WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-coherent intrinsic states

  1. Intrinsic Awareness, the Fundamental State of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Weili

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to simplify the complexity in the studies of consciousness, the author suggests to divide the conscious experiences into a fundamental state, the intrinsic awareness (IA), and functions of this fundamental state. IA does not depend on external environment, our sense organs, and our cognitions. This ground state of consciousness is timeless and irreducible to sub-constituents; therefore reductionism can apply neither to the analysis nor to the new theory of IA. The methodology for investigating IA is proposed and the relation between IA and the hard problem in consciousness proposed by Chalmers is discussed.

  2. Critical Points in Nuclei and Interacting Boson Model Intrinsic States

    CERN Document Server

    Ginocchio, J N; Ginocchio, Joseph N.

    2003-01-01

    We consider properties of critical points in the interacting boson model, corresponding to flat-bottomed potentials as encountered in a second-order phase transition between spherical and deformed $\\gamma$-unstable nuclei. We show that intrinsic states with an effective $\\beta$-deformation reproduce the dynamics of the underlying non-rigid shapes. The effective deformation can be determined from the the global minimum of the energy surface after projection onto the appropriate symmetry. States of fixed $N$ and good O(5) symmetry projected from these intrinsic states provide good analytic estimates to the exact eigenstates, energies and quadrupole transition rates at the critical point.

  3. Risk-informed Maintenance for Non-coherent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) is a systematic and comprehensive methodology to evaluate risks associated with a complex engineered technological entity. The information provided by PSA has been increasingly implemented for regulatory purposes but rarely used in providing information for operation and maintenance activities. As one of the key parts in PSA, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) attempts to model and analyze failure processes of engineering and biological systems. The fault trees are composed of logic diagrams that display the state of the system and are constructed using graphical design techniques. Risk Importance Measures (RIMs) are information that can be obtained from both qualitative and quantitative aspects of FTA. Components within a system can be ranked with respect to each specific criterion defined by each RIM. Through a RIM, a ranking of the components or basic events can be obtained and provide valuable information for risk-informed decision making. Various RIMs have been applied in various applications. In order to provide a thorough understanding of RIMs and interpret the results, they are categorized with respect to risk significance (RS) and safety significance (SS) in this thesis. This has also tied them into different maintenance activities. When RIMs are used for maintenance purposes, it is called risk-informed maintenance. On the other hand, the majority of work produced on the FTA method has been concentrated on failure logic diagrams restricted to the direct or implied use of AND and OR operators. Such systems are considered as coherent systems. However, the NOT logic can also contribute to the information produced by PSA. The importance analysis of non-coherent systems is rather limited, even though the field has received more and more attention over the years. The non-coherent systems introduce difficulties in both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the fault tree compared with the coherent systems. In this thesis, a set

  4. Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkvist, Nils Erik

    Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…

  5. Parsing the intrinsic networks underlying attention: a resting state study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Eleonora; De Panfilis, Chiara; Antonucci, Camilla; Capecci, Cinzia; Marchesi, Carlo; Sambataro, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    The attention system functionally modulates brain activity to exert control over thoughts, feelings and actions. Three distinct but mutually interacting components of attention have been hypothesized: alerting, which mediates the maintenance of a state of vigilance toward an upcoming stimulus; orienting, which supports the selection of sensory information, and executive control that is involved in detecting and resolving cognitive conflicts. The performance of tasks probing these components engages fronto-parietal and thalamic regions. Also, general attention has been associated with the activity of resting-state networks (RSNs), which are sets of brain regions with synchronous temporal fluctuations. Importantly, the association between the intrinsic brain activity of RSNs and the efficiency and integration of the specific attentional components remains largely unexplored. For this aim, we recruited twenty healthy volunteers who performed the Attention Network Test-Revised (ANT-R), assessing the alerting, orienting and executive control components as well as their interactions, and underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. For each participant RSNs were estimated using double regression. The RSNs spanning across areas previously implicated in attentional processing were correlated with ANT-R scores using multiple regressions. Significant brain behavior correlations emerged between ANT-R scores and RSNs comprising the regions relevant for attentional processing, i.e., left and right prefronto-parietal (PFC-PC), dorsal attentional (DAN), salience (SN), and default mode (DMN) networks. The activity of PFC-PC networks was correlated with alerting in parietal and frontal regions, and with location conflict in the frontal regions. The DAN connectivity was correlated with flanker, location conflict, and their interaction in parietal regions. SN was associated with flanker by location and flanker by orienting interactions in the inferior frontal

  6. An intrinsic state for an extended version of the interacting boson model

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ramos, J. E.; Arias, J. M.; Dukelsky, J.; Van Isacker, P.(GANIL, CEA/DSM–CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5, France)

    1999-01-01

    An intrinsic-state formalism for IBM-4 is presented. A basis of deformed bosons is introduced which allows the construction of a general trial wave function which has Wigner's spin-isospin SU(4) symmetry as a particular limit. Intrinsic-state calculations are compared with exact ones showing good agreement.

  7. Non coherent continuum scattering as a line polarization mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Alemán, T del Pino; Bueno, J Trujillo

    2014-01-01

    Line scattering polarization can be strongly affected by Rayleigh scattering by neutral hydrogen and Thompson scattering by free electrons. Often a continuum depolarization results, but the Doppler redistribution produced by the continuum scatterers, which are light (hence, fast), induces more complex interactions between the polarization in spectral lines and in the continuum. Here we formulate and solve the radiative transfer problem of scattering line polarization with non coherent continumm scattering consistently. The problem is formulated within the spherical tensor representation of atomic and light polarization. The numerical method of solution is a generalization of the Accelerated Lambda Iteration that is applied to both, the atomic system and the radiation field. We show that the redistribution of the spectral line radiation due to the non coherence of the continuum scattering may modify significantly the shape of the emergent fractional linear polarization patterns, even yielding polarization sign...

  8. Intrinsically organized resting state networks in the human spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kong, Y.; Eippert, F.; Beckmann, C.F.; Andersson, J.; Finsterbusch, J.; Büchel, C.; Tracey, I.; Brooks, J.C.W.

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals of the brain have repeatedly been observed when no task or external stimulation is present. These fluctuations likely reflect baseline neuronal activity of the brain and correspond to functionally relevant resting-state

  9. On the Capacity of Non-Coherent Network Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Siavoshani, Mahdi Jafari; Fragouli, Christina; Diggavi, Suhas

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of multicasting information from a source to a set of receivers over a network where intermediate network nodes perform randomized network coding operations on the source packets. We propose a channel model for the non-coherent network coding introduced by Koetter and Kschischang in [5], that captures the essence of such a network operation, and calculate the capacity as a function of network parameters. We prove that use of subspace coding, is optimal, and show that, in some cases, the capacity-achieving distribution uses subspaces of several dimensions, as opposed to a subspace coding of a given dimension proposed in literature. This model and the results also allow us to give guidelines on when subspace coding is beneficial, in comparison to a coding vector approach, from a capacity viewpoint. We extend our results to the case of multiple source multicast that creates a virtual multiple access channel.

  10. Non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion

    KAUST Repository

    Agrawal, Anurag

    2011-06-01

    We study the Rayleigh fading non-coherent capacity of secret-key agreement with public discussion, where neither the sender nor the receivers have access to instantaneous channel state information (CSI) of any channel. We present two results. At high Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR), the secret-key capacity is bounded in SNR, regardless of the number of antennas at each terminal. Second, for a system with a single antenna at both the legitimate and the eavesdropper terminals and an arbitrary number of transmit antennas, the secret-key capacity-achieving input distribution is discrete, with a finite number of mass points. Numerically we observe that at low-SNR, the capacity achieving distribution has two mass points with one of them at the origin. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Non-coherent energetic interfaces accounting for degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Ali; Steinmann, Paul; Javili, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Within the continuum mechanics framework, there are two main approaches to model interfaces: classical cohesive zone modeling (CZM) and interface elasticity theory. The classical CZM deals with geometrically non-coherent interfaces for which the constitutive relation is expressed in terms of traction-separation laws. However, CZM lacks any response related to the stretch of the mid-plane of the interface. This issue becomes problematic particularly at small scales with increasing interface area to bulk volume ratios, where interface elasticity is no longer negligible. The interface elasticity theory, in contrast to CZM, deals with coherent interfaces that are endowed with their own energetic structures, and thus is capable of capturing elastic resistance to tangential stretch. Nonetheless, the interface elasticity theory suffers from the lack of inelastic material response, regardless of the strain level. The objective of this contribution therefore is to introduce a generalized mechanical interface model that couples both the elastic response along the interface and the cohesive response across the interface whereby interface degradation is taken into account. The material degradation of the interface mid-plane is captured by a non-local damage model of integral-type. The out-of-plane decohesion is described by a classical cohesive zone model. These models are then coupled through their corresponding damage variables. The non-linear governing equations and the weak forms thereof are derived. The numerical implementation is carried out using the finite element method and consistent tangents are derived. Finally, a series of numerical examples is studied to provide further insight into the problem and to carefully elucidate key features of the proposed theory.

  12. Photoluminescence of CuInSe2 and its intrinsic defect states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Dunlavy, D. J.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Alkuhaimi, S.; Moustafa, R.

    Photoluminescence emission spectra of CuInSe2 crystals with various molecularity and stoichiometry deviations are investigated before and after heat treatments in air at temperatures between 200 and 400 C. Compositional depth profiles of Cd/CuInSe2 heterojunctions heated at 200-250 C indicate that In and Cu outdiffusion takes place at the interface. On the basis of the photoluminescence (PL) spectra and the expected intrinsic defects in the chalcopyrite CuInSe2, energy band diagrams have been proposed to identify the active intrinsic defects in CuInSe2 and to determine their energy location. Accordingly, In-rich material has two acceptor states due to VCu and Sei defects, and three donors due to InCu, Ini and VSe. The origins of the two acceptor states in the Cu-rich material are VIn and CuIn, while donors are attributed to Cui and VSe defects. The PL data are utilized to define the electrically active defects in an effort to correlate the cell performance with the intrinsic defect state behavior. It is deduced that annealing at 200 C improves the cell performance by increasing the net concentration of the acceptor states in the CuInSe2 base, contributing to a conductivity type-conversion of n-type material. A net excess of donors is created due to heat treatments at temperatures above 250 C, correlating with a deterioration of cell performance.

  13. Intrinsic brain network abnormalities in migraines without aura revealed in resting-state fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Xue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have defined low-frequency, spatially consistent intrinsic connectivity networks (ICN in resting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data which reflect functional interactions among distinct brain areas. We sought to explore whether and how repeated migraine attacks influence intrinsic brain connectivity, as well as how activity in these networks correlates with clinical indicators of migraine. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Resting-state fMRI data in twenty-three patients with migraines without aura (MwoA and 23 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC were analyzed using independent component analysis (ICA, in combination with a "dual-regression" technique to identify the group differences of three important pain-related networks [default mode network (DMN, bilateral central executive network (CEN, salience network (SN] between the MwoA patients and HC. Compared with the HC, MwoA patients showed aberrant intrinsic connectivity within the bilateral CEN and SN, and greater connectivity between both the DMN and right CEN (rCEN and the insula cortex - a critical region involving in pain processing. Furthermore, greater connectivity between both the DMN and rCEN and the insula correlated with duration of migraine. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings may provide new insights into the characterization of migraine as a condition affecting brain activity in intrinsic connectivity networks. Moreover, the abnormalities may be the consequence of a persistent central neural system dysfunction, reflecting cumulative brain insults due to frequent ongoing migraine attacks.

  14. Note: Parameter-independent bounding of the stochastic Michaelis-Menten steady-state intrinsic noise variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, L A; Stelling, J; Doyle, F J

    2013-10-28

    Using the (slow-scale) linear noise approximation, we give parameter-independent bounds to the substrate and product intrinsic noise variance for the stochastic Michaelis-Menten approximation at steady state.

  15. State-dependent firing determines intrinsic dendritic Ca2+ signaling in thalamocortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Adam C; Renger, John J; Uebele, Victor N; Crunelli, Vincenzo

    2010-11-01

    Activity-dependent dendritic Ca(2+) signals play a critical role in multiple forms of nonlinear cellular output and plasticity. In thalamocortical neurons, despite the well established spatial separation of sensory and cortical inputs onto proximal and distal dendrites, respectively, little is known about the spatiotemporal dynamics of intrinsic dendritic Ca(2+) signaling during the different state-dependent firing patterns that are characteristic of these neurons. Here we demonstrate that T-type Ca(2+) channels are expressed throughout the entire dendritic tree of rat thalamocortical neurons and that they mediate regenerative propagation of low threshold spikes, typical of, but not exclusive to, sleep states, resulting in global dendritic Ca(2+) influx. In contrast, actively backpropagating action potentials, typical of wakefulness, result in smaller Ca(2+) influxes that can temporally summate to produce dendritic Ca(2+) accumulations that are linearly related to firing frequency but spatially confined to proximal dendritic regions. Furthermore, dendritic Ca(2+) transients evoked by both action potentials and low-threshold spikes are shaped by Ca(2+) uptake by sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases but do not rely on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release. Our data demonstrate that thalamocortical neurons are endowed with intrinsic dendritic Ca(2+) signaling properties that are spatially and temporally modified in a behavioral state-dependent manner and suggest that backpropagating action potentials faithfully inform proximal sensory but not distal corticothalamic synapses of neuronal output, whereas corticothalamic synapses only "detect" Ca(2+) signals associated with low-threshold spikes.

  16. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi2Te3 epitaxial thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Swanson, Jesse; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, L H

    2014-10-21

    Topological insulators represent a novel state of matter with surface charge carriers having a massless Dirac dispersion and locked helical spin polarization. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet their execution has been hampered by the extrinsic conductivity associated with the unavoidable presence of defects in Bi2Te3 and Bi2Se3 bulk single crystals, as well as impurities on their surfaces. Here we present the preparation of Bi2Te3 thin films that are insulating in the bulk and the four-point probe measurement of the conductivity of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean. The total amount of charge carriers in the experiment is of the order of 10(12) cm(-2) only, and mobilities up to 4,600 cm(2)/Vs have been observed. These values are achieved by carrying out the preparation, structural characterization, angle-resolved and X-ray photoemission analysis, and temperature-dependent four-point probe conductivity measurement all in situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions. This experimental approach opens the way to prepare devices that can exploit the intrinsic topological properties of the Dirac surface states.

  17. ATF3 increases the intrinsic growth state of DRG neurons to enhance peripheral nerve regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijffers, Rhona; Mills, Charles D; Woolf, Clifford J

    2007-07-25

    Peripheral axons of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, but not their central axons in the dorsal columns, regenerate after injury. However, if the neurons are conditioned by a peripheral nerve injury into an actively growing state, the rate of peripheral axonal growth is accelerated and the injured central axons begin to regenerate. The growth-promoting effects of conditioning injuries have two components, increased axonal growth and a reduced response to inhibitory myelin cues. We have examined which transcription factors activated by peripheral axonal injury may mediate the conditioning effect by regulating expression of effectors that increase the intrinsic growth state of the neurons. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a prime candidate because it is induced in all injured DRG neurons after peripheral, but not central, axonal damage. To investigate if ATF3 promotes regeneration, we generated transgenic mice that constitutively express this transcription factor in non-injured adult DRG neurons. The rate of peripheral nerve regeneration was enhanced in the transgenic mice to an extent comparable to that produced by a preconditioning nerve injury. The expression of some growth-associated genes, such as SPRR1A, but not others like GAP-43, was increased in the non-injured neurons. ATF3 increased DRG neurite elongation when cultured on permissive substrates but did not overcome the inhibitory effects of myelin or promote central axonal regeneration in the spinal cord in vivo. We conclude that ATF3 contributes to nerve regeneration by increasing the intrinsic growth state of injured neurons.

  18. Slow State Transitions of Sustained Neural Oscillations by Activity-Dependent Modulation of Intrinsic Excitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Flavio; Bazhenov, Maxim; Timofeev, Igor; Steriade, Mircea; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the dynamics and mechanisms of transitions between tonic firing and bursting in cortical networks. Here, we use a computational model of a neocortical circuit with extracellular potassium dynamics to show that activity-dependent modulation of intrinsic excitability can lead to sustained oscillations with slow transitions between two distinct firing modes: fast run (tonic spiking or fast bursts with few spikes) and slow bursting. These transitions are caused by a bistability with hysteresis in a pyramidal cell model. Balanced excitation and inhibition stabilizes a network of pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons in the bistable region and causes sustained periodic alternations between distinct oscillatory states. During spike-wave seizures, neocortical paroxysmal activity exhibits qualitatively similar slow transitions between fast run and bursting. We therefore predict that extracellular potassium dynamics can cause alternating episodes of fast and slow oscillatory states in both normal and epileptic neocortical networks. PMID:16763023

  19. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Puppo, Carine [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Manneville, Stéphanie [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Gontero, Brigitte [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brechot@inserm.fr [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France)

    2016-08-12

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  20. Intrinsic excitability state of local neuronal population modulates signal propagation in feed-forward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruixue; Wang, Jiang; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xilei; Qin, Yingmei; Wang, Haixu

    2015-04-01

    Reliable signal propagation across distributed brain areas is an essential requirement for cognitive function, and it has been investigated extensively in computational studies where feed-forward network (FFN) is taken as a generic model. But it is still unclear how distinct local network states, which are intrinsically generated by synaptic interactions within each layer, would affect the ability of FFN to transmit information. Here we investigate the impact of such network states on propagating transient synchrony (synfire) and firing rate by a combination of numerical simulations and analytical approach. Specifically, local network dynamics is attributed to the competition between excitatory and inhibitory neurons within each layer. Our results show that concomitant with different local network states, the performance of signal propagation differs dramatically. For both synfire propagation and firing rate propagation, there exists an optimal local excitability state, respectively, that optimizes the performance of signal propagation. Furthermore, we find that long-range connections strongly change the dependence of spiking activity propagation on local network state and propose that these two factors work jointly to determine information transmission across distributed networks. Finally, a simple mean field approach that bridges response properties of long-range connectivity and local subnetworks is utilized to reveal the underlying mechanism.

  1. DSP-based non-coherent dual detector demodulator for land mobile radio channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William

    1986-01-01

    This paper outlines the development of a digital demodulator suitable for the non-coherent detection of various modulation formats including: Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) and Frequency Modulation (FM). The demodulator design concept has been derived with a view towards a single integrated circuit (IC) implementation. Two detectors, one non-coherent and one differentially coherent, operate concurrently, providing data detection and automatic frequency control (AFC). Bit error rate results are provided which illustrate the receiver performance in white Gaussian noise.

  2. Effects of ramp vibrational states on flexural intrinsic vibrations in Besocke-style scanners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hui; Jiang Guo-Zhu; Liu Zhao-Qun; Zhang Shu-Yi; Fan Li

    2013-01-01

    For both the vibrating and steady supporting surfaces of a scanning disk in a Besocke-style piezoelectric scanner,a theoretical model is given by considering the nonlinear lateral friction at the micro-contact interface between the positioning legs and the supporting surface.Numerical simulations demonstrate that unexpected flexural vibrations can arise from a vibrating ramp,and their frequencies are lower than the eigenfrequencies of the scanner in the linearly elastic regime.The vibrations essentially depend on 1) the vibrational states of the supporting ramp and the steel ball tips on the three piezoelectric positioning legs,and 2) the tribological characteristics of the contacts between the tips and the ramp.The results give an insight into the intrinsic vibrations of the scanners,and are applicable in designing and optimizing piezoelectric scanning systems.

  3. Probing Intrinsic Resting-State Networks in the Infant Rat Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajic, Dusica; Craig, Michael M.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain. In this study, we hypothesized that large-scale intrinsic networks would be easily detectable but not fully established as specific patterns of activity in lightly anesthetized 2-week-old rats (N = 11). Independent component analysis (ICA) identified 8 networks in 2-week-old-rats. These included Default mode, Sensory (Exteroceptive), Salience (Interoceptive), Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Hippocampal, Basal Ganglia, Autonomic, Cerebellar, as well as Thalamic-Brainstem networks. Many of these networks consisted of more than one component, possibly indicative of immature, underdeveloped networks at this early time point. Except for the Autonomic network, infant rat networks showed reduced connectivity with subcortical structures in comparison to previously published adult networks. Reported slow fluctuations in the BOLD signal that correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks in 2-week-old rats can serve as an important tool for future studies of brain development in the settings of different pharmacological applications or disease. PMID:27803653

  4. Intrinsic Noise Profoundly Alters the Dynamics and Steady State of Morphogen-Controlled Bistable Genetic Switches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Perez-Carrasco

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms. Here, we explore the dynamics of the toggle switch and use exact numerical simulations of the kinetic reactions, the corresponding Chemical Langevin Equation, and Minimum Action Path theory to establish a framework for studying the effect of gene expression noise on patterning time and boundary position. This provides insight into the time scale, gene expression trajectories and directionality of stochastic switching events between cell states. Taking gene expression noise into account predicts that the final boundary position of a morphogen-induced toggle switch, although robust to changes in the details of the noise, is distinct from that of the deterministic system. Moreover, the dramatic increase in patterning time close to the boundary predicted from the deterministic case is substantially reduced. The resulting stochastic switching introduces differences in patterning time along the morphogen gradient that result in a patterning wave propagating away from the morphogen source with a velocity determined by the intrinsic noise. The wave sharpens and slows as it advances and may never reach steady state in a biologically relevant time. This could explain experimentally observed dynamics of pattern formation. Together the analysis reveals the importance of dynamical transients for understanding morphogen-driven transcriptional networks and indicates that gene expression noise can

  5. Non-coherent contributions in charge-exchange reactions and η-η{sup '} mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekrasov, M.L. [NRC ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-15

    We analyse K{sup -}p → (η,η{sup '},π{sup 0})Λ on the basis of the fit of data in a wide region of energies, and π{sup -}p → (η,η{sup '})n at the energies of GAMS-4π. We show that disagreements between the data and the predictions of Regge theory may be explained by the mode change of summation of intermediate contributions at increasing energy, from coherent to non-coherent. A method of experimental measurement of the non-coherent contributions is proposed. On the basis of available data on the charge-exchange reactions the η-η{sup '} mixing is estimated. (orig.)

  6. Modeling of Non-Coherent Sequential Acquisition Process for DS/SS Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳; 马雨出; 张中兆

    2003-01-01

    A modified non-coherent sequential detection decision logic based on continuous accumulation to achieve fast PN code acquisition is proposed. To simplify the design and analysis, the equivalent relationship between the likelihood ratio of the current sample and that of all the previous samples is deduced. The scheme is proved to be an optimum sequential detection under certain assumptions. Because the average sample number (ASN) can not be calculated through the methods applied to the conventional sequential detection, an algorithm is also provided, which can estimate both the probability density function (pdf) and the upper threshole of ASN. The desired probabilities of false alarm and detection,as well as faster PN code acquisition compared to the conventional sequential detection can be achieved by employing this structure . In addition, Rayeigh-faded reception case is also taken into consideration. Performances of the proposed schemes are obtained, which suggest that the proposed non-coherent sequential detection is more desirable.

  7. A Simple Method to Derive Minimal Cut Sets for a Non-coherent Fault Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takehisa Kohda

    2006-01-01

    Minimal cut sets (or prime implicants: minimal combinations of basic event conditions leading to system failure)are important information for reliability/safety analysis and design. To obtain minimal cut sets for general non-coherent fault trees, including negative basic events or multi-valued basic events, a special procedure such as the consensus rule must be applied to the results obtained by logical operations for coherent fault trees, which will require more steps and time.This paper proposes a simple method for a non-coherent fault tree, whose top event is represented as an AND combination of monotonic sub-trees. A "monotonic" sub-tree means that it does not have both positive and negative representations for each basic event. It is proven that minimal cut sets can be obtained by a conventional method for coherent fault trees. An illustrative example of a simple event tree analysis shows the detail and characteristics of the proposed method.

  8. On Localization of A Non-Cooperative Target with Non-Coherent Binary Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoari, Arian; Seyedi, Alireza

    2014-06-01

    Localization of a non-cooperative target with binary detectors is considered. A general expression for the Fisher information for estimation of target location and power is developed. This general expression is then used to derive closed-form approximations for the Cramer-Rao bound for the case of non-coherent detectors. Simulations show that the approximations are quite consistent with the exact bounds.

  9. Intrinsic product polarization and branch ratio in the S(1D, 3P)+HD reaction on three electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Dong, Shunle

    2016-09-01

    The intrinsic product polarization and intramolecular isotope effect of the S(1D, 3P)+HD reaction have been investigated on both the lowest singlet state (1A‧) and the triplet state (3A‧ and 3A″) potential energy surfaces by using quasi-classical trajectory and quantum mechanical methods. The calculations indicate that intramolecular isotope effects are different on the three electronic states. The stereodynamics study shows that the P(θr) distributions, P(ϕr) distributions, and polarization-dependent differential cross sections (PDDCSs) (00) are sensitive to mass factor and the product angular momentum vectors are not only aligned but also oriented.

  10. Differential on-on keying: A robust non-coherent digital modulation scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Kaddoum, Georges

    2015-05-01

    A robust digital modulation scheme, called differential on-on keying (DOOK), is presented in this paper which outperforms the conventional on-off keying (OOK). In this scheme, a sinusoidal signal is transmitted during the first half of the bit duration while a replica or an inverted version of the sinusoidal signal is transmitted during the second half for logic one or logic zero, respectively. Non-coherent receiver correlates the two halves of the received signal over half bit duration to construct a decision variable. Bit error performance is analyzed over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels and compared to the conventional OOK.

  11. Performance Evaluation of a Non-Coherent Digital Delay-Locked Loop in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed G. El-Tarhuni

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available PN code tracking is one of the most important factors that affect the performance of spread spectrumreceivers. It is desirable to maintain PN code tracking for a long period of time and with high accuracy.This paper presents a non-coherent digital delay-locked loop (DLL for code tracking in direct-sequencespread spectrum (DS-SS systems. The proposed technique utilizes three non-coherent correlators withtime-diversity followed by a lock detector. Analytical results for the mean time to lose lock, also calledmean hold-in time, are derived for both additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh fading channelsusing a Markov chain model. Computer simulation results are also presented to validate the analyticalresults. It is shown that the proposed loop can maintain lock for relatively long periods of time underpractical range of signal-to-noise ratio. For instance, the loop maintains lock for more than106 framesfor an energy per bit-to-noise power spectral density (Eb/No of 4 dB or better. It is also shown that themean hold-in time performance is only slightly degraded due to fading because of the time diversity gainutilized by the loop in obtaining the timing information. Finally, the ability of the proposed technique tosuccessfully track randomly and linearly varying delays is demonstrated.

  12. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    CERN Document Server

    de la Cruz, Roberto; Spill, Fabian; Alarcón, Tomás

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under1 quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the Chemical Master Equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provide the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually-inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circui...

  13. A search for the coherently radiating fluxon state in stacks of long intrinsic Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H J; Bae, M H; Wang, H; Yamashita, T

    2002-01-01

    We studied the motion of fluxons in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 sub + subdelta single crystals in a long junction limit. Driven by the tunnelling bias, current Josephson fluxons excite plasma oscillations and move in resonance with the plasma propagation modes. We examined two types of samples in this study; mesa structure (UD1) and a stack of junctions sandwiched between normal-metallic electrodes (DSC1). In a high magnetic field, the hysteresis in the I-V characteristics of both-types of samples vanished. The resulting single I-V curve exhibited a cusp structure at characteristic bias voltages which were believed to be boundaries of different moving fluxon configurations. We studied the sample-geometry dependence of the cusp characteristics by comparing the results from the two types of samples.

  14. Design of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdong; Peng, Xiaocan; Ma, Li; Sun, Mei

    2016-11-01

    In order to enlarge the communication capability, a model of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams is established. One detector for measurement the signal of the vortex beam with topological charge of 0, which is a Gaussian beam, is located in the center of the cross sectional plane of vortex beam. The other three detectors are set around the first detector in the same plane to receive the power of the vortex beam with topological charge of 1. The principle of determining the emitting power of vortex beams, the radii and the positions of the detectors are suggested to increase the signals and reduce the interchannel crosstalk noise at the detectors. The signal powers as well as the interchannel crosstalk noise in a receiver channel are identical to that in another channel, respectively. This research may have applications in free space optical communications.

  15. Non-coherent space-time code based on full diversity space-time block coding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A non-unitary non-coherent space-time code which is capable of achieving full algebraic diversity is proposed based on full diversity space-time block coding. The error performance is optimized by transforming the non-unitary space-time code into unitary space-time code. By exploiting the desired structure of the proposed code, a grouped generalized likelihood ratio test decoding algorithm is presented to overcome the high complexity of the optimal algorithm. Simulation results show that the proposed code possesses high spectrum efficiency in contrast to the unitary space-time code despite slight loss in the SNR, and besides, the proposed grouped decoding algorithm provides good tradeoff between performance and complexity.

  16. Moving Target Parameters Estimation in Non-Coherent MIMO Radar Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Gershman, Alex B

    2012-01-01

    The problem of estimating the parameters of a moving target in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar is considered and a new approach for estimating the moving target parameters by making use of the phase information associated with each transmit-receive path is introduced. It is required for this technique that different receive antennas have the same time reference, but no synchronization of initial phases of the receive antennas is needed and, therefore, the estimation process is non-coherent. We model the target motion within a certain processing interval as a polynomial of general order. The first three coefficients of such a polynomial correspond to the initial location, velocity, and acceleration of the target, respectively. A new maximum likelihood (ML) technique for estimating the target motion coefficients is developed. It is shown that the considered ML problem can be interpreted as the classic "overdetermined" nonlinear least-squares problem. The proposed ML estimator requires multi-dimensio...

  17. Optimal non-coherent data detection for massive SIMO wireless systems: A polynomial complexity solution

    KAUST Repository

    Alshamary, Haider Ali Jasim

    2016-01-04

    © 2015 IEEE. This paper considers the joint maximum likelihood (ML) channel estimation and data detection problem for massive SIMO (single input multiple output) wireless systems. We propose efficient algorithms achieving the exact ML non-coherent data detection, for both constant-modulus constellations and nonconstant-modulus constellations. Despite a large number of unknown channel coefficients in massive SIMO systems, we show that the expected computational complexity is linear in the number of receive antennas and polynomial in channel coherence time. To the best of our knowledge, our algorithms are the first efficient algorithms to achieve the exact joint ML channel estimation and data detection performance for massive SIMO systems with general constellations. Simulation results show our algorithms achieve considerable performance gains at a low computational complexity.

  18. Discriminating binding mechanisms of an intrinsically disordered protein via a multi-state coarse-grained model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, Michael [Department of Chemistry, Cambridge University, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Best, Robert B., E-mail: robertbe@helix.nih.gov [Department of Chemistry, Cambridge University, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-0520 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Many proteins undergo a conformational transition upon binding to their cognate binding partner, with intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) providing an extreme example in which a folding transition occurs. However, it is often not clear whether this occurs via an “induced fit” or “conformational selection” mechanism, or via some intermediate scenario. In the first case, transient encounters with the binding partner favour transitions to the bound structure before the two proteins dissociate, while in the second the bound structure must be selected from a subset of unbound structures which are in the correct state for binding, because transient encounters of the incorrect conformation with the binding partner are most likely to result in dissociation. A particularly interesting situation involves those intrinsically disordered proteins which can bind to different binding partners in different conformations. We have devised a multi-state coarse-grained simulation model which is able to capture the binding of IDPs in alternate conformations, and by applying it to the binding of nuclear coactivator binding domain (NCBD) to either ACTR or IRF-3 we are able to determine the binding mechanism. By all measures, the binding of NCBD to either binding partner appears to occur via an induced fit mechanism. Nonetheless, we also show how a scenario closer to conformational selection could arise by choosing an alternative non-binding structure for NCBD.

  19. Intrinsic conduction through topological surface states of insulating Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefer, Katharina; Becker, Christoph; Rata, Diana; Thalmeier, Peter; Tjeng, Liu Hao [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Swanson, Jesse [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Topological insulators represent a new state of matter that open up new opportunities to create unique quantum particles. Many exciting experiments have been proposed by theory, yet, the main obstacle for their execution is material quality and cleanliness of the experimental conditions. The presence of tiny amounts of defects in the bulk or contaminants at the surface already mask these phenomena. We present the preparation, structural and spectroscopic characterisation of MBE-grown Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films that are insulating in the bulk. Moreover, temperature dependent four-point-probe resistivity measurements of the Dirac states on surfaces that are intrinsically clean were conducted. The total amount of surface charge carries is in the order of 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2} and mobilities up to 4600 cm{sup 2}/Vs are observed. Importantly, these results are achieved by carrying out the preparation and characterisation all in-situ under ultra-high-vacuum conditions.

  20. Examining Intrinsic Thalamic Resting State Networks Using Graph Theory Analysis : Implications for mTBI detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    al., “Functional disintegration in paranoid schizophrenia using resting-state fMRI”, Schiz. Res, vol. 97, pp. 194–205, 2007. [24] L.Q. Uddin, et al...disruptions in the resting state networks and neurocognitive pathologies such as schizophrenia , Alzheimer’s disease and attention deficit hyperactive

  1. Excited-State Spin Manipulation and Intrinsic Nuclear Spin Memory using Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Gregory

    2011-03-01

    Nitrogen vacancy (NV) center spins in diamond have emerged as a promising solid-state system for quantum information processing and precision metrology at room temperature. Understanding and developing the built-in resources of this defect center for quantum logic and memory is critical to achieving these goals. In the first case, we use nanosecond duration microwave manipulation to study the electronic spin of single NV centers in their orbital excited-state (ES). We demonstrate ES Rabi oscillations and use multi-pulse resonant control to differentiate between phonon-induced dephasing, orbital relaxation, and coherent electron-nuclear interactions. A second resource, the nuclear spin of the intrinsic nitrogen atom, may be an ideal candidate for a quantum memory due to both the long coherence of nuclear spins and their deterministic presence. We investigate coherent swaps between the NV center electronic spin state and the nuclear spin state of nitrogen using Landau-Zener transitions performed outside the asymptotic regime. The swap gates are generated using lithographically fabricated waveguides that form a high-bandwidth, two-axis vector magnet on the diamond substrate. These experiments provide tools for coherently manipulating and storing quantum information in a scalable solid-state system at room temperature. We gratefully acknowledge support from AFOSR, ARO, and DARPA.

  2. Steady-State and Time-Resolved Studies into the Origin of the Intrinsic Fluorescence of G-Quadruplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherlock, Madeline E; Rumble, Christopher A; Kwok, Chun Kit; Breffke, Jens; Maroncelli, Mark; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2016-06-16

    Stretches of guanines in DNA and RNA can fold into guanine quadruplex structures (GQSs). These structures protect telomeres in DNA and regulate gene expression in RNA. GQSs have an intrinsic fluorescence that is sensitive to different parameters, including loop sequence and length. However, the dependence of GQS fluorescence on solution and sequence parameters and the origin of this fluorescence are poorly understood. Herein we examine effects of dangling nucleotides and cosolute conditions on GQS fluorescence using both steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The quantum yield of dGGGTGGGTGGGTGGG, termed "dG3T", is found to be modest at ∼2 × 10(-3). Nevertheless, dG3T and its variants are significantly brighter than the common nucleic acid fluorophore 2-aminopurine (2AP) largely due to their sizable extinction coefficients. Dangling 5'-end nucleotides generally reduce emission and blue-shift the resultant spectrum, whereas dangling 3'-end nucleotides slightly enhance fluorescence, particularly on the red side of the emission band. Time-resolved fluorescence decays are broadly distributed in time and require three exponential components for accurate fits. Time-resolved emission spectra suggest the presence of two emitting populations centered at ∼330 and ∼390 nm, with the redder component being a well-defined long-lived (∼1 ns) entity. Insights into GQS fluorescence obtained here should be useful in designing brighter intrinsic RNA and DNA quadruplexes for use in label-free biotechnological applications.

  3. Cancer as robust intrinsic state shaped by evolution: a key issues review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Zhu, Xiaomei; Wang, Gaowei; Li, Site; Ao, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Cancer is a complex disease: its pathology cannot be properly understood in terms of independent players—genes, proteins, molecular pathways, or their simple combinations. This is similar to many-body physics of a condensed phase that many important properties are not determined by a single atom or molecule. The rapidly accumulating large ‘omics’ data also require a new mechanistic and global underpinning to organize for rationalizing cancer complexity. A unifying and quantitative theory was proposed by some of the present authors that cancer is a robust state formed by the endogenous molecular-cellular network, which is evolutionarily built for the developmental processes and physiological functions. Cancer state is not optimized for the whole organism. The discovery of crucial players in cancer, together with their developmental and physiological roles, in turn, suggests the existence of a hierarchical structure within molecular biology systems. Such a structure enables a decision network to be constructed from experimental knowledge. By examining the nonlinear stochastic dynamics of the network, robust states corresponding to normal physiological and abnormal pathological phenotypes, including cancer, emerge naturally. The nonlinear dynamical model of the network leads to a more encompassing understanding than the prevailing linear-additive thinking in cancer research. So far, this theory has been applied to prostate, hepatocellular, gastric cancers and acute promyelocytic leukemia with initial success. It may offer an example of carrying physics inquiring spirit beyond its traditional domain: while quantitative approaches can address individual cases, however there must be general rules/laws to be discovered in biology and medicine.

  4. The effects of intrinsic noise on the behaviour of bistable cell regulatory systems under quasi-steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz, Roberto; Alarcón, Tomás de la [Centre de Recerca Matemàtica. Edifici C, Campus de Bellaterra, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Departament de Matemàtiques, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Guerrero, Pilar [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spill, Fabian [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    We analyse the effect of intrinsic fluctuations on the properties of bistable stochastic systems with time scale separation operating under quasi-steady state conditions. We first formulate a stochastic generalisation of the quasi-steady state approximation based on the semi-classical approximation of the partial differential equation for the generating function associated with the chemical master equation. Such approximation proceeds by optimising an action functional whose associated set of Euler-Lagrange (Hamilton) equations provides the most likely fluctuation path. We show that, under appropriate conditions granting time scale separation, the Hamiltonian can be re-scaled so that the set of Hamilton equations splits up into slow and fast variables, whereby the quasi-steady state approximation can be applied. We analyse two particular examples of systems whose mean-field limit has been shown to exhibit bi-stability: an enzyme-catalysed system of two mutually inhibitory proteins and a gene regulatory circuit with self-activation. Our theory establishes that the number of molecules of the conserved species is order parameters whose variation regulates bistable behaviour in the associated systems beyond the predictions of the mean-field theory. This prediction is fully confirmed by direct numerical simulations using the stochastic simulation algorithm. This result allows us to propose strategies whereby, by varying the number of molecules of the three conserved chemical species, cell properties associated to bistable behaviour (phenotype, cell-cycle status, etc.) can be controlled.

  5. Are Charge-State Distributions a Reliable Tool Describing Molecular Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by Native MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalello, Antonino; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution. However, structural rearrangements during electrospray-ionization (ESI) or after the transfer to the gas phase could affect data obtained by native ESI-MS. In particular, charge-state distributions (CSDs) are affected by protein conformation inside ESI droplets, while ion mobility (IM) reflects protein conformation in the gas phase. This review focuses on the available evidence relating IDP solution ensembles with CSDs, trying to summarize cases of apparent consistency or discrepancy. The protein-specificity of ionization patterns and their responses to ligands and buffer conditions suggests that CSDs are imprinted to protein structural features also in the case of IDPs. Nevertheless, it seems that these proteins are more easily affected by electrospray conditions, leading in some cases to rearrangements of the conformational ensembles.

  6. Are Charge-State Distributions a Reliable Tool Describing Molecular Ensembles of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins by Native MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalello, Antonino; Santambrogio, Carlo; Grandori, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Native mass spectrometry (MS) has become a central tool of structural proteomics, but its applicability to the peculiar class of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is still object of debate. IDPs lack an ordered tridimensional structure and are characterized by high conformational plasticity. Since they represent valuable targets for cancer and neurodegeneration research, there is an urgent need of methodological advances for description of the conformational ensembles populated by these proteins in solution. However, structural rearrangements during electrospray-ionization (ESI) or after the transfer to the gas phase could affect data obtained by native ESI-MS. In particular, charge-state distributions (CSDs) are affected by protein conformation inside ESI droplets, while ion mobility (IM) reflects protein conformation in the gas phase. This review focuses on the available evidence relating IDP solution ensembles with CSDs, trying to summarize cases of apparent consistency or discrepancy. The protein-specificity of ionization patterns and their responses to ligands and buffer conditions suggests that CSDs are imprinted to protein structural features also in the case of IDPs. Nevertheless, it seems that these proteins are more easily affected by electrospray conditions, leading in some cases to rearrangements of the conformational ensembles.

  7. Intrinsic-Density Functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, J

    2006-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals.

  8. Intrinsic Time Quantum Geometrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ita, Eyo Eyo; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development and momentric variables is presented. An underlying SU(3) group structure at each spatial point regulates the theory. The intrinsic time behavior of the theory is analyzed, together with its ground state and primordial quantum fluctuations. Cotton-York potential dominates at early times when the universe was small; the ground state naturally resolves Penrose's Weyl Curvature Hypothesis, and thermodynamic and gravitational `arrows of time' point in the same direction. Ricci scalar potential corresponding to Einstein's General Relativity emerges as a zero-point energy contribution. A new set of fundamental canonical commutation relations without Planck's constant emerges from the unification of Gravitation and Quantum Mechanics.

  9. Photo-induced density-of-states variation measured by DLTS method in intrinsic micro-crystalline silicon (i-μc-Si:H) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Sun, Q. S.; Liu, H. N.; He, Y. L.

    1987-06-01

    This paper advances a measurement and two calculations of a high-frequency DLTS method for the density-of-states g(E) of intrinsic micro-crystalline and amorphous silicon film. The method surmounts the difficulties of DLTS measurement of i-a-Si:H or i-μc-Si:H samples and applies the common high-frequency DLTS to it, while the temperature of measurement is extended below 77K. Following the method, we successfully observed the obvious increase of density-of-states produced by illumination.

  10. Variability in State-Dependent Plasticity of Intrinsic Properties during Cell-Autonomous Self-Regulation of Calcium Homeostasis in Hippocampal Model Neurons1,2,3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Sunandha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract How do neurons reconcile the maintenance of calcium homeostasis with perpetual switches in patterns of afferent activity? Here, we assessed state-dependent evolution of calcium homeostasis in a population of hippocampal pyramidal neuron models, through an adaptation of a recent study on stomatogastric ganglion neurons. Calcium homeostasis was set to emerge through cell-autonomous updates to 12 ionic conductances, responding to different types of synaptically driven afferent activity. We first assessed the impact of theta-frequency inputs on the evolution of ionic conductances toward maintenance of calcium homeostasis. Although calcium homeostasis emerged efficaciously across all models in the population, disparate changes in ionic conductances that mediated this emergence resulted in variable plasticity to several intrinsic properties, also manifesting as significant differences in firing responses across models. Assessing the sensitivity of this form of plasticity, we noted that intrinsic neuronal properties and the firing response were sensitive to the target calcium concentration and to the strength and frequency of afferent activity. Next, we studied the evolution of calcium homeostasis when afferent activity was switched, in different temporal sequences, between two behaviorally distinct types of activity: theta-frequency inputs and sharp-wave ripples riding on largely silent periods. We found that the conductance values, intrinsic properties, and firing response of neurons exhibited differential robustness to an intervening switch in the type of afferent activity. These results unveil critical dissociations between different forms of homeostasis, and call for a systematic evaluation of the impact of state-dependent switches in afferent activity on neuronal intrinsic properties during neural coding and homeostasis. PMID:26464994

  11. Direct Microlensing-Reverberation Observations of the Intrinsic magnetic Structure of AGN in Different Spectral States: A Tale of Two Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Schild, Rudolph E; Robertson, Stanley L

    2007-01-01

    We show how direct microlensing-reverberation analysis performed on two well-known Quasars (Q2237 - The Einstein Cross and Q0957 - The Twin) can be used to observe the inner structure of two quasars which are in significantly different spectral states. These observations allow us to measure the detailed internal structure of quasar Q2237 in a radio quiet high-soft state, and compare it to quasar Q0957 in a radio loud low-hard state. We find that the observed differences in the spectral states of these two quasars can be understood as being due to the location of the inner radii of their accretion disks relative to the co-rotation radii of rotating intrinsically magnetic supermassive compact objects in the centers of these quasars.

  12. Optical study on intrinsic exciton states in high-quality CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu Ha Do, T.; Granados del Águila, A.; Cui, Chao; Xing, Jun; Ning, Zhijun; Xiong, Qihua

    2017-08-01

    Organolead halide perovskites have emerged as potential building blocks for photovoltaic and optoelectronic devices. Yet the underlying fundamental physics is not well understood. There is lack of agreement on the electronic band structures and binding energies of coupled electron-hole pairs (excitons), which drive the photophysical processes. In this work, we conducted temperature-dependent reflectance and photoluminescence experiments on high-quality CH3NH3PbBr3 single crystals. Two direct optical transitions corresponding to intrinsic free-excitons are clearly resolved, showing excellent consistence between the low-temperature (T =10 K) reflectance and photoluminescence spectra. Remarkably, the excitons have different binding energies and behave oppositely with temperature, suggesting distinctive origins. Moreover, the asymmetric photoluminescence profile is counterintuitively dominated by the high-energy exciton that is explained by a long relaxation time between levels and by the favorable generation rate of electron-hole pairs at the high-energy band. Our study opens access to the intrinsic properties of CH3NH3PbBr3 and sheds light to reconcile the large range of binding energies reported on these emergent direct band-gap semiconductors.

  13. 配电网可靠性非同调分析%Analysis of Reliability Non-coherence in Distribution Power Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢开贵; 李万年

    2011-01-01

    The reasons of resulting in the non-coherence phenomena and the candidate non-coherence components in distribution power systems(DPS)are discussedfor the purpose of eliminating the non-coherence phenomena in power system and improving the systern's reliability. In order to analyze the impacts of non-coherence components on the system reliability of DPS,a algorithm is presented to evaluate the DPS reliability considering the failures of switching devices. A comprehensive analysis considering the capital cost, maintenance and the expense of power outage is proposed to evaluate the impacts of non-coherence components on the system economy. Case to study on the RBTS-36 system are used to analyze the existence of non-coherence components,the reliabilty impacts and the economic impacts of non-coherence components. The case results show that through the analysis of the reliability of non-coherence components in DPS,the system reliability performance could be imporved,the comprehensive cost such as capital and maintenance could be reduced.%为了消除配电网中的非同调现象,提高系统可靠性,分析了配电网可靠性产生非同调的原因和可能元件.为分析配电网可靠性非同调元件的可靠性影响,实现非同调分析,提出了计及开关故障的配电网可靠性评估算法;为分析非同调元件的经验性影响,从投资、运行维护、停电损失等费用对非同调元件进行了综合经济分析.以RBTS-BUS6等系统为例,分析了配电网可靠性非同调元件的存在性、非同调元件的可靠性影响和经验性影响等.算例表明:通过可靠性非同调元件的分析,可有效提高配电网可靠性,降低系统投资和运行等综合成本.

