBA and ICP-OES determination of trace elements in indigenous medicinal herbs and their extracts on the infertility in the human male reproductive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mars, J.A.; Fisher, D.; Henkel, R.; Weilz, F.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: The abnormality of infertility in humans is biologically defined (Mader, 2004; Wood, 1994; Ellison, 2001) as the inability of a species to reproduce its own kind after period of 12 month of unprotected sexual intercourse/copulation. It is however difficult when one wishes to quantify the occurrence of infertility, since it is seldom expressed explicitly, but mostly in conjunction with population growth dynamics which include socio-economic factors. Various plants (herbs) have been used as treatment for infertility. These plants however have not yet been scientifically analysed. In this paper we determined the major and trace element composition of Typha capensis (rhizome and leaves) Cissampe/os capensis (Ieaves) and Hermannia cilliata, which were sourced from the Cape Flats Nature Reserve, Bellville, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The trace element concentration determination are at time cumbersome, especially when destructive analytical methods such as ICP-OES are used. For our determination, the various samples were freeze-dried. Part of the freeze-dried sample was used for ICP-OES and the other for PIXE analysis. For PIXE the dried sample was pressed into a pellet, then coated with a layer of carbon and irradiated with a 3 MeV proton beam. We report on the trace element content of the various parts of the plant and comment on the applicability of the part in male infertility. (author)

  6. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  7. Portland clinker production with carbonatite waste and tire-derived fuel: crystallochemistry of minor and trace elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. D. Andrade

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results on the composition of Portland clinkers produced with non-conventional raw-materials and fuels, focusing on the distribution of selected trace elements. Clinkers produced with three different fuel compositions were sampled in an industrial plant, where all other parameters were kept unchanged. The fuels have chemical fingerprints, which are sulfur for petroleum coke and zinc for TDF (tire-derived fuel. Presence of carbonatite in the raw materials is indicated by high amounts of strontium and phosphorous. Electron microprobe data was used to determine occupation of structural site of both C3S and C2S, and the distribution of trace elements among clinker phases. Phosphorous occurs in similar proportions in C3S and C2S; while considering its modal abundance, C3S is its main reservoir in the clinker. Sulfur is preferentially partitioned toward C2S compared to C3S. Strontium substitutes for Ca2+ mainly in C2S and in non-silicatic phases, compared to C3S.

  8. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  9. Report on intercomparison IAEA/W-4 of the determination of trace elements in simulated fresh water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pszonicki, L.; Hanna, A.N.; Suschny, O.

    1985-05-01

    The report presents results of a laboratory intercomparison on the determination of trace elements in simulated fresh water. 20 trace elements were analyzed by 38 laboratories from 21 countries. The results of the reported comparison confirm the agreement of the nominal concentration values of trace elements in the IAEA/W-4 simulated fresh water with the determined values of these elements. They also confirm that concentrated solutions of this type can be stored in quartz ampoules without any noticeable changes due to the adsorption of trace components on the quartz wall of vessels for considerable time. The concentration values of trace elements could be certified and the material IAEA/W-4 simulated fresh water issued as a reference material. 84% of all results were obtained either by atomic absorption or by atomic emission spectroscopy

  10. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring of trace element air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhodub, L.S.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2001-01-01

    The review of application of lichens and mosses as biomonitors of air pollution have been presented. The neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy have been used for trace element content determination in lichens and mosses taken from different regions of Europe

  11. Development of non-destructive testing. Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A National Scheme for the qualification and certification of Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) personnel in various methods has been established as the first stage of implementation. Systematic training in such methods as radiography (RT), ultrasonics (UT), magnetic particles (MT), liquid penetrant (PT) and eddy currents (ET) at levels I, II and some at III has been initiated and should be continued. Direct link with the industry and continuous effort to extend practical applications is strongly recommended

  12. Association of glass fragments by their trace elemental content using ICP-MS and LA-ICP-MS in the analysis scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almirall, Jose R.; Montero, Shirly; Furton, Kenneth G.

    2002-08-01

    The importance of glass as evidence of association between a crime event and a suspect has been recognized for some time. Glass is a fragile material that is often found at the scenes of crimes such as burglaries, hit-and-run accidents and violent crime offenses. The physical and chemical properties of glass can be used to differentiate between possible sources and as evidence of association between two fragments of glass thought to originate from the same source. Refractive index (RI) comparisons have been used for this purpose but due to the improved control over glass manufacturing processes, RI values often cannot differentiate glasses, even if the glass originates from different sources. Elemental analysis methods such as NAA, XRF, ICP-AES, and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) have also been used for the comparison of trace elemental compositions and these techniques have been shown to provide an improvement in the discrimination of glass fragments over RI comparisons alone. The multi-element capability and the sensitivity of ICP-MS combined with the simplified sample introduction of laser ablation prior to ion detection provides for an excellent and relatively non-destructive technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The methodology for solution analysis (digestion procedure) and solid sample analysis (laser ablation) of glass is reported and the analytical results are compared. An isotope dilution method is also reported as a high precision technique for elemental analysis of glass fragments. The optimum sampling parameters for laser ablation, for semi-quantitative analysis and element ratio comparisons are also presented. Finally, the results of a case involving the breaking of 15 vehicle windows in an airport parking lot and the association of a suspect to the breakings by the glass fragments found on his person are also presented.

