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Sample records for non-climacteric fruit ripening

  1. Non-climacteric ripening and sorbitol homeostasis in plum fruits.

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    Kim, Ho-Youn; Farcuh, Macarena; Cohen, Yuval; Crisosto, Carlos; Sadka, Avi; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    During ripening fruits undergo several physiological and biochemical modifications that influence quality-related properties, such as texture, color, aroma and taste. We studied the differences in ethylene and sugar metabolism between two genetically related Japanese plum cultivars with contrasting ripening behaviors. 'Santa Rosa' (SR) behaved as a typical climacteric fruit, while the bud sport mutant 'Sweet Miriam' (SM) displayed a non-climacteric ripening pattern. SM fruit displayed a delayed ripening that lasted 120 days longer than that of the climacteric fruit. At the full-ripe stage, both cultivars reached similar final size and weight but the non-climacteric fruits were firmer than the climacteric fruits. Fully ripe non-climacteric plum fruits, showed an accumulation of sorbitol that was 2.5 times higher than that of climacteric fruits, and the increase in sorbitol were also paralleled to an increase in sucrose catabolism. These changes were highly correlated with decreased activity and expression of NAD(+)-dependent sorbitol dehydrogenase and sorbitol oxidase and increased sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity, suggesting an enhanced sorbitol synthesis in non-climacteric fruits.

  2. 'Movers and shakers' in the regulation of fruit ripening: a cross-dissection of climacteric versus non-climacteric fruit.

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    Cherian, Sam; Figueroa, Carlos R; Nair, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.

  3. A non-climacteric fruit gene CaMADS-RIN regulates fruit ripening and ethylene biosynthesis in climacteric fruit.

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    Tingting Dong

    Full Text Available MADS-box genes have been reported to play a major role in the molecular circuit of developmental regulation. Especially, SEPALLATA (SEP group genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. However, the mechanisms underlying the regulation of SEP genes to non-climacteric fruits ripening are still unclear. Here a SEP gene of pepper, CaMADS-RIN, has been cloned and exhibited elevated expression at the onset of ripening of pepper. To further explore the function of CaMADS-RIN, an overexpressed construct was created and transformed into ripening inhibitor (rin mutant tomato plants. Broad ripening phenotypes were observed in CaMADS-RIN overexpressed rin fruits. The accumulation of carotenoid and expression of PDS and ZDS were enhanced in overexpressed fruits compared with rin mutant. The transcripts of cell wall metabolism genes (PG, EXP1 and TBG4 and lipoxygenase genes (TomloxB and TomloxC accumulated more abundant compared to rin mutant. Besides, both ethylene-dependent genes including ACS2, ACO1, E4 and E8 and ethylene-independent genes such as HDC and Nor were also up-regulated in transgenic fruits at different levels. Moreover, transgenic fruits showed approximately 1-3 times increase in ethylene production compared with rin mutant fruits. Yeast two-hybrid screen results indicated that CaMADS-RIN could interact with TAGL1, FUL1 and itself respectively as SlMADS-RIN did in vitro. These results suggest that CaMADS-RIN affects fruit ripening of tomato both in ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent aspects, which will provide a set of significant data to explore the role of SEP genes in ripening of non-climacteric fruits.

  4. A SEPALLATA gene is involved in the development and ripening of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit, a non-climacteric tissue.

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    Seymour, Graham B; Ryder, Carol D; Cevik, Volkan; Hammond, John P; Popovich, Alexandra; King, Graham J; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Manning, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Climacteric and non-climacteric fruits have traditionally been viewed as representing two distinct programmes of ripening associated with differential respiration and ethylene hormone effects. In climacteric fruits, such as tomato and banana, the ripening process is marked by increased respiration and is induced and co-ordinated by ethylene, while in non-climacteric fruits, such as strawberry and grape, it is controlled by an ethylene-independent process with little change in respiration rate. The two contrasting mechanisms, however, both lead to texture, colour, and flavour changes that probably reflect some common programmes of regulatory control. It has been shown that a SEPALLATA(SEP)4-like gene is necessary for normal ripening in tomato. It has been demonstrated here that silencing a fruit-related SEP1/2-like (FaMADS9) gene in strawberry leads to the inhibition of normal development and ripening in the petal, achene, and receptacle tissues. In addition, analysis of transcriptome profiles reveals pleiotropic effects of FaMADS9 on fruit development and ripening-related gene expression. It is concluded that SEP genes play a central role in the developmental regulation of ripening in both climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. These findings provide important information to extend the molecular control of ripening in a non-climacteric fruit beyond the limited genetic and cultural options currently available.

  5. Ethylene signal transduction elements involved in chilling injury in non-climacteric loquat fruit.

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    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Bo; Li, Xian; Xu, Changjie; Yin, Xueren; Shan, Lanlan; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-01-01

    Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is a subtropical fruit, with some cultivars such as 'Luoyangqing' (LYQ) susceptible to chilling injury (CI), while others such as 'Baisha' (BS) are resistant. Although loquats are non-climacteric, modulation of ethylene has an effect on ripening-related post-harvest CI. Therefore the role of ethylene signalling in the development of CI was investigated in fruit of both the LYQ and BS cultivars. Three ethylene receptor genes, one CTR1-like gene, and one EIN3-like gene were isolated and characterized in ripening fruit. All of these genes were expressed differentially within and between fruit of the two cultivars. Transcripts either declined over fruit development (EjERS1a in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in LYQ) or showed an increase in the middle stages of fruit development before declining (EjETR1, EjERS1b, and EjCTR1 in both cultivars and EjEIL1 in BS). The main cultivar differences were in levels rather than in patterns of expression during post-harvest storage. EjETR1, EjCTR1, and EjEIL1 genes showed increased expression in response to low temperature and this was particularly notable for EjETR1, and EjEIL1 during CI development in LYQ fruit. The genes were also differentially responsive to ethylene treatment, 1-methycyclopropene (1-MCP) and low temperature conditioning, confirming a role for ethylene in regulation of CI in loquat fruit.

  6. Roles of Abscisic Acid in Fruit Ripening

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    Sutthiwal SETHA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant growth regulator, and it plays a variety of important roles throughout a plant’s life cycle. These roles include seed development and dormancy, plant response to environmental stresses, and fruit ripening. ABA concentration is very low in unripe fruit, but it increases as a fruit ripens, so it is therefore believed that ABA plays an important role in regulating the rate of fruit ripening. This article reviews the effect of ABA on ripening and quality of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The effects of ABA application on fruit ripening are subsequently discussed. Moreover, it is found that during fruit ripening, ABA also contributes to other functions, such as ethylene and respiratory metabolism, pigment and color changes, phenolic metabolism and nutritional contents, cell wall metabolism and fruit softening, and sugar and acid metabolism. These processes are all discussed as part of the relationship between ABA and fruit ripening, and the possibilities for its commercial application and use are highlighted.

  7. Molecular Regulation of Fruit Ripening

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    Sonia eOsorio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process that coincides with seed maturation. The ripening process is regulated by thousands of genes that control progressive softening and/or lignification of pericarp layers, accumulation of sugars, acids, pigments, and release of volatiles. Key to crop improvement is a deeper understanding of the processes underlying fruit ripening. In tomato, mutations blocking the transition to ripe fruits have provided insights into the role of ethylene and its associated molecular networks involved in the control of ripening. However, the role of other plant hormones is still poorly understood. In this review, we describe how plant hormones, transcription factors and epigenetic changes are intimately related to provide a tight control of the ripening process. Recent findings from comparative genomics and system biology approaches are discussed.

  8. Jasmonic acid involves in grape fruit ripening and resistant against Botrytis cinerea.

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    Jia, Haifeng; Zhang, Cheng; Pervaiz, Tariq; Zhao, Pengcheng; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Lin; Fang, Jinggui; Qian, Jianpu

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that is regulated by a signal network. Whereas the regulatory mechanism of abscisic acid has been studied extensively in non-climacteric fruit, little is know about other signaling pathways involved in this process. In this study, we performed that plant hormone jasmonic acid plays an important role in grape fruit coloring and softening by increasing the transcription levels of several ripening-related genes, such as the color-related genes PAL1, DFR, CHI, F3H, GST, CHS, and UFGT; softening-related genes PG, PL, PE, Cell, EG1, and XTH1; and aroma-related genes Ecar, QR, and EGS. Lastly, the fruit anthocyanin, phenol, aroma, and cell wall materials were changed. Jasmonic acid positively regulated its biosynthesis pathway genes LOS, AOS, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase (OPR) and signal pathway genes COI1 and JMT. RNA interference of grape jasmonic acid pathway gene VvAOS in strawberry fruit appeared fruit un-coloring phenotypes; exogenous jasmonic acid rescued this phenotypes. On the contrary, overexpression of grape jasmonic acid receptor VvCOI1 in the strawberry fruit accelerated the fruit-ripening process and induced some plant defense-related gene expression level. Furthermore, jasmonic acid treatment or strong jasmonic acid signal pathway in strawberry fruit make the fruit resistance against Botrytis cinerea.

  9. Fruit ripening phenomena--an overview.

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    Prasanna, V; Prabha, T N; Tharanathan, R N

    2007-01-01

    Fruits constitute a commercially important and nutritionally indispensable food commodity. Being a part of a balanced diet, fruits play a vital role in human nutrition by supplying the necessary growth regulating factors essential for maintaining normal health. Fruits are widely distributed in nature. One of the limiting factors that influence their economic value is the relatively short ripening period and reduced post-harvest life. Fruit ripening is a highly coordinated, genetically programmed, and an irreversible phenomenon involving a series of physiological, biochemical, and organoleptic changes, that finally leads to the development of a soft edible ripe fruit with desirable quality attributes. Excessive textural softening during ripening leads to adverse effects/spoilage upon storage. Carbohydrates play a major role in the ripening process, by way of depolymerization leading to decreased molecular size with concomitant increase in the levels of ripening inducing specific enzymes, whose target differ from fruit to fruit. The major classes of cell wall polysaccharides that undergo modifications during ripening are starch, pectins, cellulose, and hemicelluloses. Pectins are the common and major components of primary cell wall and middle lamella, contributing to the texture and quality of fruits. Their degradation during ripening seems to be responsible for tissue softening of a number of fruits. Structurally pectins are a diverse group of heteropolysaccharides containing partially methylated D-galacturonic acid residues with side chain appendages of several neutral polysaccharides. The degree of polymerization/esterification and the proportion of neutral sugar residues/side chains are the principal factors contributing to their (micro-) heterogeneity. Pectin degrading enzymes such as polygalacturonase, pectin methyl esterase, lyase, and rhamnogalacturonase are the most implicated in fruit-tissue softening. Recent advances in molecular biology have provided a

  10. Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution.

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    Wang, Yanping; Guo, Shaogui; Tian, Shouwei; Zhang, Jie; Ren, Yi; Sun, Honghe; Gong, Guoyi; Zhang, Haiying; Xu, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the

  11. Effect of ethylene treatment on phytochemical and ethylene-related gene expression during ripening in strawberry fruit Fragaria x ananassa cv. Camino Real.

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    Lopes, P Z; Fornazzari, I M; Almeida, A T; Galvão, C W; Etto, R M; Inaba, J; Ayub, R A

    2015-12-07

    In contrast to climacteric fruits, in which ethylene is known to be pivotal, the regulation of ripening in non-climacteric fruits is not well understood. The strawberry is a typical example of a non-climacteric fruit, which has been used as a model system of these types of fruit. In this study, the effect of exogenous ethephon on the expression of ethylene biosynthesis and signaling genes, FaERF2 and FaACO1, was analyzed in the Fragaria ananassa cultivar Camino Real by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the physicochemical and phytochemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated in field trials and postharvest tests. Transcript accumulation was influenced by exogenous treatment with ethephon, which affected the pattern of gene expression during different stages of growth and fruit development, with the highest expression occurring during postharvest tests. In addition, ethephon significantly influenced the phytochemical profile of sugars, anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and vitamin C contents both in the field- and postharvest-treated fruits at different stages. These results indicate that ethylene regulates the phenylpropanoid maturation pathway in strawberry fruit.

  12. The pineapple AcMADS1 promoter confers high level expression in tomato and arabidopsis flowering and fruiting tissues, but AcMADS1 does not complement the tomato LeMADS-RIN (rin) mutant

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    A previous EST study identified a MADS box transcription factor coding sequence, AcMADS1, that is strongly induced during non-climacteric pineapple fruit ripening. Phylogenetic analyses place the AcMADS1 protein in the same superclade as LeMADS-RIN, a master regulator of fruit ripening upstream of e...

  13. Peroxidase gene expression during tomato fruit ripening

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    Biggs, M.S.; Flurkey, W.H.; Handa, A.K.

    1987-04-01

    Auxin oxidation has been reported to play a critical role in the initiation of pear fruit ripening and a tomato fruit peroxidase (POD) has been shown to have IAA-oxidase activity. However, little is known about changes in the expression of POD mRNA in tomato fruit development. They are investigating the expression of POD mRNA during tomato fruit maturation. Fruit pericarp tissues from six stages of fruit development and ripening (immature green, mature green, breaker, turning, ripe, and red ripe fruits) were used to extract poly (A)/sup +/ RNAs. These RNAs were translated in vitro in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system using L-/sup 35/S-methionine. The /sup 35/S-labeled products were immunoprecipitated with POD antibodies to determine the relative proportions of POD mRNA. High levels of POD mRNA were present in immature green and mature green pericarp, but declined greatly by the turning stage of fruit ripening. In addition, the distribution of POD mRNA on free vs bound polyribosomes will be presented, as well as the presence or absence of POD mRNA in other tomato tissues.

  14. Complex Interplay of Hormonal Signals during Grape Berry Ripening

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    Ana Margarida Fortes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Grape and wine production and quality is extremely dependent on the fruit ripening process. Sensory and nutritional characteristics are important aspects for consumers and their development during fruit ripening involves complex hormonal control. In this review, we explored data already published on grape ripening and compared it with the hormonal regulation of ripening of other climacteric and non-climacteric fruits. The roles of abscisic acid, ethylene, and brassinosteroids as promoters of ripening are discussed, as well as the role of auxins, cytokinins, gibberellins, jasmonates, and polyamines as inhibitors of ripening. In particular, the recently described role of polyamine catabolism in grape ripening is discussed, together with its putative interaction with other hormones. Furthermore, other recent examples of cross-talk among the different hormones are presented, revealing a complex interplay of signals during grape development and ripening.

  15. A fruit-specific plasma membrane aquaporin subtype PIP1;1 is regulated during strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit ripening.

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    Mut, Paula; Bustamante, Claudia; Martínez, Gustavo; Alleva, Karina; Sutka, Moira; Civello, Marcos; Amodeo, Gabriela

    2008-04-01

    Despite the advances in the physiology of fruit ripening, the role and contribution of water pathways are still barely considered. Our aim was therefore to characterize aquaporins, proteins that render the molecular basis for putative regulatory mechanisms in water transport. We focused our work on strawberry (Fragaria xananassa) fruit, a non-climacteric fruit of special interest because of its forced brief commercial shelf life. A full-length cDNA was isolated with high homology with plasma membrane (PM) intrinsic proteins (named FaPIP1;1), showing a profile with high expression in fruit, less in ovaries and no detection at all in other parts. Its cellular localization was confirmed at the PM. As reported in other plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subtype 1 (PIP1s), when expressing the protein in Xenopus leavis oocytes, FaPIP1;1 shows low water permeability values that only increased when it is coexpressed with a plasma membrane intrinsic protein subtype 2. Northern blotting using total RNA shows that its expression increases during fruit ripening. Moreover, functional characterization of isolated PM vesicles from red stage fruit unequivocally demonstrates the presence of active water channels, i.e. high water permeability values and a low Arrhenius activation energy, both evidences of water transport mediated by proteins. Interestingly, as many ripening-related strawberry genes, the expression pattern of FaPIP1;1 was also repressed by the presence of auxins. We therefore report a fruit specific PIP1 aquaporin with an accumulation pattern tightly associated to auxins and to the ripening process that might be responsible for increasing water permeability at the level of the PM in ripe fruit.

  16. Gene expression during fruit ripening in avocado.

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    Christoffersen, R E; Warm, E; Laties, G G

    1982-06-01

    The poly(A) (+)RNA populations from avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) at four stages of ripening were isolated by two cycles of oligo-dT-cellulose chromatography and examined by invitro translation, using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate system, followed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (isoelectric focusing followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) of the resulting translation products. Three mRNAs increased dramatically with the climacteric rise in respiration and ethylene production. The molecular weights of the corresponding translation products from the ripening-related mRNAs are 80,000, 36,000, and 16,500. These results indicate that ripening may be linked to the expression of specific genes.

  17. Characteristics of fruit ripening in tomato mutant epi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-feng; YING Tie-jin; BAO Bi-li; HUANG Xiao-dan

    2005-01-01

    The characteristics of fruit ripening and expression of ripening-related genes were investigated in epi, an ethylene overproduction mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). The epi produces apparently more ethylene than its wild type VFN8 at every stage of vegetative and fruit growth and ripening; compared to VFN8, the epi fruit showed higher CO2 evolution,faster descending of chlorophyll, slightly quicker increase of carotenoid and lycopene, and faster reduction in pericarp firmness during maturation and ripening; and the mRNAs of three ripening-related genes including E8, pTOM5 andpTOM6 were at higher levels in epi. The ripening-related characteristics changing of the fruit are consistent with the increase of ethylene production and ripening-related genes expression. These results suggest that epi mutation possibly did not affect the ethylene perception and signaling during fruit ripening, and that the modified characteristics of fruit ripening possibly resulted from the ethylene overproduction and increased expression of ripening-related genes.

  18. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

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    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  19. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert

    2014-01-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumpt...

  20. Gene expression in three stages of ripening tomato fruit

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    Maagd, de R.A.; Bovy, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression in three stages of ripening tomato fruit (variety Ailsa Craig) was determined with the EUTOM3 Affymetrix array in order to compare with degradrome sequencing data from study GSE42661, treated as RNAseq.

  1. Polyribosomes from Pear Fruit: Changes during Ripening and Senescence.

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    Drouet, A; Hartmann, C

    1979-12-01

    Polysome profiles were examined from lyophilized peel tissue of ripening pear (Pyrus communis, L. var. Passe-Crassane). Messenger RNA chains bearing up to eight ribosomes (octamers) were resolved and exhibited the highest absorption peak when ribonuclease activity was eliminated during extraction. Neither normal ripening nor the increase of large polyribosomes that normally accompanies ripening and senescence of the fruit occurred when pretreatment at 0 C was omitted. Normal ripening and increase of large polyribosomes would, however, be initiated by an ethylene treatment. The size distribution of the polyribosomes remained essentially constant throughout a 4-month cold storage; there was, however, a large increase in ribosomes by the 12th week of storage.

  2. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  3. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beekwilder, J; van der Meer, IM; Simicb, A

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as α-ionone and β-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry...... is one of the few fruits where fruit ripening is accompanied by the massive production of apocarotenoids. In this paper, changes in levels of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening are described. In addition, the isolation and characterization of a gene encoding a carotenoid...... cleavage dioxygenase (CCD), which putatively mediates the degradation of carotenoids to apocarotenoids during raspberry fruit ripening, is reported. Such information helps us to better understand how these compounds are produced in plants and may also enable us to develop novel strategies for improved...

  4. Delayed ripening of banana fruit by salicylic acid.

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    Srivastava; Dwivedi

    2000-09-08

    Salicylic acid treatment has been found to delay the ripening of banana fruits (Musa acuminata). Fruit softening, pulp:peel ratio, reducing sugar content, invertase and respiration rate have been found to decrease in salicylic acid treated fruits as compared with control ones. The activities of major cell wall degrading enzymes, viz. cellulase, polygalacturonase and xylanase were found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid. The major enzymatic antioxidants namely, catalase and peroxidase, were also found to be decreased in presence of salicylic acid during banana fruit ripening.

  5. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening

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    Karlova, R.B.; Chapman, N.; David, K.; Angenent, G.C.; Seymour, G.B.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on tomato

  6. FaPYR1 is involved in strawberry fruit ripening.

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    Chai, Ye-Mao; Jia, Hai-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Dong, Qing-Hua; Shen, Yuan-Yue

    2011-10-01

    Although the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) has been suggested to play a role in the ripening of non-climatic fruit, direct genetic/molecular evidence is lacking. In the present study, a strawberry gene homologous to the Arabidopsis ABA receptor gene PYR1, named FaPYR1, was isolated and characterized. The 627 bp cDNA includes an intact open reading frame that encodes a deduced protein of 208 amino acids, in which putative conserved domains were detected by homology analysis. Using tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), the FaPYR1 gene was silenced in strawberry fruit. Down-regulation of the FaPYR1 gene not only significantly delayed fruit ripening, but also markedly altered ABA content, ABA sensitivity, and a set of ABA-responsive gene transcripts, including ABI1 and SnRK2. Furthermore, the loss of red colouring in FaPYR1 RNAi (RNA interference) fruits could not be rescued by exogenously applied ABA, which could promote the ripening of wild-type fruits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the putative ABA receptor FaPYR1 acts as a positive regulator in strawberry fruit ripening. It was also revealed that the application of the VIGS technique in strawberry fruit could be used as a novel tool for studying strawberry fruit development.

  7. Transcriptional control of fleshy fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlova, Rumyana; Chapman, Natalie; David, Karine; Angenent, Gerco C; Seymour, Graham B; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2014-08-01

    Fleshy fruits have evolved to be attractive to frugivores in order to enhance seed dispersal, and have become an indispensable part of the human diet. Here we review the recent advances in the understanding of transcriptional regulation of fleshy fruit development and ripening with a focus on tomato. While aspects of fruit development are probably conserved throughout the angiosperms, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, it is shown that the likely orthologues of Arabidopsis genes have distinct functions in fleshy fruits. The model for the study of fleshy fruit development is tomato, because of the availability of single gene mutants and transgenic knock-down lines. In other species, our knowledge is often incomplete or absent. Tomato fruit size and shape are co-determined by transcription factors acting during formation of the ovary. Other transcription factors play a role in fruit chloroplast formation, and upon ripening impact quality aspects such as secondary metabolite content. In tomato, the transcription factors NON-RIPENING (NOR), COLORLESS NON-RIPENING (CNR), and RIPENING INHIBITOR (MADS-RIN) in concert with ethylene signalling regulate ripening, possibly in response to a developmental switch. Additional components include TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (TAGL1), APETALA2a (AP2a), and FRUITFULL (FUL1 and FUL2). The links between this highly connected regulatory network and downstream effectors modulating colour, texture, and flavour are still relatively poorly understood. Intertwined with this network is post-transcriptional regulation by fruit-expressed microRNAs targeting several of these transcription factors. This important developmental process is also governed by changes in DNA methylation levels and possibly chromatin remodelling.

  8. Tomato FRUITFULL homologs regulate fruit ripening via ethylene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kimbara, Junji; Nakamura, Nobutaka; Shiina, Takeo; Sugiyama, Junichi; Nakamura, Toshihide; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Certain MADS-box transcription factors play central roles in regulating fruit ripening. RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a tomato MADS-domain protein, acts as a global regulator of ripening, affecting the climacteric rise of ethylene, pigmentation changes, and fruit softening. Previously, we showed that two MADS-domain proteins, the FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2, form complexes with RIN. Here, we characterized the FUL1/FUL2 loss-of-function phenotype in co-suppressed plants. The transgenic plants produced ripening-defective fruits accumulating little or no lycopene. Unlike a previous study on FUL1/FUL2 suppressed tomatoes, our transgenic fruits showed very low levels of ethylene production, and this was associated with suppression of the genes for 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase, a rate-limiting enzyme in ethylene synthesis. FUL1/FUL2 suppression also caused the fruit to soften in a manner independent of ripening, possibly due to reduced cuticle thickness in the peel of the suppressed tomatoes.

  9. Physiochemical behaviour changes during ripening in fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Ghai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening occurs with loss of fruit firmness and progressive degradation of the middle lamella and primary cell wall. The fruits of Trewia nudiflora Linn. were collected at different stages of fruit ripening and changes in physicochemical properties were determined. With ripening from immature green to fully ripe fruits, there was increase in fruit index with textural softening, loss of fruit firmness, decrease in cell wall polysaccharides as acetone insoluble solids and decrease in galacturonic acid.

  10. In silico Transcriptional Regulatory Networks Involved in Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhondakis, Stilianos; Bita, Craita E; Perrakis, Andreas; Manioudaki, Maria E; Krokida, Afroditi; Kaloudas, Dimitrios; Kalaitzis, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs) which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37, and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  11. In silico transcriptional regulatory networks involved in tomato fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Arhondakis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTTomato fruit ripening is a complex developmental programme partly mediated by transcriptional regulatory networks. Several transcription factors (TFs which are members of gene families such as MADS-box and ERF were shown to play a significant role in ripening through interconnections into an intricate network. The accumulation of large datasets of expression profiles corresponding to different stages of tomato fruit ripening and the availability of bioinformatics tools for their analysis provide an opportunity to identify TFs which might regulate gene clusters with similar co-expression patterns. We identified two TFs, a SlWRKY22-like and a SlER24 transcriptional activator which were shown to regulate modules by using the LeMoNe algorithm for the analysis of our microarray datasets representing four stages of fruit ripening, breaker, turning, pink and red ripe. The WRKY22-like module comprised a subgroup of six various calcium sensing transcripts with similar to the TF expression patterns according to real time PCR validation. A promoter motif search identified a cis acting element, the W-box, recognized by WRKY TFs that was present in the promoter region of all six calcium sensing genes. Moreover, publicly available microarray datasets of similar ripening stages were also analyzed with LeMoNe resulting in TFs such as SlERF.E1, SlERF.C1, SlERF.B2, SLERF.A2, SlWRKY24, SLWRKY37 and MADS-box/TM29 which might also play an important role in regulation of ripening. These results suggest that the SlWRKY22-like might be involved in the coordinated regulation of expression of the six calcium sensing genes. Conclusively the LeMoNe tool might lead to the identification of putative TF targets for further physiological analysis as regulators of tomato fruit ripening.

  12. Proteomic analysis of ripening tomato fruit infected by Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Punit; Powell, Ann L T; Orlando, Ron; Bergmann, Carl; Gutierrez-Sanchez, Gerardo

    2012-04-06

    Botrytis cinerea, a model necrotrophic fungal pathogen that causes gray mold as it infects different organs on more than 200 plant species, is a significant contributor to postharvest rot in fresh fruit and vegetables, including tomatoes. By describing host and pathogen proteomes simultaneously in infected tissues, the plant proteins that provide resistance and allow susceptibility and the pathogen proteins that promote colonization and facilitate quiescence can be identified. This study characterizes fruit and fungal proteins solubilized in the B. cinerea-tomato interaction using shotgun proteomics. Mature green, red ripe wild type and ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit were infected with B. cinerea B05.10, and the fruit and fungal proteomes were identified concurrently 3 days postinfection. One hundred eighty-six tomato proteins were identified in common among red ripe and red ripe-equivalent ripening inhibited (rin) mutant tomato fruit infected by B. cinerea. However, the limited infections by B. cinerea of mature green wild type fruit resulted in 25 and 33% fewer defense-related tomato proteins than in red and rin fruit, respectively. In contrast, the ripening stage of genotype of the fruit infected did not affect the secreted proteomes of B. cinerea. The composition of the collected proteins populations and the putative functions of the identified proteins argue for their role in plant-pathogen interactions.

  13. Tomato fruit chromoplasts behave as respiratory bioenergetic organelles during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renato, Marta; Pateraki, Irini; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2014-10-01

    During tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, chloroplasts differentiate into photosynthetically inactive chromoplasts. It was recently reported that tomato chromoplasts can synthesize ATP through a respiratory process called chromorespiration. Here we show that chromoplast oxygen consumption is stimulated by the electron donors NADH and NADPH and is sensitive to octyl gallate (Ogal), a plastidial terminal oxidase inhibitor. The ATP synthesis rate of isolated chromoplasts was dependent on the supply of NAD(P)H and was fully inhibited by Ogal. It was also inhibited by the proton uncoupler carbonylcyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting the involvement of a chemiosmotic gradient. In addition, ATP synthesis was sensitive to 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone, a cytochrome b6f complex inhibitor. The possible participation of this complex in chromorespiration was supported by the detection of one of its components (cytochrome f) in chromoplasts using immunoblot and immunocytochemical techniques. The observed increased expression of cytochrome c6 during ripening suggests that it could act as electron acceptor of the cytochrome b6f complex in chromorespiration. The effects of Ogal on respiration and ATP levels were also studied in tissue samples. Oxygen uptake of mature green fruit and leaf tissues was not affected by Ogal, but was inhibited increasingly in fruit pericarp throughout ripening (up to 26% in red fruit). Similarly, Ogal caused a significant decrease in ATP content of red fruit pericarp. The number of energized mitochondria, as determined by confocal microscopy, strongly decreased in fruit tissue during ripening. Therefore, the contribution of chromoplasts to total fruit respiration appears to increase in late ripening stages.

  14. A DEMETER-like DNA demethylase governs tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruie; How-Kit, Alexandre; Stammitti, Linda; Teyssier, Emeline; Rolin, Dominique; Mortain-Bertrand, Anne; Halle, Stefanie; Liu, Mingchun; Kong, Junhua; Wu, Chaoqun; Degraeve-Guibault, Charlotte; Chapman, Natalie H; Maucourt, Mickael; Hodgman, T Charlie; Tost, Jörg; Bouzayen, Mondher; Hong, Yiguo; Seymour, Graham B; Giovannoni, James J; Gallusci, Philippe

    2015-08-25

    In plants, genomic DNA methylation which contributes to development and stress responses can be actively removed by DEMETER-like DNA demethylases (DMLs). Indeed, in Arabidopsis DMLs are important for maternal imprinting and endosperm demethylation, but only a few studies demonstrate the developmental roles of active DNA demethylation conclusively in this plant. Here, we show a direct cause and effect relationship between active DNA demethylation mainly mediated by the tomato DML, SlDML2, and fruit ripening- an important developmental process unique to plants. RNAi SlDML2 knockdown results in ripening inhibition via hypermethylation and repression of the expression of genes encoding ripening transcription factors and rate-limiting enzymes of key biochemical processes such as carotenoid synthesis. Our data demonstrate that active DNA demethylation is central to the control of ripening in tomato.

  15. Enzyme activities in mitochondria isolated from ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, D; Goodenough, P W; Weitzman, P D

    1986-09-01

    Mitochondria were isolated from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) fruit at the mature green, orange-green and red stages and from fruit artificially suspended in their ripening stage. The specific activities of citrate synthase (EC 4.1.3.7), malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37), NAD-linked isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.41) and NAD-linked malic enzyme (EC 1.1.1.38) were determined. The specific activities of all these enzymes fell during ipening, although the mitochondria were fully functional as demonstrated by the uptake of oxygen. The fall in activity of mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase was accompanied by a similar fall in the activity of the cytosolic isoenzyme. Percoll-purified mitochondria isolated from mature green fruit remained intact for more than one week and at least one enzyme, citrate synthase, did not exhibit the fall in specific activity found in normal ripening fruit.

  16. Genetics and control of tomato fruit ripening and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato ripening is a highly coordinated developmental process coinciding with seed maturation. Regulated expression of thousands of genes controls fruit softening as well as accumulation of pigments, sugars, acids and volatile compounds that increase attraction to animals. A combination of molecular...

  17. SRNAome parsing yields insights into tomato fruit ripening control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Zhu, Yi; Qu, Guiqin; Tian, Huiqin; Zhai, Baiqiang; Ju, Zheng; Gao, Chao; Wang, Yunxiang; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-12-01

    Small RNAs have emerged as critical regulators in the expression and function of eukaryotic genomes at the post-transcriptional level. To elucidate the functions of microRNA (miRNAs) and endogenous small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) in tomato fruit ripening process, the deep sequencing and bioinformatics methods were combined to parse the small RNAs landscape in three fruit-ripening stages (mature green, breaker and red-ripe) on a whole genome. Two species-specific miRNAs and two members of TAS3 family were identified, 590 putative phased small RNAs and 125 cis-natural antisense (nat-siRNAs) were also found in our results which enriched the tomato small RNAs repository and all of them showed differential expression patterns during fruit ripening. A large amount of the targets of the small RNAs were predicted to be involved in fruit ripening and ethylene pathway. Furthermore, the promoters of the conserved and novel miRNAs were found to contain the conserved motifs of TATA-box and CT microsatellites which were also found in Arabidopsis and rice, and several species-specific motifs were found in parallel.

  18. Flower development, reproduction and fruit ripening : the role of ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinis, Domenico de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis approaches the study of the role of ethylene in different aspects of plant reproduction; flower development, pollination, fruit ripening and spoilage. These different aspects have been studied at physiological, biochemical and molecular level. Chapter I, general introduction is divided i

  19. Flower development, reproduction and fruit ripening : the role of ethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinis, Domenico de

    2006-01-01

    This thesis approaches the study of the role of ethylene in different aspects of plant reproduction; flower development, pollination, fruit ripening and spoilage. These different aspects have been studied at physiological, biochemical and molecular level. Chapter I, general introduction is divided i

  20. Genes from Lycopersicon chmielewskii affecting tomato quality during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, F; Kim, D; Tanksley, S D; Juvik, J A

    1995-08-01

    Three chromosomal segments from the wild tomato, L. chmielewskii, introgressed into the L. esculentum genome have been previously mapped to the middle and terminal regions of chromosome 7 (7M, 7T respectively), and to the terminal region of chromosome 10 (10T). The present study was designed to investigate the physiological mechanisms controlled by the 7M and 7T segments on tomato soluble solids (SS) and pH, and their genetic regulation during fruit development. The effects of 7M and 7T were studied in 64 BC2F5 backcross inbred lines (BILs) developed from a cross between LA 1501 (an L. esculentum line containing the 7M and 7T fragments from L. chmielewskii), and VF145B-7879 (a processing cultivar). BILs were classified into four homozygous genotypes with respect to the introgressed segments based on RFLP analysis, and evaluated for fruit chemical characteristics at different harvest stages. Gene(s) in the 7M fragment reduce fruit water uptake during ripening increasing pH, sugars, and SS concentration. Gene(s) in the 7T fragment were found to be associated with higher mature green fruit starch concentration and red ripe fruit weight. Comparisons between tomatoes ripened on or off the vine suggest that the physiological mechanisms influenced by the L. chmielewskii alleles are dependent on the translocation of photosynthates and water during fruit ripening.

  1. Differential Protein Accumulation in Banana Fruit during Ripening 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Puigjaner, Eva; Vendrell, Miguel; Ludevid, M. Dolors

    1992-01-01

    Banana (Musa acuminata, cv Dwarf Cavendish) proteins were extracted from pulp tissue at different stages of ripening and analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis. The results provide evidence of differential protein accumulation during ripening. Two sets of polypeptides have been detected that increase substantially in ripe fruit. These polypeptides were characterized as glycoproteins by western blotting and concanavalin A binding assays. Antibodies againts tomato polygalacturonase cross-react with one of these sets of proteins. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4 PMID:16668607

  2. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.

  3. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitel, Dario A; Chappell-Maor, Louise; Meir, Sagit; Panizel, Irina; Puig, Clara Pons; Hao, Yanwei; Yifhar, Tamar; Yasuor, Hagai; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher; Granell Richart, Antonio; Rogachev, Ilana; Aharoni, Asaph

    2016-03-01

    The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A), a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA). Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1) protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  4. A tomato vacuolar invertase inhibitor mediates sucrose metabolism an influences fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes that ultimately influence fruit quality traits, such as color and flavor. Sugar metabolism is an important factor in ripening and there is evidence that it influences various aspects of ripening, alth...

  5. Avocado fruit protoplasts: a cellular model system for ripening studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percival, F W; Cass, L G; Bozak, K R; Christoffersen, R E

    1991-12-01

    Mesocarp protoplasts were isolated from mature avocado fruits (Persea americana cv. Hass) at varying stages of propylene-induced ripening. Qualitative changes in the pattern of radiolabel incorporation into polypeptides were observed in cells derived from fruit at the different stages. Many of these differences correlate with those observed during radiolabeling of polypeptides from fresh tissue slices prepared from unripe and ripe fruit. Protoplasts isolated from fruit treated with propylene for one day or more were shown to synthesize cellulase (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase) antigen, similar to the intact propylene-treated fruit. These results suggest that the isolated protoplasts retain at least some biochemical characteristics of the parent tissue. The cells may also be used in transient gene expression assays. Protoplasts isolated from preclimacteric and climacteric fruit were equally competent in expressing a chimeric test gene, composed of the CaMV 35S RNA promoter fused to the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene, which was introduced by electroporation.

  6. Effect of endogenously synthesized and exogenously applied ethanol on tomato fruit ripening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, M.O.; Saltveit, M.E. Jr.

    1988-09-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. var Castlemart) fruit ripening was inhibited by tissue concentrations of ethanol that were produced by either exposure to exogenous ethanol vapors or synthesis under anaerobic atmospheres. Ethanol was not detected in aerobically ripened tomato fruit. Ripening was not inhibited by exposure to methanol at an equivalent molar concentration to inhibitory concentrations of ethanol, while ripening was slightly more inhibited by n-propanol than by equivalent molar concentrations of ethanol. The mottled appearance of a few ripened ethanol-treated fruit was not observed in n-propanol-treated fruit.

  7. Single-base resolution methylomes of tomato fruit development reveal epigenome modifications associated with ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruits are differentiated floral tissues evolved to aid seed dispersal, and have become an important part of human diets. Ethylene triggers tomato fruit ripening, but its effect is restricted to matured fruits with viable seeds by an unknown developmental cue. We show that fruits ripen prematurely w...