  14. Resonant Phase Escape from the First Resistive State of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy Intrinsic Josephson Junctions under Strong Microwave Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yusaku; Kakehi, Daiki; Takekoshi, Shuho; Ishikawa, Kazuki; Ayukawa, Shin-ya; Kitano, Haruhisa

    2016-07-01

    We report a study of the phase escape in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy intrinsic Josephson junctions under the strong microwave irradiation, focusing on the switch from the first resistive state (2nd SW). The resonant double-peak structure is clearly observed in the switching current distributions below 10 K and is successfully explained by a quantum-mechanical model on the quantum phase escape under the strong microwave field. These results provide the first evidence for the formation of the energy level quantization for the 2nd SW, supporting that the macroscopic quantum tunneling for the 2nd SW survives up to ˜10 K.

  15. Using van Hove singularities of the two-phonon density of states to investigate the intrinsically localized vibrations of NaI crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyare, Benjamin; Riseborough, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Intrinsically Localized Modes (ILMs) have purportedly been observed in NaI but only for wave-vectors, q at the corner of the 3-D Brillouin Zone. It has been suggested that, for high-symmetry q vectors, several van Hove singularities may converge at one frequency producing a large peak in the two-phonon density of state and giving rise to ILMs with these q values. We fit the experimentally determined acoustic and the optic phonon modes using a nearest neighbor and a next-nearest neighbor force constant. We find that the two-phonon density of states, for fixed q exhibits non-divergent van Hove singularities. The frequencies of these features are found to vary as q is varied. We intend to search for q values at which the two-phonon density of states is enhanced and then examine whether the anharmonic interactions can bind the two-phonon excitations to produce a quantized ILM.

  16. Abnormal intrinsic brain activity in amnestic mild cognitive impairment revealed by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XI Qian; ZHAO Xiao-hu; WANG Pei-jun; GUO Qi-hao; HE Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that brain functional activity in the resting state is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.However,alterations in intrinsic brain activity patterns in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are poorly understood.This study aimed to explore the differences in regional intrinsic activities throughout the whole brain between aMCI patients and controls.Methods In the present study,resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed on 18 amnestic MCI (aMCI) patients,18 mild AD patients and 20 healthy elderly subjects.And amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) method was used.Results Compared with healthy elderly subjects,aMCI patients showed decreased ALFF in the right hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex,left lateral temporal cortex,and right ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) and increased ALFF in the left temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) and inferior parietal Iobule (IPL).Mild AD patients showed decreased ALFF in the left TPJ,posterior IPL (plPL),and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex compared with aMCI patients.Mild AD patients also had decreased ALFF in the right posterior cingulate cortex,right vMPFC and bilateral dorsal MPFC (dMPFC) compared with healthy elderly subjects.Conclusions Decreased intrinsic activities in brain regions closely related to episodic memory were found in aMCI and AD patients.Increased TPJ and IPL activity may indicate compensatory mechanisms for loss of memory function in aMCI patients.These findings suggest that the fMRI based on ALFF analysis may provide a useful tool in the study of aMCI patients.

  17. Intrinsic brain activity in altered states of consciousness: how conscious is the default mode of brain function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M; Phillips, C; Tshibanda, L; Vanhaudenhuyse, A; Schabus, M; Dang-Vu, T T; Moonen, G; Hustinx, R; Maquet, P; Laureys, S

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has recently received increasing interest in the neuroimaging community. However, the value of resting-state studies to a better understanding of brain-behavior relationships has been challenged. That altered states of consciousness are a privileged way to study the relationships between spontaneous brain activity and behavior is proposed, and common resting-state brain activity features observed in various states of altered consciousness are reviewed. Early positron emission tomography studies showed that states of extremely low or high brain activity are often associated with unconsciousness. However, this relationship is not absolute, and the precise link between global brain metabolism and awareness remains yet difficult to assert. In contrast, voxel-based analyses identified a systematic impairment of associative frontoparieto-cingulate areas in altered states of consciousness, such as sleep, anesthesia, coma, vegetative state, epileptic loss of consciousness, and somnambulism. In parallel, recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have identified structured patterns of slow neuronal oscillations in the resting human brain. Similar coherent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) systemwide patterns can also be found, in particular in the default-mode network, in several states of unconsciousness, such as coma, anesthesia, and slow-wave sleep. The latter results suggest that slow coherent spontaneous BOLD fluctuations cannot be exclusively a reflection of conscious mental activity, but may reflect default brain connectivity shaping brain areas of most likely interactions in a way that transcends levels of consciousness, and whose functional significance remains largely in the dark.

  18. Intrinsic life-time and external manipulation of Néel states in antiferromagnetic adatom spins on semiconductor surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Liu, Bang-Gui

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that antiferromagnetic Fe adatom spins on semiconductor Cu-N surfaces can be used to store information (Loth et al 2012 Science 335 196). Here, we investigate spin dynamics of such antiferromagnetic systems through Monte Carlo simulations. We find out the temperature and size laws of switching rates of Néel states and show that the Néel states can become stable enough for the information storage when the number of spins reaches one or two dozens of the Fe spins. We also explore promising methods for manipulating the Néel states. These could help realize information storage with such antiferromagnetic spin systems.

  19. Efficiency of extrinsic and intrinsic charge-carrier photogeneration processes obtained from the steady-state photocurrent action spectra of poly( p-phenylene vinylene) derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazati, T.; Santos, L. F.; Reis, F. T.; Faria, R. M.

    2012-09-01

    The efficiency of the charge-carrier photogeneration processes in poly(2,5-bis(3',7'-dimethyl-octyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene) (OC1OC10-PPV) has been analyzed by the spectral response of the photocurrent of devices in ITO/polymer/Al structures. The symbatic response of the photocurrent action spectra of the OC1OC10-PPV devices, obtained for light-excitation through the ITO electrode and for forward bias, has been fitted using a phenomenological model which considers that the predominant transport mechanism under external applied electric field is the drift of photogenerated charge-carriers, neglecting charge-carrier diffusion. The proposed model takes into account that charge-carrier photogeneration occurs via intermediate stages of bounded pairs (excitonic states), followed by dissociation processes. Such processes result in two different contributions to the photoconductivity: The first one, associated to direct creation of unbound polaron pairs due to intrinsic photoionization; and the second one is associated to secondary processes like extrinsic photoinjection at the metallic electrodes. The results obtained from the model have shown that the intrinsic component of the photoconductivity at higher excitation energies has a considerably higher efficiency than the extrinsic one, suggesting a dependence on the photon energy for the efficiency of the photogeneration process.

  20. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  1. Evaluation of a measure on the quasi-steady state assumption of Collisional Radiative Models via Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifold Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Kemaneci, Efe; Graef, Wouter; van Dijk, Jan; Kroesen, Gerrit M W

    2015-01-01

    Collisional and radiative dynamics of a plasma is exposed by so-called Collisional Radiative Models [1] that simplify the chemical kinetics by quasi-steady state assignment on certain types of particles. The assignment is conventionally based on the classification of the plasma species by the ratio of the transport to the local destruction frequencies. We show that the classification is not exact due to the role of the time-dependent local production, and a measure is necessary to confirm the validity of the assignment. The main goal of this study is to evaluate a measure on the quasi-steady state assumptions of these models. Inspired by a chemical reduction technique called Intrinsic Low Dimensional Manifolds [2, 3], an estimate local source is provided at the transport time-scale. This source is a deviation from the quasi-steady state for the particle and its value is assigned as an error of the quasi-steady state assumption. The propagation of this error on the derived quantities is formulated in the Colli...

  2. Study of microwave-induced phase switches from the finite voltage state in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Haruhisa; Yamaguchi, Ayami; Takahashi, Yusaku; Kakehi, Daiki; Ayukawa, Shin-ya

    2017-07-01

    We study the microwave-induced phase switches from the finite voltage state for the underdamped intrinsic Josephson junctions (IJJs) made of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy (Bi2212). We observe the resonant double-peak structure in the switching current distribution at low temperatures. This feature is successfully explained by a quantum mechanical model where the strong microwave field effectively suppresses the potential barrier for the phase escape from a potential well and the macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) is resonantly enhanced. The detailed analyses considering the effects of multiple phase retrapping processes after the phase escape strongly suggest that the intense microwave field suppresses the energy-level spacing in the potential well, by effectively decreasing the fluctuation-free critical current and the Josephson plasma frequency. This effect also reduces the number of photons required for the multiphoton transition between the ground and the first excited states, making it possible to observe the energy level quantization in the MQT state. The temperature dependence of the resonance peak emerging in the switching rate clearly demonstrates that the quantized energy state can be survived up to ~10 K, which is much higher than a crossover temperature predicted by the conventional Caldeira-Leggett theory.

  3. Multiple structural states exist throughout the helical nucleation sequence of the intrinsically disordered protein stathmin, as reported by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ashley J; López, Carlos J; Brooks, Evan K; Chua, Katherina C; Doupey, Tonia G; Foltz, Gretchen N; Kamel, Joseph G; Larrosa, Estefania; Sadiki, Amissi; Bridges, Michael D

    2015-03-10

    The intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) stathmin plays an important regulatory role in cytoskeletal maintenance through its helical binding to tubulin and microtubules. However, it lacks a stable fold in the absence of its binding partner. Although stathmin has been a focus of research over the past two decades, the solution-phase conformational dynamics of this IDP are poorly understood. It has been reported that stathmin is purely monomeric in solution and that it bears a short helical region of persistent foldedness, which may act to nucleate helical folding in the C-terminal direction. Here we report a comprehensive study of the structural equilibria local to this region in stathmin that contradicts these two claims. Using the technique of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy on spin-labeled stathmin mutants in the solution-phase and when immobilized on Sepharose solid support, we show that all sites in the helical nucleation region of stathmin exhibit multiple spectral components that correspond to dynamic states of differing mobilities and stabilities. Importantly, a state with relatively low mobility dominates each spectrum with an average population greater than 50%, which we suggest corresponds to an oligomerized state of the protein. This is in contrast to a less populated, more mobile state, which likely represents a helically folded monomeric state of stathmin, and a highly mobile state, which we propose is the random coil conformer of the protein. Our interpretation of the EPR data is confirmed by further characterization of the protein using the techniques of native and SDS PAGE, gel filtration chromatography, and multiangle and dynamic light scattering, all of which show the presence of oligomeric stathmin in solution. Collectively, these data suggest that stathmin exists in a diverse equilibrium of states throughout the purported helical nucleation region and that this IDP exhibits a propensity toward oligomerization.

  4. Clinical, cognitive, and functional connectivity correlations of resting-state intrinsic brain activity alterations in unmedicated depression

    OpenAIRE

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Yang, Shaolin; Kumar, Anand; Ajilore, Olusola

    2014-01-01

    The pervasive and persistent nature of depressive symptoms has made resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) an appropriate approach for understanding the underlying mechanisms of major depressive disorder. The majority of rs-fMRI research has focused on depression-related alterations in the interregional coordination of brain baseline low frequency oscillations (LFOs). However, alteration of the regional amplitude of LFOs in depression, particularly its clinical, cogniti...

  5. The equilibrium unfolding of triosephosphate isomerase from t. cruzi in guanidinium hydrochloride is a four state process. Intrinsic fluorescence studies

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar Vázquez Contreras; Brenda Guadalupe Sánchez Rebollar; María Elena Chánez Cárdenas

    2004-01-01

    Equilibrium and kinetic folding pathways of several homologous proteins have been studied. Early studies concluded that the folding routes of homologous proteins follow fundamentally similar pathways, and that the folding of a certain conformation is conserved throughout evolution. However, there are examples of homologous proteins that unfold by different routes. Regarding triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), unfolding studies with enzymes from different sources, have shown: 1) two-state behavio...

  6. Gaussian Intrinsic Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mišta, Ladislav; Tatham, Richard

    2016-12-01

    We introduce a cryptographically motivated quantifier of entanglement in bipartite Gaussian systems called Gaussian intrinsic entanglement (GIE). The GIE is defined as the optimized mutual information of a Gaussian distribution of outcomes of measurements on parts of a system, conditioned on the outcomes of a measurement on a purifying subsystem. We show that GIE vanishes only on separable states and exhibits monotonicity under Gaussian local trace-preserving operations and classical communication. In the two-mode case, we compute GIE for all pure states as well as for several important classes of symmetric and asymmetric mixed states. Surprisingly, in all of these cases, GIE is equal to Gaussian Rényi-2 entanglement. As GIE is operationally associated with the secret-key agreement protocol and can be computed for several important classes of states, it offers a compromise between computable and physically meaningful entanglement quantifiers.

  7. Intrinsic brain connectivity in chronic pain: A resting-state fMRI study in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär eFlodin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is commonly accompanied by pain that is discordant with the degree of peripheral pathology. Very little is known about the cerebral processes involved in pain processing in RA. Here we investigated resting-state brain connectivity associated with prolonged pain in RA. Methods. 24 RA subjects and 19 matched controls were compared with regard to both behavioral measures of pain perception and resting-resting state fMRI data acquired subsequently to fMRI sessions involving pain stimuli. The resting-state fMRI brain connectivity was investigated using 159 seed regions located in cardinal pain processing brain regions. Additional principal component based multivariate pattern analysis of the whole brain connectivity pattern was carried out in a data driven analysis to localize group differences in functional connectivity. Results. When RA patients were compared to controls, we observed significantly lower pain resilience for pressure on the affected finger joints (i.e. P50-joint and an overall heightened level of perceived global pain in RA patients. Relative to controls, RA patients displayed increased brain connectivity predominately for the supplementary motor areas, mid-cingulate cortex and the primary sensorimotor cortex. Additionally, we observed an increase in brain connectivity between the insula and prefrontal cortex as well as between anterior cingulate cortex and occipital areas for RA patients. None of the group differences in brain connectivity were significantly correlated with behavioral parameters.Conclusion. Our study provides experimental evidence of increased connectivity between frontal midline regions that are implicated in affective pain processing and bilateral sensorimotor regions in RA patients.

  8. Modafinil alters intrinsic functional connectivity of the right posterior insula: a pharmacological resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Cera

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Modafinil is employed for the treatment of narcolepsy and has also been, off-label, used to treat cognitive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders. In a previous study, we have reported that single dose administration of modafinil in healthy young subjects enhances fluid reasoning and affects resting state activity in the Fronto Parietal Control (FPC and Dorsal Attention (DAN networks. No changes were found in the Salience Network (SN, a surprising result as the network is involved in the modulation of emotional and fluid reasoning. The insula is crucial hub of the SN and functionally divided in anterior and posterior subregions. METHODOLOGY: Using a seed-based approach, we have now analyzed effects of modafinil on the functional connectivity (FC of insular subregions. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of FC with resting state fMRI (rs-FMRI revealed increased FC between the right posterior insula and the putamen, the superior frontal gyrus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the modafinil-treated group. CONCLUSIONS: Modafinil is considered a putative cognitive enhancer. The rs-fMRI modifications that we have found are consistent with the drug cognitive enhancing properties and indicate subregional targets of action. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01684306.

  9. Working memory performance is related to intrinsic resting state functional connectivity changes in community-dwelling elderly cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charroud, Céline; Le Bars, Emmanuelle; Deverdun, Jérémy; Steffener, Jason; Molino, François; Abdennour, Meriem; Portet, Florence; Bonafe, Alain; Stern, Yaakov; Ritchie, Karen; Akbaraly, Tasnime N; Menjot de Champfleur, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Characterization of normal age-related changes in resting state brain networks associated with working memory performance is a major prerequisite for studying neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between performing a working memory task (under MRI) and resting-state brain networks in a large cohort of healthy elderly subjects (n=337). Functional connectivity and interactions between networks were assessed within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and right and left central executive (CEN) networks in two groups of subjects classed by their performance (low and high). The low performance group showed lower functional connectivity in both the DMN and SN, and higher functional connectivity in the right and left CEN compared to the high performance group. Overall the functional connectivity within the DMN and the CEN were correlated. The lower functional connectivity within the DMN and SN in the low performance group is suggestive of altered attentional and memory processes and/or altered motivation. The higher functional connectivity within the CEN could be related to compensatory mechanisms, without which the subjects would have even lower performances. The correlation between the DMN and CEN suggests a modulation between the lower functional connectivity within the DMN and the higher functional connectivity within the CEN when performance is reduced. Finally, this study suggests that performance modifications in healthy elderly subjects are associated with reorganization of functional connectivity within the DMN, SN, and CEN.

  10. 2.56 Tbit/s/ch (640 Gbaud) polarization-multiplexed DQPSK non-coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Suzuki, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-11-30

    We demonstrate a single-channel 2.56 Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission using 640 Gbaud non-coherent optical Nyquist pulses. By virtue of a large tolerance to polarization-mode dispersion, the detrimental depolarization-induced crosstalk was reduced by 3.8 dB compared with RZ pulses. As a result, the transmission distance was substantially extended to 525 km compared with the distance of 300 km obtained with a Gaussian pulse.

  11. Altered intrinsic regional spontaneous brain activity in patients with optic neuritis: a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yi Shao,1,* Feng-Qin Cai,2,* Yu-Lin Zhong,1 Xin Huang,1,3 Ying Zhang,1 Pei-Hong Hu,1 Chong-Gang Pei,1 Fu-Qing Zhou,2 Xian-Jun Zeng2 1Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, 3Department of Ophthalmology, First People’s Hospital of Jiujiang, Jiujiang, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To investigate the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo in brain-activity deficit in patients with optic neuritis (ON and its relationship with behavioral performance.Materials and methods: In total, twelve patients with ON (four males and eight females and twelve (four males and eight females age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans. The ReHo method was used to assess the local features of spontaneous brain activity. Correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between the observed mean ReHo values of the different brain areas and the visual evoked potential (VEP in patients with ON.Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients with ON showed lower ReHo in the left cerebellum, posterior lobe, left middle temporal gyrus, right insula, right superior temporal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, left superior frontal gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right precentral gyrus, and higher ReHo in the cluster of the left fusiform gyrus and right inferior parietal lobule. Meanwhile, we found that the VEP amplitude of the right eye in patients with ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the left cerebellum posterior lobe (r=0.701, P=0.011, the right superior frontal gyrus (r=0.731, P=0.007, and the left fusiform gyrus (r=0.644, P=0.024. We also found that the VEP latency of the right eye in ON showed a positive correlation with the ReHo signal value of the right insula (r=0.595, P=0

  12. Intrinsically Disordered Energy Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebaro, Yassmine; Ballard, Andrew J.; Chakraborty, Debayan; Wales, David J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of an intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) reveals an underlying multifunnel structure for the energy landscape. We suggest that such ‘intrinsically disordered’ landscapes, with a number of very different competing low-energy structures, are likely to characterise IDPs, and provide a useful way to address their properties. In particular, IDPs are present in many cellular protein interaction networks, and several questions arise regarding how they bind to partners. Are conformations resembling the bound structure selected for binding, or does further folding occur on binding the partner in a induced-fit fashion? We focus on the p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) protein, which adopts an -helical conformation when bound to its partner, and is involved in the activation of apoptosis. Recent experimental evidence shows that folding is not necessary for binding, and supports an induced-fit mechanism. Using a variety of computational approaches we deduce the molecular mechanism behind the instability of the PUMA peptide as a helix in isolation. We find significant barriers between partially folded states and the helix. Our results show that the favoured conformations are molten-globule like, stabilised by charged and hydrophobic contacts, with structures resembling the bound state relatively unpopulated in equilibrium.

  13. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intrinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. (author).

  14. Algebraic description of intrinsic modes in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a procedure for extracting normal modes in algebraic number-conserving systems of interacting bosons relevant for collective states in even-even nuclei. The Hamiltonian is resolved into intrinsic (bandhead related) and collective (in-band related) parts. Shape parameters are introduced through non-spherical boson bases. Intrinsic modes decoupled from the spurious modes are obtained from the intinsic part of the Hamiltonian in the limit of large number of bosons. Intrinsic states are constructed and serve to evaluate electromagnetic transition rates. The method is illustrated for systems with one type of boson as well as with proton-neutron bosons. 28 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Intrinsic radiative recombination from quantum states in GaAs-Aℓ xGa 1-xAs multi-quantum well structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbuch, C.; Miller, R. C.; Dingle, R.; Gossard, A. C.; Wiegman, W.

    1981-01-01

    From absorption, emission, luminescence excitation and electron spin orientation studies of undoped GaAs-Aℓ xGa 1-xAs superlattices we demonstrate the intrinsic nature of the radiative recombination process. This is in direct contrast to recombination observed in similar purity thick GaAs material. Moreover, our results do not support a recent suggestion that enhanced LO phonon-electron coupling should occur in such superlattice structures.

  16. Intrinsic optimization using stochastic nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Brian; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Behin-Aein, Behtash; Datta, Supriyo

    2017-01-01

    This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets. PMID:28295053

  17. Lorentz invariant intrinsic decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Milburn, G J

    2003-01-01

    Quantum decoherence can arise due to classical fluctuations in the parameters which define the dynamics of the system. In this case decoherence, and complementary noise, is manifest when data from repeated measurement trials are combined. Recently a number of authors have suggested that fluctuations in the space-time metric arising from quantum gravity effects would correspond to a source of intrinsic noise, which would necessarily be accompanied by intrinsic decoherence. This work extends a previous heuristic modification of Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics based on discrete time intervals with an intrinsic uncertainty. The extension uses unital semigroup representations of space and time translations rather than the more usual unitary representation, and does the least violence to physically important invariance principles. Physical consequences include a modification of the uncertainty principle and a modification of field dispersion relations, in a way consistent with other modifications suggested by quantum grav...

  18. Comparing the effects of exercise program and low-level laser therapy with exercise program and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light (bioptron light) on the treatment of lateral elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Stasinopoulos, Ioannis; Pantelis, Manias; Stasinopoulou, Kalliopi

    2009-06-01

    The use of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as supplements to an exercise program has been recommended for the management of lateral elbow tendinopathy (LET). To investigate whether an exercise program supplemented with LLLT is more successful than an exercise program supplemented with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light in treating LET. Patients with unilateral LET for at least 4 wk were sequentially allocated to receive either an exercise program with LLLT or an exercise program with polarized polychromatic non-coherent light. The exercise program consisted of eccentric and static stretching exercises of wrist extensors. In the LLLT group a 904-nm Ga-As laser was used in continuous mode, and the power density was 130 mW/cm(2), and the dose was 0.585 J/point. In the group receiving polarized polychromatic non-coherent light the Bioptron 2 was used to administer the dose perpendicularly to the lateral epicondyle at three points at an operating distance of 5-10 cm for 6 min at each position. The outcome measures were pain and function and were evaluated at baseline, at the end of the treatment (week 4), and 3 mo after the end of treatment (week 16). Fifty patients met the inclusion criteria. At the end of treatment there was a decline in pain and a rise in function in both groups compared with baseline (p 0.0005 on the independent t-test). The results suggest that the combination of an exercise program with LLLT or polarized polychromatic non-coherent light is an adequate treatment for patients with LET. Further research to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of such a treatment approach is needed.

  19. Intrinsic contractures of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksima, Nader; Besh, Basil R

    2012-02-01

    Contractures of the intrinsic muscles of the fingers disrupt the delicate and complex balance of intrinsic and extrinsic muscles, which allows the hand to be so versatile and functional. The loss of muscle function primarily affects the interphalangeal joints but also may affect etacarpophalangeal joints. The resulting clinical picture is often termed, intrinsic contracture or intrinsic-plus hand. Disruption of the balance between intrinsic and extrinsic muscles has many causes and may be secondary to changes within the intrinsic musculature or the tendon unit. This article reviews diagnosis, etiology, and treatment algorithms in the management of intrinsic contractures of the fingers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Rob; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2004-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation can be predicted from participants' perceptions of the social environment and the task environment (Ryan & Deci, 2000)in terms of control, relatedness and competence. To determine the degree of independence of these factors 251 students in higher vocational education (physiotherapy and hotel management) indicated the extent to…

  1. Solid-state ¹³C NMR reveals annealing of raft-like membranes containing cholesterol by the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leftin, Avigdor; Job, Constantin; Beyer, Klaus; Brown, Michael F

    2013-08-23

    Misfolding and aggregation of the intrinsically disordered protein α-Synuclein (αS) in Lewy body plaques are characteristic markers of late-stage Parkinson's disease. It is well established that membrane binding is initiated at the N-terminus of the protein and affects biasing of conformational ensembles of αS. However, little is understood about the effect of αS on the membrane lipid bilayer. One hypothesis is that intrinsically disordered αS alters the structural properties of the membrane, thereby stabilizing the bilayer against fusion. Here, we used two-dimensional (13)C separated local-field NMR to study interaction of the wild-type α-Synuclein (wt-αS) or its N-terminal (1-25) amino acid sequence (N-αS) with a cholesterol-enriched ternary membrane system. This lipid bilayer mimics cellular raft-like domains in the brain that are proposed to be involved in neuronal membrane fusion. The two-dimensional dipolar-recoupling pulse sequence DROSS (dipolar recoupling on-axis with scaling and shape preservation) was implemented to measure isotropic (13)C chemical shifts and (13)C-(1)H residual dipolar couplings under magic-angle spinning. Site-specific changes in NMR chemical shifts and segmental order parameters indicate that both wt-αS and N-αS bind to the membrane interface and change lipid packing within raft-like membranes. Mean-torque modeling of (13)C-(1)H NMR order parameters shows that αS induces a remarkable thinning of the bilayer (≈6Å), accompanied by an increase in phospholipid cross-sectional area (≈10Å(2)). This perturbation is characterized as membrane annealing and entails structural remodeling of the raft-like liquid-ordered phase. We propose this process is implicated in regulation of synaptic membrane fusion that may be altered by aggregation of αS in Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The use of polarized polychromatic non-coherent light as therapy for acute tennis elbow/lateral epicondylalgia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of polarized, polychromatic, non-coherent, low energy light (Bioptron 2, Bioptron AG, Switzerland) in the treatment of acute tennis elbow. Tennis elbow, or lateral epicondylitis, is one of the most common lesions affecting the arm. A plethora of treatment regimes have been described for this condition, but no specific therapy has emerged as a gold standard. A pilot study was carried out with 25 patients who had acute tennis elbow. Bioptron 2 device was applied over lateral epicondyle three times per week for 4 weeks. Pain on VAS, function on VAS, and painfree grip strength were measured at the beginning (week 0) and at the end of the study (week 4). The pain on VAS was reduced at the end of treatment (t(24) = 3.84, p = 0.001). Function on VAS was increased at the end of treatment (t(24) = 4.23, p < 0.001). Pain-free grip strength was increased at the end of treatment (t(24) = 4.23, p < 0.004). Although the results suggested that the Bioptron 2 could reduce patients' symptoms with acute tennis elbow, future controlled studies are needed to establish the relative and absolute effectiveness of Bioptron 2.

  3. Evidence for the intrinsic nature of band-gap states electrochemically observed on atomically flat TiO2(110) surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Shintaro; Miura, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Yuji

    2014-12-07

    Using an ultra-high vacuum (UHV) electrochemistry approach with pulsed laser deposition (PLD), we investigated the band-gap state for TiO2(110). In the PLD chamber, a TiO2(110) surface was cleaned by annealing in O2 enough for it to exhibit a sharp (1 × 1) reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) pattern. The cleaned TiO2(110)-(1 × 1) sample then underwent electrochemical measurements without exposure to air, showing the band-gap state at -0.14 V vs. Ag by Mott-Schottky plot analysis. The band-gap state gradually disappeared under UV illumination at +0.6 V vs. Ag due to photoetching, and reappeared on reduction in a vacuum and/or deposition of a fresh TiO2 film. These results indicated that the electrochemically observed band-gap state for TiO2(110) was a defect state due to oxygen deficiency, most probably identical to that observed under UHV, which does not necessarily exist on the surface. A quantitative analysis of the defect density suggests that the origin of this defect state is not the surface bridging hydroxyls or oxygen vacancies, but rather the interstitial Ti(3+) ions in the subsurface region.

  4. 毛刺对非相干测距值的影响%Influence of Glitch on Non-coherent Ranging Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小凤

    2013-01-01

    针对实时监测目标飞行器距离在地空信息传输系统中具有的重要作用,基于非相干测距技术,介绍了一种根据上下行链路数据产生测距脉冲的算法,分析了该算法容易产生毛刺的原因以及对测距结果造成的危害,对比4种消除毛刺方法的优劣,提出了一种改进算法,并对2种算法进行仿真对比。仿真及分析结果表明,改进算法能成功消除毛刺,经过实际系统测试,能有效提高测距值的准确度,且性能良好,满足系统设计要求。%Target aero-craft distance real-time monitoring is important in Ground-Air communication system. Based on non-coher-ent ranging technology,an algorithm is introduced generating ranging pulse according to uplink and downlink data. And analysis is giv-en on the reasons why it tends to produce glitch easily and its harm to the ranging value. Then it compares advantages and disadvanta-ges of four methods which can eliminate glitch. An improved algorithm is put forward. Comparison of two algorithms is done by simula-tion. The result shows that the improved algorithm can eliminate the glitch successfully. In actual system testing,it can also improve the accuracy of ranging value effectively,and meet system design requirement with a good performance.

  5. PROTON GENERATION BY DISSOLUTION OF INTRINSIC OR AUGMENTED ALUMINOSILICATE MINERALS FOR IN SITU CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION BY ZERO-VALENCE-STATE IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallic, or zero-valence-state, iron is being incorporated into permeable reactive subsurface barriers for remediating a variety of contaminant plume types. The remediation occurs via reductive processes that are associated with surface corrosion of the iron metal. Reaction rate...

  6. PROTON GENERATION BY DISSOLUTION OF INTRINSIC OR AUGMENTED ALUMINOSILICATE MINERALS FOR IN SITU CONTAMINANT REMEDIATION BY ZERO-VALENCE-STATE IRON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metallic, or zero-valence-state, iron is being incorporated into permeable reactive subsurface barriers for remediating a variety of contaminant plume types. The remediation occurs via reductive processes that are associated with surface corrosion of the iron metal. Reaction rate...

  7. The orbital PDF: the dynamical state of Milky Way sized haloes and the intrinsic uncertainty in the determination of their masses

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Using realistic cosmological simulations of Milky Way sized haloes, we study their dynamical state and the accuracy of inferring their mass profiles with steady-state models of dynamical tracers. We use a new method that describes the phase-space distribution of a steady-state tracer population in a spherical potential without any assumption regarding the distribution of their orbits. Applying the method to five haloes from the Aquarius $\\Lambda$CDM N-body simulation, we find that dark matter particles are an accurate tracer that enables the halo mass and concentration parameters to be recovered with an accuracy of $5\\%$. Assuming a potential profile of the NFW form does not significantly affect the fits in most cases, except for halo A whose density profile differs significantly from the NFW form, leading to a $30\\%$ bias in the dynamically fitted parameters. The existence of substructures in the dark matter tracers only affects the fits by $\\sim 1\\%$. Applying the method to mock stellar haloes generated by ...

  8. The Role of Intrinsic and Surface States on the Emission Properties of Colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morello Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractTime Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL measurements on the picosecond time scale (temporal resolution of 17 ps on colloidal CdSe and CdSe/ZnS Quantum Dots (QDs were performed. Transient PL spectra reveal three emission peaks with different lifetimes (60 ps, 460 ps and 9–10 ns, from the bluest to the reddest peak. By considering the characteristic decay times and by comparing the energetic separations among the states with those theoretically expected, we attribute the two higher energy peaks to ± 1Uand ± 1L bright states of the fine structure picture of spherical CdSe QDs, and the third one to surface states emission. We show that the contribution of surface emission to the PL results to be different for the two samples studied (67% in the CdSe QDs and 32% in CdSe/ZnS QDs, confirming the decisive role of the ZnS shell in the improvement of the surface passivation.

  9. Intrinsic Depletion or Not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klösgen, Beate; Bruun, Sara; Hansen, Søren;

    with an AFM (2).    The intuitive explanation for the depletion based on "hydrophobic mismatch" between the obviously hydrophilic bulk phase of water next to the hydrophobic polymer. It would thus be an intrinsic property of all interfaces between non-matching materials. The detailed physical interaction path......  The presence of a depletion layer of water along extended hydrophobic interfaces, and a possibly related formation of nanobubbles, is an ongoing discussion. The phenomenon was initially reported when we, years ago, chose thick films (~300-400Å) of polystyrene as cushions between a crystalline...

  10. The orbital PDF: the dynamical state of Milky Way sized haloes and the intrinsic uncertainty in the determination of their masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.

    2016-02-01

    Using realistic cosmological simulations of Milky Way sized haloes, we study their dynamical state and the accuracy of inferring their mass profiles with steady-state models of dynamical tracers. We use a new method that describes the phase-space distribution of a steady-state tracer population in a spherical potential without any assumption regarding the distribution of their orbits. Applying the method to five haloes from the Aquarius Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) N-body simulation, we find that dark matter particles are an accurate tracer that enables the halo mass and concentration parameters to be recovered with an accuracy of 5 per cent. Assuming a potential profile of the Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) form does not significantly affect the fits in most cases, except for halo A whose density profile differs significantly from the NFW form, leading to a 30 per cent bias in the dynamically fitted parameters. The existence of substructures in the dark matter tracers only affects the fits by ˜1 per cent. Applying the method to mock stellar haloes generated by a particle-tagging technique, we find the stars are farther from equilibrium than dark matter particles, yielding a systematic bias of ˜20 per cent in the inferred mass and concentration parameter. The level of systematic biases obtained from a conventional distribution function fit to stars is comparable to ours, while similar fits to dark matter tracers are significantly biased in contrast to our fits. In line with previous studies, the mass bias is much reduced near the tracer half-mass radius.

  11. Ultrafast Intrinsic Photoresponse and Direct Evidence of Sub-gap States in Liquid Phase Exfoliated MoS2Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sujoy; Winchester, Andrew; Muchharla, Baleeswaraiah; Wasala, Milinda; Feng, Simin; Elias, Ana Laura; Krishna, M Bala Murali; Harada, Takaaki; Chin, Catherine; Dani, Keshav; Kar, Swastik; Terrones, Mauricio; Talapatra, Saikat

    2015-07-15

    2-Dimensional structures with swift optical response have several technological advantages, for example they could be used as components of ultrafast light modulators, photo-detectors, and optical switches. Here we report on the fast photo switching behavior of thin films of liquid phase exfoliated MoS2, when excited with a continuous laser of λ = 658 nm (E = 1.88 eV), over a broad range of laser power. Transient photo-conductivity measurements, using an optical pump and THz probe (OPTP), reveal that photo carrier decay follows a bi-exponential time dependence, with decay times of the order of picoseconds, indicating that the photo carrier recombination occurs via trap states. The nature of variation of photocurrent with temperature confirms that the trap states are continuously distributed within the mobility gap in these thin film of MoS2, and play a vital role in influencing the overall photo response. Our findings provide a fundamental understanding of the photo-physics associated with optically active 2D materials and are crucial for developing advanced optoelectronic devices.

  12. Structure and intrinsic disorder in protein autoinhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Travis; Nassar, Roy; Cumberworth, Alexander; Wong, Eric T C; Woollard, Geoffrey; Gsponer, Jörg

    2013-03-05

    Autoinhibition plays a significant role in the regulation of many proteins. By analyzing autoinhibited proteins, we demonstrate that these proteins are enriched in intrinsic disorder because of the properties of their inhibitory modules (IMs). A comparison of autoinhibited proteins with structured and intrinsically disordered IMs revealed that in the latter group (1) multiple phosphorylation sites are highly abundant; (2) splice variants occur in greater number than in their structured cousins; and (3) activation is often associated with changes in secondary structure in the IM. Analyses of families of autoinhibited proteins revealed that the levels of disorder in IMs can vary significantly throughout homologous proteins, whereas residues located at the interfaces between the IMs and inhibited domains are conserved. Our findings suggest that intrinsically disordered IMs provide advantages over structured ones that are likely to be exploited in the fine-tuning of the equilibrium between active and inactive states of autoinhibited proteins.

  13. Intrinsic Time Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Hoi Lai

    2016-01-01

    Correct identification of the true gauge symmetry of General Relativity being 3d spatial diffeomorphism invariant(3dDI) (not the conventional infinite tensor product group with principle fibre bundle structure), together with intrinsic time extracted from clean decomposition of the canonical structure yields a self-consistent theory of quantum gravity. A new set of fundamental commutation relations is also presented. The basic variables are the eight components of the unimodular part of the spatial dreibein and eight SU(3) generators which correspond to Klauder's momentric variables that characterize a free theory of quantum gravity. The commutation relations are not canonical, but have well defined group theoretical meanings. All fundamental entities are dimensionless; and the quantum wave functionals are preferentially in the dreibein representation. The successful quantum theory of gravity involves only broad spectrum of knowledge and deep insights but no exotic idea.

  14. Altered intrinsic regional brain activity in female asthmatics with or without depressive symptoms: A resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xingyu; Zhu, Hongru; Wang, Ting; Ji, Yulin

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have suggested that asthma patients are more susceptible to anxiety or depression and have more specifically elevated depressive symptomology. These psychological factors are associated with anatomical brain changes. However, little is known about alterations in spontaneous brain activity in asthma patients with depressive symptoms. Here we hypothesized that asthma patients exhibit an altered regional spontaneous brain activity, which may contribute to their increased susceptibility to depression and poor perception of asthma symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine spontaneous brain activity in female asthma patients using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Eleven asthmatics without depressive symptoms (ASs), 14 asthmatics with depressive symptoms (ADs), and 15 age- and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) completed rs-fMRI. The regional homogeneity (ReHo) value was calculated based on rs-fMRI to assess local signal synchrony strength and compared among the groups. Correlation analyses were conducted between both ReHo values and clinical parameters. Compared with HCs, ASs showed a significantly increased ReHo in the right insula; whereas ADs showed a significantly decreased ReHo in the right insula, which positively correlated with nocturnal symptom score in the Asthma Control Test (r = 0.562, P = 0.036). No significant correlation was observed between the total ACT scores and right insula activities (r = 0.263, P = 0.364). Decreased ReHo in the right insula may play an important role in depressive symptoms and abnormal asthma symptom perception.

  15. Altered intrinsic regional brain spontaneous activity and subjective sleep quality in patients with chronic primary insomnia: a resting-state fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai XJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Xi-Jian Dai,1,2 De-Chang Peng,1 Hong-Han Gong,1 Ai-Lan Wan,3 Xiao Nie,1 Hai-Jun Li,1 Yi-Xiang J Wang2 1Department of Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong; 3Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nangchang University, Nangchang, Jiangxi, People’s Republic of China Study objective: To prospectively explore the underlying regional homogeneity (ReHo brain-activity deficit in patients with chronic primary insomnia (PCPIs and its relationship with clinical features.Design: The ReHo method and Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 software were used to evaluate whether resting-state localized brain activity was modulated between PCPIs and good sleepers (GSs, and correlation analysis between altered regional brain areas and clinical features was calculated. Patients and participants: Twenty-four PCPIs (17 females, seven males and 24 (12 females, 12 males age-, sex-, and education-matched GSs.Measurements and results: PCPIs disturbed subjective sleep quality, split positive mood, and exacerbated negative moods. Compared with GSs, PCPIs showed higher ReHo in left fusiform gyrus, and lower ReHo in bilateral cingulate gyrus and right cerebellum anterior lobe. Compared with female GSs, female PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the left fusiform gyrus and right posterior cingulate, and lower ReHo in the left cerebellum anterior lobe and left superior frontal gyrus. Compared with male GSs, male PCPIs showed higher ReHo in the right temporal lobe and lower ReHo in the bilateral frontal lobe. The fusiform gyrus showed strong positive correlations and the frontal lobe showed negative correlations with the clinical measurements.Conclusion: The ReHo analysis is a useful noninvasive imaging tool for the detection of cerebral changes and

  16. Intrinsic Angular Momentum of Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarelli, Vincent

    1979-01-01

    Derives a familiar torque-angular momentum theorem for the electromagnetic field, and includes the intrinsic torques exerted by the fields on the polarized medium. This inclusion leads to the expressions for the intrinsic angular momentum carried by the radiation traveling through a charge-free medium. (Author/MA)

  17. Altered intrinsic organisation of brain networks implicated in attentional processes in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a resting-state study of attention, default mode and salience network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2016-06-01

    Deficits in task-related attentional engagement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have been hypothesised to be due to altered interrelationships between attention, default mode and salience networks. We examined the intrinsic connectivity during rest within and between these networks. Six-minute resting-state scans were obtained. Using a network-based approach, connectivity within and between the dorsal and ventral attention, the default mode and the salience networks was compared between the ADHD and control group. The ADHD group displayed hyperconnectivity between the two attention networks and within the default mode and ventral attention network. The salience network was hypoconnected to the dorsal attention network. There were trends towards hyperconnectivity within the dorsal attention network and between the salience and ventral attention network in ADHD. Connectivity within and between other networks was unrelated to ADHD. Our findings highlight the altered connectivity within and between attention networks, and between them and the salience network in ADHD. One hypothesis to be tested in future studies is that individuals with ADHD are affected by an imbalance between ventral and dorsal attention systems with the former playing a dominant role during task engagement, making individuals with ADHD highly susceptible to distraction by salient task-irrelevant stimuli.

  18. Ordered vortex lattice and intrinsic vortex core states in Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuba, K; Kosugi, N; Nishimori, H; Nishida, N

    2003-01-01

    The ordered vortex lattice in Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x (overdoped, T sub c = 83 K) has been observed for the first time at 4.2 K in 8 T by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). The vortex lattice is short-range ordered in the length scale of 100 nm. The vortices form an almost square lattice with the sides parallel to the diagonal direction of the CuO sub 2 square lattice, that is, the nodal direction of the d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 superconductor. In all of the vortex cores of the ordered lattice, the localized states are observed at +- 9 meV symmetrically in the superconducting gap and are clearly determined to be intrinsic to the vortex in Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub x. The intensity is found to be electron-hole asymmetric.

  19. Intrinsic luminescence of alkali silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbuzov, V.I.; Grabovskis, V.Y.; Tolstoi, M.N.; Vitol, I.K.

    1986-09-01

    This study obtains additional information on L centers and their role in electron excitation and intrinsic luminescence of a whole series. (Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs) of alkali silicate glasses. The authors compare the features of the interaction with radiation of specimens of glass and crystal of a similar chemical composition, since silicates of alkali metals can be obtained in both the glassy and crystalline states.

  20. Time generated by intrinsic observers

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, Karl

    2009-01-01

    We shortly review the construction of knowledge by intrinsic observers. Intrinsic observers are embedded in a system and are inseparable parts thereof. The intrinsic viewpoint has to be contrasted with an extrinsic, "God's eye" viewpoint, from which the system can be observed externally without in any way changing it. This epistemological distinction has concrete, formalizable consequences. One consequence is the emergence of "complementarity" for intrinsic observers, even if the underlying system is totally deterministic (computable). Another consequence is the appearence of time and inertial frames for intrinsic observers. The necessary operational techniques are developed in the context of Cellular Automata. We finish with a somewhat speculative question. Given space-time frames generated by clocks which use sound waves for synchronization; why could supersonic travel not cause time paradoxes?

  1. Intrinsic Josephson effects on superconducting films

    CERN Document Server

    Chana, O S

    2002-01-01

    Films of the high-T sub c superconductor Tl sub 2 Ba sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8 with the crystal c-axis misaligned from the substrate normal have been used to make intrinsic Josephson junctions. The copper-oxide layers in the cuprate superconductor are weakly coupled in the c-direction. This weak interplanar coupling is analogous to superconductor- insulator-superconductor stacks parallel to the c-direction in the film and this maps out to a series array of intrinsic Josephson junctions. A novel device geometry has been used to exploit this and series arrays of intrinsic Josephson junctions have been fabricated. The junctions are optimised in quality and have a high and critical-current- independent value for the product of the critical current and normal state resistance. The temperature dependence of the critical current fits the Ambegaokar-Baratoff theory for SIS tunnelling. X-band emission at around 12 GHz has been detected from the intrinsic Josephson bridge at 103 K. This confirms that the junctions are s...

  2. Discovery of Intrinsic Primitives on Triangle Meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Solomon, Justin

    2011-04-01

    The discovery of meaningful parts of a shape is required for many geometry processing applications, such as parameterization, shape correspondence, and animation. It is natural to consider primitives such as spheres, cylinders and cones as the building blocks of shapes, and thus to discover parts by fitting such primitives to a given surface. This approach, however, will break down if primitive parts have undergone almost-isometric deformations, as is the case, for example, for articulated human models. We suggest that parts can be discovered instead by finding intrinsic primitives, which we define as parts that posses an approximate intrinsic symmetry. We employ the recently-developed method of computing discrete approximate Killing vector fields (AKVFs) to discover intrinsic primitives by investigating the relationship between the AKVFs of a composite object and the AKVFs of its parts. We show how to leverage this relationship with a standard clustering method to extract k intrinsic primitives and remaining asymmetric parts of a shape for a given k. We demonstrate the value of this approach for identifying the prominent symmetry generators of the parts of a given shape. Additionally, we show how our method can be modified slightly to segment an entire surface without marking asymmetric connecting regions and compare this approach to state-of-the-art methods using the Princeton Segmentation Benchmark. © 2011 The Author(s).

  3. Recent progress on intrinsic charm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, T. J.

    2017-03-01

    Over the past ˜10 years, the topic of the nucleon's nonperturbative or intrinsic charm (IC) content has enjoyed something of a renaissance, largely motivated by theoretical developments involving quark modelers and PDF-fitters. In this talk I will briefly describe the importance of intrinsic charm to various issues in high-energy phenomenology, and survey recent progress in constraining its overall normalization and contribution to the momentum sum rule of the nucleon. I end with the conclusion that progress on the side of calculation has now placed the onus on experiment to unambiguously resolve the proton's intrinsic charm component.

  4. Intrinsic time geometrodynamics: explicit examples

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Huei-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic time quantum geometrodynamics resolved `the problem of time' and bridged the deep divide between quantum mechanics and canonical quantum gravity with a Schrodinger equation which describes evolution in intrinsic time variable. In this formalism, Einstein's general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories. Explicit classical black hole and cosmological solutions and the motion of test particles are derived and analyzed in this work in the context of constant three-curvature solutions in intrinsic time geometrodynamics; and we exemplify how this formalism yields results which agree with the predictions of Einstein's theory.