  13. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshin, S.S.; Xudong Huang; Olmez, I.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths

  14. Atmospheric pollution for trace elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in central Asia as recorded in snow from Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) of the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Khanghyun; Hur, Soon Do; Hou, Shugui; Hong, Sungmin; Qin, Xiang; Ren, Jiawen; Liu, Yapping; Rosman, Kevin J R; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude F

    2008-10-01

    A series of 42 snow samples covering over a one-year period from the fall of 2004 to the summer of 2005 were collected from a 2.1-m snow pit at a high-altitude site on the northeastern slope of Mt. Everest. These samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Sb, Pb, and Bi in order to characterize the relative contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources to the fallout of these elements in central Himalayas. Our data were also considered in the context of monsoon versus non-monsoon seasons. The mean concentrations of the majority of the elements were determined to be at the pg g(-1) level with a strong variation in concentration with snow depth. While the mean concentrations of most of the elements were significantly higher during the non-monsoon season than during the monsoon season, considerable variability in the trace element inputs to the snow was observed during both periods. Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sb, and Bi displayed high crustal enrichment factors (EFc) in most samples, while Cr, Ni, Rb, and Pb show high EFc values in some of the samples. Our data indicate that anthropogenic inputs are potentially important for these elements in the remote high-altitude atmosphere in the central Himalayas. The relationship between the EFc of each element and the Al concentration indicates that a dominant input of anthropogenic trace elements occurs during both the monsoon and non-monsoon seasons, when crustal contribution is relatively minor. Finally, a comparison of the trace element fallout fluxes calculated in our samples with those recently obtained at Mont Blanc, Greenland, and Antarctica provides direct evidence for a geographical gradient of the atmospheric pollution with trace elements on a global scale.

  15. Trace element distributions in aquatic sediments of Danang - Hoian area, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, H.T.T.; Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; An, P.V. [University of Mining and Geology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2000-05-01

    Distribution of the trace elements Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in surficial sediments of the river/sea environment in Danang - Hoian area (Vietnam) was investigated to examine the degree of metal pollution caused by anthropogenic activities. Point sources from domestic and industrial wastes are identified as dominant contributors of trace element accumulation. Surficial sediments of Hoian River show extremely high total concentrations of Cu (Average Concentration 295 {mu}g/g), Ni (AC 112 {mu}g/g), Pb (AC 396 {mu}g/g) and Zn (AC 429 mug/g) that exceed assigned safety levels ER-M. Similarly, the sediments of Han River show high Pb (AC 188 {mu}g/g) and Zn (AC 282 {mu}g/g) contents. In marine sediments of Thanhbinh beach Pb is also enriched (138 {mu}g/g) above guideline levels. In contrast the sediments of the Cude River are dominated by trace element concentrations close to background values. (orig.)

  16. Method to determine trace elements in water samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueppers, G.; Erdtmann, G.

    1981-05-01

    For the determination of trace elements in water by neutron activation analysis irradiation porcedures and chemical separation procedures have been developed. Irradiation in melted quarz glass ampoules in the presence of a platinum wire (for recombination of the oxyhydrogen gas produced by radiolysis) proved successfull with different variants of the irradiation methods, as long irradiation periods without pressure build-up could be achieved. Possible falsifications of the analysis results were investigated in detail (losses by absorption on vessel walls etc.). The irradiated samples can be measured directly with a gamma ray spectrometer and from the radionuclides found the trace element contents may be calculated. More sensitive determinations are possible if the radionuclides are chemically separated. Procedures for removing the matrix activities, for the separation of the radionuclides in groups of elements and for the isolation of single elements have been developed. For especially sensitive determination of some elements selective separation procedures for antimony, cadmium, selenium, mercury and uranium have been developed. The analytical procedures described have been applied to trace element determinations in river water, glacier ice and water solutions from technical processes. (orig./RB) [de

  17. Pigmentation and temporal effects on trace elements in hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufreiter, S.; Hancock, R.G.V.

    1990-01-01

    Variations in trace element concentration in the head and facial hair of five individuals with ever-increasing amounts of white hair were examined. Hair was collected from the scalp, cheeks, and chin from one donor on a regular basis since 1984. Samples were separated into white and pigmented fractions, and analyzed at SLOWPOKE-Toronto by INAA for the short-lived, isotope-producing elements Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, I, Mg, Mn, Na, S, and Zn. Temporal concentration variations of these elements over time, and variations of the elemental concentrations in pigmented and white hair were established

  18. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, W. M.

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  20. A study of accumulation of trace metals in coffee plants grown on ultisols fertilized with rock phosphates by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Daisy; Lal, Madan; D'Souza, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Trace elements in soil and leaves of coffee plants have been analysed by a non-destructive Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) technique to study their accumulation due to repeated rock phosphate fertilization. Analysis of standard reference materials of soil and leaves through EDXRF yielded values within 5% error of the certified values. This method was therefore used to determine the trace metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Nb, Zr and Y) concentrations of soils, rock phosphates and leaves of coffee grown in experimental ultisols. Results indicate that rock phosphate fertilization over a period of 10 years did not contribute significantly to high trace metal concentration in plants. (author). 6 refs., 5 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Trace element analysis of wild rodent tissues using the PIXE method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.W.; Mangelson, N.F.; Ryder, J.F.; Atwood, N.D.; Wood, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of rodents have been collected in an area near Lake Powell Utah. Common names of the five species are: Long-tailed Mouse, Small Pocket Mouse, Deer Mouse, Antelope Ground Squirrel and Kangaroo Rat. Liver, lung, kidney and hair tissues from each animal were analyzed for trace element content by proton particle-induced x-ray emission (proton PIXE) analysis. Mean concentrations for the following elements were established for the tissues of each animal type: K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb and Pb. Analyses of variance were performed on the set of elements common to all tissues. Some significant differences in element concentrations were found between animal species and between tissue types. These differences lead to the following orders based on element concentration: Long-tailed Mouse greater than or equal to Antelope Ground Squirrel greater than or equal to Kangaroo Rat greater than or equal to Small Pocket Mouse and liver greater than or equal to kidney greater than or equal to lung greater than or equal to hair. Linear regression analyses were also performed on mean elemental concentrations in tissues. These analyses lead to several conclusions. First, the pattern of trace element concentrations in each of the four tissues is the same in all five species. Second, the pattern of trace element concentrations is the same in all four tissues of one species with the exception of Ti and Fe in hair. Third, the variation of an element in the hair cannot predict the variation of that same element in the other three tissues. Only K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn were included in the third study

  2. Radioactivity and concentration of some trace elements in sponges distributed along the Syrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Mamish, S.; Haleem, M. A.; Ammar, I.