  8. Changes in Gene Expression during Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, M S; Harriman, R W; Handa, A K

    1986-06-01

    Total proteins from pericarp tissue of different chronological ages from normally ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv Rutgers) fruits and from fruits of the isogenic ripening-impaired mutants rin, nor, and Nr were extracted and separated by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analysis of the stained bands revealed increases in 5 polypeptides (94, 44, 34, 20, and 12 kilodaltons), decreases in 12 polypeptides (106, 98, 88, 76, 64, 52, 48, 45, 36, 28, 25, and 15 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in 5 polypeptides (85, 60, 26, 21, and 16 kilodaltons) as normal ripening proceeded. Several polypeptides present in ripening normal pericarp exhibited very low or undetectable levels in developing mutant pericarp. Total RNAs extracted from various stages of Rutgers pericarp and from 60 to 65 days old rin, nor, and Nr pericarp were fractionated into poly(A)(+) and poly(A)(-) RNAs. Peak levels of total RNA, poly(A)(+) RNA, and poly(A)(+) RNA as percent of total RNA occurred between the mature green to breaker stages of normal pericarp. In vitro translation of poly(A)(+) RNAs from normal pericarp in rabbit reticulocyte lysates revealed increases in mRNAs for 9 polypeptides (116, 89, 70, 42, 38, 33, 31, 29, and 26 kilodaltons), decreases in mRNAs for 2 polypeptides (41 and 35 kilodaltons), and fluctuations in mRNAs for 5 polypeptides (156, 53, 39, 30, and 14 kilodaltons) during normal ripening. Analysis of two-dimensional separation of in vitro translated polypeptides from poly(A)(+) RNAs isolated from different developmental stages revealed even more extensive changes in mRNA populations during ripening. In addition, a polygalacturonase precursor (54 kilodaltons) was immunoprecipitated from breaker, turning, red ripe, and 65 days old Nr in vitro translation products.

  9. A Tomato Vacuolar Invertase Inhibitor Mediates Sucrose Metabolism and Influences Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guozheng; Zhu, Zhu; Wang, Weihao; Cai, Jianghua; Chen, Yong; Li, Li; Tian, Shiping

    2016-11-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a series of physiological and biochemical changes that ultimately influence fruit quality traits, such as color and flavor. Sugar metabolism is an important factor in ripening, and there is evidence that it influences various aspects of ripening, although the associated mechanism is not well understood. In this study, we identified and analyzed the expression of 36 genes involved in Suc metabolism in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel mobility shift assays indicated that SlVIF, which encodes a vacuolar invertase inhibitor, and SlVI, encoding a vacuolar invertase, are directly regulated by the global fruit ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Moreover, we showed that SlVIF physically interacts with SlVI to control Suc metabolism. Repression of SlVIF by RNA interference delayed tomato fruit ripening, while overexpression of SlVIF accelerated ripening, with concomitant changes in lycopene production and ethylene biosynthesis. An isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteomic analysis further indicated that the abundance of a set of proteins involved in fruit ripening was altered by suppressing SlVIF expression, including proteins associated with lycopene generation and ethylene synthesis. These findings provide evidence for the role of Suc in promoting fruit ripening and establish that SlVIF contributes to fruit quality and the RIN-mediated ripening regulatory mechanisms, which are of significant agricultural value. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Fruit ripening regulation of α-mannosidase expression by the MADS Box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR and ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad eIrfan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Mannosidase (α-Man, a fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, is involved in ripening-associated fruit softening process. However, the regulation of fruit-ripening specific expression of α-Man is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the promoter of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum α-Man to provide molecular insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Fruit ripening-specific activation of the α-Man promoter was revealed by analysing promoter driven expression of beta-glucuronidase (GUS reporter in transgenic tomato. We found that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN, a MADS box family transcription factor acts as positive transcriptional regulator of α-Man during fruit ripening. RIN directly bound to the α-Man promoter sequence and promoter activation/α-Man expression was compromised in rin mutant fruit. Deletion analysis revealed that a promoter fragment (567 bp upstream of translational start site that contained three CArG boxes (binding sites for RIN was sufficient to drive GUS expression in fruits. In addition, α-Man expression was down-regulated in fruits of Nr mutant which is impaired in ethylene perception and promoter activation/α-Man expression was induced in wild type following treatment with a precursor of ethylene biosynthesis, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC. Although, α-Man expression was induced in rin mutant after ACC treatment, the transcript level was less as compared to ACC-treated wild type. Taken together, these results suggest RIN-mediated direct transcriptional regulation of α-Man during fruit ripening and ethylene may acts in RIN-dependent and -independent ways to regulate α-Man expression.

  11. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit : implications for cell wall adhesion and fruit softening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, W.G.T.; Alebeek, van G.J.W.M.; Schols, H.A.; Seymour, G.B.; Knox, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic

  12. Ethylene Control of Fruit Ripening: Revisiting the Complex Network of Transcriptional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Pirrello, Julien; Chervin, Christian; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-12-01

    The plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in climacteric fruit ripening. Studies on components of ethylene signaling have revealed a linear transduction pathway leading to the activation of ethylene response factors. However, the means by which ethylene selects the ripening-related genes and interacts with other signaling pathways to regulate the ripening process are still to be elucidated. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) as a reference species, the present review aims to revisit the mechanisms by which ethylene regulates fruit ripening by taking advantage of new tools available to perform in silico studies at the genome-wide scale, leading to a global view on the expression pattern of ethylene biosynthesis and response genes throughout ripening. Overall, it provides new insights on the transcriptional network by which this hormone coordinates the ripening process and emphasizes the interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated developmental factors and the link between epigenetic regulation and ethylene during fruit ripening.

  13. Abscisic acid and sucrose regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening through the abscisic acid-stress-ripening transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Haifeng; Jiu, Songtao; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Chen; Tariq, Pervaiz; Liu, Zhongjie; Wang, Baoju; Cui, Liwen; Fang, Jinggui

    2016-10-01

    Although great progress has been made towards understanding the role of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose in fruit ripening, the mechanisms underlying the ABA and sucrose signalling pathways remain elusive. In this study, transcription factor ABA-stress-ripening (ASR), which is involved in the transduction of ABA and sucrose signalling pathways, was isolated and analysed in the nonclimacteric fruit, strawberry and the climacteric fruit, tomato. We have identified four ASR isoforms in tomato and one in strawberry. All ASR sequences contained the ABA stress- and ripening-induced proteins and water-deficit stress-induced proteins (ABA/WDS) domain and all ASR transcripts showed increased expression during fruit development. The expression of the ASR gene was influenced not only by sucrose and ABA, but also by jasmonic acid (JA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and these four factors were correlated with each other during fruit development. ASR bound the hexose transporter (HT) promoter, which contained a sugar box that activated downstream gene expression. Overexpression of the ASR gene promoted fruit softening and ripening, whereas RNA interference delayed fruit ripening, as well as affected fruit physiological changes. Change in ASR gene expression influenced the expression of several ripening-related genes such as CHS, CHI, F3H, DFR, ANS, UFGT, PG, PL, EXP1/2, XET16, Cel1/2 and PME. Taken together, this study may provide new evidence on the important role of ASR in cross-signalling between ABA and sucrose to regulate tomato and strawberry fruit ripening. The findings of this study also provide new insights into the regulatory mechanism underlying fruit development.

  14. The inhibition of tomato fruit ripening by silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, G E; Nichols, R; Davies, J N; Atkey, P T

    1984-08-01

    Mature green tomato fruit, infiltrated with STS (up to 10 μmol) while still attached to the plant, ripened unevenly to give extensive green areas on an otherwise red background. Pericarp wall tissue from the two contrasting areas was analysed for various organic constituents. Both the green and, to a certain extent, the red tissue from treated fruit showed differences from normal in AIS, acidity, and PE activity. PG activity, which usually increases rapidly as tomatoes ripen, was low in the green but not significantly different from normal in the red tissue from STS-treated fruit. TEM examination revealed that electron-dense particles were present in the cell walls of phloem elements in vascular bundles of the green tissue, but these deposits were not found in the red tissue from the same fruit. X-ray microanalysis of the particles suggested that they contained concentrations of silver and sulphur. The results are interpreted as suggesting that silver is affecting those sites in the cell that would subsequently be involved in promoting the synthesis of PG.

  15. Regulation of BZR1 in fruit ripening revealed by iTRAQ proteomics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihong; Liu, Haoran; Li, Shuo; Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Min; Zhu, Ning; Dufresne, Craig P.; Chen, Sixue; Wang, Qiaomei

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex and genetically programmed process. Brassinosteroids (BRs) play an essential role in plant growth and development, including fruit ripening. As a central component of BR signaling, the transcription factor BZR1 is involved in fruit development in tomato. However, the transcriptional network through which BZR1 regulates fruit ripening is mostly unknown. In this study, we use isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling technology to explore important proteins regulated by BZR1 in two independent tomato transgenic lines over-expressing BZR1-1D at four ripening stages, identifying 411 differentially expressed proteins. These proteins were implicated in light reaction, plant hormone pathways and cell-wall-related metabolism, etc. The ‘light reaction’ metabolic pathway was identified as a markedly enhanced pathway by BZR1 during tomato fruit ripening. The protein level of a probable 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase 2-ODD2, involved in gibberellin biosynthesis was significantly increased at all four developmental and ripening stages. The results reveal molecular links between BR signaling pathway and downstream components involved in multiple ripening-associated events during tomato fruit ripening, which will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tomato ripening regulatory networks, and be potential in understanding BR-regulated fruit ripening. PMID:27680870

  16. Tomato fruit continues growing while ripening, affecting cuticle properties and cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Eva; Fernández, María Dolores; Hernández, Juan Carlos López; Parra, Jerónimo Pérez; España, Laura; Heredia, Antonio; Cuartero, Jesús

    2012-12-01

    Fruit cuticle composition and their mechanical performance have a special role during ripening because internal pressure is no longer sustained by the degraded cell walls of the pericarp but is directly transmitted to epidermis and cuticle which could eventually crack. We have studied fruit growth, cuticle modifications and its biomechanics, and fruit cracking in tomato; tomato has been considered a model system for studying fleshy fruit growth and ripening. Tomato fruit cracking is a major disorder that causes severe economic losses and, in cherry tomato, crack appearance is limited to the ripening process. As environmental conditions play a crucial role in fruit growing, ripening and cracking, we grow two cherry tomato cultivars in four conditions of radiation and relative humidity (RH). High RH and low radiation decreased the amount of cuticle and cuticle components accumulated. No effect of RH in cuticle biomechanics was detected. However, cracked fruits had a significantly less deformable (lower maximum strain) cuticle than non-cracked fruits. A significant and continuous fruit growth from mature green to overripe has been detected with special displacement sensors. This growth rate varied among genotypes, with cracking-sensitive genotypes showing higher growth rates than cracking-resistant ones. Environmental conditions modified this growth rate during ripening, with higher growing rates under high RH and radiation. These conditions corresponded to those that favored fruit cracking. Fruit growth rate during ripening, probably sustained by an internal turgor pressure, is a key parameter in fruit cracking, because fruits that ripened detached from the vine did not crack.

  17. Influence of fruit ripening acceleration measures on flowering and fruiting of small-sized tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dobromilska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations were carried out in 2001-2003 at the Horticulture Experimental Station, University of Agriculture in Szczecin. The influence of truss cutting and application of Ethrel preparation on the flowering and acceleration of ripening of small-sized tomato fruit was studied. The experiment focused on the following factors: methods of acceleration of tomato fruit ripening (truss cutting, Ethrel preparation, truss cutting + Ethrel preparation and tomato cultivars ('Cheresita F1', 'Favorita F1'. The applied methods had no influence on the number of flowers and germs of the small-sized tomato. The truss cutting increased the percentage of set fruits compared to the number of flowers. The application of Ethrel preparation along with truss cutting significantly increased the early yield of tomato fruits. The Ethrel and truss cutting accelerated the small-sized tomato harvesting by 12 days. Cv. 'Cheresita F1' produced a larger number of flowers, germs and fruits than 'Favorita F1'.

  18. Proteomics in the fruit tree science arena: new insights into fruit defense, development, and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molassiotis, Athanassios; Tanou, Georgia; Filippou, Panagiota; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2013-06-01

    Fruit tree crops are agricultural commodities of high economic importance, while fruits also represent one of the most vital components of the human diet. Therefore, a great effort has been made to understand the molecular mechanisms covering fundamental biological processes in fruit tree physiology and fruit biology. Thanks to the development of cutting-edge "omics" technologies such as proteomic analysis, scientists now have powerful tools to support traditional fruit tree research. Such proteomic analyses are establishing high-density 2DE reference maps and peptide mass fingerprint databases that can lead fruit science into a new postgenomic research era. Here, an overview of the application of proteomics in key aspects of fruit tree physiology as well as in fruit biology, including defense responses to abiotic and biotic stress factors, is presented. A panoramic view of ripening-related proteins is also discussed, as an example of proteomic application in fruit science.

  19. Suppression of tomato SlNAC1 transcription factor delays fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Chen; Yang, Dongyue; Ma, Xiaocui; Zhao, Weiyang; Liang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Nana; Meng, Qingwei

    2016-04-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process involving many physiological and biochemical changes, including those for ethylene, carotenoid, and cell wall metabolism. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) serves as a research model for fruit development and ripening because it possesses numerous favorable genetic features. In this study, SlNAC1 was cloned. An antisense (AS) vector was constructed and transferred to tomato to further explore the function of SlNAC1. The results showed that AS fruits exhibited delayed ripening and a deeper red appearance when these fruits were fully ripened. Fully ripened AS fruits also produced higher total carotenoid and lycopene contents than those of the wild-type (WT) line. Ethylene production of AS fruits was delayed but occurred to a higher extent than that of WT fruits. The softening of AS fruits was slower than that of WT fruits. Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) level in AS-4 fruits was lower than that in WT fruits. Exogenous ABA accelerated the softening of AS fruits. Furthermore, AS fruits demonstrated up-regulated expression of genes related to lycopene and ethylene biosynthesis but down-regulated expression of genes related to cell wall metabolism and ABA synthesis. Therefore, SlNAC1 is likely implicated in fruit ripening.

  20. The role of alternative oxidase in tomato fruit ripening and its regulatory interaction with ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Yuan, Shu; Zhang, Da-Wei; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-Hui

    2012-09-01

    Although the alternative oxidase (AOX) has been proposed to play a role in fruit development, the function of AOX in fruit ripening is unclear. To gain further insight into the role of AOX in tomato fruit ripening, transgenic tomato plants 35S-AOX1a and 35S-AOX-RNAi were generated. Tomato plants with reduced LeAOX levels exhibited retarded ripening; reduced carotenoids, respiration, and ethylene production; and the down-regulation of ripening-associated genes. Moreover, no apparent respiratory climacteric occurred in the AOX-reduced tomato fruit, indicating that AOX might play an important role in climacteric respiration. In contrast, the fruit that overexpressed LeAOX1a accumulated more lycopene, though they displayed a similar pattern of ripening to wild-type fruit. Ethylene application promoted fruit ripening and anticipated ethylene production and respiration, including the alternative pathway respiration. Interestingly, the transgenic plants with reduced LeAOX levels failed to ripen after 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment, while such inhibition was notably less effective in 35S-AOX1a fruit. These findings indicate that AOX is involved in respiratory climacteric and ethylene-mediated fruit ripening of tomato.

  1. AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2 Intersects Hormonal Signals in the Regulation of Tomato Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario A Breitel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of ethylene in fruit ripening is well documented, though knowledge regarding the crosstalk between ethylene and other hormones in ripening is lacking. We discovered that AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR 2A (ARF2A, a recognized auxin signaling component, functions in the control of ripening. ARF2A expression is ripening regulated and reduced in the rin, nor and nr ripening mutants. It is also responsive to exogenous application of ethylene, auxin and abscisic acid (ABA. Over-expressing ARF2A in tomato resulted in blotchy ripening in which certain fruit regions turn red and possess accelerated ripening. ARF2A over-expressing fruit displayed early ethylene emission and ethylene signaling inhibition delayed their ripening phenotype, suggesting ethylene dependency. Both green and red fruit regions showed the induction of ethylene signaling components and master regulators of ripening. Comprehensive hormone profiling revealed that altered ARF2A expression in fruit significantly modified abscisates, cytokinins and salicylic acid while gibberellic acid and auxin metabolites were unaffected. Silencing of ARF2A further validated these observations as reducing ARF2A expression let to retarded fruit ripening, parthenocarpy and a disturbed hormonal profile. Finally, we show that ARF2A both homodimerizes and interacts with the ABA STRESS RIPENING (ASR1 protein, suggesting that ASR1 might be linking ABA and ethylene-dependent ripening. These results revealed that ARF2A interconnects signals of ethylene and additional hormones to co-ordinate the capacity of fruit tissue to initiate the complex ripening process.

  2. Implication of abscisic acid on ripening and quality in sweet cherries: differential effects during pre- and postharvest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica eTijero

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4ºC and 23ºC during 10d of postharvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during postharvest at 23ºC. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during preharvest, but not during postharvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during preharvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  3. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  4. Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid), glycol, ethanol and some other ...

  5. Suicidal tomato cells : programmed cell death in suspension-cultured tomato cells and ripening fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeberichts, F.A.

    2002-01-01

     Tomato fruit ripening involves a series of highly organised biochemical, physiological and structural changes that are under strict genetic control. The plant hormone ethylene (C 2 H 4 ), in synergy with certain developmental cues, regulates fruit ripening b

  6. The influence of ripening temperature on ‘Hass’ fruit quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated the importance of temperature management during avocado (Persea americana Mill) fruit ripening; however this work was focused on maintaining the fruit at elevated temperatures continuously during the ripening process. We examined the influence of short duration high t...

  7. Effect of Ethylene on Polygalacturonase,Lipoxygenase and Expansin in Ripening of Tomato Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Zhaohui; KOU Xiaohong; LUO Yunbo; ZHU Benzhong; XU Wentao

    2009-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a complex process and is regulated by many factors.Ethylene and polygalacturonase (PG),lipoxygenase (LOX),expansin (EXP) are all critical regulating factors in fruit ripening and softening process.With antisense,ACS tomato,Nr mutant tomato and cultivated tomato as materials,Northern blot hybridization showed that PG,LeEXP1 and LOX expressed differently in different parts of cultivated tomato fruit during ripening,which was related to fruit ripening.The ripening process of columella and radial pericarp was faster than pericarp.In both Nr mutant and antisense ACS transgenic tomato fruit,expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX were generally lower than those in cultivated fruit but still related to fruit ripening.The expression levels of PG,LeEXP1 and LOX increased in the mature green tomato fruits after 0.5 h treatment with ethylene ( 100 μL/L).These results indicate that gene expression of PG,LeEXP1 and LOXwere positively regulated by ethylene.The time and cumulative effect of the concentration exists in the expression of PG regulated by ethylene.The regulation of LOX expression mainly depended on the fruit development after great amount of ethylene was produced.PG played a major role in ripening and softening of tomato fruit,and cooperated with the regulation of EXP and LOX.

  8. Nitric oxide counters ethylene effects on ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, Girigowda; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Lokesh, Veeresh; Mur, Luis A J; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2012-04-01

    Ethylene plays a key role in promoting fruit ripening, so altering its biosynthesis/signaling could be an important means to delay this process. Nitric oxide (NO)-generated signals are now being shown to regulate ethylene pathways. NO signals have been shown to transcriptionally repress the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis enzymes and post-translationally modify methionine adenosyl transferase (MAT) activity through S-nitrosylation to reduce the availably of methyl groups required to produce ethylene. Additionally, NO cross-talks with plant hormones and other signal molecules and act to orchestrate the suppression of ethylene effects by modulating enzymes/proteins that are generally triggered by ethylene signaling at post-climacteric stage. Thus, medication of endogenous NO production is suggested as a strategy to postpone the climacteric stage of many tropical fruits.

  9. Comprehensive Profiling of Ethylene Response Factor Expression Identifies Ripening-Associated ERF Genes and Their Link to Key Regulators of Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Gomes, Bruna Lima; Mila, Isabelle; Purgatto, Eduardo; Peres, Lázaro E P; Frasse, Pierre; Maza, Elie; Zouine, Mohamed; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pirrello, Julien

    2016-03-01

    Our knowledge of the factors mediating ethylene-dependent ripening of climacteric fruit remains limited. The transcription of ethylene-regulated genes is mediated by ethylene response factors (ERFs), but mutants providing information on the specific role of the ERFs in fruit ripening are still lacking, likely due to functional redundancy among this large multigene family of transcription factors. We present here a comprehensive expression profiling of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ERFs in wild-type and tomato ripening-impaired tomato mutants (Never-ripe [Nr], ripening-inhibitor [rin], and non-ripening [nor]), indicating that out of the 77 ERFs present in the tomato genome, 27 show enhanced expression at the onset of ripening while 28 display a ripening-associated decrease in expression, suggesting that different ERFs may have contrasting roles in fruit ripening. Among the 19 ERFs exhibiting the most consistent up-regulation during ripening, the expression of 11 ERFs is strongly down-regulated in rin, nor, and Nr tomato ripening mutants, while only three are consistently up-regulated. Members of subclass E, SlERF.E1, SlERF.E2, and SlERF.E4, show dramatic down-regulation in the ripening mutants, suggesting that their expression might be instrumental in fruit ripening. This study illustrates the high complexity of the regulatory network connecting RIN and ERFs and identifies subclass E members as the most active ERFs in ethylene- and RIN/NOR-dependent ripening.

  10. Nectarine Fruit Ripening and Quality Assessed Using the Index of Absorbance Difference (IAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bonora

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistency of fruit quality is extremely important in horticulture. Fruit growth and quality in nectarine are affected by fruit position in the canopy, related to the tree shape. The “open shaped” training systems, such as Tatura Trellis, improve fruit growth and quality. The Index of Absorbance Difference (IAD is a new marker that characterizes climacteric fruit during ripening. A study on fruit ripening was performed by using the IAD on nectarine to monitor fruit maturity stages of two cultivars trained as Tatura Trellis in Victoria, Australia. Fruit of cv “Summer Flare 34” (“SF34” grown in different positions on the tree showed high ripening homogeneity. Fruit harvested at a similar ripening stage showed fruit firmness and soluble solid content homogeneity. Fruits from hand-thinned variety “Summer Flare 26” (“SF26” were larger in size, had advanced ripening, and showed greater homogeneity. For “SF26”, a weak correlation between IAD and SSC was observed. The experiment showed that the Tatura Trellis training system is characterized by high homogeneity of nectarine fruit when coupled with a proper management of fruit density. It also confirmed that the IAD could be used as new nondestructive maturity index for nectarine fruit quality assessment in the field.

  11. Tuning LeSPL-CNR expression by SlymiR157 affects tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwei; Kong, Junhua; Lai, Tongfei; Manning, Kenneth; Wu, Chaoqun; Wang, Ying; Qin, Cheng; Li, Bin; Yu, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; He, Meiling; Zhang, Pengcheng; Gu, Mei; Yang, Xin; Mahammed, Atef; Li, Chunyang; Osman, Toba; Shi, Nongnong; Wang, Huizhong; Jackson, Stephen; Liu, Yule; Gallusci, Philippe; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-19

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in growth, development, yield, stress response and interactions with pathogens. However no miRNA has been experimentally documented to be functionally involved in fruit ripening although many miRNAs have been profiled in fruits. Here we show that SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 differentially modulate ripening and softening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). SlymiR157 is expressed and developmentally regulated in normal tomato fruits and in those of the Colourless non-ripening (Cnr) epimutant. It regulates expression of the key ripening gene LeSPL-CNR in a likely dose-dependent manner through miRNA-induced mRNA degradation and translation repression. Viral delivery of either pre-SlymiR157 or mature SlymiR157 results in delayed ripening. Furthermore, qRT-PCR profiling of key ripening regulatory genes indicates that the SlymiR157-target LeSPL-CNR may affect expression of LeMADS-RIN, LeHB1, SlAP2a and SlTAGL1. However SlymiR156 does not affect the onset of ripening, but it impacts fruit softening after the red ripe stage. Our findings reveal that working together with a ripening network of transcription factors, SlymiR157 and SlymiR156 form a critical additional layer of regulatory control over the fruit ripening process in tomato.

  12. Maturity and ripening-stage specific modulation of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alka; Gupta, Aditya K; Datsenka, Tatsiana; Mattoo, Autar K; Handa, Avtar K

    2010-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is a model to study molecular basis of fleshy fruit development and ripening. We profiled gene expression during fruit development (immature green and mature green fruit) and ripening (breaker stage onwards) program to obtain a global perspective of genes whose expression is modulated at each stage of fruit development and ripening. A custom made cDNA macroarray containing cDNAs representing various metabolic pathways, defense, signaling, transcription, transport, cell structure and cell wall related functions was developed and used to quantify changes in the abundance of different transcripts. About 34 % of 1066 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs) printed on the macroarray were differentially expressed during tomato fruit ripening. Out of these, 25 % genes classify under metabolism and protein biosynthesis/degradation related processes, while a significant proportion represented stress-responsive genes and about 44 % represented genes with unknown functions. RNA gel blot analysis validated changes in a few representative genes. Although the mature green fruit was found transcriptionally quiescent, the K-means cluster analysis highlighted coordinated up or down regulation of genes during progressive ripening; emphasizing that ripening is a transcriptionally active process. Many stress-related genes were found up-regulated, suggesting their role in the fruit ripening program.

  13. Involvement of ethylene in the accumulation of esculeoside A during fruit ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Fujiwara, Yukio; Tokita, Takeaki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Aoki, Koh; Shibata, Daisuke

    2009-04-22

    The composition of glycoalkaloids in tomato fruit changes with ripening. However, it has not been clarified whether the accumulation of glycoalkaloids is controlled by the ripening-inducing phytohormone, ethylene. Here, we report the effect of ethylene on the accumulation of tomato fruit glycoalkaloids. We investigated the effect of exogenously applied ethylene. In response to ethylene treatment, the content of alpha-tomatine decreased, whereas the content of esculeoside A increased. Next, we analyzed the fruits of ripening mutants, rin, nor, and Nr. In fruits of these mutant lines, the level of accumulation of esculeoside A decreased, whereas alpha-tomatine accumulated to higher levels than in wild-type fruit. These results demonstrated that the esculeoside A accumulation was associated with production and perception of ethylene. Additionally, the accumulation profiles of the intermediate metabolites of esculeoside A biosynthesis in ripening mutant fruits suggest that a glycosylation step in the putative pathway from alpha-tomatine to esculeoside A depends on ethylene.

  14. Effect of cultivar type and ripening on the polyphenol content of date palm fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Noura M S; Al-Awadi, Balqees; Vauzour, David; Oruna-Concha, Maria J; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2013-03-13

    Date palm (Pheonix dactylifera) fruit contains an array of polyphenols, although how these levels alter with cultivar type and fruit ripening is unclear. Utilizing HPLC and LC-ESI-MS/MS, this study define and quantify an array of hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids in three common cultivars of dates (Ajwa, Barni, and Khalas) at the main ripening stages (kimri, khalal, rutab, and tamr). Polyphenols were at highest concentration at earlier stages of ripening, with concentrations reducing with ripening. The khalal stage of the Ajwa cultivar contained significantly higher (P dates at the same degree of ripening. Furthermore, the Ajwa cultivar was the only one to contain significant quantities of anthocyanidins, in particular at the khalal stage. These data suggest dates are a significant source of polyphenols, especially if the earlier edible ripening stages are consumed or utilized as food ingredients.

  15. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishida Betty K

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We previously indicated the presence of up-regulated transcription factors in ripening tomato fruit by data mining in TIGR Tomato Gene Index. In our in-vitro system, green tomato sepals cultured at 16 to 22°C turn red and swell like ripening tomato fruit while those at 28°C remain green. Results Here, we have further examined regulation of putative developmental genes possibly involved in tomato fruit ripening and development. Using molecular biological methods, we have determined the relative abundance of various transcripts of genes during in vitro sepal ripening and in tomato fruit pericarp at three stages of development. A number of transcripts show similar expression in fruits to RIN and PSY1, ripening-associated genes, and others show quite different expression. Conclusions Our investigation has resulted in confirmation of some of our previous database mining results and has revealed differences in gene expression that may be important for tomato cultivar variation. We present new and intriguing information on genes that should now be studied in a more focused fashion.

  16. A dynamic interplay between phytohormones is required for fruit development, maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eMcAtee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that bear fruit often utilise expansion of an ovary (carpel or accessory tissue as a vehicle for seed dispersal. While the seed(s develop, the tissue(s of the fruit follow a common progression of cell division and cell expansion, promoting growth of the fruit. Once the seed is fully developed, the fruit matures and the surrounding tissue either dries or ripens promoting the dissemination of the seed. As with many developmental processes in plants, plant hormones play an important role in the synchronisation of signals between the developing seed and its surrounding fruit tissue(s, regulating each phase of fruit development. Following pollination, fruit set is achieved through a de-repression of growth and an activation of cell division via the action of auxin and/or cytokinin and/or gibberellin. Following fruit set, growth of the fruit is facilitated through a relatively poorly studied period of cell expansion and endoreduplication that is likely regulated by similar hormones as in fruit set. Once the seeds reach maturity, fruit become ready to undergo ripening and during this period there is a major switch in relative hormone levels of the fruit, involving an overall decrease in auxin, gibberellin and cytokinin and a simultaneous increase in abscisic acid and ethylene. While the role of hormones in fruit set and ripening is well documented, the knowledge of the roles of other hormones during growth, maturation and some individual ripening components is sketchy.

  17. Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening Are Altered by the Silencing of LeEIN2 Gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Liang Zhu; Ben-Zhong Zhu; Yi Shao; Xiao-Guang Wang; Xi-Jin Lin; Yuan-Hong Xie; Ying-Cong Li; Hong-Yan Gao; Yun-Bo Luo

    2006-01-01

    Loss-of-function ethylene insensitive 2 (EIN2) mutations showed ethylene insensitivity in Arabidopsis,which indicated an essential role of EIN2 in ethylene signaling. However, the function of EIN2 in fruit ripening has not been investigated. To gain a better understanding of EIN2, the temporal regulation of LeEIN2 expression during tomato fruit development was analyzed. The expression of LeEIN2 was constant at different stages of fruit development, and was not regulated by ethylene. Moreover, LeEIN2-silenced tomato fruits were developed using a virus-induced gene silencing fruit system to study the role of LeEIN2 in tomato fruit ripening. Silenced fruits had a delay in fruit development and ripening, related to greatly descended expression of ethylene-related and ripening-related genes in comparison with those of control fruits. These results suggested LeEIN2 positively mediated ethylene signals during tomato development. In addition,there were fewer seeds and Iocules in the silenced fruit than those in the control fruit, like the phenotype of parthenocarpic tomato fruit. The content of auxin and the expression of auxin-regulated gene were declined in silenced fruit, which indicated that EIN2 might be important for crosstalk between ethylene and auxin hormones.

  18. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  19. Plastid gene expression during fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piechulla, B; Imlay, K R; Gruissem, W

    1985-11-01

    A tomato chloroplast genome map has been constructed with the restriction enzymes Hpa I, Pvu II, and Sal I. Twelve plastid genes have been located on the tomato plastid genome (159 kb).The expression of plastid genes during tomato fruit ripening has been studied. The levels of transcripts of various genes coding for proteins of the photosystem I (psaA), photosystem II (psbA, psbB, psbC, psbD) and the stroma (rbcL) decrease when plastids differentiate from chloroplasts to chromoplasts. The amount of plastid ribosomal RNA also decreases. Transcripts of the genes for the P700 reaction center protein (psaA), for the photosystem II-associated proteins (psbC, psbD) and for the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (rbcL) cannot be detected in chromoplasts. In contrast, a relatively high level of mRNA is present for the 32 kD protein ('herbicide-binding protein', psbA) in red fruit.

  20. Determination of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Constituents of Aegle marmelos Fruit During Different Stages of Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Yadav; Parul Singh; Ranjana Mehrotra

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Aegle marmelos is a medicinal herb belonging to the Rutacae family. The fruit of A. marmelos at each stage of ripening is used as ethnomedicine to cure various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the components contributing to the medicinal value of the A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. RESULTS: Tannin, a polyphenol responsible for astringent and antimicrobial properties of A. marmelos fruit was found to increase during ripening. Riboflavin, a vital medicinal component was detected in traceable amount only in full-ripe A. marmelos fruit. Ribofla-vin contributes towards body growth, reproduction and red cell production. The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which is useful in preventing scurvy decreased significantly as fruit ripens. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the medicinal effect of A. marmelos fruit at each stage of ripening might be due to the presence of different amount of polyphenol, vitamins and organic acids.

  1. Developmental gene regulation during tomato fruit ripening and in-vitro sepal morphogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida Betty K; Bartley Glenn E

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Red ripe tomatoes are the result of numerous physiological changes controlled by hormonal and developmental signals, causing maturation or differentiation of various fruit tissues simultaneously. These physiological changes affect visual, textural, flavor, and aroma characteristics, making the fruit more appealing to potential consumers for seed dispersal. Developmental regulation of tomato fruit ripening has, until recently, been lacking in rigorous investigation. We prev...

  2. Ripening Physiology of Fruit from Transgenic Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Plants with Reduced Ethylene Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H. J.

    1993-07-01

    The physiological effects of reduced ethylene synthesis in a transgenic tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) line expressing 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase enzyme have been examined. Fruit from the transgenic line 5673 ripen significantly slower than control fruit when removed from the vine early in ripening. In contrast, fruit that remain attached to the plants ripen much more rapidly, exhibiting little delay relative to the control. Ethylene determinations on attached fruit revealed that there was significantly more internal ethylene in attached than detached fruit. The higher ethylene content can fully account for the observed faster on-the-vine ripening. All of the data are consistent with a catalytic role for ethylene in promoting many, although not all, aspects of fruit ripening. Biochemical analyses of transgenic fruit indicated no significant differences from controls in the levels of ACC oxidase or polygalacturonase. Because transgenic fruit are significantly firmer than controls, this last result indicates that other enzymes may have a significant role in fruit softening.

  3. Phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts from sweet orange during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yunliu; Pan, Zhiyong; Wang, Lun; Ding, Yuduan; Xu, Qiang; Xiao, Shunyuan; Deng, Xiuxin

    2014-02-01

    Like other types of plastids, chromoplasts have essential biosynthetic and metabolic activities which may be regulated via post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, of their resident proteins. We here report a proteome-wide mapping of in vivo phosphorylation sites in chromoplast-enriched samples prepared from sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] at different ripening stages by titanium dioxide-based affinity chromatography for phosphoprotein enrichment with LC-MS/MS. A total of 109 plastid-localized phosphoprotein candidates were identified that correspond to 179 unique phosphorylation sites in 135 phosphopeptides. On the basis of Motif-X analysis, two distinct types of phosphorylation sites, one as proline-directed phosphorylation motif and the other as casein kinase II motif, can be generalized from these identified phosphopeptides. While most identified phosphoproteins show high homology to those already identified in plastids, approximately 22% of them are novel based on BLAST search using the public databases PhosPhAt and P(3) DB. A close comparative analysis showed that approximately 50% of the phosphoproteins identified in citrus chromoplasts find obvious counterparts in the chloroplast phosphoproteome, suggesting a rather high-level of conservation in basic metabolic activities in these two types of plastids. Not surprisingly, the phosphoproteome of citrus chromoplasts is also characterized by the lack of phosphoproteins involved in photosynthesis and by the presence of more phosphoproteins implicated in stress/redox responses. This study presents the first comprehensive phosphoproteomic analysis of chromoplasts and may help to understand how phosphorylation regulates differentiation of citrus chromoplasts during fruit ripening.

  4. Tomato fruit quality as affected by ripening on- and off-vine

    OpenAIRE

    Koukounaras, A.; Makridou, C.; Siomos, A.S.

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. In order to extend postharvest life and marketable period, tomato fruits are mainly harvested at the mature green stage and they ripen off vine. However, most of the consumers are convinced that on vine ripened tomatoes a...

  5. Transcriptomic analysis of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra fruit development and ripening using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. and Zucc. is an important subtropical fruit crop and an ideal species for fruit quality research due to the rapid and substantial changes that occur during development and ripening, including changes in fruit color and taste. However, research at the molecular level is limited by a lack of sequence data. The present study was designed to obtain transcript sequence data and examine gene expression in bayberry developing fruit based on RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analysis, to provide a foundation for understanding the molecular mechanisms controlling fruit quality changes during ripening. Results RNA-Seq generated 1.92 G raw data, which was then de novo assembled into 41,239 UniGenes with a mean length of 531 bp. Approximately 80% of the UniGenes (32,805 were annotated against public protein databases, and coding sequences (CDS of 31,665 UniGenes were determined. Over 3,600 UniGenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening, with 826 up-regulated and 1,407 down-regulated. GO comparisons between the UniGenes of these two types and interactive pathways (Ipath analysis found that energy-related metabolism was enhanced, and catalytic activity was increased. All genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were up-regulated during the fruit ripening processes, concurrent with color change. Important changes in carbohydrate and acid metabolism in the ripening fruit are likely associated with expression of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD. Conclusions Mass sequence data of Chinese bayberry was obtained and the expression profiles were examined during fruit ripening. The UniGenes were annotated, providing a platform for functional genomic research with this species. Using pathway mapping and expression profiles, the molecular mechanisms for changes in fruit color and taste during ripening were examined. This provides a reference for the study of complicated

  6. Characterization of a bZIP gene highly expressed during ripening of the peach fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovisetto, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Tadiello, Alice; Confortin, Enrico; Pavanello, Anna; Botton, Alessandro; Casadoro, Giorgio

    2013-09-01

    A ripening specific bZIP gene of peach was studied by ectopically expressing it in tomato. Two lines, with either a mild or a strong phenotype, respectively, were analyzed in detail. Transgenic fruit morphology was normal, yet the time spent to proceed through the various ripening stages was longer compared to wild type. In agreement with this finding the transgenic berries produced less ethylene, and also had a modified expression of some ripening-related genes that was particularly evident in berries with a strong phenotype. In particular, in the latter fruits polygalacturonase and lipoxygenase genes, but also genes coding for transcription factors (TFs) important for tomato ripening (i.e. TAGL1, CNR, APETALA2a, NOR) did not show the expected decreased expression in the red berries. As regards the RIN gene, its expression continued to increase in both mild and strong lines, and this is in agreement with the dilated ripening times. Interestingly, a metabolomic analysis of berries at various stages of ripening showed that the longer time spent by the transgenic berries to proceed from a stage to another was not due to a slackened metabolism. In fact, the differences in amount of stage-specific marker metabolites indicated that the transgenic berries had a very active metabolism. Therefore, the dilated ripening and the enhanced metabolism of the berries over-expressing the bZIP gene suggest that such gene might regulate ripening by acting as a pacemaker for some of the ripening metabolic pathways.