  5. Intrinsic motivation and learning dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zgonnikov, Arkady

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of intrinsic motivation on the dynamics of learning processes. We construct a simple model of a single agent adapting to unknown environment. Performing a repeated choice between a number of initially unexplored alternatives, the agent gains rewards for each selected alternative and in doing so gradually comprehends the environment. In our model the agent choice is governed by two stimuli. The traditional extrinsic motive inclines the agent to maximize the cumulative payoff throughout the process, while the second, intrinsic one, biases the agent towards the novel options that she inherently likes. We show that the intrinsic motivation can induce an instability and periodic dynamics of the learning process which is always stationary in the case of selfish, rational agent. Interestingly, the opposite effect can arise as well: when the impact of intrinsic motivation on the agent choice is strong, the equiprobable choice equilibrium strategy becomes stable. Based on the presented resul...

  6. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the construction of Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures whose fundamental form is closed. In particular, we find 10 new examples of 8-dimensional nilmanifolds that admit an invariant closed 4-form with stabiliser Sp(2) Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We...... present a thorough investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures, leading to the construction of explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....

  7. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion....

  8. Effects of Intrinsic Decoherence on Information Transport in a Spin Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Tian-Hai; SHAO Bin; ZOU Jian

    2009-01-01

    Considering Milburn's intrinsic decoherence effect on quantum communication through a spin chain, we show that the transfer quality for quantum state and entanglement will obviously decrease with the increasing intrinsic decoherence rate. Some odd chains are much higher than even ones for the state transfer efficiency. The state transfer of a long chain is very sensitive to the intrinsic decoherence, which turns out to be an obstacle for information transport.

  9. Intrinsic and collective structure in the interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.

    1987-11-01

    A general non-spherical boson basis is introduced to study the excitation modes in the interacting boson model (IBM). A prescription for construction of intrinsic states is presented. The general IBM Hamiltonian is resolved exactly into intrinsic and collective parts. The limit of large boson number is discussed analytically for spectrum and transitions. The method of analysis reveals an underlying intrinsic and collective structure closely linked with symmetry considerations. The suggested new approach seems to be adequate as a tool to obtain the physical content and normal modes in any number conserving algebraic bosonic system. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc.

  10. Dilatons with intrinsic decouplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minazzoli, Olivier; Hees, Aurélien

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we show that there exists a class of dilaton models with nontrivial scalar-Ricci and scalar-matter couplings that strongly reduces observational deviations from general relativity in the dust limit. Essentially, depending on the coupling between the dilaton and the fundamental matter fields, various strengths of decoupling can appear. They range from no decoupling at all to a total decoupling state. In this latter case, the theory becomes indistinguishable from general relativity (in the dust limit), as all dilatonic effects can be reabsorbed through a simple change of unit. Furthermore, for particular decouplings, we show that the phenomenology used to constrain theories from the universality of free fall observations is significantly different from what is commonly used. Finally, from a fundamental perspective, the class of nondynamical decouplings proposed in this paper might play a role in the current nonobservation of any deviation from general relativity (in both tests of the equivalence principle and of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism).

  11. Simplified Non-coherent Detection of Aerospace TT&C Signals Recommended by CCSDS%CCSDS航天测控信号的简化非相干检测算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    党小宇; 李宝龙; 王旭东

    2013-01-01

    针对航天测控系统中CCSDS推荐的连续相位调制(Continuous phase modulation,CPM)信号载波相位难以恢复的问题,文中提出了一种简化非相干检测算法.首先依据最大似然比准则,推导出信号的最优非相干检测算法,然后将基于Laurent分解的CPM信号的线性模型引入,简化非相干接收机结构.同时考虑到信号相位间的连续性,每次分支度量通过处理多个符号时间的接收信号来提高检测性能.简化的接收机由几个前端滤波器和紧随其后的维特比运算部件构成,文中最后给出了L=4的高斯最小频移键控(Guassian minimum shift keying,GMSK)信号的接收性能,结果表明在误码率同为1×10-4的条件下,观察窗口为8个码元长度时,简化非相干检测比起最优相干检测算法只有1.2 dB的性能损失.%A method for simplified non-coherent detection of continuous phase modulation (CPM) signals recommended by consultative committee for space data systems (CCSDS) in aerospace telemetry, tracking and command (TT&C) system is proposed due to the difficulty in carried phase recovery. Firstly, an optimal non-coherent metric for CPM is derived from the maximum-likelihood principle. Based on Laurent decomposition, the linear expressions of CPM signals are then applied to reduce the complexity of the non-coherent receiver. In consideration of phase continuity, multi-symbol intervals of received signals are considered in every branch metric to improve the performance of the detection. Constructed with few matched filters in the front-end, the simplified receiver uses the Viterbi algorithm to perform the sequence estimation. Simulation results for the simplified non-coherent detection of guassian minimum shift keying (GMSK) signals with L = 4 are given in the end. It is shown that when the observation interval is 8 bits long, the simplified detector has only around 1. 2 dB SNR to obtain the same BER of 1×10-4 as the coherent detector.

  12. Intrinsic energy partition in fission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirea M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic energy partition between two complementary fission fragments is investigated microscopically. The intrinsic excitation energy of fission fragments is dynamically evaluated in terms of the time-dependent pairing equations. These equations are corroborated with two conditions. One of them fixes the number of particles and the other separates the pairing active spaces associated to the two fragments in the vicinity of the scission configuration. The excitation energy in a wide distribution of fission fragments is calculated for the 234U parent nucleus.

  13. Asymmetric stochastic switching driven by intrinsic molecular noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Frigola

    Full Text Available Low-copy-number molecules are involved in many functions in cells. The intrinsic fluctuations of these numbers can enable stochastic switching between multiple steady states, inducing phenotypic variability. Herein we present a theoretical and computational study based on Master Equations and Fokker-Planck and Langevin descriptions of stochastic switching for a genetic circuit of autoactivation. We show that in this circuit the intrinsic fluctuations arising from low-copy numbers, which are inherently state-dependent, drive asymmetric switching. These theoretical results are consistent with experimental data that have been reported for the bistable system of the gallactose signaling network in yeast. Our study unravels that intrinsic fluctuations, while not required to describe bistability, are fundamental to understand stochastic switching and the dynamical relative stability of multiple states.

  14. Intrinsic Motivation in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Nambiar, Nathan; Hemphill, Caroline; Devietti, Elizabeth; Massengale, Alexandra; McCredie, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    This article describes ways in which educators can use Harter's perceived competence motivation theory, the achievement goal theory, and self-determination theory to develop students' intrinsic motivation to maintain physical fitness, as demonstrated by the Sound Body Sound Mind curriculum and proven effective by the 2013 University of…

  15. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  16. A new real-time non-coherent to coherent light image converter - The hybrid field effect liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, J.; Jacobson, A.; Bleha, W.; Miller, L.; Fraas, L.; Boswell, D.; Myer, G.

    1975-01-01

    A new, high-performance device has been developed for application to real-time coherent optical data processing. The new device embodies a CdS photoconductor, a CdTe light-absorbing layer, a dielectric mirror, and a liquid crystal layer sandwiched between indium-tin-oxide transparent electrodes deposited on optical quality glass flats. The noncoherent image is directed onto the photoconductor; this reduces the impedance of the photoconductor, thereby switching the ac voltage that is impressed across the electrodes onto the liquid crystal to activate the device. The liquid crystal is operated in a hybrid field effect mode. It utilizes the twisted nematic effect to create a dark off-state and the optical birefringence effect to create the bright on-state. The liquid crystal modulates the polarization of the coherent read-out light so an analyzer must be used to create an intensity modulated output beam.

  17. Self-gravitating Interferometry and Intrinsic Decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Gooding, Cisco

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that intrinsic gravitational decoherence can be theoretically demonstrated within canonical quantum gravity, we develop a model of a self-gravitating interferometer. We search for evidence in the resulting interference pattern that would indicate coherence is fundamentally limited due to general relativistic effects. To eliminate the occurence of gravitational waves, we work in spherical symmetry, and construct the "beam" of the interferometer out of WKB states for an infinitesimally thin shell of matter. For internal consistency, we encode information about the beam optics within the dynamics of the shell itself, by arranging an ideal fluid on the surface of the shell with an equation of state that enforces beam-splitting and reflections. We then determine sufficient conditions for (interferometric) coherence to be fully present even after general relativistic corrections are introduced, test whether or not they can be satisfied, and remark on the implications of the results.

  18. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough inv...... investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures; in addition to the construction of harmonic structures, this analysis leads to explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion.......We discuss the construction of 8-manifolds with harmonic Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures. In particular, we find 10 new examples of nilmanifolds that admit a closed 4-form Omega whose stabiliser is Sp(2)Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We present a thorough...

  19. Harmonic structures and intrinsic torsion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the construction of Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures whose fundamental form is closed. In particular, we find 10 new examples of 8-dimensional nilmanifolds that admit an invariant closed 4-form with stabiliser Sp(2) Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We...... present a thorough investigation of the intrinsic torsion of such structures, leading to the construction of explicit Lie group examples with invariant intrinsic torsion.......We discuss the construction of Sp(2)Sp(1)-structures whose fundamental form is closed. In particular, we find 10 new examples of 8-dimensional nilmanifolds that admit an invariant closed 4-form with stabiliser Sp(2) Sp(1). Our constructions entail the notion of SO(4)-structures on 7-manifolds. We...

  20. Perfectionism and life aspirations in intrinsically and extrinsically religious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Patrick R

    2014-08-01

    Religiosity is related to positive health and life satisfaction but the pathways through which this occurs have not been clearly delineated. The purpose of this study was to examine potential mediators of the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Perfectionism and life aspirations are two possible pathways through which religious orientation is related to outcome. It was hypothesized that adaptive perfectionism and intrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between intrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction, and that maladaptive perfectionism and extrinsic life aspirations would act as mediators between the extrinsic religiosity and negative affect and life satisfaction. Two consecutive samples of religious college students (N = 540 and N = 485) completed measures of the Age Universal Religious Orientation Index, the Frost Multi-Dimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Aspiration Index, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Intrinsic religiosity had a direct negative relationship with negative affect and positive relationship with life satisfaction. Contrary to the hypotheses, intrinsic religiosity had its strongest indirect effect via maladaptive perfectionism such that increased intrinsic religiosity was related to decreased maladaptive perfectionism which in turn lead to better negative affect and life satisfaction. Extrinsic religiosity was related to increased maladaptive perfectionism and thereby indirectly contributed to worse negative affect and life satisfaction. Interestingly, when the effects of maladaptive perfectionism were controlled, the direct effects of extrinsic religiosity were related to reduced negative affect and increased life satisfaction. Overall, the strongest mediator in this study of both intrinsic and extrinsic religiosity was maladaptive perfectionism, with intrinsic

  1. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  2. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  3. Job assignments, intrinsic motivation and explicit incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Nafziger, Julia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the interplay of job assignments with the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation of an agent. Job assignments influence the self confidence of the agent, and thereby his intrinsic motivation. Monetary reward allow the principal to complement intrinsic motivation with extrinsic incentives. The main result is that the principal chooses an inefficient job assignment rule to enhance the agent's intrinsic motivation even though she can motivate him with monetary rewards. This show...

  4. Helical propensity in an intrinsically disordered protein accelerates ligand binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iesmantavicius, Vytautas; Dogan, Jakob; Jemth, Per;

    2014-01-01

    Many intrinsically disordered proteins fold upon binding to other macromolecules. The secondary structure present in the well-ordered complex is often formed transiently in the unbound state. The consequence of such transient structure for the binding process is, however, not clear. The activatio...

  5. Stochastic Intrinsic Kriging for Simulation Metamodelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehdad, E.; Kleijnen, Jack P.C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive intrinsic Kriging, using Matherons intrinsic random functions which eliminate the trend in classic Kriging. We formulate this intrinsic Kriging as a metamodel in deterministic and random simulation models. For random simulation we derive an experimental design that also specifies the numbe

  6. A review of the intrinsic heavy quark content of the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kusina, A. [Univ. Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble (France); Lyonnet, F. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States); Schienbein, I. [Univ. Grenoble-Alpes, Grenoble (France); Spiesberger, H. [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Vogt, R. [Univ. of California at Davis, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-29

    We present a review of the state of the art of our understanding of the intrinsic charm and bottom content of the nucleon. We discuss theoretical calculations, constraints from global analyses, and collider observables sensitive to the intrinsic heavy quark distributions. In addition, a particular emphasis is put on the potential of a high energy and high luminosity fixed target experiment using the LHC beams (AFTER@LHC) to search for intrinsic charm.

  7. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:28098210

  8. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jiajie

    2017-01-18

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  9. Intrinsic Defects and H Doping in WO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajie; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitris; Kennou, Stella; Chroneos, Alexander; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    WO3 is widely used as industrial catalyst. Intrinsic and/or extrinsic defects can tune the electronic properties and extend applications to gas sensors and optoelectonics. However, H doping is a challenge to WO3, the relevant mechanisms being hardly understood. In this context, we investigate intrinsic defects and H doping by density functional theory and experiments. Formation energies are calculated to determine the lowest energy defect states. O vacancies turn out to be stable in O-poor environment, in agreement with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and O-H bond formation of H interstitial defects is predicted and confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  10. High intrinsic energy resolution photon number resolving detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lolli, L; Portesi, C; Monticone, E; Rajteri, M

    2013-01-01

    Transition Edge Sensors (TESs) are characterized by the intrinsic figure of merit to resolve both the energy and the statistical distribution of the incident photons. These properties lead TES devices to become the best single photon detector for quantum technology experiments. For a TES based on titanium and gold has been reached, at telecommunication wavelength, an unprecedented intrinsic energy resolution (0.113 eV). The uncertainties analysis of both energy resolution and photon state assignment has been discussed. The thermal properties of the superconductive device have been studied by fitting the bias curve to evaluate theoretical limit of the energy resolution.

  11. Finding intrinsic rewards by embodied evolution and constrained reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchibe, Eiji; Doya, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    Understanding the design principle of reward functions is a substantial challenge both in artificial intelligence and neuroscience. Successful acquisition of a task usually requires not only rewards for goals, but also for intermediate states to promote effective exploration. This paper proposes a method for designing 'intrinsic' rewards of autonomous agents by combining constrained policy gradient reinforcement learning and embodied evolution. To validate the method, we use Cyber Rodent robots, in which collision avoidance, recharging from battery packs, and 'mating' by software reproduction are three major 'extrinsic' rewards. We show in hardware experiments that the robots can find appropriate 'intrinsic' rewards for the vision of battery packs and other robots to promote approach behaviors.

  12. Spinor quintom cosmology with intrinsic spin

    CERN Document Server

    Dil, Emre

    2016-01-01

    We consider a spinor quintom dark energy model with intrinsic spin, in the framework of Eintein- Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory. After constructing the mathematical formalism of the model, we obtain the spin contributed total energy-momentum tensor giving the energy density and the pressure of the quintom model, and then we find the equation of state parameter in terms of the spinor potential. Choosing suitable potentials leads to the quintom scenario crossing between quintessence and phantom epochs, or vice versa. Analyzed three quintom scenarios provides stable expansion phases avoiding Big Rip singularities, and yielding matter dominated era through the stabilization of the spinor pressure via spin contribution. The stabilization in spinor pressure leads to neglecting it as compared to the increasing energy density, and constituting a matter dominated stable expansion epoch.

  13. Presymplectic structures and intrinsic Lagrangians

    CERN Document Server

    Grigoriev, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that a Lagrangian induces a compatible presymplectic form on the equation manifold (stationary surface, understood as a submanifold of the respective jet-space). Given an equation manifold and a compatible presymplectic form therein, we define the first-order Lagrangian system which is formulated in terms of the intrinsic geometry of the equation manifold. It has a structure of a presymplectic AKSZ sigma model for which the equation manifold, equipped with the presymplectic form and the horizontal differential, serves as the target space. For a wide class of systems (but not all) we show that if the presymplectic structure originates from a given Lagrangian, the proposed first-order Lagrangian is equivalent to the initial one and hence the Lagrangian per se can be entirely encoded in terms of the intrinsic geometry of its stationary surface. If the compatible presymplectic structure is generic, the proposed Lagrangian is only a partial one in the sense that its stationary surface contains the...

  14. Intrinsic Alignments in the Illustris Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hilbert, Stefan; Schneider, Peter; Springel, Volker; Vogelsberger, Mark; Hernquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    We study intrinsic alignments (IA) of galaxy image shapes within the Illustris cosmic structure formation simulations. We investigate how IA correlations depend on observable galaxy properties such as stellar mass, apparent magnitude, redshift, and photometric type, and on the employed shape measurement method. The correlations considered include the matter density-intrinsic ellipticity (mI), galaxy density-intrinsic ellipticity (dI), gravitational shear-intrinsic ellipticity (GI), and intrinsic ellipticity-intrinsic ellipticity (II) correlations. We find stronger correlations for more massive and more luminous galaxies, as well as for earlier photometric types, in agreement with observations. Moreover, shape measurement methods that down-weight the outer parts of galaxy images produce much weaker IA signals on intermediate and large scales than methods employing flat radial weights. Thus, the expected contribution of intrinsic alignments to the observed ellipticity correlation in tomographic cosmic shear sur...

  15. Probing Quasar Outflows with Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, T; Charlton, J C; Ganguly, R; Tytler, D; Kirkman, D; Suzuki, N; Lubin, D

    2006-01-01

    We present statistical and monitoring results of narrow absorption lines that are physically related to quasars (i.e., intrinsic NALs). We use Keck/HIRES spectra of 37 optically bright quasars at z=2-4, and identify 150 NAL systems that contain 124 C IV, 12 N V, and 50 Si IV doublets. Among them, 39 are classified as intrinsic systems based on partial coverage analysis. At least 50% of quasars host intrinsic NALs. We identify two families of intrinsic systems based on their ionization state. Some intrinsic systems have detectable low-ionization NALs at similar velocities as higher-ionization NALs, although such low-ionization lines are rare in broad absorption line (BAL) systems. We also have observed an optically bright quasar, HS1603+3820, eight times with Subaru/HDS and HET/MRS over an interval of 4.2 years (1.2 years in the quasar rest frame), for the purpose of monitoring a variable C IV mini-BAL system. We find that all the troughs of the system vary in concert. However, no other correlations are seen b...

  16. Intrinsic plasmarons in warm graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Daqing; Chen, Shuyue; Zhang, Shengli; Ma, Ning

    2017-10-01

    Based on a self-consistent method, we predict theoretically that there exist intrinsic plasmarons in graphene at nonzero temperature, with a well defined mode, as shown by the result of Landau damping. We find that there are sharp differences between the discussed system and the QCD/QED system. Firstly, the thermal mass is proportional to α_g3/4T but not αg T . Secondly, at 0c , the fermion channel and plasmaron channel are nearly degenerate, and furthermore the energy difference between fermion and plasmaron becomes larger and larger with increasing q in the region q>qc . Thirdly, the fermion behaves as a ‘relativistic particle’ with nonzero mass, and the plasmaron exhibits an abnormal dispersion at moderate momentum.

  17. Intrinsic Instability of Coronal Streamers

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Y; Song, H Q; Shi, Q Q; Feng, S W; Xia, L D; 10.1088/0004-637X/691/2/1936

    2009-01-01

    Plasma blobs are observed to be weak density enhancements as radially stretched structures emerging from the cusps of quiescent coronal streamers. In this paper, it is suggested that the formation of blobs is a consequence of an intrinsic instability of coronal streamers occurring at a very localized region around the cusp. The evolutionary process of the instability, as revealed in our calculations, can be described as follows: (1) through the localized cusp region where the field is too weak to sustain the confinement, plasmas expand and stretch the closed field lines radially outward as a result of the freezing-in effect of plasma-magnetic field coupling; the expansion brings a strong velocity gradient into the slow wind regime providing the free energy necessary for the onset of a subsequent magnetohydrodynamic instability; (2) the instability manifests itself mainly as mixed streaming sausage-kink modes, the former results in pinches of elongated magnetic loops to provoke reconnections at one or many loc...

  18. Comment on “New Limits on Intrinsic Charm in the Nucleon from Global Analysis of Parton Distributions”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gardner, Susan [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2016-01-05

    Intrinsic heavy quarks in hadrons emerge from the non-perturbative structure of a hadron bound state and are a rigorous prediction of QCD. Lattice QCD calculations indicate significant intrinsic charm and strangeness probabilities. Since the light-front momentum distribution of the Fock states is maximal at equal rapidity, intrinsic heavy quarks carry significant fractions of the hadron momentum. The presence of Fock states with intrinsic strange, charm, or bottom quarks in hadrons lead to an array of novel physics phenomena. Accurate determinations of the heavy-quark distributions in the proton are needed to interpret Tevatron and LHC measurements as probed of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  19. Design of intrinsically safe power supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rui-jin; JIN Lin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to make a high power direct current supply safely used in coal mine production,this paper made a deep research on characteristics of intrinsically safe power supply,using the mathematical model established according to coal mine intrinsic safety standards.It provides theory support for the application of high power intrinsically safe power supply.The released energy of output short circuit of switch power supply,and the close related factors that influence the biggest output short-circuit spark discharge energy are the theoretical basis of the power supply.It is shown how to make a high power intrinsically safe power supply using the calculated values in the mathematical model,and take values from intrinsically safe requirements parameters scope,then this theoretical calculation value can be developed as the ultimate basis for research of the power supply.It gets the identification method of intrinsically safe from mathematics model of intrinsically safe power supply characteristics study,which solves the problem of theory and application of designing different power intrinsically safe power supply,and designs a kind of high power intrinsically safe power supply through this method.

  20. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Berdud

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated.

  1. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gary; E.PICKARD; Patricia; J.SOLLARS

    2010-01-01

    A new mammalian photoreceptor was recently discovered to reside in the ganglion cell layer of the inner retina.These intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells(ipRGCs) express a photopigment,melanopsin,that confers upon them the ability to respond to light in the absence of all rod and cone photoreceptor input.Although relatively few in number,ipRGCs extend their dendrites across large expanses of the retina making them ideally suited to function as irradiance detectors to assess changes in ambient light levels.Phototransduction in ipRGCs appears to be mediated by transient receptor potential channels more closely resembling the phototransduction cascade of invertebrate rather than vertebrate photoreceptors.ipRGCs convey irradiance information centrally via the optic nerve to influence several functions.ipRGCs are the primary retinal input to the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus(SCN),a circadian oscillator and biological clock,and this input entrains the SCN to the day/night cycle.ipRGCs contribute irradiance signals that regulate pupil size and they also provide signals that interface with the autonomic nervous system to regulate rhythmic gene activity in major organs of the body.ipRGCs also provide excitatory drive to dopaminergic amacrine cells in the retina,providing a novel basis for the restructuring of retinal circuits by light.Here we review the ground-breaking discoveries,current progress and directions for future investigation.

  2. Noise suppression for micromechanical resonator via intrinsic dynamic feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou IAN; Zhi-rui GONG; Chang-pu SUN

    2008-01-01

    We study a dynamic mechanism to passively suppress the thermal noise of a micromechanical resonator through an intrinsic self-feedback that is genuinely non-Markovian.We use two coupled resonators,one as the target resonator and the other as an ancillary resonator,to illustrate the mechanism and its noise reduction effect.The intrinsic feedback is realized through the dynamics of coupling between the two resonators:the motions of the target resonator and the ancillary resonator mutually influence each other in a cyclic fashion.Specifically,the states that the target resonator has attained earlier will affect the state it attains later due to the presence of the ancillary resonator.We show that the feedback mechanism will bring forth the effect of noise suppression in the spectrum of displacement,but not in the spectrum of momentum.

  3. Intrinsic Decoherence on Two-Qubit Heisenberg ⅩⅩ Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zheng-Hong; XIONG Zu-Hong; HU Dong-Mei

    2007-01-01

    Quantum teleportation is investigated by using the entangled states of two-qubit Heisenberg ⅩⅩ chain in an external uniform magnetic field as resources in the model of Milburn's intrinsic decoherence. Though intrinsic decoherence on quantum entanglement and quantum teleportation exerts different effects in different initial systems,proper magnetic fields and probabilities of different eigenstates in the initial states can weaken the effects.

  4. Rotational Crofton formulae for flagged intrinsic volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    , and the integration is over all sections containing the fixed point origo. Our main result is a local stereological analogue to the well-known Crofton formula. More precisely, we derive geometric formulae that relate new flagged intrinsic volumes of a set with the flagged intrinsic volumes of its sections...

  5. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic contributions to stochasticity in gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Peter S.; Elowitz, Michael B.; Siggia, Eric D.

    2002-10-01

    Gene expression is a stochastic, or "noisy," process. This noise comes about in two ways. The inherent stochasticity of biochemical processes such as transcription and translation generates "intrinsic" noise. In addition, fluctuations in the amounts or states of other cellular components lead indirectly to variation in the expression of a particular gene and thus represent "extrinsic" noise. Here, we show how the total variation in the level of expression of a given gene can be decomposed into its intrinsic and extrinsic components. We demonstrate theoretically that simultaneous measurement of two identical genes per cell enables discrimination of these two types of noise. Analytic expressions for intrinsic noise are given for a model that involves all the major steps in transcription and translation. These expressions give the sensitivity to various parameters, quantify the deviation from Poisson statistics, and provide a way of fitting experiment. Transcription dominates the intrinsic noise when the average number of proteins made per mRNA transcript is greater than 2. Below this number, translational effects also become important. Gene replication and cell division, included in the model, cause protein numbers to tend to a limit cycle. We calculate a general form for the extrinsic noise and illustrate it with the particular case of a single fluctuating extrinsic variablea repressor protein, which acts on the gene of interest. All results are confirmed by stochastic simulation using plausible parameters for Escherichia coli.

  7. From mechanical folding trajectories to intrinsic energy landscapes of biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Gebhardt, J. Christof M.; Rief, Matthias; Thirumalai, D.

    2013-01-01

    In single-molecule laser optical tweezer (LOT) pulling experiments, a protein or RNA is juxtaposed between DNA handles that are attached to beads in optical traps. The LOT generates folding trajectories under force in terms of time-dependent changes in the distance between the beads. How to construct the full intrinsic folding landscape (without the handles and beads) from the measured time series is a major unsolved problem. By using rigorous theoretical methods—which account for fluctuations of the DNA handles, rotation of the optical beads, variations in applied tension due to finite trap stiffness, as well as environmental noise and limited bandwidth of the apparatus—we provide a tractable method to derive intrinsic free-energy profiles. We validate the method by showing that the exactly calculable intrinsic free-energy profile for a generalized Rouse model, which mimics the two-state behavior in nucleic acid hairpins, can be accurately extracted from simulated time series in a LOT setup regardless of the stiffness of the handles. We next apply the approach to trajectories from coarse-grained LOT molecular simulations of a coiled-coil protein based on the GCN4 leucine zipper and obtain a free-energy landscape that is in quantitative agreement with simulations performed without the beads and handles. Finally, we extract the intrinsic free-energy landscape from experimental LOT measurements for the leucine zipper. PMID:23487746

  8. METHOD FOR CALCULATION OF STRESSED STATE SUBSTANTIATED BY DYNAMIC MICROTWIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlashevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Method for calculation of the stressed state in a dynamic twin has been developed on the basis of a non-thin non-coherent micro-twin model with continuous distribution of twinning dislocations at twin boundaries. In this case there is no additional generation with the help of twinning dislocation source. The model takes into account that the twin has coherent and noncoherent boundary sections. The developed model has made it possible to take into consideration a form of non-coherent sections of twinning boundaries in calculations of stressed and deformed state at dynamic twins. It has been established that localized stresses are migrating together with non-coherent sections of the twin. Normal stresses σxx change their sign in relation to direction of the twin development. Shear stresses σxy are alternating in signs in relation to an axis which is perpendicular to the direction of the twin development and which is passing through a mid-point of non-coherent twin section. Distribution of stresses σyy и σyz has similar configuration. Stresses σzx in the second and fourth quarters of XOY plane are negative and the stresses in the first and third quarters are positive. Distribution of stresses σzz practically does not differ from distribution of stresses σyy according to configuration but numerical values of stress tensor component data are different.The results have been obtained without thin twin model that permits to consider only elastic stage of the twinning process. The executed stress calculations at dynamic twin are important for forecasting at the accumulation stage of damage origination which is caused by twinning destruction and permit to improve forecasting accuracy of technical system resources on the basis of twinning materials such as alloys based on iron, copper, zinc, aluminium, titanium.

  9. Toward a tripartite model of intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonneau, Noémie; Vallerand, Robert J; Lafrenière, Marc-André K

    2012-10-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) refers to engaging in an activity for the pleasure inherent in the activity. The present article presents a tripartite model of IM consisting of IM to know (i.e., engaging in an activity to experience pleasure while learning and trying to understand something new), IM toward accomplishment (i.e., engaging in an activity for the pleasure experienced when attempting task mastery), and IM to experience stimulation (i.e., engaging in an activity for feelings of sensory pleasure). The tripartite model of IM posits that each type of IM can result from task, situational, and personality determinants and can lead to specific types of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. The purpose of this research was to test some predictions derived from this model. Across 4 studies (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 113; Study 3: N = 58; Study 4: N = 135), the 3 types of IM as well as potential determinants and consequences were assessed. Results revealed that experiencing one type of IM over the others depends in part on people's personality styles. Also, each type of IM was found to predict specific outcomes (i.e., affective states and behavioral choices). The implications of the tripartite model of IM for motivation research are discussed.

  10. Exploiting protein intrinsic flexibility in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, Suryani; Verma, Chandra S; Fuentes, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Molecular recognition in biological systems relies on the existence of specific attractive interactions between two partner molecules. Structure-based drug design seeks to identify and optimize such interactions between ligands and their protein targets. The approach followed in medicinal chemistry follows a combination of careful analysis of structural data together with experimental and/or theoretical studies on the system. This chapter focuses on the fact that a protein is not fully characterized by a single structure, but by an ensemble of states, some of them represent "hidden conformations" with cryptic binding sites. We highlight case studies where both experimental and computational methods have been used to mutually drive each other in an attempt to improve the success of the drug design approaches.Advances in both experimental techniques and computational methods have greatly improved our physico-chemical understanding of the functional mechanisms in biomolecules and opened a debate about the interplay between molecular structure and biomolecular function. The beautiful static pictures of protein structures may have led to neglecting the intrinsic protein flexibility, however we are entering a new era where more sophisticated methods are used to exploit this ability of macromolecules, and this will definitely lead to the inclusion of the notion in the pharmaceutical field of drug design.

  11. Intrinsic structure in Saturn's rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, N.

    2015-10-01

    Saturn's rings are the most prominent in our Solar system and one example of granular matter in space. Dominated by tides and inelastic collisions the system is highly flattened being almost 300000km wide while only tens of meters thick. Individual particles are composed of primarily water ice and range from microns to few tens of meters in size. Apparent patterns comprise ringlets, gaps, kinematic wakes, propellers, bending waves, and the winding spiral arms of density waves. These large-scale structures are perturbations foremost created by external as well as embedded moons. Observations made by the Cassini spacecraft currently in orbit around Saturn show these structures in unprecedented detail. But high-resolution measurements reveal the presence of small-scale structures throughout the system. These include self-gravity wakes (50-100m), overstable waves (100-300m), subkm structure at the A and B ring edges, "straw" and "ropy" structures (1-3km), and the C ring "ghosts". Most of these had not been anticipated and are found in perturbed regions, driven by resonances with external moons, where the system undergoes periodic phases of compression and relaxation that correlate with the presence of structure. High velocity dispersion and the presence of large clumps imply structure formation on time scales as short as one orbit (about 10 hours). The presence of these intrinsic structures is seemingly the response to varying local conditions such as internal density, optical depth, underlying particle size distribution, granular temperature, and distance from the central planet. Their abundance provides evidence for an active and dynamic ring system where aggregation and fragmentation are ongoing on orbital timescales. Thus a kinetic description of the rings may be more appropriate than the fluid one. I will present Cassini Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVIS) High Speed Photometer (HSP) occultations, Voyager 1 and 2 Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and high

  12. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H. A.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  13. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Quattrocchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS and GS extension (GSE is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schematic boundaries including the essential geometric features of the coastline and a realistic zonal basin width at all latitudes. The forcing is provided by a time-independent climatological surface wind stress obtained from 41 years of monthly ECMWF fields. The model response yields strong intrinsic low-frequency fluctuations on the interannual to decadal time scales. The modelled time-averaged GS/GSE flows are found to exhibit several features that can also be deduced from satellite altimeter data, such as the Florida Current seaward deflection, the GS separation at Cape Hatteras, and the overall structure of the GSE. The intrinsic low-frequency variability yields two preferred states of the GSE differing in latitudinal location that also have their counterpart in the altimeter data. A preliminary analysis of the variability in terms of dynamical systems theory is carried out by using the lateral eddy viscosity as the control parameter. A complex transition sequence from a steady state to irregular low-frequency variability emerges, in which Hopf and global bifurcations can be identified.

  14. Stochastic synchronization of neuronal populations with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C

    2011-05-03

    We extend the theory of noise-induced phase synchronization to the case of a neural master equation describing the stochastic dynamics of an ensemble of uncoupled neuronal population oscillators with intrinsic and extrinsic noise. The master equation formulation of stochastic neurodynamics represents the state of each population by the number of currently active neurons, and the state transitions are chosen so that deterministic Wilson-Cowan rate equations are recovered in the mean-field limit. We apply phase reduction and averaging methods to a corresponding Langevin approximation of the master equation in order to determine how intrinsic noise disrupts synchronization of the population oscillators driven by a common extrinsic noise source. We illustrate our analysis by considering one of the simplest networks known to generate limit cycle oscillations at the population level, namely, a pair of mutually coupled excitatory (E) and inhibitory (I) subpopulations. We show how the combination of intrinsic independent noise and extrinsic common noise can lead to clustering of the population oscillators due to the multiplicative nature of both noise sources under the Langevin approximation. Finally, we show how a similar analysis can be carried out for another simple population model that exhibits limit cycle oscillations in the deterministic limit, namely, a recurrent excitatory network with synaptic depression; inclusion of synaptic depression into the neural master equation now generates a stochastic hybrid system.

  15. Intrinsic stress analysis of sputtered carbon film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqin Liu; Zhanshan Wang; Jingtao Zhu; Zhong Zhang; Moyan Tan; Qiushi Huang; Rui Chen; Jing Xu; Lingyan Chen

    2008-01-01

    Intrinsic stresses of carbon films deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering were investigated.The bombardments of energetic particles during the growth of films were considered to be the main reason for compressive intrinsic stresses.The values of intrinsic stresses were determined by measuring the radius of curvature of substrates before and after film deposition.By varying argon pressure and target-substrate distance,energies of neutral carbon atoms impinging on the growing films were optimized to control the intrinsic stresses level.The stress evolution in carbon films as a function of film thickness was investigated and a void-related stress relief mechanism was proposed to interpret this evolution.

  16. Parameter likelihood of intrinsic ellipticity correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Capranico, Federica; Schaefer, Bjoern Malte

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this paper are the statistical properties of ellipticity alignments between galaxies evoked by their coupled angular momenta. Starting from physical angular momentum models, we bridge the gap towards ellipticity correlations, ellipticity spectra and derived quantities such as aperture moments, comparing the intrinsic signals with those generated by gravitational lensing, with the projected galaxy sample of EUCLID in mind. We investigate the dependence of intrinsic ellipticity correlations on cosmological parameters and show that intrinsic ellipticity correlations give rise to non-Gaussian likelihoods as a result of nonlinear functional dependencies. Comparing intrinsic ellipticity spectra to weak lensing spectra we quantify the magnitude of their contaminating effect on the estimation of cosmological parameters and find that biases on dark energy parameters are very small in an angular-momentum based model in contrast to the linear alignment model commonly used. Finally, we quantify whether intrins...

  17. Original Paper Detecting Nosocomial Intrinsic Infections through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-20

    Apr 20, 2011 ... Micro-organisms from intrinsic and extrinsic sources have .... All isolates with similar antibiotic profile were analysed for ... microcentrifuge at 12,000rpm for 10 minutes. The ..... emphasising the need to remove urinary catheters.

  18. RUSSIAN STUDENTS’ INTRINSIC MOTIVATION: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    SHAROVATOVA S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The article is aimed at analysing Russian teachers’ experience in developing students’ intrinsic motivation. The author’s own reflections and findings based on motivation theory and practice are also given.

  19. An intrinsic hyperboloid approach for Einstein Klein-Gordon equations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian

    2016-01-01

    In [7] Klainerman introduced the hyperboloidal method to prove the global existence results for nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations by using commuting vector fields. In this paper, we extend the hyperboloidal method from Minkowski space to Lorentzian spacetimes. This approach is developed in [14] for proving, under the maximal foliation gauge, the global nonlinear stability of Minkowski space for Einstein equations with massive scalar fields, which states that, the sufficiently small data in a compact domain, surrounded by a Schwarzschild metric, leads to a unique, globally hyperbolic, smooth and geodesically complete solution to the Einstein Klein-Gordon system. In this paper, we set up the geometric framework of the intrinsic hyperboloid approach in the curved spacetime. By performing a thorough geometric comparison between the radial normal vector field induced by the intrinsic hyperboloids and the canonical $\\p_r$, we manage to control the hyperboloids when they are close to their asymptote, which is a light...

  20. Quasiparticle current and phase locking of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, P.; Grib, A. N.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Scherbel, J.; Hübner, U.; Schmidl, F.

    2001-09-01

    On the base of our experiments on thin film Josephson junctions in mesa geometry we discuss the quasiparticle branches of the intrinsic arrays within a tunnelling model using d-wave superconductor density of states. We find temperature dependent current contributions and a zero bias anomaly. The coherent behaviour is studied for intrinsic arrays with an additional side-wall shunt. The existence of thresholds of phase locking at small as well as at large inductances is demonstrated. We discuss the problems with experimental realisation of the shunts as well as with an alternative concept to enhance phase locking in such arrays towards application as oscillators in the frequency range up to some THz.

  1. Intrinsic periodicity: the forgotten lesson of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Dolce, Donatello

    2013-01-01

    Wave-particle duality, together with the concept of elementary particles, was introduced by de Broglie in terms of intrinsically "periodic phenomena". However, after nearly 90 years, the physical origin of such undulatory mechanics remains unrevealed. We propose a natural realization of the de Broglie "periodic phenomenon" in terms of harmonic vibrational modes associated to space-time periodicities. In this way we find that, similarly to a vibrating string or a particle in a box, the intrinsic recurrence imposed as a constraint to elementary particles represents a fully consistent quantization condition. The resulting classical cyclic dynamics formally match ordinary relativistic Quantum Mechanics in both the canonical and Feynman formulations. Interactions are introduced in a geometrodynamical way, similarly to general relativity, by simply considering that variations of kinematical state can be equivalently described in terms of modulations of space-time recurrences, as known from undulatory mechanics. We ...

  2. Intrinsic oscillations of neocortex generated by layer 5 pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R; Amitai, Y; Connors, B W

    1991-01-25

    Rhythmic activity in the neocortex varies with different behavioral and pathological states and in some cases may encode sensory information. However, the neural mechanisms of these oscillations are largely unknown. Many pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the neocortex showed prolonged, 5- to 12-hertz rhythmic firing patterns at threshold. Rhythmic firing was due to intrinsic membrane properties, sodium conductances were essential for rhythmicity, and calcium-dependent conductances strongly modified rhythmicity. Isolated slices of neocortex generated epochs of 4- to 10-hertz synchronized activity when N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated channels were facilitated. Layer 5 was both necessary and sufficient to produce these synchronized oscillations. Thus, synaptic networks of intrinsically rhythmic neurons in layer 5 may generate or promote certain synchronized oscillations of the neocortex.

  3. Intrinsic Oscillations of Neocortex Generated by Layer 5 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laurie R.; Amitai, Yael; Connors, Barry W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhythmic activity in the neocortex varies with different behavioral and pathological states and in some cases may encode sensory information. However, the neural mechanisms of these oscillations are largely unknown. Many pyramidal neurons in layer 5 of the neocortex showed prolonged, 5- to 12-hertz rhythmic firing patterns at threshold. Rhythmic firing was due to intrinsic membrane properties, sodium conductances were essential for rhythmicity, and calcium-dependent conductances strongly modified rhythmicity. Isolated slices of neocortex generated epochs of 4- to 10-hertz synchronized activity when N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated channels were facilitated. Layer 5 was both necessary and sufficient to produce these synchronized oscillations. Thus, synaptic networks of intrinsically rhythmic neurons in layer 5 may generate or promote certain synchronized oscillations of the neocortex.

  4. The Nonlinear Evolution of Galaxy Intrinsic Alignments

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jounghun; Pen, Ue-Li

    2007-01-01

    The non-Gaussian contribution to the intrinsic halo spin alignments is analytically modeled and numerically detected. Assuming that the growth of non-Gaussianity in the density fluctuations caused the tidal field to have nonlinear-order effect on the orientations of the halo angular momentum, we model the intrinsic halo spin alignments as a linear scaling of the density correlations on large scales, which is different from the previous quadratic-scaling model based on the linear tidal torque ...

  5. Reconciling economics and psychology on intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyzes how the debate on intrinsic motivation was imported from psychology into economics. The most important differences between the two disciplines are in the definition of intrinsic motivation and in the timing of the undermining effect of rewards. The economic framework of inter-temporal choices is proposed to reconcile the different empirical and theoretical results arising in the literature, and it is shown how rewards induce substitution and income effects depending on whet...

  6. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacements in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    VURAL, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-01-01

    The thermal mean square displacement (MSD) of hydrogen in proteins and its associated hydration water is measured by neutron scattering experiments and used an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD as currently determined depends on the energy resolution width of the neutron scattering instrument employed. We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic MSD of H in the proteins, one that is independent of the instrument resolution width. The intrinsic MSD is defined as the infinite ...

  7. Incentives and intrinsic motivation in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdud, Mikel; Cabasés, Juan M; Nieto, Jorge

    It has been established in the literature that workers within public organisations are intrinsically motivated. This paper is an empirical study of the healthcare sector using methods of qualitative analysis research, which aims to answer the following hypotheses: 1) doctors are intrinsically motivated; 2) economic incentives and control policies may undermine doctors' intrinsic motivation; and 3) well-designed incentives may encourage doctors' intrinsic motivation. We conducted semi-structured interviews à-la-Bewley with 16 doctors from Navarre's Healthcare Service (Servicio Navarro de Salud-Osasunbidea), Spain. The questions were based on current theories of intrinsic motivation and incentives to test the hypotheses. Interviewees were allowed to respond openly without time constraints. Relevant information was selected, quantified and analysed by using the qualitative concepts of saturation and codification. The results seem to confirm the hypotheses. Evidence supporting hypotheses 1 and 2 was gathered from all interviewees, as well as indications of the validity of hypothesis 3 based on interviewees' proposals of incentives. The conclusions could act as a guide to support the optimal design of incentive policies and schemes within health organisations when healthcare professionals are intrinsically motivated. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Exact complexity: The spectral decomposition of intrinsic computation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchfield, James P., E-mail: chaos@ucdavis.edu [Complexity Sciences Center and Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Ellison, Christopher J., E-mail: cellison@wisc.edu [Center for Complexity and Collective Computation, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Riechers, Paul M., E-mail: pmriechers@ucdavis.edu [Complexity Sciences Center and Department of Physics, University of California at Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-03-06

    We give exact formulae for a wide family of complexity measures that capture the organization of hidden nonlinear processes. The spectral decomposition of operator-valued functions leads to closed-form expressions involving the full eigenvalue spectrum of the mixed-state presentation of a process's ϵ-machine causal-state dynamic. Measures include correlation functions, power spectra, past-future mutual information, transient and synchronization informations, and many others. As a result, a direct and complete analysis of intrinsic computation is now available for the temporal organization of finitary hidden Markov models and nonlinear dynamical systems with generating partitions and for the spatial organization in one-dimensional systems, including spin systems, cellular automata, and complex materials via chaotic crystallography. - Highlights: • We provide exact, closed-form expressions for a hidden stationary process' intrinsic computation. • These include information measures such as the excess entropy, transient information, and synchronization information and the entropy-rate finite-length approximations. • The method uses an epsilon-machine's mixed-state presentation. • The spectral decomposition of the mixed-state presentation relies on the recent development of meromorphic functional calculus for nondiagonalizable operators.

  9. On dilatons with intrinsic decouplings

    CERN Document Server

    Minazzoli, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    In this letter, we show that there exists a class of dilaton models with non-trivial scalar-Ricci and scalar-matter couplings that strongly reduces deviations from general relativity in the dust limit. These models turn out to be special cases of the more general dilaton that will be studied in more detail in an upcoming publication. Depending essentially on the coupling between the dilaton and the fundamental matter fields, various strength of decouplings are uncovered. They range from almost no decoupling to a total decoupling state. In this latter case, the theory becomes indistinguishable from general relativity as all dilatonic effects can be re-absorbed through a simple change of units --- even though there is a non-minimal and non-trivial coupling between the dilaton and matter. But each strength of decoupling has the effect of reducing possible departures from the phenomenology of general relativity. The class of non-dynamical decouplings proposed in this letter might play a role in the current non-ob...

  10. Intrinsic-extrinsic factors in sport motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Darhl M

    2002-10-01

    Participants were 83 students (36 men and 47 women). 10 intrinsic-extrinsic factors involved in sport motivation were obtained. The factors were generated from items obtained from the participants rather than items from the experimenter. This was done to avoid the possible influence of preconceptions on the part of the experimenter regarding what the final dimensions may be. Obtained motivational factors were Social Reinforcement, Fringe Benefits, Fame and Fortune, External Forces, Proving Oneself, Social Benefits, Mental Enrichment, Expression of Self, Sense of Accomplishment, and Self-enhancement. Each factor was referred to an intrinsic-extrinsic dimension to describe its relative position on that dimension. The order of the factors as listed indicates increasing intrinsic motivation. i.e., the first four factors were rated in the extrinsic range, whereas the remaining six were rated to be in the intrinsic range. Next, the participants rated the extent to which each of the various factors was involved in their decision to participate in sport activities. The pattern of use of the motivational factors was the same for both sexes except that men indicated greater use of the Fringe Benefits factor. Overall, the more intrinsic a sport motivation factor was rated, the more likely it was to be rated as a factor in actual sport participation.

  11. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  12. Genome-Wide Prediction of Intrinsic Disorder; Sequence Alignment of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midic, Uros

    2012-01-01

    Intrinsic disorder (ID) is defined as a lack of stable tertiary and/or secondary structure under physiological conditions in vitro. Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are highly abundant in nature. IDPs possess a number of crucial biological functions, being involved in regulation, recognition, signaling and control, e.g. their functional…

  13. Functions of intrinsic disorder in transmembrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Magnus; Kragelund, Birthe B.