    2009-07-01

    natural and artificial radionuclides ( 210 Po, 210 Pb, 40 K, 137 Cs, 234 U, 238 U) and concentration of some trace elements (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) in several types of sponges distributed along the Syrian coast have been studied. The samples were collected from four stations distributed at the Syrian coast (Al-Basset, Lattakia, Banise, Tartous). Concentration factors (CF) for the studied radionuclides and trace elements have been calculated in order to determine the sponges types to be used as biomonitors for the radionuclides and trace elements. (authors)

  3. Investigating the Microscopic Location of Trace Elements in High-Alpine Glacier Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avak, Sven Erik; Birrer, Mario; Laurent, Oscar; Guillong, Marcel; Wälle, Markus; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Schwikowski, Margit; Eichler, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Past changes in atmospheric pollution can be reconstructed from high-alpine ice core trace element records (Schwikowski et al., 2004). Percolation of meltwater alters the information originally stored in these environmental archives. Eichler et al. (2001) suggested that the preservation of major ions with respect to meltwater percolation depends on their location in the crystal ice lattice, i.e. grain boundaries versus grain interiors. Other studies have also focused on the effect of meltwater on organic pollutant concentrations as well as on stable isotope profiles in ice cores, whereas no information exists about trace elements. Here, we investigate for the first time the effect of the microscopic location of anthropogenic, dust and volcanic related trace elements on the behavior during meltwater percolation by using two different approaches. On the one hand we assess the microscopic location of trace elements indirectly by analyzing trace element concentrations in a high-alpine ice core, which has been shown to be affected by an inflow of meltwater, using discrete inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Impurities located at grain boundaries are prone to be removed by meltwater and tend to be depleted in the affected section of the record whereas those incorporated into the ice interior are preserved and not disturbed in the record. In the second approach we work towards a direct quantification of differences in concentrations of trace elements between ice grain boundaries and grain interiors in samples both from unaffected and affected sections of this ice core. Therefore we use cryocell laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS, which is the method of choice for the direct in situ chemical analysis of trace elements at a sub-millimeter resolution in glacier ice (Reinhardt et al., 2001, Della Lunga et al., 2014, Sneed et al., 2015). We will present first results of both approaches with regard to the evaluation of the potential of trace elements as environmental

  4. NUMERICAL MODELLING AS NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR THE ANALYSES AND DIAGNOSIS OF STONE STRUCTURES: MODELS AND POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Štambuk-Cvitanović

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Assuming the necessity of analysis, diagnosis and preservation of existing valuable stone masonry structures and ancient monuments in today European urban cores, numerical modelling become an efficient tool for the structural behaviour investigation. It should be supported by experimentally found input data and taken as a part of general combined approach, particularly non-destructive techniques on the structure/model within it. For the structures or their detail which may require more complex analyses three numerical models based upon finite elements technique are suggested: (1 standard linear model; (2 linear model with contact (interface elements; and (3 non-linear elasto-plastic and orthotropic model. The applicability of these models depend upon the accuracy of the approach or type of the problem, and will be presented on some characteristic samples.

  5. Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    K, Ergen; F, Yildiz; M, Ozcan; M, Cekmen; , Tanyeri P; , Utkan T; Y, Karakoc

    2012-01-01

    Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their...

  6. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yong; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  7. Assessing the risks of trace elements in environmental materials under selected greenhouse vegetable production systems of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Huang, Biao, E-mail: bhuang@issas.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Wenyou [Key Laboratory of Soil Environment and Pollution Remediation, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Weindorf, David C.; Liu, Xiaoxiao [Department of Plant and Soil Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (United States); Niedermann, Silvana [Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Agricultural Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-02-01

    The risk assessment of trace elements of different environmental media in conventional and organic greenhouse vegetable production systems (CGVPS and OGVPS) can reveal the influence of different farming philosophy on the trace element accumulations and their effects on human health. These provide important basic data for the environmental protection and human health. This paper presents trace element accumulation characteristics of different land uses; reveals the difference of soil trace element accumulation both with and without consideration of background levels; compares the trace element uptake by main vegetables; and assesses the trace element risks of soils, vegetables, waters and agricultural inputs, using two selected greenhouse vegetable systems in Nanjing, China as examples. Results showed that greenhouse vegetable fields contained significant accumulations of Zn in CGVPS relative to rice–wheat rotation fields, open vegetable fields, and geochemical background levels, and this was the case for organic matter in OGVPS. The comparative analysis of the soil medium in two systems with consideration of geochemical background levels and evaluation of the geo-accumulation pollution index achieved a more reasonable comparison and accurate assessment relative to the direct comparison analysis and the evaluation of the Nemerow pollution index, respectively. According to the Chinese food safety standards and the value of the target hazard quotient or hazard index, trace element contents of vegetables were safe for local residents in both systems. However, the spatial distribution of the estimated hazard index for producers still presented certain specific hotspots which may cause potential risk for human health in CGVPS. The water was mainly influenced by nitrogen, especially for CGVPS, while the potential risk of Cd and Cu pollution came from sediments in OGVPS. The main inputs for trace elements were fertilizers which were relatively safe based on relevant