  7. Off-the-Vine Ripening of Tomato Fruit Causes Alteration in the Primary Metabolite Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana B. Boggio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of postharvest fruit ripening in the composition of metabolites, transcripts and enzymes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is poorly understood. The goal of this work was to study the changes in the metabolite composition of the tomato fruit ripened off-the-vine using the cultivar Micro-Tom as model system. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR was used for analysis of the metabolic profile of tomato fruits ripened on- and off-the-vine. Significant differences under both ripening conditions were observed principally in the contents of fructose, glucose, aspartate and glutamate. Transcript levels and enzyme activities of -amino butyrate transaminase (EC 2.6.1.19 and glutamate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.15 showed differences in fruits ripened under these two conditions. These data indicate that the contents of metabolites involved in primary metabolism, and conferring the palatable properties of fruits, are altered when fruits are ripened off-the-vine.

  8. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) during tomato fruit growth and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedes, Eva; Lorences, Ester P

    2009-03-15

    Depolymerization of cell wall xyloglucan has been proposed to be involved in tomato fruit softening, along with the xyloglucan modifying enzymes. Xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolases (XTHs: EC 2.4.1.207 and/or EC 3.2.1.151) have been proposed to have a dual role integrating newly secreted xyloglucan chains into an existing wall-bound xyloglucan, or restructuring the existing cell wall material by catalyzing transglucosylation between previously wall-bound xyloglucan molecules. Here, 10 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) SlXTHs were studied and grouped into three phylogenetic groups to determine which members of each family were expressed during fruit growth and fruit ripening, and the ways in which the expression of different SlXTHs contributed to the total XET and XEH activities. Our results showed that all of the SlXTHs studied were expressed during fruit growth and ripening, and that the expression of all the SlXTHs in Group 1 was clearly related to fruit growth, as were SlXTH12 in Group 2 and SlXTH6 in Group 3-B. Only the expression of SlXTH5 and SlXTH8 from Group 3-A was clearly associated with fruit ripening, although all 10 of the different SlXTHs were expressed at the red ripe stage. Both total XET and XEH activities were higher during fruit growth, and decreased during fruit ripening. Ethylene production during tomato fruit growth was low and experienced a significant increase during fruit ripening, which was not correlated either with SlXTH expression or with XET and XEH activities. We suggest that the role of XTH during fruit development could be related to the maintenance of the structural integrity of the cell wall, and the decrease in XTHs expression, and the subsequent decrease in activity during ripening may contribute to fruit softening, with this process being regulated through different XTH genes.

  9. Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Nualwijit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

  10. Metabolomic analysis of avocado fruits by GC-APCI-TOF MS: effects of ripening degrees and fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Fernández, E; Pacchiarotta, T; Mayboroda, O A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Carrasco-Pancorbo, A

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate avocado fruit ripening, nontargeted GC-APCI-TOF MS metabolic profiling analyses were carried out. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to explore the metabolic profiles from fruit samples of 13 varieties at two different ripening degrees. Mannoheptulose; pentadecylfuran; aspartic, malic, stearic, citric and pantothenic acids; mannitol; and β-sitosterol were some of the metabolites found as more influential for the PLS-DA model. The similarities among genetically related samples (putative mutants of "Hass") and their metabolic differences from the rest of the varieties under study have also been evaluated. The achieved results reveal new insights into avocado fruit composition and metabolite changes, demonstrating therefore the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit ripening development, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.

  11. Functional Characterization of SlSAHH2 in Tomato Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase (SAHH functions as an enzyme catalyzing the reversible hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine to homocysteine and adenosine. In the present work we have investigated its role in the ripening process of tomato fruit. Among the three SlSAHH genes we demonstrated that SlSAHH2 was highly accumulated during fruit ripening and strongly responded to ethylene treatment. Over-expression of SlSAHH2 enhanced SAHH enzymatic activity in tomato fruit development and ripening stages and resulted in a major phenotypic change of reduced ripening time from anthesis to breaker. Consistent with this, the content of lycopene was higher in SlSAHH2 over-expression lines than in wild-type at the same developmental stage. The expression of two ethylene inducible genes (E4 and E8 and three ethylene biosynthesis genes (SlACO1, SlACO3 and SlACS2 increased to a higher level in SlSAHH2 over-expression lines at breaker stage, and one transgenic line even produced much more ethylene than wild-type. Although inconsistency in gene expression and ethylene production existed between the two transgenic lines, the transcriptional changes of several important ripening regulators such as RIN, AP2a, TAGL1, CNR and NOR showed a consistent pattern. It was speculated that the influence of SlSAHH2 on ethylene production was downstream of the regulation of SlSAHH2 on these ripening regulator genes. The over-expressing lines displayed higher sensitivity to ethylene in both fruit and non-fruit tissues. Ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC treatment accelerated ripening faster in SlSAHH2 over-expressing fruit than in wild-type. Additionally, seedlings of transgenic lines displayed shorter hypocotyls and roots in ethylene triple response assay. In conclusion, SlSAHH2 played an important role in tomato fruit ripening.

  12. Tomato GOLDEN2-LIKE transcription factors reveal molecular gradients that function during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cuong V; Vrebalov, Julia T; Gapper, Nigel E; Zheng, Yi; Zhong, Silin; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James J

    2014-02-01

    Fruit ripening is the summation of changes rendering fleshy fruit tissues attractive and palatable to seed dispersing organisms. For example, sugar content is influenced by plastid numbers and photosynthetic activity in unripe fruit and later by starch and sugar catabolism during ripening. Tomato fruit are sinks of photosynthate, yet unripe green fruit contribute significantly to the sugars that ultimately accumulate in the ripe fruit. Plastid numbers and chlorophyll content are influenced by numerous environmental and genetic factors and are positively correlated with photosynthesis and photosynthate accumulation. GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors regulate plastid and chlorophyll levels. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), like most plants, contains two GLKs (i.e., GLK1 and GLK2/UNIFORM). Mutant and transgene analysis demonstrated that these genes encode functionally similar peptides, though differential expression renders GLK1 more important in leaves, while GLK2 is predominant in fruit. A latitudinal gradient of GLK2 expression influences the typical uneven coloration of green and ripe wild-type fruit. Transcriptome profiling revealed a broader fruit gene expression gradient throughout development. The gradient influenced general ripening activities beyond plastid development and was consistent with the easily observed yet poorly studied ripening gradient present in tomato and many fleshy fruits.

  13. Tomato fruit carotenoid biosynthesis is adjusted to actual ripening progression by a light-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Briardo; D'Andrea, Lucio; Ruiz-Sola, M Aguila; Botterweg, Esther; Pulido, Pablo; Andilla, Jordi; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Rodriguez-Concepcion, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Carotenoids are isoprenoid compounds that are essential for plants to protect the photosynthetic apparatus against excess light. They also function as health-promoting natural pigments that provide colors to ripe fruit, promoting seed dispersal by animals. Work in Arabidopsis thaliana unveiled that transcription factors of the phytochrome-interacting factor (PIF) family regulate carotenoid gene expression in response to environmental signals (i.e. light and temperature), including those created when sunlight reflects from or passes though nearby vegetation or canopy (referred to as shade). Here we show that PIFs use a virtually identical mechanism to modulate carotenoid biosynthesis during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). However, instead of integrating environmental information, PIF-mediated signaling pathways appear to fulfill a completely new function in the fruit. As tomatoes ripen, they turn from green to red due to chlorophyll breakdown and carotenoid accumulation. When sunlight passes through the flesh of green fruit, a self-shading effect within the tissue maintains high levels of PIFs that directly repress the master gene of the fruit carotenoid pathway, preventing undue production of carotenoids. This effect is attenuated as chlorophyll degrades, causing degradation of PIF proteins and boosting carotenoid biosynthesis as ripening progresses. Thus, shade signaling components may have been co-opted in tomato fruit to provide information on the actual stage of ripening (based on the pigment profile of the fruit at each moment) and thus finely coordinate fruit color change. We show how this mechanism may be manipulated to obtain carotenoid-enriched fruits.

  14. Ripening-regulated susceptibility of tomato fruit to Botrytis cinerea requires NOR but not RIN or ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Dario; Blanco-Ulate, Barbara; Yang, Liya; Labavitch, John M; Bennett, Alan B; Powell, Ann L T

    2009-07-01

    Fruit ripening is a developmental process that is associated with increased susceptibility to the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea. Histochemical observations demonstrate that unripe tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit activate pathogen defense responses, but these responses are attenuated in ripe fruit infected by B. cinerea. Tomato fruit ripening is regulated independently and cooperatively by ethylene and transcription factors, including NON-RIPENING (NOR) and RIPENING-INHIBITOR (RIN). Mutations in NOR or RIN or interference with ethylene perception prevent fruit from ripening and, thereby, would be expected to influence susceptibility. We show, however, that the susceptibility of ripe fruit is dependent on NOR but not on RIN and only partially on ethylene perception, leading to the conclusion that not all of the pathways and events that constitute ripening render fruit susceptible. Additionally, on unripe fruit, B. cinerea induces the expression of genes also expressed as uninfected fruit ripen. Among the ripening-associated genes induced by B. cinerea are LePG (for polygalacturonase) and LeExp1 (for expansin), which encode cell wall-modifying proteins and have been shown to facilitate susceptibility. LePG and LeExp1 are induced only in susceptible rin fruit and not in resistant nor fruit. Thus, to infect fruit, B. cinerea relies on some of the processes and events that occur during ripening, and the fungus induces these pathways in unripe fruit, suggesting that the pathogen itself can initiate the induction of susceptibility by exploiting endogenous developmental programs. These results demonstrate the developmental plasticity of plant responses to the fungus and indicate how known regulators of fruit ripening participate in regulating ripening-associated pathogen susceptibility.

  15. Members of the tomato FRUITFULL MADS-box family regulate style abscission and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shufen; Lu, Gang; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Zhidan; Wang, Taotao; Li, Hanxia; Zhang, Junhong; Ye, Zhibiao

    2014-07-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) protein MADS-RIN plays important roles in fruit ripening. In this study, the functions of two homologous tomato proteins, FUL1 and FUL2, which contain conserved MIKC domains that typify plant MADS-box proteins, and which interact with MADS-RIN, were analysed. Transgenic functional analysis showed that FUL1 and FUL2 function redundantly in fruit ripening regulation, but exhibit distinct roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation and expansion. Over-expression of FUL2 in tomato resulted in a pointed tip at the blossom end of the fruit, together with a thinner pericarp, reduced stem diameter, and smaller leaves, but no obvious phenotypes resulted from FUL1 over-expression. Dual suppression of FUL1 and FUL2 substantially inhibited fruit ripening by blocking ethylene biosynthesis and decreasing carotenoid accumulation. In addition, the levels of transcript corresponding to ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2), which plays a key role in ethylene biosynthesis, were significantly decreased in the FUL1/FUL2 knock-down tomato fruits. Overall, our results suggest that FUL proteins can regulate tomato fruit ripening through fine-tuning ethylene biosynthesis and the expression of ripening-related genes.

  16. Effect of Sodium Chloride on Fruit Ripening of the Nonripening Tomato Mutants nor and rin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, Y; Zohar, R; Malis-Arad, S

    1982-02-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants of the nonripening mutant nor, the ripening-inhibited mutant rin, and the normal cultivar ;Rutgers' were grown in nutrient solution supplemented with 3 grams per liter NaCl from the time of anthesis. In plants treated with NaCl, all the ripening parameters of the fruits of the nor mutant increased, but those of the rin mutant did not. The ripening of the fruits of the NaCl-treated nor plants was characterized by the development of a red color and taste, increased pectolytic activity, and increased evolution of CO(2) and ethylene. These changes do not normally take place in nor under control conditions. The values of these ripening parameters in nor were lower than those of the normal Rutgers fruits. In addition, both in nor and rin and in the normal variety, exposure of the plants to NaCl shortened the developmental period of the fruit, decreased the fruit size, and increased the concentrations of total soluble solids, Na(+), Cl(-), reducing sugars, and titratable acids in the fruit. The role of NaCl in overcoming the inability of nor to ripen is discussed.

  17. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    KAUST Repository

    Marondedze, Claudius

    2014-08-06

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were ‘disease and defense’ (16.5%) and ‘metabolism’ (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of ‘Barhi’ fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  18. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marondedze, Claudius; Gehring, Christoph; Thomas, Ludivine

    2014-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0.05). The identified proteins were classified into 14 functional categories. The categories with the most proteins were 'disease and defense' (16.5%) and 'metabolism' (15.4%). Twenty-nine proteins have not previously been identified in other fleshy fruits and 64 showed contrasting expression patterns in other fruits. Abundance of most proteins with a role in abiotic stress responses increased during ripening with the exception of heat shock proteins. Proteins with a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and cell wall degradation were upregulated particularly from the onset of ripening and during ripening. In contrast, expression of pentose phosphate- and photosynthesis-related proteins decreased during fruit maturation. Although date palm is considered a climacteric species, the analysis revealed downregulation of two enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, suggesting an ethylene-independent ripening of 'Barhi' fruits. In summary, this proteomics study provides insights into physiological processes during date fruit development and ripening at the systems level and offers a reference proteome for the study of regulatory mechanisms that can inform molecular and biotechnological approaches to further improvements of horticultural traits including fruit quality and yield.

  19. RNA sequencing and functional analysis implicate the regulatory role of long non-coding RNAs in tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Benzhong; Yang, Yongfang; Li, Ran; Fu, Daqi; Wen, Liwei; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Hongliang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to play critical regulatory roles in model plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. However, the presence of lncRNAs and how they function in fleshy fruit ripening are still largely unknown because fleshy fruit ripening is not present in the above model plants. Tomato is the model system for fruit ripening studies due to its dramatic ripening process. To investigate further the role of lncRNAs in fruit ripening, it is necessary and urgent to discover and identify novel lncRNAs and understand the function of lncRNAs in tomato fruit ripening. Here it is reported that 3679 lncRNAs were discovered from wild-type tomato and ripening mutant fruit. The lncRNAs are transcribed from all tomato chromosomes, 85.1% of which came from intergenic regions. Tomato lncRNAs are shorter and have fewer exons than protein-coding genes, a situation reminiscent of lncRNAs from other model plants. It was also observed that 490 lncRNAs were significantly up-regulated in ripening mutant fruits, and 187 lncRNAs were down-regulated, indicating that lncRNAs could be involved in the regulation of fruit ripening. In line with this, silencing of two novel tomato intergenic lncRNAs, lncRNA1459 and lncRNA1840, resulted in an obvious delay of ripening of wild-type fruit. Overall, the results indicated that lncRNAs might be essential regulators of tomato fruit ripening, which sheds new light on the regulation of fruit ripening.

  20. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongying Zhang

    Full Text Available Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88% were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80% were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86% were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  1. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes Associated with Apple Fruit Ripening and Softening by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zongying; Jiang, Shenghui; Wang, Nan; Li, Min; Ji, Xiaohao; Sun, Shasha; Liu, Jingxuan; Wang, Deyun; Xu, Haifeng; Qi, Sumin; Wu, Shujing; Fei, Zhangjun; Feng, Shouqian; Chen, Xuesen

    2015-01-01

    Apple is one of the most economically important horticultural fruit crops worldwide. It is critical to gain insights into fruit ripening and softening to improve apple fruit quality and extend shelf life. In this study, forward and reverse suppression subtractive hybridization libraries were generated from 'Taishanzaoxia' apple fruits sampled around the ethylene climacteric to isolate ripening- and softening-related genes. A set of 648 unigenes were derived from sequence alignment and cluster assembly of 918 expressed sequence tags. According to gene ontology functional classification, 390 out of 443 unigenes (88%) were assigned to the biological process category, 356 unigenes (80%) were classified in the molecular function category, and 381 unigenes (86%) were allocated to the cellular component category. A total of 26 unigenes differentially expressed during fruit development period were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were involved in cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis, aroma production, stress response, metabolism, transcription, or were non-annotated. Some genes associated with cell wall modification, anthocyanin biosynthesis and aroma production were up-regulated and significantly correlated with ethylene production, suggesting that fruit texture, coloration and aroma may be regulated by ethylene in 'Taishanzaoxia'. Some of the identified unigenes associated with fruit ripening and softening have not been characterized in public databases. The results contribute to an improved characterization of changes in gene expression during apple fruit ripening and softening.

  2. Altered cell wall disassembly during ripening of Cnr tomato fruit: implications for cell adhesion and fruit softening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orfila, C.; Huisman, M.M.H.; Willats, William George Tycho

    2002-01-01

    polysaccharides to the non-softening and altered cell adhesion phenotype. Cell wall material (CWM) and solubilised fractions of mature green and red ripe fruit were analysed by chemical, enzymatic and immunochemical techniques. No major differences in CWM sugar composition were detected although differences were...... that was chelator-soluble was 50% less in Cnr cell walls at both the mature green and red ripe stages. Chelator-soluble material from ripe-stage Cnr was more susceptible to endo-polygalacturonase degradation than the corresponding material from wild-type fruit. In addition, cell walls from Cnr fruit contained......The Cnr (Colourless non-ripening) tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) mutant has an aberrant fruit-ripening phenotype in which fruit do not soften and have reduced cell adhesion between pericarp cells. Cell walls from Cnr fruit were analysed in order to assess the possible contribution of pectic...

  3. An infrared based sensor system for the detection of ethylene for the discrimination of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathirvelan, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    2017-09-01

    We report the fabrication and testing of a prototype ethylene sensing device for use in fruit ripening applications. A sensor based on infrared (IR) thermal emission was developed and used to detect the ethylene level released during the fruit ripening process. An IR thermal source tuned to the 10.6 μm wavelength was linked to a high-sensitivity silicon temperature detector. When introduced into the wave path between the IR source and temperature detector, ethylene absorbs the 10.6 μm IR waves and decreases the surface temperature of the detector. The output is then converted to an electrical signal (in mV), which gives a direct measurement of the ethylene level. Using this sensor, ethylene concentration measured from a fruit sample continuously decreased from 59 to 5 ppm during the natural ripening process. The sensor exhibited a sensitivity of 3.3 ± 0.2% (change in detector output (mV)/ppm × 100) and could measure concentrations as low as 5 ppm with rise and recovery times of 1 and 3 s, respectively. The system demonstrated good reproducibility. Devices employing this sensor system may be used for fruit ripening applications on site and in the field and for screening artificially ripened fruits, therefore contributing to ensure food safety.

  4. Influence of ripening stages on antioxidant properties of papaya fruit (Carica papaya L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Zuhair Radhi; Abdullah, Aminah; Mutalib, Sahilah Abd.

    2013-11-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L. cv Eksotika) is one of the most commonly consumed tropical fruits by humans, especially Malaysians. The objective of this study was to determine the phenolic compounds and antioxidants activity in different ripening stages of papaya fruit. The fruits were harvested at five different, stages RS1, RS2, RS3, RS4, and RS5 corresponding to 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 weeks after anthesis, respectively. Papayas fruit at five different stage of ripening were obtained from farms at Pusat Flora Cheras, JabatanPertanian and Hulu Langat Semenyih, Selangor, Malaysia. The antioxidants activity were analyzed using the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), ferric reducing antioxidant Power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). The analyses were conducted in triplicate and the data were subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results showed significant differences (P< 0.05) were found at different stages of ripening. The total phenol content TPC, TFC, FRAP and DPPH values increased significantly (P<0.05) with the ripening process. The results showed the important role of the ripening stage in increasing the antioxidant content of papaya fruits.

  5. Dry matter and macronutrient accumulation in fruits of Conilon coffee with different ripening cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The period between anthesis and fruit ripening varies according to the Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora genotype. Therefore, the time of the nutritional requirements for fruit formation may differ, depending on the formation phase and the genotype, and may directly affect split application of fertilizer. The aim of this study was to quantify the accumulation of dry matter and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S at several stages in the fruit of the Conilon coffee genotype with different ripening cycles, which may suggest the need for split application of fertilizer in coffee. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nova Venecia, Espírito Santo, Brazil, throughout the reproductive cycle. The treatments were composed of four coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles. A completely randomised experimental design was used. with five replicates. Plagiotropic branches were harvested from flowering to fruit ripening at 28-day intervals to determine the dry matter of the fruits and the concentration and accumulation of the nutrients they contained. The behavior of dry matter and macronutrient accumulation during the study period was similar and increasing, but it differed among genotypes sampled in the same season. Early genotypes exhibited a higher speed of dry matter and nutrient accumulation. Split application of fertilizer should differ among coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles (early, intermediate, late and very late.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and toxic effect of fruit-ripening agent calcium carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ripening is the final stage of the maturation process, when the fruit changes color, softens and develops the flavor, texture and aroma that constitute optimum eating quality. This study was conducted to discuss the use of unsatisfactory calcium carbide to ripen fruits for domestic markets as well as their toxic effects on human health. The commonly used ripening agents are calcium carbide, acetylene, ethylene, propylene, ethrel (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid, glycol, ethanol and some other agents. The calcium carbide is one of the most commonly used ripening agent for fruits, while other calcium salts like calcium ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and calcium sulfate are used to delay fruit ripening agents for local fruit industries. The use of calcium carbide is being discouraged worldwide, due to associated health hazards. Calcium carbide treatment of food is extremely hazardous because it contains traces of arsenic and phosphorous, and once dissolved in water, it produces acetylene gas. Arsenic, phosphorous and acetylene gas may affect the different body organs and causes various health problems like headache, dizziness, mood disturbances, sleepiness, mental confusion, memory loss, cerebral edema, seizures and prolonged hypoxia.

  7. Fleshy fruit expansion and ripening are regulated by the Tomato SHATTERPROOF gene TAGL1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrebalov, Julia; Pan, Irvin L; Arroyo, Antonio Javier Matas; McQuinn, Ryan; Chung, Miyoung; Poole, Mervin; Rose, Jocelyn; Seymour, Graham; Grandillo, Silvana; Giovannoni, James; Irish, Vivian F

    2009-10-01

    The maturation and ripening of fleshy fruits is a developmental program that synchronizes seed maturation with metabolism, rendering fruit tissues desirable to seed dispersing organisms. Through RNA interference repression, we show that Tomato AGAMOUS-LIKE1 (TAGL1), the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ortholog of the duplicated SHATTERPROOF (SHP) MADS box genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, is necessary for fruit ripening. Tomato plants with reduced TAGL1 mRNA produced yellow-orange fruit with reduced carotenoids and thin pericarps. These fruit are also decreased in ethylene, indicating a comprehensive inhibition of maturation mediated through reduced ACC Synthase 2 expression. Furthermore, ectopic expression of TAGL1 in tomato resulted in expansion of sepals and accumulation of lycopene, supporting the role of TAGL1 in ripening. In Arabidopsis, the duplicate SHP1 and SHP2 MADS box genes regulate the development of separation layers essential for pod shatter. Expression of TAGL1 in Arabidopsis failed to completely rescue the shp1 shp2 mutant phenotypes, indicating that TAGL1 has evolved distinct molecular functions compared with its Arabidopsis counterparts. These analyses demonstrate that TAGL1 plays an important role in regulating both fleshy fruit expansion and the ripening process that together are necessary to promote seed dispersal of fleshy fruit. From this broad perspective, SHP1/2 and TAGL1, while distinct in molecular function, regulate similar activities via their necessity for seed dispersal in Arabidopsis and tomato, respectively.

  8. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zheng, Huiwen; Zhang, Qiuyun; Li, Wenhui

    2016-06-24

    Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers' evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS), sorbitol oxidase (SO) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV) of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD) may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit.

  9. Profiling Taste and Aroma Compound Metabolism during Apricot Fruit Development and Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanpeng Xi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sugars, organic acids and volatiles of apricot were determined by HPLC and GC-MS during fruit development and ripening, and the key taste and aroma components were identified by integrating flavor compound contents with consumers’ evaluation. Sucrose and glucose were the major sugars in apricot fruit. The contents of all sugars increased rapidly, and the accumulation pattern of sugars converted from glucose-predominated to sucrose-predominated during fruit development and ripening. Sucrose synthase (SS, sorbitol oxidase (SO and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH are under tight developmental control and they might play important roles in sugar accumulation. Almost all organic acids identified increased during early development and then decrease rapidly. During early development, fruit mainly accumulated quinate and malate, with the increase of citrate after maturation, and quinate, malate and citrate were the predominant organic acids at the ripening stage. The odor activity values (OAV of aroma volatiles showed that 18 aroma compounds were the characteristic components of apricot fruit. Aldehydes and terpenes decreased significantly during the whole development period, whereas lactones and apocarotenoids significantly increased with fruit ripening. The partial least squares regression (PLSR results revealed that β-ionone, γ-decalactone, sucrose and citrate are the key characteristic flavor factors contributing to consumer acceptance. Carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD may be involved in β-ionone formation in apricot fruit.

  10. A large-scale identification of direct targets of the tomato MADS box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR reveals the regulation of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Shima, Yoko; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    The fruit ripening developmental program is specific to plants bearing fleshy fruits and dramatically changes fruit characteristics, including color, aroma, and texture. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest acting ripening regulators, is required for both ethylene-dependent and -independent ripening regulatory pathways. Recent studies have identified two dozen direct RIN targets, but many more RIN targets remain to be identified. Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct RIN targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting the predicted promoters of tomato genes. Our combined ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified 241 direct RIN target genes that contain a RIN binding site and exhibit RIN-dependent positive or negative regulation during fruit ripening, suggesting that RIN has both activator and repressor roles. Examination of the predicted functions of RIN targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of lycopene accumulation, ethylene production, chlorophyll degradation, and many other physiological processes. Analysis of the effect of ethylene using 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that the positively regulated subset of RIN targets includes ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive transcription factors. Intriguingly, ethylene is involved in the upregulation of RIN expression during ripening. These results suggest that tomato fruit ripening is regulated by the interaction between RIN and ethylene signaling.

  11. Identification of Solanum habrochaites loci that quantitatively influence tomato fruit ripening-associated ethylene emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Cin, Valeriano; Kevany, Brian; Fei, Zhangjun; Klee, Harry J

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone ethylene is essential for ripening of climacteric fruits such as tomato. While many of the genes responsible for ethylene synthesis and perception have been identified, the regulatory network controlling autocatalytic climacteric ethylene synthesis is not well understood. In order to better understand the regulation of ripening-associated ethylene, we have exploited the genetic variation within Solanum Sect. Lycopersicon. In particular, we have used a near-isogenic population of S. habrochaites introgression lines to identify chromosome segments affecting ethylene emissions during ripening. S. habrochaites fruits produce much larger quantities of ethylene during ripening than do cultivated S. lycopersicum tomatoes. A total of 17 segments were identified; 3 had emissions more than twice the level of the tomato parent, 11 had less than a twofold increase and 3 had significantly reduced emissions at one or more ripening stages. While several of these segments co-segregate with known ethylene-related genes, many do not correspond to known genes. Thus, they may identify novel modes of regulation. These results illustrate the utility of wild relatives and their introgression lines to understand regulation of fruit ripening-related processes.

  12. Dynamic changes in the date palm fruit proteome during development and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is an economically important fruit tree in the Middle East and North Africa and is characterized by large cultivar diversity, making it a good model for studies on fruit development and other important traits. Here in gel comparative proteomics combined with tandem mass spectrometry were used to study date fruit development and ripening. Total proteins were extracted using a phenol-based protocol. A total of 189 protein spots were differentially regulated (p≤0....

  13. Molecular cloning of tomato fruit polygalacturonase: Analysis of polygalacturonase mRNA levels during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellapenna, D; Alexander, D C; Bennett, A B

    1986-09-01

    The expression of a gene encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-alpha-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15] was characterized during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase was purified from ripe tomato fruit and used to produce highly specific antiserum. Immunoblot analyses detected a 45- and a 46-kDa protein in ripe fruit but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products of mRNA from ripe tomato fruit yielded a single 54-kDa polypeptide, suggesting post-translational processing. A plasmid cDNA library was prepared from poly(A)(+) RNA isolated from ripe tomato fruit. The cDNA library was inserted into a lambda-based expression vector, and polygalacturonase cDNA clones were identified by immunological screening. Hybrid-select translation experiments indicated that the cDNAs encode a 54-kDa in vitro translation product that is specifically immunoprecipitated with polygalacturonase antiserum. RNA-blot analysis indicated that the 1.9-kilobase polygalacturonase mRNA was virtually absent from immature-green fruit, accumulated steadily during the ripening process, and was at its highest level in red-ripe fruit. There was at least a 2000-fold increase in the level of polygalacturonase mRNA between immature-green and red-ripe tomato fruit. These studies show that the levels of polygalacturonase mRNA are developmentally regulated during tomato fruit ripening.

  14. Environment effect on fruit ripening related gene to develop a new post harvest technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivany, Fenny; Esyanti, Rizkita Rahmi; Robertlee, Jekson; Paramaputra, Indra Chandra; Permatadewi, Rinda Kania; Tambun, Dina Hermawaty; Handayani, Resnanti Utami; Pratiwi, Aksarani'Sa; Zaskia, Herafi

    2014-03-01

    Ripening process of fruits is a very complex process, which involves ethylene production, causing alteration on molecular and physiology level. Environmental stress caused by biotic and abiotic stress conditions (such as pathogen, mechanical stress, physical and physiology stress) can stimulate ethylene production. High levels of ethylene in turn can also inhibit growth, cause premature ripening and induce the onset of senescence, which then potentially reduce plant productivity. The ACC Synthase (ACS) and ACC Oxidase (ACO) genes are genes that have role in the ethylene production. By regulating those genes, especially ethylene biosynthesis genes, we might improve the quality of fruit at post harvest condition. Therefore, in this research we studied fruit ripening related genes expression on banana such as MaACS family at different environment condition. The result of study can give contributions in developing of new plants with desired traits or new post harvest technologies.

  15. Functional characterization of a tomato COBRA-like gene functioning in fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Ying

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies have demonstrated that the COBRA gene is critical for biosynthesis of cell wall constituents comprising structural tissues of roots, stalks, leaves and other vegetative organs, however, its role in fruit development and ripening remains largely unknown. Results We identified a tomato gene (SlCOBRA-like homologous to Arabidopsis COBRA, and determined its role in fleshy fruit biology. The SlCOBRA-like gene is highly expressed in vegetative organs and in early fruit development, but its expression in fruit declines dramatically during ripening stages, implying a primary role in early fruit development. Fruit-specific suppression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in impaired cell wall integrity and up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in cell wall degradation during early fruit development. In contrast, fruit-specific overexpression of SlCOBRA-like resulted in increased wall thickness of fruit epidermal cells, more collenchymatous cells beneath the epidermis, elevated levels of cellulose and reduced pectin solubilization in the pericarp cells of red ripe fruits. Moreover, transgenic tomato fruits overexpressing SlCOBRA-like exhibited desirable early development phenotypes including enhanced firmness and a prolonged shelf life. Conclusions Our results suggest that SlCOBRA-like plays an important role in fruit cell wall architecture and provides a potential genetic tool for extending the shelf life of tomato and potentially additional fruits.

  16. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fabrizio; Alba, Rob; Schouten, Henk; Soglio, Valeria; Gianfranceschi, Luca; Serra, Sara; Musacchi, Stefano; Sansavini, Silviero; Costa, Guglielmo; Fei, Zhangjun; Giovannoni, James

    2010-10-25

    Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-methylcyclopropene. To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies), we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato) microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated.The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database) and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato) microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization during normal climacteric apple ripening, as well as

  17. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansavini Silviero

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the functional machinery underlying these processes is of both biological and practical importance. To date many reports have been made on the analysis of gene expression in apple. In this study we focused our investigation on the role of ethylene during apple maturation, specifically comparing transcriptomics of normal ripening with changes resulting from application of the hormone receptor competitor 1-Methylcyclopropene. Results To gain insight into the molecular process regulating ripening in apple, and to compare to tomato (model species for ripening studies, we utilized both homologous and heterologous (tomato microarray to profile transcriptome dynamics of genes involved in fruit development and ripening, emphasizing those which are ethylene regulated. The use of both types of microarrays facilitated transcriptome comparison between apple and tomato (for the later using data previously published and available at the TED: tomato expression database and highlighted genes conserved during ripening of both species, which in turn represent a foundation for further comparative genomic studies. The cross-species analysis had the secondary aim of examining the efficiency of heterologous (specifically tomato microarray hybridization for candidate gene identification as related to the ripening process. The resulting transcriptomics data revealed coordinated gene expression during fruit ripening of a subset of ripening-related and ethylene responsive genes, further facilitating the analysis of ethylene response during fruit maturation and ripening. Conclusion Our combined strategy based on microarray hybridization enabled transcriptome characterization

  18. A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The transition of fleshy fruit maturation to ripening is regulated by exogenous and endogenous signals which coordinate the transition of the fruit to a final state of attractiveness to seed dispersing organisms. Tomato is a model for biology and genetics regulating specific ripening pathways includ...

  19. Over-expression ofGhDWF4 gene improved tomato fruit quality and accelerated fruit ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Shu-e; LUO Ming; LI Fang; LI Xian-bi; HONG Qi-bin; ZHAI Yun-lan; HU Ming-yu; WEI Ting; DENG Sha-sha; PEI Yan

    2015-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs), a class of steroidal phytohormones are essential for many biological processes in plant. However, little is known about their roles in fruit development. Tomato is a highly valuable vegetable and has been adopted as the model species for studying fruit growth, development, and ripening. To understand the role of endogenous BRs in the de-velopment of tomato fruit, the expression patterns of three homologues ofDWF4 gene were investigated and the transgenic tomato plants were generated in which theGhDWF4 gene from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) was ectopicaly expressed. The contents of main quality components were analyzed in fruits of transgenic tomato line and non-transgenic line (control plant, CP) when the fruit was mature.SlCYP90B3 that possesses high homology withGhDWF4 preferentialy expressed in mature fruit. Signiifcantly higher contents of soluble sugar, soluble proteins, and vitamin C were obtained in fruit of transgenic tomato lines compared with those in the CP. Furthermore, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted fruit growth and ripening. The weight per fruit was increased by about 23% in transgenic lines. In addition, overexpressingGhDWF4 promoted the germination of transgenic tomato seeds and hypocotyl elongation of seedlings. These results indicated that overexpressingGhDWF4 gene in tomato could increase the contents of many nutrients in fruit and accelerate fruit ripening. It is suggested that increased endogenous BRs in fruit affect the growth and development of tomato fruit and therefore improved the nutrient quality of tomato.

  20. Effect of seed on ripening control components during avocado fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershkovitz, Vera; Friedman, Haya; Goldschmidt, Eliezer E; Feygenberg, Oleg; Pesis, Edna

    2011-12-15

    Seedless avocado fruit are produced alongside seeded fruit in the cultivar Arad, and both reach maturity at the same time. Using this system, it was possible to show that avocado seed inhibits the ripening process: seedless fruits exhibited higher response to exogenous ethylene already at the fruitlet stage, and also at the immature and mature fruit stages. They produced higher CO₂ levels, and the ethylene peak was apparent at the fruitlet stage of seedless fruit, but not of seeded ones. The expression levels of PaETR, PaERS1 and PaCTR1 on the day of harvest at all developmental stages were very similar between seeded and seedless fruit, except that PaCTR1 was higher in seedless fruit only at very early stages. This expression pattern suggests that the seed does not have an effect on components of the ethylene response pathway when fruits are just picked. The expression of MADS-box genes, PaAG1 and PaAGL9, preceded the increase in ethylene production of mature seeded fruit, but not at earlier stages. However, only PaAGL9 was induced in seedless fruit at early stages of development. Taken together, these data suggest that these genes are perhaps involved in climacteric response in seeded fruit, and the seed is responsible for their induction at normal fruit ripening.

  1. Folate levels and polyglutamylation profiles of papaya (Carica papaya cv. Maradol) during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Parra, Perla A; García-Salinas, Carolina; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; de la Garza, Rocío I Díaz

    2013-04-24

    Folates are essential micronutrients for humans, and their deficiency causes several detrimental effects on human health. Papaya fruit is an important natural source of some micronutrients. This paper presents a first complete characterization of folate derivatives accumulated in cv. Maradol papaya during fruit development and ripening processes. During postharvest ripening, the fruit accumulated up to 24.5% of the daily folate recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for an adult in a 1 cup (145 g) portion. Tetrahydrofolate (THF) and 5-methyl-THF were the predominant folate classes observed. Surprisingly, an unusually long polyglutamylation profile of tentatively up to 17 glutamates linked to 5-methyl-THF was detected; to the authors' knowledge, this very long polyglutamyl tail has not been reported for any organism, and it is probably characteristic of this plant species. This polyglutamylation degree changed throughout fruit development and ripening, showing the largest differences at the onset of ripening. This work raises questions about the functional role of folate derivatives in fruit development.