    2017-01-01

    mechanisms. (3) Trafficking of membrane proteins. (4) Transient membrane associations. (5) Post-translational modifications most notably phosphorylation and (6) disorder-linked isoform dependent function. We finish the review by discussing the future challenges facing the membrane protein community regarding......Intrinsic disorder is common in integral membrane proteins, particularly in the intracellular domains. Despite this observation, these domains are not always recognized as being disordered. In this review, we will discuss the biological functions of intrinsically disordered regions of membrane...... proteins, and address why the flexibility afforded by disorder is mechanistically important. Intrinsically disordered regions are present in many common classes of membrane proteins including ion channels and transporters; G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and cytokine...

  14. Diffractive Higgs Production from Intrinsic Heavy Flavors in the Proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; Kopeliovich, Boris; Schmidt, Ivan; Soffer, Jacques

    2006-03-31

    We propose a novel mechanism for exclusive diffractive Higgs production pp {yields} pHp in which the Higgs boson carries a significant fraction of the projectile proton momentum. This mechanism will provide a clear experimental signal for Higgs production due to the small background in this kinematic region. The key assumption underlying our analysis is the presence of intrinsic heavy flavor components of the proton bound state, whose existence at high light-cone momentum fraction x has growing experimental and theoretical support. We also discuss the implications of this picture for exclusive diffractive quarkonium and other channels.

  15. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  16. Intrinsic Universality of Causal Graph Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martiel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Causal graph dynamics are transformations over graphs that capture two important symmetries of physics, namely causality and homogeneity. They can be equivalently defined as continuous and translation invariant transformations or functions induced by a local rule applied simultaneously on every vertex of the graph. Intrinsic universality is the ability of an instance of a model to simulate every other instance of the model while preserving the structure of the computation at every step of the simulation. In this work we present the construction of a family of intrinsically universal instances of causal graphs dynamics, each instance being able to simulate a subset of instances.

  17. Intrinsic viscosity of a suspension of cubes

    KAUST Repository

    Mallavajula, Rajesh K.

    2013-11-06

    We report on the viscosity of a dilute suspension of cube-shaped particles. Irrespective of the particle size, size distribution, and surface chemistry, we find empirically that cubes manifest an intrinsic viscosity [η]=3.1±0.2, which is substantially higher than the well-known value for spheres, [η]=2.5. The orientation-dependent intrinsic viscosity of cubic particles is determined theoretically using a finite-element solution of the Stokes equations. For isotropically oriented cubes, these calculations show [η]=3.1, in excellent agreement with our experimental observations. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  19. Electrical synapses and synchrony: the role of intrinsic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuty, Benjamin; Mato, Germán; Golomb, David; Hansel, David

    2003-07-16

    Electrical synapses are ubiquitous in the mammalian CNS. Particularly in the neocortex, electrical synapses have been shown to connect low-threshold spiking (LTS) as well as fast spiking (FS) interneurons. Experiments have highlighted the roles of electrical synapses in the dynamics of neuronal networks. Here we investigate theoretically how intrinsic cell properties affect the synchronization of neurons interacting by electrical synapses. Numerical simulations of a network of conductance-based neurons randomly connected with electrical synapses show that potassium currents promote synchrony, whereas the persistent sodium current impedes it. Furthermore, synchrony varies with the firing rate in qualitatively different ways depending on the intrinsic currents. We also study analytically a network of quadratic integrate-and-fire neurons. We relate the stability of the asynchronous state of this network to the phase-response function (PRF), which characterizes the effect of small perturbations on the firing timing of the neurons. In particular, we show that the greater the skew of the PRF toward the first half of the period, the more stable the asynchronous state. Combining our simulations with our analytical results, we establish general rules to predict the dynamic state of large networks of neurons coupled with electrical synapses. Our work provides a natural explanation for surprising experimental observations that blocking electrical synapses may increase the synchrony of neuronal activity. It also suggests different synchronization properties for LTS and FS cells. Finally, we propose to further test our predictions in experiments using dynamic clamp techniques.

  20. Possible mechanism for d0 ferromagnetism mediated by intrinsic defects

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhenkui

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of several intrinsic defects on the magnetic behavior of ZnS nanostructures using hybrid density functional theory to gain insights into d0 ferromagnetism. Previous studies have predicted that the magnetism is due to a coupling between partially filled defect states. By taking into account the electronic correlations, we find an additional splitting of the defect states in Zn vacancies and thus the possibility of gaining energy by preferential filling of hole states, establishing ferromagnetism between spin polarized S 3p holes. We demonstrate a crucial role of neutral S vacancies in promoting ferromagnetism between positively charged S vacancies. S dangling bonds on the nanoparticle surface also induce ferromagnetism. This journal is

  1. Intrinsic barriers for H-atom transfer reactions involving hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Autrey, S.T.; Franz, J.A.

    1994-08-01

    Intrinsic barriers (formally the barrier in the absence of driving force) for H-atom transfer reactions are key parameters in Evans-Polyanyi and Marcus equations for estimating exothermic reaction barriers and are fundamentally significant for the insight they provide about bond reorganization energies for formation of transition state structures. Although knowable from experiment, relatively few of these barriers have been measured due to experimental difficulties in measuring rates for identity reactions. Thus, the authors have used semiempirical Molecular Orbital theoretical methods (MNDO/PM3) to calculate barriers for a series of H-atom transfer identity reactions involving alkyl, alkenyl, arylalkyl and hydroaryl radicals and donors. Briefly stated, they find that barriers decrease with the degree of alkyl substitution at the radical site whereas barriers increase with the degree of conjugation with the radical site. Details of the methodology and analyses of how these barrier heights correlate with reactant and transition state properties will be presented and discussed.

  2. First-principles studies of HF molecule adsorption on intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuanyuan; Chen, Li; Zhang, Feiwu; Li, Daoyong; Pan, Hongzhe; Ye, Jun

    2010-10-01

    In the search for a high-sensitivity sensor for HF gas, the adsorption of HF molecules on both intrinsic and Al-doped graphene sheets is studied by first-principles calculations. We find that the adsorption mechanisms of HF molecules are different for intrinsic graphene and Al-doped graphene. Al-doped graphene has higher adsorption energy and shorter connecting distance to the HF molecule than intrinsic graphene. The calculated net electron transfers, electronic density difference images and densities of states give evidence that the adsorption of HF molecules on Al-doped graphene is by chemisorption, while there is weak physisorption on intrinsic graphene. Therefore, Al-doped graphene can be expected to have applications as a novel sensor for the detection of HF gas. The HF molecules adsorbed on Al-doped graphene material can be reactivated by applying an external electric field of 0.013 a.u.

  3. A Hubble Space Telescope Survey of Intrinsic Absorption in Nearby AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashtamirova, Dzhuliya; Dunn, Jay P.; Crenshaw, D. Michael

    2017-01-01

    We present a survey of the intrinsic UV absorption lines in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We limit our study to the ultraviolet spectra of type 1 AGN with a redshift of z COS) observations. We download and co-add all of the COS spectra. We find that about 80 of these are type 1 AGN. We normalize the COS spectra and identify all of the intrinsic Lyman-alpha, N V, Si IV, and C IV intrinsic absorption features. From these data, we determine the fraction of type 1 AGN with intrinsic absorption in this redshift range and find the global covering factors of the absorbers. We also identify low ionization species as well as excited state lines. A number of objects have multiple epoch COS and/or Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) observations, which we use to investigate the absorption variability.

  4. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  6. Intrinsic Novobiocin Resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Anna A.; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J.

    2007-01-01

    Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus was associated with expression of a novobiocin-resistant form of the drug target protein (GyrB). Site-directed mutagenesis established that resistance depends upon the presence of two specific amino acid residues in GyrB: a glycine at position 85 and a lysine at position 140. PMID:17876001

  7. Intrinsic Location Parameter of a Diffusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-18

    intrins�que du filtre de Kalman , discut�e dans un autre article. Nous pr�sentons ici une simulation num�rique dÕune EDS non lin�aire, qui montre la pr...the construction of an intrinsic nonlinear analog to the Kalman Fil- ter. We present here a numerical simulation of a nonlinear SDE, showing how well

  8. Intrinsically conductive polymer thin film piezoresistors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Spieser, Martin; Christiansen, N.O.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the piezoresistive effect in the intrinsically conductive polymer, polyaniline. A process recipe for indirect patterning of thin film polyaniline has been developed. Using a specially designed chip, the polyaniline thin films have been characterised with respect to resistivity...

  9. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  10. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  11. Simple intrinsic defects in InAs :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Peter Andrew

    2013-03-01

    This Report presents numerical tables summarizing properties of intrinsic defects in indium arsenide, InAs, as computed by density functional theory using semi-local density functionals, intended for use as reference tables for a defect physics package in device models.

  12. Intrinsic Motivation, Organizational Justice, and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannam, Kalli; Narayan, Anupama

    2015-01-01

    For employees to generate creative ideas that are not only original, but also useful to their company, they must interact with their workplace environment to determine organizational needs. Therefore, it is important to consider aspects of the individual as well as their environment when studying creativity. Intrinsic motivation, a predictor of…

  13. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation among Collegiate Instrumentalists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Frank M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gather and compare information on measures of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among instrumentalists enrolled in collegiate ensembles. A survey instrument was developed to gather information concerning demographic data and responses to questions on motivational preference. Participants were undergraduate and…

  14. Intrinsic Diophantine approximation on general polynomial surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiljeset, Morten Hein

    2017-01-01

    We study the Hausdorff measure and dimension of the set of intrinsically simultaneously -approximable points on a curve, surface, etc, given as a graph of integer polynomials. We obtain complete answers to these questions for algebraically “nice” manifolds. This generalizes earlier work done...

  15. Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Anna A; Chopra, Ian; O'Neill, Alex J

    2007-12-01

    Intrinsic novobiocin resistance in Staphylococcus saprophyticus was associated with expression of a novobiocin-resistant form of the drug target protein (GyrB). Site-directed mutagenesis established that resistance depends upon the presence of two specific amino acid residues in GyrB: a glycine at position 85 and a lysine at position 140.

  16. An Intrinsic Approach to Lichnerowicz Conjecture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Akhil Ranjan

    2000-02-01

    In this paper we give a proof of Lichnerowicz conjecture for compact simply connected manifolds which is intrinsic in the sense that it avoids the nice embeddings into eigenspaces of the Laplacian. Even if one wants to use these embeddings, this paper gives a more streamlined proof. As a byproduct, we get a simple criterion for a polynomial to be a Jacobi polynomial.

  17. Identifying the neural substrates of intrinsic motivation during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woogul; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2017-06-21

    Intrinsic motivation is the inherent tendency to seek out novelty and challenge, to explore and investigate, and to stretch and extend one's capacities. When people imagine performing intrinsically motivating tasks, they show heightened anterior insular cortex (AIC) activity. To fully explain the neural system of intrinsic motivation, however, requires assessing neural activity while people actually perform intrinsically motivating tasks (i.e., while answering curiosity-inducing questions or solving competence-enabling anagrams). Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the neural system of intrinsic motivation involves not only AIC activity, but also striatum activity and, further, AIC-striatum functional interactions. These findings suggest that subjective feelings of intrinsic satisfaction (associated with AIC activations), reward processing (associated with striatum activations), and their interactions underlie the actual experience of intrinsic motivation. These neural findings are consistent with the conceptualization of intrinsic motivation as the pursuit and satisfaction of subjective feelings (interest and enjoyment) as intrinsic rewards.

  18. Exact complexity: The spectral decomposition of intrinsic computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, James P.; Ellison, Christopher J.; Riechers, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    We give exact formulae for a wide family of complexity measures that capture the organization of hidden nonlinear processes. The spectral decomposition of operator-valued functions leads to closed-form expressions involving the full eigenvalue spectrum of the mixed-state presentation of a process's ɛ-machine causal-state dynamic. Measures include correlation functions, power spectra, past-future mutual information, transient and synchronization informations, and many others. As a result, a direct and complete analysis of intrinsic computation is now available for the temporal organization of finitary hidden Markov models and nonlinear dynamical systems with generating partitions and for the spatial organization in one-dimensional systems, including spin systems, cellular automata, and complex materials via chaotic crystallography.

  19. Intrinsic microwave dielectric loss of lanthanum aluminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takeshi; Ichikawa, Koji; Minemura, Tetsuro; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Utsumi, Wataru; Ishii, Yoshinobu; Breeze, Jonathan; Alford, Neil McN

    2010-10-01

    The intrinsic dielectric properties of LaAlO₃ were investigated to understand the microwave properties of several materials containing LaAlO₃. In this study, LaAlO₃ single crystals were prepared by the Czochralski method. The temperature dependence of the dielectric properties and neutron inelastic scattering of the single crystals were measured. From these data, the intrinsic dielectric properties were evaluated and it was found that the dielectric loss of the LaAlO₃ includes two types of dielectric loss. One is a phonon absorption-related loss and the other is a component of the loss arising from Debye- type orientation polarization. The latter affects the room temperature dielectric loss in materials containing LaAlO₃. The present study suggests that avoiding this polarization loss is an important goal in decreasing the total dielectric loss.

  20. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  1. Documentation Requirements, Intrinsic Motivation, and Worker Absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Kristensen, Nicolai; Holm Pedersen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Command systems are widely used to monitor public service provision, but little is known about unintended effects on individual workers’ motivation and work effort. Using insights from motivation crowding theory, we estimate a SEM model that captures how Danish childcare assistants and social...... and higher sickness absence. The association is statistically significant, but very small in substantive terms. The result is nevertheless consistent with the expectation in motivation crowding theory and contributes to the literature by including a new, reliable behavioral variable—sickness absence....../healthcare assistants perceive documentation requirements. We analyze how this perception relates to intrinsic motivation measured in a survey and sickness absence as reported in administrative registers, and find that individuals who perceive documentation requirements as controlling have lower intrinsic motivation...

  2. Direct measurement of intrinsic atomic scale magnetostriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffoni, M P; Pascarelli, S; Grössinger, R; Turtelli, R Sato; Bormio-Nunes, C; Pettifer, R F

    2008-10-03

    Using differential x-ray absorption spectroscopy (DiffXAS) we have measured and quantified the intrinsic, atomic-scale magnetostriction of Fe81Ga19. By exploiting the chemical selectivity of DiffXAS, the Fe and Ga local environments have been assessed individually. The enhanced magnetostriction induced by the addition of Ga to Fe was found to originate from the Ga environment, where lambda;{gamma,2}( approximately (3/2)lambda_{100}) is 390+/-40 ppm. In this environment, 001 Ga-Ga pair defects were found to exist, which mediate the magnetostriction by inducing large strains in the surrounding Ga-Fe bonds. For the first time, intrinsic, chemically selective magnetostrictive strain has been measured and quantified at the atomic level, allowing true comparison with theory.

  3. Partitioned quantum cellular automata are intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    There have been several non-axiomatic approaches taken to define Quantum Cellular Automata (QCA). Partitioned QCA (PQCA) are the most canonical of these non-axiomatic definitions. In this work we show that any QCA can be put into the form of a PQCA. Our construction reconciles all the non-axiomatic definitions of QCA, showing that they can all simulate one another, and hence that they are all equivalent to the axiomatic definition. This is achieved by defining generalised n-dimensional intrinsic simulation, which brings the computer science based concepts of simulation and universality closer to theoretical physics. The result is not only an important simplification of the QCA model, it also plays a key role in the identification of a minimal n-dimensional intrinsically universal QCA.

  4. Intrinsic Simulations between Stochastic Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Arrighi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a simple formalism for dealing with deterministic, non-deterministic and stochastic cellular automata in a unifying and composable manner. Armed with this formalism, we extend the notion of intrinsic simulation between deterministic cellular automata, to the non-deterministic and stochastic settings. We then provide explicit tools to prove or disprove the existence of such a simulation between two stochastic cellular automata, even though the intrinsic simulation relation is shown to be undecidable in dimension two and higher. The key result behind this is the caracterization of equality of stochastic global maps by the existence of a coupling between the random sources. We then prove that there is a universal non-deterministic cellular automaton, but no universal stochastic cellular automaton. Yet we provide stochastic cellular automata achieving optimal partial universality.

  5. Effect of intrinsic curvature on semiflexible polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Surya K.; Singh, Kulveer; Sain, Anirban

    2009-11-01

    Recently many important biopolymers have been found to possess intrinsic curvature. Tubulin protofilaments in animal cells, FtsZ filaments in bacteria and double stranded DNA are examples. We examine how intrinsic curvature influences the conformational statistics of such polymers. We give exact results for the tangent-tangent spatial correlation function C(r)=⟨t̂(s).t̂(s+r)⟩ , both in two and three dimensions. Contrary to expectation, C(r) does not show any oscillatory behavior, rather decays exponentially and the effective persistence length has strong length dependence for short polymers. We also compute the distribution function P(R) of the end to end distance R and show how curved chains can be distinguished from wormlike chains using loop formation probability.

  6. Extrinsic and intrinsic determinants of nerve regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby A. Ferguson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After central nervous system (CNS injury axons fail to regenerate often leading to persistent neurologic deficit although injured peripheral nervous system (PNS axons mount a robust regenerative response that may lead to functional recovery. Some of the failures of CNS regeneration arise from the many glial-based inhibitory molecules found in the injured CNS, whereas the intrinsic regenerative potential of some CNS neurons is actively curtailed during CNS maturation and limited after injury. In this review, the molecular basis for extrinsic and intrinsic modulation of axon regeneration within the nervous system is evaluated. A more complete understanding of the factors limiting axonal regeneration will provide a rational basis, which is used to develop improved treatments for nervous system injury.

  7. Intrinsic Motivation in Open Source Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bitzer, J.; W., Schrettl,; Schröder, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    of a public good, these features emerge quite naturally. We adapt a dynamic private-provision-of-public-goods model to reflects key aspects of the OSS phenomenon. In particular, instead of relying on extrinsic motives for programmers (e.g. signaling) the present model is driven by intrinsic motives of OSS...... programmers, such as user-programmers, play value or \\emph{homo ludens} payoff, and gift culture benefits. Such intrinsic motives feature extensively in the wider OSS literature and turn out to add new insights to the economic analysis.......This papers sheds light on the puzzling evidence that even though open source software (OSS) is a public good, it is developed for free by highly qualified, young and motivated individuals, and evolves at a rapid pace. We show that once OSS development is understood as the private provision...

  8. Within-patient correspondence of amyloid-β and intrinsic network connectivity in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Lorenzo; Göttler, Jens; Grimmer, Timo; Koch, Kathrin; Ortner, Marion; Neitzel, Julia; Mühlau, Mark; Förster, Stefan; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Riedl, Valentin; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    There is striking overlap between the spatial distribution of amyloid-β pathology in patients with Alzheimer’s disease and the spatial distribution of high intrinsic functional connectivity in healthy persons. This overlap suggests a mechanistic link between amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity, and indeed there is evidence in patients for the detrimental effects of amyloid-β plaque accumulation on intrinsic connectivity in areas of high connectivity in heteromodal hubs, and particularly in the default mode network. However, the observed spatial extent of amyloid-β exceeds these tightly circumscribed areas, suggesting that previous studies may have underestimated the negative impact of amyloid-β on intrinsic connectivity. We hypothesized that the known positive baseline correlation between patterns of amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity may mask the larger extent of the negative effects of amyloid-β on connectivity. Crucially, a test of this hypothesis requires the within-patient comparison of intrinsic connectivity and amyloid-β distributions. Here we compared spatial patterns of amyloid-β-plaques (measured by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography) and intrinsic functional connectivity (measured by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging) in patients with prodromal Alzheimer’s disease via spatial correlations in intrinsic networks covering fronto-parietal heteromodal cortices. At the global network level, we found that amyloid-β and intrinsic connectivity patterns were positively correlated in the default mode and several fronto-parietal attention networks, confirming that amyloid-β aggregates in areas of high intrinsic connectivity on a within-network basis. Further, we saw an internetwork gradient of the magnitude of correlation that depended on network plaque-load. After accounting for this globally positive correlation, local amyloid-β-plaque concentration in regions of high connectivity co-varied negatively with

  9. A Model for Intrinsic Redshifts of Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Peter M

    2015-01-01

    The large observed redshift of quasars has suggested large cosmological distances and a corresponding enormous energy output to explain the brightness or luminosity as seen at earth. Alternative or complementary sources of redshift have not been identified by the astronomical community. This study examines one possible source of additional redshift: an intrinsic component based on the plasma characteristics of high temperature and high electron density which are believed to be present.

  10. Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development

    CERN Document Server

    Soo, Chopin

    2016-01-01

    Quantum geometrodynamics with intrinsic time development is presented. Paradigm shift from full space-time covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance yields a non-vanishing Hamiltonian, a resolution of the `problem of time', and gauge-invariant temporal ordering in an ever expanding universe. Einstein's general relativity is a particular realization of a wider class of theories; and the framework prompts natural extensions and improvements, with the consequent dominance of Cotton-York potential at early times when the universe was small.

  11. Macroscopic Objects, Intrinsic Spin, and Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, David W; Tasson, Jay D

    2013-01-01

    The framework of the Standard-Model Extension (SME) provides a relativistic quantum field theory for the study of Lorentz violation. The classical, nonrelativistic equations of motion can be extracted as a limit that is useful in various scenarios. In this work, we consider the effects of certain SME coefficients for Lorentz violation on the motion of macroscopic objects having net intrinsic spin in the classical, nonrelativistic limit.

  12. Moral Distress, Workplace Health, and Intrinsic Harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Elijah

    2016-05-01

    Moral distress is now being recognized as a frequent experience for many health care providers, and there's good evidence that it has a negative impact on the health care work environment. However, contemporary discussions of moral distress have several problems. First, they tend to rely on inadequate characterizations of moral distress. As a result, subsequent investigations regarding the frequency and consequences of moral distress often proceed without a clear understanding of the phenomenon being discussed, and thereby risk substantially misrepresenting the nature, frequency, and possible consequences of moral distress. These discussions also minimize the intrinsically harmful aspects of moral distress. This is a serious omission. Moral distress doesn't just have a negative impact on the health care work environment; it also directly harms the one who experiences it. In this paper, I claim that these problems can be addressed by first clarifying our understanding of moral distress, and then identifying what makes moral distress intrinsically harmful. I begin by identifying three common mistakes that characterizations of moral distress tend to make, and explaining why these mistakes are problematic. Next, I offer an account of moral distress that avoids these mistakes. Then, I defend the claim that moral distress is intrinsically harmful to the subject who experiences it. I conclude by explaining how acknowledging this aspect of moral distress should reshape our discussions about how best to deal with this phenomenon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Management Control, Intrinsic Motivation and Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godt Gregersen, Mikkel

    This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers. It is divi......This thesis consists of a cape and three papers. The overall research question is: How can intrinsic motivation and management control coexist in a creative environment and how can coordination be possible in such a context? The cape ties together the research done in the three papers....... It is divided into six sections. The first section introduces the concepts of intrinsic motivation, creativity and management control. This is followed by a section on management control in a creative context. These two sections frame the thesis and introduce the setting in which the research has been done....... The third section presents the research approach, which is the application of basic needs as social mechanisms. Social mechanisms are used to explain one event by a previous event by identifying the causal links between the two events. Basic needs are the needs for feelings of autonomy, competence...

  14. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  15. Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Edward A.; Williams, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews classroom behavior management studies to see if extrinsic rewards affect intrinsic reinforcement value of appropriate classroom behaviors. Conclusion indicates extrinsic rewards are useful. Teachers need not avoid the use of rewards in fear of undermining intrinsic interest. (LAB)

  16. Reconfiguration of Intrinsic Functional Coupling Patterns Following Circumscribed Network Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldaief, Mark C; McMains, Stephanie; Hutchison, R Matthew; Halko, Mark A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2016-05-25

    Communication between cortical regions is necessary for optimal cognitive processing. Functional relationships between cortical regions can be inferred through measurements of temporal synchrony in spontaneous activity patterns. These relationships can be further elaborated by surveying effects of cortical lesions upon inter-regional connectivity. Lesions to cortical hubs and heteromodal association regions are expected to induce distributed connectivity changes and higher-order cognitive deficits, yet their functional consequences remain relatively unexplored. Here, we used resting-state fMRI to investigate intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) and graph theoretical metrics in 12 patients with circumscribed lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) portion of the Default Network (DN), and compared these metrics with those observed in healthy matched comparison participants and a sample of 1139 healthy individuals. Despite significant mPFC destruction, patients did not demonstrate weakened intrinsic FC among undamaged DN nodes. Instead, network-specific changes were manifested as weaker negative correlations between the DN and attentional and somatomotor networks. These findings conflict with the DN being a homogenous system functionally anchored at mPFC. Rather, they implicate a role for mPFC in mediating cross-network functional interactions. More broadly, our data suggest that lesions to association cortical hubs might induce clinical deficits by disrupting communication between interacting large-scale systems.

  17. Intrinsic Scene Decomposition from RGB-D Images

    KAUST Repository

    Hachama, Mohammed

    2015-12-07

    In this paper, we address the problem of computing an intrinsic decomposition of the colors of a surface into an albedo and a shading term. The surface is reconstructed from a single or multiple RGB-D images of a static scene obtained from different views. We thereby extend and improve existing works in the area of intrinsic image decomposition. In a variational framework, we formulate the problem as a minimization of an energy composed of two terms: a data term and a regularity term. The first term is related to the image formation process and expresses the relation between the albedo, the surface normals, and the incident illumination. We use an affine shading model, a combination of a Lambertian model, and an ambient lighting term. This model is relevant for Lambertian surfaces. When available, multiple views can be used to handle view-dependent non-Lambertian reflections. The second term contains an efficient combination of l2 and l1-regularizers on the illumination vector field and albedo respectively. Unlike most previous approaches, especially Retinex-like techniques, these terms do not depend on the image gradient or texture, thus reducing the mixing shading/reflectance artifacts and leading to better results. The obtained non-linear optimization problem is efficiently solved using a cyclic block coordinate descent algorithm. Our method outperforms a range of state-of-the-art algorithms on a popular benchmark dataset.

  18. Statistical structure of intrinsic climate variability under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiuhua; Bye, John; Fraedrich, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Climate variability is often studied in terms of fluctuations with respect to the mean state, whereas the dependence between the mean and variability is rarely discussed. We propose a new climate metric to measure the relationship between means and standard deviations of annual surface temperature computed over non-overlapping 100-year segments. This metric is analyzed based on equilibrium simulations of the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM): the last millennium climate (800-1799), the future climate projection following the A1B scenario (2100-2199), and the 3100-year unforced control simulation. A linear relationship is globally observed in the control simulation and thus termed intrinsic climate variability, which is most pronounced in the tropical region with negative regression slopes over the Pacific warm pool and positive slopes in the eastern tropical Pacific. It relates to asymmetric changes in temperature extremes and associates fluctuating climate means with increase or decrease in intensity and occurrence of both El Niño and La Niña events. In the future scenario period, the linear regression slopes largely retain their spatial structure with appreciable changes in intensity and geographical locations. Since intrinsic climate variability describes the internal rhythm of the climate system, it may serve as guidance for interpreting climate variability and climate change signals in the past and the future.

  19. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Yannis; Iossa, Elisabetta; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  20. Crowding out intrinsic motivation in the public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Georgellis, Yannis; Iossa, Elisabetta; Tabvuma, Vurain

    2011-01-01

    Employing intrinsically motivated individuals has been proposed as a means of improving public sector performance. In this article, we investigate whether intrinsic motivation affects the sorting of employees between the private and the public sectors, paying particular attention to whether extrinsic rewards crowd out intrinsic motivation. Using British longitudinal data, we find that individuals are attracted to the public sector by the intrinsic rather than the extrinsic rewards that the se...

  1. Exact Analysis of Intrinsic Qualitative Features of Phosphorelays using Mathematical Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten Henrik

    2012-01-01

    stable steady-state. Furthermore, we derive explicit functions relating stimulus to the response in any layer of a phosphorelay and show that a limited degree of ultrasensitivity in the bottom layer of a phosphorelay is an intrinsic feature which does not depend on any reaction rates or substrate amounts...

  2. Controlling Spiral Waves by Modulations Resonant with the Intrinsic System Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jing-Hua; HU Gang; HU Bam-Bi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the spiral wave control in the two-dimensional complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. External drivings which are not resonant with spiral waves but with intrinsic system modes are used to successfully annihilate spiral waves and direct the system to various target states. The novel control mechanism is intuitively explained and the richness and flexibility the control results are emphasized.

  3. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  4. Intrinsic Motivation: An Overlooked Component for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Robert A.; Ables, Adrienne Z.; Guilford, Philip; Lujan, Heidi L.; Cortright, Ronald N.; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2016-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation to learn involves engaging in learning opportunities because they are seen as enjoyable, interesting, or relevant to meeting one's core psychological needs. As a result, intrinsic motivation is associated with high levels of effort and task performance. Students with greater levels of intrinsic motivation demonstrate strong…

  5. Personalizing Sample Databases with Facebook Information to Increase Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzo, Asier; Ardaiz, Oscar; Sanz de Acedo, María Teresa; Sanz de Acedo, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Motivation is fundamental for students to achieve successful and complete learning. Motivation can be extrinsic, i.e., driven by external rewards, or intrinsic, i.e., driven by internal factors. Intrinsic motivation is the most effective and must be inspired by the task at hand. Here, a novel strategy is presented to increase intrinsic motivation…

  6. Intrinsic determinants of optic nerve regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui-lin; CHO Kin-Sang; GUO Chen-ying; CHEW Justin; CHEN Dong-feng; YANG Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the functions of these intracellular signals in their regulation of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axon regeneration.Data sources Relevant articles published in English or Chinese from 1970 to present were selected from PubMed.Searches were made using the terms "intrinsic determinants,axon regeneration,RGC,optic nerve regeneration,and central nervous system axon regeneration."Study selection Articles studying the mechanisms controlling RGC and central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration were reviewed.Articles focusing on the intrinsic determinants of axon regeneration were selected.Results Like other CNS neurons of mammals,RGCs undergo a developmental loss in their ability to grow axons as they mature,which is a critical contributing factor to the failure of nerve regeneration and repair after injury.This growth failure can be attributed,at least in part,by the induction of molecular programs preventing cellular overgrowth and termination of axonal growth upon maturation.Key intracellular signals and transcription factors,including B cell lymphoma/leukemia 2,cyclic adenine monophosphate,mammalian target of rapamycin,and Krüppel-like transcription factors,have been identified to play central roles in this process.Conclusions Intense effort and substantial progress have been made to identify the various intrinsic growth pathways that regulate RGC axon regeneration.More work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms of and the interrelationship between the actions of these factors and to successfully achieve regeneration and repair of the severed RGC axons.

  7. Symplectic Structure of Intrinsic Time Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyo Eyo Ita

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Poisson structure of intrinsic time gravity is analysed. With the starting point comprising a unimodular three-metric with traceless momentum, a trace-induced anomaly results upon quantization. This leads to a revision of the choice of momentum variable to the (mixed index traceless momentric. This latter choice unitarily implements the fundamental commutation relations, which now take on the form of an affine algebra with SU(3 Lie algebra amongst the momentric variables. The resulting relations unitarily implement tracelessness upon quantization. The associated Poisson brackets and Hamiltonian dynamics are studied.

  8. Fitting EMC structure functions with intrinsic charm

    CERN Document Server

    Rottoli, Luca

    2016-01-01

    A detailed study of the impact of the data collected by the European Muon Collaboration (EMC) on the parton distribution function (PDF) of the charm quark is presented. The analysis is performed in the NNPDF framework, and the charm PDF is freely parametrized on equal footing as light quark and gluon distributions. We find that variations in the treatment of EMC data do not modify the charm PDF and do not affect our previous conclusion on the presence of an intrinsic component in the charm PDF.

  9. Intrinsic differences between oral and skin keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Turabelidze

    Full Text Available Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles.

  10. Intrinsic Differences between Oral and Skin Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turabelidze, Anna; Guo, Shujuan; Chung, Allison Yen; Chen, Lin; Dai, Yang; Marucha, Phillip T.; DiPietro, Luisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Keratinocytes cover both the skin and some oral mucosa, but the morphology of each tissue and the behavior of the keratinocytes from these two sites are different. One significant dissimilarity between the two sites is the response to injury. Oral mucosal wounds heal faster and with less inflammation than equivalent cutaneous wounds. We hypothesized that oral and skin keratinocytes might have intrinsic differences at baseline as well as in the response to injury, and that such differences would be reflected in gene expression profiles. PMID:25198578

  11. Metacognitive mastery and intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in intrinsic motivation (IM) have been linked to poorer outcome in schizophrenia, but its proximal mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study examined whether metacognitive mastery, or the capacity to use knowledge of self, others, and context to identify and cope with psychological difficulties, predicted levels of IM for 6 months among 75 participants with prolonged schizophrenia. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that high metacognitive mastery predicted consistently higher levels of IM; however, intermediate and low mastery did not produce unique IM profiles. The findings suggest that metacognitive mastery may have an important role in IM over time and could be a meaningful treatment target.

  12. Projected and intrinsic shapes of galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plionis, Manolis (International School of Advanced Studies, Trieste (Italy)); Barrow, J.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Astronomy Centre); Frenk, C.S. (Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-04-15

    We identify a large number of galaxy clusters in the Lick map using an algorithm based on an overdensity criterion. The resulting catalogues contain {similar to} 6000 clusters (with /b/ {ge} 40{sup o}) out of which 753 are Abell clusters. We determine ellipticities and major axis orientations for a suitable subset of this sample, including 397 Abell clusters. We find that the distribution of projected axial ratios is approximately Gaussian with a mean of {similar to} 0.6 and a standard deviation of {similar to} 0.2. We investigate methods to invert the distribution of apparent axial ratios in order to obtain the distribution of intrinsic axial ratios. (author).

  13. Outflows vs. Clouds in AGN Intrinsic Absorbers

    OpenAIRE

    Arav, Nahum

    2003-01-01

    We discuss the crucial role of a dynamical picture in the analysis of AGN intrinsic absorbers data. High quality FUSE data of Mrk 279 are used to demonstrate that the line of sight covering fraction is a strong function of velocity. In Mrk 279, as well as in most cases where the data is of high enough quality, the shape of the absorption troughs is mainly determined by the velocity-dependent covering fraction. We argue that the traditional ``cloud'' picture of AGN outflows is hard pressed to ...

  14. Conformational equilibria and intrinsic affinities define integrin activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Su, Yang; Xia, Wei; Qin, Yan; Humphries, Martin J; Vestweber, Dietmar; Cabañas, Carlos; Lu, Chafen; Springer, Timothy A

    2017-03-01

    We show that the three conformational states of integrin α5β1 have discrete free energies and define activation by measuring intrinsic affinities for ligand of each state and the equilibria linking them. The 5,000-fold higher affinity of the extended-open state than the bent-closed and extended-closed states demonstrates profound regulation of affinity. Free energy requirements for activation are defined with protein fragments and intact α5β1 On the surface of K562 cells, α5β1 is 99.8% bent-closed. Stabilization of the bent conformation by integrin transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains must be overcome by cellular energy input to stabilize extension. Following extension, headpiece opening is energetically favored. N-glycans and leg domains in each subunit that connect the ligand-binding head to the membrane repel or crowd one another and regulate conformational equilibria in favor of headpiece opening. The results suggest new principles for regulating signaling in the large class of receptors built from extracellular domains in tandem with single-span transmembrane domains.

  15. Comparison of truncated shell model calculations in the laboratory and intrinsic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catara, F.; Insolia, A.; Sambataro, M.; Maglione, E.; Vitturi, A.

    1985-08-01

    We perform, in the case of particles moving in a single-j level, shell model calculations in which the angular momentum of the individual pairs is restricted to a maximum value. The comparison with the full calculation shows the need for including at least the G pairs in the model space in order to reproduce the correct moments of inertia and transition rates of the different rotational bands. We also show that a level scheme very close to that obtained in the laboratory system can be alternatively obtained by angular momentum projection starting from intrinsic states evaluated in the intrinsic frame.

  16. Tardigrades Use Intrinsically Disordered Proteins to Survive Desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Thomas C; Tapia, Hugo; Brozena, Alexandra H; Piszkiewicz, Samantha; Smith, Austin E; Giovannini, Ilaria; Rebecchi, Lorena; Pielak, Gary J; Koshland, Doug; Goldstein, Bob

    2017-03-16

    Tardigrades are microscopic animals that survive a remarkable array of stresses, including desiccation. How tardigrades survive desiccation has remained a mystery for more than 250 years. Trehalose, a disaccharide essential for several organisms to survive drying, is detected at low levels or not at all in some tardigrade species, indicating that tardigrades possess potentially novel mechanisms for surviving desiccation. Here we show that tardigrade-specific intrinsically disordered proteins (TDPs) are essential for desiccation tolerance. TDP genes are constitutively expressed at high levels or induced during desiccation in multiple tardigrade species. TDPs are required for tardigrade desiccation tolerance, and these genes are sufficient to increase desiccation tolerance when expressed in heterologous systems. TDPs form non-crystalline amorphous solids (vitrify) upon desiccation, and this vitrified state mirrors their protective capabilities. Our study identifies TDPs as functional mediators of tardigrade desiccation tolerance, expanding our knowledge of the roles and diversity of disordered proteins involved in stress tolerance.

  17. Multiscale approach to modeling intrinsic dissipation in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunal, K.; Aluru, N. R.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale approach to model intrinsic dissipation under high frequency of vibrations in solids. For vibrations with a timescale comparable to the phonon relaxation time, the local phonon distribution deviates from the equilibrium distribution. We extend the quasiharmonic (QHM) method to describe the dynamics under such a condition. The local deviation from the equilibrium state is characterized using a nonequilibrium stress tensor. A constitutive relation for the time evolution of the stress component is obtained. We then parametrize the evolution equation using the QHM method and a stochastic sampling approach. The stress relaxation dynamics is obtained using mode Langevin dynamics. Methods to obtain the input variables for the Langevin dynamics are discussed. The proposed methodology is used to obtain the dissipation rate Edissip for different cases. Frequency and size effect on Edissip are studied. The results are compared with those obtained using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (MD).

  18. Towards intrinsic magnetism of graphene sheets with irregular zigzag edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianlian; Guo, Liwei; Li, Zhilin; Zhang, Han; Lin, Jingjing; Huang, Jiao; Jin, Shifeng; Chen, Xiaolong

    2013-01-01

    The magnetism of graphene has remained divergent and controversial due to absence of reliable experimental results. Here we show the intrinsic magnetism of graphene edge states revealed based on unidirectional aligned graphene sheets derived from completely carbonized SiC crystals. It is found that ferromagnetism, antiferromagnetism and diamagnetism along with a probable superconductivity exist in the graphene with irregular zigzag edges. A phase diagram is constructed to show the evolution of the magnetism. The ferromagnetic ordering curie-temperature of the fundamental magnetic order unit (FMOU) is 820 ± 80 K. The antiferromagnetic ordering Neel temperature of the FMOUs belonging to different sublattices is about 54 ± 2 K. The diamagnetism is similar to that of graphite and can be well described by the Kotosonov's equation. Our experimental results provide new evidences to clarify the controversial experimental phenomena observed in graphene and contribute to a deeper insight into the nature of magnetism in graphene based system.

  19. Prediction of intrinsic disorder in proteins using MFDp2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizianty, Marcin J; Uversky, Vladimir; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are either entirely disordered or contain disordered regions in their native state. IDPs were found to be abundant across all kingdoms of life, particularly in eukaryotes, and are implicated in numerous cellular processes. Experimental annotation of disorder lags behind the rapidly growing sizes of the protein databases and thus computational methods are used to close this gap and to investigate the disorder. MFDp2 is a novel webserver for accurate sequence-based prediction of protein disorder which also outputs well-described sequence-derived information that allows profiling the predicted disorder. We conveniently visualize sequence conservation, predicted secondary structure, relative solvent accessibility, and alignments to chains with annotated disorder. The webserver allows predictions for multiple proteins at the same time, includes help pages and tutorial, and the results can be downloaded as text-based (parsable) file. MFDp2 is freely available at http://biomine.ece.ualberta.ca/MFDp2/.

  20. Altered intrinsic connectivity of the auditory cortex in congenital amusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Baptiste; Groussard, Mathilde; Caclin, Anne; Albouy, Philippe; Platel, Hervé; Tillmann, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Congenital amusia, a neurodevelopmental disorder of music perception and production, has been associated with abnormal anatomical and functional connectivity in a right frontotemporal pathway. To investigate whether spontaneous connectivity in brain networks involving the auditory cortex is altered in the amusic brain, we ran a seed-based connectivity analysis, contrasting at-rest functional MRI data of amusic and matched control participants. Our results reveal reduced frontotemporal connectivity in amusia during resting state, as well as an overconnectivity between the auditory cortex and the default mode network (DMN). The findings suggest that the auditory cortex is intrinsically more engaged toward internal processes and less available to external stimuli in amusics compared with controls. Beyond amusia, our findings provide new evidence for the link between cognitive deficits in pathology and abnormalities in the connectivity between sensory areas and the DMN at rest. PMID:27009161

  1. Reducing Computational Overhead of Network Coding with Intrinsic Information Conveying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Pedersen, Morten V.

    This paper investigated the possibility of intrinsic information conveying in network coding systems. The information is embedded into the coding vector by constructing the vector based on a set of predefined rules. This information can subsequently be retrieved by any receiver. The starting point...... to the overall energy consumption, which is particular problematic for mobile battery-driven devices. In RLNC coding is performed over a FF (Finite Field). We propose to divide this field into sub fields, and let each sub field signify some information or state. In order to embed the information correctly...... the coding operations must be performed in a particular way, which we introduce. Finally we evaluate the suggested system and find that the amount of coding can be significantly reduced both at nodes that recode and decode....

  2. Intrinsic Optical Bistability in a Strongly-Driven Rydberg Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    de Melo, Natalia R; Sibalic, Nikola; Kondo, Jorge M; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    We observe and characterize intrinsic optical bistability in a dilute Rydberg vapor. The bistability is characterized by sharp jumps between states of low and high Rydberg occupancy with jump up and down positions displaying hysteresis depending on the direction in which the control parameter is changed. We find that the shift in frequency of the jump point scales with the fourth power of the principal quantum number. Also, the width of the hysteresis window increases with increasing principal quantum number, before reaching a peak and then closing again. The experimental results are consistent with predictions from a simple theoretical model based on semiclassical Maxwell-Bloch equations including the effect of broadening and frequency shifts. These results provide insight to the dynamics of driven dissipative systems.

  3. Evaluation of Ayurvedic plants for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Dutt Shukla

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage caused by free radicals plays an important role in the causation and progression of many diseases, including aging. Free radical damage is countered by many mechanisms, including both active antioxidant enzymatic activity in our body and passive antioxidants. Antioxidant response of our body can accommodate increased oxidative damage in diseased states to a level but beyond that level, additional antioxidants are required to combat the increased stress. Apart from the regular dietary sources of antioxidants, many traditional herbal medicines demonstrate a potential to boost antioxidant activity. Rasayana chikitsa that deals with rejuvenation and revitalization is a branch of the Indian traditional medical system of Ayurveda. We review some select herbs described in Rasayana chikitsa that have been assessed by modern means for stimulating intrinsic antioxidant responses in humans. A critical evaluation of Rasayana chikitsa will likely provide urgently needed, actual stimulants of our physiological antioxidant responses and not just more passive antioxidants to an already large catalogue.

  4. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms: rubidium and cesium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataraj, H S; Sahoo, B K; Das, B P; Mukherjee, D

    2008-07-18

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximately Z;{3}. Thus, the heavy paramagnetic atoms will exhibit large EDM enhancement factors. However, the sizes of the couplings are so small that they are of interest of high precision atomic experiments. In this work we have computed the EDM enhancement factors of the ground states of Rb and Cs due to both the electron EDM and the S-PS EDM using the relativistic coupled-cluster theory. The importance of determining precise ab initio enhancement factors and experimental results of atomic EDMs in deducing a reliable limit on the electron EDM is emphasized.

  5. Electrophysiological signatures of atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Guofa; Mosconi, Matthew W.; Wang, Jun; Ethridge, Lauren E.; Sweeney, John A.; Ding, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Objective. Abnormal local and long-range brain connectivity have been widely reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet the nature of these abnormalities and their functional relevance at distinct cortical rhythms remains unknown. Investigations of intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) and their coherence across whole brain networks hold promise for determining whether patterns of functional connectivity abnormalities vary across frequencies and networks in ASD. In the present study, we aimed to probe atypical intrinsic brain connectivity networks in ASD from resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) data via characterizing the whole brain network. Approach. Connectivity within individual ICNs (measured by spectral power) and between ICNs (measured by coherence) were examined at four canonical frequency bands via a time-frequency independent component analysis on high-density EEG, which were recorded from 20 ASD and 20 typical developing (TD) subjects during an eyes-closed resting state. Main results. Among twelve identified electrophysiological ICNs, individuals with ASD showed hyper-connectivity in individual ICNs and hypo-connectivity between ICNs. Functional connectivity alterations in ASD were more severe in the frontal lobe and the default mode network (DMN) and at low frequency bands. These functional connectivity measures also showed abnormal age-related associations in ICNs related to frontal, temporal and motor regions in ASD. Significance. Our findings suggest that ASD is characterized by the opposite directions of abnormalities (i.e. hypo- and hyper-connectivity) in the hierarchical structure of the whole brain network, with more impairments in the frontal lobe and the DMN at low frequency bands, which are critical for top-down control of sensory systems, as well as for both cognition and social skills.

  6. The tile assembly model is intrinsically universal

    CERN Document Server

    Doty, David; Patitz, Matthew J; Schweller, Robert T; Summers, Scott M; Woods, Damien

    2011-01-01

    We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is "intrinsic" in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out by T, with each tile of T represented by an m x m "supertile" of U. Our construction works for the full aTAM at any temperature, and it faithfully simulates the deterministic or nondeterministic behavior of each T. Our construction succeeds by solving an analog of the cell differentiation problem in developmental biology: Each supertile of U, starting with those in the seed assembly, carries the "genome" of the simulated system T. At each location of a potential supertile in the self-assembly of U, a decision is made whether and how to express this genome, i.e., whether to generate a supertile and, if so, which tile of T it will represent. This decision must ...

  7. Human dignity: intrinsic or relative value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Marie-Jo

    2010-09-01

    Is human dignity an intrinsic value? Or is it a relative value, depending on the perception or assessment of quality of life? History had delineated some of its key features, but the advent of human rights and the Holocaust put special emphasis on this notion, particularly in the field of bioethics. But if modern medicine regards human dignity as crucial, it tends to support this notion while assessing and measuring it. The quality of life becomes the gauge for measuring human dignity, starting from a distinction between a viable and a non-viable existence, which may eventually lead to assisted death, or to letting die. This article argues that the concept of quality of life is of great relevant for medical practice, but on the condition of not being used as a standard to measure the dignity of the individual. Rather, the quality of life should be regarded as an imperative posed by human dignity, which is necessarily intrinsic. If the quality of life measures dignity, humankind is divided into two categories: lives worthy of living, and lives unworthy of living, and society becomes a jungle. Raising the quality of life as a requirement of the inherent human dignity does not solve automatically all problems and does not eliminate a feeling of unworthiness. But it ensures its 'human' value: the equal respect for every human being.