  8. Distribution of trace elements in land plants and botanical taxonomy with special reference to rare earth elements and actinium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Mutsuo

    1989-01-01

    Distribution profiles of trace elements in land plants were studied by neutron activation analysis and radioactivity measurements without activation. Number of botanical samples analyzed were more than three thousand in which more than three hundred botanical species were included. New accumulator plants of Co, Cr, Zn, Cd, rare earth elements, Ac, U, etc., were found. Capabilities of accumulating trace elements can be related to the botanical taxonomy. Discussions are given from view points of inorganic chemistry as well as from botanical physiology

  9. Application of neutron activation analysis to the determination of minor-and trace elements in magnesite ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda Munita, C.J.A.; Atalla, L.T.

    1979-01-01

    A method employing analysis with thermal neutrons was developed for analyzing magnesite samples coming from the States do Ceara and Bahia (Brazil). Ten samples were analyzed. Qualitative analysis of the samples indicated the presence of Mn, Fe, Sc, Ca, Cu, Co and some of the lanthanides. Mn was analyzed by non-destructive activation analysis and the other elements were analyzed, individually or in group, after sample dissolution with 8 N HCl solution. A detailed study of the possible interferences in neutron activation analysis of the elements considered was also undertaken. The precision and accuracy of the results obtained and the sensitivity of the method are discussed. (Author) [pt

  10. Characterization of flux-grown Trace-element-doped titanite using the high-mass-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP-RG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazdab, F.K.

    2009-01-01

    Crystals of titanite can be readily grown under ambient pressure from a mixture of CaO, TiO2 and SiO2 in the presence of molten sodium tetraborate. The crystals produced are euhedral and prismatic, lustrous and transparent, and up to 5 mm in length. Titanite obtained by this method contains approximately 4300 ppm Na and 220 ppm B contributed from the flux. In addition to dopant-free material, titanite containing trace alkali and alkaline earth metals (K, Sr, Ba), transition metals (Sc, Cr, Ni, Y, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta), rare-earth elements (REE), actinides (Th, U) and p-block elements (F, S, Cl, Ge, Sn and Pb) have been prepared using the same procedure. Back-scattered electron (BSE) imaging accompanied by ion-microprobe (SHRIMP-RG) analysis confirms significant incorporation of selected trace-elements at structural sites. Regardless of some zonation, the large size of the crystals and broad regions of chemical homogeneity make these crystals useful as experimental starting material, and as matrix-matched trace-element standards for a variety of microbeam analytical techniques where amorphous titanite glass, heterogeneous natural titanite or a non-titanite standard may be less than satisfactory. Trace-element-doped synthetic crystals can also provide a convenient proxy for a better understanding of trace-element incorporation in natural titanite. Comparisons with igneous, authigenic and high-temperature metasomatic titanite are examined. The use of high-mass-resolution SIMS also demonstrates the analytical challenges inherent to any in situ mass-spectrometry-based analysis of titanite, owing to the production of difficult-to-resolve molecular interferences. These interferences are dominated by Ca-Ca, Ca-Ti and Ti-Ti dimers that are significant in the mass range of 80-100, affecting all isotopes of Sr and Zr, as well as 89Y and 93Nb. Methods do exist for the evaluation of interferences by these dimers and of polyatomic interferences on the LREE.

  11. Linking trace element variations with macronutrients and major cations in marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengjie; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2015-09-01

    Marine mussels have long been used as biomonitors of contamination of trace elements, but little is known about whether variation in tissue trace elements is significantly associated with those of macronutrients and major cations. The authors examined the variability of macronutrients and major cations and their potential relationships with bioaccumulation of trace elements. The authors analyzed the concentrations of macronutrients (C, N, P, S), major cations (Na, Mg, K, Ca), and trace elements (Al, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb) in the whole soft tissues of marine mussels Mytilus edulis and Perna viridis collected globally from 21 sites. The results showed that 12% to 84% of the variances in the trace elements was associated with major cations, and the tissue concentration of major cations such as Na and Mg in mussels was a good proxy for ambient seawater concentrations of the major cations. Specifically, bioaccumulation of most of the trace elements was significantly associated with major cations, and the relationships of major cations with trace cations and trace oxyanions were totally opposite. Furthermore, 14% to 69% of the variances in the trace elements were significantly associated with macronutrients. Notably, more than half of the variance in the tissue concentrations of As, Cd, V, Ba, and Pb was explained by the variance in macronutrients in one or both species. Because the tissue macronutrient concentrations were strongly associated with animal growth and reproduction, the observed coupling relationships indicated that these biological processes strongly influenced the bioaccumulation of some trace elements. The present study indicated that simultaneous quantification of macronutrients and major cations with trace elements can improve the interpretation of biomonitoring data. © 2015 SETAC.