  2. Carotenoid accumulation during tomato fruit ripening is modulated by the auxin-ethylene balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Liyan; Diretto, Gianfranco; Purgatto, Eduardo; Danoun, Saïda; Zouine, Mohamed; Li, Zhengguo; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Bouzayen, Mondher; Giuliano, Giovanni; Chervin, Christian

    2015-05-08

    Tomato fruit ripening is controlled by ethylene and is characterized by a shift in color from green to red, a strong accumulation of lycopene, and a decrease in β-xanthophylls and chlorophylls. The role of other hormones, such as auxin, has been less studied. Auxin is retarding the fruit ripening. In tomato, there is no study of the carotenoid content and related transcript after treatment with auxin. We followed the effects of application of various hormone-like substances to "Mature-Green" fruits. Application of an ethylene precursor (ACC) or of an auxin antagonist (PCIB) to tomato fruits accelerated the color shift, the accumulation of lycopene, α-, β-, and δ-carotenes and the disappearance of β-xanthophylls and chlorophyll b. By contrast, application of auxin (IAA) delayed the color shift, the lycopene accumulation and the decrease of chlorophyll a. Combined application of IAA + ACC led to an intermediate phenotype. The levels of transcripts coding for carotenoid biosynthesis enzymes, for the ripening regulator Rin, for chlorophyllase, and the levels of ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA) were monitored in the treated fruits. Correlation network analyses suggest that ABA, may also be a key regulator of several responses to auxin and ethylene treatments. The results suggest that IAA retards tomato ripening by affecting a set of (i) key regulators, such as Rin, ethylene and ABA, and (ii) key effectors, such as genes for lycopene and β-xanthophyll biosynthesis and for chlorophyll degradation.

  3. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yanwei; Hu, Guojian; Breitel, Dario; Liu, Mingchun; Mila, Isabelle; Frasse, Pierre; Fu, Yongyao; Aharoni, Asaph; Bouzayen, Mondher; Zouine, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2) which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  4. Auxin Response Factor SlARF2 Is an Essential Component of the Regulatory Mechanism Controlling Fruit Ripening in Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Hao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene is the main regulator of climacteric fruit ripening, by contrast the putative role of other phytohormones in this process remains poorly understood. The present study brings auxin signaling components into the mechanism regulating tomato fruit ripening through the functional characterization of Auxin Response Factor2 (SlARF2 which encodes a downstream component of auxin signaling. Two paralogs, SlARF2A and SlARF2B, are found in the tomato genome, both displaying a marked ripening-associated expression but distinct responsiveness to ethylene and auxin. Down-regulation of either SlARF2A or SlARF2B resulted in ripening defects while simultaneous silencing of both genes led to severe ripening inhibition suggesting a functional redundancy among the two ARFs. Tomato fruits under-expressing SlARF2 produced less climacteric ethylene and exhibited a dramatic down-regulation of the key ripening regulators RIN, CNR, NOR and TAGL1. Ethylene treatment failed to reverse the non-ripening phenotype and the expression of ethylene signaling and biosynthesis genes was strongly altered in SlARF2 down-regulated fruits. Although both SlARF proteins are transcriptional repressors the data indicate they work as positive regulators of tomato fruit ripening. Altogether, the study defines SlARF2 as a new component of the regulatory network controlling the ripening process in tomato.

  5. Ripening and shelf life of 'BRS Caipira' banana fruit stored under room temperature or refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orjana Santos Lima

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BRS Caipira variety, internationally known as 'Yangambi km 5', is an alternative to meet the demand of 'Maçã'-type fruit due to its resistance to Panama disease. This study had the objective of generating information about 'BRS Caipira' fruit ripening and cold storage potential. For the ripening study fruits were stored under room temperature conditions (25±2°C / 58±6% U.R. and assessed for postharvest life evaluation and characterization of seven maturity stages based on peel color: completely green - MS1; green with yellow traces - MS2; more green than yellow - MS3; more yellow than green - MS4; yellow with green tips - MS5; completely yellow - MS6; yellow with brown spots - MS7. For the cold storage potential study, fruits at MS1 were cold stored (14±1°C / 53±2% U.R. for 28 days. Weekly, fruits were transferred to room temperature to ripen until MS6 when were assessed for quality attributes. Ripening of 'BRS Caipira' fruit was characterized as slow between MS1 and MS2 (averaging five days, then fast between MS2 and MS6 (up to four days in average, and undergoing determinant changes between MS6 and MS7: pulp yield reached 80%, titratable acidity reduced by 50% and ratio increased by 78%. Cold storage extended shelf life by up to 19 days as compared with control, without visible symptoms of chilling injury, although tends to reduce soluble solids in ripe fruit. Maximum recommended time for storage of 'BRS Caipira' fruit at 14°C is 21 days, since it allows a few more days under room temperature until fruit reach MS6.

  6. The regulatory mechanism of fruit ripening revealed by analyses of direct targets of the tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-06-01

    The developmental process of ripening is unique to fleshy fruits and a key factor in fruit quality. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, is required for broad aspects of ripening, including ethylene-dependent and -independent pathways. However, our knowledge of direct RIN target genes has been limited, considering the broad effects of RIN on ripening. In a recent work published in The Plant Cell, we identified 241 direct RIN target genes by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) and transcriptome analysis. Functional classification of the targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of many biological processes including well-known ripening processes such as climacteric ethylene production and lycopene accumulation. In addition, we found that ethylene is required for the full expression of RIN and several RIN-targeting transcription factor genes at the ripening stage. Here, based on our recently published findings and additional data, we discuss the ripening processes regulated by RIN and the interplay between RIN and ethylene.

  7. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W.; van Bussel, Lambertus J. A.; Cristescu, Simona M.; Cator, Eric; Mariani, Celestina; Vriezen, Wim H.; Rieu, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2) and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin) mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i) the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii) the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits. PMID:25278945

  8. Tomato ACS4 is necessary for timely start of and progression through the climacteric phase of fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne eHoogstrate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Climacteric fruit ripening, as it occurs in many fruit crops, depends on a rapid, autocatalytic increase in ethylene production. This agriculturally important process has been studied extensively, with tomato simultaneously acting both as a model species and target crop for modification. In tomato, the ethylene biosynthetic genes ACC SYNTHASE2 (ACS2 and ACS4 are highly expressed during fruit ripening, with a combined loss of both ACS2 and ACS4 activity preventing generation of the ethylene burst necessary for fruit ripening. However, the individual roles and importance of ACS2 and ACS4 have not been determined. In this study, we examined specifically the role of ACS4 by comparing the phenotype of an acs4 mutant firstly with that of the wild-type, and secondly with two novel ripening-inhibitor (rin mutants. Ethylene production during ripening was significantly reduced in both acs4-1, and rin lines, with rin genotypes showing the weaker ethylene burst. Also i the time between anthesis and the start of fruit ripening and ii the time required to progress through ripening were significantly longer in acs4-1 than in the wild type, but shorter than in the strongest rin mutant. The delay in ripening was reflected in the lower expression of ripening-related transcripts during the mature green and light red ripening stages. Furthermore, expression of ACS2 and ACS4 was strongly dependent on a functional RIN gene, while ACS2 expression was largely independent of ACS4. Altogether, we show that ACS4 is necessary for normal progression of tomato fruit ripening and that mutation of this gene may provide a useful means for altering ripening traits.

  9. Genome-Wide Identification of the Transcription Factors Involved in Citrus Fruit Ripening from the Transcriptomes of a Late-Ripening Sweet Orange Mutant and Its Wild Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juxun; Fu, Lili; Yi, Hualin

    2016-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a genetically programmed process. Transcription factors (TFs) play key roles in plant development and ripening by temporarily and spatially regulating the transcription of their target genes. In this study, a total of 159 TFs were identified from a spontaneous late-ripening mutant 'Fengwan' (C. sinensis L. Osbeck) sweet orange (MT) and its wild-type counterpart ('Fengjie 72-1', WT) along the ripening period via the Transcription Factor Prediction of PlantTFDB 3.0. Fifty-two differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT; 92 and 120 differentially expressed TFs were identified in WT and MT, respectively. The Venn diagram analysis showed that 16 differentially expressed TFs were identified between MT and WT and during the ripening of WT and MT. These TFs were primarily assigned to the families of C2H2, Dof, bHLH, ERF, MYB, NAC and LBD. Particularly, the number of TFs of the ERF family was the greatest between MT and WT. According to the results of the WGCNA analysis, a weighted correlation network analysis tool, several important TFs correlated to abscisic acid (ABA), citric acid, fructose, glucose and sucrose were identified, such as RD26, NTT, GATA7 and MYB21/62/77. Hierarchical cluster analysis and the expression analysis conducted at five fruit ripening stages further validated the pivotal TFs that potentially function during orange fruit development and ripening.

  10. Changing ribulose diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase activity in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravdo, B A; Palgi, A; Lurie, S

    1977-08-01

    Tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill) from green, pink, and red stages were assayed for changes in the activity of ribulose diphosphate carboxylase and oxygenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, changes in the levels of glycolate and respiratory gas exchange. The ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity decreased as the fruit ripened. By comparison, the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity increased during the transition from the green to the pink stage, and declined afterward. The changes in the endogenous glycolate levels and the respiratory gas exchange, as observed at different stages of ripening, resembled the changes in the ribulose diphosphate oxygenase activity. The utilization of glycolate in further metabolic activity may result in the formation of peroxidases required for the onset of ripening.

  11. Biochemistry and Cell Wall Changes Associated with Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Coronel, Wendy G; Carrillo-López, Armando; Vélez de la Rocha, Rosabel; Labavitch, John M; Báez-Sañudo, Manuel A; Heredia, José B; Zazueta-Morales, José J; Vega-García, Misael O; Sañudo-Barajas, J Adriana

    2016-01-13

    Quality and compositional changes were determined in noni fruit harvested at five ripening stages, from dark-green to thaslucent-grayish. Fruit ripening was accompanied by acidity and soluble solids accumulation but pH diminution, whereas the softening profile presented three differential steps named early (no significant softening), intermediate (significant softening), and final (dramatic softening). At early step the extensive depolymerization of hydrosoluble pectins and the significantly increment of pectinase activities did not correlate with the slight reduction in firmness. The intermediate step showed an increment of pectinases and hemicellulases activities. The final step was accompanied by the most significant reduction in the yield of alcohol-insoluble solids as well as in the composition of uronic acids and neutral sugars; pectinases increased their activity and depolymerization of hemicellulosic fractions occurred. Noni ripening is a process conducted by the coordinated action of pectinases and hemicellulases that promote the differential dissasembly of cell wall polymers.

  12. Molecular cloning of tomato fruit polygalacturonase: Analysis of polygalacturonase mRNA levels during ripening

    OpenAIRE

    DellaPenna, Dean; Alexander, Danny C.; Bennett, Alan B

    1986-01-01

    The expression of a gene encoding the cell wall-degrading enzyme polygalacturonase [poly(1,4-α-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.15] was characterized during tomato fruit ripening. Polygalacturonase was purified from ripe tomato fruit and used to produce highly specific antiserum. Immunoblot analyses detected a 45- and a 46-kDa protein in ripe fruit but immunoprecipitation of in vitro translation products of mRNA from ripe tomato fruit yielded a single 54-kDa polypeptide, suggesting...

  13. Studies on the role of polygalacturonase isoenzymes in tomato fruit softening and ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Harman, Jane Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    Changes in the activity of polygalacturonase during the development and/or ripening of tomato fruit of a wide range of genotypes have been followed. Normal commercial cultivars have three forms of the enzyme; the isoenzyme having the highest molecular weight, PG1, appeared as fruit began to change colour, and its rate of accumulation was reflected in the rate of fruit softening.This early rate of softening was closely related to the eventual degree of softness shown by the fully ripe fruit.PG...

  14. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity and Color of Hydroponic Tomato Fruits at Different Stages of Ripening

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    Violeta NOUR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in order to study the simultaneous effect of on-vine ripening and examined cultivars on fruit quality, color development and antioxidant content in two different types of tomatoes. ‘Admiro’ and ‘Komet’ (normal average fruit weight and ‘Cheramy’ (cherry type cultivars grown in hydroponic culture were used. Dry matter, soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid, lycopene, b-carotene, total phenolic, total flavonoid content and hydrophilic antioxidant activity were measured in six ripening stages. Color of fruits was determined by CIELab system. The L*, a*, b* values were used to calculate hue angle (ho, chroma (C* and a* to b* ratio. In all analysed cultivars total phenolic content increased as ripening progressed, reached the maximum at the pink stage and subsequently declined, while the trend of ascorbic acid was cultivar dependent. DPPH radical scavenging activity showed significant moderately strong positive correlations with total phenolics and ascorbic acid. The content of β-carotene increased constantly during ripening while lycopene content registered a sharp rise, especially in the last stage of ripening when 47.2% of the lycopene content was accumulated. During ripening the lightness (L* decreased because tomato fruit colour became darker while the ratio of red to green colour increased as a result of carotenoids synthesis. Among color indexes, hue angle (ho was best correlated with lycopene content (r = −0.758, followed by a* (r = 0.748, C* (r = 0.708 and a*/b* (r = 0.683. Better correlations were established between main carotenoids content (lycopene + b-carotene and each of the color indexes.

  15. Effects of storage temperature and fruit ripening on firmness of fresh cut tomatoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Lana, M.; Tijskens, L.M.M.; Kooten, van O.

    2005-01-01

    Tomato fruit (cultivar Belissimo) were harvested at three different stages of ripening, sliced and stored at at 2, 5, 8, 12 and 16 °C. Firmness was measured as the force necessary to cause a deformation of 3 mm, in the outer and the radial pericarp, daily or every two days, depending on the combinat

  16. Structural characteristics of polysaccharides from olive fruit cell walls in relation to ripening and processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vierhuis, E.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: Olive fruit; olive oil; pectic polysaccharides; xyloglucans; xylans; enzyme preparations; phenolic compounds; processing; ripening Technical enzyme preparations can be used as processing aids in the olive oil industry to obtain a higher yield and a better quality of the oil. These technic

  17. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The roots of plants interact with soil mycorrhizal fungi to facilitate soil nutrient acquisition by the plant and carbon transfer to the fungus. Here we use tomato fruit ripening mutations to demonstrate that this root interaction communicates with and supports genetic mechanisms associated with th...

  18. Different mechanisms are responsible for chlorophyll dephytylation during fruit ripening and leaf senescence in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Luzia; Hofstetter, Silvia Schelbert; Christ, Bastien; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Rossi, Magdalena; Hörtensteiner, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Chlorophyll breakdown occurs in different green plant tissues (e.g. during leaf senescence and in ripening fruits). For different plant species, the PHEOPHORBIDE A OXYGENASE (PAO)/phyllobilin pathway has been described to be the major chlorophyll catabolic pathway. In this pathway, pheophorbide (i.e. magnesium- and phytol-free chlorophyll) occurs as a core intermediate. Most of the enzymes involved in the PAO/phyllobilin pathway are known; however, the mechanism of dephytylation remains uncertain. During Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf senescence, phytol hydrolysis is catalyzed by PHEOPHYTINASE (PPH), which is specific for pheophytin (i.e. magnesium-free chlorophyll). By contrast, in fruits of different Citrus spp., chlorophyllase, hydrolyzing phytol from chlorophyll, was shown to be active. Here, we enlighten the process of chlorophyll breakdown in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), both in leaves and fruits. We demonstrate the activity of the PAO/phyllobilin pathway and identify tomato PPH (SlPPH), which, like its Arabidopsis ortholog, was specifically active on pheophytin. SlPPH localized to chloroplasts and was transcriptionally up-regulated during leaf senescence and fruit ripening. SlPPH-silencing tomato lines were impaired in chlorophyll breakdown and accumulated pheophytin during leaf senescence. However, although pheophytin transiently accumulated in ripening fruits of SlPPH-silencing lines, ultimately these fruits were able to degrade chlorophyll like the wild type. We conclude that PPH is the core phytol-hydrolytic enzyme during leaf senescence in different plant species; however, fruit ripening involves other hydrolases, which are active in parallel to PPH or are the core hydrolases in fruits. These hydrolases remain unidentified, and we discuss the question of whether chlorophyllases might be involved.

  19. Identification of potential target genes for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation

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    Nakano Toshitsugu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During ripening, climacteric fruits increase their ethylene level and subsequently undergo various physiological changes, such as softening, pigmentation and development of aroma and flavor. These changes occur simultaneously and are caused by the highly synchronized expression of numerous genes at the onset of ripening. In tomatoes, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN has been regarded as a key regulator responsible for the onset of ripening by acting upstream of both ethylene- and non-ethylene-mediated controls. However, except for LeACS2, direct targets of RIN have not been clarified, and little is known about the transcriptional cascade for ripening. Results Using immunoprecipitated (IPed DNA fragments recovered by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP with anti-RIN antibody from ripening tomato fruit, we analyzed potential binding sites for RIN (CArG-box sites in the promoters of representative ripening-induced genes by quantitative PCR. Results revealed nearly a 5- to 20-fold enrichment of CArG boxes in the promoters of LeACS2, LeACS4, PG, TBG4, LeEXP1, and LeMAN4 and of RIN itself, indicating direct interaction of RIN with their promoters in vivo. Moreover, sequence analysis and genome mapping of 51 cloned IPed DNAs revealed potential RIN binding sites. Quantitative PCR revealed that four of the potential binding sites were enriched 4- to 17-fold in the IPed DNA pools compared with the controls, indicating direct interaction of RIN with these sites in vivo. Near one of the four CArG boxes we found a gene encoding a protein similar to thioredoxin y1. An increase in the transcript level of this gene was observed with ripening in normal fruit but not in the rin mutant, suggesting that RIN possibly induces its expression. Conclusions The presented results suggest that RIN controls fruit softening and ethylene production by the direct transcriptional regulation of cell-wall-modifying genes and ethylene biosynthesis genes

  20. Regulation of Glutamate Dehydrogenase and Glutamine Synthetase in Avocado Fruit during Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loulakakis, K. A.; Roubelakis-Angelakis, K. A.; Kanellis, A. K.

    1994-09-01

    The activity, protein, and isoenzymic profiles of glutamate de-hydrogenase (GDH) and glutamine synthetase (GS) were studied during development and ripening of avocado (Percea americana Mill. cv Hass) fruit. During fruit development, the activity and protein content of both GDH and GS remained relatively constant. In contrast, considerable changes in these enzymes were observed during ripening of avocado fruit. The specific activity of GDH increased about 4-fold, coincident with a similar increase in GDH protein content and mRNA levels. On the other hand, GS specific activity showed a decline at the end of the ripening process. On the isoenzymic profile of GDH, changes in the prevalence of the seven isoenzymes were found, with a predominance of the more cathodal isoenzymes in the unripe and of the most anodal isoenzymes in the ripe fruit. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that avocado fruit GDH consists of two subunits whose association gives rise to seven isoenzymes. The results support the view that the predominance of the more anodal isoenzymes in the overripe fruit was due to the accumulation of the [alpha]-polypeptide.

  1. Spatial and temporal analysis of textural and biochemical changes of imported avocado cv. Hass during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landahl, Sandra; Meyer, Marjolaine Dorothée; Terry, Leon Alexander

    2009-08-12

    The ripeness degree of climacteric fruits, such as avocado ( Persea americana Mill.), can be correlated with rheological properties. However, there remains little information on not only the postharvest changes in texture of avocado fruit from different origins but also the spatial variation within fruit. In addition, the relationship between changes in texture and composition of fatty acids and major nonstructural carbohydrates (NSCs) of fruit tissue during ripening is unknown. The texture of different horizontally cut slices from individual fruits within a consignment was measured during ripening using a previously unreported technique. The composition of fatty acids and NSCs in fruit mesocarp tissue was determined. The composition of fatty acids and oil and dry matter contents varied significantly according to origin. Significant changes in texture, mannoheptulose and perseitol contents, and linoleic acid percentage were found in avocado fruit flesh during ripening. Spatial variation within fruit was detected in both textural and biochemical characteristics.

  2. Characterization of a calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTA gene family during tomato fruit development and ripening

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    Yang Tianbao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fruit ripening is a complicated development process affected by a variety of external and internal cues. It is well established that calcium treatment delays fruit ripening and senescence. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Results Previous studies have shown that calcium/calmodulin-regulated SR/CAMTAs are important for modulation of disease resistance, cold sensitivity and wounding response in vegetative tissues. To study the possible roles of this gene family in fruit development and ripening, we cloned seven SR/CAMTAs, designated as SlSRs, from tomato, a model fruit-bearing crop. All seven genes encode polypeptides with a conserved DNA-binding domain and a calmodulin-binding site. Calmodulin specifically binds to the putative targeting site in a calcium-dependent manner. All SlSRs were highly yet differentially expressed during fruit development and ripening. Most notably, the expression of SlSR2 was scarcely detected at the mature green and breaker stages, two critical stages of fruit development and ripening; and SlSR3L and SlSR4 were expressed exclusively in fruit tissues. During the developmental span from 10 to 50 days post anthesis, the expression profiles of all seven SlSRs were dramatically altered in ripening mutant rin compared with wildtype fruit. By contrast, only minor alterations were noted for ripening mutant nor and Nr fruit. In addition, ethylene treatment of mature green wildtype fruit transiently stimulated expression of all SlSRs within one to two hours. Conclusions This study indicates that SlSR expression is influenced by both the Rin-mediated developmental network and ethylene signaling. The results suggest that calcium signaling is involved in the regulation of fruit development and ripening through calcium/calmodulin/SlSR interactions.

  3. Mannosyl- and Xylosyl-Containing Glycans Promote Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priem, B; Gross, K C

    1992-01-01

    The oligosaccharide glycans mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosamine and mannosylalpha1-6(mannosylalpha1-3)(xylosylbeta1-2) mannosylbeta1-4-N-acetylglucosaminyl(fucosylalpha1-3) N-acetylglucosamine were infiltrated into mature green tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., cv Rutgers). Coinfiltration of 1 nanogram per gram fresh weight of the glycans with 40 micrograms per gram fresh weight galactose, a level of galactose insufficient to promote ripening, stimulated ripening as measured by red coloration and ethylene production.

  4. RNA-seq analysis of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. fruit ripening

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    Azhani Abdul-Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is known for its delectable taste and contains high amount of xanthones which have been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and other bioactive properties. However, stage-specific regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening has never been studied in detail. We have performed a comparative transcriptomic analysis of three ripening stages (Stage 0, 2 and 6 of mangosteen. We have obtained a raw data from six libraries through Illumina HiSeq 4000. A total of ~40 Gb of raw data were generated. Clean reads of 650,887,650 (bp were obtained from 656,913,570 (bp raw reads. The raw transcriptome data were deposited to SRA database, with the BioProject accession number of PRJNA339916. These data will be beneficial for transcriptome profiling in order to study the regulation of mangosteen fruit ripening. The lack of a complete sequence database from this species impedes protein identification. These data sets provide a reference data for the exploration of novel genes or proteins to understand mangosteen fruit ripening behaviour.

  5. The expression of tin gene in prolongated tomato fruit ripening - Lycopersicom esculentum Mill.

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    Zdravković Jasmina

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomato selection programme, aiming to create a tomato hybrid with better fruit firmness, has been based on adding rin gene in perspective selection material. The fruit firmness has been based on decelerated ripening which prolongs the shelf life. Heterozygote genotypes (rin/+ have considerably longer shelf life that genotypes with uniform ripening (+/+. The effects of rin gene on shelf life have been examined on four experimental hybrids (K 56S K - 18, K - 64 and K -15 - rin/+ genetic configuration compared with Atina Fl genotype (uniform ripening +/+ K - 91 selected, line (rin/rin and Fino F1 (DRS unknown genetic construction and very good fruit firmness. The parameter for shelf life has been the fruit weight loss during the preservation - from harvest till the fading. The weight loss has been recorded every 7th day during two months. The experimental hybrids showed good agro technical characteristics of mid early tomato intended for production in the open field. During the shelf life, the genotype K - 15 faded the most slowly, both in the group of green and mature fruits.

  6. Portable Raman spectroscopy for an in-situ monitoring the ripening of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebolazabala, Josu; Maguregui, Maite; Morillas, Héctor; de Diego, Alberto; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2017-06-01

    Ripening is one of the most important transformations that fruits and vegetables suffer, from an unripe to a ripe stage. In this study, it was followed up and analyzed the variations in the composition of tomato fruits at different ripening stages (green or unripe, orange or middle ripe, red or ripe and brown or overripe). The results obtained from the Raman measurements carried out showed a change in the composition of tomato fruits in the transit from green to brown. The analysis confirmed an increase of carotenoids from an unripe to a ripe stage of these fruits, being lycopene the characteristic carotenoid of the optimum ripe stage. The presence of chlorophyll and cuticular waxes decrease from the unripe to the ripe stage. Moreover, the relative intensity of phytofluene, a transition compound in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, is higher in the orange or middle ripening stage. The results obtained in-situ, without cutting and handling the tomato fruits, by means of a portable Raman spectrometer offered the same information that can be achieved using a more expensive and sophisticated confocal Raman microscope.

  7. Effect of the potassium permanganate during papaya fruit ripening: Ethylene production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, S. F.; Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Aroucha, E. M. M.; Silva, R. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The effect of potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the ripening process of papaya fruits by monitoring the ethylene emission rates is reported. The ethylene emission was monitored by a photoacoustic spectrometer. Two experimental conditions were applied, being one of them just putting the fruit alone inside the sampling chamber and the second, modifying the atmosphere by the presence of KMnO4. The use of the ethylene absorber reduces the autocatalytic process of ethylene during papaya fruit ripening. For 20 g of KMnO4 the maximal intensity of the ethylene emission decreases by a factor two. Using the same amount of KMnO4, a reduction of about 2.2% in the concentration of ethylene for a mixture of 1ppmv of ethylene in synthetic air was observed.

  8. Spermidine affects the transcriptome responses to high temperature stress in ripening tomato fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin CHENG; Rong-rong SUN; Fei-yan WANG; Zhen PENG; Fu-ling KONG; Jian WU; Jia-shu CAO; Gang LU

    2012-01-01

    Objective:High temperature adversely affects quality and yield of tomato fruit.Polyamine can alleviate heat injury in plants.This study is aimed to investigate the effects of polyamine and high temperature on transcriptional profiles in ripening tomato fruit.Methods:An Affymetrix tomato microarray was used to evaluate changes in gene expression in response to exogenous spermidine (Spd,1 mmol/L) and high temperature (33/27 ℃) treatments in tomato fruits at mature green stage.Results:Of the 10101 tomato probe sets represented on the array,127 loci were differentially expressed in high temperature-treated fruits,compared with those under normal conditions,functionally characterized by their involvement in signal transduction,defense responses,oxidation reduction,and hormone responses.However,only 34 genes were up-regulated in Spd-treated fruits as compared with non-treated fruits,which were involved in primary metabolism,signal transduction,hormone responses,transcription factors,and stress responses.Meanwhile,55 genes involved in energy metabolism,cell wall metabolism,and photosynthesis were down-regulated in Spd-treated fruits.Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that Spd might play an important role in regulation of tomato fruit response to high temperature during ripening stage.

  9. Role of the Tomato Non-Ripening Mutation in Regulating Fruit Quality Elucidated Using iTRAQ Protein Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xin-Yu; Wang, Rui-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Dan; Luo, Yun-Bo; Fu, Da-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Natural mutants of the Non-ripening (Nor) gene repress the normal ripening of tomato fruit. The molecular mechanism of fruit ripening regulation by the Nor gene is unclear. To elucidate how the Nor gene can affect ripening and fruit quality at the protein level, we used the fruits of Nor mutants and wild-type Ailsa Craig (AC) to perform iTRAQ (isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation) analysis. The Nor mutation altered tomato fruit ripening and affected quality in various respects, including ethylene biosynthesis by down-regulating the abundance of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO), pigment biosynthesis by repressing phytoene synthase 1 (PSY1), ζ-carotene isomerase (Z-ISO), chalcone synthase 1 (CHS1) and other proteins, enhancing fruit firmness by increasing the abundance of cellulose synthase protein, while reducing those of polygalacturonase 2 (PG2) and pectate lyase (PL), altering biosynthesis of nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, and anthocyanins. Conversely, Nor mutation also enhanced the fruit’s resistance to some pathogens by up-regulating the expression of several genes associated with stress and defense. Therefore, the Nor gene is involved in the regulation of fruit ripening and quality. It is useful in the future as a means to improve fruit quality in tomato. PMID:27732677

  10. Changes in oxidative stress in transgenic RNAi ACO1 tomato fruit during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglous, Najat Mohamed; Ali, Zainon Mohd; Hassan, Maizom; Zainal, Zamri

    2013-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) is the second most cultivated vegetable in the world and widely used as a system for studying the role of ethylene during fruit ripening. Our objective was to study the oxidative stress and antioxidative metabolism during ripening of non transgenic tomato and transgenic line-21 tomato which reduced ethylene. The line-21 of transgenic tomato plants (RNAi ACO1) had lower ethylene production and longer shelf-life more than 32 days as compared to the wild-type fruits which have very short shelf-life. In this study, tomato fruit were divided into five different stages (MG: mature green 5%, B: breaker 25%, T: turning 50%, O: orange75%, RR: red ripe100%). The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were measured to assess changes in oxidative stress. The LOX activity and MDA content decreased significantly obtaining 2.6-fold and 1.2-fold, respectively, as compared to the wild type fruit. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities were increased to 1.9 and 1.2 folds from the mature green to the fully ripe stage in transgenic tomatoes. Furthermore, the wild type tomato increases 1.3 in SOD and 1.6 in CAT activities. The overall results indicate that the wild type tomato fruit showed a faster rate of ripening, parallel to decline in the rate of enzymatic antioxidative systems as compared to the transgenic line-21 tomato fruit. In addition, the results show that the antioxidant capacity is improved during the ripening process and is accompanied by an increase in the oxidative stress.

  11. Regulation of fruit ascorbic acid concentrations during ripening in high and low vitamin C tomato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellidou Ifigeneia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To gain insight into the regulation of fruit ascorbic acid (AsA pool in tomatoes, a combination of metabolite analyses, non-labelled and radiolabelled substrate feeding experiments, enzyme activity measurements and gene expression studies were carried out in fruits of the ‘low-’ and ‘high-AsA’ tomato cultivars ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ respectively. Results The two cultivars exhibited different profiles of total AsA (totAsA, AsA + dehydroascorbate and AsA accumulation during ripening, but both displayed a characteristic peak in concentrations at the breaker stage. Substrate feeding experiments demonstrated that the L-galactose pathway is the main AsA biosynthetic route in tomato fruits, but that substrates from alternative pathways can increase the AsA pool at specific developmental stages. In addition, we show that young fruits display a higher AsA biosynthetic capacity than mature ones, but this does not lead to higher AsA concentrations due to either enhanced rates of AsA breakdown (‘Ailsa Craig’ or decreased rates of AsA recycling (‘Santorini’, depending on the cultivar. In the later stages of ripening, differences in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations of the two cultivars can be explained by differences in the rate of AsA recycling activities. Analysis of the expression of AsA metabolic genes showed that only the expression of one orthologue of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (SlGGP1, and of two monodehydroascorbate reductases (SlMDHAR1 and SlMDHAR3 correlated with the changes in fruit totAsA-AsA concentrations during fruit ripening in ‘Ailsa Craig’, and that only the expression of SlGGP1 was linked to the high AsA concentrations found in red ripe ‘Santorini’ fruits. Conclusions Results indicate that ‘Ailsa Craig’ and ‘Santorini’ use complementary mechanisms to maintain the fruit AsA pool. In the low-AsA cultivar (‘Ailsa Craig’, alternative routes of AsA biosynthesis may

  12. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  13. Prospective thinking in a mustelid? Eira barbara (Carnivora) cache unripe fruits to consume them once ripened

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, Fernando G.; Alvarado-Díaz, Isaías

    2011-08-01

    The ability of nonhuman animals to project individual actions into the future is a hotly debated topic. We describe the caching behaviour of tayras ( Eira barbara) based on direct observations in the field, pictures from camera traps and radio telemetry, providing evidence that these mustelids pick and cache unripe fruit for future consumption. This is the first reported case of harvesting of unripe fruits by a nonhuman animal. Ripe fruits are readily taken by a variety of animals, and tayras might benefit by securing a food source before strong competition takes place. Unripe climacteric fruits need to be harvested when mature to ensure that they continue their ripening process, and tayras accurately choose mature stages of these fruits for caching. Tayras cache both native (sapote) and non-native (plantain) fruits that differ in morphology and developmental timeframes, showing sophisticated cognitive ability that might involve highly developed learning abilities and/or prospective thinking.

  14. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  15. Metabolism of carotenoids and apocarotenoids during ripening of raspberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekwilder, M.J.; Meer, van der I.M.; Simic, A.; Uitdewilligen, J.; Arkel, van J.; Vos, de C.H.; Jonker, H.H.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Sibbesen, O.; Qvist, I.; Mikkelsen, J.D.; Hall, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are important lipophilic antioxidants in fruits. Apocarotenoids such as ¿-ionone and ß-ionone, which are breakdown products of carotenoids, are important for the flavor characteristics of raspberry fruit, and have also been suggested to have beneficial effects on human health. Raspberry

  16. Transcriptome and Metabolite Profiling Show That APETALA2a Is a Major Regulator of Tomato Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karlova, R.B.; Rosin, F.M.A.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Parapunova, V.A.; Do, P.T.; Fernie, A.R.; Fraser, P.D.; Baxter, C.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) requires the coordination of both developmental cues as well as the plant hormone ethylene. Although the role of ethylene in mediating climacteric ripening has been established, knowledge regarding the developmental regulators that modulate the involve

  17. Cell-wall-associated endo-B-mannanase increases in the skin and outer pericarp of tomato fruits during ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewley, J.D.; Banik, M.; Bourgault, R.; Fuertado, A.; Toorop, P.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2000-01-01

    Activity of endo-ß-mannanase increases during ripening of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit of the cultivar Trust. ß-Mannoside mannohydrolase is also present during ripening, but its pattern of activity is different from that of endo-ß-mannanase. The increase in endo-ß-mannanase activity

  18. Insights into transcriptional regulation of β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase, an N-glycan-processing enzyme involved in ripening-associated fruit softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Mohammad; Ghosh, Sumit; Kumar, Vinay; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Chakraborty, Subhra; Datta, Asis

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening-specific N-glycan processing enzyme, β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), plays an important role in the ripening-associated fruit-softening process. However, the regulation of fruit ripening-specific expression of β-Hex is not well understood. We have identified and functionally characterized the fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex and provided insights into its transcriptional regulation during fruit ripening. Our results demonstrate that RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), a global fruit ripening regulator, and ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING 1 (SlASR1), a poorly characterized ripening-related protein, are the transcriptional regulators of β-Hex. Both RIN and SlASR1 directly bound to the β-Hex promoter fragments containing CArG and C₂₋₃(C/G)A cis-acting elements, the binding sites for RIN and SlASR1, respectively. Moreover, β-Hex expression/promoter activity in tomato fruits was downregulated once expression of either RIN or SlASR1 was suppressed; indicating that RIN and SlASR1 positively regulate the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. Interestingly, RIN could also bind to the SlASR1 promoter, which contains several CArG cis-acting elements, and SlASR1 expression was suppressed in rin mutant fruits, indicating that RIN also acts as a positive regulator of SlASR1 expression during fruit ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that RIN, both directly and indirectly, through SlASR1, regulates the transcription of β-Hex during fruit ripening. The fruit ripening-specific promoter of β-Hex could be a useful tool in regulating gene expression during fruit ripening.

  19. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU YongZhong; LIU Qing; XIONG JingJing; DENG XiuXin

    2007-01-01

    'Fengjiewancheng' (FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of 'Fengjie 72-1' navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of sucrose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Resuits showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering)and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant's gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1)was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its parental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  20. Difference of a citrus late-ripening mutant (Citrus sinensis) from its parental line in sugar and acid metabolism at the fruit ripening stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    ‘Fengjiewancheng’(FW) (Citrus sinensis), a bud sport of‘Fengjie 72-1’navel orange (FJ), ripens one month later than its parental line. Differences in sugar and acid content and the transcript level of su-crose- and citric-metabolic enzymes for the two cultivars were investigated during fruit ripening. Re-sults showed that both sugar and acid metabolisms of the mutant were affected by the mutation. In the pulp of FW, sugar content was significantly lower than that in FJ before 227 DAF (days after flowering) and higher at 263 DAF; the mutant’s gene expression of one isoform of citrus sucrose synthase (CitSS1) was delayed, and its gene expression of citrus acid invertase (CitAI) was stronger than that in its pa-rental cultivars at 207 and 263 DAF. In the peel, only the sucrose content in FW was significantly lower than those in FJ at the early periods of fruit ripening (165 and 187 DAF); however the transcripts of the sucrose-cleaving enzymes in the mutant were higher than those in FJ at different ripening points. As regards acid accumulation in the two cultivars, it was observed that in the pulp of the mutant, the malic acid content was significantly lower than that in its parental cultivars from 187 to 263 DAF, and in the peel, remarkably higher during the whole fruit ripening period. The citric acid content in both the pulp and the peel of FW was higher than that in those of FJ during the early ripening period and lower during the late ripening period, which were correspondingly associated in part with the higher transcript level of citrus mitochondrial citrate synthase (CitCS) and with lower or undetectable transcript level of citrus cytosolic aconitase (CitAC). Hence, it could be concluded that the mutation in FW affected sugar and acid metabolism, which might be related with other late-ripening phenotypes.