  8. Rotating pigment cells exhibit an intrinsic chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Kondo, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, cell properties, such as shape, size and function are important in morphogenesis and physiological functions. Recently, 'cellular chirality' has attracted attention as a cellular property because it can cause asymmetry in the bodies of animals. In recent in vitro studies, the left-right bias of cellular migration and of autonomous arrangement of cells under some specific culture conditions were discovered. However, it is difficult to identify the molecular mechanism underlying their intrinsic chirality because the left-right bias observed to date is subtle or is manifested in the stable orientation of cells. Here, we report that zebrafish (Danio rerio) melanophores exhibit clear cellular chirality by unidirectional counterclockwise rotational movement under isolated conditions without any special settings. The chirality is intrinsic to melanophores because the direction of the cellular rotation was not affected by the type of extracellular matrix. We further found that the cellular rotation was generated as a counter action of the clockwise movement of actin cytoskeleton. It suggested that the mechanism that directs actin cytoskeleton in the clockwise direction is pivotal for determining cellular chirality.

  9. A tonoplast intrinsic protein in Gardenia jasminoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lan; Li, Hao-Ming

    2017-08-01

    Physiological and molecular studies proved that plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) and tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs) subfamily of aquaporins play key functions in plant water homeostasis. Five specialized subgroups (TIP1-5) of TIPs have been found in higher plants, in which the TIP1 and TIP2 isoforms are the largest arbitrary groups. TIPs have high water-transport activity than PIPs, some TIPs can transport other small molecule such as urea, ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon dioxide. In this work, the structure of the putative tonoplast aquaporin from Gardenia jasminoides (GjTIP) was analyzed. Its transcript level has increased during fruit maturation. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that the protein belongs to TIP1 subfamily. A three-dimensional model structure of GjTIP was built based on crystal structure of an ammonia-permeable AtTIP2-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. The model structure displayed as a homo-tetramer, each monomer has six trans-membrane and two half-membrane-spanning α helices. The data suggests that the GjTIP has tendency to be a mixed function aquaporin, might involve in water, urea and hydrogen peroxide transport, and the gating machanism founded in some AQPs involving pH and phosphorylation response have not been proved in GjTIP.

  10. Intrinsic Conformal Symmetries in Szekeres models

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S

    2016-01-01

    We show that Spatially Inhomogeneous (SI) and Irrotational dust models admit a \\emph{6-dimensional algebra }of \\emph{Intrinsic Conformal Vector Fields} (ICVFs) $\\mathbf{X}_{\\alpha }$ satisfying $p_{a}^{c}p_{b}^{d}\\mathcal{L}_{\\mathbf{X}_{\\alpha }}p_{cd}=2\\phi (\\mathbf{X}_{\\alpha })p_{ab}$ where $p_{ab} $ is the associated metric of the 2d distribution $\\mathcal{X}$ normal to the fluid velocity $u^{a}$ and the radial unit spacelike vector field $x^{a}$. The Intrinsic Conformal (IC) algebra is determined for each of the curvature value $\\epsilon $ that characterizes the structure of the screen space $\\mathcal{X}$. In addition the conformal flatness of the hypersurfaces $\\mathbf{u}=\\mathbf{0}$ indicates the existence of a \\emph{10-dimensional algebra} of ICVFs of the 3d metric $h_{ab}$. We illustrate this expectation and propose a method to derive them by giving explicitly the \\emph{7 proper} ICVFs of the Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) model which represents the simplest subclass within the Szekeres family.

  11. Intrinsically disordered proteins drive membrane curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, David J.; Houser, Justin R.; Hayden, Carl C.; Sherman, Michael B.; Lafer, Eileen M.; Stachowiak, Jeanne C.

    2015-07-01

    Assembly of highly curved membrane structures is essential to cellular physiology. The prevailing view has been that proteins with curvature-promoting structural motifs, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped BAR domains, are required for bending membranes. Here we report that intrinsically disordered domains of the endocytic adaptor proteins, Epsin1 and AP180 are highly potent drivers of membrane curvature. This result is unexpected since intrinsically disordered domains lack a well-defined three-dimensional structure. However, in vitro measurements of membrane curvature and protein diffusivity demonstrate that the large hydrodynamic radii of these domains generate steric pressure that drives membrane bending. When disordered adaptor domains are expressed as transmembrane cargo in mammalian cells, they are excluded from clathrin-coated pits. We propose that a balance of steric pressure on the two surfaces of the membrane drives this exclusion. These results provide quantitative evidence for the influence of steric pressure on the content and assembly of curved cellular membrane structures.

  12. The Neglected Intrinsic Resistome of Bacterial Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Alicia; Martínez-Martín, Nadia; Mercadillo, María; Galán, Juan C.; Ghysels, Bart; Matthijs, Sandra; Cornelis, Pierre; Wiehlmann, Lutz; Tümmler, Burkhard; Baquero, Fernando; Martínez, José L.

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature. PMID:18286176

  13. The neglected intrinsic resistome of bacterial pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Fajardo

    Full Text Available Bacteria with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics are a worrisome health problem. It is widely believed that intrinsic antibiotic resistance of bacterial pathogens is mainly the consequence of cellular impermeability and activity of efflux pumps. However, the analysis of transposon-tagged Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants presented in this article shows that this phenotype emerges from the action of numerous proteins from all functional categories. Mutations in some genes make P. aeruginosa more susceptible to antibiotics and thereby represent new targets. Mutations in other genes make P. aeruginosa more resistant and therefore define novel mechanisms for mutation-driven acquisition of antibiotic resistance, opening a new research field based in the prediction of resistance before it emerges in clinical environments. Antibiotics are not just weapons against bacterial competitors, but also natural signalling molecules. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes are not merely protective shields and offer a more comprehensive view of the role of antibiotic resistance genes in the clinic and in nature.

  14. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis mediates loss of intrinsic activity measured by functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brier, Matthew R; Day, Gregory S; Snyder, Abraham Z; Tanenbaum, Aaron B; Ances, Beau M

    2016-06-01

    Spontaneous brain activity is required for the development and maintenance of normal brain function. Many disease processes disrupt the organization of intrinsic brain activity, but few pervasively reduce the amplitude of resting state blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fMRI fluctuations. We report the case of a female with anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis, longitudinally studied during the course of her illness to determine the contribution of NMDAR signaling to spontaneous brain activity. Resting state BOLD fMRI was measured at the height of her illness and 18 weeks following discharge from hospital. Conventional resting state networks were defined using established methods. Correlation and covariance matrices were calculated by extracting the BOLD time series from regions of interest and calculating either the correlation or covariance quantity. The intrinsic activity was compared between visits, and to expected activity from 45 similarly aged healthy individuals. Near the height of the illness, the patient exhibited profound loss of consciousness, high-amplitude slowing of the electroencephalogram, and a severe reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous BOLD fMRI fluctuations. The patient's neurological status and measures of intrinsic activity improved following treatment. We conclude that NMDAR-mediated signaling plays a critical role in the mechanisms that give rise to organized spontaneous brain activity. Loss of intrinsic activity is associated with profound disruptions of consciousness and cognition.

  15. Design Principles of Inert Substrates for Exploiting Gold Clusters’ Intrinsic Catalytic Reactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wang; Ting Cui, Ting; Fu Zhu, Yong; Wen, Zi; Zhao, Ming; Chen Li, Jian; Jiang, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Ultralow stability of gold clusters prohibits the understanding of their intrinsic reactivity (that is vital for revealing the origin of gold’s catalytic properties). Using density functional theory including many-body dispersion method, we aim to ascertain effective ways in exploiting gold clusters’ intrinsic reactivity on carbon nanotubes (CNTs). We find that the many body van der Waals interactions are essential for gold clusters’ reactivity on CNTs and even for O2 activation on these supported clusters. Furthermore, curvature and dopant of CNTs are found to qualitatively change the balance between physisorption and chemisorption for gold clusters on CNTs, determining the clusters’ morphology, charge states, stability, and reactivity, which rationalize the experimental findings. Remarkably, N doped small curvature CNTs, which effectively stabilize gold clusters and retain their inherent geometric/electronic structures, can be promising candidates for exploiting gold clusters’ intrinsic reactivity.

  16. Intrinsic and collective structure of an algebraic model of molecular rotation-vibration spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leviatan, A.; Kirson, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    A geometrical framework is provided for a recently proposed interacting boson model of molecular rotation-vibration spectra. An intrinsic state is defined by way of a boson condensate parametrized in terms of shape variables and is used to generate an energy surface. The global minimum of the energy surface determines an equilibrium condensate which serves as the basis for an exact separation of the Hamiltonian into intrinsic and collective parts. A Bogoliubov treatment of the intrinsic part produces, in leading order, the normal modes of vibration and their frequencies, the collective degrees of freedom being represented by zero-frequency Goldstone modes associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking in the condensate. The method is very useful in interpreting numerical results of the algebraic model, in identifying the capabilities and inadequacies of the Hamiltonian, and in constructing appropriate algebraic Hamiltonians for specific molecules. copyright 1988 Academic Press, Inc.

  17. [New strategy to promote adult spinal cord regeneration: enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping

    2009-01-01

    Injured adult spinal cord neurons are usually unable to regenerate their axons due to the inhibitory environment and low intrinsic regenerative capability. One of the main strategies to promote spinal cord regeneration is blocking and/or neutralizing the inhibitory factors or their common inhibitory signal pathway. However, overcoming inhibition alone is insufficient to cause extensive regeneration when neurons' intrinsic growth state has not been activated. Therefore, it becomes one of the most interested targets for promoting spinal cord regeneration that how to enhance adult neurons' intrinsic growth capability, such as elevating adult neuron cAMP/PKA level, blocking Rho/ROCK pathway, modulating transcriptional factors etc., such that they no longer response to inhibitory environment. In this paper we will review the current research findings and recent progresses in this field.

  18. [Determination of intrinsic alliin dissolution rates with fiber-optic sensing process analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jing; Zhang, Zi-Cheng; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Xin-Xia; Chen, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The apparatus for intrinsic dissolution test recorded in United States Pharmacopeia (USP) integrating with fiber-optic drug dissolution test system (FODT) were used to real-time monitor intrinsic dissolution processes of alliin in four media which were water, solution of HCl with pH 1.2, buffer solution of acetate with pH 4.5, and buffer solution of phosphate with pH 6.8. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) and the similarity factor (f2) of two intrinsic dissolution curves with two apparatuses were calculated. The IDR values of alliin with rotating disk system were 28.1.3, 33.55, 28.38 and 30.95 mg x cm(-2) x min(-1) in four media, respectively. And the IDR values of alliin with stationary disk system were 44.16, 47.07, 45.11 and 51.34 mg x cm(-2) x min(-1), respectively. The similarity factors were 56.42, 50.75, 40.30 and 40.64, respectively. The results showed that the intrinsic alliin dissolution rates were much greater than 1 mg x cm(-2) x min(-1). It inferred that alliin dissolution would not be the rate limiting step to absorption.

  19. Effect of intrinsic motivation on affective responses during and after exercise: latent curve model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Myoungjin; Kim, Inwoo; Kwon, Sungho

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the relationship between affect and exercise is helpful in predicting human behavior with respect to exercise participation. The goals of the present study were to investigate individual differences in affective response during and after exercise and to identify the role of intrinsic motivation in affective changes. 30 active male college students (M age = 21.4 yr.) who regularly participated in sports activities volunteered to answer a questionnaire measuring intrinsic motivation toward running activities and performed a 20-min. straight running protocol at heavy intensity (about 70% of VO2max). Participants' affective responses were measured every 5 min. from the beginning of the run to 10 min. after completing the run. Latent curve model analysis indicated that individuals experienced different changes in affective state during exercise, moderated by intrinsic motivation. Higher intrinsic motivation was associated with more positive affect during exercise. There were no significant individual differences in the positive tendency of the participants' affective responses after exercise over time. Intrinsic motivation seems to facilitate positive feelings during exercise and encourages participation in exercise.

  20. Dense Coding in a Two-Spin Squeezing Model with Intrinsic Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing-Bing; Yang, Guo-Hui

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dense coding in a two-spin squeezing model under intrinsic decoherence with different initial states (Werner state and Bell state) is investigated. It shows that dense coding capacity χ oscillates with time and finally reaches different stable values. χ can be enhanced by decreasing the magnetic field Ω and the intrinsic decoherence γ or increasing the squeezing interaction μ, moreover, one can obtain a valid dense coding capacity ( χ satisfies χ > 1) by modulating these parameters. The stable value of χ reveals that the decoherence cannot entirely destroy the dense coding capacity. In addition, decreasing Ω or increasing μ can not only enhance the stable value of χ but also impair the effects of decoherence. As the initial state is the Werner state, the purity r of initial state plays a key role in adjusting the value of dense coding capacity, χ can be significantly increased by improving the purity of initial state. For the initial state is Bell state, the large spin squeezing interaction compared with the magnetic field guarantees the optimal dense coding. One cannot always achieve a valid dense coding capacity for the Werner state, while for the Bell state, the dense coding capacity χ remains stuck at the range of greater than 1.

  1. Effects of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya interaction and intrinsic decoherence on teleportation via a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Xiao-Mian; Liu Jin-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Quantum teleportation via the entangled channel composed of a two-qubit Heisenberg XYZ model with Dzyaloshinski-Moriya (DM) interaction in the presence of intrinsic decoherenee has been investigated. We find that the initial state of the channel plays an important role in the teleported state and the average fidelity of teleportation. When the initial channel is in the state [ψ1(0)>=a|00> + b|11>, the average fidelity is equal to 1/3 constantly, which is independent of the DM interaction and the intrinsic decoherence effect. But when the channel is initially in the state [ψ2(0)> = c|01) + d|10>, the average fidelity is always larger than 2/3. Moreover, under a certain condition, the average fidelity can be enhanced by adjusting the DM interaction, and the intrinsic decoherence leads to a suppression of the fluctuation of the average fidelity.

  2. Evidence For Intrinsic Magnetic Moments in Black Hole Candidates

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, S L; Robertson, Stanley L.; Leiter, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    We show that the power law part of the quiescent x-ray emissions of neutron stars in low mass x-ray binaries is magnetospheric in origin. It can be very accurately calculated from rates of spin and the $\\sim 10^{3 - 4}$ times brighter luminosity at the transition to the hard spectral state. We establish that the spectral state transition for neutron stars is a magnetospheric propeller effect. We test the hypothesis that the similar spectral state switches and quiescent power law emissions of the black hole candidates might be magnetospheric effects. In the process we derive proposed magnetic moments and rates of spin for them and accurately predict their quiescent luminosities. We discuss other tests of the hypothesis and consider some attractive aspects of a unified magnetospheric model for low mass x-ray binaries. We also consider some of the changes that would be needed for strong-field gravity theories to accomodate intrinsic magnetic moments in collapsed objects.

  3. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenneti, Ananth; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; Feng, Yu

    2017-01-01

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and active galactic nucleus feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of the “MassiveBlack-II” family. Using smaller-volume simulations, we explore the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and find remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  4. Lattice Boltzmann modelling of intrinsic permeability

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun; Wu, Lei; Zhang, Yonghao

    2016-01-01

    Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has been applied to predict flow properties of porous media including intrinsic permeability, where it is implicitly assumed that the LBM is equivalent to the incompressible (or near incompressible) Navier-Stokes equation. However, in LBM simulations, high-order moments, which are completely neglected in the Navier-Stokes equation, are still available through particle distribution functions. To ensure that the LBM simulation is correctly working at the Navier-Stokes hydrodynamic level, the high-order moments have to be negligible. This requires that the Knudsen number (Kn) is small so that rarefaction effect can be ignored. In this technical note, we elaborate this issue in LBM modelling of porous media flows, which is particularly important for gas flows in ultra-tight media.

  5. Robot navigation system using intrinsic evolvable hardware

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently there has been great interest in the idea that evolvable system based on the principle of ar tifcial intelligence can be used to continuously and autonomously adapt the behaviour of physically embedded systems such as autonomous mobile robots and intelligent home devices. Meanwhile, we have seen the introduc tion of evolvable hardware(EHW): new integrated electronic circuits that are able to continuously evolve to a dapt the chages in the environment implemented by evolutionary algorithms such as genetic algorithm(GA)and reinforcement learning. This paper concentrates on developing a robotic navigation system whose basic behav iours are obstacle avoidance and light source navigation. The results demonstrate that the intrinsic evolvable hardware system is able to create the stable robotiiuc behaviours as required in the real world instead of the tra ditional hardware systems.

  6. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag's unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  7. Intrinsic-surface-tag image authentication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palm, R.G.; DeVolpi, A.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of this work is to further the development of a unique treaty limited item (TLI) intrinsic surface tag for arms control applications. This tag`s unique feature is the ability to capture the sub-micron scale topography of the TLI surface. The surface topography is captured by plastic castings of the surface as digitally imaged by an electron microscope. Tag authentication is accomplished by comparing digital castings images obtained in two different inspections. Surface replication experiments are described, as these experiments from the basis for the authentication algorithm. Both the experiments and the authentication algorithm are analyzed using the modulation transfer function. Recommendations for future improvements in tag authentication are also suggested by the modulation transfer function analysis. 4 refs.

  8. Intrinsic thermoelectric power of group VB metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunadhor Singh Okram

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We have reinvestigated the thermopower of group VB metals in polycrystalline forms in the temperature range of 6-300K, taking into account the critical nature of the sample surface and heat treatment especially for niobium. Strikingly small magnitude, negative sign, phonon drag dip and superconductivity not reported previously were observed in surface-cleaned single crystalline Nb. However, while thermopower magnitudes are small, mixed signs were found in the polycrystalline V, Nb and Ta samples. These properties were therefore interpreted as their intrinsic properties and were briefly discussed taking into account of the existing theory by fitting also the data that give the Fermi energies of 10.94 eV, 5.08 eV and 1.86eV, respectively.

  9. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenneti, Ananth [Carnegie Mellon U.; Gnedin, Nickolay Y. [Fermilab; Feng, Yu [UC, Berkeley

    2016-07-24

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and AGN feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of "MassiveBlack-II" family. Using smaller volume simulations, we explored the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and found remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  10. Intrinsic Peroxidase-like Activity of Ficin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yufang; Shen, Dongjun; Long, Yijuan; Xie, Zhixiong; Zheng, Huzhi

    2017-02-01

    Ficin is classified as a sulfhydryl protease isolated from the latex of fig trees. In most cases, a particular enzyme fits a few types of substrate and catalyzes one type of reaction. In this investigation, we found sufficient proofs for the intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of ficin and designed experiments to examine its effectiveness in a variety of scenarios. Ficin can transform peroxidase substrates to colored products in the existence of H2O2. Our results also indicate that the active sites of peroxidase-like activity of ficin are different from that of protease, which reveals that one enzyme may catalyze more than one kind of substrate to perform different types of reactions. On the basis of these findings, H2O2 releasing from MCF-7 cells was detected successfully. Our findings support a wider application of ficin in biochemistry and open up the possibility of utilizing ficin as enzymatic mimics in biotechnology and environmental monitoring.

  11. Intrinsic polarization angle ambiguity in Faraday tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kumazaki, Kohei; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Faraday tomography is a powerful method to diagnose polarizations and Faraday rotations along the line of sight. Quality of Faraday tomography is, however, limited by several conditions. Recently, it is reported that Faraday tomography indicates false signals in some specific situations. In this paper, we systematically investigate the condition of the appearance of false signals in Faraday tomography. We study the situations that we observe two sources within a beam, and change the intrinsic polarization angles, rotation measures, intensities, and frequency coverage. We find that false signals arise when rotation measure between the sources is less than 1.5 times the full width at half maximum of the rotation measure spread function. False signals also depend on the intensity ratio between the sources and are reduced for large ratio. On the other hand, the appearance of false signals does not depend on frequency coverage, meaning that the uncertainty should be correctly understood and taken into consideratio...

  12. Impact of Baryonic Physics on Intrinsic Alignments

    CERN Document Server

    Tenneti, Ananth; Feng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We explore the effects of specific assumptions in the subgrid models of star formation and stellar and AGN feedback on intrinsic alignments of galaxies in cosmological simulations of "MassiveBlack-II" family. Using smaller volume simulations, we explored the parameter space of the subgrid star formation and feedback model and found remarkable robustness of the observable statistical measures to the details of subgrid physics. The one observational probe most sensitive to modeling details is the distribution of misalignment angles. We hypothesize that the amount of angular momentum carried away by the galactic wind is the primary physical quantity that controls the orientation of the stellar distribution. Our results are also consistent with a similar study by the EAGLE simulation team.

  13. Major Intrinsic Proteins in Biomimetic Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helix Nielsen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Biological membranes define the structural and functional boundaries in living cells and their organelles. The integrity of the cell depends on its ability to separate inside from outside and yet at the same time allow massive transport of matter in and out the cell. Nature has elegantly met...... this challenge by developing membranes in the form of lipid bilayers in which specialized transport proteins are incorporated. This raises the question: is it possible to mimic biological membranes and create a membrane based sensor and/or separation device? In the development of a biomimetic sensor....../separation technology, a unique class of membrane transport proteins is especially interesting the major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). Generally, MIPs conduct water molecules and selected solutes in and out of the cell while preventing the passage of other solutes, a property critical for the conservation of the cells...

  14. Intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons

    CERN Document Server

    Im, Song-Jin; Kim, Gum-Hyok

    2015-01-01

    We offer a model to describe the intrinsic nonlinear response of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Relation of the complex nonlinear coefficient of SPPs to the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of the metal is provided. As reported in a recent study, gold is highly lossy and simultaneously highly nonlinear due to interband absorption and interband thermo-modulation at a wavelength shorter than 700 nm. The effect of the high loss of the metal on the SPP nonlinear propagation is taken into account in our model. With the model we show difference in sign of real and imaginary parts between the nonlinear propagation coefficient and the nonlinear susceptibility of component material for the first time to our knowledge. Our model could have practical importance in studying plasmonic devices utilizing the nonlinear phase modulation and the nonlinear absorption of SPPs. For example, it allows one to extract the complex nonlinear susceptibility of gold through a measurement of SPP nonlinear propagation at the visib...

  15. Measuring Intrinsic Curvature of Space with Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabin, Mason; Becker, Maria; Batelaan, Herman

    2016-10-01

    The concept of curved space is not readily observable in everyday life. The educational movie "Sphereland" attempts to illuminate the idea. The main character, a hexagon, has to go to great lengths to prove that her world is in fact curved. We present an experiment that demonstrates a new way to determine if a two-dimensional surface, the 2-sphere, is curved. The behavior of an electric field, placed on a spherical surface, is shown to be related to the intrinsic Gaussian curvature. This approach allows students to gain some understanding of Einstein's theory of general relativity, which relates the curvature of spacetime to the presence of mass and energy. Additionally, an opportunity is provided to investigate the dimensionality of Gauss's law.

  16. Intrinsic Dynamics of Quantum-Dash Lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Temperature-dependent intrinsic modulation response of InAs/InAlGaAs quantum-dash lasers was investigated by using pulse optical injection modulation to minimize the effects of parasitics and self-heating. Compared to typical quantum-well lasers, the quantum-dash lasers were found to have comparable differential gain but approximately twice the gain compression factor, probably due to carrier heating by free-carrier absorption, as opposed to stimulated transition. Therefore, the narrower modulation bandwidth of the quantum-dash lasers than that of quantum-well lasers was attributed to their higher gain compression factor. In addition, as expected, quantum-dash lasers with relatively long and uniform dashes exhibit higher temperature stability than quantum-well lasers. However, the lasers with relatively short and nonuniform dashes exhibit stronger temperature dependence, probably due to their higher surface-to-volume ratio and nonuniform dash sizes. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. Unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-05-01

    Research of a past decade and a half leaves no doubt that complete understanding of protein functionality requires close consideration of the fact that many functional proteins do not have well-folded structures. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and proteins with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs) are highly abundant in nature and play a number of crucial roles in a living cell. Their functions, which are typically associated with a wide range of intermolecular interactions where IDPs possess remarkable binding promiscuity, complement functional repertoire of ordered proteins. All this requires a close attention to the peculiarities of biophysics of these proteins. In this review, some key biophysical features of IDPs are covered. In addition to the peculiar sequence characteristics of IDPs these biophysical features include sequential, structural, and spatiotemporal heterogeneity of IDPs; their rough and relatively flat energy landscapes; their ability to undergo both induced folding and induced unfolding; the ability to interact specifically with structurally unrelated partners; the ability to gain different structures at binding to different partners; and the ability to keep essential amount of disorder even in the bound form. IDPs are also characterized by the "turned-out" response to the changes in their environment, where they gain some structure under conditions resulting in denaturation or even unfolding of ordered proteins. It is proposed that the heterogeneous spatiotemporal structure of IDPs/IDPRs can be described as a set of foldons, inducible foldons, semi-foldons, non-foldons, and unfoldons. They may lose their function when folded, and activation of some IDPs is associated with the awaking of the dormant disorder. It is possible that IDPs represent the "edge of chaos" systems which operate in a region between order and complete randomness or chaos, where the complexity is maximal. This article is part of a Special Issue

  18. Intrinsic decoherence of entanglement of a single quantized field interacting with a two-level atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    How the mean photon number, the probability of excited state and intrinsic decoherence coefficient influence the time evolution of entanglement is unknown, when a single-mode quantized optic field and a two-level atom coupling system is governed by Milburn equation. The Jaynes-Cummings model is considered. A lower bound of concurrence is proposed to calculate the entanglement. Simulation results indicate that the entanglement of system increases following the increasing of intrinsic decoherence coefficient or the decreasing of the mean photon number. Besides that, the entanglement of system decreases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0 to 0.1, and increases, while the probability of exited state increases from 0.1 to 1.

  19. Relativistic dynamics compels a thermalized Fermi gas to a unique intrinsic parity eigenstate

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Alex E

    2014-01-01

    Dirac equation describes the dynamics of a relativistic spin-1/2 particle regarding its spatial motion and intrinsic degrees of freedom. Here we adopt the point of view that the spinors describe the state of a massive particle carrying two qubits of information: helicity and intrinsic parity. We show that the density matrix for a gas of free fermions, in thermal equilibrium, correlates helicity and intrinsic parity. Our results introduce the basic elements for discussing the spin-parity correlation for a Fermi gas: (1) at the ultra-relativistic domains, when the temperature is quite high, $T > 10^{10}\\ K$, the fermions have no definite intrinsic parity (50% : 50%), which is maximally correlated with the helicity; (2) at very low temperature, $T \\approx 3 \\ K$, a unique parity dominates (conventionally chosen positive), by $10^{20}$ to $1$, while the helicity goes into a mixed state for spin up and down, and the quantum correlation decoheres. For the anti-fermions we get the opposite behavior. In the framework...

  20. Separating weak lensing and intrinsic alignments using radio observations

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    We discuss methods for performing weak lensing using radio observations to recover information about the intrinsic structural properties of the source galaxies. Radio surveys provide unique information that can benefit weak lensing studies, such as HI emission, which may be used to construct galaxy velocity maps, and polarized synchrotron radiation; both of which provide information about the unlensed galaxy and can be used to reduce galaxy shape noise and the contribution of intrinsic alignments. Using a proxy for the intrinsic position angle of an observed galaxy, we develop techniques for cleanly separating weak gravitational lensing signals from intrinsic alignment contamination in forthcoming radio surveys. Random errors on the intrinsic orientation estimates introduce biases into the shear and intrinsic alignment estimates. However, we show that these biases can be corrected for if the error distribution is accurately known. We demonstrate our methods using simulations, where we reconstruct the shear an...

  1. Proximity to Intrinsic Depolarizing Resonances with a Partial Siberian Snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandell, D. A.; Alexeeva, L. V.; Anferov, V. A.; Blinov, B. B.; Chu, C. M.; Caussyn, D. D.; Courant, E. D.; Gladycheva, S. E.; Hu, S.; Krisch, A. D.; Nurushev, T. S.; Phelps, R. A.; Ratner, L. G.; Varzar, S. M.; Wong, V. K.; Derbenev, Ya. S.; Lee, S. Y.; Rinckel, T.; Schwandt, P.; Sperisen, F.; Stephenson, E. J.; von Przewoski, B.; Baiod, R.; Russell, A. D.; Ohmori, C.; Sato, H.

    1996-05-01

    Partial Siberian snakes are effective in overcoming imperfection depolarizing resonances, but they may also change the crossing energy for intrinsic depolarizing resonances. We experimentally investigated the effect of a partial Siberian snake near intrinsic depolarizing resonances with stored 140 MeV and 160 MeV polarized proton beams. Using various partial Siberian snake strengths up to 30%, depolarization was observed; this may be due to a change in the spin precession frequency which moves the energy of nearby intrinsic depolarizing resonances.

  2. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  3. Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    TITLE: Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harikrishna Nakshatri, B.V.Sc., PhD. Kasi...Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer? 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1...positive breast cancer. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Diabetes , Intrinsic subtypes, Breast Cancer 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT

  4. Intrinsic time in Wheeler - DeWitt conformal superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlov, Alexander E

    2015-01-01

    An intrinsic time in Geometrodynamics is obtained with using a scaled Dirac's mapping. By addition of a background metric, one can construct a scalar field. It is suitable to play a role of intrinsic time. Cauchy problem was successfully solved in conformal variables because they are physical ones. First, the intrinsic time as a logarithm of determinant of spatial metric, was applied to a cosmological problem by Misner.

  5. The effects of extrinsic rewards on children's intrinsic motivation

    OpenAIRE

    大槻, 千秋

    1981-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with preschool children to test whether a person's intrinsic motivation in an activity may be decreased by extrinsic salient rewards in Japan like in America. Children solved some jigsaw puzzles and received assorted candies, then they were observed how long they did other jigsaw puzzles. The results showed that the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation in an activity varied with the subject's social background. In uptown children's intrinsic motivat...

  6. Interventions for primary (intrinsic tracheomalacia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Goyal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDTracheomalacia, a disorder of the large airways where the trachea is deformed or malformed during respiration, is commonly seen in tertiary paediatric practice. It is associated with a wide spectrum of respiratory symptoms from life-threatening recurrent apnoea to common respiratory symptoms such as chronic cough and wheeze. Current practice following diagnosis of tracheomalacia includes medical approaches aimed at reducing associated symptoms of tracheomalacia, ventilation modalities of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP, and surgical approaches aimed at improving the calibre of the airway (airway stenting, aortopexy, tracheopexy.OBJECTIVESTo evaluate the efficacy of medical and surgical therapies for children with intrinsic (primary tracheomalacia.METHODSSearchThe Cochrane Airways Group searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialized Register, Medline and Embase databases. The Cochrane Airways Group performed the latest searches in March 2012.Selection criteriaAll randomized controlled trials (RCTs of therapies related to symptoms associated with primary or intrinsic tracheomalacia.Data collection and analysisTwo reviewers extracted data from the included study independently and resolved disagreements by consensus.MAIN RESULTSWe included one RCT that compared nebulized recombinant human deoxyribonuclease (rhDNase with placebo in 40 children with airway malacia and a respiratory tract infection. We assessed it to be a RCT with overall low risk of bias. Data analyzed in this review showed that there was no significant difference between groups for the primary outcome of proportion cough-free at two weeks (odds ratio (OR 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.37 to 5.14. However, the mean change in night time cough diary scores significantly favoured the placebo group (mean difference (MD 1.00; 95% CI 0.17 to 1.83, P = 0

  7. Determination of intrinsic damping of perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin films from time-resolved precessional magnetization measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capua, Amir; Yang, See-hun; Phung, Timothy; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetization dynamics are strongly influenced by damping, namely, the loss of spin angular momentum from the magnetic system to the lattice. An "effective" damping constant αeff is often determined experimentally from the spectral linewidth of the free induction decay of the magnetization after the system is excited to its nonequilibrium state. Such an αeff, however, reflects both intrinsic damping as well as inhomogeneous broadening that arises, for example, from spatial variations of the anisotropy field. In this paper, we compare measurements of the magnetization dynamics in ultrathin nonepitaxial films having perpendicular magnetic anisotropy using two different techniques, time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect (TRMOKE) and hybrid optical-electrical ferromagnetic resonance (OFMR). By using an external magnetic field that is applied at very small angles to the film plane in the TRMOKE studies, we develop an explicit closed-form analytical expression for the TRMOKE spectral linewidth and show how this can be used to reliably extract the intrinsic Gilbert damping constant. The damping constant determined in this way is in excellent agreement with that determined from the OFMR method on the same samples. Our studies indicate that the asymptotic high-field approach that is often used in the TRMOKE method to distinguish the intrinsic damping from the effective damping may result in significant error, because such high external magnetic fields are required to make this approach valid that they are out of reach. The error becomes larger at lower intrinsic damping constants and thus may account for the anomalously high damping constants that are often reported in TRMOKE studies. In conventional ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) studies, inhomogeneous contributions can be readily distinguished from intrinsic damping contributions by studying the magnetic field dependence of the FMR linewidth. Using an analogous approach, we show how reliable values of the intrinsic

  8. Collective and intrinsic structures in {sup 183}W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, T.R.; Saitoh-Hashimoto, N.; Sletten, G.; Bark, R.A.; Bergstroem, M.; Regan, P.; Toermaenen, S.; Varmette, P.G.; Walker, P.M.; Wheldon, C

    1999-11-22

    The structure of {sup 183}W has been studied by employing the {sup 176}Yb({sup 14}C,{alpha}3n) reaction at 68 MeV. Five previously known rotational structure with one-quasiparticle configurations have been extended to higher spin states, and five new rotational bands with three- and five-quasiparticle configurations and a {gamma}-vibration of a one-quasiparticle structure have been newly identified. In the {nu}7/2{sup -}[503] and {nu}11/2{sup +}[615] rotational structures, a signal of an admixture of an octupole-vibrational structure has been observed in their in-band B(M1)/B(E2) ratios and g{sub K} factors. In the K{sup {pi}}=19{sup -} rotational band, a Coriolis effect on the {nu}1/2{sup -}[510] neutron has been identified. In all, 17 K-forbidden transitions have been observed. Energies of intrinsic states below 4 MeV have been calculated based on the Blocked BCS theory, and they are used in support of the configuration assignments.

  9. Isolating intrinsic noise sources in a stochastic genetic switch

    CERN Document Server

    Newby, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The stochastic mutual repressor model is analysed using perturbation methods. This simple model of a gene circuit consists of two genes and three promotor states. Either of the two protein products can dimerize, forming a repressor molecule that binds to the promotor of the other gene. When the repressor is bound to a promotor, the corresponding gene is not transcribed and no protein is produced. Either one of the promotors can be repressed at any given time or both can be unrepressed, leaving three possible promotor states. This model is analysed in its bistable regime in which the deterministic limit exhibits two stable fixed points and an unstable saddle, and the case of small noise is considered. On small time scales, the stochastic process fluctuates near one of the stable fixed points, and on large time scales, a metastable transition can occur, where fluctuations drive the system past the unstable saddle to the other stable fixed point. To explore how different intrinsic noise sources affect these tran...

  10. Intrinsically Hierarchical Nanoporous Polymers via Polymerization-Induced Microphase Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Michael B.; Van Horn, J. David; Wu, Fei; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2017-05-17

    The synthesis of microporous polymers generally requires postpolymerization modification via hyper-cross-linking to trap the polymeric network in a state with high void volume. An alternative approach utilizes rigid, sterically demanding monomers to inhibit efficient packing, thus leading to a high degree of free volume between polymer side groups and main chains. Herein we combine polymers of intrinsic microporosity with polymerization-induced microphase separation (PIMS), a versatile methodology for the synthesis of nanostructured materials that can be rendered mesoporous. Copolymerization of various styrenic monomers with divinylbenzene in the presence of a poly(lactide) terminated with a chain-transfer agent (PLA-CTA) results in kinetic trapping of a microphase-separated state. Subsequent etching of PLA provides a bicontinuous mesoporous network. Using equilibrium and kinetic nitrogen sorption experiments as well as positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), we demonstrate that variations in the steric characteristics of the styrenic monomer impart the network with microporosity, resulting in hierarchically (meso and micro) porous materials. Additionally, structure–property relationships of the styrenic monomer with total surface area and pore volume indicate that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the corresponding styrenic homopolymers provides a reasonable measure of the steric interactions and resultant microporosity in these systems. Finally, PALS provides insight into micro- and mesoscopic void volume differences between porous monoliths containing either tert-butyl or TMS-modified styrenic monomers compared to the parent, unmodified styrene.

  11. Intrinsic ferroelectric switching from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shi; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-06-01

    The existence of domain walls, which separate regions of different polarization, can influence the dielectric, piezoelectric, pyroelectric and electronic properties of ferroelectric materials. In particular, domain-wall motion is crucial for polarization switching, which is characterized by the hysteresis loop that is a signature feature of ferroelectric materials. Experimentally, the observed dynamics of polarization switching and domain-wall motion are usually explained as the behaviour of an elastic interface pinned by a random potential that is generated by defects, which appear to be strongly sample-dependent and affected by various elastic, microstructural and other extrinsic effects. Theoretically, connecting the zero-kelvin, first-principles-based, microscopic quantities of a sample with finite-temperature, macroscopic properties such as the coercive field is critical for material design and device performance; and the lack of such a connection has prevented the use of techniques based on ab initio calculations for high-throughput computational materials discovery. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations of 90° domain walls (separating domains with orthogonal polarization directions) in the ferroelectric material PbTiO3 to provide microscopic insights that enable the construction of a simple, universal, nucleation-and-growth-based analytical model that quantifies the dynamics of many types of domain walls in various ferroelectrics. We then predict the temperature and frequency dependence of hysteresis loops and coercive fields at finite temperatures from first principles. We find that, even in the absence of defects, the intrinsic temperature and field dependence of the domain-wall velocity can be described with a nonlinear creep-like region and a depinning-like region. Our model enables quantitative estimation of coercive fields, which agree well with experimental results for ceramics and thin films. This agreement between model and experiment suggests

  12. Coherent and non coherent atom optics experiment with an ultra-narrow beam of metastable rare gas atoms; Experiences d'optique atomique coherente ou non avec un jet superfin d'atomes metastables de gaz rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grucker, J

    2007-12-15

    In this thesis, we present a new type of atomic source: an ultra-narrow beam of metastable atoms produced by resonant metastability exchange inside a supersonic beam of rare gas atoms. We used the coherence properties of this beam to observe the diffraction of metastable helium, argon and neon atoms by a nano-transmission grating and by micro-reflection-gratings. Then, we evidenced transitions between Zeeman sublevels of neon metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} state due to the quadrupolar part of Van der Waals potential. After we showed experimental proofs of the observation of this phenomenon, we calculated the transition probabilities in the Landau - Zener model. We discussed the interest of Van der Waals - Zeeman transitions for atom interferometry. Last, we described the Zeeman cooling of the supersonic metastable argon beam ({sup 3}P{sub 2}). We have succeeded in slowing down atoms to speeds below 100 m/s. We gave experimental details and showed the first time-of-flight measurements of slowed atoms.

  13. Modulation of the multistate folding of designed TPR proteins through intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J J; Javadi, Y; Millership, C; Main, E R G

    2012-03-01

    Tetratricopeptide repeats (TPRs) are a class of all alpha-helical repeat proteins that are comprised of 34-aa helix-turn-helix motifs. These stack together to form nonglobular structures that are stabilized by short-range interactions from residues close in primary sequence. Unlike globular proteins, they have few, if any, long-range nonlocal stabilizing interactions. Several studies on designed TPR proteins have shown that this modular structure is reflected in their folding, that is, modular multistate folding is observed as opposed to two-state folding. Here we show that TPR multistate folding can be suppressed to approximate two-state folding through modulation of intrinsic stability or extrinsic environmental variables. This modulation was investigated by comparing the thermodynamic unfolding under differing buffer regimes of two distinct series of consensus-designed TPR proteins, which possess different intrinsic stabilities. A total of nine proteins of differing sizes and differing consensus TPR motifs were each thermally and chemically denatured and their unfolding monitored using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and CD/fluorescence, respectively. Analyses of both the DSC and chemical denaturation data show that reducing the total stability of each protein and repeat units leads to observable two-state unfolding. These data highlight the intimate link between global and intrinsic repeat stability that governs whether folding proceeds by an observably two-state mechanism, or whether partial unfolding yields stable intermediate structures which retain sufficient stability to be populated at equilibrium.

  14. Investigation of Intrinsically Error-Free Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-27

    2 2.2 The Finite State Machine Model 2 2.3 Synthesis Procedure 5 2.4 Application to Software Generation 6 3. STATE DIAGRAM PROGRAM GENERATION 9 3.1...and (to press the analogy further) such a program corresponds to a combinational circuit. 2.2 The Finite State Machine Model Reference 11 provides a...phase. 2.4 Application to Software Generation In order to understand the application of the finite state machine model to program generation, we must

  15. Genetic architecture of intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany S Girgis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibiotic exposure rapidly selects for more resistant bacterial strains, and both a drug's chemical structure and a bacterium's cellular network affect the types of mutations acquired. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To better characterize the genetic determinants of antibiotic susceptibility, we exposed a transposon-mutagenized library of Escherichia coli to each of 17 antibiotics that encompass a wide range of drug classes and mechanisms of action. Propagating the library for multiple generations with drug concentrations that moderately inhibited the growth of the isogenic parental strain caused the abundance of strains with even minor fitness advantages or disadvantages to change measurably and reproducibly. Using a microarray-based genetic footprinting strategy, we then determined the quantitative contribution of each gene to E. coli's intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. We found both loci whose removal increased general antibiotic tolerance as well as pathways whose down-regulation increased tolerance to specific drugs and drug classes. The beneficial mutations identified span multiple pathways, and we identified pairs of mutations that individually provide only minor decreases in antibiotic susceptibility but that combine to provide higher tolerance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results illustrate that a wide-range of mutations can modulate the activity of many cellular resistance processes and demonstrate that E. coli has a large mutational target size for increasing antibiotic tolerance. Furthermore, the work suggests that clinical levels of antibiotic resistance might develop through the sequential accumulation of chromosomal mutations of small individual effect.

  16. i=0 (Information has no intrinsic meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Miller

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was written mainly to help identify some contradictions that can be found in the notion of knowledge management though its application is wider-ranging. The author suggests that knowledge - that is to say 'what we know' - can scarcely be understood and managed even by ourselves, much less by means of sophisticated information and communications (ie groupware and shareware technologies. We have progressed from the industrial age through the information age into what is being promoted as the 'golden age' of knowledge and, in the process, we've been led to believe that information contains meaning - rather than just standing for, provoking or evoking meaning in others. The paper argues that unless we take the trouble to face and understand the significance and implications of i=0 (ie that information has no intrinsic meaning and that knowledge is the uniquely human capability of making meaning from information - ideally in face-to-face relationships with other human beings - we may never emerge into any 'golden' age at all! The consequences of i=0 for communications, learning, safety, quality, management (itself, and winning work are also discussed.

  17. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Xanthopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale, leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014].

  18. Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui

    2017-04-01

    If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.

  19. Intrinsic gain modulation and adaptive neural coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungho Hong

    Full Text Available In many cases, the computation of a neural system can be reduced to a receptive field, or a set of linear filters, and a thresholding function, or gain curve, which determines the firing probability; this is known as a linear/nonlinear model. In some forms of sensory adaptation, these linear filters and gain curve adjust very rapidly to changes in the variance of a randomly varying driving input. An apparently similar but previously unrelated issue is the observation of gain control by background noise in cortical neurons: the slope of the firing rate versus current (f-I curve changes with the variance of background random input. Here, we show a direct correspondence between these two observations by relating variance-dependent changes in the gain of f-I curves to characteristics of the changing empirical linear/nonlinear model obtained by sampling. In the case that the underlying system is fixed, we derive relationships relating the change of the gain with respect to both mean and variance with the receptive fields derived from reverse correlation on a white noise stimulus. Using two conductance-based model neurons that display distinct gain modulation properties through a simple change in parameters, we show that coding properties of both these models quantitatively satisfy the predicted relationships. Our results describe how both variance-dependent gain modulation and adaptive neural computation result from intrinsic nonlinearity.

  20. HIV-1 Vif, APOBEC, and Intrinsic Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strebel Klaus

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the APOBEC family of cellular cytidine deaminases represent a recently identified group of proteins that provide immunity to infection by retroviruses and protect the cell from endogenous mobile retroelements. Yet, HIV-1 is largely immune to the intrinsic antiviral effects of APOBEC proteins because it encodes Vif (viral infectivity factor, an accessory protein that is critical for in vivo replication of HIV-1. In the absence of Vif, APOBEC proteins are encapsidated by budding virus particles and either cause extensive cytidine to uridine editing of negative sense single-stranded DNA during reverse transcription or restrict virus replication through deaminase-independent mechanisms. Thus, the primary function of Vif is to prevent encapsidation of APOBEC proteins into viral particles. This is in part accomplished by the ability of Vif to induce the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of some of the APOBEC proteins. However, Vif is also able to prevent encapsidation of APOBEC3G and APOBEC3F through degradation-independent mechanism(s. The goal of this review is to recapitulate current knowledge of the functional interaction of HIV-1 and its Vif protein with the APOBEC3 subfamily of proteins and to summarize our present understanding of the mechanism of APOBEC3-dependent retrovirus restriction.

  1. Intrinsic localization in nonlinear and superconducting metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2012-05-01

    An array of rf SQUIDs (Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices) in an alternating magnetic field can operate as a magnetic metamaterial where the phase and group velocities have opposite signs. In this system, discreteness and nonlinearity may lead to the generation of intrinsic localized modes in the from of discrete breathers. These breathers result from a balance of incoming power and losses, and they may change locally the response of a SQUID array to an applied field from diamagnetic to paramagnetic or vice-versa. We derive the dynamic flux equations for the damped and driven SQUID array and integrate them in the weak-coupling approximation to demonstrate the existence of various kinds of dissipative breathers. Besides using standard algorithms for breather construction, we have also observed the spontaneous breather generation in weakly disordered SQUID arrays. Moreover, low-energy breather-like pulses may be generated in end-driven arrays which propagate for fairly long distances in a dissipative environment. A short account on the tunability of the resonance of individual SQUIDs by application of either constant and/or alternating fields is also given.