  12. Mechanism of Uptake of Trace Elements by Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1965-01-01

    MECHANISM OF UPTAKE OF TRACE ELEMENTS BY PLANTS (EXPERIMENTS WlTH RADIOZINC). Some authors have assumed that the uptake of (essential or non-essential) trace elements by plants is due to active transport, and therefore needs metabolic energy. In our laboratory it has been found that the uptake of zinc (“6”5Zn) by chlorella and barley roots is, in the main, a passive process, and is based largely on ion exchange. In these experiments the Zn system contrasted sharply with actively transporting systems, e. g. the K system, although the extent of accumulation may be similar: (1) decouplers (DNP, azide) or anaerobiosis do not depress the uptake of Zn: (2) plants killed by grinding, freezing or alcohol treatment take up more Zn than living plants: (3) the temperature coefficient of the Zn uptake is small: (4) many ions compete with Zn, i.e. the uptake is unspecific. We have measured - primarily with dead cells, where equilibria are reached easily - the competition of several foreign ions with radiozinc at fixed pH (usually 6). These values have been compared with analogous values obtained with radiozinc (and verified with radiocopper) in respect to cation exchange resins. It is concluded from the sequence of the different ions that the active sites in the cells are mainly carboxyl groups. Probably most of the ‘exchanger’ consists of carbohydrate derivatives in the cell wall, i.e. in the ‘free space’, However, both by Langmuir analysis of the observed ‘uptake isotherm’ and by radiochemical work with partly blocked material, sites with anomalous affinity to Zn have been demonstrated. These may be imidazol groups in the proteins known to bind zinc strongly by complexation. (author)

  13. Non destructive analysis apparatus by eddy currents for non magnetic metallic products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutanceau-Monteil, N.; Billy, F.; Bernard, A.

    1993-01-01

    The device for non destructive testing of nonmagnetic metallic surfaces uses eddy currents with two independent receptors at different positions around the emitting coil which is fed with current impulses and whose axis is parallel to the surface under study. 4 figs

  14. Utilization of radiation in non destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, R.T.; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Junqueira, M.M.; Matos, J.A. de; Castello Branco, L.M.; Barros Junior, J.D.; Borges, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory from COPPE/UFRJ has been developed techniques for using nuclear radiations to obtain images for non-destructive materials testing and medicine. With this objective, some prototypes of transmission computerized tomography systems using parallel beans and fan beans, with computer automation, including the mathematical process of image reprocessing and presentation in videos or printers are constructed [pt

  15. Application of the neutron activation analysis method to the multielemental determination of food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maihara, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal neutron activation analysis method was applied to the determination of elements present at low concentrations and trace levels in samples of bread and milk powder using non-destructive analyses were based on gamma ray spectrometric measurements of samples and standards irradiated for periods which varied from some minutes to eight hours in a thermal neutron flux of about 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 . The concentrations obtained for milk powder were compared with the data obtained by other autors from different contries. For the bread, that comparison was not possible, because data about trace analysis in bread samples were not found. Besides, the results obtained for the various brands of bread and milk by means of non destructive and destructive analyses were compared using Student's t criterion. Some basic considerations about 'Detection Limit' were done, mainly in relation to its application in the technique used in the present work. The detection and determination limits of the trace elements analysed by destructive and non destructive techniques in bread and milk powder samples were determined using the Currie and Girardi methods. The precision of the analyses and the results obtained for the detection limits of the analysed trace elements are discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Trace element geochemistry of Amba Dongar carbonatite complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    the present study we have made an attempt to accomplish this by modeling the trace element con- tents of carbonatites ... fact that they represent a very small fraction of all the magmatic ... 2km north of the Narmada river in the state of. Gujarat ...

  17. Influence of Kaolin in Fly Ash Based Geopolymer Concrete: Destructive and Non-Destructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Z.; Abdullah, M. M. A. B.; Ramli, N. Mohd; Burduhos-Nergis, D. D.; Razak, R. Abd

    2018-06-01

    Development of geopolymer concrete is mainly to reduce the production of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) that adverse the natural effect. Fly ash is a by-product collected from electrical generating power plant which resulted from burning pulverized coal. Since fly ash is waste materials, it can be recycled for future advantages particularly as pozzolanic materials in construction industry. This study focused on the feasibility of fly ash based geopolymer concrete to which kaolin has been added. The main constituents of geopolymer production for this study were class F fly ash, sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The concentration of NaOH solution was fixed at 12 Molar, ratio of fly ash/alkaline activator and sodium silicate/NaOH fixed at 1.5 and 2.5, respectively. Kaolin was added in range 5% to 15% from the mass of fly ash and all the samples were cured at room temperature. Destructive and non-destructive test were performed on geopolymer concrete to evaluate the best mix proportions that yield the highest strength as well as the quality of the concrete. Compressive strength, flexural strength, rebound hammer and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) result have been obtained. It shown that 5% replacement of kaolin contributed to maximum compressive strength and flexural strength of 40.4 MPa and 12.35 MPa at 28 days. These result was supported by non-destructive test for the same mix proportion.

  18. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment; Utilisation des elements en trace comme traceurs des circulations souterraines en milieu karstique (site du Lamalou, Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane-Escribe, M B

    1995-06-29

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author). 154 refs.

  19. Trace element exposure of whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in a marine lagoon (Swan Lake), northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Xu, Shaochun; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Pengmei; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2017-06-30