  1. Variations in zonal fruit starch concentrations of apples - a developmental phenomenon or an indication of ripening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerflinger, Franziska C; Miller, William B; Nock, Jacqueline F; Watkins, Christopher B

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of starch hydrolysis in stem, equatorial, and calyx zones of 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' apples (Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.) during maturation and ripening, and in 'Gala' apples in response to propylene or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatments after harvest, were studied. Differences in zonal starch concentrations were found for 'Empire' and 'Gala' fruits, but not for 'Honeycrisp'. During maturation and ripening of 'Empire', the concentration of starch was highest in the calyx end and lowest in the stem region. Differences in rates of starch hydrolysis among zones were not detected. 'Honeycrisp' and 'Empire' had the highest concentration of sorbitol in the calyx region, whereas it was highest in the stem-end region in 'Gala'. The distribution differences of glucose, fructose, and sucrose were similar in all three cultivars; higher fructose and glucose concentrations in the stem region, and higher sucrose concentrations in the calyx end of the fruit. Postharvest treatment of 'Gala' with propylene did not affect the internal ethylene concentration of the fruit but 1-MCP markedly inhibited it. Starch concentrations were highest in the calyx end but gradients of starch among zones were not changed by postharvest treatment. The rate of hydrolysis was slowed by 1-MCP treatment, but was unaffected by propylene. Postharvest treatments influenced sorbitol, glucose, and fructose concentrations. Patterns of starch concentration among the zones did not confirm differences in ripening, but reflected its uneven distribution throughout the fruit during development. Therefore, measured differences in zonal starch are most likely related to starch accumulation during fruit development, rather than differences in rates of starch degradation during ripening.

  2. Transcriptional Regulation of Fruit Ripening by Tomato FRUITFULL Homologs and Associated MADS Box Proteins[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Kimbara, Junji; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2 act as key ripening regulators and interact with the master regulator MADS box protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct targets of FUL1 and FUL2 by transcriptome analysis of FUL1/FUL2 suppressed fruits and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting tomato gene promoters. The ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified FUL1/FUL2 target genes that contain at least one genomic region bound by FUL1 or FUL2 (regions that occur mainly in their promoters) and exhibit FUL1/FUL2-dependent expression during ripening. These analyses identified 860 direct FUL1 targets and 878 direct FUL2 targets; this set of genes includes both direct targets of RIN and nontargets of RIN. Functional classification of the FUL1/FUL2 targets revealed that these FUL homologs function in many biological processes via the regulation of ripening-related gene expression, both in cooperation with and independent of RIN. Our in vitro assay showed that the FUL homologs, RIN, and tomato AGAMOUS-LIKE1 form DNA binding complexes, suggesting that tetramer complexes of these MADS box proteins are mainly responsible for the regulation of ripening. PMID:24415769

  3. Transcriptional regulation of fruit ripening by tomato FRUITFULL homologs and associated MADS box proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Kimbara, Junji; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box FRUITFULL homologs FUL1 and FUL2 act as key ripening regulators and interact with the master regulator MADS box protein RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN). Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct targets of FUL1 and FUL2 by transcriptome analysis of FUL1/FUL2 suppressed fruits and chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting tomato gene promoters. The ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified FUL1/FUL2 target genes that contain at least one genomic region bound by FUL1 or FUL2 (regions that occur mainly in their promoters) and exhibit FUL1/FUL2-dependent expression during ripening. These analyses identified 860 direct FUL1 targets and 878 direct FUL2 targets; this set of genes includes both direct targets of RIN and nontargets of RIN. Functional classification of the FUL1/FUL2 targets revealed that these FUL homologs function in many biological processes via the regulation of ripening-related gene expression, both in cooperation with and independent of RIN. Our in vitro assay showed that the FUL homologs, RIN, and tomato AGAMOUS-LIKE1 form DNA binding complexes, suggesting that tetramer complexes of these MADS box proteins are mainly responsible for the regulation of ripening.

  4. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG) and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takizawa, Ayami; Hyodo, Hiromi; Wada, Kanako; Ishii, Tadashi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX) and xyloglucan (XG). GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  5. Regulatory specialization of xyloglucan (XG and glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX in pericarp cell walls during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayami Takizawa

    Full Text Available Disassembly of cell wall polysaccharides by various cell wall hydrolases during fruit softening causes structural changes in hemicellulose and pectin that affect the physical properties and softening of tomato fruit. In a previous study, we showed that the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening were unique in each fruit tissue. In this study, to clarify the changes in hemicellulose in tissues during tomato fruit ripening, we focused on glucuronoarabinoxylan (GAX and xyloglucan (XG. GAX was detected only in the skin and inner epidermis of the pericarp using LM11 antibodies, whereas a large increase in XG was detected in all fruit tissues using LM15 antibodies. The activity of hemicellulose degradation enzymes, such as β-xylosidase and α-arabinofuranosidase, decreased gradually during fruit ripening, although the tomato fruits continued to soften. In contrast, GAX and XG biosynthesis-related genes were expressed in all tomato fruit tissues even during ripening, indicating that XG was synthesized throughout the fruit and that GAX may be synthesized only in the vascular bundles and the inner epidermis. Our results suggest that changes in the cell wall architecture and tissue-specific distribution of XG and GAX might be required for the regulation of fruit softening and the maintenance of fruit shape.

  6. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the fu

  7. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "K...

  8. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the fu

  9. Use of homologous and heterologous gene expression profiling tools to characterize transcription dynamics during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, F.; Alba, R.; Schouten, H.J.; Soglio, V.; Gianfranceschi, L.; Serra, S.; Musacchi, S.; Sansavini, S.; Costa, G.; Fei, Z.; Giovannoni, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Fruit development, maturation and ripening consists of a complex series of biochemical and physiological changes that in climacteric fruits, including apple and tomato, are coordinated by the gaseous hormone ethylene. These changes lead to final fruit quality and understanding of the

  10. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutagenesis of the RIN locus that regulates tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Nishizawa-Yokoi, Ayako; Endo, Masaki; Mikami, Masafumi; Toki, Seiichi

    2015-11-06

    Site-directed mutagenesis using genetic approaches can provide a wealth of resources for crop breeding as well as for biological research. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 endonuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system is a novel strategy used to induce mutations in a specific genome region; the system functions in a variety of organisms, including plants. Here, we report application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system to efficient mutagenesis of the tomato genome. In this study, we targeted the tomato RIN gene, which encodes a MADS-box transcription factor regulating fruit ripening. Three regions within the gene were targeted and mutations consisting either of a single base insertion or deletion of more than three bases were found at the Cas9 cleavage sites in T0 regenerated plants. The RIN-protein-defective mutants produced incomplete-ripening fruits in which red color pigmentation was significantly lower than that of wild type, while heterologous mutants expressing the remaining wild-type gene reached full-ripening red color, confirming the important role of RIN in ripening. Several mutations that were generated at three independent target sites were inherited in the T1 progeny, confirming the applicability of this mutagenesis system in tomato.

  11. Genetic regulation and structural changes during tomato fruit development and ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo ePesaresi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fruits are an important evolutionary acquisition of angiosperms, which afford protection for seeds and ensure their optimal dispersal in the environment. Fruits can be divided into dry or fleshy. Dry fruits are the more ancient and provide for mechanical seed dispersal. In contrast, fleshy fruits develop soft tissues in which flavour compounds and pigments accumulate during the ripening process. These serve to attract animals that eat them and disseminate the indigestible seeds. Fruit maturation is accompanied by several striking cytological modifications. In particular, plastids undergo significant structural alterations, including the dedifferentiation of chloroplasts into chromoplasts. Chloroplast biogenesis, their remodeling in response to environmental constraints and their conversion into alternative plastid types are known to require communication between plastids and the nucleus in order to coordinate the expression of their respective genomes. In this review, we discuss the role of plastid modifications in the context of fruit maturation and ripening, and consider the possible involvement of organelle-nucleus crosstalk via retrograde (plastid to nucleus and anterograde (nucleus to plastid signaling in the process.

  12. Peptides interfering with protein-protein interactions in the ethylene signaling pathway delay tomato fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Melanie M. A.; Kessenbrock, Mareike; Müller, Lena; Hofmann, Alexander; Schmitz, Florian; Cristescu, Simona M.; Groth, Georg

    2016-08-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in the regulation of several processes with high importance for agricultural applications, e.g. ripening, aging and senescence. Previous work in our group has identified a small peptide (NOP-1) derived from the nuclear localization signal of the Arabidopsis ethylene regulator ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE-2 (EIN2) C-terminal part as efficient inhibitor of ethylene responses. Here, we show that NOP-1 is also able to efficiently disrupt EIN2-ETR1 complex formation in tomato, indicating that the NOP-1 inhibition mode is conserved across plant species. Surface application of NOP-1 on green tomato fruits delays ripening similar to known inhibitors of ethylene perception (MCP) and ethylene biosynthesis (AVG). Fruits treated with NOP-1 showed similar ethylene production as untreated controls underlining that NOP-1 blocks ethylene signaling by targeting an essential interaction in this pathway, while having no effect on ethylene biosynthesis.

  13. RIPEN FRUITS OF INDIAN GINSENG: PHYTO-CHEMICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL EXAMINATION AGAINST HUMAN AND PLANT PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Singariya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripen fruit extracts of Withania somniferawere evaluated against medically importantbacteria viz.Proteusmerabilis, Klebsiella pnemoniae, Agerobacterium tumefaciens(plant pathogenandone fungi Aspergillus niger.The dried and powdered ripen fruits were successively extracted with a seriesof non polar to polar solvents using soxhlet assembly. The antimicrobial assay was done by both discdiffusion and broth dilution methods. Glacial acetic acid extract of W. somniferashow highest activityagainst A. tumefaciens(plant pathogen and water extract againstK. pnemoniaeto varying degrees in theterms of high inhibition zone and activity index. A. tumefacienswas the most susceptible organism incompare to the other organism. Gentamycin and Ketoconazole, the standard antibacterial and antifungalused was effective against the bacteria and fungi. The extract of W. somniferaalso significantly (P>0.005inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth. The inhibitory effect is very identical in magnitude andcomparable with that of standard antibiotics used.

  14. Polyphenol oxidase and its relationship with oleuropein concentration in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea) cv. 'Picual' trees during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-García, Francisca; Blanco, Santos; Peinado, M Angeles; Peragón, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Oleuropein, the main phenolic compound of olive fruit, has important antioxidant properties that are responsible for some of the nutritional properties of fruits and the defence mechanism of leaves. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity changes during fruit ripening in many plants. We studied the kinetics and molecular properties of PPO in fruits and leaves of olive (Olea europaea L.) cv. 'Picual' trees and the relationship between PPO and oleuropein concentration during fruit ripening. Polyphenol oxidase showed hyperbolic kinetics in fruits and leaves. Significant increases in PPO specific activity, V(max), K(m )and catalytic efficiency occurred during fruit ripening. Based on SDS-PAGE under partially denaturing conditions and in-gel staining with DL-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, PPO activity was found in one major protein of 55 and 50 kDA in fruits and leaves, respectively. During the last stages of fruit maturation, a second 36 kDa protein was observed in fruits but not in leaves, indicating that this protein could serve as a marker of the final phase of fruit maturation. Under fully denaturing conditions, only one 27.7 kDa immunoreactive band was detected in fruits. Both the amount of PPO activity and the amount of PPO protein increased significantly during fruit maturation. Immunohistochemical studies indicated that PPO is located in the epidermis, parenchyma and companion vascular cells of leaves as well as in the epidermis of fruit. During fruit maturation, oleuropein concentration measured by HPLC significantly decreased in fruits and increased in leaves.

  15. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of Cucumis melo fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Wang, Huaisong; Yi, Hongping; Zhai, Wenqiang; Wang, Guangzhi; Fu, Qiushi

    2016-01-01

    Hami melon (Cucumis melo) is the most important melon crop grown in the north-western provinces of China. In order to elucidate the genetic and molecular basis of developmental changes related to size, flesh, sugar and sour content, we performed a transcriptome profiling of its fruit development. Over 155 000 000 clean reads were mapped to MELONOMICS genome, yielding a total of 23 299 expressed genes. Of these, 554 genes were specifically expressed in flowers, and 3260 genes in fruit flesh tissues. The 7892 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were related to fruit development and mediated diverse metabolic processes and pathways; 83 DEGs and 13 DEGs were possibly associated with sucrose and citric acid accumulation, respectively. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that six out of eight selected candidate genes displayed expression trends similar to our DEGs. This study profiled the gene expression related to different growing stages of flower and fruit at the whole transcriptome level to provide an insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying Hami melon fruit development.

  17. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. II. Polyamine metabolism and synthesis in relation to enhanced putrescine content and storage life of alc tomato fruit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The fruit of the Alcobaca landrace of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) have prolonged keeping qualities (determined by the allele alc) and contain three times as much putrescine as the standard Rutgers variety (Alc) at the ripe stage. Polyamine metabolism and biosynthesis were compared in fruit from Rutgers and Rutgers-alc-a near isogenic line possessing the allele alc, at four different stages of ripening. The levels of soluble polyamine conjugates as well as wall bound polyamines in the pericarp tissue and jelly were very low or nondetectable in both genotypes. The increase in putrescine content in alc pericarp is not related to normal ripening as it occurred with time and whether or not the fruit ripened. Pericarp discs of both normal and alc fruit showed a decrease in the metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal labeled-{sup 3}H)spermidine with ripening, but there were no significant differences between the two genotypes. The activity of ornithine decarboxylase was similar in the fruit pericarp of the two lines. Arginine decarboxylase activity decreased during ripening in Rutgers but decreased and rose again in Rutgers-alc fruit, and as a result it was significantly higher in alc fruit than in the normal fruit at the ripe stage. The elevated putrescine levels in alc fruit appear, therefore, to be due to an increase in the activity of arginine decarboxylase.

  18. Conserved changes in the dynamics of metabolic processes during fruit development and ripening across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, Sebastian; Osorio, Sonia; Tohge, Takayuki; Drincovich, María F; Fait, Aaron; Giovannoni, James J; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nikoloski, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Computational analyses of molecular phenotypes traditionally aim at identifying biochemical components that exhibit differential expression under various scenarios (e.g. environmental and internal perturbations) in a single species. High-throughput metabolomics technologies allow the quantification of (relative) metabolite levels across developmental stages in different tissues, organs, and species. Novel methods for analyzing the resulting multiple data tables could reveal preserved dynamics of metabolic processes across species. The problem we address in this study is 2-fold. (1) We derive a single data table, referred to as a compromise, which captures information common to the investigated set of multiple tables containing data on different fruit development and ripening stages in three climacteric (i.e. peach [Prunus persica] and two tomato [Solanum lycopersicum] cultivars, Ailsa Craig and M82) and two nonclimacteric (i.e. strawberry [Fragaria × ananassa] and pepper [Capsicum chilense]) fruits; in addition, we demonstrate the power of the method to discern similarities and differences between multiple tables by analyzing publicly available metabolomics data from three tomato ripening mutants together with two tomato cultivars. (2) We identify the conserved dynamics of metabolic processes, reflected in the data profiles of the corresponding metabolites that contribute most to the determined compromise. Our analysis is based on an extension to principal component analysis, called STATIS, in combination with pathway overenrichment analysis. Based on publicly available metabolic profiles for the investigated species, we demonstrate that STATIS can be used to identify the metabolic processes whose behavior is similarly affected during fruit development and ripening. These findings ultimately provide insights into the pathways that are essential during fruit development and ripening across species.

  19. Transient silencing of CHALCONE SYNTHASE during fruit ripening modifies tomato epidermal cells and cuticle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España, Laura; Heredia-Guerrero, José A; Reina-Pinto, José J; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Heredia, Antonio; Domínguez, Eva

    2014-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is accompanied by an increase in CHALCONE SYNTHASE (CHS) activity and flavonoid biosynthesis. Flavonoids accumulate in the cuticle, giving its characteristic orange color that contributes to the eventual red color of the ripe fruit. Using virus-induced gene silencing in fruits, we have down-regulated the expression of SlCHS during ripening and compared the cuticles derived from silenced and nonsilenced regions. Silenced regions showed a pink color due to the lack of flavonoids incorporated to the cuticle. This change in color was accompanied by several other changes in the cuticle and epidermis. The epidermal cells displayed a decreased tangential cell width; a decrease in the amount of cuticle and its main components, cutin and polysaccharides, was also observed. Flavonoids dramatically altered the cuticle biomechanical properties by stiffening the elastic and viscoelastic phase and by reducing the ability of the cuticle to deform. There seemed to be a negative relation between SlCHS expression and wax accumulation during ripening that could be related to the decreased cuticle permeability to water observed in the regions silencing SlCHS. A reduction in the overall number of ester linkages present in the cutin matrix was also dependent on the presence of flavonoids.

  20. Melatonin promotes ripening and improves quality of tomato fruit during postharvest life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Dianbo; Shi, Jin; Li, Ren; Weeda, Sarah; Zhao, Bing; Ren, Shuxin; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the effect of melatonin on the postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit was carried out. The tomatoes were immersed in exogenous melatonin for 2h, and then the related physiological indicators and the expression of genes during post-harvest life were evaluated. Compared with control check (CK), the 50 µM melatonin treatment significantly increased lycopene levels by 5.8-fold. Meanwhile, the key genes involved in fruit colour development, including phytoene synthase1 (PSY1) and carotenoid isomerase (CRTISO), showed a 2-fold increase in expression levels. The rate of water loss from tomato fruit also increased 8.3%, and the expression of aquaporin genes, such as SlPIP12Q, SlPIPQ, SlPIP21Q, and SlPIP22, was up-regulated 2- to 3-fold under 50 µM melatonin treatment. In addition, 50 µM melatonin treatment enhanced fruit softening, increased water-soluble pectin by 22.5%, and decreased protopectin by 19.5%. The expression of the cell wall modifying proteins polygalacturonase (PG), pectin esterase1 (PE1), β-galactosidase (TBG4), and expansin1 (Exp1) was up-regulated under 50 µM melatonin treatment. Melatonin increased ethylene production by 27.1%, accelerated the climacteric phase, and influenced the ethylene signalling pathway. Alteration of ethylene production correlated with altered 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS4) expression. The expression of ethylene signal transduction-related genes such as NR, SlETR4, SlEIL1, SlEIL3, and SlERF2, was enhanced by 50 µM melatonin. The effect of melatonin on ethylene biosynthesis, ethylene perception, and ethylene signalling may contribute to fruit ripening and quality improvement in tomato. This research may promote the application of melatonin on postharvest ripening and quality improvement of tomato fruit as well as other horticultural productions in the future.

  1. Correlation between ethylene emission and skin colour changes during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Oliveira, J. G.; Vitoria, A. P.; Corrêa, S. F.; Pereira, M. G.; Campostrini, E.; Santos, E. O.; Cavalli, A.; Vargas, H.

    2005-06-01

    The skin colour changes and ethylene emission rates were monitored during papaya (C. papaya L.) fruit ripening. Two groups of papaya (‘Formosa’ and ‘Solo’) were applied in this study. The total colour difference was used as measured parameter and the corresponding half time of its saturation was used as correlation parameter. A high correlation factor between the saturation half time and corresponding climacteric peak time was found. It was concluded that high ethylene emission rate in ‘Solo’ fruit promotes a quick change of the total colour difference.

  2. Comparison of ripening processes in intact tomato fruit and excised pericarp discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A D; Huysamer, M; Stotz, H U; Greve, L C; Labavitch, J M

    1990-12-01

    Physiological processes characteristic of ripening in tissues of intact tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were examined in excised pericarp discs. Pericarp discs were prepared from mature-green tomato fruit and stored in 24-well culture plates, in which individual discs could be monitored for color change, ethylene biosynthesis, and respiration, and selected for cell wall analysis. Within the context of these preparation and handling procedures, most whole fruit ripening processes were maintained in pericarp discs. Pericarp discs and matched intact fruit passed through the same skin color stages at similar rates, as expressed in the L(*)a(*)b(*) color space, changing from green (a(*) red (a(*) > 15) in about 6 days. Individual tissues of the pericarp discs changed color in the same sequence seen in intact fruit (exocarp, endocarp, then vascular parenchyma). Discs from different areas changed in the same spatial sequence seen in intact fruit (bottom, middle, top). Pericarp discs exhibited climacteric increases in ethylene biosynthesis and CO(2) production comparable with those seen in intact fruit, but these were more tightly linked to rate of color change, reaching a peak around a(*) = 5. Tomato pericarp discs decreased in firmness as color changed. Cell wall carbohydrate composition changed with color as in intact fruit: the quantity of water-soluble pectin eluted from the starch-free alcohol insoluble substances steadily increased and more tightly bound, water-insoluble, pectin decreased in inverse relationship. The cell wall content of the neutral sugars arabinose, rhamnose, and galactose steadily decreased as color changed. The extractable activity of specific cell wall hydrolases changed as in intact fruit: polygalacturonase activity, not detectable in green discs (a(*) = -5), appeared as discs turned yellow-red (a(*) = 5), and increased another eight-fold as discs became full red (a(*) value +20). Carboxymethyl-cellulase activity, low in extracts

  3. Effect of the colorless non-ripening mutation on cell wall biochemistry and gene expression during tomato fruit development and ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eriksson, E.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Manning, K.; Harrison, L.; Andrews, J.; Silva, De J.; Tucker, A.; Seymour, G.B.

    2004-01-01

    The Colorless non-ripening (Cnr) mutation in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) results in mature fruits with colorless pericarp tissue showing an excessive loss of cell adhesion (A.J. Thompson, M. Tor, C.S. Barry, J. Vrebalov, C. Orfila, M.C. Jarvis, J.J. Giovannoni, D. Grierson, G.B. Seymour [1999] Pla

  4. Respiratory Contribution of the Alternate Path during Various Stages of Ripening in Avocado and Banana Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, A; Laties, G G

    1978-08-01

    The respiration of fresh slices of preclimacteric avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Hass) and banana (Musa cavendishii var. Valery) fruits is stimulated by cyanide and antimycin. The respiration is sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid in the presence of cyanide but much less so in the presence of antimycin. In the absence of cyanide the contribution of the cyanide-resistant pathway to the coupled preclimacteric respiration is zero. In uncoupled slices, by contrast, the alternate path is engaged and utilized fully in avocado, and extensively in banana. Midclimacteric and peak climacteric slices are also cyanide-resistant and, in the presence of cyanide, sensitive to m-chlorobenzhydroxamic acid. In the absence of uncoupler there is no contribution by the alternate path in either tissue. In uncoupled midclimacteric avocado slices the alternate path is fully engaged. Midclimacteric banana slices, however, do not respond to uncouplers, and the alternate path is not engaged. Avocado and banana slices at the climacteric peak neither respond to uncouplers nor utilize the alternate path in the presence or absence of uncoupler.The maximal capacities of the cytochrome and alternate paths, V(cyt) and V(alt), respectively, have been estimated in slices from preclimacteric and climacteric avocado fruit and found to remain unchanged. The total respiratory capacity in preclimacteric and climacteric slices exceeds the respiratory rise which attends fruit ripening. In banana V(alt) decreases slightly with ripening.The aging of thin preclimacteric avocado slices in moist air results in ripening with an accompanying climacteric rise. In this case the alternate path is fully engaged at the climacteric peak, and the respiration represents the total potential respiratory capacity present in preclimacteric tissue. The respiratory climacteric in intact avocado and banana fruits is cytochrome path-mediated, whereas the respiratory climacteric of ripened thin avocado slices comprises

  5. Products Released from Enzymically Active Cell Wall Stimulate Ethylene Production and Ripening in Preclimacteric Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecht, J K; Huber, D J

    1988-12-01

    Enzymically active cell wall from ripe tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit pericarp release uronic acids through the action of wall-bound polygalacturonase. The potential involvement of products of wall hydrolysis in the induction of ethylene synthesis during tomato ripening was investigated by vacuum infiltrating preclimacteric (green) fruit with solutions containing pectin fragments enzymically released from cell wall from ripe fruit. Ripening initiation was accelerated in pectin-infiltrated fruit compared to control (buffer-infiltrated) fruit as measured by initiation of climacteric CO(2) and ethylene production and appearance of red color. The response to infiltration was maximum at a concentration of 25 micrograms pectin per fruit; higher concentrations (up to 125 micrograms per fruit) had no additional effect. When products released from isolated cell wall from ripe pericarp were separated on Bio-Gel P-2 and specific size classes infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit, ripening-promotive activity was found only in the larger (degree of polymerization >8) fragments. Products released from pectin derived from preclimacteric pericarp upon treatment with polygalacturonase from ripe pericarp did not stimulate ripening when infiltrated into preclimacteric fruit.

  6. Evidences for Chlorogenic Acid--A Major Endogenous Polyphenol Involved in Regulation of Ripening and Senescence of Apple Fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xi

    Full Text Available To learn how the endogenous polyphenols may play a role in fruit ripening and senescence, apple pulp discs were used as a model to study the influences of chlorogenic acid (CHA, a major polyphenol in apple pulp on fruit ripening and senescence. Apple ('Golden Delicious' pulp discs prepared from pre-climacteric fruit were treated with 50 mg L(-1 CHA and incubated in flasks with 10 mM MES buffer (pH 6.0, 11% sorbitol. Compared to the control samples, treatment with CHA significantly reduced ethylene production and respiration rate, and enhanced levels of firmness and soluble solids content of the pulp discs during incubation at 25°C. These results suggested that CHA could retard senescence of the apple pulp discs. Proteomics analysis with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF revealed that the expressions of several key proteins correlated to fruit ripening and senescence were affected by the treatment with CHA. Further study showed that treating the pulp discs with CHA remarkably reduced levels of lipoxygenase, β-galactosidase, NADP-malic enzyme, and enzymatic activities of lipoxygenase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, all of which are known as promoters of fruit ripening and senescence. These results could provide new insights into the functions of endogenous phenolic compounds in fruit ripening and senescence.

  7. Carotenoid levels during the period of growth and ripening in fruits of different olive varieties (Hojiblanca, Picual and Arbequina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2003-05-01

    During fruit growth and development, carotenoid accumulation follows the same qualitative pattern in three olive varieties (Olea europaea L.). In the stage of ripening, the Arbequina variety is differentiated from Hojiblanca and Picual by its possession of esterified xanthophylls. The Chl a/b ratio is higher in Arbequina than in Hojiblanca and Picual throughout the life cycle of the fruit, while the percentage of lutein is always lower, and that of beta-carotene higher. Independent of the high (Hojiblanca and Picual) or low (Arbequina) pigment content, the chlorophyll/carotenoid ratio (a + b)/(x + c) is similar for the three varieties. There is evident carotenoid breakdown at the onset of ripening in the fruits of the Hojiblanca and Picual varieties, while in Arbequina there is a new period of carotenoid accumulation. As ripening proceeds in Arbequina fruits, a slow carotenoid-breakdown process is initiated.

  8. Expression profiles of a MhCTR1 gene in relation to banana fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Huei-Lin; Do, Yi-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling

    2012-07-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) is a typical climacteric fruit of high economic importance. The development of bananas from maturing to ripening is characterized by increased ethylene production accompanied by a respiration burst. To elucidate the signal transduction pathway involved in the ethylene regulation of banana ripening, a gene homologous to Arabidopsis CTR1 (constitutive triple response 1) was isolated from Musa spp. (Hsien Jin Chiao, AAA group) and designated as MhCTR1. MhCTR1 spans 11.5 kilobases and consists of 15 exons and 14 introns with consensus GT-AG nucleotides situated at their boundaries. MhCTR1 encodes a polypeptide of 805 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular weight of 88.6 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence of MhCTR1 demonstrates 55%, 56% and 55% homology to AtCTR1, RhCTR1, and LeCTR1, respectively. MhCTR1 is expressed mostly in the mature green pulp and root organs. During fruit development MhCTR1 expression increases just before ethylene production rises. Moreover, MhCTR1 expression was detected mainly in the pulps at ripening stage 3, and correlated with the onset of peel yellowing, while MhCTR1 was constitutively expressed in the peels. MhCTR1 expression could be induced by ethylene treatment (0.01 μL L(-1)), and MhCTR1 expression decreased in both peel and pulp 24 h after treatment. Overall, changes observed in MhCTR1 expression in the pulp closely related to the regulation of the banana ripening process.

  9. The zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 negatively regulates abscisic acid biosynthesis and fruit ripening in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Lin; Zhao, Fangfang; Li, Rong; Xu, Changjie; Chen, Kunsong; Xiao, Han

    2015-03-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant development and adaptation to environmental conditions. Although the ABA biosynthesis pathway in plants has been thoroughly elucidated, how ABA biosynthetic genes are regulated at the molecular level during plant development is less well understood. Here, we show that the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) zinc finger transcription factor SlZFP2 is involved in the regulation of ABA biosynthesis during fruit development. Overexpression of SlZFP2 resulted in multiple phenotypic changes, including more branches, early flowering, delayed fruit ripening, lighter seeds, and faster seed germination, whereas down-regulation of its expression caused problematic fruit set, accelerated ripening, and inhibited seed germination. SlZFP2 represses ABA biosynthesis during fruit development through direct suppression of the ABA biosynthetic genes NOTABILIS, SITIENS, and FLACCA and the aldehyde oxidase SlAO1. We also show that SlZFP2 regulates fruit ripening through transcriptional suppression of the ripening regulator COLORLESS NON-RIPENING. Using bacterial one-hybrid screening and a selected amplification and binding assay, we identified the (A/T)(G/C)TT motif as the core binding sequence of SlZFP2. Furthermore, by RNA sequencing profiling, we found that 193 genes containing the SlZFP2-binding motifs in their promoters were differentially expressed in 2 d post anthesis fruits between the SlZFP2 RNA interference line and its nontransgenic sibling. We propose that SlZFP2 functions as a repressor to fine-tune ABA biosynthesis during fruit development and provides a potentially valuable tool for dissecting the role of ABA in fruit ripening.

  10. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung Nguyen; Thierry Talou; Mureil Cerny; Philippe Evon; Othmane Merah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  11. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quang-Hung; Nguyen; Thierry; Talou; Mureil; Cerny; Philippe; Evon; Othmane; Merah

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch(near Toulouse,southwestern France) during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages(two days after flowering, DAF). Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages(2–12 DAF), but decreased after this date. After this stage,petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  12. Oil and fatty acid accumulation during coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. fruit ripening under organic cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang-Hung Nguyen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the accumulation of oil and fatty acids in coriander during fruit ripening, a field experiment was conducted under organic cultivation conditions in Auch (near Toulouse, southwestern France during the 2009 cropping season. The percentage and composition of the fatty acids of coriander were determined by gas chromatography. Our results showed that rapid oil accumulation started in early stages (two days after flowering, DAF. Twelve fatty acids were identified. Saturated and polyunsaturated acids were the dominant fatty acids at earlier stages (2–12 DAF, but decreased after this date. After this stage, petroselinic acid increased to its highest amount at 18 DAF. In contrast, palmitic acid followed the opposite trend. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased markedly and monounsaturated fatty acids increased during fruit maturation. It appears that the fruit of coriander may be harvested before full maturity.

  13. DNA-binding specificity, transcriptional activation potential, and the rin mutation effect for the tomato fruit-ripening regulator RIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yasuhiro; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Ihashi, Nao; Yabe, Kimiko; Kimbara, Junji; Yasuda, Junichi; Ito, Hirotaka; Inakuma, Takahiro; Hiroi, Seiji; Kasumi, Takafumi

    2008-07-01

    The RIN gene encodes a putative MADS box transcription factor that controls tomato fruit ripening, and its ripening inhibitor (rin) mutation yields non-ripening fruit. In this study, the molecular properties of RIN and the rin mutant protein were clarified. The results revealed that the RIN protein accumulates in ripening fruit specifically and is localized in the nucleus of the cell. In vitro studies revealed that RIN forms a stable homodimer that binds to MADS domain-specific DNA sites. Analysis of binding site selection experiments revealed that the consensus binding sites of RIN highly resemble those of the SEPALLATA (SEP) proteins, which are Arabidopsis MADS box proteins that control the identity of floral organs. RIN exhibited a transcription-activating function similar to that exhibited by the SEP proteins. These results indicate that RIN exhibits similar molecular functions to SEP proteins although they play distinctly different biological roles. In vivo assays revealed that RIN binds to the cis-element of LeACS2. Our results also revealed that the rin mutant protein accumulates in the mutant fruit and exhibits a DNA-binding activity similar to that exhibited by the wild-type protein, but has lost its transcription-activating function, which in turn would inhibit ripening in mutant fruit.

  14. Cloning of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) arginine decarboxylase gene and its expression during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R; Dulson, J; Rothstein, S J

    1993-11-01

    Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is the first enzyme in one of the two pathways of putrescine biosynthesis in plants. The genes encoding ADC have previously been cloned from oat and Escherichia coli. Degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to two conserved regions of ADC were used as primers in polymerase chain reaction amplification of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genomic DNA, and a 1.05-kb fragment was obtained. This genomic DNA fragment encodes an open reading frame of 350 amino acids showing about 50% identity with the oat ADC protein. Using this fragment as a probe, we isolated several partial ADC cDNA clones from a tomato pericarp cDNA library. The 5' end of the coding region was subsequently obtained from a genomic clone containing the entire ADC gene. The tomato ADC gene contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 502 amino acids and a predicted molecular mass of about 55 kD. The predicted amino acid sequence exhibits 47 and 38% identify with oat and E. coli ADCs, respectively. Gel blot hybridization experiments show that, in tomato, ADC is encoded by a single gene and is expressed as a transcript of approximately 2.2 kb in the fruit pericarp and leaf tissues. During fruit ripening the amount of ADC transcript appeared to peak at the breaker stage. No significant differences were seen when steady-state ADC mRNA levels were compared between normal versus long-keeping Alcobaca (alc) fruit, although alc fruit contain elevated putrescine levels and ADC activity at the ripe stage. The lack of correlation between ADC activity and steady-state mRNA levels in alc fruit suggests a translational and/or posttranslational regulation of ADC gene expression during tomato fruit ripening.

  15. Acoustic Testing for Melon Fruit Ripeness Evaluation during Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Khoshnam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-destructive impulse response technique was tested on two melon varieties (‘Zard-Eyvanekey’ and ‘Sousky-Sabz’ in five different stages of ripening. Resonance frequency and sound pressure level (SPL from the impulse response were compared with mass, elastic modulus, soluble solids contents (TSS and sensory evaluation. Among acoustic and destructive parameters, resonance frequency is an indicator to distinguish of different maturity stage of the melon in both varieties. The sound pressure level (SPL was not a reliable parameter to evaluate melon ripeness. It was established that the impulse response technique is useful to decide fruit maturity stage and appropriate harvest time.

  16. Rosaceae Fruit Development, Ripening and Post-harvest: An Epigenetic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Farinati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Rosaceae is a family with an extraordinary spectrum of fruit types, including fleshy peach, apple, and strawberry that provide unique contributions to a healthy diet for consumers, and represent an excellent model for studying fruit patterning and development. In recent years, many efforts have been made to unravel regulatory mechanism underlying the hormonal, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic changes occurring during Rosaceae fruit development. More recently, several studies on fleshy (tomato and dry (Arabidopsis fruit model have contributed to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms underlying important heritable crop traits, such as ripening and stress response. In this context and summing up the results obtained so far, this review aims to collect the available information on epigenetic mechanisms that may provide an additional level in gene transcription regulation, thus influencing and driving the entire Rosaceae fruit developmental process. The whole body of information suggests that Rosaceae fruit could become also a model for studying the epigenetic basis of economically important phenotypes, allowing for their more efficient exploitation in plant breeding.

  17. Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities and Protein Pattern of Avocado Fruit Ripened in Air and in Low Oxygen, with and without Ethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellis, A K; Solomos, T; Mattoo, A K

    1989-05-01

    The effect of 2.5% O(2) atmosphere with and without ethylene on the activities of hydrolytic enzymes associated with cell walls, and total protein profile during ripening of avocado fruits (Persea americana Mill., cv Hass) were investigated. The low 2.5% O(2) atmosphere prevented the rise in the activities of cellulase, polygalacturonase, and acid phosphatase in avocado fruits whose ripening was initiated with ethylene. Addition of 100 microliters per liter ethylene to low O(2) atmosphere did not alter these suppressive effects of 2.5% O(2). Furthermore, 2.5% O(2) atmosphere delayed the development of a number of polypeptides that appear during ripening of avocado fruits while at the same time new polypeptides accumulated. The composition of the extraction buffer and its pH greatly affected the recovery of cellulase activity and its total immunoreactive protein.