  2. Intrinsically disordered proteins: structural and functional dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallin S

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Wallin Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, NL, Canada Abstract: The classical view holds that proteins fold into essentially unique three-dimensional structures before becoming biologically active. However, studies over the last several years have provided broad and convincing evidence that some proteins do not adopt a single structure and yet are fully functional. These intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs have been found to be highly prevalent in many genomes, including human, and play key roles in central cellular processes, such as regulation of transcription and translation, cell cycle, and cell signaling. Moreover, IDPs are overrepresented among proteins implicated in disease, including various cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. Intense efforts, by using both experimental and computational approaches, are consequently under way to uncover the molecular mechanisms that underpin the roles of IDPs in biology and disease. This review provides an introduction to the general biophysical properties of IDPs and discusses some of the recent emerging areas in IDP research, including the roles of IDPs in allosteric regulation, regulatory unfolding, and formation of intracellular membrane-less organelles. In addition, recent attempts at therapeutic targeting of IDPs by small molecules, noting in particular that IDPs represent a potentially important source of new drug targets in light of their central role in protein–protein interaction networks, are also reviewed. Keywords: natively unfolded proteins, unstructured proteins, protein folding, protein–protein interaction, cell regulation, signaling, drug development, inhibitors

  3. Intrinsic dynamics of the regional community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2015-06-01

    Patterns of diversity within large regional biotas express the outcomes of processes, operating on both regional and local scales, that influence evolutionary diversification as well as the distribution and abundance of species. Regional analyses of species distributions suggest that neither ecological sorting of species based on their adaptations to the physical environment, nor interactions between competing species, adequately explain patterns of species richness. Potentially competing species appear to utilise broadly overlapping resources with similar proficiency. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses reveal that species abundances and distributions within regions vary independently of evolutionary relationship. This implies the existence of dynamic, species-specific controls on population growth, as could be applied by specialised pathogens or other antagonists. Here, I argue that the changing balance of coevolved interactions between hosts and their antagonists shapes the distribution and abundance of individual host populations as well as patterns of local species richness. Geographical expansion creates allopatric populations and thereby could promote diversification; contraction ultimately leads to extinction. This taxon-cycle dynamic links regional diversity and distribution to intrinsic biological interactions independently of extrinsic ecological conditions. These hypotheses emphasise the central importance of investigating the impacts of pathogens on species abundance and distribution, and the potential consequences of coevolutionary changes in pathogen-host relationships for species formation and extinction.

  4. Intrinsic Turbulence Stabilization in a Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulos, P.; Plunk, G. G.; Zocco, A.; Helander, P.

    2016-04-01

    The magnetic surfaces of modern stellarators are characterized by complex, carefully optimized shaping and exhibit locally compressed regions of strong turbulence drive. Massively parallel computer simulations of plasma turbulence reveal, however, that stellarators also possess two intrinsic mechanisms to mitigate the effect of this drive. In the regime where the length scale of the turbulence is very small compared to the equilibrium scale set by the variation of the magnetic field, the strongest fluctuations form narrow bandlike structures on the magnetic surfaces. Thanks to this localization, the average transport through the surface is significantly smaller than that predicted at locations of peak turbulence. This feature results in a numerically observed upshift of the onset of turbulence on the surface towards higher ion temperature gradients as compared with the prediction from the most unstable regions. In a second regime lacking scale separation, the localization is lost and the fluctuations spread out on the magnetic surface. Nonetheless, stabilization persists through the suppression of the large eddies (relative to the equilibrium scale), leading to a reduced stiffness for the heat flux dependence on the ion temperature gradient. These fundamental differences with tokamak turbulence are exemplified for the QUASAR stellarator [G. H. Neilson et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 42, 489 (2014)].

  5. Does intrinsic motivation enhance motor cortex excitability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radel, Rémi; Pjevac, Dusan; Davranche, Karen; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne; Colson, Serge S; Lapole, Thomas; Gruet, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    Intrinsic motivation (IM) is often viewed as a spontaneous tendency for action. Recent behavioral and neuroimaging evidence indicate that IM, in comparison to extrinsic motivation (EM), solicits the motor system. Accordingly, we tested whether IM leads to greater excitability of the motor cortex than EM. To test this hypothesis, we used two different tasks to induce the motivational orientation using either words representing each motivational orientation or pictures previously linked to each motivational orientation through associative learning. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over the motor cortex was applied when viewing the stimuli. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the contracted first dorsal interosseous muscle. Two indexes of corticospinal excitability (the amplitude of motor-evoked potential and the length of cortical silent period) were obtained through unbiased automatic detection and analyzed using a mixed model that provided both statistical power and a high level of control over all important individual, task, and stimuli characteristics. Across the two tasks and the two indices of corticospinal excitability, the exposure to IM-related stimuli did not lead to a greater corticospinal excitability than EM-related stimuli or than stimuli with no motivational valence (ps > .20). While these results tend to dismiss the advantage of IM at activating the motor cortex, we suggest alternative hypotheses to explain this lack of effect, which deserves further research. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Intrinsically Microporous Polymer Membranes for High Performance Gas Separation

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2014-11-01

    This dissertation addresses the rational design of intrinsically microporous solutionprocessable polyimides and ladder polymers for highly permeable and highly selective gas transport in cornerstone applications of membrane-based gas separation – that is, air enrichment, hydrogen recovery and natural gas sweetening. By virtue of rigid and contorted chains that pack inefficiently in the solid state, polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs) have the potential to unite the solution-processability, mechanical flexibility and organic tunability of commercially relevant polymers with the microporosity characteristics of porous crystalline materials. The performance enhancements of PIMs over conventional low-free-volume polymers have been primarily permeability-driven, compromising the selectivity essential to commercial viability. An approach to unite high permeability with high selectivity for performance transcending the state-of-the-art in air and hydrogen separations was demonstrated via a fused-ring integration of a three-dimensional, shape persistent triptycene moiety optimally substituted with short, branched isopropyl chains at the 9,10-bridgeheads into a highly inflexible backbone. The resulting polymers exhibited selectivities (i.e., O2/N2, H2/N2, H2/CH4) similar to or higher than commercial materials matched with permeabilities up to three hundred times higher. However, the intra-chain rigidity central to such conventional PIM-design principles was not a singular solution to suppression of CO2-induced plasticization in CO2/CH4 mixedgas separations. Plasticization diminishes the sieving capacity of the membrane, resulting in costly hydrocarbon losses that have significantly limited the commercialization of new polymers. Unexpectedly, the most permeable and selective PIMs designed for air and hydrogen separations strongly plasticized in 50:50 CO2/CH4 mixtures, enduring up to three-fold increases in mixed-gas CH4 permeability by 30 bar and strong drops in

  7. Short-range correlations in carbon-12, oxygen-16, and neon-20: Intrinsic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braley, R. C.; Ford, W. F.; Becker, R. L.; Patterson, M. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (BHF) method has been applied to nuclei whose intrinsic structure is nonspherical. Reaction matrix elements were calculated as functions of starting energy for the Hamada-Johnston interaction using the Pauli operator appropriate to O-16 and a shifted oscillator spectrum for virtual excited states. Binding energies, single particle energies, radii, and shape deformations of the intrinsic state, in ordinary as well as renormalized BHF, are discussed and compared with previous HF studies and with experiment when possible. Results are presented for C-12, 0-16 and Ne-20. It is found that the binding energies and radii are too small, but that separation energies are well reproduced when the renormalized theory is used.

  8. The influence of pressure on the intrinsic dissolution rate of amorphous indomethacin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löbmann, Korbinian; Flouda, Konstantina; Qiu, Danwen

    2014-01-01

    New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) of a drug...... and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur) state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence......, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage...

  9. Fostering Intrinsic Motivation in Children: A Humanistic Counseling Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Randolph H., Jr.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Schweiger, Wendi K.

    2004-01-01

    Humanistic counselors working with children seek to help them grow and develop the motivation needed to make decisions and changes in their lives. Intrinsic motivation, an important component of humanistic counseling, is defined and explicated, research is reviewed, and suggestions are made for counselors who seek to foster intrinsic motivation in…

  10. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  11. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  12. Toward Modeling the Intrinsic Complexity of Test Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufan, Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic complexity explains why different problems of the same type, tackled by the same problem solver, can require different times to solve and yield solutions of different quality. This paper proposes a general four-step approach that can be used to establish a model for the intrinsic complexity of a problem class in terms of…

  13. A prototype empirical framework of intrinsic and extrinsic EERQI indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooij, Ton

    2012-01-01

    The research question is: What do statistical analyses show us about the relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic indicators of quality and what does this mean when constructing a prototype EERQI framework? The pilot study involved the scoring on both intrinsic and extrinsic indica-tors for 177

  14. Challenge for Education: Learning To Value the World Intrinsically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Heesoon

    2001-01-01

    The key to breaking out of the problematic, dualistic, mechanist ontology is the recovery of our capacity to value the world intrinsically through the cultivation of aesthetic consciousness. The arts that enable a world view of co-emergence, participation, and intrinsic valuing, are suitable pedagogical tools for an education devoted to…

  15. Self-Determination Theory: Intrinsic Motivation and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Marie

    2017-03-01

    Motivation is a central concept in behavioral change. This article reviews the self-determination theory with an emphasis on "intrinsic motivation," which is facilitated when three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness) are met. Intrinsic motivation is associated with improved well-being and sustained behavioral change.

  16. Adolescents' Perceptions of Family Connectedness, Intrinsic Religiosity, and Depressed Mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houltberg, Benjamin J.; Henry, Carolyn S.; Merten, Michael J.; Robinson, Linda C.

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 248 ninth and tenth grade students at public high schools, we examined adolescents' perceptions of family connectedness, intrinsic religiosity, and adolescents' gender in relation to depressed mood and whether intrinsic religiosity and gender moderated the association of aspects of family connectedness to adolescent depressed…

  17. Creativity as Mediator for Intrinsic Motivation and Sales Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodla, Mahmood A.; Naeem, Basharat

    2014-01-01

    Substantial theoretical and empirical literature indicates inconsistent performance implications of intrinsic motivation, suggesting the possibility of some explanatory mechanisms. However, little is known about the factors that might explain intrinsic motivation and sales force performance relation, particularly in highly competitive and…

  18. Intrinsic Frames of Reference and Egocentric Viewpoints in Scene Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Weimin; Fan, Yanli; McNamara, Timothy P.; Owen, Charles B.

    2008-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the roles of intrinsic directions of a scene and observer's viewing direction in recognizing the scene. Participants learned the locations of seven objects along an intrinsic direction that was different from their viewing direction and then recognized spatial arrangements of three or six of these objects from…

  19. Palatalization and Intrinsic Prosodic Vowel Features in Russian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordin, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The presented study is aimed at investigating the interaction of palatalization and intrinsic prosodic features of the vowel in CVC (consonant+vowel+consonant) syllables in Russian. The universal nature of intrinsic prosodic vowel features was confirmed with the data from the Russian language. It was found that palatalization of the consonants…

  20. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  1. Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation at 30: Unresolved Scientific Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental…

  2. Intrinsic localized modes and nonlinear impurity modes in curved Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chain

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranja Sarkar; Bishwajyoti Dey

    2008-06-01

    We explore the nature of intrinsic localized modes (ILMs) in a curved FermiPasta-Ulam (FPU) chain and the effects of geometry and second-neighbor interaction on the localization and movability properties of such modes. We determine analytically the structure of the localized modes induced by an isotopic light-mass impurity in this chain. We further demonstrate that a nonlinear impurity mode may be treated as a bound state of an ILM with the impurity.

  3. Intrinsic motivation, curiosity and learning: theory and applications in educational technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves; Gottlieb, Jacqueline; Lopes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This article studies the bi-directional causal interactions between curiosity and learning, and discusses how understanding these interactions can be leveraged in educational technology applications. First, we review recent results showing how state curiosity, and more generally the experience of novelty and surprise, can enhance learning and memory retention. Then, we discuss how psychology and neuroscience have conceptualized curiosity and intrinsic motivation, study...

  4. Intrinsic time in Geometrodynamics: introduction and application to Friedmann cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Pavlov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An intrinsic local time in Geometrodynamics is obtained with using a scaled Dirac's mapping. By addition of a background metric, one can construct a scalar field. It is suitable to play a role of intrinsic time. Cauchy problem was successfully solved in conformal variables because they are physical ones. First, the intrinsic time as a logarithm of determinant of spatial metric, was applied to a cosmological problem by Misner. A global time is exist under condition of constant mean curvature slicing of spacetime. A volume of hypersurface and the so-called mean York's time are canonical conjugated pair. So, the volume is the intrinsic global time by its sense. The experimentally observed redshift in cosmology is the evidence of its existence. An intrinsic time of homogeneous models is global. The Friedmann equation by its sense ties time intervals. Exact solutions of the Friedmann equation in Standard cosmology with standard and conformal units are presented. Theoretical curves interpolated the Hubble diagram o...

  5. Intrinsic disorder in proteins involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Nikolas; Alhothali, Marwa; Alfonso, Maria Harreguy; Breydo, Leonid; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2017-04-01

    Five structurally and functionally different proteins, an enzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), a TAR-DNA binding protein-43 (TDP-43), an RNA-binding protein FUS, a cofilin-binding protein C9orf72, and polypeptides generated as a result of its intronic hexanucleotide expansions, and to lesser degree actin-binding profilin-1 (PFN1), are considered to be the major drivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. One of the features common to these proteins is the presence of significant levels of intrinsic disorder. The goal of this study is to consider these neurodegeneration-related proteins from the intrinsic disorder perspective. To this end, we employed a broad set of computational tools for intrinsic disorder analysis and conducted intensive literature search to gain information on the structural peculiarities of SOD1, TDP-43, FUS, C9orf72, and PFN1 and their intrinsic disorder predispositions, and the roles of intrinsic disorder in their normal and pathological functions.

  6. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive......Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  7. An intrinsic timer specifies distal structures of the vertebrate limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Lopez, Patricia; Chinnaiya, Kavitha; Campa, Victor M; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Towers, Matthew

    2015-09-18

    How the positional values along the proximo-distal axis (stylopod-zeugopod-autopod) of the limb are specified is intensely debated. Early work suggested that cells intrinsically change their proximo-distal positional values by measuring time. Recently, however, it is suggested that instructive extrinsic signals from the trunk and apical ectodermal ridge specify the stylopod and zeugopod/autopod, respectively. Here, we show that the zeugopod and autopod are specified by an intrinsic timing mechanism. By grafting green fluorescent protein-expressing cells from early to late chick wing buds, we demonstrate that distal mesenchyme cells intrinsically time Hoxa13 expression, cell cycle parameters and the duration of the overlying apical ectodermal ridge. In addition, we reveal that cell affinities intrinsically change in the distal mesenchyme, which we suggest results in a gradient of positional values along the proximo-distal axis. We propose a complete model in which a switch from extrinsic signalling to intrinsic timing patterns the vertebrate limb.

  8. Motivating crowding theory - opening the black box of intrinsic motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher

    2010-01-01

    Public employees work for many other reasons than because they are paid for it. In other words, intrinsic motivation is an important determinant for their performance. Nonetheless, public sector organizations increasingly rely on extrinsic motivation factors such as monetary incentives to motivate...... employees. Motivation crowding theory claims that this may be at the expense of intrinsic motivation, if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be controlling. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation will be enhanced (crowded in), if the extrinsic motivation factor is perceived to be supportive....... Studies have found support for the motivation crowding claim, but have neglected intrinsic motivation. This study opens the black box of intrinsic motivation and finds a meaningful distinction between task motivation and public service motivation. Among 2,772 physiotherapists in the Danish public sector...

  9. Intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship: mediating role of interpersonal relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Juan L; Martín-Albo, José; Navarro, José G; Sánchez, Juana M; González-Cutre, David

    2009-06-01

    This study analyzed the mediating role of interpersonal relations between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Athletes (98 men, 97 women), ages 11 to 43 years, completed measures of intrinsic motivation toward sports, self-concept of social and family relations, and sportsmanship orientation. A structural equation model indicated that self-concept of interpersonal relations mediated the relation between intrinsic motivation and sportsmanship. Also, intrinsic motivation was directly and positively associated with self-concept of interpersonal relations, which, in turn, was positively and significantly related to sportsmanship. Variances explained by self-concept of interpersonal relations and by sportsmanship were 32 and 56%, respectively. The motivational interaction between the context of interpersonal relations and the sports context proposed in the hierarchical model of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was discussed.

  10. Intrinsic functional connectivity predicts individual differences in distractibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Victoria N; Robinson, Meghan E; Singleton, Omar; DeGutis, Joseph; Milberg, William P; McGlinchey, Regina E; Salat, David H; Esterman, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Distractor suppression, the ability to filter and ignore task-irrelevant information, is critical for efficient task performance. While successful distractor suppression relies on a balance of activity in neural networks responsible for attention maintenance (dorsal attention network; DAN), reorientation (ventral attention network; VAN), and internal thought (default mode network, DMN), the degree to which intrinsic connectivity within and between these networks contributes to individual differences in distractor suppression ability is not well-characterized. For the purposes of understanding these interactions, the current study collected resting-state fMRI data from 32 Veterans and, several months later (7±5 months apart), performance on the additional singleton paradigm, a measure of distractor suppression. Using multivariate support vector regression models composed of resting state connectivity between regions of the DAN, VAN, and DMN, and a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation procedure, we were able to predict an individual's task performance, yielding a significant correlation between the actual and predicted distractor suppression (r=0.48, p=0.0053). Network-level analyses revealed that greater within-network DMN connectivity was predictive of better distractor suppression, while greater connectivity between the DMN and attention networks was predictive of poorer distractor suppression. The strongest connection hubs were determined to be the right frontal eye field and temporoparietal junction of the DAN and VAN, respectively, and medial (ventromedial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices) and bilateral prefrontal regions of the DMN. These results are amongst a small but growing number of studies demonstrating that resting state connectivity is related to stable individual differences in cognitive ability, and suggest that greater integrity and independence of the DMN is related to better attentional ability.

  11. Formation energies of intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 studied by first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yuanyuan; Liu, Bin; Chen, Lanli; Luo, Hongjie; Gao, Yanfeng

    2016-10-01

    VO2 is an attractive candidate for intelligent windows and thermal sensors. There are challenges for developing VO2-based devices, since the properties of monoclinic VO2 are very sensitive to its intrinsic point defects. In this work, the formation energies of the intrinsic point defects in monoclinic VO2 were studied through the first-principles calculations. Vacancies, interstitials, as well as antisites at various charge states were taken into consideration, and the finite-size supercell correction scheme was adopted as the charge correction scheme. Our calculation results show that the oxygen interstitial and oxygen vacancy are the most abundant intrinsic defects in the oxygen rich and oxygen deficient condition, respectively, indicating a consistency with the experimental results. The calculation results suggest that the oxygen interstitial or oxygen vacancy is correlated with the charge localization, which can introduce holes or electrons as free carriers and subsequently narrow the band gap of monoclinic VO2. These calculations and interpretations concerning the intrinsic point defects would be helpful for developing VO2-based devices through defect modifications.

  12. Intrinsically disordered regions in autophagy proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Yang; Su, Minfei; Soni, Gaurav; Salem, Saeed; Colbert, Christopher L; Sinha, Sangita C

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an essential eukaryotic pathway required for cellular homeostasis. Numerous key autophagy effectors and regulators have been identified, but the mechanism by which they carry out their function in autophagy is not fully understood. Our rigorous bioinformatic analysis shows that the majority of key human autophagy proteins include intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), which are sequences lacking stable secondary and tertiary structure; suggesting that IDRs play an important, yet hitherto uninvestigated, role in autophagy. Available crystal structures corroborate the absence of structure in some of these predicted IDRs. Regions of orthologs equivalent to the IDRs predicted in the human autophagy proteins are poorly conserved, indicating that these regions may have diverse functions in different homologs. We also show that IDRs predicted in human proteins contain several regions predicted to facilitate protein-protein interactions, and delineate the network of proteins that interact with each predicted IDR-containing autophagy protein, suggesting that many of these interactions may involve IDRs. Lastly, we experimentally show that a BCL2 homology 3 domain (BH3D), within the key autophagy effector BECN1 is an IDR. This BH3D undergoes a dramatic conformational change from coil to α-helix upon binding to BCL2s, with the C-terminal half of this BH3D constituting a binding motif, which serves to anchor the interaction of the BH3D to BCL2s. The information presented here will help inform future in-depth investigations of the biological role and mechanism of IDRs in autophagy proteins. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Intrinsic Evaporative Cooling by Hygroscopic Earth Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra R. Rempel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The phase change of water from liquid to vapor is one of the most energy-intensive physical processes in nature, giving it immense potential for cooling. Diverse evaporative cooling strategies have resulted worldwide, including roof ponds and sprinklers, courtyard fountains, wind catchers with qanats, irrigated green roofs, and fan-assisted evaporative coolers. These methods all require water in bulk liquid form. The evaporation of moisture that has been sorbed from the atmosphere by hygroscopic materials is equally energy-intensive, however, yet has not been examined for its cooling potential. In arid and semi-arid climates, hygroscopic earth buildings occur widely and are known to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, but evaporation of moisture from their walls and roofs has been regarded as unimportant since water scarcity limits irrigation and rainfall; instead, their cool interiors are attributed to well-established mass effects in delaying the transmission of sensible gains. Here, we investigate the cooling accomplished by daily cycles of moisture sorption and evaporation which, requiring only ambient humidity, we designate as “intrinsic” evaporative cooling. Connecting recent soil science to heat and moisture transport studies in building materials, we use soils, adobe, cob, unfired earth bricks, rammed earth, and limestone to reveal the effects of numerous parameters (temperature and relative humidity, material orientation, thickness, moisture retention properties, vapor diffusion resistance, and liquid transport properties on the magnitude of intrinsic evaporative cooling and the stabilization of indoor relative humidity. We further synthesize these effects into concrete design guidance. Together, these results show that earth buildings in diverse climates have significant potential to cool themselves evaporatively through sorption of moisture from humid night air and evaporation during the following day’s heat. This finding

  14. Increased Intrinsic Brain Activity in the Striatum Reflects Symptom Dimensions in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Christian; Manoliu, Andrei; Neufang, Susanne; Myers, Nicholas; Peters, Henning; Schwerthöffer, Dirk; Scherr, Martin; Mühlau, Mark; Zimmer, Claus; Drzezga, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Bäuml, Josef; Eichele, Tom; Wohlschläger, Afra M.; Riedl, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Striatal dysfunction is thought to be a fundamental element in schizophrenia. Striatal dopamine dysfunction impacts on reward processing and learning and is present even at rest. Here, we addressed the question whether and how spontaneous neuronal activity in the striatum is altered in schizophrenia. We therefore assessed intrinsic striatal activity and its relation with disorder states and symptom dimensions in patients with schizophrenia. We performed resting-state functional (rs-fMRI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging as well as psychometric assessment in 21 schizophrenic patients during psychosis. On average 9 months later, we acquired follow-up data during psychotic remission and with comparable levels of antipsychotic medication. Twenty-one age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Independent component analysis of fMRI data yielded spatial maps and time-courses of coherent ongoing blood-oxygen-level-dependent signal fluctuations, which were used for group comparisons and correlation analyses with scores of the positive and negative syndrome scale. During psychosis, coherent intrinsic activity of the striatum was increased in the dorsal part and correlated with positive symptoms such as delusion and hallucination. In psychotic remission of the same patients, activity of the ventral striatum was increased and correlated with negative symptoms such as emotional withdrawal and blunted affect. Results were controlled for volumetric and medication effects. These data provide first evidence that in schizophrenia intrinsic activity is changed in the striatum and corresponds to disorder states and symptom dimensions. PMID:22241165

  15. Biphasic somatic A-type K channel downregulation mediates intrinsic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Cherl Jung

    Full Text Available Since its original description, the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP has been known to be accompanied by a lasting increase in the intrinsic excitability (intrinsic plasticity of hippocampal neurons. Recent evidence shows that dendritic excitability can be enhanced by an activity-dependent decrease in the activity of A-type K(+ channels. In the present manuscript, we examined the role of A-type K(+ channels in regulating intrinsic excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus after synapse-specific LTP induction. In electrophysiological recordings we found that LTP induced a potentiation of excitability which was accompanied by a two-phased change in A-type K(+ channel activity recorded in nucleated patches from organotypic slices of rat hippocampus. Induction of LTP resulted in an immediate but short lasting hyperpolarization of the voltage-dependence of steady-state A-type K(+ channel inactivation along with a progressive, long-lasting decrease in peak A-current density. Blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis prevented the A-current decrease and most measures of intrinsic plasticity. These results suggest that two temporally distinct but overlapping mechanisms of A-channel downregulation together contribute to the plasticity of intrinsic excitability. Finally we show that intrinsic plasticity resulted in a global enhancement of EPSP-spike coupling.

  16. Investigating Quantum Modulation States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    3. DATES COVERED (From - To) OCT 2012 – SEP 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INVESTIGATING QUANTUM MODULATION STATES 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER IN-HOUSE 5b...Coherent states are the most classical of quantum states. Generation and detection of their polarization and phase modulations are well...stream cipher maps message bits onto random blocks of bits producing modulated states that are intrinsically noisy. The ciphertext so generated is

  17. Hydrogen storage of intrinsic and vanadium-decorated Mg nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuping; Zhao, Yiping

    2009-11-01

    MgH2 is very attractive for future solid state H-storage applications, due to its lightweight, low cost, and high H-storage capacity of 7.6 wt%. However, its practical application is limited by its high thermodynamic stability and sluggish reaction kinetics, which could be improved by making nanostructures with large surface-to-volume ratios to enhance surface reaction activity and by adding an appropriate catalyst to accelerate H-sorption kinetics. In this work, an oblique angle deposition (OAD) or oblique angle co-deposition (OACD) technique has been used to sculpture Mg nanostructures and incorporate a nanocatalyst. For an intrinsic Mg film and Mg nanoblade array by OAD on Ti coated Si, the hydrogenation results show that the nanoblades start to absorb H2 at 523 Khydrogenation behavior. In addition, by OACD, a 2.25 at% V decorated Mg nanoblade array has been fabricated. It can absorb and desorb H2 rapidly at T > 500 K after activation by one hydrogenation cycling, with low H-absorption activation energy of 35.0 ± 1.2 kJ/mol H2 and desorption activation energy of 65.0 ± 0.3 kJ/mol H2. The improved H-sorption kinetics is attributed to both the catalytic effect of the V coating and the unique nanoblade morphology.

  18. Validation of the Intrinsic Spirituality Scale (ISS) with Muslims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R; Zidan, Tarek; Husain, Altaf

    2015-12-01

    This study validates an existing spirituality measure--the intrinsic spirituality scale (ISS)--for use with Muslims in the United States. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted with a diverse sample of self-identified Muslims (N = 281). Validity and reliability were assessed along with criterion and concurrent validity. The measurement model fit the data well, normed χ2 = 2.50, CFI = 0.99, RMSEA = 0.07, and SRMR = 0.02. All 6 items that comprise the ISS demonstrated satisfactory levels of validity (λ > .70) and reliability (R2 > .50). The Cronbach's alpha obtained with the present sample was .93. Appropriate correlations with theoretically linked constructs demonstrated criterion and concurrent validity. The results suggest the ISS is a valid measure of spirituality in clinical settings with the rapidly growing Muslim population. The ISS may, for instance, provide an efficient screening tool to identify Muslims that are particularly likely to benefit from spiritually accommodative treatments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Monitoring the Variability of Intrinsic Absorption Lines in Quasar Spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Misawa, Toru; Eracleous, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We have monitored 12 intrinsic narrow absorption lines (NALs) in five quasars and seven mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) in six quasars for a period of 4-12 years (1-3.5 years in the quasar rest-frame). We present the observational data and the conclusions that follow immediately from them, as a prelude to a more detailed analysis. We found clear variability in the equivalent widths (EWs) of the mini-BAL systems but no easily discernible changes in their profiles. We did not detect any variability in the NAL systems nor in narrow components that are often located at the center of mini-BAL profiles. Variations in mini-BAL EWs are larger at longer time intervals, reminiscent of the trend seen in variable broad absorption lines. If we assume that the observed variations result from changes in the ionization state of the mini-BAL gas, we infer lower limits to the gas density $\\sim$ 10$^3$-10$^5$ cm$^{-3}$ and upper limits on the distance of the absorbers from the central engine of order a few kpc. Motivate...

  20. Personality is reflected in the brain's intrinsic functional architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Adelstein

    Full Text Available Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective 'hubs' in the brain--the anterior cingulate and precuneus--each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses.

  1. submitter Measurement of LYSO Intrinsic Light Yield Using Electron Excitation

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez Turtos, Rosana; Pizzichemi, Marco; Ghezzi, Alessio; Pauwels, Kristof; Auffray, Etiennette; Lecoq, Paul; Paganoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The determination of the intrinsic light yield $(LY_{int})$ of scintillating crystals, i.e. number of optical photons created per amount of energy deposited, constitutes a key factor in order to characterize and optimize their energy and time resolution. However, until now measurements of this quantity are affected by large uncertainties and often rely on corrections for bulk absorption and surface/edge state. The novel idea presented in this contribution is based on the confinement of the scintillation emission in the central upper part of a 10 mm cubic crystal using a 1.5 MeV electron beam with diameter of 1 mm. A black non-reflective pinhole aligned with the excitation point is used to fix the light extraction solid angle (narrower than total reflection angle), which then sets a light cone travel path through the crystal. The final number of photoelectrons detected using a Hamamatsu R2059 photomultiplier tube (PMT) was corrected for the extraction solid angle, the Fresnel reflection coefficient and quantum...

  2. Personality Is Reflected in the Brain's Intrinsic Functional Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Jonathan S.; Shehzad, Zarrar; Mennes, Maarten; DeYoung, Colin G.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Kelly, Clare; Margulies, Daniel S.; Bloomfield, Aaron; Gray, Jeremy R.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Milham, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Personality describes persistent human behavioral responses to broad classes of environmental stimuli. Investigating how personality traits are reflected in the brain's functional architecture is challenging, in part due to the difficulty of designing appropriate task probes. Resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) can detect intrinsic activation patterns without relying on any specific task. Here we use RSFC to investigate the neural correlates of the five-factor personality domains. Based on seed regions placed within two cognitive and affective ‘hubs’ in the brain—the anterior cingulate and precuneus—each domain of personality predicted RSFC with a unique pattern of brain regions. These patterns corresponded with functional subdivisions responsible for cognitive and affective processing such as motivation, empathy and future-oriented thinking. Neuroticism and Extraversion, the two most widely studied of the five constructs, predicted connectivity between seed regions and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and lateral paralimbic regions, respectively. These areas are associated with emotional regulation, self-evaluation and reward, consistent with the trait qualities. Personality traits were mostly associated with functional connections that were inconsistently present across participants. This suggests that although a fundamental, core functional architecture is preserved across individuals, variable connections outside of that core encompass the inter-individual differences in personality that motivate diverse responses. PMID:22140453

  3. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men.

  4. Intrinsic Correlations for Flaring Blazars Detected by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Xiao, H. B.; Lin, C.; Constantin, D.; Luo, G. Y.; Pei, Z. Y.; Hao, J. M.; Mao, Y. W.

    2017-02-01

    Blazars are an extreme subclass of active galactic nuclei. Their rapid variability, luminous brightness, superluminal motion, and high and variable polarization are probably due to a beaming effect. However, this beaming factor (or Doppler factor) is very difficult to measure. Currently, a good way to estimate it is to use the timescale of their radio flares. In this Letter, we use multiwavelength data and Doppler factors reported in the literature for a sample of 86 flaring blazars detected by Fermi to compute their intrinsic multiwavelength data and intrinsic spectral energy distributions and investigate the correlations among observed and intrinsic data. Quite interestingly, intrinsic data show a positive correlation between luminosity and peak frequency, in contrast with the behavior of observed data, and a tighter correlation between γ-ray luminosity and the lower-energy ones. For flaring blazars detected by Fermi, we conclude that (1) observed emissions are strongly beamed; (2) the anti-correlation between luminosity and peak frequency from the observed data is an apparent result, the correlation between intrinsic data being positive; and (3) intrinsic γ-ray luminosity is strongly correlated with other intrinsic luminosities.

  5. Impact of visual repetition rate on intrinsic properties of low frequency fluctuations in the visual network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Chia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual processing network is one of the functional networks which have been reliably identified to consistently exist in human resting brains. In our work, we focused on this network and investigated the intrinsic properties of low frequency (0.01-0.08 Hz fluctuations (LFFs during changes of visual stimuli. There were two main questions to be discussed in this study: intrinsic properties of LFFs regarding (1 interactions between visual stimuli and resting-state; (2 impact of repetition rate of visual stimuli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed scanning sessions that contained rest and visual stimuli in various repetition rates with a novel method. The method included three numerical approaches involving ICA (Independent Component Analyses, fALFF (fractional Amplitude of Low Frequency Fluctuation, and Coherence, to respectively investigate the modulations of visual network pattern, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity during changes of visual stimuli. We discovered when resting-state was replaced by visual stimuli, more areas were involved in visual processing, and both stronger low frequency fluctuations and higher interregional functional connectivity occurred in visual network. With changes of visual repetition rate, the number of areas which were involved in visual processing, low frequency fluctuation power, and interregional functional connectivity in this network were also modulated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To combine the results of prior literatures and our discoveries, intrinsic properties of LFFs in visual network are altered not only by modulations of endogenous factors (eye-open or eye-closed condition; alcohol administration and disordered behaviors (early blind, but also exogenous sensory stimuli (visual stimuli with various repetition rates. It demonstrates that the intrinsic properties of LFFs are valuable to represent physiological states of human brains.

  6. Reduced intrinsic connectivity of amygdala in adults with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajamannar eRamasubbu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Imaging studies of major depressive disorder (MDD have demonstrated enhanced resting-state activity of the amygdala as well as exaggerated reactivity to negative emotional stimuli relative to healthy controls. However, the abnormalities in the intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala in MDD still remain unclear. As the resting-state activity and functional connectivity (RSFC reflect fundamental brain processes, we compared the RSFC of the amygdala between unmedicated MDD patients and healthy controls. Seventy-four subjects, 55 adults meeting the DSM IV criteria for MDD and 19 healthy controls, underwent a resting state 3-T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI scan. An amygdala seed-based low frequency RSFC map for the whole brain was generated for each group. Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed a wide-spread reduction in the intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala with a variety of brain regions involved in emotional processing and regulation, including the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, insula, caudate, middle and superior temporal regions, occipital cortex, and cerebellum, as well as increased connectivity with the bilateral temporal poles (p< 0.05 corrected. The increase in the intrinsic connectivity of amygdala with the temporal poles was inversely correlated with symptom severity and anxiety scores. Although the directionality of connections between regions cannot be inferred from temporal correlations, the reduced intrinsic connectivity of the amygdala predominantly with regions involved in emotional processing may reflect impaired bottom-up signaling for top-down cortical modulation of limbic regions leading to abnormal affect regulation in MDD.

  7. Binding induced conformational changes of proteins correlate with their intrinsic fluctuations: a case study of antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keskin Ozlem

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How antibodies recognize and bind to antigens can not be totally explained by rigid shape and electrostatic complimentarity models. Alternatively, pre-existing equilibrium hypothesis states that the native state of an antibody is not defined by a single rigid conformation but instead with an ensemble of similar conformations that co-exist at equilibrium. Antigens bind to one of the preferred conformations making this conformation more abundant shifting the equilibrium. Results Here, two antibodies, a germline antibody of 36–65 Fab and a monoclonal antibody, SPE7 are studied in detail to elucidate the mechanism of antibody-antigen recognition and to understand how a single antibody recognizes different antigens. An elastic network model, Anisotropic Network Model (ANM is used in the calculations. Pre-existing equilibrium is not restricted to apply to antibodies. Intrinsic fluctuations of eight proteins, from different classes of proteins, such as enzymes, binding and transport proteins are investigated to test the suitability of the method. The intrinsic fluctuations are compared with the experimentally observed ligand induced conformational changes of these proteins. The results show that the intrinsic fluctuations obtained by theoretical methods correlate with structural changes observed when a ligand is bound to the protein. The decomposition of the total fluctuations serves to identify the different individual modes of motion, ranging from the most cooperative ones involving the overall structure, to the most localized ones. Conclusion Results suggest that the pre-equilibrium concept holds for antibodies and the promiscuity of antibodies can also be explained this hypothesis: a limited number of conformational states driven by intrinsic motions of an antibody might be adequate to bind to different antigens.

  8. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity in the Adult Brain and Success in Second-Language Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Berken, Jonathan A; Barbeau, Elise B; Soles, Jennika; Callahan, Megan; Chen, Jen-Kai; Klein, Denise

    2016-01-20

    There is considerable variability in an individual's ability to acquire a second language (L2) during adulthood. Using resting-state fMRI data acquired before training in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course, we investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic resting-state functional connectivity relate to a person's ability to acquire an L2. We focused on two key aspects of language processing--lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed--and computed whole-brain functional connectivity from two regions of interest in the language network, namely the left anterior insula/frontal operculum (AI/FO) and the visual word form area (VWFA). Connectivity between the left AI/FO and left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG) and between the left AI/FO and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex correlated positively with improvement in L2 lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech. Connectivity between the VWFA and left mid-STG correlated positively with improvement in L2 reading speed. These findings are consistent with the different language functions subserved by subcomponents of the language network and suggest that the human capacity to learn an L2 can be predicted by an individual's intrinsic functional connectivity within the language network. Significance statement: There is considerable variability in second-language learning abilities during adulthood. We investigated whether individual differences in intrinsic functional connectivity in the adult brain relate to success in second-language learning, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in English speakers who underwent a 12 week intensive French immersion training course. We found that pretraining functional connectivity within two different language subnetworks correlated strongly with learning outcome in two different language skills: lexical retrieval in spontaneous speech and reading speed. Our results suggest that the human

  9. Cellular origin of intrinsic optical signals in the rabbit retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderian, A; Bussières, L; Thomas, S; Lesage, F; Casanova, C

    2017-08-01

    Optical imaging of retinal intrinsic signals is a relatively new method that provides spatiotemporal patterns of retinal activity through activity-dependent changes in light reflectance of the retina. The exact physiological mechanisms at the origin of retinal intrinsic signals are poorly understood and there are significant inter-species differences in their characteristics and cellular origins. In this study, we re-examined this issue through pharmacological dissection of retinal intrinsic signals in the rabbit with simultaneous ERG recordings. Retinal intrinsic signals faithfully reflected retinal activity as their amplitude was strongly associated with stimulation intensity (r(2)=0.85). Further, a strong linear relation was found using linear regression (r(2)=0.98) between retinal intrinsic signal amplitude and the ERG b wave, which suggests common cellular origins. Intravitreal injections of pharmacological agents were performed to isolate the activity of the retina's major cell types. Retinal intrinsic signals were abolished when the photoreceptors' activity was isolated with aspartate, indicative that they are not at the origin of this signal. A small but significant decrease in intrinsic response (20%) was observed when ganglion and amacrine cells' activity was inhibited by TTX injections. The remaining intrinsic responses were abolished in a dose-dependent manner through the inhibition of ON-bipolar cells by APB. Our results indicate that, in rabbits, retinal intrinsic signals reflect stimulation intensity and originate from the inner retina with a major contribution of bipolar cells and a minor one from ganglion or amacrine cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 5-HT and GABA modulate intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons in Hermissenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Nan Ge; Tian, Lian-Ming; Crow, Terry

    2009-11-01

    The sensory neurons (photoreceptors) in the visual system of Hermissenda are one site of plasticity produced by Pavlovian conditioning. A second site of plasticity produced by conditioning is the type I interneurons in the cerebropleural ganglia. Both photoreceptors and statocyst hair cells of the graviceptive system form monosynaptic connections with identified type I interneurons. Two proposed neurotransmitters in the graviceptive system, serotonin (5-HT) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), have been shown to modify synaptic strength and intrinsic neuronal excitability in identified photoreceptors. However, the potential role of 5-HT and GABA in plasticity of type I interneurons has not been investigated. Here we show that 5-HT increased the peak amplitude of light-evoked complex excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), enhanced intrinsic excitability, and increased spike activity of identified type I(e(A)) interneurons. In contrast, 5-HT decreased spike activity and intrinsic excitability of type I(e(B)) interneurons. The classification of two categories of type I(e) interneurons was also supported by the observation that 5-HT produced opposite effects on whole cell steady-state outward currents in type I(e) interneurons. Serotonin produced a reduction in the amplitude of light-evoked complex inhibitory PSPs (IPSPs), increased spontaneous spike activity, decreased intrinsic excitability, and depolarized the resting membrane potential of identified type I(i) interneurons. In contrast to the effects of 5-HT, GABA produced inhibition in both types of I(e) interneurons and type I(i) interneurons. These results show that 5-HT and GABA can modulate the intrinsic excitability of type I interneurons independent of the presynaptic effects of the same transmitters on excitability and synaptic efficacy of photoreceptors.

  11. Progressively Disrupted Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala in Very Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Ortner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD - i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI and mild dementia - is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex but also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n=33 and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n=38 and mild dementia (AD-D, n=36. Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM values and region of interest-based intrinsic functional connectivity maps (iFC of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D. Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D, particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions including that of amygdala.

  12. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, M.R., E-mail: kolahchi@iasbs.ac.ir [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hamdipour, M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Botha, A.E. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria 0003 (South Africa); Suzuki, M. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T{sub c} superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T{sub c} resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions.

  13. General difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism for nonlinear parabolic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周毓麟; 袁光伟

    1997-01-01

    The boundary value problem for nonlinear parabolic system is solved by the finite difference method with intrinsic parallelism. The existence of the discrete vector solution for the general finite difference schemes with intrinsic parallelism is proved by the fixed-point technique in finite-dimensional Euclidean space. The convergence and stability theorems of the discrete vector solutions of the nonlinear difference system with intrinsic parallelism are proved. The limitation vector function is just the unique generalized solution of the original problem for the parabolic system.

  14. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  15. Analysis of the Intrinsic Uncertainties in the Laser-Driven Iron Hugoniot Experiment Based on the Measurement of Velocities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Zhang; Xiao-Xi Duan; Chen Zhang; Hao Liu; Hui-Ge Zhang; Quan-Xi Xue; Qing Ye

    2016-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in the laser-driven Hugoniot experiment is how to increase the reproducibility and precision of the experimental data to meet the stringent requirement in validating equation of state models.In such cases,the contribution of intrinsic uncertainty becomes important and cannot be ignored.A detailed analysis of the intrinsic uncertainty of the aluminum-iron impedance-match experiment based on the measurement of velocities is presented.The influence of mirror-reflection approximation on the shocked pressure of Fe and intrinsic uncertainties from the equation of state uncertainty of standard material are quantified.Furthermore,the comparison of intrinsic uncertainties of four different experimental approaches is presented.It is shown that,compared with other approaches including the most widely used approach which relies on the measurements of the shock velocities of Al and Fe,the approach which relies on the measurement of the particle velocity of Al and the shock velocity of Fe has the smallest intrinsic uncertainty,which would promote such work to significantly improve the diagnostics precision in such an approach.

  16. The State of State Science Standards, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lawrence S.; Goodenough, Ursula; Lynch, John; Schwartz, Martha; Schwartz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    This report examines K-12 science standards for fifty states and the District of Columbia, as well as the science assessment framework of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The reviewers' aim is to evaluate them for their intrinsic clarity, completeness, and scientific correctness. Their earlier evaluations, as well as those…

  17. Switch effect of the nonquantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity in monolayered monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xianqing; Ni, Jun

    2017-07-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the intrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE) and its behavior under vertical electric field in monoclinic transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers (1T‧-MX2 with M  =  Mo, W and X  =  S, Se, Te). We find that the pristine systems exhibit nonquantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity (SHC) due to the unconserved spin around the direct band gaps though they have nontrivial band topology. The unconserved spin is attributed to the band crossings at Fermi levels for systems without spin-orbit coupling and the distinct composition of the band states around the crossings. Despite the nonquantization of SHC, calculations with the hybrid functional predict SHC approaching the quantized value in W based systems, especially 1T‧-WTe2, which has been realized in experiments. More interesting, a sharp drop of SHC to almost zero in semiconducting systems induced by vertical electric field is observed at the topological phase transition point, suggesting that such systems exhibit a strong switch effect of SHC. In contrast, the switch effect is weak in semi-metallic systems, where the SHC decreases almost continuously with increasing field strength for the chemical potential around the Fermi levels. Our findings suggest potential applications of the pristine 1T‧-MX2 and those under vertical electric field in spintronics devices by utilizing the intrinsic SHE of their bulk states.

  18. Effects of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya Interaction on Entanglement and Teleportation in a Two-Qubit Ising System with Intrinsic Cecoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Li; FANG Jian-Xing

    2009-01-01

    We study the effects of Dzyaloshinski-Moriya(DM)interaction on entanglement and teleportation in a two-qubit Ising system with intrinsic decoherence taken into account.It is found that for the unentangled state,DM interaction is a benefit for entanglement and teleportation.

  19. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  20. Cross-Cultural Comparison of the Effects of Optimism, Intrinsic Motivation, and Family Relations on Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yun-Jeong; Kelly, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the effects of optimism, intrinsic motivation, and family relations on vocational identity in college students in the United States and South Korea. The results yielded support for the hypothesized multivariate model. Across both cultures, optimism was an important contributing factor to vocational identity, and intrinsic…

  1. On using intrinsic spectral analysis for low-resource languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available for a phone recognition task on the Afrikaans language show that a combination of the intrinsic subspace and extrinsic subspaces provides us with improved performance compared to conventional features....

  2. What is intrinsic motivation? A typology of computational approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves Oudeyer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic motivation, the causal mechanism for spontaneous exploration and curiosity, is a central concept in developmental psychology. It has been argued to be a crucial mechanism for open-ended cognitive development in humans, and as such has gathered a growing interest from developmental roboticists in the recent years. The goal of this paper is threefold. First, it provides a synthesis of the different approaches of intrinsic motivation in psychology. Second, by interpreting these approaches in a computational reinforcement learning framework, we argue that they are not operational and even sometimes inconsistent. Third, we set the ground for a systematic operational study of intrinsic motivation by presenting a formal typology of possible computational approaches. This typology is partly based on existing computational models, but also presents new ways of conceptualizing intrinsic motivation. We argue that this kind of computational typology might be useful for opening new avenues for research both in psychology and developmental robotics.

  3. Does displayed enthusiasm favour recall, intrinsic motivation and time estimation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica

    2016-11-01

    Displayed enthusiasm has been shown to relate to intrinsic motivation, vitality, and positive affect, but its effects on recall performance and time estimation have not yet been explored. This research aimed at studying the effects of a delivery style characterised by High Enthusiasm (HE) on recall, time estimation, and intrinsic motivation. In line with previous studies, effects on intrinsic motivation were expected. In addition, higher recall and lower time estimations were hypothesised. In two experiments, participants assigned to a HE condition or to a normal reading control condition listened to a narrative and to a descriptive passage. Then, they were asked to rate perceived time, enthusiasm, pleasure, interest, enjoyment and curiosity, before writing a free recall. Experiment 1 showed that in the HE condition, participants recalled more, were more intrinsically motivated, and expressed lower time estimations compared to the control condition. Experiment 2 confirmed the positive effects of HE reading compared to normal reading, using different passages and a larger sample.