    Trace element poisoning remains a great threat to various waterfowl and waterbirds throughout the world. In this study, we determined the trace element exposure of herbivorous whooper swans (Cygnus cygnus) wintering in Swan Lake (Rongcheng), an important swan protection area in northern China. A total of 70 samples including abiotic factors (seawater, sediments), food sources (seagrass, macroalgae), feathers and feces of whooper swans were collected from the marine lagoon during the winters of 2014/2015 and 2015/2016. Concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd, Hg and As were determined to investigate the trace element exposure of whooper swans wintering in the area. Results showed that there was an increasing trend in sediment trace element concentrations, compared with historical data. The trace element concentrations in swan feces most closely resembled those of Zostera marina leaves, especially for Cd and Cr. The Zn and Hg concentrations in the swan feces (49.57 and 0.01mg/kg, respectively) were lower than the minimum values reported in the literature for other waterfowls, waterbirds and terrestrial birds. However, the concentrations of the other five trace elements fell within the lower and mediate range of values reported for birds across the world. These results suggest that the whooper swans wintering in Swan Lake, Rongcheng are not suffering severe trace element exposure; however, with the increasing input of trace elements to the lagoon, severe adverse impacts may occur in the future, and we therefore suggest that the input of trace elements to this area should be curbed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developments in non-destructive beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    With the large average beam currents being achieved in accelerators and storage rings, there is an increasing need for non-destructive beam diagnostic devices. For continuous beams, position monitors of the capacitive pick-up type are replaced by resonant devices that respond to the transverse displacement of the beam centroid. Bunch length monitors of the SLAC type using resonant cavities operating in the TM 010 mode can be used for continuous beams. The more detailed information derivable from beam profile scanners requires development of improved non-destructive devices. Profile monitors which scan the visible light produced by high current beams may be more reliable than ones using the residual ionization if the light intensity from gas molecules following nonionizing collisions with beam particles gives a measure of the beam current density independent of the local electron density. The intense Balmer series lines from neutral hydrogen beams have been used successfully to measure beam profiles. At CRNL and at LASL, beam light profile monitors are being developed for high average current accelerators. Three or more projections will be recorded to allow tomographic reconstruction of the two-dimensional beam current density. Light detection is either by intensified Reticons or ISIT vidicons. The use of three or more beam light monitors on a beam transport line will also permit estimates of the transverse emittance to be made through the reconstruction technique

  1. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis for trace elements of basic ingredients of pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaidi, J.H.; Arif, M.; Fatima, I; Qureshi, I.H.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive use of pan, by one-tenth of world's population, entails the evaluation of trace element contents in its ingredients. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was developed and successfully employed to determine the concentration of 36 trace elements (essential, toxic and nonessential) in its four basic ingredients, leaf of betel pepper, betel nut, catechu and lime. The radiochemical separation methodology has significantly improved the detection limits of most of these elements due to suppression of Compton background. Base-line values of certain toxic and essential elements in these ingredients is provided. The daily intake of essential and toxic elements through pan was estimated and compared with the recommended values. The cumulative intake of Mn is four times higher than the recommended value and that of toxic elements is well below the tolerance limits. (author)

  2. Characterization of prehistoric pottery from the Tremiti Isles by trace elements determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandone, A.; Fumo, P.; Giacco, M.; Oddone, M.; Riganti, V.; Baldi, M

    1993-01-01

    The potteries found on the Tremiti Isles (Italy, Adriatic Sea) have been characterized through their trace elements content. The goal of the work was to find out the number of ore deposits that supplied the clay used to manufacture the pottery. Neutron activation analysis has been employed for trace elements content determinations; the results have been statistically evaluated, clusterized and discussed. (author) 13 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  3. Study of selected trace elements in cancerous and non-cancerous human breast tissues using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebrahim, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of cancer on selected trace elements among sudanese patients with confirmed breast cancer. Eighty samples of cancerous and normal tissues (total of one hundred and sixty) were obtained from the same breast of the same subject from different hospitals in Khartoum State. Samples were freeze dried and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Neutron irradiations were performed at Egypt second research reactor with a maximum thermal flux of 2.37 Χ 10 14 n cm -2 s -1 . To examine if there was any difference in the concentrations of elements from normal and malignant tissues; Wilcox on signed ranks test was used. It was found that Al, Mn, Mg, Se, Zn, and Cr elements from the malignant tissues are significantly elevated (p 0.05). The results obtained have shown consistency with results obtained by some previous studies, however, no data could be found for the elements Mg, Cr, and Sc.(Author)

  4. Trace-element analysis in environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, V.; Moschini, G.

    1988-01-01

    The use of charged-particle accelerators in trace-element analysis in the field of environmental sciences is described in this article. Nuclear reactions, charged-particle-induced X-ray emission as well as other nuclear and atomic processes can be used individually, or combined, in developing adequate analytical systems. In addition to concentration levels, concentration levels, concentration profiles can be measured, resulting in unique information. Some examples of experiments performed are described together with the suggestions for future measurements [pt

  5. On the systems of automatic non-destructive control of NPP metallic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebennik, V.S.; Lantukh, V.M.

    1980-01-01

    The main stages of developing automatic systems of non- destructive control (NC) of NPP metallic structures are pointed out. The main requirements for automatic NC systems are formulated. Recommendations on the use of the developed experimental automatic facilities for control of certain NPP components are given. It is noted that the present facilities may be used in the future in development of modular sets of non-destructive control systems [ru

  6. Determination of trace elements in maifanite by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LU Yiqiang; JIANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Maifanite is a nature medicinal stone used in many fields for long time. The research on it showed that there are many trace elements in maifanite. In this paper, 36 trace elements in maifanite were determined by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry, and the determination conditions were studied systematically. The results show that the concentrafions of elements, which are beneficial to human health, are higher, and the elements harmful to people health such as As, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Pb are tiny in maifanite. The precision and the accuracy were also discussed.

  7. Baring the teeth. [Dental caries and the analysis of trace elements in dental tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleaton-Jones, P [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dental Research Unit; Retief, H [Alabama Univ., Birmingham (USA); Turkstra, J [Fort Hare Univ. (South Africa). Dept. of Chemistry

    1979-07-01

    To determine whether trace elements other than fluorine play a role in the varying prevalences of dental caries in different South African population groups, neutron activation techniques have been devised to establish the concentrations of trace elements in tooth enamel and dentine.