  18. Pectic polysaccharides are attacked by hydroxyl radicals in ripening fruit: evidence from a fluorescent fingerprinting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airianah, Othman B; Vreeburg, Robert A M; Fry, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Many fruits soften during ripening, which is important commercially and in rendering the fruit attractive to seed-dispersing animals. Cell-wall polysaccharide hydrolases may contribute to softening, but sometimes appear to be absent. An alternative hypothesis is that hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH) non-enzymically cleave wall polysaccharides. We evaluated this hypothesis by using a new fluorescent labelling procedure to 'fingerprint' (•)OH-attacked polysaccharides. We tagged fruit polysaccharides with 2-(isopropylamino)-acridone (pAMAC) groups to detect (a) any mid-chain glycosulose residues formed in vivo during (•)OH action and (b) the conventional reducing termini. The pAMAC-labelled pectins were digested with Driselase, and the products resolved by high-voltage electrophoresis and high-pressure liquid chromatography. Strawberry, pear, mango, banana, apple, avocado, Arbutus unedo, plum and nectarine pectins all yielded several pAMAC-labelled products. GalA-pAMAC (monomeric galacturonate, labelled with pAMAC at carbon-1) was produced in all species, usually increasing during fruit softening. The six true fruits also gave pAMAC·UA-GalA disaccharides (where pAMAC·UA is an unspecified uronate, labelled at a position other than carbon-1), with yields increasing during softening. Among false fruits, apple and strawberry gave little pAMAC·UA-GalA; pear produced it transiently. GalA-pAMAC arises from pectic reducing termini, formed by any of three proposed chain-cleaving agents ((•)OH, endopolygalacturonase and pectate lyase), any of which could cause its ripening-related increase. In contrast, pAMAC·UA-GalA conjugates are diagnostic of mid-chain oxidation of pectins by (•)OH. The evidence shows that (•)OH radicals do indeed attack fruit cell wall polysaccharides non-enzymically during softening in vivo. This applies much more prominently to drupes and berries (true fruits) than to false fruits (swollen receptacles). (•)OH radical attack on polysaccharides

  19. Effects of high CO2 treatment on green-ripening and peel senescence in banana and plantain fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mu-bo; TANG Lu-ping; ZHANG Xue-lian; BAI Mei; PANG Xue-qun; ZHANG Zhao-qi

    2015-01-01

    Banana fruit (Musa, AAA group, cv. Brazil) peel fails to ful y degreen but the pulp ripens normal y at temperatures above 24°C. This abnormal ripening, known as green-ripening, does not occur in plantains (Musa, ABB group, cv. Dajiao). Based on the fact that un-completely yel owing was also observed for bananas in poorly ventilated atmospheres, in the present study, the effect of high CO2 with regular O2 (21%) on banana ripening was investigated along with that on plantains at 20°C. The results showed that high CO2 conferred different effects on the color changing of bananas and plantains. After 6 d ripening in 20%CO2, plantains ful y yel owed, while bananas retained high chlorophyl content and stayed green. In contrast to the differentiated color changing patterns, the patterns of the softening, starch degradation and soluble sugar accumulation in the pulp of 20%CO2 treated bananas and plantains displayed similarly as the patterns in the fruits ripening in regular air, indicating that the pulp ripening was not inhibited by 20%CO2, and the abnormal ripening of bananas in 20%CO2 can be considered as green ripening. Similar expression levels of chlorophyl degradation related genes, SGR, NYC and PaO, were detected in the peel of the control and treated fruits, indicating that the repressed degreening in 20%CO2 treated bananas was not due to the down-regulation of the chlorophyl degradation related genes. Compared to the effect on plantains, 20%CO2 WUHDWmHQW GHOD\\HG WKH GHFOLQH LQ WKH FKORURSK\\O ÀRUHVFHQFH Fv/Fm) values and in the mRNA levels of a gene coding smal subunit of Rubisco (SSU), and postponed the disruption of the ultrastructure of chloroplast in the peel tissue of bananas, indicating that the senescence of the green cel s in the exocarp layer was delayed by 20%CO2, to more extent in bananas than in plantains. High CO2 reduced the ethylene production and the expression of the related biosynthesis gene, ACS, but elevated the respiration rates in both

  20. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  1. A VIN1 GUS::GFP fusion reveals activated sucrose metabolism programming occurring in interspersed cells during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estornell, Leandro Hueso; Pons, Clara; Martínez, Alicia; O'Connor, José Enrique; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is a model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Here we report on the identification of a novel unique cell autonomous/cellular pattern of expression that was detected in fruits of transgenic tomato lines carrying a GFP GUS driven by the fruit specific vacuolar invertase promoter VIN1. The VIN1 promoter sequence faithfully reproduced the global endogenous VIN expression by conferring a biphasic pattern of expression with a second phase clearly associated to fruit ripening. A closer view revealed a salt and pepper pattern of expression characterized by individual cells exhibiting a range of expression levels (from high to low) surrounded by cells with no expression. This type of pattern was detected across different fruit tissues and cell types with some preferences for vascular, sub-epidermal layer and the inner part of the fruit. Cell ability to show promoter activity was neither directly associated with overall ripening - as we find VIN+ and - VIN- cells at all stages of ripening, nor with cell size. Nevertheless the number of cells with active VIN-driven expression increased with ripening and the activity of the VIN promoter seems to be inversely correlated with cell size in VIN+ cells. Gene expression analysis of FACS-sorted VIN+ cells revealed a transcriptionally distinct subpopulation of cells defined by increased expression of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and decreased activity in protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. This finding suggests that local micro heterogeneity may underlie some aspects (i.e. the futile cycles involving sucrose metabolism) of an otherwise more uniform looking ripening program.

  2. Effect of CRC::etr1-1 transgene expression on ethylene production, sex expression, fruit set and fruit ripening in transgenic melon (Cucumis melo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzenberg, Jessica A; Beaudry, Randy M; Grumet, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Ethylene is a key factor regulating sex expression in cucurbits. Commercial melons (Cucumis melo L.) are typically andromonoecious, producing male and bisexual flowers. Our prior greenhouse studies of transgenic melon plants expressing the dominant negative ethylene perception mutant gene, etr1-1, under control of the carpel- and nectary-primordia targeted CRAB'S CLAW (CRC) promoter showed increased number and earlier appearance of carpel-bearing flowers. To further investigate this phenomenon which could be potentially useful for earlier fruit production, we observed CRC::etr1-1 plants in the field for sex expression, fruit set, fruit development, and ripening. CRC::etr1-1 melon plants showed increased number of carpel-bearing open flowers on the main stem and earlier onset by 7-10 nodes. Additional phenotypes observed in the greenhouse and field were conversion of approximately 50% of bisexual buds to female, and elongated ovaries and fruits. Earlier and greater fruit set occurred on the transgenic plants. However, CRC::etr1-1 plants had greater abscission of young fruit, and smaller fruit, so that final yield (kg/plot) was equivalent to wild type. Earlier fruit set in line M5 was accompanied by earlier appearance of ripe fruit. Fruit from line M15 frequently did not exhibit external ripening processes of rind color change and abscission, but when cut open, the majority showed a ripe or overripe interior accompanied by elevated internal ethylene. The non-ripening external phenotype in M15 fruit corresponded with elevated etr1-1 transgene expression in the exocarp. These results provide insight into the role of ethylene perception in carpel-bearing flower production, fruit set, and ripening.

  3. The chimeric repressor version of an Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family member, Sl-ERF.B3, shows contrasting effects on tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingchun; Diretto, Gianfranco; Pirrello, Julien; Roustan, Jean-Paul; Li, Zhengguo; Giuliano, Giovanni; Regad, Farid; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-07-01

    Fruit ripening involves a complex interplay between ethylene and ripening-associated transcriptional regulators. Ethylene Response Factors (ERFs) are downstream components of ethylene signaling, known to regulate the expression of ethylene-responsive genes. Although fruit ripening is an ethylene-regulated process, the role of ERFs remains poorly understood. The role of Sl-ERF.B3 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit maturation and ripening is addressed here using a chimeric dominant repressor version (ERF.B3-SRDX). Over-expression of ERF.B3-SRDX results in a dramatic delay of the onset of ripening, enhanced climacteric ethylene production and fruit softening, and reduced pigment accumulation. Consistently, genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and in softening are up-regulated and those of carotenoid biosynthesis are down-regulated. Moreover, the expression of ripening regulators, such as RIN, NOR, CNR and HB-1, is stimulated in ERF.B3-SRDX dominant repressor fruits and the expression pattern of a number of ERFs is severely altered. The data suggest the existence of a complex network enabling interconnection between ERF genes which may account for the pleiotropic alterations in fruit maturation and ripening. Overall, the study sheds new light on the role of Sl-ERF.B3 in the transcriptional network controlling the ripening process and uncovers a means towards uncoupling some of the main ripening-associated processes.

  4. Tomato FRUITFULL homologues act in fruit ripening via forming MADS-box transcription factor complexes with RIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Yoko; Kitagawa, Mamiko; Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Kato, Hiroki; Kimbara, Junji; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-07-01

    The tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIN acts as a master regulator of fruit ripening. Here, we identified MADS-box proteins that interact with RIN; we also provide evidence that these proteins act in the regulation of fruit ripening. We conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen of a cDNA library from ripening fruit, for genes encoding proteins that bind to RIN. The screen identified two MADS-box genes, FUL1 and FUL2 (previously called TDR4 and SlMBP7), both of which have high sequence similarity to Arabidopsis FRUITFULL. Expression analyses revealed that the FUL1 mRNA and FUL1 protein accumulate in a ripening-specific manner in tomato fruits and FUL2 mRNA and protein accumulate at the pre-ripening stage and throughout ripening. Biochemical analyses confirmed that FUL1 and FUL2 form heterodimers with RIN; this interaction required the FUL1 and FUL2 C-terminal domains. Also, the heterodimers bind to a typical target DNA motif for MADS-box proteins. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that FUL1 and FUL2 bind to genomic sites that were previously identified as RIN-target sites, such as the promoter regions of ACS2, ACS4 and RIN. These findings suggest that RIN forms complexes with FUL1 and FUL2 and these complexes regulate expression of ripening-related genes. In addition to the functional redundancy between FUL1 and FUL2, we also found they have potentially divergent roles in transcriptional regulation, including a difference in genomic target sites.

  5. Expression of genes associated with aroma formation derived from the fatty acid pathway during peach fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Shen, Ji-Yuan; Wei, Wen-Wen; Xi, Wan-Peng; Xu, Chang-Jie; Ferguson, Ian; Chen, Kunsong

    2010-05-26

    Changes in characteristic aroma volatiles, levels of fatty acids as aroma precursors, and expression patterns of related genes, including lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), and fatty acid desaturase (FAD), were studied in peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch., cv. Yulu) fruit during postharvest ripening at 20 degrees C. Concentrations of n-hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenol, and (Z)-3-hexenol decreased, whereas the production of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, gamma-hexalactone, gamma-octalactone, gamma-decalactone, and delta-decalactone increased with fruit ripening. Lactones showed a clear pattern concomitant with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, with gamma-decalactone being the principal volatile compound at the late ripening stage. Of the LOX family genes, PpLOX2 and PpLOX3 had relatively high transcript levels initially followed by a decline with fruit ripening, while levels of PpLOX1 and PpLOX4 transcripts were upregulated by accumulated ethylene production. Expression of PpHPL1, PpADH1, PpADH2, and PpADH3 showed similar decreasing patterns during ripening. Expression levels of PpAAT1 showed a rapid increase during the first 2 days of postharvest ripening followed by a gradual decrease. Contents of polyunsaturated linoleic and linolenic acids increased, and saturated palmitic acid levels tended to decline as the fruit ripened. The increased levels of unsaturated fatty acids closely paralleled increasing expression of PpFAD1 and PpFAD2. The significance of gene expression changes in relation to aroma volatile production is discussed.

  6. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  7. Polyuronides in Avocado (Persea americana) and Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits Exhibit Markedly Different Patterns of Molecular Weight Downshifts during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, D. J.; O'Donoghue, E. M.

    1993-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruit experience a rapid and extensive loss of firmness during ripening. In this study, we examined whether the chelator solubility and molecular weight of avocado polyuronides paralleled the accumulation of polygalacturonase (PG) activity and loss in fruit firmness. Polyuronides were derived from ethanolic precipitates of avocado mesocarp prepared using a procedure to rapidly inactivate endogenous enzymes. During ripening, chelator (cyclohexane-trans-1,2-diamine tetraacetic acid [CDTA])-soluble polyuronides increased from approximately 30 to 40 [mu]g of galacturonic acid equivalents (mg alcohol-insoluble solids)-1 in preripe fruit to 150 to 170 [mu]g mg-1 in postclimacteric fruit. In preripe fruit, chelator-extractable polyuronides were of high molecular weight and were partially excluded from Sepharose CL- 2B-300 gel filtration media. Avocado polyuronides exhibited marked downshifts in molecular weight during ripening. At the postclimacteric stage, nearly all chelator-extractable polyuronides, which constituted from 75 to 90% of total cell wall uronic acid content, eluted near the total volume of the filtration media. Rechromatography of low molecular weight polyuronides on Bio-Gel P-4 disclosed that oligomeric uronic acids are produced in vivo during avocado ripening. The gel filtration behavior and pattern of depolymerization of avocado polyuronides were not influenced by the polyuronide extraction protocol (imidazole versus CDTA) or by chromatographic conditions designed to minimize interpolymeric aggregation. Polyuronides from ripening tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit extracted and chromatographed under conditions identical with those used for avocado polyuronides exhibited markedly less rapid and less extensive downshifts in molecular weight during the transition from mature-green to fully ripe. Even during a 9-d period beyond the fully ripe stage, tomato fruit polyuronides exhibited limited additional depolymerization and

  8. Invasive Japanese beetles facilitate aggregation and injury by a native scarab pest of ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammons, Derrick L; Kurtural, S Kaan; Newman, Melissa C; Potter, Daniel A

    2009-03-10

    Invasive species' facilitation, or benefiting, of native species is rarely considered in biological invasion literature but could have serious economic consequences should a non-native herbivore facilitate injury by a native pest of high-value crops. Japanese beetle (JB), Popillia japonica, a polyphagous scarab, facilitates feeding by the obligate fruit-feeding native green June beetle (GJB), Cotinis nitida, by biting into intact grape berries that GJB, which has blunt spatulate mandibles, is otherwise unable to exploit. Here, we show JB further facilitates GJB by contaminating fruits with yeasts, and by creating infection courts for yeasts associated with GJB, that elicit volatiles exploited as aggregation kairomones by GJB. Traps baited with combinations of grapes and beetles were used to show that fruits injured by JB alone, or in combination with GJB, become highly attractive to both sexes of GJB. Such grapes emit high amounts of fermentation compounds compared with intact grapes. Beetle feeding on grape mash induced the same volatiles as addition of winemaker's yeast, and similar attraction of GJB in the field. Eight yeast species were isolated and identified from JB collected from grapevine foliage. Establishment and spread of JB throughout fruit-growing regions of the United States is likely to elevate the pest status of GJB and other pests of ripening fruits in vineyards and orchards.

  9. Polycomb-group protein SlMSI1 represses the expression of fruit-ripening genes to prolong shelf life in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Zhou, Li-Jie; Fang, Mou-Jing; Dong, Qing-Long; An, Xiu-Hong; You, Chun-Xiang; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Polycomb-group (PcG) protein MULTICOPY SUPPRESSOR OF IRA1 (MSI1) protein is an evolutionarily conserved developmental suppressor and plays a crucial role in regulating epigenetic modulations. However, the potential role and function of MSI1 in fleshy fruits remain unknown. In this study, SlMSI1 was cloned and transformed into tomato to explore its function. The quantitative real-time PCR results showed that SlMSI1 was highly expressed in flowers and fruits and that its transcript and protein levels were significantly decreased in fruits after the breaker stage. Additionally, SlMSI1-overexpressing transgenic tomatoes displayed abnormal non-ripening fruit formation, whereas its suppression promoted fruit ripening in transgenic tomatoes. Quantitative real-time PCR assays also showed that RIN and its regulons were decreased in SlMSI1 overexpression transgenic tomato fruits. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that SlMSI1 inhibits fruit ripening by negatively regulating a large set of fruit-ripening genes in addition to RIN and its regulons. Finally, genetic manipulation of SlMSI1 and RIN successfully prolonged the fruit shelf life by regulating the fruit-ripening genes in tomato. Our findings reveal a novel regulatory function of SlMSI1 in fruit ripening and provide a new regulator that may be useful for genetic engineering and modification of fruit shelf life.

  10. Non-destructive assessment of olive fruit ripening by portable near infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, A.; Leon, L.

    2011-07-01

    The feasibility of portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) technology for the determination of oil and moisture contents in intact olive fruits was studied. A total of 144 and 112 samples were collected throughout the ripening period in two different olive cultivar trials. Spectral data were recorded in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2300 nm at 1 nm intervals under two different experimental conditions: on-tree in the field in Trial 1 and under laboratory room conditions in Trial 2. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS) regression separately for each trial set and for the combined group of samples. Although slightly better results were obtained under laboratory room conditions, the results obtained on-tree in the field were also accurate enough to determine the optimal harvest date of each cultivar. The combined model showed predictive statistics within the range of the individual models (r0.89 and RMSECV 1.99 for oil content and r0.88 and RMSECV2.06 for moisture content), which could be considered acceptable as an increase in the model robustness could be expected. These results encourage the use of portable NIR spectroscopy to monitor olive fruit ripening and to decide the optimal harvesting date on the basis of oil and moisture content. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. Effect of nitric oxide on ethylene synthesis and softening of banana fruit slice during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guiping; Yang, En; Lu, Wangjin; Jia, Yongxia; Jiang, Yueming; Duan, Xuewu

    2009-07-08

    The effects of nitric oxide (NO) on ethylene synthesis and softening of ripening-initiated banana slice were investigated. Fruit firmness, color, and contents of starch and acid-soluble pectin (ASP) were measured. In addition, ethylene production, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) content, expression and activities of ACC synthase (ACS) and ACC oxidase (ACO), and activities of cell-wall-modifying enzymes, polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase, were analyzed. Application of NO reduced ethylene production, inhibited degreening of the peel and delayed softening of the pulp. The decrease of ethylene production was associated with the reduction in the activity of ACO and the expression of the MA-ACO1 gene. Moreover, the NO-treated fruit showed a lower expression of the MA-ACS1 gene but higher ACS activity and ACC content. In addition, NO treatment decreased the activities of PG, PME, and endo-beta-1,4-glucanase and maintained higher contents of ASP and starch, which may account for the delay of softening. We proposed that the inhibition of ACO activity and transcription of gene MA-ACO1 by NO resulted in decreased ethylene synthesis and the delay of ripening of banana slice.

  12. Mold-Ripened Soft Cheeses Fortified with Date Palm Fruit Product as Functional Dairy Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otaibi, Mutlag M; Haddadin, Jamal S; Haddadin, Malik S Y

    2016-01-01

    Date fruit based products are gaining popularity among the consumers in almost all date growing countries due to its added nutritional value. Therefore, novel products were developed by combining two types of foods i.e., soft ripened cheeses and date fruit syrups or date powder. This study is the first to report the surface mold-ripened cheese production with date syrup and date powder. Model cheeses were prepared from pasteurized milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus, Penicillium camemberti and Geotrichum candidum. Date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture were added at the stage of curdling. Based on the kinetic growth of the microbial groups in all the treatments, there was no change in the growth of these in various date palm product. On the contrary It may be said that addition of the date fruit product supports their growth. After 35 days, the amounts of total poly phenols were 128.3 ± 1.01, 81.8 ± 1.11, 33.5 ± 2.19, 156.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g in the cheeses support with date syrup-1, date syrup-2, date powder or the date mixture, respectively. Antioxidant activity of date fruits ranged from 80.13 IC50 (date syrup-2) to 82.23 IC50 (date syrup-1). Based on the chemical characteristics and sensory analysis, the study results showed the potential for innovative application of date products for developing new functional dairy products as an ideal medium for the delivery of biological active compounds with beneficial health effects over.

  13. Changes of Activities in NAD Kinase and NADP Phosphatase During Ripening and Senescence of Tomato and Strawberry Fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Cai-qin; GUAN Jun-feng; XI Yu-fang; LI Guang-min

    2002-01-01

    Activities of NAD kinase(NADK)and NADP phosphatase and relationship between the two enzymes and temperature, respiration, ethylene production and trifluoperazine(TFP) were studied during ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato frnits after harvest at 4℃and 20℃. The activity of NAD kinase in strawberry decreased slowly during first four days, then increased gradually. The NADP phosphatase activity increased at the second day, decreased the next day,then increased again. In tomato fruit, the activities of NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase increased at the second day, decreased with the ripening and senescence of the fruit. The change trend of NAD kinase and respiration in the two fruits were similar, the same were NADP phosphatase and ethylene production. TFP enhanced the activity of NAD kinase and had little effect on NADP phosphatase. Low temperature(4℃ ) activated the NAD kinase and reduced the activity of NADP phosphatase. These results indicated that the NAD kinase and NADP phosphatase were related to the ripening and senescence of strawberry and tomato fruits. The activation of NAD kinase probably postponed the ripening and senescence of the fruits.

  14. Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautt-Castro, Mitzuko; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Contreras-Vergara, Carmen A; Pacheco-Sanchez, Magda A; Casas-Flores, Sergio; Sanchez-Flores, Alejandro; Kuhn, David N; Islas-Osuna, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) mesocarp cv. "Kent" was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango [1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR ≤ 0.05)]. The expression of 10 genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R = 0.97), validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like "cell wall," "carbohydrate catabolic process" and "starch and sucrose metabolic process" among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone, and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  15. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes.

  16. Mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Kent fruit mesocarp de novo transcriptome assembly identifies gene families important for ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzuko eDautt-Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is a physiological and biochemical process genetically programmed to regulate fruit quality parameters like firmness, flavor, odor and color, as well as production of ethylene in climacteric fruit. In this study, a transcriptomic analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L. mesocarp cv. Kent was done to identify key genes associated with fruit ripening. Using the Illumina sequencing platform, 67,682,269 clean reads were obtained and a transcriptome of 4.8 Gb. A total of 33,142 coding sequences were predicted and after functional annotation, 25,154 protein sequences were assigned with a product according to Swiss-Prot database and 32,560 according to non-redundant database. Differential expression analysis identified 2,306 genes with significant differences in expression between mature-green and ripe mango (1,178 up-regulated and 1,128 down-regulated (FDR≤0.05. The expression of ten genes evaluated by both qRT-PCR and RNA-seq data was highly correlated (R=0.97, validating the differential expression data from RNA-seq alone. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis, showed significantly represented terms associated to fruit ripening like cell wall, carbohydrate catabolic process and starch and sucrose metabolic process among others. Mango genes were assigned to 327 metabolic pathways according to Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, among them those involved in fruit ripening such as plant hormone signal transduction, starch and sucrose metabolism, galactose metabolism, terpenoid backbone and carotenoid biosynthesis. This study provides a mango transcriptome that will be very helpful to identify genes for expression studies in early and late flowering mangos during fruit ripening.

  17. Fruits from ripening impaired, chlorophyll degraded and jasmonate insensitive tomato mutants have altered tocopherol content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Juliana; Asís, Ramón; Molineri, Virginia Noel; Sestari, Ivan; Lira, Bruno Silvestre; Carrari, Fernando; Peres, Lázaro Eustáquio Pereira; Rossi, Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    Since isoprenoids are precursors in chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol pathways, the study of their metabolism is of fundamental importance in understanding the regulatory cross-talk that contributes to the nutritional quality of tomato fruits. By means of an integrated analysis of metabolite and gene expression profiles, isoprenoid metabolism was dissected in ripening-impaired (ripening inhibitor and non-ripening), senescence-related (lutescent1 and green flesh) and jasmonate insensitive (jasmonic acid insensitive 1-1) tomato mutants, all in the Micro-Tom genetic background. It was found that the more upstream the location of the mutated gene, the more extensive the effect on the transcriptional profiles of the isoprenoid-related genes. Although there was a distinct effect in the analyzed mutations on chlorophyll, carotenoid and tocopherol metabolism, a metabolic adjustment was apparent such the antioxidant capacity mostly remained constant. Transcriptional profiles from fruits of ripening and senescence-related tomato mutants suggested that maintenance of the de novo phytyl diphosphate synthesis might, in later ripening stages, compensate for the lack of chlorophyll-derived phytol used in tocopherol production. Interestingly, an impairment in jasmonate perception led to higher total tocopherol levels in ripe fruits, accompanied by an increase in antioxidant capacity, highlighting the contribution of tocopherols to this nutritionally important trait.

  18. Physical attributes and chemical composition of organic strawberry fruit (Fragaria x ananassa Duch, Cv. Albion) at six stages of ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Ramírez-Bustamante, Nidia; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Escalante-Minakata, María del Pilar; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Acosta-Muñiz, Carlos; Guerrero-Prieto, Víctor; Ochoa-Reyes, Emilio

    2013-05-01

    Organic strawberry fruits (Cv. 'Albion') were harvested at six different ripening stages and evaluated for physical and chemical parameters. Biometrical characteristics and moisture content did not change significantly during ripening. Total soluble solids, pH and colour development increased while titratable acidity and fruit firmness decreased 14.7% and 91%, respectively. Fructose, glucose, and sucrose followed similar tendencies. Final contents of these sugars were 2323.4, 1988.5, and 1578.4 mg/100 g. Citric, malic, and ascorbic acids followed a descending, irregular, and increasing tendency during ripening, respectively. Final contents of these acids were 822.8, 245.8, and 78.1 mg/100 g. Total anthocyanins content (TAC) increased during ripening, while the opposite was observed for total phenolic content (TPC). TAC and TPC in ripe fruit were 56.4 mg/100g and 196 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g. Twenty eight phenolic compounds, mainly glycosides, were identified and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. The concentration of these compounds was ripening dependent.

  19. EIN3-like gene expression during fruit ripening of Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata cv. Grande naine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier; Hubert, Olivier; Fils-Lycaon, Bernard; Chillet, Marc; Baurens, Franc-Christophe

    2008-06-01

    Ethylene signal transduction initiates with ethylene binding at receptor proteins and terminates in a transcription cascade involving the EIN3/EIL transcription factors. Here, we have isolated four cDNAs homologs of the Arabidopsis EIN3/EIN3-like gene, MA-EILs (Musa acuminata ethylene insensitive 3-like) from banana fruit. Sequence comparison with other banana EIL gene already registered in the database led us to conclude that, at this day, at least five different genes namely MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL3/AB266319, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 exist in banana. Phylogenetic analyses included all banana EIL genes within a same cluster consisting of rice OsEILs, a monocotyledonous plant as banana. However, MA-EIL1, MA-EIL2/AB266318, MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 on one side, and MA-EIL3/AB266319 on the other side, belong to two distant subclusters. MA-EIL mRNAs were detected in all examined banana tissues but at lower level in peel than in pulp. According to tissues, MA-EIL genes were differentially regulated by ripening and ethylene in mature green fruit and wounding in old and young leaves. MA-EIL2/AB266318 was the unique ripening- and ethylene-induced gene; MA-EIL1, MA-EIL4/Ab266320 and AB266321 genes were downregulated, while MA-EIL3/AB266319 presented an unusual pattern of expression. Interestingly, a marked change was observed mainly in MA-EIL1 and MA-EIL3/Ab266319 mRNA accumulation concomitantly with changes in ethylene responsiveness of fruit. Upon wounding, the main effect was observed in MA-EIL4/AB266320 and AB266321 mRNA levels, which presented a markedly increase in both young and old leaves, respectively. Data presented in this study suggest the importance of a transcriptionally step control in the regulation of EIL genes during banana fruit ripening.

  20. Evolutionary recycling of light signaling components in fleshy fruits: new insights on the role of pigments to monitor ripening

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    Briardo eLlorente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Besides an essential source of energy, light provides environmental information to plants. Photosensory pathways are thought to have occurred early in plant evolution, probably at the time of the Archaeplastida ancestor, or perhaps even earlier. Manipulation of individual components of light perception and signaling networks in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum affects the metabolism of ripening fruit at several levels. Most strikingly, recent experiments have shown that some of the molecular mechanisms originally devoted to sense and respond to environmental light cues have been re-adapted during evolution to provide plants with useful information on fruit ripening progression. In particular, the presence of chlorophylls in green fruit can strongly influence the spectral composition of the light filtered through the fruit pericarp. The concomitant changes in light quality can be perceived and transduced by phytochromes and phytochrome-interacting factors, respectively, to regulate gene expression and in turn modulate the production of carotenoids, a family of metabolites that are relevant for the final pigmentation of ripe fruits. We raise the hypothesis that the evolutionary recycling of light-signaling components to finely adjust pigmentation to the actual ripening stage of the fruit may have represented a selective advantage for primeval fleshy-fruited plants even before the extinction of dinosaurs.

  1. Delayed ripening and improved fruit processing quality in tomato by RNAi-mediated silencing of three homologs of 1-aminopropane-1-carboxylate synthase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Aarti; Pal, Ram Krishna; Rajam, Manchikatla Venkat

    2013-07-15

    The ripening hormone, ethylene is known to initiate, modulate and co-ordinate the expression of various genes involved in the ripening process. The burst in ethylene production is the key event for the onset of ripening in climacteric fruits, including tomatoes. Therefore ethylene is held accountable for the tons of post-harvest losses due to over-ripening and subsequently resulting in fruit rotting. In the present investigation, delayed ripening tomatoes were generated by silencing three homologs of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase (ACS) gene during the course of ripening using RNAi technology. The chimeric RNAi-ACS construct designed to target ACS homologs, effectively repressed the ethylene production in tomato fruits. Fruits from such lines exhibited delayed ripening and extended shelf life for ∼45 days, with improved juice quality. The ethylene suppression brought about compositional changes in these fruits by enhancing polyamine (PA) levels. Further, decreased levels of ethylene in RNAi-ACS fruits has led to the altered levels of various ripening-specific transcripts, especially the up-regulation of PA biosynthesis and ascorbic acid (AsA) metabolism genes and down-regulation of cell wall hydrolyzing enzyme genes. These results suggest that the down-regulation of ACS homologs using RNAi can be an effective approach for obtaining delayed ripening with longer shelf life and an enhanced processing quality of tomato fruits. Also, the chimeric gene fusion can be used as an effective design for simultaneous silencing of more than one gene. These observations would be useful in better understanding of the ethylene and PA signaling during fruit ripening and molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction of these two molecules in affecting fruit quality traits.

  2. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Carotenoid profile, antioxidant capacity, and chromoplasts of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. ´Criolla´) during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Garbanzo, Carolina; Gleichenhagen, Maike; Heller, Annerose; Esquivel, Patricia; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2017-03-16

    Pigments of pericarp and pulp of pink guava (Psidium guajava L. cv. ´Criolla´) were investigated to elucidate the profile and the accumulation of main carotenoids during four stages of fruit ripening by using HPLC-DAD and APCI-MS/MS analysis. Seventeen carotenoids were identified and changes in their profile during fruit ripening were observed. The carotenoids all-trans-β-carotene, 15-cis-lycopene, and all-trans-lycopene were present in all ripening stages, but all-trans-lycopene was found to be predominant (from 63 % to 92 % of total carotenoids) and responsible for the high lipophilic antioxidant capacity determined by spectrophotometric assays. By using light- and transmission electron microscopy, the development of chromoplasts in pericarp and pulp could be demonstrated. The accumulation of all-trans-lycopene and all-trans-β-carotene coincided with the development of large crystals; the chromoplasts of pink guava belong, therefore, to the crystalline type.

  4. A functional pectin methylesterase inhibitor protein (SolyPMEI) is expressed during tomato fruit ripening and interacts with PME-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reca, Ida Barbara; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Camardella, Laura; D'Avino, Rossana; Giardina, Thierry; Cervone, Felice; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2012-07-01

    A pectin methylesterase inhibitor (SolyPMEI) from tomato has been identified and characterised by a functional genomics approach. SolyPMEI is a cell wall protein sharing high similarity with Actinidia deliciosa PMEI (AdPMEI), the best characterised inhibitor from kiwi. It typically affects the activity of plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) and is inactive against a microbial PME. SolyPMEI transcripts were mainly expressed in flower, pollen and ripe fruit where the protein accumulated at breaker and turning stages of ripening. The expression of SolyPMEI correlated during ripening with that of PME-1, the major fruit specific PME isoform. The interaction of SolyPMEI with PME-1 was demonstrated in ripe fruit by gel filtration and by immunoaffinity chromatography. The analysis of the zonal distribution of PME activity and the co-localization of SolyPMEI with high esterified pectins suggest that SolyPMEI regulates the spatial patterning of distribution of esterified pectins in fruit.

  5. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechter, W Patrick; Levi, Amnon; Harris, Karen R; Davis, Angela R; Fei, Zhangjun; Katzir, Nurit; Giovannoni, James J; Salman-Minkov, Ayelet; Hernandez, Alvaro; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Tadmor, Yaakov; Portnoy, Vitaly; Trebitsh, Tova

    2008-01-01

    phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits. PMID:18534026

  6. Gene expression in developing watermelon fruit

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    Hernandez Alvaro

    2008-06-01

    genotype with a similar phenotype, i.e. seeded, bright red flesh, dark green rind, etc., determined that ethylene levels were highest during the green fruit stage followed by a decrease during the white and pink fruit stages. Additionally, quantitative Real-Time PCR was used to validate modulation of 127 ESTs that were differentially expressed in developing and ripening fruits based on array analysis. Conclusion This study identified numerous ESTs with putative involvement in the watermelon fruit developmental and ripening process, in particular the involvement of the vascular system and ethylene. The production of ethylene during fruit development in watermelon gives further support to the role of ethylene in fruit development in non-climacteric fruits.

  7. Phenolic compounds in hawthorn (Crataegus grayana) fruits and leaves and changes during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengzhan; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2011-10-26

    Phenolics in the fruits and leaves of Crataegus grayana were identified by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS. The contents of these compounds and their changes during autumn were also analyzed. Epicatechin [1-7 mg/g dry mass (DM) in fruits and 1-10 mg/g DM in leaves), procyanidins B2 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM) and C1 (2-4 and 1-8 mg/g DM), hyperoside (0.5-1 and 2-11 mg/g DM), and a quercetin-pentoside (0.3-0.5 and 2-6 mg/g DM) were the major phenolics in both fruits and leaves. C-Glycosyl flavones were present in leaves (2-5 mg/g DM), whereas only trace levels were found in fruits. Ideain and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid were found only in fruits. An additional 11 phenolics were identified/tentatively identified. Total phenolic contents reached highest levels by the end of August in fruits and by the end of September in leaves. The compositional profiles of phenolics in fruits and leaves of C. grayana were different from those of other Crataegus species.

  8. Tissue-Specific Transcriptome and Hormonal Regulation of Pollinated and Parthenocarpic Fig (Ficus carica L. Fruit Suggest that Fruit Ripening is Coordinated by the Reproductive Part of the Syconium

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    Yogev Rosianski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the unconventional climacteric fig (Ficus carica fruit, pollinated and parthenocarpic fruit of the same genotype exhibit different ripening characteristics. Integrative comparative analyses of tissue-specific transcript and of hormone levels during fruit repining from pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fig fruit were employed to unravel the similarities and differences in their regulatory processes during fruit repining. Assembling tissue-specific transcripts into 147,000 transcripts with 53,000 annotated genes provided new insights into the spatial distribution of many classes of regulatory and structural genes, including those related to color, taste and aroma, storage, protein degradation, seeds and embryos, chlorophyll, and hormones. Comparison of the pollinated and parthenocarpic tissues during fruit ripening showed differential gene expression, especially in the fruit inflorescence. The distinct physiological green phase II and ripening phase III differed significantly in their gene-transcript patterns in both pulp and inflorescence tissues. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole fruits enabled the first determination of ripening-related hormone levels from pollinated and non-pollinated figs. Ethylene and auxin both increased during fruit ripening, irrespective of pollination, whereas no production of active gibberellins or cytokinins was found in parthenocarpic or pollinated ripening fruit. Tissue-specific transcriptome revealed apparent different metabolic gene patterns for ethylene, auxin and ABA in pollinated vs. parthenocarpic fruit, mostly in the fruit inflorescence. Our results demonstrate that the production of abscisic acid (ABA, non-active ABA–GE conjugate and non-active indoleacetic acid (IAA–Asp conjugate in pollinated fruits is much higher than in parthenocarpic fruits. We suggest that fruit ripening is coordinated by the reproductive part of the syconium and the differences in ABA production between pollinated and

  9. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis of grapevine berry ripening reveals a set of genes similarly modulated during three seasons and the occurrence of an oxidative burst at vèraison

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    Dal Ri Antonio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grapevine (Vitis species is among the most important fruit crops in terms of cultivated area and economic impact. Despite this relevance, little is known about the transcriptional changes and the regulatory circuits underlying the biochemical and physical changes occurring during berry development. Results Fruit ripening in the non-climacteric crop species Vitis vinifera L. has been investigated at the transcriptional level by the use of the Affymetrix Vitis GeneChip® which contains approximately 14,500 unigenes. Gene expression data obtained from berries sampled before and after véraison in three growing years, were analyzed to identify genes specifically involved in fruit ripening and to investigate seasonal influences on the process. From these analyses a core set of 1477 genes was found which was similarly modulated in all seasons. We were able to separate ripening specific isoforms within gene families and to identify ripening related genes which appeared strongly regulated also by the seasonal weather conditions. Transcripts annotation by Gene Ontology vocabulary revealed five overrepresented functional categories of which cell wall organization and biogenesis, carbohydrate and secondary metabolisms and stress response were specifically induced during the ripening phase, while photosynthesis was strongly repressed. About 19% of the core gene set was characterized by genes involved in regulatory processes, such as transcription factors and transcripts related to hormonal metabolism and signal transduction. Auxin, ethylene and light emerged as the main stimuli influencing berry development. In addition, an oxidative burst, previously not detected in grapevine, characterized by rapid accumulation of H2O2 starting from véraison and by the modulation of many ROS scavenging enzymes, was observed. Conclusion The time-course gene expression analysis of grapevine berry development has identified the occurrence of two well

  10. Characterization of Musa sp. fruits and plantain banana ripening stages according to their physicochemical attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valérie Passo Tsamo, Claudine; Andre, Christelle M; Ritter, Christian; Tomekpe, Kodjo; Ngoh Newilah, Gérard; Rogez, Hervé; Larondelle, Yvan

    2014-08-27

    This study aimed at understanding the contribution of the fruit physicochemical parameters to Musa sp. diversity and plantain ripening stages. A discriminant analysis was first performed on a collection of 35 Musa sp. cultivars, organized in six groups based on the consumption mode (dessert or cooking banana) and the genomic constitution. A principal component analysis reinforced by a logistic regression on plantain cultivars was proposed as an analytical approach to describe the plantain ripening stages. The results of the discriminant analysis showed that edible fraction, peel pH, pulp water content, and pulp total phenolics were among the most contributing attributes for the discrimination of the cultivar groups. With mean values ranging from 65.4 to 247.3 mg of gallic acid equivalents/100 g of fresh weight, the pulp total phenolics strongly differed between interspecific and monospecific cultivars within dessert and nonplantain cooking bananas. The results of the logistic regression revealed that the best models according to fitting parameters involved more than one physicochemical attribute. Interestingly, pulp and peel total phenolic contents contributed in the building up of these models.