  4. Exploring the link between intrinsic motivation and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christy, Steven M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis proposes that it is workers' intrinsic motivation that leads them to produce quality work. It reviews two different types of evidence- expert opinion and empirical studies--to attempt to evaluate a link between intrinsic motivation and work quality. The thesis reviews the works of Total Quality writers and behavioral scientists for any connection they might have made between intrinsic motivation and quality. The thesis then looks at the works of Deming and his followers in an attempt to establish a match between Deming's motivational assumptions and the four task rewards in the Thomas/Tymon model of intrinsic motivation: choice, competence, meaningfulness, and progress. Based upon this analysis, it is proposed that the four Thomas/Tymon task rewards are a promising theoretical foundation for explaining the motivational basis of quality for workers in Total Quality organizations.

  5. Towards hardware-intrinsic security foundations and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Tuyls, Pim

    2010-01-01

    Hardware-intrinsic security is a young field dealing with secure secret key storage. This book features contributions from researchers and practitioners with backgrounds in physics, mathematics, cryptography, coding theory and processor theory.

  6. Values, Norms, and Intrinsic Motivation to Act Proenvironmentally

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steg, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Environmental problems can be reduced if people more consistently engage in proenvironmental actions. In this article, I discuss factors that motivate or inhibit individuals to act proenvironmentally. Many people are intrinsically motivated to engage in proenvironmental actions, because protecting t

  7. Intrinsic and enhanced biodegradation of benzene in strongly reduced aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiningen, W.N.M. van; Rijnaarts, H.H.M; Langenhoff, A.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory microcosm studies were performed to examine intrinsic and enhanced benzene bioremediation using five different sediment and groundwater samples from three deeply anaerobic aquifers sited in northern Netherlands. The influence of addition of nitrate, sulfate, limited amounts of oxygen, and

  8. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors influencing large African herbivore movements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Prins, H.H.T.; Mashanova, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Slotow, R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding environmental as well as anthropogenic factors that influence large herbivore ecological patterns and processes should underpin their conservation and management. We assessed the influence of intrinsic, extrinsic environmental and extrinsic anthropogenic factors on movement behaviour o

  9. Intrinsic feature-based pose measurement for imaging motion compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Justin S.; Goddard, Jr., James Samuel

    2014-08-19

    Systems and methods for generating motion corrected tomographic images are provided. A method includes obtaining first images of a region of interest (ROI) to be imaged and associated with a first time, where the first images are associated with different positions and orientations with respect to the ROI. The method also includes defining an active region in the each of the first images and selecting intrinsic features in each of the first images based on the active region. Second, identifying a portion of the intrinsic features temporally and spatially matching intrinsic features in corresponding ones of second images of the ROI associated with a second time prior to the first time and computing three-dimensional (3D) coordinates for the portion of the intrinsic features. Finally, the method includes computing a relative pose for the first images based on the 3D coordinates.

  10. "Angle" Operator Conjugate to Photon's Intrinsic Angular Momentum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洪义

    2001-01-01

    We find the correct "angle" operator conjugate to the intrinsic angular momentum of the photon by introducing a suitable representation which involves both left-handed and right-handed polarization photon operators.

  11. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large South African university. ... are made for how academics might increase their research productivity. ... South Africa, research productivity, human resources management ...

  12. Intrinsic antecedents of academic research productivity of a large ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    iSouthern African Business Review Volume 19 Number 1 2015. Intrinsic antecedents of ... C. Callaghan is in the School of Economic and Business Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand. He is Director ...... Harvard Business. Review ...

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation for stereotypic and repetitive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, Annette V; Bundy, Anita C; Einfeld, Stewart L

    2009-03-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess anxiety as an intrinsic motivator. Rasch analysis of data from 279 MASs (74 children) revealed that the items formed two unidimensional scales. Anxiety was a more likely intrinsic motivator than sensory seeking for children with dual diagnoses; the reverse was true for children with intellectual disability only. Escape and gaining a tangible object were the most common extrinsic motivators for those with dual diagnoses and attention and escape for children with intellectual disability.

  14. Increased intrinsic mitochondrial function in humans with mitochondrial haplogroup H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Rabøl, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human mitochondrial variants influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Whether mitochondrial respiratory capacity per mitochondrion (intrinsic activity) in human skeletal muscle is affected by differences in mitochondrial variants is not known. We recruited 54 males...... and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity (OXPHOS), mitochondrial content (citrate synthase (CS)) and VO2max. Intrinsic mitochondrial function is calculated as mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity divided by mitochondrial content (CS). Haplogroup H showed a 30......% higher intrinsic mitochondrial function compared with the other haplo group U. There was no relationship between haplogroups and VO2max. In skeletal muscle from men with mitochondrial haplogroup H, an increased intrinsic mitochondrial function is present....

  15. Probability of intrinsic time-arrow from information loss

    CERN Document Server

    Diósi, L

    2004-01-01

    Time-arrow $s=+/-$, intrinsic to a concrete physical system, is associated with the direction of information loss $\\Delta I$ displayed by the random evolution of the given system. When the information loss tends to zero the intrinsic time-arrow becomes uncertain. We propose the heuristic relationship $1/[1+exp(-s\\Delta I)]$ for the probability of the intrinsic time-arrow. The main parts of the present work are trying to confirm this heuristic equation. The probability of intrinsic time arrow is defined by Bayesian inference from the observed random process. From irreversible thermodynamic systems, the proposed heuristic probabilities follow via the Gallavotti-Cohen relations between time-reversed random processes. In order to explore the underlying microscopic mechanism, a trivial microscopic process is analyzed and an obvious discrepancy is identified. It can be resolved by quantum theory. The corresponding trivial quantum process will exactly confirm the proposed heuristic time-arrow probability.

  16. Probability of Intrinsic Time-Arrow from Information Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diósi, Lajos

    Time-arrow s=±, intrinsic to a concrete physical system, is associated with the direction of information loss I displayed by the random evolution of the given system. When the information loss tends to zero the intrinsic time-arrow becomes uncertain. We propose the heuristic relationship for the probability of the intrinsic time-arrow. The main parts of the present work are trying to confirm this heuristic equation. The probability of intrinsic time arrow is defined by Bayesian inference from the observed random process. From irreversible thermodynamic systems, the proposed heuristic probabilities follow via the Gallavotti-Cohen relations between time-reversed random processes. In order to explore the underlying microscopic mechanism, a trivial microscopic process is analyzed and an obvious discrepancy is identified. It can be resolved by quantum theory. The corresponding trivial quantum process will exactly confirm the proposed heuristic time-arrow probability.

  17. The effect of magnetic field on the intrinsic detection efficiency of superconducting single-photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renema, J. J.; Rengelink, R. J.; Komen, I.; Wang, Q.; Kes, P.; Aarts, J.; Exter, M. P. van; Dood, M. J. A. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Gaudio, R.; Hoog, K. P. M. op ' t; Zhou, Z.; Fiore, A. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sahin, D. [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Centre for Quantum Photonics, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Driessen, E. F. C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SPSMS, 38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SPSMS, 38000 Grenoble (France)

    2015-03-02

    We experimentally investigate the effect of a magnetic field on photon detection in superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs). At low fields, the effect of a magnetic field is through the direct modification of the quasiparticle density of states of the superconductor, and magnetic field and bias current are interchangeable, as is expected for homogeneous dirty-limit superconductors. At the field where a first vortex enters the detector, the effect of the magnetic field is reduced, up until the point where the critical current of the detector starts to be determined by flux flow. From this field on, increasing the magnetic field does not alter the detection of photons anymore, whereas it does still change the rate of dark counts. This result points at an intrinsic difference in dark and photon counts, and also shows that no enhancement of the intrinsic detection efficiency of a straight SSPD wire is achievable in a magnetic field.

  18. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.

  19. Influence of Intrinsic Decoherence on Entanglement of Superconducting Charge Qubit in a Resonant Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Nan; SHAO Bin; ZOU Jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Taking the intrinsic decoherence effect into account, we investigate the entanglement dynamics of a superconducting charge qubit in a single-mode optical cavity. Concurrence, as the measure of entanglement of the coupled field-junction system, is calculated. In comparison, we also consider the entanglement of the system by using the entanglement parameter based on the ratio between mutual entropy and partial Von-Neumann entropy to investigate how the intrinsic decoherence affects the entanglement of the coupling system. Our results show that the evolution of the entanglement parameter has the behaviour similar to the concurrence and it is thus the well measure of entanglement for the mixed state in such a coupling system.

  20. Focal pontine lesions provide evidence that intrinsic functional connectivity reflects polysynaptic anatomical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Liu, Hesheng; Zhang, Miao; Wang, Danhong; Cao, Yanxiang; Ma, Qingfeng; Rong, Dongdong; Wang, Xiaoyi; Buckner, Randy L; Li, Kuncheng

    2011-10-19

    Intrinsic functional connectivity detected by functional MRI (fMRI) provides a useful but indirect approach to study the organization of human brain systems. An unresolved question is whether functional connectivity measured by resting-state fMRI reflects anatomical connections. In this study, we used the well-characterized anatomy of cerebrocerebellar circuits to directly test whether intrinsic functional connectivity is associated with an anatomic pathway. Eleven first-episode stroke patients were scanned five times during a period of 6 months, and 11 healthy control subjects were scanned three times within 1 month. In patients with right pontine strokes, the functional connectivity between the right motor cortex and the left cerebellum was selectively reduced. This connectivity pattern was reversed in patients with left pontine strokes. Although factors beyond anatomical connectivity contribute to fMRI measures of functional correlation, these results provide direct evidence that functional connectivity depends on intact connections within a specific polysynaptic pathway.

  1. Topology-based modeling of intrinsically disordered proteins: balancing intrinsic folding and intermolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Debabani; Chen, Jianhan

    2011-04-01

    Coupled binding and folding is frequently involved in specific recognition of so-called intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), a newly recognized class of proteins that rely on a lack of stable tertiary fold for function. Here, we exploit topology-based Gō-like modeling as an effective tool for the mechanism of IDP recognition within the theoretical framework of minimally frustrated energy landscape. Importantly, substantial differences exist between IDPs and globular proteins in both amino acid sequence and binding interface characteristics. We demonstrate that established Gō-like models designed for folded proteins tend to over-estimate the level of residual structures in unbound IDPs, whereas under-estimating the strength of intermolecular interactions. Such systematic biases have important consequences in the predicted mechanism of interaction. A strategy is proposed to recalibrate topology-derived models to balance intrinsic folding propensities and intermolecular interactions, based on experimental knowledge of the overall residual structure level and binding affinity. Applied to pKID/KIX, the calibrated Gō-like model predicts a dominant multistep sequential pathway for binding-induced folding of pKID that is initiated by KIX binding via the C-terminus in disordered conformations, followed by binding and folding of the rest of C-terminal helix and finally the N-terminal helix. This novel mechanism is consistent with key observations derived from a recent NMR titration and relaxation dispersion study and provides a molecular-level interpretation of kinetic rates derived from dispersion curve analysis. These case studies provide important insight into the applicability and potential pitfalls of topology-based modeling for studying IDP folding and interaction in general.

  2. Applications of scanning probe microscopy in intrinsically conducting polymer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tao; NIU Li; LI Zhuang; DONG Shaojun

    2007-01-01

    The applications of scanning probe microscopy(SPM)in intrinsically conducting polymer research is briefly reviewed,including morphology observation,nanofabrication,microcosmic electrical property measurements,electrochemistry researches,in-situ measurements of film thickness change,and so on.At the same time,some important variations of SPM and the related techniques are briefly introduced.Finally,the future development of SPM in the study of intrinsically conducting polymers is prospected.

  3. A simple intrinsic reduced-observer for geodesic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Bonnabel, Silvere

    2008-01-01

    Aghannan and Rouchon proposed a new design method of asymptotic observers for a class of nonlinear mechanical systems: Lagrangian systems with configuration (position) measurements. The observer is based on the Riemannian structure of the configuration manifold endowed with the kinetic energy metric and is intrinsic. They proved local convergence. When the system is conservative, we propose a globally convergent intrinsic reduced-observer based on the Jacobi metric. For non-conservative syste...

  4. Study of Intrinsic motivation in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtimäki, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to investigate intrinsic motivation of the executive assistants and secretaries in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The objective in turn, was to examine how well intrinsic motivation has been achieved among these executive assistants and secretaries. How respondents evaluate their job satisfaction, work environment and motivation was also researched. Lastly, factors that increase or decrease motivation were studied, as well as if there is a need for additional...

  5. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computations over multiple temporal ranges. PMID:25383900

  6. A hierarchy of intrinsic timescales across primate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, John D.; Bernacchia, Alberto; Freedman, David J.; Romo, Ranulfo,; Wallis, Jonathan D.; Cai, Xinying; Padoa-Schioppa, Camillo; Pasternak, Tatiana; Seo, Hyojung; Lee, Daeyeol; WANG Xiao-jing

    2014-01-01

    Specialization and hierarchy are organizing principles for primate cortex, yet there is little direct evidence for how cortical areas are specialized in the temporal domain. We measured timescales of intrinsic fluctuations in spiking activity across areas, and found a hierarchical ordering, with sensory and prefrontal areas exhibiting shorter and longer timescales, respectively. Based on our findings, we suggest that intrinsic timescales reflect areal specialization for task-relevant computat...

  7. Dynamics of intrinsic electrophysiological properties in spinal cord neurones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russo, R E; Hounsgaard, J

    1999-01-01

    . The intrinsic response properties of spinal neurones--determined by the particular set and distribution of voltage sensitive channels and their dynamic non-linear interactions--show a high degree of functional specialisation as reflected by the differences of intrinsic response patterns in different cell types....... Specialised, cell specific electrophysiological phenotypes gradually differentiate during development and are continuously adjusted in the adult animal by metabotropic synaptic interactions and activity-dependent plasticity to meet a broad range of functional demands....

  8. Spatially adaptive morphological image filtering using intrinsic structuring elements:

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Debayle; Jean-Charles Pinoli

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with spatially adaptive morphological filtering, extending the theory of mathematical morphology to the paradigm of adaptive neighborhood. The basic idea in this approach is to substitute the extrinsically-defined, fixed-shape, fixed-size structuring elements generally used by morphological operators, by intrinsically-defined, variable-shape, variable-size structuring elements. These last so-called intrinsic structuring elements fit to the local features of the image, with re...

  9. "Hall viscosity" and intrinsic metric of incompressible fractional Hall fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Haldane, F. D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The (guiding-center) "Hall viscosity" is a fundamental tensor property of incompressible ``Hall fluids'' exhibiting the fractional quantum Hall effect; it determines the stress induced by a non-uniform electric field, and the intrinsic dipole moment on (unreconstructed) edges. It is characterized by a rational number and an intrinsic metric tensor that defines distances on an ``incompressibility lengthscale''. These properties do not require rotational invariance in the 2D plane. The sign of ...

  10. Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    TITLE: Can Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of Breast Cancer ? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Harikrishna Nakshatri, B.V.Sc., PhD Kasi R... Diabetes Change the Intrinsic Subtype Specificity of 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-07-1-0651...as in type II diabetes , to disrupt GATA- 3:FOXA1:ERα network. Insulin induced the expression of T-bet in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-7 cells

  11. New evidence for intrinsic blood coagulation in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, J A; Hamilton, P B

    1981-01-01

    Coagulation of blood in chickens is considered the result of an extrinsic clotting system initiated, as in mammals, by tissue thromboplastin released from injured tissues. Blood coagulation in mammals depends principally on an intrinsic mechanism in which thromboplastin is generated from blood itself. Only a negligible role, if any, has been ascribed to an intrinsic system in chickens. A reevaluation of intrinsic coagulation in chickens was undertaken in this study. Whole blood of chickens was found to clot over 30% faster when contacted by suitable surface activators such as kaolin or glass than when such contact was omitted. Plasma recalcification times were significantly (P less than .02) shortened by contact activators. Clotting functions were measurable both by partial thromboplastin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, tests that bypass extrinsic factors. Intrinsic thromboplastin could be generated from dilute whole chicken blood although at a slower rate than that reported for human blood. Modification of whole blood thromboplastin generation techniques permitted measurement of activities that seem analogous to human intrinsic factors VIII and IX but not XI or XII. These data provide evidence of a functioning intrinsic clotting mechanism in chickens. A complete description and role for this mechanism remains to be defined.

  12. Intrinsic honesty and the prevalence of rule violations across societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F

    2016-03-24

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological, sociological and economic theories suggest causal pathways to explain how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment, such as corruption, tax evasion or political fraud, can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world that demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the 'prevalence of rule violations' (PRV) based on country-level data from the year 2003 of corruption, tax evasion and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment. We conducted the experiments with 2,568 young participants (students) who, due to their young age in 2003, could not have influenced PRV in 2003. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty. The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values, and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences, but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society.

  13. Intrinsically Disordered Side of the Zika Virus Proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajanish Giri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, concepts of protein intrinsic disorder have been implicated in different biological processes. Recent studies have suggested that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs provide structural plasticity and functional diversity to viral proteins that are involved in rapid replication and immune evasion in host cells. In case of Zika virus, the roles of protein intrinsic disorder in mechanisms of pathogenesis are not completely understood. In this study, we have analyzed the prevalence of intrinsic disorder in Zika virus proteome (strain MR 766. Our analyses revealed that Zika virus polyprotein is enriched with intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDPRs and this finding is consistent with previous reports on the involvement of IDPs in shell formation and virulence of the Flaviviridae family. We found abundant IDPRs in Capsid, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, and NS5 proteins that are involved in mature particle formation and replication. In our view, the intrinsic disorder-focused analysis of ZIKV proteins could be important for the development of new disorder-based drugs.

  14. Intrinsic Losses Based on Information Geometry and Their Applications

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    Yao Rong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One main interest of information geometry is to study the properties of statistical models that do not depend on the coordinate systems or model parametrization; thus, it may serve as an analytic tool for intrinsic inference in statistics. In this paper, under the framework of Riemannian geometry and dual geometry, we revisit two commonly-used intrinsic losses which are respectively given by the squared Rao distance and the symmetrized Kullback–Leibler divergence (or Jeffreys divergence. For an exponential family endowed with the Fisher metric and α -connections, the two loss functions are uniformly described as the energy difference along an α -geodesic path, for some α ∈ { − 1 , 0 , 1 } . Subsequently, the two intrinsic losses are utilized to develop Bayesian analyses of covariance matrix estimation and range-spread target detection. We provide an intrinsically unbiased covariance estimator, which is verified to be asymptotically efficient in terms of the intrinsic mean square error. The decision rules deduced by the intrinsic Bayesian criterion provide a geometrical justification for the constant false alarm rate detector based on generalized likelihood ratio principle.

  15. Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. E.

    2016-08-01

    Experimental observations of driven and intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas are reviewed. For momentum sources, there is direct drive from neutral beam injection, lower hybrid and ion cyclotron range of frequencies waves (including mode conversion flow drive), as well as indirect \\mathbf{j}× \\mathbf{B} forces from fast ion and electron orbit shifts, and toroidal magnetic field ripple loss. Counteracting rotation drive are sinks, such as from neutral drag and toroidal viscosity. Many of these observations are in agreement with the predictions of neo-classical theory while others are not, and some cases of intrinsic rotation remain puzzling. In contrast to particle and heat fluxes which depend on the relevant diffusivity and convection, there is an additional term in the momentum flux, the residual stress, which can act as the momentum source for intrinsic rotation. This term is independent of the velocity or its gradient, and its divergence constitutes an intrinsic torque. The residual stress, which ultimately responds to the underlying turbulence, depends on the confinement regime and is a complicated function of collisionality, plasma shape, and profiles of density, temperature, pressure and current density. This leads to the rich intrinsic rotation phenomenology. Future areas of study include integration of these many effects, advancement of quantitative explanations for intrinsic rotation and development of strategies for velocity profile control.

  16. Intrinsic Honesty and the Prevalence of Rule Violations across Societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Schulz, Jonathan F.

    2016-01-01

    Deception is common in nature and humans are no exception1. Modern societies have created institutions to control cheating, but many situations remain where only intrinsic honesty keeps people from cheating and violating rules. Psychological2, sociological3 and economic theories4 suggest causal pathways about how the prevalence of rule violations in people's social environment such as corruption, tax evasion, or political fraud can compromise individual intrinsic honesty. Here, we present cross-societal experiments from 23 countries around the world, which demonstrate a robust link between the prevalence of rule violations and intrinsic honesty. We developed an index of the Prevalence of Rule Violations (PRV) based on country-level data of corruption, tax evasion, and fraudulent politics. We measured intrinsic honesty in an anonymous die-rolling experiment.5 We conducted the experiments at least eight years after the measurement of PRV with 2568 young participants (students) who could not influence PRV. We find individual intrinsic honesty is stronger in the subject pools of low PRV countries than those of high PRV countries. The details of lying patterns support psychological theories of honesty.6,7 The results are consistent with theories of the cultural co-evolution of institutions and values8 and show that weak institutions and cultural legacies9-11 that generate rule violations not only have direct adverse economic consequences but might also impair individual intrinsic honesty that is crucial for the smooth functioning of society. PMID:26958830

  17. The intrinsic defect structure of exfoliated MoS2 single layers revealed by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancsó, Péter; Magda, Gábor Zsolt; Pető, János; Noh, Ji-Young; Kim, Yong-Sung; Hwang, Chanyong; Biró, László P.; Tapasztó, Levente

    2016-01-01

    MoS2 single layers have recently emerged as strong competitors of graphene in electronic and optoelectronic device applications due to their intrinsic direct bandgap. However, transport measurements reveal the crucial role of defect-induced electronic states, pointing out the fundamental importance of characterizing their intrinsic defect structure. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) is able to image atomic scale defects in MoS2 single layers, but the imaged defect structure is far from the one probed in the electronic devices, as the defect density and distribution are substantially altered during the TEM imaging. Here, we report that under special imaging conditions, STM measurements can fully resolve the native atomic scale defect structure of MoS2 single layers. Our STM investigations clearly resolve a high intrinsic concentration of individual sulfur atom vacancies, and experimentally identify the nature of the defect induced electronic mid-gap states, by combining topographic STM images with ab intio calculations. Experimental data on the intrinsic defect structure and the associated defect-bound electronic states that can be directly used for the interpretation of transport measurements are essential to fully understand the operation, reliability and performance limitations of realistic electronic devices based on MoS2 single layers. PMID:27445217

  18. Intrinsic Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in the Kagome Lattice Cs_{2}LiMn_{3}F_{12}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng

    2015-10-30

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs_{2}Mn_{3}F_{12} kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs_{2}LiMn_{3}F_{12} single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Moreover, a simplified tight binding model based on the in-plane ddσ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

  19. Intrinsic Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in the Kagome Lattice Cs2 LiMn3 F12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gang; Lian, Biao; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Zhang's Group Team

    In a kagome lattice, the time reversal symmetry can be broken by a staggered magnetic flux emerging from the ferromagnetic ordering and intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, leading to several well-separated nontrivial Chern bands and intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect. Based on this idea and ab initio calculations, we propose the realization of the intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in the single layer Cs2Mn3F12 kagome lattice and on the (001) surface of a Cs2LiMn3F12 single crystal by modifying the carrier coverage on it, where the band gap is around 20 meV. Moreover, a simplified tight binding model based on the inplane dd σ antibonding states is constructed to understand the topological band structures of the system.

  20. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION - AN INVESTIGATION OF PERFORMANCE CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrudan Maria-Madela

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A series of research untaken in the last decade have revealed some interesting aspects regarding the effects of different types of motivation on performance. Among the researchers who have shown interest in this field we can number: Richard Ryan, Edward Deci, Sam Glucksberg, Dan Ariely, Robert Eisenhower, Linda Shanock, analysts from London School of Economics, and others. Their findings suggest that extrinsic incentives may have a negative impact on overall performance, but a general agreement in this respect has not been reached. In this paper we intend to shed some light upon the relationship between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and performance. Experts define intrinsic motivation as being the execution of a task or activity because of the inherent satisfaction arising from it rather than due to some separate outcome. In contrast with intrinsic motivation, we speak of extrinsic motivation whenever an activity is done in order to attain some separable outcome. With the purpose of contributing to the clarification of the links between concepts, we initiated and conducted an explanatory research. The research is based on the analysis of the relations between the results obtained by third year students and their predominant type of motivation. For this, we formulated and tested four work hypotheses using a combination of quantitative methods (investigation and qualitative methods (focus group. After the validation of the questionnaires, the respondents were divided into four categories: intrinsically motivated, extrinsically motivated, both intrinsically and extrinsically motivated and unmotivated. To analyze the collected data, we made use of Excel and SPSS. Some of the primary conclusions of the research are as follows: as the average increases, the percent of individuals having both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation is decreasing; the highest percentage of unmotivated students is concentrated in the highest average category; Female

  1. Entropy squeezing for a two-level atom in two-mode Raman coupled model with intrinsic decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian; Shao Bin; Zou Jian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,we investigate the entropy squeezing for a two-level atom interacting with two quantized fields through Raman coupling.We obtain the dynamical evolution of the total system under the influence of intrinsic decoherence when the two quantized fields are prepared in a two-mode squeezing vacuum state initially.The effects of the field squeezing factor,the two-level atomic transition frequency,the second field frequency and the intrinsic decoherence on the entropy squeezing are discussed.Without intrinsic decoherence,the increase of field squeezing factor can break the entropy squeezing.The two-level atomic transition frequency changes only the period of oscillation but not the strength of entropy squeezing.The influence of the second field frequency is complicated.With the intrinsic decoherence taken into consideration,the results show that the stronger the intrinsic decoherence is,the more quickly the entropy squeezing will disappear.The increase of the atomic transition frequency can hasten the disappearance of entropy squeezing.

  2. Intrinsic hand muscle function, part 1: creating a functional grasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnet, Ursina; Muzykewicz, David A; Fridén, Jan; Lieber, Richard L

    2013-11-01

    Regaining hand function has been identified as the highest priority for persons with tetraplegia. In many patients, finger flexion can be restored with a tendon transfer of extensor carpi radialis longus to flexor digitorum profundus (FDP). In the absence of intrinsic function, this results in a roll-up finger movement, which tends to push large objects out of grasp. To enable patients to grasp objects of varying sizes, a functional grasp is required that has a larger excursion of fingertip-to-palm distance than can be supplied without intrinsic function. The aim of this study was to quantify the role of intrinsic muscle force in creating a functional grasp. Finger kinematics during grasp were measured on 5 cadaveric hands. To simulate finger flexion, the FDP was activated by a motor and intrinsic muscles were loaded at various levels (0, 125, 250, 375, or 500 g). Finger movement was characterized by the order of metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joint flexion and by the maximal fingertip-to-palm distance during finger closure. Without any intrinsic muscle contribution (0-g load), FDP activation resulted in flexion of all 3 joints, whereby flexion began at the proximal interphalangeal joint, followed by the distal interphalangeal joint, and then the metacarpophalangeal joint. With increasing intrinsic muscle load, finger flexion was initiated at the metacarpophalangeal joint, followed by the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. This altered joint flexion order resulted in a larger maximal fingertip-to-palm distance during finger flexion. The difference between the 2 extreme conditions (0 g vs 500 g of intrinsic muscle load) was 19 mm. These findings demonstrate that simultaneous activation of the FDP and the intrinsic muscles results in an apparently more functional hand closing compared with FDP activation alone because of altered kinematics and larger fingertip-to-palm distances. These findings

  3. HSV-1 ICP0: An E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Counteracts Host Intrinsic and Innate Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Perusina Lanfranca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 encoded E3 ubiquitin ligase, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0, is required for efficient lytic viral replication and regulates the switch between the lytic and latent states of HSV-1. As an E3 ubiquitin ligase, ICP0 directs the proteasomal degradation of several cellular targets, allowing the virus to counteract different cellular intrinsic and innate immune responses. In this review, we will focus on how ICP0’s E3 ubiquitin ligase activity inactivates the host intrinsic defenses, such as nuclear domain 10 (ND10, SUMO, and the DNA damage response to HSV-1 infection. In addition, we will examine ICP0’s capacity to impair the activation of interferon (innate regulatory mediators that include IFI16 (IFN γ-inducible protein 16, MyD88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88, and Mal (MyD88 adaptor-like protein. We will also consider how ICP0 allows HSV-1 to evade activation of the NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B inflammatory signaling pathway. Finally, ICP0’s paradoxical relationship with USP7 (ubiquitin specific protease 7 and its roles in intrinsic and innate immune responses to HSV-1 infection will be discussed.

  4. Characterization of intrinsic properties of cingulate pyramidal neurons in adult mice after nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is important for cognitive and sensory functions including memory and chronic pain. Glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission undergo long-term potentiation in ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral injury. Less information is available for the possible long-term changes in neuronal action potentials or intrinsic properties. In the present study, we characterized cingulate pyramidal cells in the layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. We then examined possible long-term changes in intrinsic properties of the ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral nerve injury. In the control mice, we found that there are three major types of pyramidal cells according to their action potential firing pattern: (i regular spiking (RS cells (24.7%, intrinsic bursting (IB cells (30.9%, and intermediate (IM cells (44.4%. In a state of neuropathic pain, the population distribution (RS: 21.3%; IB: 31.2%; IM: 47.5% and the single action potential properties of these three groups were indistinguishable from those in control mice. However, for repetitive action potentials, IM cells from neuropathic pain animals showed higher initial firing frequency with no change for the properties of RS and IB neurons from neuropathic pain mice. The present results provide the first evidence that, in addition to synaptic potentiation reported previously, peripheral nerve injury produces long-term plastic changes in the action potentials of cingulate pyramidal neurons in a cell type-specific manner.

  5. The interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic bounded noises in biomolecular networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Caravagna

    Full Text Available After being considered as a nuisance to be filtered out, it became recently clear that biochemical noise plays a complex role, often fully functional, for a biomolecular network. The influence of intrinsic and extrinsic noises on biomolecular networks has intensively been investigated in last ten years, though contributions on the co-presence of both are sparse. Extrinsic noise is usually modeled as an unbounded white or colored gaussian stochastic process, even though realistic stochastic perturbations are clearly bounded. In this paper we consider Gillespie-like stochastic models of nonlinear networks, i.e. the intrinsic noise, where the model jump rates are affected by colored bounded extrinsic noises synthesized by a suitable biochemical state-dependent Langevin system. These systems are described by a master equation, and a simulation algorithm to analyze them is derived. This new modeling paradigm should enlarge the class of systems amenable at modeling. We investigated the influence of both amplitude and autocorrelation time of a extrinsic Sine-Wiener noise on: (i the Michaelis-Menten approximation of noisy enzymatic reactions, which we show to be applicable also in co-presence of both intrinsic and extrinsic noise, (ii a model of enzymatic futile cycle and (iii a genetic toggle switch. In (ii and (iii we show that the presence of a bounded extrinsic noise induces qualitative modifications in the probability densities of the involved chemicals, where new modes emerge, thus suggesting the possible functional role of bounded noises.

  6. Intrinsic default mode network connectivity predicts spontaneous verbal descriptions of autobiographical memories during social processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei eYang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN, also support autobiographical memory (AM retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity. Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a two-hour, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, how does this person’s story make you feel? We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (semantic AMs or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (episodic AMs. We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.

  7. Intrinsic charge trapping in organic and polymeric semiconductors: a physical chemistry perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaake, Loren [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Barbara, Paul F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Zhu, Xiaoyang [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-01-12

    We aim to understand the origins of intrinsic charge carrier traps in organic and polymeric semiconductor materials from a physical chemistry perspective. In crystalline organic semiconductors, we point out some of the inadequacies in the description of intrinsic charge traps using language and concepts developed for inorganic semiconductors. In π-conjugated polymeric semiconductors, we suggest the presence of a two-tier electronic energy landscape, a bimodal majority landscape due to two dominant structural motifs and a minority electronic energy landscape from intrinsic charged defects. The bimodal majority electronic energy landscape results from a combination of amorphous domains and microcrystalline or liquid-crystalline domains. The minority tier of the electronic density of states is comprised of deep Coulomb traps embedded in the majority electronic energy landscape. This minority electronic energy landscape may dominate transport properties at low charge carrier densities, such as those expected for organic photovoltaic devices, while the bimodal majority electronic energy landscape becomes significant at high carrier densities, that is, in organic field effect transistors.

  8. Which is the best intrinsic motivation signal for learning multiple skills?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieri Giuliano Santucci

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and other biological agents are able to autonomously learn and cache different skills in the absence of any biological pressure or any assigned task. In this respect, Intrinsic Motivations (i.e. motivations not connected to reward-related stimuli play a cardinal role in animal learning, and can be considered as a fundamental tool for developing more autonomous and more adaptive artificial agents. In this work, we provide an exhaustive analysis of a scarcely investigated problem: which kind of IM reinforcement signal is the most suitable for driving the acquisition of multiple skills in the shortest time? To this purpose we implemented an artificial agent with a hierarchical architecture that allows to learn and cache different skills. We tested the system in a setup with continuous states and actions, in particular, with a cinematic robotic arm that has to learn different reaching tasks. We compare the results of different versions of the system driven by several different intrinsic motivation signals. The results show a that intrinsic reinforcements purely based on the knowledge of the system are not appropriate to guide the acquisition of multiple skills, and b that the stronger the link between the IM signal and the competence of the system, the better the performance.

  9. Intrinsic motivation and amotivation in first episode and prolonged psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul H; Firmin, Ruth L; Breier, Alan; Vohs, Jenifer L

    2015-12-01

    The deleterious functional implications of motivation deficits in psychosis have generated interest in examining dimensions of the construct. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding whether dimensions of motivation differ over the course of psychosis. Therefore, this study examined two motivation dimensions, trait-like intrinsic motivation, and the negative symptom of amotivation, and tested the impact of illness phase on the 1) levels of these dimensions and 2) relationship between these dimensions. Participants with first episode psychosis (FEP; n=40) and prolonged psychosis (n=66) completed clinician-rated measures of intrinsic motivation and amotivation. Analyses revealed that when controlling for group differences in gender and education, the FEP group had significantly more intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation than the prolonged psychosis group. Moreover, intrinsic motivation was negatively correlated with amotivation in both FEP and prolonged psychosis, but the magnitude of the relationship did not statistically differ between groups. These findings suggest that motivation deficits are more severe later in the course of psychosis and that low intrinsic motivation may be partially independent of amotivation in both first episode and prolonged psychosis. Clinically, these results highlight the importance of targeting motivation in early intervention services.

  10. Photovoltaic device comprising compositionally graded intrinsic photoactive layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffbauer, Mark A; Williamson, Todd L

    2013-04-30

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making photovoltaic devices comprising at least one compositionally graded photoactive layer, said method comprising providing a substrate; growing onto the substrate a uniform intrinsic photoactive layer having one surface disposed upon the substrate and an opposing second surface, said intrinsic photoactive layer consisting essentially of In.sub.1-xA.sub.xN,; wherein: i. 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1; ii. A is gallium, aluminum, or combinations thereof; and iii. x is at least 0 on one surface of the intrinsic photoactive layer and is compositionally graded throughout the layer to reach a value of 1 or less on the opposing second surface of the layer; wherein said intrinsic photoactive layer is isothermally grown by means of energetic neutral atom beam lithography and epitaxy at a temperature of 600.degree. C. or less using neutral nitrogen atoms having a kinetic energy of from about 1.0 eV to about 5.0 eV, and wherein the intrinsic photoactive layer is grown at a rate of from about 5 nm/min to about 100 nm/min.

  11. Probing Quasar Winds Using Intrinsic Narrow Absorption Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliton, Christopher S.; Charlton, Jane C.; Eracleous, Michael; Roberts, Amber; Ganguly, Rajib; Misawa, Toru; Muzahid, Sowgat

    2017-01-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole. Furthermore, outflows potentially have a role in providing feedback to the galaxy, and halting star formation and infall of gas. The geometry and density of these outflows remain unknown, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. Having searched ultraviolet spectra at both high redshift (VLT/UVES; 1.4physically associated with) the quasar. We identify intrinsic NALs with a wide range of properties, including ejection velocity, coverage fraction, and ionization level. We also consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar properties (optical, radio and X-ray fluxes), and find that radio properties and quasar orientation are influential in determining if a quasar is likely to host an intrinsic system. We find that there is a continuum of properties within the intrinsic NAL sample, rather than discrete families, ranging from partially covered CIV systems with black Lya and with a separate low ionization gas phase to partially covered NV systems with partially covered Lya and without detected low ionization gas. Additionally, we construct a model describing the spatial distributions, geometries, and varied ionization structures of intrinsic NALs.

  12. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W

    2012-02-23

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  13. Physics of intrinsic rotation in flux-driven ITG turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, S.; Abiteboul, J.; Diamond, P. H.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Kwon, J. M.; Sarazin, Y.; Hahm, T. S.; Garbet, X.; Chang, C. S.; Latu, G.; Yoon, E. S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Yi, S.; Strugarek, A.; Solomon, W.; Grandgirard, V.

    2012-06-01

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E × B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity.

  14. Intrinsic periodic and aperiodic stochastic resonance in an electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ishant; Phogat, Richa; Parmananda, P.; Ocampo-Espindola, J. L.; Rivera, M.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we show the interaction of a composite of a periodic or aperiodic signal and intrinsic electrochemical noise with the nonlinear dynamics of an electrochemical cell configured to study the corrosion of iron in an acidic media. The anodic voltage setpoint (V0) in the cell is chosen such that the anodic current (I ) exhibits excitable fixed point behavior in the absence of noise. The subthreshold periodic (aperiodic) signal consists of a train of rectangular pulses with a fixed amplitude and width, separated by regular (irregular) time intervals. The irregular time intervals chosen are of deterministic and stochastic origins. The amplitude of the intrinsic internal noise, regulated by the concentration of chloride ions, is then monotonically increased, and the provoked dynamics are analyzed. The signal to noise ratio and the cross-correlation coefficient versus the chloride ions' concentration curves have a unimodal shape indicating the emergence of an intrinsic periodic or aperiodic stochastic resonance. The abscissa for the maxima of these unimodal curves correspond to the optimum value of intrinsic noise where maximum regularity of the invoked dynamics is observed. In the particular case of the intrinsic periodic stochastic resonance, the scanning electron microscope images for the electrode metal surfaces are shown for certain values of chloride ions' concentrations. These images, qualitatively, corroborate the emergence of order as a result of the interaction between the nonlinear dynamics and the composite signal.

  15. Semisupervised Support Vector Machines With Tangent Space Intrinsic Manifold Regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shiliang; Xie, Xijiong

    2016-09-01

    Semisupervised learning has been an active research topic in machine learning and data mining. One main reason is that labeling examples is expensive and time-consuming, while there are large numbers of unlabeled examples available in many practical problems. So far, Laplacian regularization has been widely used in semisupervised learning. In this paper, we propose a new regularization method called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization. It is intrinsic to data manifold and favors linear functions on the manifold. Fundamental elements involved in the formulation of the regularization are local tangent space representations, which are estimated by local principal component analysis, and the connections that relate adjacent tangent spaces. Simultaneously, we explore its application to semisupervised classification and propose two new learning algorithms called tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized support vector machines (TiSVMs) and tangent space intrinsic manifold regularized twin SVMs (TiTSVMs). They effectively integrate the tangent space intrinsic manifold regularization consideration. The optimization of TiSVMs can be solved by a standard quadratic programming, while the optimization of TiTSVMs can be solved by a pair of standard quadratic programmings. The experimental results of semisupervised classification problems show the effectiveness of the proposed semisupervised learning algorithms.

  16. Cosmological information in the intrinsic alignments of luminous red galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, Nora Elisa [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Dvorkin, Cora, E-mail: nchisari@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: cdvorkin@ias.edu [Institute for Advanced Study, School of Natural Sciences, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The intrinsic alignments of galaxies are usually regarded as a contaminant to weak gravitational lensing observables. The alignment of Luminous Red Galaxies, detected unambiguously in observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, can be reproduced by the linear tidal alignment model of Catelan, Kamionkowski and Blandford (2001) on large scales. In this work, we explore the cosmological information encoded in the intrinsic alignments of red galaxies. We make forecasts for the ability of current and future spectroscopic surveys to constrain local primordial non-Gaussianity and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) in the cross-correlation function of intrinsic alignments and the galaxy density field. For the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey, we find that the BAO signal in the intrinsic alignments is marginally significant with a signal-to-noise ratio of 1.8 and 2.2 with the current LOWZ and CMASS samples of galaxies, respectively, and increasing to 2.3 and 2.7 once the survey is completed. For the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument and for a spectroscopic survey following the EUCLID redshift selection function, we find signal-to-noise ratios of 12 and 15, respectively. Local type primordial non-Gaussianity, parametrized by f{sub NL} = 10, is only marginally significant in the intrinsic alignments signal with signal-to-noise ratios < 2 for the three surveys considered.

  17. Intrinsic activity in the fly brain gates visual information during behavioral choices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Tang

    Full Text Available The small insect brain is often described as an input/output system that executes reflex-like behaviors. It can also initiate neural activity and behaviors intrinsically, seen as spontaneous behaviors, different arousal states and sleep. However, less is known about how intrinsic activity in neural circuits affects sensory information processing in the insect brain and variability in behavior. Here, by simultaneously monitoring Drosophila's behavioral choices and brain activity in a flight simulator system, we identify intrinsic activity that is associated with the act of selecting between visual stimuli. We recorded neural output (multiunit action potentials and local field potentials in the left and right optic lobes of a tethered flying Drosophila, while its attempts to follow visual motion (yaw torque were measured by a torque meter. We show that when facing competing motion stimuli on its left and right, Drosophila typically generate large torque responses that flip from side to side. The delayed onset (0.1-1 s and spontaneous switch-like dynamics of these responses, and the fact that the flies sometimes oppose the stimuli by flying straight, make this behavior different from the classic steering reflexes. Drosophila, thus, seem to choose one stimulus at a time and attempt to rotate toward its direction. With this behavior, the neural output of the optic lobes alternates; being augmented on the side chosen for body rotation and suppressed on the opposite side, even though the visual input to the fly eyes stays the same. Thus, the flow of information from the fly eyes is gated intrinsically. Such modulation can be noise-induced or intentional; with one possibility being that the fly brain highlights chosen information while ignoring the irrelevant, similar to what we know to occur in higher animals.

  18. Intrinsic Visual-Motor Synchrony Correlates With Social Deficits in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Nettles, Carrie A; Sweeney, Kristie L; Ament, Katarina; Ward, Rebecca E; Choe, Ann S; Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-04-15

    Imitation, which is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and critically depends on the integration of visual input with motor output, likely impacts both motor and social skill acquisition in children with ASD; however, it is unclear what brain mechanisms contribute to this impairment. Children with ASD also exhibit what appears to be an ASD-specific bias against using visual feedback during motor learning. Does the temporal congruity of intrinsic activity, or functional connectivity, between motor and visual brain regions contribute to ASD-associated deficits in imitation, motor, and social skills? We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 100 8- to 12-year-old children (50 ASD). Group independent component analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity between visual and motor systems. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed by regressing functional connectivity measures with social deficit severity, imitation, and gesture performance scores. We observed increased intrinsic asynchrony between visual and motor systems in children with ASD and replicated this finding in an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Moreover, children with more out-of-sync intrinsic visual-motor activity displayed more severe autistic traits, while children with greater intrinsic visual-motor synchrony were better imitators. Our twice replicated findings confirm that visual-motor functional connectivity is disrupted in ASD. Furthermore, the observed temporal incongruity between visual and motor systems, which may reflect diminished integration of visual consequences with motor output, was predictive of the severity of social deficits and may contribute to impaired social-communicative skill development in children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Progressively Disrupted Intrinsic Functional Connectivity of Basolateral Amygdala in Very Early Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Marion; Pasquini, Lorenzo; Barat, Martina; Alexopoulos, Panagiotis; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander; Förstl, Hans; Zimmer, Claus; Wohlschläger, Afra; Sorg, Christian; Peters, Henning

    2016-01-01

    Very early Alzheimer’s disease (AD) – i.e., AD at stages of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia – is characterized by progressive structural and neuropathologic changes, such as atrophy or tangle deposition in medial temporal lobes, including hippocampus and entorhinal cortex and also adjacent amygdala. While progressively disrupted intrinsic connectivity of hippocampus with other brain areas has been demonstrated by many studies, amygdala connectivity was rarely investigated in AD, notwithstanding its known relevance for emotion processing and mood disturbances, which are both important in early AD. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of hippocampus and amygdala overlap in healthy persons. Thus, we hypothesized that increased alteration of iFC patterns along AD is not limited to the hippocampus but also concerns the amygdala, independent from atrophy. To address this hypothesis, we applied structural and functional resting-state MRI in healthy controls (CON, n = 33) and patients with AD in the stages of MCI (AD-MCI, n = 38) and mild dementia (AD-D, n = 36). Outcome measures were voxel-based morphometry (VBM) values and region-of-interest-based iFC maps of basolateral amygdala, which has extended cortical connectivity. Amygdala VBM values were progressively reduced in patients (CON > AD-MCI and AD-D). Amygdala iFC was progressively reduced along impairment severity (CON > AD-MCI > AD-D), particularly for hippocampus, temporal lobes, and fronto-parietal areas. Notably, decreased iFC was independent of amygdala atrophy. Results demonstrate progressively impaired amygdala intrinsic connectivity in temporal and fronto-parietal lobes independent from increasing amygdala atrophy in very early AD. Data suggest that early AD disrupts intrinsic connectivity of medial temporal lobe key regions, including that of amygdala. PMID:27698649

  20. Intrinsic Optimal Control for Mechanical Systems on Lie Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic infinite horizon optimal control problem of mechanical systems on Lie group is investigated. The geometric optimal control problem is built on the intrinsic coordinate-free model, which is provided with Levi-Civita connection. In order to obtain an analytical solution of the optimal problem in the geometric viewpoint, a simplified nominal system on Lie group with an extra feedback loop is presented. With geodesic distance and Riemann metric on Lie group integrated into the cost function, a dynamic programming approach is employed and an analytical solution of the optimal problem on Lie group is obtained via the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. For a special case on SO(3, the intrinsic optimal control method is used for a quadrotor rotation control problem and simulation results are provided to show the control performance.

  1. Exploration of Horizontal Intrinsic Spin Resonances in the AGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fanglei; Lee, S. Y.; Ahrens, Leif A.; Bai, Mei; Brown, Kevin; Courant, Ernest D.; Glenn, Joseph W.; Huang, Haixin; Luccio, Alfredo; Mackay, William W.; Ptitsyn, Vadim; Roser, Thomas; Tepikian, Steven; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Wood, Jeff; Yip, Yin; Okamura, Masahiro; Takano, Junpei

    2006-04-01

    Siberian snakes have been employed to overcome spin resonances during polarized proton acceleration. Considering limited space in the AGS, strong partial snakes that rotate the spin by less than 180 degrees can be used to avoid the spin imperfection and intrinsic resonances in low energy accelerators. However, the tilt of spin away from the vertical direction may become sensitive to horizontal betatron motion which can also cause spin depolarization. These resonances, called horizontal intrinsic spin resonances, have been observed in simulations. Preliminary measurements with beam were also carried out in AGS 2005 polarized proton run. During the AGS 2006 run, we plan to explore the details about the horizontal intrinsics resonances further. This paper describes the experimental methods and the latest results.