  8. Transfer of trace elements in the Amazon basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Tuon, R.L.; Fernandes, E.A.N.

    1991-01-01

    The Amazon basin is the world's largest system both in terms of drainage area, 7x10 6 km 2 , and sediment discharge, about 1.3x10 9 tons of solid suspended material each year. It is located at northern South America in the equatorial zone, extending through nine countries, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Surinam, French Guyana, and Brazil, where is the majority (70%) of the total area. The Amazon basin is geologically limited in the west by the Andes Cordillera, in the south by the Brazilian altiplain, in the north by the Guyana mountains and in the east by the Atlantic Ocean. It is the most fabulous natural ecosystem of the world, remaining in a perfect state of equilibrium, not yet deeply studied. The development of mathematic models describing its dynamics is very important for its comprehension and preservation. Trace elements, in special the rare earth elements, can be useful to elaborate such models. Several processes in rivers and estuaries have been investigated through the use of REEs as tracers, addressing the riverine input of elements to the oceans from continents. Trace elements were also used to elaborate a model for chemical exchange from the water to the sediments and the subsequent release from the sediments into the water. (5 refs., 6 figs.)

  9. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiwati, Arie; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, N.; Komai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Total concentration of Cd, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, As, Pb, Sb, Cu and Ba was determined in 20 soil samples by the bulk analysis. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to observe the classification of trace elements and contamination sources. The results suggest that contamination loading is contributed by Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use. Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area.

  10. Modulatory role of vanadium on trace element profile in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, A.; Selvaraj, S.; Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Ghugre, S. S.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

    2000-09-01

    Particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis was employed in the present study to investigate the chemopreventive potential of vanadium in influencing trace elemental profile and antioxidant status in chemical carcinogenesis. The elements with Z=15-40 were studied. Data reveal remarkable alterations in elemental composition in the hepatic tissue of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced Sprague-Dawley male rats (intraperitoneal (ip) dose: 200 mg/kg body weight) after four weeks of induction. Several elements like Mn, Cu, Zn, Rb showed large depletion while other elements like Fe, Ca, K, Br showed large enhancement in comparison to that of the normal control animals. These elements compete for binding sites in the cell, change its enzymatic activity and exert direct or indirect action on the carcinogenic process. Supplementary vanadium (0.5 ppm ad libitum in drinking water) has shown effective modulation by alteration in the concentration of trace elements in the tumorigenic tissue ( Pcomposition, antioxidant status in the initiation phase of carcinogenesis and the period of exposure to vanadium. The possibility of selecting vanadium as a therapeutic agent for chemoprevention is discussed in the light of its influence in maintaining trace elemental homeostasis, a parameter of importance in cancer prevention research.

  11. Sensitivity and accuracy of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for trace elements in marine biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    During the course of 1974-75 atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) has been used extensively in our laboratory for measuring various trace elements in marine biological materials in order to conduct homogeneity tests on the intercalibration samples for trace metal analysis as well as to obtain baseline data for trace elements in various kinds of marine organisms collected from different locations in the Mediterranean Sea. Several series of test experiments have been conducted on the current methodology in use in our laboratory to ensure satisfactory analytical performance in measuring a number of trace elements for which analytical problems have not completely been solved. Sensitivities of the techniques used were repeatedly checked for various elements and the accuracy of the analyses were always critically evaluated by analyzing standard reference materials. The results of these test experiments have uncovered critical points relevant to the application of the AAS to routine analysis

  12. Non destructive SXRF analysis of heavy elements in lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M.T.; Figueiredo, M.O.; Pereira da Silva, T.; Basto, M.J.; Chevallier, P.

    2000-01-01

    Various species incrusting granitic and calcareous rocks were collected at different places covering a large span of atmospheric conditions. They were chemically studied by synchrotron- induced X-ray fluorescence (SXRF), a nondestructive technique of outmost importance in the field, allowing for a future use of the same lichen fragments in further tests. This study proved that lichens - at least the saxicolous species - concentrate heavy elements recognized as strong pollutants, like lead and bromine, irrespective the environmental availability of these elements, either in the atmosphere or in the rock substrate, partially frustrating the use of saxicolous lichens as pollution monitors. (author)

  13. Evaluation of trace elements in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trace elements such as zinc, copper, and selenium display antioxidant activity and act as peroxynitrite scavenger while others such as manganese and magnesium are essential micronutrients. The disturbance in the metabolism of these elements may be a contributing factor in the development of certain diseases such as ...

  14. Multi-elemental determination of trace elements in deep seawater by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with resin preconcentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Takashi; Nakazato, Tetsuya; Tao, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    A miniaturized column (ca. 3 mm i.d., 40 mm length), packed with a chelating resin (0.2 g) with iminodiacetic acid groups (Muromac A-1), was tested for the preconcentration of trace elements in seawater. After preconcentration, the column was washed with ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.5) and water to remove the major elements, such as Ca and Mg, and was then eluted with 4 ml of 2 mol l -1 nitric acid. Twenty-six trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The necessary volume of the seawater sample was only 200 ml. The recoveries for most of the elements tested were over 90%, although those for Al, V and Th were around 70%. The trueness and precision were evaluated by analyzing a standard reference material of seawater (NASS-4, NRC Canada). The observed values obtained with the present method showed good agreement with the certified values. The present method was also applied to deep seawater samples collected at Muroto, Japan. A difference in the rare earth element pattern, especially the Ce anomaly, between the deep seawater sample and the surface seawater sample was observed, as well as the differences of the concentrations of many trace elements. (author)