  11. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  12. Molecular characterization of banana NAC transcription factors and their interactions with ethylene signalling component EIL during fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Chen, Lei; Xie, Hui; Peng, Huan-huan; Xiao, Yun-yi; Li, Xue-ping; Chen, Wei-xin; He, Quan-guang; Chen, Jian-ye; Lu, Wang-jin

    2012-09-01

    The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, and CUC2) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, the precise role of NAC TFs in relation to fruit ripening is poorly understood. In this study, six NAC genes, designated MaNAC1-MaNAC6, were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. Subcellular localization showed that MaNAC1-MaNAC5 proteins localized preferentially to the nucleus, while MaNAC6 was distributed throughout the entire cell. A transactivation assay in yeast demonstrated that MaNAC4 and MaNAC6, as well as their C-terminal regions, possessed trans-activation activity. Gene expression profiles in fruit with four different ripening characteristics, including natural, ethylene-induced, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP)-delayed, and a combination of 1-MCP with ethylene treatment, revealed that the MaNAC genes were differentially expressed in peel and pulp during post-harvest ripening. MaNAC1 and MaNAC2 were apparently upregulated by ethylene in peel and pulp, consistent with the increase in ethylene production. In contrast, MaNAC3 in peel and pulp and MaNAC5 in peel were constitutively expressed, and transcripts of MaNAC4 in peel and pulp and MaNAC6 in peel decreased, while MaNAC5 or MaNAC6 in pulp increased slightly during fruit ripening. Furthermore, the MaNAC2 promoter was activated after ethylene application, further enhancing the involvement of MaNAC2 in fruit ripening. More importantly, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses confirmed that MaNAC1/2 physically interacted with a downstream component of ethylene signalling, ethylene insensitive 3 (EIN3)-like protein, termed MaEIL5, which was downregulated during ripening. Taken together, these results suggest that MaNACs such as MaNAC1/MaNAC2, may be involved in banana fruit ripening via interaction with ethylene signalling components.

  13. A label-free differential proteomics analysis reveals the effect of melatonin on promoting fruit ripening and anthocyanin accumulation upon postharvest in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Na; Wang, Jinfang; Cao, Yunyun; Li, Xingsheng; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Lei; Tan, Dun-Xian; Guo, Yang-Dong

    2016-09-01

    To better understand the function of melatonin in tomato fruit ripening and quality improvement, a label-free quantitation method was used to investigate the proteins that differ between the control (CK) and 50 μm melatonin treatment (M50) fruits. Proteomics data identified 241 proteins that were significantly influenced by melatonin. These proteins were involved in several ripening-related pathways, including cell wall metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, carbohydrate, and fatty acid metabolism. Moreover, the application of exogenous melatonin increased eight proteins that are related to anthocyanin accumulation during fruit ripening. Additionally, the affected protein levels correlated with the corresponding gene transcript levels. Further, the total anthocyanin content from M50 increased by 52%, 48%, and 50% at 5, 8, and 13 DAT (day after melatonin treatment), respectively. The melatonin-mediated promotion of fruit ripening and quality might be due to the altered proteins involved in processes associated with ripening. In this work, we indicated that a senescence-related protein was downregulated in the M50 fruit, while a cell apoptosis inhibitor (API5) protein was upregulated. In addition, peroxidases (POD9, POD12, peroxidase p7-like) and catalase (CAT3) significantly increased in the M50 fruits. Based on the previous studies and our data, we inferred that melatonin might be positively related to fruit ripening but negatively related to fruit senescence. This research provides insights into the physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying melatonin-mediated fruit ripening as well as the anthocyanin formation process in tomato fruit at the protein concentration level, and we reveal possible candidates for regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening.

  14. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis) on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  15. Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Possible Influences of ABA on Secondary Metabolism of Pigments, Flavonoids and Antioxidants in Tomato Fruit during Ripening.

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    Wangshu Mou

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA has been proven to be involved in the regulation of climacteric fruit ripening, but a comprehensive investigation of its influence on ripening related processes is still lacking. By applying the next generation sequencing technology, we conducted a comparative analysis of the effects of exogenous ABA and NDGA (Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis on tomato fruit ripening. The high throughput sequencing results showed that out of the 25728 genes expressed across all three samples, 10388 were identified as significantly differently expressed genes. Exogenous ABA was found to enhance the transcription of genes involved in pigments metabolism, including carotenoids biosynthesis and chlorophyll degradation, whereas NDGA treatment inhibited these processes. The results also revealed the crucial role of ABA in flavonoids synthesis and regulation of antioxidant system. Intriguingly, we also found that an inhibition of endogenous ABA significantly enhanced the transcriptional abundance of genes involved in photosynthesis. Our results highlighted the significance of ABA in regulating tomato ripening, which provided insight into the regulatory mechanism of fruit maturation and senescence process.

  16. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-04-18

    Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  17. Characterization of Changes in Polyphenols, Antioxidant Capacity and Physico-Chemical Parameters during Lowbush Blueberry Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Gibson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes in major polyphenols, antioxidant capacity, and selected physico-chemical parameters were examined in lowbush blueberry during fruit ripening. Polyphenols (phenolic acids, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins, density, soluble solid content, pH, titratable acidity, sugars, organic acids, and antioxidant capacity were determined in fruits of four maturities: green, pink/red, blue, and over-mature. Highest concentrations of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acids were in green fruits: 168 ± 107, 119 ± 29 and 543 ± 91 mg/100 g dry weight (DW respectively. Highest anthocyanin levels were found in blue and over-mature fruits (1011–1060 mg/100 DW. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid and quercetin-3-O-galactoside the most abundant flavonol in all maturities. Epicatechin was the most abundant flavan-3-ol in green fruits (80 ± 20 mg/100 DW, and catechin was the most abundant in other maturity stages. Increase of glucose and fructose and decrease of organic acids were observed during fruit ripening. Among six organic acids found, quinic acid (1.7–9.5 mg/100 mg DW was the most abundant throughout the fruit ontogeny. Soluble solids, pH, and density increased with maturity while, titratable acidity decreased. These findings can be helpful in optimizing harvest and processing operations in lowbush blueberry fruits.

  18. MicroRNA profiling analysis throughout tomato fruit development and ripening reveals potential regulatory role of RIN on microRNAs accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Cao, Dongyan; Zhai, Baiqiang; Qin, Guozheng; Zhu, Hongliang; Fu, Daqi; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2015-04-01

    The development and ripening of tomato fruit are complex processes involving many gene regulatory pathways at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. Ripening inhibitor (RIN) is a vital transcription factor, which targets numerous ripening-related genes at the transcriptional level during tomato fruit ripening. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short noncoding RNAs that play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation. To elucidate the potential regulatory relationship between rin and miRNAs during fruit development and ripening, we identified known miRNAs and profiled their expression in wild-type tomato and rin mutant using a deep sequencing approach combined with quantitative RT-PCR. A total of 33 known miRNA families were identified, of which 14 miRNA families were differently accumulated. Subsequent promoter analysis showed that possible RIN-binding motifs (CArG-box) tended to occur frequently in the promoter regions of partial differently expressed miRNAs. In addition, ethylene may participate in the regulation of miRNAs accumulation during tomato fruit ripening. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the direct binding of RIN to the promoter of MIR172a. Collectively, these results showed a close correlation between miRNA expression and RIN as well as ethylene, which further elucidated the regulatory roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening and enriched the regulatory network of RIN in tomato fruit.

  19. Role for the banana AGAMOUS-like gene MaMADS7 in regulation of fruit ripening and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juhua; Liu, Lin; Li, Yujia; Jia, Caihong; Zhang, Jianbin; Miao, Hongxia; Hu, Wei; Wang, Zhuo; Xu, Biyu; Jin, Zhiqiang

    2015-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors play important roles in organ development. In plants, most studies on MADS-box genes have mainly focused on flower development and only a few concerned fruit development and ripening. A new MADS-box gene named MaMADS7 was isolated from banana fruit by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on a MADS-box fragment obtained from a banana suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library. MaMADS7 is an AGAMOUS-like MADS-box gene that is preferentially expressed in the ovaries and fruits and in tobacco its protein product localizes to the nucleus. This study found that MaMADS7 expression can be induced by exogenous ethylene. Ectopic expression of MaMADS7 in tomato resulted in broad ripening phenotypes. The expression levels of seven ripening and quality-related genes, ACO1, ACS2, E4, E8, PG, CNR and PSY1 in MaMADS7 transgenic tomato fruits were greatly increased while the expression of the AG-like MADS-box gene TAGL1 was suppressed. Compared with the control, the contents of β-carotene, lycopene, ascorbic acid and organic acid in transformed tomato fruits were increased, while the contents of glucose and fructose were slightly decreased. MaMADS7 interacted with banana 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) oxidase gene 1 (MaACO1) and tomato phytoene synthase gene (LePSY1) promoters. Our results indicated that MaMADS7 plays an important role in initiating endogenous ethylene biosynthesis and fruit ripening.

  20. Banana MaMADS Transcription Factors Are Necessary for Fruit Ripening and Molecular Tools to Promote Shelf-Life and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elitzur, Tomer; Yakir, Esther; Quansah, Lydia; Zhangjun, Fei; Vrebalov, Julia; Khayat, Eli; Giovannoni, James J; Friedman, Haya

    2016-05-01

    Genetic solutions to postharvest crop loss can reduce cost and energy inputs while increasing food security, especially for banana (Musa acuminata), which is a significant component of worldwide food commerce. We have functionally characterized two banana E class (SEPALLATA3 [SEP3]) MADS box genes, MaMADS1 and MaMADS2, homologous to the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RIN-MADS ripening gene. Transgenic banana plants repressing either gene (via antisense or RNA interference [RNAi]) were created and exhibited specific ripening delay and extended shelf-life phenotypes, including delayed color development and softening. The delay in fruit ripening is associated with a delay in climacteric respiration and reduced synthesis of the ripening hormone ethylene; in the most severe repressed lines, no ethylene was produced and ripening was most delayed. Unlike tomato rin mutants, banana fruits of all transgenic repression lines responded to exogenous ethylene by ripening normally, likely due to incomplete transgene repression and/or compensation by other MADS box genes. Our results show that, although MADS box ripening gene necessity is conserved across diverse taxa (monocots to dicots), unlike tomato, banana ripening requires at least two necessary members of the SEPALLATA MADS box gene group, and either can serve as a target for ripening control. The utility of such genes as tools for ripening control is especially relevant in important parthenocarpic crops such as the vegetatively propagated and widely consumed Cavendish banana, where breeding options for trait improvement are severely limited.

  1. The Tomato FRUITFULL Homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 Regulate Ethylene-Independent Aspects of Fruit Ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemer, M.; Karlova, R.B.; Ballester, A.R.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Bovy, A.G.; Wolters-Arts, M.; Barros Rossetto, de P.; Angenent, G.C.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit

  2. 1-Methylcyclopropene delays tomato fruit ripening Retardamento do amadurecimento de tomates com 1-metilciclopropeno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Moretti

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruits, cv. Santa Clara, were harvested at the breaker stage from commercial fields in Brazlândia, Brazil, to investigate the ability of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP to retard tomato fruit ripening. Fruit without external blemishes were graded for size (diameter = 80±5 mm and mass (m = 130±10 g, placed inside hermetically sealed boxes, and 1-MCP was applied for 12 hours (T = 22±1°C; RH = 80-85% at four different concentrations: 0 (control, 250, 500 and 1000 mL.L-1. Fruits were held at ambient conditions (T = 23±2°C; RH 80-85% for 2 days and then stored inside a cold room (T = 20±1°C; RH = 85-95%. Every 3 days, during a 15-day period, fruits were analyzed for firmness, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, external color, and total carotenoids. Firmness of fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 was about 88% higher than control fruits after 17 days. The a*/b* ratio, an indicator of skin color, for fruit treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP was 38% lower than control fruits at the end of the storage period. Treatments with higher concentrations of 1-MCP delayed total carotenoids synthesis and color development. Control fruits stored for 17 days had about 190% more total carotenoids than fruits treated with 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP. Postharvest application of 1-MCP was an efficient method to delay tomato fruit ripening. As 1-MCP concentration increased, ripening was further delayed. Tomatoes treated with 250, 500, and 1000 mL.L-1 of 1-MCP were delayed by 8 to 11, 11 to 13 and 15 to 17 days, respectively.Tomates (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., 'Santa Clara', foram colhidos no estádio verde-rosado em campos de produção comercial em Brazlândia (DF com o objetivo de investigar a capacidade do 1-metilciclopropeno (1-MCP em retardar o amadurecimento de tomates. Frutos sem danos mecânicos externos aparentes foram selecionados para tamanho (diâmetro = 80±5 mm e massa (m = 130±10 g, foram colocados em câmaras herm

  3. iTRAQ protein profile analysis of tomato green-ripe mutant reveals new aspects critical for fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Benzhong; Zhu, Hongliang; Chen, Yuexi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Fu, Daqi

    2014-04-01

    Green-ripe (Gr) tomato carries a dominant mutation and yields a nonripening fruit phenotype. The mutation results from a 334 bp deletion in a gene of unknown function at the Gr locus. The putative influence of Gr gene-deletion mutation on biochemical changes underlying the nonripening phenotype remains largely unknown. Respiration of Gr fruit was found to be reduced at mature green and breaker stage of ripening, while the fruit softening was dramatically prolonged. We studied the proteome of Gr mutant fruit using high-throughput iTRAQ and high-resolution mass spectrometry and identified 43 proteins representing 43 individual genes as potential influence-targets of Gr mutated fruit. The identified proteins are involved in several ripening-related pathways including cell-wall metabolism, photosynthesis, oxidative phosphorylation, carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism, protein synthesis, and processing. Affected protein levels are correlated with the corresponding gene transcript levels. The modulation in the accumulation levels of PI(U1)P, PGIP, and PG2 supported the delayed softening phenotype of the Gr fruit. Further investigation in GR gene-silencing fruit ascertained the doubtless modulation of these targets by the deletion mutation of GR gene.

  4. Inhibition of hardy kiwifruit (Actinidia aruguta) ripening by 1-methylcyclopropene during cold storage and anticancer properties of the fruit extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sooyeon; Han, Seung Hyun; Kim, Jeongyun; Lee, Han Jun; Lee, Jeong Gu; Lee, Eun Jin

    2016-01-01

    Hardy kiwifruits (Actinidia arguta) were treated with 20 μl/l 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) for 16 h at 10 °C and subsequently stored at 1 ± 0.5 °C. Anticancer properties of the fruit extracts were tested against five different human cancer cells. The hardy kiwifruits, without 1-MCP treatment, showed increases in both respiration and ethylene production rates during fruit storage. The 1-MCP treatment remarkably inhibited fruit ripening by reducing respiration and ethylene production. Fruits with the 1-MCP treatment could be stored for up to 5 weeks by maintaining higher fruit firmness, ascorbic acid and total phenolic contents compared to the control. The hardy kiwifruit extracts showed anti-proliferative effects to Hep3B and HeLa cells but not to HT29, HepG2 and LoVo cells. These results suggest that the application of 1-MCP at harvest effectively delayed the ripening process of the fruits, and the fruit extract had beneficial effects for the prevention of human cancer growth.

  5. Expression patterns of cell wall-modifying genes from banana during fruit ripening and in relationship with finger drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, D.; Hubert, O.; Baurens, F. C.; Matsumoto, T.; Chillet, M.; Fils-Lycaon, B.; Sidibé-Bocs, S.

    2009-01-01

    Few molecular studies have been devoted to the finger drop process that occurs during banana fruit ripening. Recent studies revealed the involvement of changes in the properties of cell wall polysaccharides in the pedicel rupture area. In this study, the expression of cell-wall modifying genes was monitored in peel tissue during post-harvest ripening of Cavendish banana fruit, at median area (control zone) and compared with that in the pedicel rupture area (drop zone). To this end, three pectin methylesterase (PME) and seven xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) genes were isolated. The accumulation of their mRNAs and those of polygalaturonase, expansin, and pectate lyase genes already isolated from banana were examined. During post-harvest ripening, transcripts of all genes were detected in both zones, but accumulated differentially. MaPME1, MaPG1, and MaXTH4 mRNA levels did not change in either zone. Levels of MaPME3 and MaPG3 mRNAs increased greatly only in the control zone and at the late ripening stages. For other genes, the main molecular changes occurred 1–4 d after ripening induction. MaPME2, MaPEL1, MaPEL2, MaPG4, MaXTH6, MaXTH8, MaXTH9, MaEXP1, MaEXP4, and MaEXP5 accumulated highly in the drop zone, contrary to MaXTH3 and MaXTH5, and MaEXP2 throughout ripening. For MaPG2, MaXET1, and MaXET2 genes, high accumulation in the drop zone was transient. The transcriptional data obtained from all genes examined suggested that finger drop and peel softening involved similar mechanisms. These findings also led to the proposal of a sequence of molecular events leading to finger drop and to suggest some candidates. PMID:19357434

  6. Ethephon, an organophosphorus, a fruit and vegetable ripener: Has potential hepatotoxic effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Bhadoria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ethephon, 2-choloroethylphosphonic acid, has been recognized as one of the most widely used plant growth regulator. Currently it is commonly used on fruits, vegetables, cereals, for promoting pre-harvest and post-harvest ripening and has become one of the major health concerns as we are exposed to this constantly.Rationale: Liver plays an important role in the first pass metabolism of ethephon and its metabolites are known to cause various disturbances in the liver enzymes.Objectives: The present study was conducted to study the effects of ethephon on histomorphology and morphometry of liver of adult wistar albino rats.Material and Methods: Ten experimental rats were administered 200mg/kg bodyweight by oral gavage for fourteen days. Ten Controls were also maintained.  Animals of both groups were sacrificed within twenty four hours of the last dose; liver was dissected and processed for light microscopy. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections were studied using an image pro-express analyzer. The data obtained from control and experimental groups was tabulated and statistically analyzed.Results: The mean body weight of the experimental rats was found to be decreased significantly (p<0.05. The liver capsule was thickened and infiltrated with inflammatory and red blood cells. The orderly arrangement of hepatocytes was disrupted and was replaced by blood filled large sinusoids. At sites hepatocytes appeared to be degenerated. Councilman bodies with pyknotic nuclei and inflammatory infiltrations were observed. The hepatocyte count per unit area was significantly decreased among experimental rats (29.53±10.65 when compared with control rats (44.18±10.31. However, the kupffer cell count per unit area was significantly higher among experimental rats (25.12 ± 4.41 as compared to control rats (13.05±6.5.Conclusion: The changes observed in the liver suggest that ethephon, which is commonly used a fruit and vegetable ripener possesses a

  7. Chromoplast formation during tomato fruit ripening. No evidence for plastid DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marano, M R; Carrillo, N

    1991-01-01

    Ripening of tomato fruits involves differentiation of chloroplasts into non-photosynthetic chromoplasts. Plastid DNAs isolated either from green leaf chloroplasts or mature red fruit chromoplasts were compared by restriction endonuclease and DNA/DNA hybridization analyses. The same restriction and gene maps were obtained for both types of DNAs, illustrating the lack of major recombinational events during chromoplast formation. Several enzymes were used that discriminate the presence of methylated bases in their target sequences (Pst I, Pvu II, Sal I, Mbo I/Sau 3AI, Msp I/Hpa II, Bst NI/Eco RII). Plastid DNA fragments generated by these enzymes were hybridized against DNA probes encompassing about 85% of the tobacco chloroplast genome. These probes represented genes that follow very different expression behaviors in response to plastid development. Extensive restriction and hybridization analyses failed to reveal any difference between the chloroplast and chromoplast genomes, indicating that no developmentally related DNA methylation was detected by these methods. The results presented here do not support the hypothesis that selective DNA methylation of the chromoplast genome might play a major role in the transcriptional control of gene expression in these non-photosynthetic plastids.

  8. Overexpression of a novel MADS-box gene SlFYFL delays senescence, fruit ripening and abscission in tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiaoli; Hu, Zongli; Zhu, Zhiguo; Dong, Tingting; Zhao, Zhiping; Cui, Baolu; Chen, Guoping

    2014-03-01

    MADS-domain proteins are important transcription factors involved in many biological processes of plants. In our study, a tomato MADS-box gene, SlFYFL, was isolated. SlFYFL is expressed in all tissues of tomato and significantly higher in mature leave, fruit of different stages, AZ (abscission zone) and sepal. Delayed leaf senescence and fruit ripening, increased storability and longer sepals were observed in 35S:FYFL tomato. The accumulation of carotenoid was reduced, and ethylene content, ethylene biosynthetic and responsive genes were down-regulated in 35S:FYFL fruits. Abscission zone (AZ) did not form normally and abscission zone development related genes were declined in AZs of 35S:FYFL plants. Yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that SlFYFL protein could interact with SlMADS-RIN, SlMADS1 and SlJOINTLESS, respectively. These results suggest that overexpression of SlFYFL regulate fruit ripening and development of AZ via interactions with the ripening and abscission zone-related MADS box proteins.

  9. Interrelationship of Gene Expression, Polysome Prevalence, and Respiration during Ripening of Ethylene and/or Cyanide-Treated Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, M L; Laties, G G

    1984-02-01

    Upon initiation of ripening in avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) with 10 microliters/liter ethylene, polysome prevalence and associated poly(A)(+) mRNA increase approximately 3-fold early in the respiratory climacteric and drop off to preclimacteric levels at the peak of the respiratory climacteric. The increase in poly(A)(+) mRNA on polysomes early in the respiratory climacteric constitutes a generic increase in constitutive mRNAs. New gene expression associated with ripening is minimal but evident after 10 hours of ethylene treatment and continues to increase relative to constitutive gene expression throughout the climacteric. The respiratory climacteric can be temporally separated into two phases. The first phase is associated with a general increase in protein synthesis, whereas the second phase reflects new gene expression and accumulation of corresponding proteins which may be responsible for softening and other ripening characteristics. A major new message on polysomes that arises concomitantly with the respiratory climacteric codes for an in vitro translation product of 53 kilodaltons which is immunoprecipitated by antiserum against avocado fruit cellulase.Cyanide at 500 microliters/liter fails to affect the change in polysome prevalance or new gene expression associated with the ethylene-evoked climacteric in avocado fruit. Treatment of fruit with 500 microliters/liter cyanide alone initiates a respiratory increase within 4 hours, ethylene biosynthesis within 18 hours, and new gene expression akin to that educed by ethylene within 20 hours of exposure to cyanide.

  10. 2D-DIGE analysis of mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit reveals major proteomic changes associated with ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jonathan de Magalhães; Toledo, Tatiana Torres; Nogueira, Silvia Beserra; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2012-06-18

    A comparative proteomic investigation between the pre-climacteric and climacteric mango fruits (cv. Keitt) was performed to identify protein species with variable abundance during ripening. Proteins were phenol-extracted from fruits, cyanine-dye-labeled, and separated on 2D gels at pH 4-7. Total spot count of about 373 proteins spots was detected in each gel and forty-seven were consistently different between pre-climacteric and climacteric fruits and were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis. Functional classification revealed that protein species involved in carbon fixation and hormone biosynthesis decreased during ripening, whereas those related to catabolism and the stress-response, including oxidative stress and abiotic and pathogen defense factors, accumulated. In relation to fruit quality, protein species putatively involved in color development and pulp softening were also identified. This study on mango proteomics provides an overview of the biological processes that occur during ripening. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 5'-Methylthioadenosine Nucleosidase and 5-Methylthioribose Kinase Activities and Ethylene Production during Tomato Fruit Development and Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushad, M M; Richardson, D G; Ferro, A J

    1985-10-01

    5'-Methylthioadenosine (MTA) nucleosidase and 5-methylthioribose (MTR) kinase activities were measured in crude extracts of tomato fruits (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill cv Rutgers) during fruit development and ripening. The highest activity of MTA nucleosidase (1.2 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) was observed in small green fruits. The activity decreased during ripening; at the overripe stage only 6.5% of the peak activity remained. MTR kinase activity was low at the small green stage and increased thereafter until it reached peak activity at the breaker stage (0.7 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) followed by a sharp decline at the later stages of fruit ripening. 1-Amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) levels peaked at the red stage, while ethylene reached its highest level at the light-red stage. Several analogs of MTA and MTR were tested as both enzyme and ethylene inhibitors. Of the MTA analogs examined for their ability to inhibit MTA nucleosidase, 5'-chloroformycin reduced enzyme activity 89%, whereas 5'-chloroadenosine, 5'-isobutylthioadenosine, 5'-isopropylthioadenosine, and 5'-ethylthioadenosine inhibited the reaction with MTA by about 40%. 5'-Chloroformycin and 5'-chloroadenosine inhibited ethylene production over a period of 24 hours by about 64 and 42%, respectively. Other analogs of MTA were not effective inhibitors of ethylene production, whereas aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed a 34% inhibition over the same period of time. Of the MTR analogs tested, 5-isobutylthioribose was the most effective inhibitor of both MTR-kinase (41%) and ethylene production (35%).

  12. Metabolic effects of elevated temperature on organic acid degradation in ripening Vitis vinifera fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, C; Sadras, V O; Hancock, R D; Soole, K L; Ford, C M

    2014-11-01

    Berries of the cultivated grapevine Vitis vinifera are notably responsive to temperature, which can influence fruit quality and hence the future compatibility of varieties with their current growing regions. Organic acids represent a key component of fruit organoleptic quality and their content is significantly influenced by temperature. The objectives of this study were to (i) manipulate thermal regimes to realistically capture warming-driven reduction of malate content in Shiraz berries, and (ii) investigate the mechanisms behind temperature-sensitive malate loss and the potential downstream effects on berry metabolism. In the field we compared untreated controls at ambient temperature with longer and milder warming (2-4 °C differential for three weeks; Experiment 1) or shorter and more severe warming (4-6 °C differential for 11 days; Experiment 2). We complemented field trials with control (25/15 °C) and elevated (35/20 °C) day/night temperature controlled-environment trials using potted vines (Experiment 3). Elevating maximum temperatures (4-10 °C above controls) during pre-véraison stages led to higher malate content, particularly with warmer nights. Heating at véraison and ripening stages reduced malate content, consistent with effects typically seen in warm vintages. However, when minimum temperatures were also raised by 4-6 °C, malate content was not reduced, suggesting that the regulation of malate metabolism differs during the day and night. Increased NAD-dependent malic enzyme activity and decreased phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate kinase activities, as well as the accumulation of various amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid, suggest enhanced anaplerotic capacity of the TCA cycle and a need for coping with decreased cytosolic pH in heated fruit. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  13. Incidence of ripening and chilling injury on the oxidative activities and Fatty Acid compositions of the mitochondria from mango fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, O; Marcellin, P

    1978-04-01

    The succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria isolated from mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) stored at 4, 8, 12, and 20 C were investigated during storage. In normally ripening fruits (at 12 and 20 C) the oxidative capacities increased during the first 10 days and then decreased slowly. At lower temperatures (4 and 8 C), the fruits showed chilling injury symptoms, after about 10 days of storage and the succinate oxidation capacities of mitochondria decreased progressively. Plots of succinate oxidation capacities as against storage temperature showed a marked discontinuity between 12 and 8 C, only when chilling injury was observed on fruits stored at low temperature.The variations of mitochondrial fatty acid composition during the storage of fruits at different temperatures were also investigated. A marked decrease of the molar ratio palmitoleic acid/palmitic acid, the predominant fatty acids in mitochondrial lipids, was observed to accompany both the succinate oxidation decrease and the induction of chilling injury.

  14. Analysis of Papaya Cell Wall-Related Genes during Fruit Ripening Indicates a Central Role of Polygalacturonases during Pulp Softening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabi, João Paulo; Broetto, Sabrina Garcia; da Silva, Sarah Lígia Garcia Leme; Zhong, Silin; Lajolo, Franco Maria; do Nascimento, João Roberto Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a climacteric fleshy fruit that undergoes dramatic changes during ripening, most noticeably a severe pulp softening. However, little is known regarding the genetics of the cell wall metabolism in papayas. The present work describes the identification and characterization of genes related to pulp softening. We used gene expression profiling to analyze the correlations and co-expression networks of cell wall-related genes, and the results suggest that papaya pulp softening is accomplished by the interactions of multiple glycoside hydrolases. The polygalacturonase cpPG1 appeared to play a central role in the network and was further studied. The transient expression of cpPG1 in papaya results in pulp softening and leaf necrosis in the absence of ethylene action and confirms its role in papaya fruit ripening. PMID:25162506

  15. The tomato FRUITFULL homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 regulate ethylene-independent aspects of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Karlova, Rumyana; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Tikunov, Yury M; Bovy, Arnaud G; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Rossetto, Priscilla de Barros; Angenent, Gerco C; de Maagd, Ruud A

    2012-11-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit ripening. To elucidate their function in tomato, we characterized single and double FUL1 and FUL2 knockdown lines. Whereas the single lines only showed very mild alterations in fruit pigmentation, the double silenced lines exhibited an orange-ripe fruit phenotype due to highly reduced lycopene levels, suggesting that FUL1 and FUL2 have a redundant function in fruit ripening. More detailed analyses of the phenotype, transcriptome, and metabolome of the fruits silenced for both FUL1 and FUL2 suggest that the genes are involved in cell wall modification, the production of cuticle components and volatiles, and glutamic acid (Glu) accumulation. Glu is responsible for the characteristic umami taste of the present-day cultivated tomato fruit. In contrast with previously identified ripening regulators, FUL1 and FUL2 do not regulate ethylene biosynthesis but influence ripening in an ethylene-independent manner. Our data combined with those of others suggest that FUL1/2 and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 regulate different subsets of the known RIN targets, probably in a protein complex with the latter.

  16. The Tomato FRUITFULL Homologs TDR4/FUL1 and MBP7/FUL2 Regulate Ethylene-Independent Aspects of Fruit Ripening[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Marian; Karlova, Rumyana; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Tikunov, Yury M.; Bovy, Arnaud G.; Wolters-Arts, Mieke; Rossetto, Priscilla de Barros; Angenent, Gerco C.; de Maagd, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains two close homologs of the Arabidopsis thaliana MADS domain transcription factor FRUITFULL (FUL), FUL1 (previously called TDR4) and FUL2 (previously MBP7). Both proteins interact with the ripening regulator RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN) and are expressed during fruit ripening. To elucidate their function in tomato, we characterized single and double FUL1 and FUL2 knockdown lines. Whereas the single lines only showed very mild alterations in fruit pigmentation, the double silenced lines exhibited an orange-ripe fruit phenotype due to highly reduced lycopene levels, suggesting that FUL1 and FUL2 have a redundant function in fruit ripening. More detailed analyses of the phenotype, transcriptome, and metabolome of the fruits silenced for both FUL1 and FUL2 suggest that the genes are involved in cell wall modification, the production of cuticle components and volatiles, and glutamic acid (Glu) accumulation. Glu is responsible for the characteristic umami taste of the present-day cultivated tomato fruit. In contrast with previously identified ripening regulators, FUL1 and FUL2 do not regulate ethylene biosynthesis but influence ripening in an ethylene-independent manner. Our data combined with those of others suggest that FUL1/2 and TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 regulate different subsets of the known RIN targets, probably in a protein complex with the latter. PMID:23136376

  17. The Relationship between Palm Oil Quality Index Development and Physical Properties of Fresh Fruit Bunches in the Ripening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Keshvadi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is the most important tree crop in the rural economy of the humid rainforest of Malaysia. The oil is consumed as household food, used domestically for industrial purposes, and an important foreign exchange earning export. Normally, oil palm will be harvested after four years of planting. The oil palm yield will increase variously until the tenth year of planting. The yield will then remains at a stable stage until the twenty-fifth year. The maturity and palm oil development in the fruit ripening process is a good way to monitor harvest time and recommendation to evaluate the palm oil performance in food industries. This research is done on Tenera oil palm variety (A cross between Dura and Pisifera on 8-year-old planted in 2003 at the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB Research Station. Fresh fruit Bunches were carried and were divided to three regions (Top, Middle and Bottom then were removed the fruits from outer and inner layers of them randomly, during the ripening process between 8, 12,16 and 20 weeks after anthesis for these aims: The relationship between maturity and oil development in mesocarp and kernel also investigate to fatty acid compositions during the ripening process at each three regions of bunch by Gas Chromatography (GC and Physical properties of oil palm fresh fruits such as length, width, thickness, weight, apparent volume, true density, bulk density, porosity, sphericity and surface area. Calculation of earned data related to ripening time, oil content and physical properties were done by MSTAT-C, SAS and Microsoft Excel computer programs.

  18. Expression patterns of ethylene biosynthesis genes from bananas during fruit ripening and in relationship with finger drop

    OpenAIRE

    HUBERT, Olivier; Mbéguié-A-Mbéguié, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Banana finger drop is defined as dislodgement of individual fruits from the hand at the pedicel rupture area. For some banana varieties, this is a major feature of the ripening process, in addition to ethylene production and sugar metabolism. The few studies devoted to assessing the physiological and molecular basis of this process revealed (i) the similarity between this process and softening, (ii) the early onset of related molecular events, between the first and fourth ...

  19. Mitochondrial ascorbate-glutathione cycle and proteomic analysis of carbonylated proteins during tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vidal, O; Camejo, D; Rivera-Cabrera, F; Konigsberg, M; Villa-Hernández, J M; Mendoza-Espinoza, J A; Pérez-Flores, L J; Sevilla, F; Jiménez, A; Díaz de León-Sánchez, F

    2016-03-01

    In non-photosynthetic tissues, mitochondria are the main source of energy and of reactive oxygen species. Accumulation of high levels of these species in the cell causes damage to macromolecules including several proteins and induces changes in different metabolic processes. Fruit ripening has been characterized as an oxidative phenomenon; therefore, control of reactive oxygen species levels by mitochondrial antioxidants plays a crucial role on this process. In this work, ascorbate-glutathione cycle components, hydrogen peroxide levels and the proteomic profile of carbonylated proteins were analyzed in mitochondria isolated from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit at two ripening stages. A significant increase on most ascorbate-glutathione cycle components and on carbonylated proteins was observed in mitochondria from breaker to light red stage. Enzymes and proteins involved in diverse cellular and mitochondrial metabolic pathways were identified among the carbonylated proteins. These results suggest that protein carbonylation is a post-translational modification involved in tomato fruit ripening regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Bioinformatic and molecular analysis of hydroxymethylbutenyl diphosphate synthase (GCPE) gene expression during carotenoid accumulation in ripening tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Querol, Jordi; Lois, Luisa María; Imperial, Santiago; Boronat, Albert

    2003-07-01

    Carotenoids are plastidic isoprenoid pigments of great biological and biotechnological interest. The precursors for carotenoid production are synthesized through the recently elucidated methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. Here we have identified a tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cDNA sequence encoding a full-length protein with homology to the MEP pathway enzyme hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase (HDS, also called GCPE). Comparison with other plant and bacterial HDS sequences showed that the plant enzymes contain a plastid-targeting N-terminal sequence and two highly conserved plant-specific domains in the mature protein with no homology to any other sequence in the databases. The ubiquitous distribution of HDS-encoding expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the tomato collections suggests that the corresponding gene is likely expressed throughout the plant. The role of HDS in controlling the supply of precursors for carotenoid biosynthesis was estimated from the bioinformatic and molecular analysis of transcript abundance in different stages of fruit development. No significant changes in HDS gene expression were deduced from the statistical analysis of EST distribution during fruit ripening, when an active MEP pathway is required to support a massive accumulation of carotenoids. RNA blot experiments confirmed that similar transcript levels were present in both the wild-type and carotenoid-depleted yellow ripe ( r) mutant fruit independent of the stage of development and the carotenoid composition of the fruit. Together, our results are consistent with a non-limiting role for HDS in carotenoid biosynthesis during tomato fruit ripening.

  1. Physiological changes in fruit ripening caused by overexpression of tomato SlAN2, an R2R3-MYB factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xia; Yang, Dongyue; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Shuya; Sui, Na; Meng, Qingwei

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-MYB protein SlAN2 has long been thought to be a positive regulator of anthocyanin accumulation. To investigate the role of SlAN2, we have previously overexpressed the gene in tomato. In this work, we analysed physiological characters of the transgenic plants during the fruit ripening. We show that fruits of transformants overexpressing SlAN2 displayed an orange colour, fast softening and elevated ethylene production. Overexpression of SlAN2 resulted in reduction of carotenoid levels via alteration of flux through the carotenoid pathway, elevated ethylene synthesis mainly via upregulation of ethylene biosynthesis genes, and early softening of fruits. We also found that the transcript level of SlRIN, an important ripening-related gene, was up-regulated in transgenic fruits. These results suggest that SlAN2 acts as an important regulator of fruit ripening.

  2. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed.

  3. Tissue specific localization of pectin-Ca²⁺ cross-linkages and pectin methyl-esterification during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiromi Hyodo

    Full Text Available Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG, is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca²⁺ deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue-tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.