  2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.81.093704" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.

  3. [Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis: description of a striking instance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Finotto, Elena; Zambolin, Tiziano; Fisogni, Simona; Simeone, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is a very rare condition. A 41 y. o. woman with right hydroureteronephrosis and other aspecific symptoms came to our attention. The CT scan showed an ureteral obstacle causing the hydroureteronephrosis. She underwent ureterorenoscopy with biopsies of the lesion that did not result to be diriment. Suspecting a ureteral neoplasm, the patient then underwent ureteral resection and ureterocystoneostomy, and the extemporary histological examination resulted as endometriosis. The abdominal exploration showed a parametrial and a peritoneal growth - both compatible with the extemporary histological examination - that were also excised. The post-operative course was uneventful. The definitive hystological examination confirmed the perioperatory diagnosis. Intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is confirmed as a rare pathology with an indefinite clinical presentation; its typical presentation, namely cyclic hematuria, seems to be an anecdotal feature. Therefore the diagnostics of intrinsic ureteral endometriosis is still difficult even despite such a striking presentation.

  4. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, T.; Oehmichen, V.; Mößle, M.; Müller, A.; Weber, A.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R.

    2002-12-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  5. An axiomatic approach to intrinsic dimension of a dataset

    CERN Document Server

    Pestov, Vladimir

    2007-01-01

    We perform a deeper analysis of an axiomatic approach to the concept of intrinsic dimension of a dataset proposed by us in the IJCNN'07 paper (arXiv:cs/0703125). The main features of our approach are that a high intrinsic dimension of a dataset reflects the presence of the curse of dimensionality (in a certain mathematically precise sense), and that dimension of a discrete i.i.d. sample of a low-dimensional manifold is, with high probability, close to that of the manifold. At the same time, the intrinsic dimension of a sample is easily corrupted by moderate high-dimensional noise (of the same amplitude as the size of the manifold) and suffers from prohibitevely high computational complexity (computing it is an $NP$-complete problem). We outline a possible way to overcome these difficulties.

  6. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clauss, T; Oehmichen, V; Moessle, M; Mueller, A; Weber, A; Koelle, D; Kleiner, R [Physikalisches Institut-Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 14, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2002-12-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8}. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  7. Fluxons in long and annular intrinsic Josephson junction stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Clauss, T; Moessle, M; Müller, A; Weber, A; Kölle, D; Kleiner, R

    2002-01-01

    A promising approach towards a THz oscillator based on intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-temperature superconductors is based on the collective motion of Josephson fluxons, which are predicted to form various configurations ranging from a triangular to a quadratic lattice. Not only for this reason, but certainly also for the sake of basic physics, several experimental and theoretical investigations have been done on the subject of collective fluxon dynamics in stacked intrinsic Josephson junctions. In this paper we will present some experimental results on the fluxon dynamics of long intrinsic Josephson junction stacks made of Bi sub 2 Sr sub 2 CaCu sub 2 O sub 8. The stacks were formed either in an open or in an annular geometry, and clear resonant fluxon modes were observed. Experiments discussed include measurements of current-voltage characteristics in external magnetic fields and in external microwave fields.

  8. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation at 30: Unresolved scientific issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven. The key unresolved issues are construct invalidity (all four definitions are unproved and two are illogical); measurement unreliability (the free-choice measure requires unreliable, subjective judgments to infer intrinsic motivation); inadequate experimental controls (negative affect and novelty, not cognitive evaluation, may explain "undermining" effects); and biased metareviews (studies with possible floor effects excluded, but those with possible ceiling effects included). Perhaps the greatest error with the undermining theory, however, is that it does not adequately recognize the multifaceted nature of intrinsic motivation (Reiss, 2004a). Advice to limit the use of applied behavior analysis based on "hidden" undermining effects is ideologically inspired and is unsupported by credible scientific evidence.

  9. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  10. The effects of cooperative and individualistic reward on intrinsic motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, H L; Berger, M; Duncan, M K; Miller, A; Blevin, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of cooperative versus individualistic reward on students' intrinsic motivation were investigated. The controlling aspects of extrinsic reward may be heightened or produce greater ego threat in the individualistic situation when compared with a group situation. We predicted that students in the cooperative social situation would show higher levels of intrinsic motivation. Fifth-grade students from existing cooperative groups were assigned randomly to receive a tangible reward based on either cooperative or individualistic achievement for completing pattern block designs. Cooperation affected intrinsic motivation positively. Students in the cooperative dyad solved the block designs more quickly, interacted positively, and viewed the task as easier than did those in the individualistic situation, and they reported that their peers were helpful. There was little evidence that the controlling functions of reward or ego-threat were factors in producing the outcome. Some evidence supporting the importance of the social nature of cooperation was provided.

  11. Quantum stability of nonlinear wave type solutions with intrinsic mass parameter in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngman; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Pak, D. G.; Park, Chanyong; Tsukioka, Takuya

    2017-09-01

    The problem of the existence of a stable vacuum field in pure QCD is revised. Our approach is based on using classical stationary nonlinear wave type solutions with an intrinsic mass scale parameter. Such solutions can be treated as quantum-mechanical wave functions describing massive spinless states in quantum theory. We verify whether nonlinear wave type solutions can form a stable vacuum field background within the framework of the effective action formalism. We demonstrate that there is a special class of stationary generalized Wu-Yang monopole solutions that are stable against quantum gluon fluctuations.

  12. Modeling of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High Temperature Superconductors under External Radiation in the Breakpoint Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukrinov Yu. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-voltage (IV characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation are calculated numerically in the parametric resonance region. We discuss a numerical method for calculation of the Shapiro step width on the amplitude of radiation. In order to accelerate computations we used parallelization by task parameter via Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM arrays and tested it in the case of a single junction. An analysis of the junction transitions between rotating and oscillating states in the branching region of IV-characteristics is presented.

  13. Intrinsic cutoff and acausality for massive spin 2 fields coupled to electromagnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrati, Massimo [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)], E-mail: massimo.porrati@nyu.edu; Rahman, Rakibur [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2008-09-21

    We couple a massive spin 2 particle to electromagnetism. By introducing new, redundant degrees of freedom using the Stueckelberg formalism, we extract an intrinsic, model independent UV cutoff of the effective field theory describing this system. The cutoff signals both the onset of a strongly interacting dynamical regime and a finite size for the spin 2 particle. We show that the existence of a cutoff is strictly connected to other pathologies of interacting high-spin fields, such as the Velo-Zwanziger acausality. We also briefly comment on implications of this result for the detection of high spin states and on its possible generalization to arbitrary spin.

  14. Production of the doubly charmed baryons at the SELEX experiment - The double intrinsic charm approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkarev, Sergey; Anikeev, Vladimir

    2017-02-01

    The high production rate and > 0.33 of the doubly charmed baryons measured by the SELEX experiment is not amenable to perturbative QCD analysis. In this paper we calculate the production of the doubly heavy baryons with the double intrinsic charm Fock states whose existence is rigorously predicted by QCD. The production rate and the longitudinal momentum distribution are both reproduced. We also show that the production rates of the doubly charmed baryons and double J / ψ production observed by NA3 collaboration are comparable. Recent experimental results are reviewed. The production cross section of the doubly charmed baryons at a fixed-target experiment at the LHC is presented.

  15. Modeling of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High Temperature Superconductors under External Radiation in the Breakpoint Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Plecenik, A.; Streltsova, O. I.; Zuev, M. I.; Ososkov, G. A.

    2016-02-01

    The current-voltage (IV) characteristics of the intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation are calculated numerically in the parametric resonance region. We discuss a numerical method for calculation of the Shapiro step width on the amplitude of radiation. In order to accelerate computations we used parallelization by task parameter via Simple Linux Utility for Resource Management (SLURM) arrays and tested it in the case of a single junction. An analysis of the junction transitions between rotating and oscillating states in the branching region of IV-characteristics is presented.

  16. Function and regulation of plant major intrinsic proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovic, Milan

    detoxification. Plant Noduline 26-like Intrinsic Proteins (NIPs) can channel As(III) and consequently influence the detoxification process. The role of the Tonoplast Intrinsic Proteins (TIPs) in As(III) detoxification remains to be clarified, yet TIPs could have an impact on As(III) accumulation in plant cell......(III) by PCs. There is thus great interest in perceiving mechanisms of transport and detoxification of arsenic in order to improve soil management and crops through breeding and iotechnology. This result is important for the further understanding of arsenic etoxification mechanisms which could eventually lead...

  17. Which Spatial Partition Trees are Adaptive to Intrinsic Dimension?

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Nakul; Dasgupta, Sanjoy

    2012-01-01

    Recent theory work has found that a special type of spatial partition tree - called a random projection tree - is adaptive to the intrinsic dimension of the data from which it is built. Here we examine this same question, with a combination of theory and experiments, for a broader class of trees that includes k-d trees, dyadic trees, and PCA trees. Our motivation is to get a feel for (i) the kind of intrinsic low dimensional structure that can be empirically verified, (ii) the extent to which a spatial partition can exploit such structure, and (iii) the implications for standard statistical tasks such as regression, vector quantization, and nearest neighbor search.

  18. Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic religiosity and academic dishonesty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, E A; Storch, J B

    2001-04-01

    The present study was a preliminary examination of the relations among the Organizational, Nonorganizational, and Intrinsic dimensions of religiosity and academic dishonesty. 244 college students completed the Duke Religion Index and nine questions assessing academic dishonesty. Analysis indicated that (1) regardless of sex, High Nonorganizational and Intrinsic religiosity was associated with lower reported rates of academic dishonesty, and (2) there was an interaction between Organizational religiosity and sex, with High Organizational women and men reporting similar rates of academic dishonesty. Furthermore, the frequency of academic dishonesty reported by High Organizational women was higher than the rates reported by Moderate and Minimal Organizational women.

  19. A Simple n-Dimensional Intrinsically Universal Quantum Cellular Automaton

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We describe a simple n-dimensional quantum cellular automaton (QCA) capable of simulating all others, in that the initial configuration and the forward evolution of any n-dimensional QCA can be encoded within the initial configuration of the intrinsically universal QCA. Several steps of the intrinsically universal QCA then correspond to one step of the simulated QCA. The simulation preserves the topology in the sense that each cell of the simulated QCA is encoded as a group of adjacent cells in the universal QCA.

  20. Senescence-associated intrinsic mechanisms of osteoblast dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha; Trinquier, Anne Marie-Pierre Emilie

    2011-01-01

    -related osteoblast dysfunction is the main cause of age-related bone loss in both men and women beyond the fifth decade and results from two groups of pathogenic mechanisms: extrinsic mechanisms that are mediated by age-related changes in bone microenvironment including changes in levels of hormones and growth...... factors, and intrinsic mechanisms caused by the osteoblast cellular senescence. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of the intrinsic senescence mechanisms affecting osteoblastic functions and how they can be targeted in order to abolish age-related osteoblastic dysfunction and bone loss...

  1. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and intention to breast-feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Thompson, Nancy J; Kloeblen-Tarver, Amy S

    2002-01-01

    To examine the feasibility of using the cognitive evaluation theory to examine pregnant women's intention to breast-feed. A questionnaire designed to measure intrinsic and extrinsic motivation was administered to 228 pregnant women. Results provide evidence for reliability and validity of the revised instrument in this population. A factor analysis suggests the instrument measures 2 types of intrinsic motivation, one type of extrinsic motivation, and motivation related to the baby. The instrument distinguished differences in motivation between women who intend to breast-feed and those who intend to formula feed. This study helps elucidate motivational factors involved in infant-feeding decisions.

  2. Changes in Intrinsic Motivation as a Function of Negative Feedback and Threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Cascio, Wayne F.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that external rewards can affect intrinsic motivation to perform an activity. Money tends to decrease intrinsic motivation, whereas positive verbal reinforcements tend to increase intrinsic motivation. This paper presents evidence that negative feedback and threats of punishment also decrease intrinsic motivation.…

  3. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  4. Do monetary rewards crowd out intrinsic motivations of volunteers? Some empirical evidence for Italian volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Damiano Fiorillo

    2009-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of regular volunteering departing from previous literature on extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. It contributes to the literature investigating the role of monetary rewards to influence intrinsic motivation. Using a simple framework that allows me to study the effect of monetary rewards on intrinsic motivation, the paper shows, controlling for endogenous bias, that monetary rewards crowd-out intrinsic motivation.

  5. The intrinsic curvature of thermodynamic potentials for black holes with critical points

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Brian P

    2015-01-01

    The geometry of thermodynamic state space is studied for asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in D-dimensional space times. Convexity of thermodynamic potentials and the analytic structure of the response functions is analysed. The thermodynamic potentials can be used to define a metric on the space of thermodynamic variables and two commonly used such metrics are the Weinhold metric, derived from the internal energy, and the Ruppeiner metric, derived from the entropy. The intrinsic curvature of these metrics is calculated for charged and for rotating black holes and it is shown that the curvature diverges when heat capacities diverge but, contrary to general expectations, the singularities in the Ricci scalars do not reflect the critical behaviour. When a cosmological constant is included as a state space variable it can be interpreted as a pressure and the thermodynamically conjugate variable as a thermodynamic volume. The geometry of the resulting extended thermodynamic state space is also studied, in...

  6. Intrinsic alignment-lensing interference as a contaminant of cosmic shear

    CERN Document Server

    Hirata, C M; Hirata, Christopher M.; Seljak, Uros

    2004-01-01

    Cosmic shear surveys have great promise as tools for precision cosmology, but can be subject to systematic errors including intrinsic ellipticity correlations of the source galaxies. The intrinsic alignments are believed to be small for deep surveys, but this is based on intrinsic and lensing distortions being uncorrelated. Here we show that the gravitational lensing shear and intrinsic shear need not be independent: correlations between the tidal field and the intrinsic shear cause the intrinsic shear of nearby galaxies to be correlated with the gravitational shear acting on more distant galaxies. We estimate the magnitude of this effect for two simple intrinsic alignment models: one in which the galaxy ellipticity is linearly related to the tidal field, and one in which it is quadratic in the tidal field as suggested by tidal torque theory. The first model predicts a gravitational-intrinsic (GI) correlation that can be much greater than the intrinsic-intrinsic (II) correlation for broad redshift distributio...

  7. Neuronal intrinsic properties shape naturally-evoked sensory inputs in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia eReali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Intrinsic electrophysiological properties arising from specific combinations of voltage-gated channels are fundamental for the performance of small neural networks in invertebrates, but their role in large-scale vertebrate circuits remains controversial. Although spinal neurons have complex intrinsic properties, some tasks produce high-conductance states that override intrinsic conductances, minimizing their contribution to network function. Because the detection and coding of somato-sensory information at early stages probably involves a relatively small number of neurons, we speculated that intrinsic electrophysiological properties are likely involved in the processing of sensory inputs by dorsal horn neurons (DHN. To test this idea, we took advantage of an integrated spinal cord–hindlimbs preparation from turtles allowing the combination of patch-clamp recordings of DHN embedded in an intact network, with accurate control of the extracellular milieu. We found that plateau potentials and low threshold spikes (LTS -mediated by L- and T-type Ca2+ channels, respectively- generated complex dynamics by interacting with naturally evoked synaptic potentials. Inhibitory receptive fields could be changed in sign by activation of the LTS. On the other hand, the plateau potential transformed sensory signals in the time domain by generating persistent activity triggered on and off by brief sensory inputs and windup of the response to repetitive sensory stimulation. Our findings suggest that intrinsic properties dynamically shape sensory inputs and thus represent a major building block for sensory processing by DHN. Intrinsic conductances in DHN appear to provide a mechanism for plastic phenomena such as dynamic receptive fields and sensitization to pain.

  8. A Rotational Crofton Formula for Flagged Intrinsic Volumes of Sets of Positive Reach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auneau, Jeremy Michel

    A rotational Crofton formula is derived relating the flagged intrinsic volumes of a compact set of positive reach with the flagged intrinsic volumes measured on sections passing through a fixed point. In particular cases, the flagged intrinsic volumes defined in the present paper are identical...... to the classical intrinsic volumes. The tight connection between our main result and other recent rotational integral formulae involving intrinsic volumes is pointed out....

  9. Optimizing the stirring strategy for the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serra, Ramiro; Leferink, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the definition, application and assessment of a factorial plan with the aim of gaining insight on what kind of stirring strategy could work the best in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber. Three different stirring strategies were defined as factors of a factorial analysis

  10. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to Z

  11. Intrinsic Size OF Sgr A* 72 Schwarzschild Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Lo, K Y; Zhao, J H; Ho, P T P

    1998-01-01

    Recent proper motion studies of stars at the very center of the Galaxy strongly suggest that Sagittarius (Sgr) A*, the compact nonthermal radio source at the Galactic Center, is a 2.5 million solar mass black hole. By means of near-simultaneous multi-wavelength Very Long Baseline Array measurements, we determine for the first time the intrinsic size and shape of Sgr A* to be 72 Rsc by < 20 Rsc, with the major axis oriented essentially north-south, where Rsc (= 7.5 x 10^{11} cm) is the Schwarzschild radius for a 2.5 million solar mass black hole. Contrary to previous expectation that the intrinsic structure of Sgr A* is observable only at wavelengths shorter than 1 mm, we can discern the intrinsic source size at 7 mm because (1) the scattering size along the minor axis is half that along the major axis, and (2) the near simultaneous multi-wavelength mapping of Sgr A* with the same interferometer makes it possible to extrapolate precisely the minor axis scattering angle at 7 mm. The intrinsic size and shape ...

  12. Learning "Number Sense" through Digital Games with Intrinsic Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurillard, Diana

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a new interdisciplinary approach to helping low attaining learners in basic mathematics. It reports on the research-informed design and user testing of an adaptive digital game based on constructionist tasks with intrinsic feedback. The approach uses findings from the neuroscience of dyscalculia, cognitive science research on…

  13. Experimental results obtained in the vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Boudenot, Jean-Claude; Etten, van Wim

    2000-01-01

    Measurements have been performed in a vibrating intrinsic reverberation chamber (VIRC). This chamber has varying angles between wall, floor and ceiling. Inside the VIRC a diffuse, statistically uniform electromagnetic field is created without the use of a mechanical rotating mode stirrer. In compari

  14. Nanostructured intrinsically conducting polymers formed by electrochemical synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gvozdenović, Milica; Jugović, Branimir; id_orcid 0000-0002-5331-6354; Grgur, Branimir; id_orcid 0000-0003-4684-9053

    2016-01-01

    Due to unique properties of intrinsically conducting polymers (ICP) such as: electrical conductivity, reversible electrochemistry, optical activity, biocompatibility, environmental and corrosion stability, they still represent a base for both theoretical and practical studies. The mentioned properties open up possibilities for practical application in the field of electrochemical systems for energy storage and conversion, sensors, biosensors, antistatic coatings, magnetic shielding, active co...

  15. Intrinsic and Ionic Conduction in Humidity-Sensitive Sulfonated Polyaniline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doan, D.C.T.; Ramaneti, R.; Baggerman, J.; Tong, H.D.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Rijn, van C.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of humidity on the conductivity of sulfonated polyaniline (SPANI) and polyaniline (PANI) is investigated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Separation of intrinsic (q) and ionic charge (i) mobility was observed using combination of ac and dc impedance measurements at

  16. Intrinsic Motivation as a Mediator on Imaginative Capability Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chaoyun; Hsu, Yuling; Chang, Chi-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The present study explored which environmental and psychological variables influenced the imagination of video/film major university students, and the effects these variables had on their imaginative capability development. The hypothesis of the study--that "intrinsic motivation" played a mediating role in imaginative capability development--was…

  17. Diffusion in Intrinsic and Highly Doped III-V Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Stolwijk, N

    2002-01-01

    %title\\\\ \\\\Diffusion plays a key role in the fabrication of semiconductor devices. The diffusion of atoms in crystals is mediated by intrinsic point defects. Investigations of the diffusion behaviour of self- and solute atoms on the Ga sublattice of gallium arsenide led to the conclusion that in intrinsic and n-type material charged Ga vacancies are involved in diffusion processes whereas in p-type material diffusion if governed by charged Ga self-interstitials. Concerning the As sublattice of gallium arsenide there is a severe lack of reliable diffusion data. The few available literature data on intrinsic GaAs are not mutually consistent. A systematic study of the doping dependence of diffusion is completely missing. The most basic diffusion process - self-diffusion of As and its temperature and doping dependence - is practically not known. For GaP a similar statement holds.\\\\ \\\\The aim of the present project is to perform a systematic diffusion study of As diffusion in intrinsic and doped GaAs and in GaP. P...

  18. Intrinsic square functions on the weighted Morrey spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hua

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we will study the boundedness properties of intrinsic square functions including the Lusin area integral, Littlewood-Paley $g$-function and $g^*_\\lambda$-function on the weighted Morrey spaces $L^{p,\\kappa}(w)$ for $1

  19. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with schem

  20. The Effects of Extrinsic Reinforcement on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blocker, Richard A.; Edwards, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the role of extrinsic reinforcement in intrinsic motivation in cognitive attribution theory. Concludes that cognitive attribution theory lacks parsimony, in that extant reinforcement analysis can account for undermining with equal facility. Suggests undermining is of little significance due to its elusive and transient impact on operant…

  1. Teacher and Student Intrinsic Motivation in Project-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shui-fong; Cheng, Rebecca Wing-yi; Ma, William Y. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between teacher and student intrinsic motivation in project-based learning. The participants were 126 Hong Kong secondary school teachers and their 631 students who completed evaluation questionnaires after a semester-long project-based learning program. Both teachers and students were asked to indicate…

  2. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative…

  3. Associations of personality with intrinsic motivation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohs, Jenifer L; Lysaker, Paul H; Nabors, Lori

    2013-06-30

    Motivation is often disturbed in patients with schizophrenia, but little is known about how it relates to personality. We examined intrinsic motivation (IM), two personality domains from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory, and symptoms in 58 male patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Analyses revealed IM may be linked to Extraversion, Neuroticism, and negative symptoms.

  4. Ethnic Stigma, Academic Anxiety, and Intrinsic Motivation in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen-O'Neel, Cari; Ruble, Diane N.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research addressing the dynamics of stigma and academics has focused on African American adolescents and adults. The present study examined stigma awareness, academic anxiety, and intrinsic motivation among 451 young (ages 6-11) and diverse (African American, Chinese, Dominican, Russian, and European American) students. Results indicated…

  5. The Role of Teacher Behavior in Adolescents' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Naeghel, Jessie; Valcke, Martin; De Meyer, Inge; Warlop, Nele; van Braak, Johan; Van Keer, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    Given the weak intrinsic reading motivation of many adolescents on the one hand and the importance of this type of motivation for reading competence on the other hand, the aim of the present study is to identify the related role of teacher behavior. To pursue this aim, a secondary analysis was carried out on PISA 2009 data. More particularly, data…

  6. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not develo

  7. Muscle Bioenergetic Considerations for Intrinsic Laryngeal Skeletal Muscle Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandage, Mary J.; Smith, Audrey G.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Intrinsic laryngeal skeletal muscle bioenergetics, the means by which muscles produce fuel for muscle metabolism, is an understudied aspect of laryngeal physiology with direct implications for voice habilitation and rehabilitation. The purpose of this review is to describe bioenergetic pathways identified in limb skeletal muscle and…

  8. Fostering Reading through Intrinsic Motivation: An Action Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Marilyn Z.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a two-year action research study conducted at a high school that transformed reluctant students into lifelong readers by emphasizing intrinsic motivation as opposed to programs that use rewards to motivate students to read. Explains how to design an action research question. (LRW)

  9. Increasing Intrinsic Motivation to Learn in Organizational Behavior Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Glenn M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes my experiences redesigning a masters-level organizational behavior (OB) course. The course was delivered to two different audiences--MBA and MS-HR students--two different times. The redesign employed several unique features designed to increase and enhance student intrinsic interest in the subject matter. Two measures of…

  10. Identifying intrinsic and reflexive contributions to low-back stabilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Drunen, P.; Maaswinkel, E.; Van der Helm, F.C.T.; Van Dieën, J.H.; Happee, R.

    2013-01-01

    Motor control deficits have been suggested as potential cause and/or effect of a-specific chronic low-back pain and its recurrent behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study is to identify motor control in low-back stabilization by simultaneously quantifying the intrinsic and reflexive contributions

  11. Homeostatic plasticity of striatal neurons intrinsic excitability following dopamine depletion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Azdad

    Full Text Available The striatum is the major input structure of basal ganglia and is involved in adaptive control of behaviour through the selection of relevant informations. Dopaminergic neurons that innervate striatum die in Parkinson disease, leading to inefficient adaptive behaviour. Neuronal activity of striatal medium spiny neurons (MSN is modulated by dopamine receptors. Although dopamine signalling had received substantial attention, consequences of dopamine depletion on MSN intrinsic excitability remain unclear. Here we show, by performing perforated patch clamp recordings on brain slices, that dopamine depletion leads to an increase in MSN intrinsic excitability through the decrease of an inactivating A-type potassium current, I(A. Despite the large decrease in their excitatory synaptic inputs determined by the decreased dendritic spines density and the increase in minimal current to evoke the first EPSP, this increase in intrinsic excitability resulted in an enhanced responsiveness to their remaining synapses, allowing them to fire similarly or more efficiently following input stimulation than in control condition. Therefore, this increase in intrinsic excitability through the regulation of I(A represents a form of homeostatic plasticity allowing neurons to compensate for perturbations in synaptic transmission and to promote stability in firing. The present observations show that this homeostatic ability to maintain firing rates within functional range also occurs in pathological conditions, allowing stabilizing neural computation within affected neuronal networks.

  12. Intrinsic Chaoticity in Stable Classical Systems and Quantum Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F

    1997-01-01

    We postulate the existence of a universal Keplerian tremor for any stable classical complex system on every scale. Deriving the characteristic unit of action $\\alpha$ for each classical interaction, we obtain in all cases $\\alpha connected to an intrinsic chaoticity needed to assure stability of matter. Introducing temperature, we provide further consistency checks corroborating our hypothesis.

  13. Intrinsic low-frequency variability of the Gulf Stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quattrocchi, G.; Pierini, S.; Dijkstra, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a process study aimed at analyzing the low-frequency variability of intrinsically oceanic origin of the Gulf Stream (GS) and GS extension (GSE) is presented. An eddy-permitting reduced-gravity nonlinear shallow water model is implemented in an idealized North Atlantic Ocean, with

  14. Intrinsic Geometry of Curves and the Lorentz Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltenco, J. H.; Linares, R. M. Y.; López-Bonilla, J. L.

    2002-07-01

    We show that the trajectory of a point charge in a uniform electromagnetic field is a helix if the Lorentz equation governs its motion. Our approach is totally relativistic, and it is based on the use of the Frenet-Serret formulae which describe the intrinsic geometry of world lines in Minkowski spacetime.

  15. Intrinsic Viscosity of Flexible Polymers in Couette and Poiseuille Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Johannes; Brinke, G. ten

    1992-01-01

    The zero-shear-rate intrinsic viscosity of a flexible polymer confined in a slit in Couette and Poiseuille flow is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations of self-avoiding random walks on a simple cubic lattice and by analytical calculations in the free-draining limit. In the simulations an equilibr

  16. Human phoneme recognition depending on speech-intrinsic variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Bernd T; Jürgens, Tim; Wesker, Thorsten; Brand, Thomas; Kollmeier, Birger

    2010-11-01

    The influence of different sources of speech-intrinsic variation (speaking rate, effort, style and dialect or accent) on human speech perception was investigated. In listening experiments with 16 listeners, confusions of consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) and vowel-consonant-vowel (VCV) sounds in speech-weighted noise were analyzed. Experiments were based on the OLLO logatome speech database, which was designed for a man-machine comparison. It contains utterances spoken by 50 speakers from five dialect/accent regions and covers several intrinsic variations. By comparing results depending on intrinsic and extrinsic variations (i.e., different levels of masking noise), the degradation induced by variabilities can be expressed in terms of the SNR. The spectral level distance between the respective speech segment and the long-term spectrum of the masking noise was found to be a good predictor for recognition rates, while phoneme confusions were influenced by the distance to spectrally close phonemes. An analysis based on transmitted information of articulatory features showed that voicing and manner of articulation are comparatively robust cues in the presence of intrinsic variations, whereas the coding of place is more degraded. The database and detailed results have been made available for comparisons between human speech recognition (HSR) and automatic speech recognizers (ASR).

  17. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototyp

  18. Human intrinsic factor expressed in the plant Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Laursen, Niels B; Nexø, Ebba

    2003-01-01

    Intrinsic factor (IF) is the gastric protein that promotes the intestinal uptake of vitamin B12. Gastric IF from animal sources is used in diagnostic tests and in vitamin pills. However, administration of animal IF to humans becomes disadvantageous because of possible pathogenic transmission...

  19. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototyp

  20. Intrinsic and scattering attenuation images of Usu volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudencio, J.; Taira, T.; Aoki, Y.; Aoyama, H.; Onizawa, S.

    2017-04-01

    We present intrinsic- and scattering-Q attenuation images for Usu volcano (Japan) by analyzing over 1800 vertical seismograms. By fitting the observed envelopes to the diffusion model, we obtained intrinsic and scattering attenuation values at three different frequency bands. Using a back-projection method and assuming a Gaussian-type weighting function, we obtained the 2D images of intrinsic and scattering attenuation. Resolution tests confirm the robustness and reliability of the obtained images. We found that scattering attenuation is the dominant process of energy loss in the frequency range analyzed, which suggests strong spatial heterogeneity. The resultant scattering attenuation images show an increase of attenuation toward the southwest from Toya caldera, which may correspond to deepening of the basement. We also identify an area of low intrinsic and scattering attenuation at the summit of Usu volcano which could be associated with old magma intrusions. Our results demonstrate a strong spatial relation between structural heterogeneities and attenuation processes in volcanic areas and confirm the efficiency of the method which can be used together with conventional imaging techniques.

  1. Intrinsic Value and the Genetic Engineering of Animals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, R.B.M. de

    2008-01-01

    The concept of intrinsic value is often invoked to articulate objections to the genetic engineering of animals, particularly those objections that are not directed at the negative effects the technique might have on the health and welfare of the modified animals. However, this concept was not

  2. Learning-by-Teaching: Designing Teachable Agents with Intrinsic Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guopeng; Ailiya; Shen, Zhiqi

    2012-01-01

    Teachable agent is a type of pedagogical agent which instantiates Learning-by-Teaching theory through simulating a "naive" learner in order to motivate students to teach it. This paper discusses the limitation of existing teachable agents and incorporates intrinsic motivation to the agent model to enable teachable agents with initiative behaviors…

  3. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the results of a meta analysis (E. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. Ryan, 1999) that shows that tangible extrinsic rewards do have a substantial undermining effect on intrinsic motivation. Discusses results, which support cognitive evaluation theory, in terms of their relevance for educational practice. (SLD)

  4. Extrinsic Rewards and Intrinsic Motivation in Education: Reconsidered Once Again.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the results of a meta analysis (E. Deci, R. Koestner, and R. Ryan, 1999) that shows that tangible extrinsic rewards do have a substantial undermining effect on intrinsic motivation. Discusses results, which support cognitive evaluation theory, in terms of their relevance for educational practice. (SLD)

  5. Attentional Performance is Correlated with the Local Regional Efficiency of Intrinsic Brain Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhai eXu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is a crucial brain function for human beings. Using neuropsychological paradigms and task-based functional brain imaging, previous studies have indicated that widely distributed brain regions are engaged in three distinct attention subsystems: alerting, orienting and executive control (EC. Here, we explored the potential contribution of spontaneous brain activity to attention by examining whether resting-state activity could account for individual differences of the attentional performance in normal individuals. The resting-state functional images and behavioral data from attention network test (ANT task were collected in 59 healthy subjects. Graph analysis was conducted to obtain the characteristics of functional brain networks and linear regression analyses were used to explore their relationships with behavioral performances of the three attentional components. We found that there was no significant relationship between the attentional performance and the global measures, while the attentional performance was associated with specific local regional efficiency. These regions related to the scores of alerting, orienting and EC largely overlapped with the regions activated in previous task-related functional imaging studies, and were consistent with the intrinsic dorsal and ventral attention networks (DAN/VAN. In addition, the strong associations between the attentional performance and specific regional efficiency suggested that there was a possible relationship between the DAN/VAN and task performances in the ANT. We concluded that the intrinsic activity of the human brain could reflect the processing efficiency of the attention system. Our findings revealed a robust evidence for the functional significance of the efficiently organized intrinsic brain network for highly productive cognitions and the hypothesized role of the DAN/ VAN at rest.

  6. Increased intrinsic brain connectivity between pons and somatosensory cortex during attacks of migraine with aura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsson, Henrik B W; Rostrup, Egill; Ashina, Messoud

    2017-02-27

    The neurological disturbances of migraine aura are caused by transient cortical dysfunction due to waves of spreading depolarization that disrupt neuronal signaling. The effects of these cortical events on intrinsic brain connectivity during attacks of migraine aura have not previously been investigated. Studies of spontaneous migraine attacks are notoriously challenging due to their unpredictable nature and patient discomfort. We investigated 16 migraine patients with visual aura during attacks and in the attack-free state using resting state fMRI. We applied a hypothesis-driven seed-based approach focusing on cortical visual areas and areas involved in migraine pain, and a data-driven independent component analysis approach to detect changes in intrinsic brain signaling during attacks. In addition, we performed the analyses after mirroring the MRI data according to the side of perceived aura symptoms. We found a marked increase in connectivity during attacks between the left pons and the left primary somatosensory cortex including the head and face somatotopic areas (peak voxel: P = 0.0096, (x, y, z) = (-54, -32, 32), corresponding well with the majority of patients reporting right-sided pain. For aura-side normalized data, we found increased connectivity during attacks between visual area V5 and the lower middle frontal gyrus in the symptomatic hemisphere (peak voxel: P = 0.0194, (x, y, z) = (40, 40, 12). The present study provides evidence of altered intrinsic brain connectivity during attacks of migraine with aura, which may reflect consequences of cortical spreading depression, suggesting a link between aura and headache mechanisms. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability in trigeminal motoneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Reiko; Enomoto, Akifumi; Koizumi, Hidehiko; Tanaka, Susumu; Ishihama, Kohji; Kogo, Mikihiko

    2010-02-02

    Trigeminal motoneurons (TMNs) relay the final output signals generated within the oral-motor pattern-generating circuits to the jaw muscles for execution of various patterns of motor activity. Activity-dependent plasticity, referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP), in the central nervous system has been the subject of many studies. The mechanisms of plasticity in the trigeminal system, an important component of the oral-motor system underlying mastication, swallowing, and other behaviors, remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, we investigated long-term potentiation of intrinsic excitability (LTP-IE) in TMNs. Experiments were performed using extracellular recording and whole-cell patch-clamp recording to assess the intrinsic excitability of TMNs. Intrinsic response properties were examined using an induction pulse with ionotropic transmission blocked. The output of the trigeminal motor branch exhibited long-lasting potentiation of intrinsic neuronal excitability following induction. Applying brainstem transection techniques to the neonatal rat brainstem in vitro, we found that the activity of the motoneuron population recorded from the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve exhibited LTP-IE. We thus demonstrated the usefulness of this type of preparation for the study of rudimentary oral-motor activity and observed changes in TMN excitability. In addition, on testing with the whole-cell patch-clamp method, TMNs exhibited a significant increase in excitability with a leftward shift in F-I curves generated with depolarizing current injections, whereas resting membrane potential and input resistance exhibited no remarkable changes. These findings indicate that TMNs exhibit LTP of intrinsic excitability.

  8. Intrinsic motivation and learning in a schizophrenia spectrum sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jimmy; Medalia, Alice

    2010-05-01

    A motivation is a telling hallmark of negative symptomatology in schizophrenia, and it impacts nearly every facet of behavior, including inclination to attempt the difficult cognitive tasks involved in cognitive remediation therapy. Experiences of external reward, reinforcement, and hedonic anticipatory enjoyment are diminished in psychosis, so therapeutics which instead target intrinsic motivation for cognitive tasks may enhance task engagement, and subsequently, remediation outcome. We examined whether outpatients could attain benefits from an intrinsically motivating instructional approach which (a) presents learning materials in a meaningful game-like context, (b) personalizes elements of the learning materials into themes of high interest value, and (c) offers choices so patients can increase their control over the learning process. We directly compared one learning method that incorporated the motivational paradigm into an arithmetic learning program against another method that carefully manipulated out the motivational variables in the same learning program. Fifty-seven subjects with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were randomly assigned to one of the two learning programs for 10 thirty-minute sessions while an intent-to-treat convenience subsample (n=15) was used to account for practice effect. Outcome measures were arithmetic learning, attention, motivation, self competency, and symptom severity. Results showed the motivational group (a) acquired more arithmetic skill, (b) possessed greater intrinsic motivation for the task, (c) reported greater feelings of self competency post-treatment, and (d) demonstrated better post-test attention. Interestingly, baseline perception of self competency was a significant predictor of post-test arithmetic scores. Results demonstrated that incorporating intrinsically motivating instructional techniques into a difficult cognitive task promoted greater learning of the material, higher levels of intrinsic

  9. A Custom Made Intrinsic Silicone Shade Guide for Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behanam, Mohammed; Ahila, S.C.; Jei, J. Brintha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Replication of natural skin colour in maxillofacial prosthesis has been traditionally done using trial and error method, as concrete shade guides are unavailable till date. Hence a novel custom made intrinsic silicone shade guide has been attempted for Indian population. Aim Reconstruction of maxillofacial defects is challenging, as achieving an aesthetic result is not always easy. A concoction of a novel intrinsic silicone shade guide was contemplated for the study and its reproducibility in clinical practice was analysed. Materials and Methods Medical grade room temperature vulcanising silicone was used for the fabrication of shade tabs. The shade guide consisted of three main groups I, II and III which were divided based upon the hues yellow, red and blue respectively. Five distinct intrinsic pigments were added in definite proportions to subdivide each group of different values from lighter to darker shades. A total number of 15 circular shade tabs comprised the guide. To validate the usage of the guide, visual assessment of colour matching was done by four investigators to investigate the consent of perfect colour correspondence. Data was statistically analysed using kappa coefficients. Results The kappa values were found to be 0.47 to 0.78 for yellow based group I, 0.13 to 0.65 for red based group II, and 0.07 to 0.36 for blue based group III. This revealed that the shade tabs of yellow and red based hues matched well and showed a statistically good colour matching. Conclusion This intrinsic silicone shade guide can be effectively utilised for fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis with silicone in Indian population. A transparent colour formula with definite proportioning of intrinsic pigments is provided for obtaining an aesthetic match to skin tone. PMID:27190946

  10. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  11. Glass for Solid State Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  12. Intrinsic Advance Primers: An Investigation of the Effects of Personalized Extraneous Multimedia upon Intrinsic Interest and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Matthew Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the delivery of personalized extraneous multimedia (PEM) messages prior to the delivery of the primary instructional materials could prime intrinsic interest and have a positive impact upon achievement in comparison to the use of non-personalized extraneous multimedia (NPEM). Extraneous materials are…

  13. Entanglement of a two-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg XYZ chain in nonuniform magnetic fields with intrinsic decoherence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Xiao-Bo; Liu Jin-Ming; Yu Peng-Fei

    2008-01-01

    Taking the intrinsic decoherence effect into account,this paper investigates the entanglement of a two-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg XY Z model in the presence of nonuniform external magnetic fields by employing the concurrence as entanglement measure.It is found that both the intrinsic decoherence and the anisotropy of the system give a significant suppression to the entanglement.Moreover it finds that the initial state of the system plays an important role in the time evolution of the entanglement,which means that the entanglement of the system is independent of the nonuniformity and uniformity of the magnetic field when the system is in the initial state |ψ(0)>=|00>and |ψ(0)>=m |01>+n|10>,respectively.

  14. Enhanced optical spin current injection in the hexagonal lattice with intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jianfei; Tang, Chunmei; Zhang, Aimei

    2017-04-01

    We study the photo-induced spin current injection in a hexagonal lattice with both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit interactions which is irradiated by a polarized light beam. It is found that the spin current injection rate could be enhanced as the graphene lattice is in the topological insulator state. Furthermore, the spin current injection rate could be remarkably modulated by the degree of polarization of light and its frequency.

  15. A Model for Health Promotion in Rural Communities through the Development of Personal Agency and Intrinsic Empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Pick Steiner, Susan; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); García Rodríguez, Georgina; UNAM, Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP); Leenen, Iwin; Instituto Mexicano de Investigación de Familia y Población (IMIFAP)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the program “Yo quiero, yo puedo… mejorar mi salud y ejercer mis derechos” [I want to, I can…improve my health and exercise my rights], a pilot model was designed and implemented in three States of Mexico. This model aims to change nutrition and hygiene behaviors in the inhabitants of marginalized communities, through knowledge and psychosocial skills development facilitating personal agency and intrinsic empowerment. Evaluation of the program showed an effect on knowledge, assertive...

  16. Intrinsic Bistability and Critical Slowing in Tm3+/Yb3+ Codoped Laser Crystal with the Photon Avalanche Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; ZHANG Xin-Lu; CHEN Li-Xue

    2009-01-01

    We present theoretically a novel intrinsic optical bistability (IOB) in the Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped system with a photon avalanche mechanism.Numerical simulations based on the rate equation model demonstrate distinct IOB hysteresis and critical slowing dynamics around the avalanche thresholds.Such an IOB characteristic in Tm3+/Yb3+ codoped crystal has potential applications in solid-state bistable optical displays and luminescence switchers in visible-infrared spectra.

  17. Intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in murine osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, H; Kusuzaki, K; Ashihara, T; Gebhardt, M C; Mankin, H J; Hirasawa, Y

    2000-07-01

    There are two general categories of drug resistance: acquired and intrinsic. The mechanisms involved in acquired drug resistance have been extensively studied, and several mechanisms have been described. However, the mechanisms responsible for intrinsic drug resistance have not been elucidated, to our knowledge. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cytological and biochemical differences between acquired and intrinsic drug resistance in osteosarcoma cells. We previously isolated a clonal cell line (MOS/ADR1) to study acquired resistance in osteosarcoma by exposure of parental murine osteosarcoma cells (MOS) to doxorubicin. In the present study, we cloned a new, intrinsically resistant cell line (MOS/IR1) by single-cell culture of MOS cells and we investigated the differences in cell phenotype and the mechanisms of resistance in both of these resistant clones. The MOS/ADR1 and MOS/IR1 cells were sevenfold and fivefold more resistant to doxorubicin than the parental murine osteosarcoma cells. Morphologically, the MOS/ADR1 cell line was composed of polygonal cells, whereas the MOS/IR1 cell line consisted of plump spindle cells with long cytoplasmic processes. The MOS/IR1 cells showed a much lower level of alkaline phosphatase activity than did the MOS/ ADR1 and MOS cells. There were no substantial differences in the cellular DNA content or the doubling time among these three lines. Overexpression of the P-glycoprotein involved in the function of an energy-dependent drug-efflux pump was detected in the MOS/ADR1 cells but not in the MOS/ IR1 cells. After the cells were incubated with doxorubicin for one hour, the two resistant lines had less accumulation of the drug than did the parent line (p osteosarcoma may include multiple chemotherapeutic agents, such as doxorubicin, cisplatin, and methotrexate. These drugs exhibit different cytotoxic actions and, thus, the mechanisms of resistance to individual drugs vary. Clinical resistance to multidrug

  18. First principle study of cysteine molecule on intrinsic and Au-doped graphene surface as a chemosensor device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuxia; Jia, Husheng; Ma, Fei; Han, Peide; Liu, Xuguang; Xu, Bingshe

    2011-04-01

    To search for a high sensitivity sensor for cysteine, we investigated the adsorption of cysteine on intrinsic and Au-doped graphene sheets using density functional theory calculations. Binding energy is primarily determined by the type of atom which is closer to the adsorbed sheet. Compared with intrinsic graphene, Au-doped graphene system has higher binding energy value and shorter connecting distance, in which strong Au-S, Au-N and Au-O chemical bond interaction play the key role for stability. Furthermore, the density of states results show orbital hybridization between cysteine and Au-doped graphene sheet, but slight hybridization between the cysteine molecule and intrinsic graphene sheet. Large charge transfers exist in Au-doped graphene-cysteine system. The results of DOS and charge transfer calculations suppose that the electronic properties of graphene can be tuned by the adsorption site of cysteine. Therefore, graphene and Au-doped graphene system both possess sensing ability, except that Au-doped graphene is a better sensor for cysteine than intrinsic graphene.

  19. Using largest Lyapunov exponent to confirm the intrinsic stability of boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavilian-Moreno, Carlos [Iberdrola Generacion, S.A., Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, Project Engineering Department, Paraje le Plano S/N, Valencia (Spain); Espinosa-Paredes, Gilberto [Area de ingeniera en Recursos Energeticos, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Mexico city (Mexico)

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this paper is the study of instability state of boiling water reactors with a method based in largest Lyapunov exponents (LLEs). Detecting the presence of chaos in a dynamical system is an important problem that is solved by measuring the LLE. Lyapunov exponents quantify the exponential divergence of initially close state-space trajectories and estimate the amount of chaos in a system. This method was applied to a set of signals from several nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors under commercial operating conditions that experienced instabilities events, apparently each of a different nature. Laguna Verde and Forsmark NPPs with in-phase instabilities, and Cofrentes NPP with out-of-phases instability. This study presents the results of intrinsic instability in the boiling water reactors of three NPPs. In the analyzed cases the limit cycle was not reached, which implies that the point of equilibrium exerts influence and attraction on system evolution.

  20. Intrinsic leakage and adsorption currents associated with the electrocaloric effect in multilayer capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, M.; Gaztañaga, P.; Irurzun, I.

    2015-10-01

    During the last few years, the increasing demand of energy for refrigeration applications has relived the interest of the scientific community in the study of alternative methods to the traditional gas-based refrigeration. Within this framework, the use of solid state refrigeration based on the electrocaloric effect reveals itself as one of the most promising technologies. In this work, we analyze how the temperature change associated with the electrocaloric effect shows a correlation with the electrical properties of a commercial multilayer capacitor. In that sense, we established a clear relation between the adsorption currents and the temperature change produced by the electrocaloric effect. Additionally, intrinsic leakage currents are responsible for the sample heating due to the Joule effect. These well distinguished contributions can be useful during the design of solid state refrigeration devices based on the electrocaloric effect.