  15. Non destructive testing of green parts in powder metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accary, A.

    1979-01-01

    The non destructive testing of green parts is potentially advantageous by making possible a lowering of the material and energy consumption as well as the production of parts with a 100% reliability. After a survey of the possible methods and of the defects to be detected it is shown that the goal can be achieved using a 'blind detection' method and that the difficulty of the problem depends on the size and shape of the part to be controled. The gravimetric, dimensional, γ absorption and thermal diffusivity methods are then examined. It is concluded that a unit control is paying only if it allows to enter the high reliability part market. Used statisticaly the non destructive testing of green parts can possibly lead to savings on materials and energy [fr

  16. Non-contact measurement of partial gas pressure and distribution of elemental composition using energy-resolved neutron imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tremsin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neutron resonance absorption imaging is a non-destructive technique that can characterize the elemental composition of a sample by measuring nuclear resonances in the spectrum of a transmitted beam. Recent developments in pixelated time-of-flight imaging detectors coupled with pulsed neutron sources pose new opportunities for energy-resolved imaging. In this paper we demonstrate non-contact measurements of the partial pressure of xenon and krypton gases encapsulated in a steel pipe while simultaneously passing the neutron beam through high-Z materials. The configuration was chosen as a proof of principle demonstration of the potential to make non-destructive measurement of gas composition in nuclear fuel rods. The pressure measured from neutron transmission spectra (∼739 ± 98 kPa and ∼751 ± 154 kPa for two Xe resonances is in relatively good agreement with the pressure value of ∼758 ± 21 kPa measured by a pressure gauge. This type of imaging has been performed previously for solids with a spatial resolution of ∼ 100 μm. In the present study it is demonstrated that the high penetration capability of epithermal neutrons enables quantitative mapping of gases encapsulate within high-Z materials such as steel, tungsten, urania and others. This technique may be beneficial for the non-destructive testing of bulk composition of objects (such as spent nuclear fuel assemblies and others containing various elements opaque to other more conventional imaging techniques. The ability to image the gaseous substances concealed within solid materials also allows non-destructive leak testing of various containers and ultimately measurement of gas partial pressures with sub-mm spatial resolution.

  17. Report on the intercomparison run Soil-5 for the determination of trace elements in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dybczynski, R; Tugsavul, A; Suschny, O

    1978-01-01

    he knowledge of the elemental composition of soil, and especially its trace element content is of interest to many investigators active in various fields of research. Among these concerned are not only agricultural chemists and soil scientists, but also biochemists, environmentalists, nutritionists and others. The increased recognition of the essentially on one hand and toxicity on the other, of certain trace elements towards animals and man, has led to intensified studies of the pathways of trace elements in nature, particularly in the environmental research. Not only atmosphere, hydrosphere and biological tissues, but also soil is examined. Essential and toxic trace elements may pass from soil to plants (by which they are sometimes effectively concentrated) and further through food chains to Man. The interest in the analysis of soil for the content of many trace and also some major elements is therefore rapidly increasing. Hence, there seems to be an obvious need for a reference material with established 'recommended values' of as many elements as possible which could be used for checking the quality of analytical work of the laboratories engaged in soil analyses. At the same time well-characterized soil, containing high levels of minerals can be also of interest for geochemists as a complement to already existing geochemical reference samples.

  18. Bejing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and its applications on trace element study of cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuying, H.; Yingrong, W.; Limin, Z.; Guangcheng, L.; Wie, H.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, Beijing synchrotron radiation TXRF facility and experimental method were described. The minimum detection limits of some elements were tested by using several kinds of standard reference materials. The feasibility of using TXRF in biomedical field is discussed. With this technique small intestine cells of both normal and radiated white mice were analyzed, and the elemental average contents of each single cell are also given. The results indicated that the contents of some trace elements for normal and radiated white mice are greatly different, which may be used to provide valuable reference for clinic medicine. On the other hand, the trace elements of cells of lung and cervix cancer before and after apoptosis were determined by SRTXRF and the changes of trace elements in these cells were discussed. (author)

  19. ICP-AES analysis of trace elements in serum from animals fed with irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zongzhi; Zhou Hongdi

    1986-01-01

    A method of trace element analysis by ICP-AES in serum from animals fed with irradiated food is described. In order to demonstrate that irradiated food is suitable for human consumption, it is necessary to perform an experiment of animal feeding with these food before use for human. Trace element analysis in animal serum could provide an actual evidence for further human consumption study. 53 serum samples of the rats fed with irradiated food were obtained. After ashed and solved, ICP-AES analysis has been used for determining 20 trace elements in specimen solution. The detection limitation is in the range of 10 -2 -10 -3 ppm for different elements. The recovery of elements is from 70.08% to 98.28%. The relative standard deviation is found to be 0.71% to 11.52%

  20. Multivariate statistical evaluation of trace elements in groundwater in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J.; Huang Jianmin; Huang Runqiu

    2007-01-01

    Multivariate statistical techniques are efficient ways to display complex relationships among many objects. An attempt was made to study the data of trace elements in groundwater using multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), Q-mode factor analysis and cluster analysis. The original matrix consisted of 17 trace elements estimated from 55 groundwater samples colleted in 27 wells located in a coastal area in Shenzhen, China. PCA results show that trace elements of V, Cr, As, Mo, W, and U with greatest positive loadings typically occur as soluble oxyanions in oxidizing waters, while Mn and Co with greatest negative loadings are generally more soluble within oxygen depleted groundwater. Cluster analyses demonstrate that most groundwater samples collected from the same well in the study area during summer and winter still fall into the same group. This study also demonstrates the usefulness of multivariate statistical analysis in hydrochemical studies. - Multivariate statistical analysis was used to investigate relationships among trace elements and factors controlling trace element distribution in groundwater