  4. Tissue specific localization of pectin-Ca²⁺ cross-linkages and pectin methyl-esterification during fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyodo, Hiromi; Terao, Azusa; Furukawa, Jun; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi; Satoh, Shinobu; Iwai, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Fruit ripening is one of the developmental processes accompanying seed development. The tomato is a well-known model for studying fruit ripening and development, and the disassembly of primary cell walls and the middle lamella, such as through pectin de-methylesterified by pectin methylesterase (PE) and depolymerization by polygalacturonase (PG), is generally accepted to be one of the major changes that occur during ripening. Although many reports of the changes in pectin during tomato fruit ripening are focused on the relation to softening of the pericarp or the Blossom-end rot by calcium (Ca²⁺) deficiency disorder, the changes in pectin structure and localization in each tissues during tomato fruit ripening is not well known. In this study, to elucidate the tissue-specific role of pectin during fruit development and ripening, we examined gene expression, the enzymatic activities involved in pectin synthesis and depolymerisation in fruit using biochemical and immunohistochemical analyses, and uronic acids and calcium (Ca)-bound pectin were determined by secondary ion-microprobe mass spectrometry. These results show that changes in pectin properties during fruit development and ripening have tissue-specific patterns. In particular, differential control of pectin methyl-esterification occurs in each tissue. Variations in the cell walls of the pericarp are quite different from that of locular tissues. The Ca-binding pectin and hairy pectin in skin cell layers are important for intercellular and tissue-tissue adhesion. Maintenance of the globular form and softening of tomato fruit may be regulated by the arrangement of pectin structures in each tissue.

  5. Effect of heat treatment on ethylene and CO2 emissions rates during papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, M. G.; Santos, E. O.; Sthel, M. S.; Cardoso, S. L.; Cavalli, A.; Monteiro, A. R.; de Oliveira, J. G.; Pereira, M. G.; Vargas, H.

    2003-01-01

    Ripening studies of nontreated and treated papaya (papaya L) are accomplished by monitoring the ethylene and CO2 emission rates of that climacteric fruit, to evaluate its shelf life. The treatments simulate the commercial Phitosanitarian process used to avoid the fly infestation. Ethylene emission was measured using a commercial CO2 laser driven photoacoustic setup and CO2, using a commercial gas analysis also based on the photothermal effect. The results show a marked change in ethylene and CO2 emission rate pattern for treated fruits when compared to the ones obtained for nontreated fruits and a displacement of the climacteric pick shown that the treatment causes a decrease of shelf life of fruit.

  6. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene post-harvest treatment on ripening process in cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiyo, Arnold M; Ying, Tie-Jin

    2005-02-01

    The responses of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated. The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG) cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L reduced fruit C(2)H(4) production, delayed the C(2)H(4) peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 microL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening, it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production. Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time, and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 microL/L or higher concentrations, and fruit color could not reach the control level even 2 weeks after 1-MCP treatment, indicating the close association of the metabolism of these pigments with ethylene perception. Since the concentration of 0.11 microL/L of 1-MCP was so high that it did not elicit additional response very much than 0.07 microL/L, these concentrations were considered to be practically effective concentrations for cherry tomato at MG stage. The effective 1-MCP concentrations might provide a useful reference to the levels of ethylene receptors as well as ethylene sensitivity in a specific fruit at given development stage.

  7. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. "Dashehari") unravels ripening associated genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Sane, Vidhu A

    2016-09-02

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety "Dashehari" This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in "Dashehari" mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the "Dashehari" variety.

  8. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shaogui; Sun, Honghe; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jingan; Ren, Yi; Gong, Guoyi; Jiao, Chen; Zheng, Yi; Yang, Wencai; Fei, Zhangjun; Xu, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our analysis provides

  9. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Cultivated and Wild Watermelon during Fruit Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaogui Guo

    Full Text Available Watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. Matsum. & Nakai] is an important vegetable crop world-wide. Watermelon fruit quality is a complex trait determined by various factors such as sugar content, flesh color and flesh texture. Fruit quality and developmental process of cultivated and wild watermelon are highly different. To systematically understand the molecular basis of these differences, we compared transcriptome profiles of fruit tissues of cultivated watermelon 97103 and wild watermelon PI296341-FR. We identified 2,452, 826 and 322 differentially expressed genes in cultivated flesh, cultivated mesocarp and wild flesh, respectively, during fruit development. Gene ontology enrichment analysis of these genes indicated that biological processes and metabolic pathways related to fruit quality such as sweetness and flavor were significantly changed only in the flesh of 97103 during fruit development, while those related to abiotic stress response were changed mainly in the flesh of PI296341-FR. Our comparative transcriptome profiling analysis identified critical genes potentially involved in controlling fruit quality traits including α-galactosidase, invertase, UDP-galactose/glucose pyrophosphorylase and sugar transporter genes involved in the determination of fruit sugar content, phytoene synthase, β-carotene hydroxylase, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase genes involved in carotenoid metabolism, and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cellulose synthase, pectinesterase, pectinesterase inhibitor, polygalacturonase inhibitor and α-mannosidase genes involved in the regulation of flesh texture. In addition, we found that genes in the ethylene biosynthesis and signaling pathway including ACC oxidase, ethylene receptor and ethylene responsive factor showed highly ripening-associated expression patterns, indicating a possible role of ethylene in fruit development and ripening of watermelon, a non-climacteric fruit. Our

  10. Transcriptome Analysis of Cell Wall and NAC Domain Transcription Factor Genes during Elaeis guineensis Fruit Ripening: Evidence for Widespread Conservation within Monocot and Eudicot Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranbarger, Timothy J; Fooyontphanich, Kim; Roongsattham, Peerapat; Pizot, Maxime; Collin, Myriam; Jantasuriyarat, Chatchawan; Suraninpong, Potjamarn; Tragoonrung, Somvong; Dussert, Stéphane; Verdeil, Jean-Luc; Morcillo, Fabienne

    2017-01-01

    The oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), a monocotyledonous species in the family Arecaceae, has an extraordinarily oil rich fleshy mesocarp, and presents an original model to examine the ripening processes and regulation in this particular monocot fruit. Histochemical analysis and cell parameter measurements revealed cell wall and middle lamella expansion and degradation during ripening and in response to ethylene. Cell wall related transcript profiles suggest a transition from synthesis to degradation is under transcriptional control during ripening, in particular a switch from cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin synthesis to hydrolysis and degradation. The data provide evidence for the transcriptional activation of expansin, polygalacturonase, mannosidase, beta-galactosidase, and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase proteins in the ripening oil palm mesocarp, suggesting widespread conservation of these activities during ripening for monocotyledonous and eudicotyledonous fruit types. Profiling of the most abundant oil palm polygalacturonase (EgPG4) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase (ACO) transcripts during development and in response to ethylene demonstrated both are sensitive markers of ethylene production and inducible gene expression during mesocarp ripening, and provide evidence for a conserved regulatory module between ethylene and cell wall pectin degradation. A comprehensive analysis of NAC transcription factors confirmed at least 10 transcripts from diverse NAC domain clades are expressed in the mesocarp during ripening, four of which are induced by ethylene treatment, with the two most inducible (EgNAC6 and EgNAC7) phylogenetically similar to the tomato NAC-NOR master-ripening regulator. Overall, the results provide evidence that despite the phylogenetic distance of the oil palm within the family Arecaceae from the most extensively studied monocot banana fruit, it appears ripening of divergent monocot and eudicot fruit lineages are

  11. Cloning and characterization of avocado fruit mRNAs and their expression during ripening and low-temperature storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico, B; Lowe, A L; Wilson, I D; Merodio, C; Grierson, D

    1993-02-01

    Differential screening of a cDNA library made from RNA extracted from avocado (Persea americana Mill cv. Hass) fruit stored at low temperature (7 degrees C) gave 23 cDNA clones grouped into 10 families, 6 of which showed increased expression during cold storage and normal ripening. Partial DNA sequencing was carried out for representative clones. Database searches found homologies with a polygalacturonase (PG), endochitinase, cysteine proteinase inhibitor and several stress-related proteins. No homologies were detected for clones from six families and their biological role remains to be elucidated. A full-length cDNA sequence for avocado PG was obtained and the predicted amino acid sequence compared with those from other PGs. mRNA encoding PG increased markedly during normal ripening, slightly later than mRNAs for cellulase and ethylene-forming enzyme (EFE). Low-temperature storage delayed ripening and retarded the appearance of mRNAs for enzymes known to be involved in cell wall metabolism and ethylene synthesis, such as cellulase, PG and EFE, and also other mRNAs of unknown function. The removal of ethylene from the atmosphere surrounding stored fruit delayed the appearance of the mRNAs encoding cellulase and PG more than the cold storage itself, although it hardly affected the expression of the EFE mRNA or the accumulation of mRNAs homologous to some other unidentified clones.

  12. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway during ripening and their association with accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smita, Shuchi; Rajwanshi, Ravi; Lenka, Sangram Keshari; Katiyar, Amit; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Bansal, Kailash Chander

    2013-12-01

    Fruit ripening process is associated with change in carotenoid profile and accumulation of lycopene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In this study, we quantified the beta-carotene and lycopene content at green, breaker and red-ripe stages of fruit ripening in eight tomato genotypes by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the genotypes, lycopene content was found highest in Pusa Rohini and lowest in VRT-32-1. To gain further insight into the regulation of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation during fruit ripening, expression analysis of nine carotenoid pathway-related genes was carried out in the fruits of high lycopene genotype-Pusa Rohini. We found that expression of phytoene synthase and beta-carotene hydroxylase-1 was four and thirty-fold higher, respectively, at breaker stage as compared to red-ripe stage of fruit ripening. Changes in the expression level of these genes were associated with a 40% increase in lycopene content at red-ripe stage as compared with breaker stage. Thus, the results from our study suggest the role of specific carotenoid pathway-related genes in accumulation of high lycopene during the fruit ripening processes.

  13. Expression profile of genes coding for carotenoid biosynthetic pathway during ripening and their association with accumulation of lycopene in tomato fruits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shuchi Smita; Ravi Rajwanshi; Sangram Keshari Lenka; Amit Katiyar; Viswanathan Chinnusamy; Kailash Chander Bansal

    2013-12-01

    Fruit ripening process is associated with change in carotenoid profile and accumulation of lycopene in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). In this study, we quantified the -carotene and lycopene content at green, breaker and red-ripe stages of fruit ripening in eight tomato genotypes by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Among the genotypes, lycopene content was found highest in Pusa Rohini and lowest in VRT-32-1. To gain further insight into the regulation of lycopene biosynthesis and accumulation during fruit ripening, expression analysis of nine carotenoid pathway-related genes was carried out in the fruits of high lycopene genotype—Pusa Rohini. We found that expression of phytoene synthase and -carotene hydroxylase-1 was four and thirty-fold higher, respectively, at breaker stage as compared to red-ripe stage of fruit ripening. Changes in the expression level of these genes were associated with a 40% increase in lycopene content at red-ripe stage as compared with breaker stage. Thus, the results from our study suggest the role of specific carotenoid pathway-related genes in accumulation of high lycopene during the fruit ripening processes.

  14. Expression and location of endo-beta-mannanase during the ripening of tomato fruit, and the relationship between its activity and softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aoxue; Li, Jingfu; Zhang, Bingxiu; Xu, Xiangyang; Bewley, J Derek

    2009-10-15

    Endo-beta-mannanase is thought to play a role in tomato fruit ripening by participating in the degradation of cell walls. Its spatial and temporal expression during ripening was examined, as was the relationship between its activity and softening of the fruit using a large number of tomato lines, and by suppression of transcription of the endo-beta-mannanase (LeMan4a) gene. Immunolocalization studies showed that the enzyme is expressed in the fruit cell wall at all ripening stages, but it is not active during the initial green stage; this is not due to the presence of inhibitors of its activity, nor due to changes in its mRNA sequence. Transient expression in onion epidermal cells of endo-beta-mannanase transcripts fused to green fluorescent protein resulted in the expressed enzyme being localized to the cell walls. Transgenic tomato plants expressing a GUS gene attached to the LeMan4a promoter showed that this occurs initially during ripening in the skin and outer pericarp of the fruit, and later in the skin and throughout the pericarp. Fruit firmness and activity of endo-beta-mannanase were not strongly correlated during ripening of many lines of tomato. Several plants of cv. Micro-Tom were transformed using RNA interference (mRNAi) and antisense RNA strategies to suppress transcription of the LeMan4a gene. When endo-beta-mannanase activity was much reduced in the transgenic fruits, their firmness was higher compared to those of control fruits at the turning and orange-color stages, but at the red-ripe stage firmness was similar between the two fruit types. We suggest that while the enzyme does participate in fruit ripening it alone is not sufficient to cause hydrolysis of the cell walls which results in their weakening; it likely plays a cooperative role with other known wall-modifying enzymes, and/or is involved in cell wall rearrangement.

  15. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  16. The Effect of Methyl Jasmonate Vapour on Some Characteristics of Fruit Ripening, Carotenoids and Tomatine Changes in Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato ripening in normal red-fruited cultivar (Fiorin was delayed by treatment with methyl jasmonate (JA-Me vapour. A visual scoring system for describing tomato ripening was used. Surface of fruits exposed to JA-Me vapour, increased in yellow and decreased in red as determined by HunterLab colour meter. JA-Me significantly altered the firmness of fruits after 21 days storage. Vapour of JA-Me enhanced the level of β-carotene in outer part (peel with 3 mm pericarp tissue of fruit, while it had no effect in peeled fruit pericarp. JA-Me treatment decreased the level of lycopene in outer part and pericarp tissue, however, in outer part lycopene content decreased at a higher rate than in pericarp. Amount of tomatine in fruits treated with JA-Me had enhanced four-fold in outer part and by 62% in peeled fruit pericarp as compared with the control.

  17. Characterization of 10 MADS-box genes from Pyrus pyrifolia and their differential expression during fruit development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Saito, Takanori; Bai, Songling; Nishitani, Chikako; Ban, Yusuke; Ikeda, Kazuo; Ito, Akiko; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2013-10-10

    We cloned 10 Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) MIKC-type II MADS-box genes, and analyzed their expression during fruit development and ripening. PpMADS2-1 was APETALA (AP)1-like; PpMADS3-1 was FRUITFULL (FUL)/SQUAMOSA (SQUA)-like; PpMADS4-1 was AGAMOUS-like (AGL)6; PpMADS5-1 and PpMADS8-1 were SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS (SOC)-like; PpMADS9-1, PpMADS12-1, PpMADS14-1 and PpMADS16-1 were SEPALLATA (SEP)-like; while PpMADS15-1 was AGL/SHATTERPROOF (SHP)-like. Phylogenetic analysis showed their grouping into five major clades (and 10 sub-clades) that was consistent with their diverse functional types. Expression analysis in flower tissue revealed their distinct putative homeotic functional classes: A-class (PpMADS2-1, PpMADS3-1, PpMADS4-1, and PpMADS14-1), C-class (PpMADS15-1), E-class (PpMADS9-1, PpMADS12-1, and PpMADS16-1) and E (F)-class (PpMADS5-1 and PpMADS8-1). Differential gene expression was observed in different fruit tissues (skin, cortex and core) as well as in the cortex during the course of fruit development and ripening. Collectively, our results suggest their involvement in the diverse aspects of plant development including flower development and the course of fruit development and ripening.

  18. Identification of Novel Target Genes of MADS-Box Transcription Factor RIN for Control of Fruit Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guozheng Qin; Yuying Wang; Baohua Cao; Weihao Wang; Shiping Tian

    2012-01-01

    MADS-box transcription factor RIN represents a global developmental regulator of fruit ripening.However,the specific set of genes modulated by RIN and the mechanisms underlying the transcription regulation remain largely unknown.To search for potential downstream targets of RIN,we compared the global protein expression of wild-type tomato fruits with rin mutant using mass-spectrometry-based proteomics.A total of 41 proteins associated with various biological processes were identified as the candidates.Gene expression analysis indicated that the protein levels were correlated well with the mRNA levels for most proteins.A search for transcription factor binding sites revealed various RIN sites in the promoters of genes encoding the differentially expressed proteins.Among the candidate target genes,five (E8,TomloxC,PNAE,PGK,and ADH2) were identified as direct targets of RIN by chromatin immunoprecipitation.Detection of in vitro protein-DNA interaction using electrophoretic mobility shift assay confirmed the binding ability of RIN to the promoters of these genes.Two of the direct target genes,TomloxC and ADH2,which encoding lipoxygenase (LOX) and alcohol dehydrogenase,respectively,are critical for the production of characteristic tomato aromas derived from LOX pathway.Further study indicated that RIN also directly regulated the expression of HPL that encodes hydroperoxide lyase,another rate-limiting enzyme in LOX pathway.Mutation of RIN resulted in the deregulation of LOX pathway,leading to specific defect in the generation of hexanal,trans-2-hexanal,hexenol,and cis-3-hexanol,the primary aroma compounds derived from LOX pathway,during fruit ripening.These results indicate that RIN modulates aroma formation via direct regulation of gene expression of LOX pathway.Taken together,our findings suggest that the regulatory effect of RIN in fruit ripening is achieved by targeting specific molecular pathways.

  19. The relationship between the expression of ethylene-related genes and papaya fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yuan; Zhang, Lin; Rao, Shen; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Ye, Lanlan; Chen, Weixin; Li, Xueping

    2014-01-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is sensitive to low temperature and easy to be subjected to chilling injury, which causes fruit ripening disorder. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of genes related to ethylene and fruit ripening disorder caused by chilling injury. Papaya fruits were firstly stored at 7°C and 12°C for 25 and 30 days, respectively, then treated with exogenous ethylene and followed by ripening at 25°C for 5 days. Chilling injury symptoms such as pulp water soaking were observed in fruit stored at 7°C on 20 days, whereas the coloration and softening were completely blocked after 25 days, Large differences in the changes in the expression levels of twenty two genes involved in ethylene were seen during 7°C-storage with chilling injury. Those genes with altered expression could be divided into three groups: the group of genes that were up-regulated, including ACS1/2/3, EIN2, EIN3s/EIL1, CTR1/2/3, and ERF1/3/4; the group of genes that were down-regulated, including ACO3, ETR1, CTR4, EBF2, and ERF2; and the group of genes that were un-regulated, including ACO1/2, ERS, and EBF1. The results also showed that pulp firmness had a significantly positive correlation with the expression of ACS2, ACO1, CTR1/4, EIN3a/b, and EBF1/2 in fruit without chilling injury. This positive correlation was changed to negative one in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. The coloring index displayed significantly negative correlations with the expression levels of ACS2, ACO1/2, CTR4, EIN3a/b, ERF3 in fruit without chilling injury, but these correlations were changed into the positive ones in fruit after storage at 7°C for 25 days with chilling injury. All together, these results indicate that these genes may play important roles in the abnormal softening and coloration with chilling injury in papaya.

  20. Non-destructive assessment of olive fruit ripening by portable near infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia, A.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of portable near infrared spectroscopy (NIR technology for the determination of oil and moisture contents in intact olive fruits was studied. A total of 144 and 112 samples were collected throughout the ripening period in two different olive cultivar trials. Spectral data were recorded in the wavelength region from 1100 to 2300 nm at 1 nm intervals under two different experimental conditions: on-tree in the field in Trial 1 and under laboratory room conditions in Trial 2. Calibration models were developed and evaluated using partial least squares (PLS regression separately for each trial set and for the combined group of samples. Although slightly better results were obtained under laboratory room conditions, the results obtained on-tree in the field were also accurate enough to determine the optimal harvest date of each cultivar. The combined model showed predictive statistics within the range of the individual models (r=0.89 and RMSECV= 1.99 for oil content and r=0.88 and RMSECV=2.06 for moisture content, which could be considered acceptable as an increase in the model robustness could be expected. These results encourage the use of portable NIR spectroscopy to monitor olive fruit ripening and to decide the optimal harvesting date on the basis of oil and moisture content.

    En este trabajo se estudia la posible aplicación de la tecnología en el infrarrojo cercano (NIR portátil para la determinación de la humedad y el rendimiento graso en aceitunas intactas. Se han utilizado un total de 144 y 112 muestras recolectadas a lo largo del periodo de maduración en dos ensayos de variedades. Los datos espectroscópicos en la región de 1100 a 2300 nm a intervalos de 1 nm se recogieron bajo dos condiciones experimentales: directamente en el árbol en el ensayo 1 y en condiciones de laboratorio en el ensayo 2. Los modelos de calibración se desarrollaron y evaluaron mediante regresión por mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS por

  1. NAC transcription factors play an important role in ethylene biosynthesis, reception and signaling of tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiaohong; Liu, Chen; Han, Lihua; Wang, Shuang; Xue, Zhaohui

    2016-06-01

    NAC proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in diverse physiological processes during development. To explore the role of NAC transcription factors in the ripening of fruits, we predicted the secondary and tertiary structure as well as regulative function of the SNAC4 (SlNAC48, Accession number: NM 001279348.2) and SNAC9 (SlNAC19, Accession number: XM 004236996.2) transcription factors in tomato. We found that the tertiary structure of SNAC9 was similar to that of ATNAP, which played an important role in the fruit senescence and was required for ethylene stimulation. Likewise, the bio-function prediction results indicated that SNAC4 and SNAC9 participated in various plant hormone signaling and senescence processes. More information about SNACs was obtained by the application of VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing). The silencing of SNAC4 and SNAC9 dramatically repressed the LeACS2, LeACS4 and LeACO1 expression, which consequently led to the inhibition of the ripening process. The silencing of SNACs down-regulated the mRNA levels of the ethylene perception genes and, at the same time, suppressed the expression of ethylene signaling-related genes except for LeERF2 which was induced by the silencing of SNAC4. The expressions of LeRIN were different in two silenced fruits. In addition, the silencing of SNAC4 reduced its mRNA level, while the silencing of SNAC9 induced its expression. Furthermore, the silencing of LeACS4, LeACO1 and LeERF2 reduced the expression of SNAC4 and SNAC9, while the silencing of NR induced the expression of all of them. In particular, these results indicate that SNAC transcription factors bind to the promoter of the ethylene synthesis genes in vitro. This experimental evidence demonstrates that SNAC4 and SNAC9 could positively regulate the tomato fruit ripening process by functioning upstream of ethylene synthesis genes. These outcomes will be helpful to provide a theoretical foundation for further

  2. SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kai; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Sun, Yufei; Yuan, Bing; Dai, Shengjie; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Wang, Ya; Pei, Yuelin; Wang, Hongqing; Guo, Yangdong; Leng, Ping

    2014-10-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively.

  3. Proteomics of the ripening of blackberry fruits (Rubus sp. grown in México, a first approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry production in Mexico has increased 200 % in the last decade. The main varieties used have been introduced from other countries, and its establishment under the climatic conditions of México has required considerable adaptations to the agronomic management observed in the regions of origin thereof. The essentialchallenge of managing this product is based on the intrinsic characteristics of its soft fruit and its short shelf life, so that knowledge of their maturation process under their growing conditions in Mexico is imperative to achieve and improve handling productivity and fruit quality unto its final destination. The aim of this work was to first address this problem by establishing the conditions of protocols for the analysis of proteins in blackberry fruits during different ripening stages. To accomplish this goal, six stages of fruit ripening were identified for the comercial variety 'Brazos' (considering a range of development from green, small fruits to fruits fully developed and in harvest maturity, a protein extraction was selected and a protein profile was performed by electrophoresis under denaturing conditions. In addition, requirements were established for two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE of the extractsobtained by evaluating the conditions of isoelectric focusing and staining methods. According to the results obtained, it was determined to use 400 µg of total protein in IPG strips of 7 cm with a pH range of 3 to 10, using a máximum voltage of 50 000 V, and Coomassie blue staining. A preliminary analysis of the distribution and abundance of the peptides expressed in the six stages of maturation was performed using the KODAK MI software version 4.5, and the results showed that the stage 2 presented the highest number of peptide spots (158, the highest percentage of spots at all stages were observed in a pH range of 5.0 to 6.9 and molecular weight of 30 to 50 kDa. We identified four spots of similar intensity

  4. Ripening-related gene from avocado fruit : ethylene-inducible expression of the mRNA and polypeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarvey, D J; Sirevåg, R; Christoffersen, R E

    1992-02-01

    Fruit ripening involves a series of changes in gene expression regulated by the phytohormone ethylene. AVOe3, a ripening-related gene in avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass), was characterized with regard to its ethylene-regulated expression. The AVOe3 mRNA and immunopositive protein were induced in mature fruit within 12 hours of propylene treatment. The AVOe3 mRNA levels reached a maximum 1 to 2 days before the ethylene climacteric, whereas the immunopositive protein continued to accumulate. RNA selected by the pAVOe3 cDNA clone encoded a polypeptide with molecular mass of 34 kilodaltons, corresponding to the molecular mass of the AVOe3 protein determined by immunoblots. The protein was soluble, remaining in solution at 100,000 gravity and eluted as a monomer on gel filtration. Because of its pattern of induction and relationship to an ethylene-related gene of tomato, the possible involvement of AVOe3 in ethylene biosynthesis is discussed.

  5. Effects of ozone exposure on `Golden' papaya fruit by photoacoustic phase-resolved method: Physiological changes associated with carbon dioxide and ethylene emission rates during ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Savio Figueira; Mota, Leonardo; Paiva, Luisa Brito; Couto, Flávio Mota do; Silva, Marcelo Gomes da; Oliveira, Jurandi Gonçalves de; Sthel, Marcelo Silva; Vargas, Helion; Miklós, András

    2011-06-01

    This work addresses the effects of ozone activity on the physiology of `Golden' papaya fruit. Depth profile analysis of double-layer biological samples was accomplished using the phase-resolved photoacoustic spectroscopy. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by singling out the spectra of the cuticle and the pigment layers of papaya fruit. The same approach was used to monitor changes occurring on the fruit during ripening when exposed to ozone. In addition, one has performed real time studies of fluorescence parameters and the emission rates of carbon dioxide and ethylene. Finally, the amount of pigments and the changes in waxy cuticle have been monitored. Results indicate that a fruit deliberately subjected to ozone at a level of 6 ppmv underwent ripening sooner (at least 24-48 h) than a fruit stored at ambient conditions. Moreover, ozone caused a reduction in the maximum quantum yield of photosynthetic apparatus located within the skin of papaya fruit.

  6. Temporal Sequence of Cell Wall Disassembly in Rapidly Ripening Melon Fruit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jocelyn K. C. Rose; Kristen A. Hadfield; John M. Labavitch; Alan B. Bennett

    1998-01-01

    The Charentais variety of melon (Cucumis melo cv Reticulatus F1 Alpha) was observed to undergo very rapid ripening, with the transition from the preripe to overripe stage occurring within 24 to 48 h...

  7. The Influence of Co-Suppressing Tomato 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid Oxidase Ⅰ on the Expression of Fruit Ripening-Related and Pathogenesis-Related Protein Genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Zong-li; CHEN Xu-qing; CHEN Guo-ping; L(U) Li-juan; Grierson Donald

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of co-suppressing tomato ACC oxidase I on the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes, and on the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene and storage ability of fruits. Specific fragments of several fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes from tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) were cloned, such as the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 1 gene (LeACO1), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase 3 gene (LeAC03), EIN3-binding F-box 1 gene (LeEBF1), pathogenesisrelated protein 1 gene (LePR1), pathogenesis-related protein 5 gene (LePR5), and pathogenesis-related protein osmotin precursor gene (LeNP24) by PCR or RT-PCR. Then these specific DNA fragments were used as probes to hybridize with the total RNAs extracted from the wild type tomato Ailsa Craig (AC++) and the LeACO1 co-suppression tomatoes (V1187 and T4B), respectively. At the same time, ethylene production measurement and storage experiment of tomato fruits were carried out. The hybridization results indicated that the expression of fruit ripening-related genes such as LeACO3 and LeEBF1, and pathogenesis-related protein genes such as LePR1, LePR5, and LeNP24, were reduced sharply, and the ethylene production in the fruits, wounded leaves decreased and the storage time of ripening fruits was prolonged, when the expression of LeACO1 gene in the transgenic tomato was suppressed. In the co-suppression tomatoes, the expression of fruit ripening-related and pathogenesis-related protein genes were restrained at different degrees, the biosynthesis of endogenous ethylene decreased and the storage ability of tomato fruits increased.

  8. Wounding tomato fruit elicits ripening-stage specific changes in gene expression and production of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarre, Valentina; Cabassi, Giovanni; Spadafora, Natasha D; Aprile, Alessio; Müller, Carsten T; Rogers, Hilary J; Ferrante, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    Fleshy fruits develop from an unripe organ that needs to be protected from damage to a ripe organ that attracts frugivores for seed dispersal through production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Thus, different responses to wounding damage are predicted. The aim of this study was to discover whether wound-induced changes in the transcriptome and VOC production alter as tomato transitions from unripe to ripe. Transcript changes were analysed 3h post-wounding using microarray analysis in two commercial salad-tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cultivars: Luna Rossa and AVG, chosen for their high aroma production. This was followed by quantitative PCR on Luna Rossa genes involved in VOC biosynthesis and defence responses. VOCs elicited by wounding at different ripening stages were analysed by solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 differentially expressed genes were identified in the cultivar AVG and 2500 in Luna Rossa. In both cultivars the majority of genes were up-regulated and the most affected pathways were metabolism of terpenes, carotenoids, and lipids. Defence-related genes were mostly up-regulated in immature stages of development, whereas expression of genes related to VOCs changed at riper stages. More than 40 VOCs were detected and profiles changed with ripening stage. Thus, both transcriptome and VOC profiles elicited by wounding depend on stage of ripening, indicating a shift from defence to attraction.

  9. Changes in color-related compounds in tomato fruit exocarp and mesocarp during ripening using HPLC-APcI(+)-mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, A; Yahia, E M

    2014-10-01

    Tomato is an important agricultural crop world-wide. Their pigments are very important in many ways. They have been associated with health benefits such as lowering the risk of some chronic diseases. Quantification of chlorophylls by spectrophotometry and Identification of carotenoids using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification by HPLC-DAD was carried out in the exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit during 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red and red). Four carotenoids have been followed during ripening; β-carotene and lycopene were unequivocally identified, whereas γ-carotene and lycopene-epoxide were tentatively identified. Differences between exocarp and mesocarp were as follows: Most of the ripening period, fruit exocarp had higher quantities of both chlorophyll and carotenoids than mesocarp. In both, exocarp and mesocarp, chlorophylls drastically decreased, lycopene significantly increased, while β-carotene, γ-carotene and lycopene-epoxide only increased slightly during fruit ripening.

  10. Root treatment with rhizobacteria antagonistic to Phytophthora blight affects anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Kim, Jeong Do; Kim, Beom Seok; Kim, Ki Deok

    2011-06-01

    We previously selected rhizobacterial strains CCR04, CCR80, GSE09, ISE13, and ISE14, which were antagonistic to Phytophthora blight of pepper. In this study, we investigated the effects of root treatment of rhizobacteria on anthracnose occurrence, ripening, and yield of pepper fruit in the plastic house and field in 2008 and 2009. We also examined the effects of volatiles produced by the strains on fruit ripening and on mycelial growth and spore development of Colletotrichum acutatum and Phytophthora capsici in the laboratory, identifying the volatile compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the house tests, all strains significantly (P anthracnose incidence on pepper fruit; strains GSE09 and ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers of pepper fruit or increased the fresh weight of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the field tests, all strains significantly (P anthracnose occurrence on either green or red pepper fruit; strain ISE14 consistently produced higher numbers or increased fresh weights of red fruit more than the controls in both years. In the laboratory tests, volatiles produced by strains GSE09 and ISE13 only stimulated maturation of pepper fruit from green (unripe) to red (ripe) fruit; the volatiles of certain strains inhibited the growth and development of C. acutatum and P. capsici. On the other hand, GC-MS analysis of volatiles of strains GSE09 and ISE13 revealed 17 distinct compounds in both strains, including decane, dodecane, 1,3-di-tert-butylbenzene, tetradecane, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, and hexadecane. Among these compounds, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol only stimulated fruit ripening and inhibited growth and development of the pathogens. Taken together, strains GSE09 and ISE14 effectively reduced anthracnose occurrence and stimulated pepper fruit ripening and yield, possibly via bacterial volatiles. Therefore, these two strains could be potential agents for controlling Phytophthora blight and anthracnose, and for

  11. HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis of phenolic compounds during ripening in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-López, Armando; Yahia, Elhadi

    2013-12-01

    Identification of phenolic compounds was done by means of liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) using the electrospray ionization interface (ESI). Quantification of phenolic compounds was carried out by using HPLC with diode array detector (DAD) in exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit at 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, turning, pink, light-red, and red). Several phenolic compounds were identified including chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and rutin and some combined phenolic acids were tentatively identified, mainly glycosides, such as caffeoyl hexose I, caffeoyl hexose II, caffeoylquinic acid isomer, dicaffeoylquinic acid, p-coumaroyl hexose I, p-coumaroyl hexose II, feruloyl hexose I, feruloyl hexose II, siringyl hexose, and caffeoyl deoxyhexose hexose. Fruit exocarp had higher quantities of total soluble phenolics (TSP) compared to mesocarp. During ripening, TSP increased in both exocarp and mesocarp, mainly in exocarp. While rutin increased, chlorogenic acid decreased in both tissues: exocarp and mesocarp.

  12. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K Dash

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit Banana entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution genotype of M. acuminata. This wonder crop, as of today, remains untouched by the green revolution and researchers face intrinsic impediments for varietal improvement to enhance its yield. The complex genome of banana was decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Banana has historically faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small and marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding of its structural genome has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unravelling the process of parthenocarpy for better fruit quality, and fruit ripening in this climacteric fruit. Injunction of comparative genomics research will usher in to integrate information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana.

  13. Translating the “Banana Genome” to Delineate Stress Resistance, Dwarfing, Parthenocarpy and Mechanisms of Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Prasanta K.; Rai, Rhitu

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary frozen, genetically sterile and globally iconic fruit “Banana” remained untouched by the green revolution and, as of today, researchers face intrinsic impediments for its varietal improvement. Recently, this wonder crop entered the genomics era with decoding of structural genome of double haploid Pahang (AA genome constitution) genotype of Musa acuminata. Its complex genome decoded by hybrid sequencing strategies revealed panoply of genes and transcription factors involved in the process of sucrose conversion that imparts sweetness to its fruit. Historically, banana has faced the wrath of pandemic bacterial, fungal, and viral diseases and multitude of abiotic stresses that has ruined the livelihood of small/marginal farmers’ and destroyed commercial plantations. Decoding structural genome of this climacteric fruit has given impetus to a deeper understanding of the repertoire of genes involved in disease resistance, understanding the mechanism of dwarfing to develop an ideal plant type, unraveling the process of parthenocarpy, and fruit ripening for better fruit quality. Further, injunction of comparative genomics will usher in integration of information from its decoded genome and other monocots into field applications in banana related but not limited to yield enhancement, food security, livelihood assurance, and energy sustainability. In this mini review, we discuss pre- and post-genomic discoveries and highlight accomplishments in structural genomics, genetic engineering and forward genetic accomplishments with an aim to target genes and transcription factors for translational research in banana. PMID:27833619

  14. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  15. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2012-08-27

    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  16. Deciphering ascorbic acid regulatory pathways in ripening tomato fruit using a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chao; Ju, Zheng; Li, Shan; Zuo, Jinhua; Fu, Daqi; Tian, Huiqin; Luo, Yunbo; Zhu, Benzhong

    2013-11-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  17. Deciphering Ascorbic Acid Regulatory Pathways in Ripening Tomato Fruit Using a Weighted Gene Correlation Network Analysis Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Gao; Zheng Ju; Shan Li; Jinhua Zuo; Daqi Fu; Huiqin Tian; Yunbo Luo; Benzhong Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Genotype is generally determined by the co-expression of diverse genes and multiple regulatory pathways in plants. Gene co-expression analysis combining with physiological trait data provides very important information about the gene function and regulatory mechanism. L-Ascorbic acid (AsA), which is an essential nutrient component for human health and plant metabolism, plays key roles in diverse biological processes such as cell cycle, cell expansion, stress resistance, hormone synthesis, and signaling. Here, we applied a weighted gene correlation network analysis approach based on gene expression values and AsA content data in ripening tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit with different AsA content levels, which leads to identification of AsA relevant modules and vital genes in AsA regulatory pathways. Twenty-four modules were compartmentalized according to gene expression profiling. Among these modules, one negatively related module containing genes involved in redox processes and one positively related module enriched with genes involved in AsA biosynthetic and recycling pathways were further analyzed. The present work herein indicates that redox pathways as well as hormone-signal pathways are closely correlated with AsA accumulation in ripening tomato fruit, and allowed us to prioritize candidate genes for follow-up studies to dissect this interplay at the biochemical and molecular level.

  18. A tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) APETALA2/ERF gene, SlAP2a, is a negative regulator of fruit ripening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Mi‐Young; Vrebalov, Julia; Alba, Rob; Lee, JeMin; McQuinn, Ryan; Chung, Jae‐Dong; Klein, Patricia; Giovannoni, James

    2010-01-01

    .... Tomato is a model for biology and genetics regulating specific ripening pathways including ethylene, carotenoids and cell wall metabolism in addition to upstream signaling and transcriptional regulators. Ripening...

  19. PERUBAHAN KOMPOSISI VOLATIL DAGING BUAH MANGGA "KENSINGTON PRIDE" SELAMA PEMASAKAN [Changes in Volatile Compound Composition of Kensington Pride Mango Pulp During Fruit Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herianus J.D Lalel

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds of ‘Kesington Pride’ mango produced from the pulp during fruit ripening were studied using headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME as a sampling method and gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID and gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS for analysis. Ethylene production and respiration reached a peak on the second and third day of ripening, respectively. Seventy-eight volatile compounds were identified from the pulp of ‘Kesington Pride’ mango; however, only 73 volatile compounds were present in notable amount. The most abundant group of volatile compounds was monoterpenes, accounting for abaout 44% of the total identified compounds, followed by sesquiterpenes (19%, aldehydes (11%,esters (10% aromatics (8%, alcohol (2%, ketones (2%, alkanes (1% and norisoprenoid (1%. -Terpinolene was the major compound during ripening. Except for -pinene, 3,7-dimethl-1,3,7-octatriene, 4-methl-1 (1-methylethylidene-cyclohexene, p-mentha-1,5,8-triene, aloocimene, the concentration of all other monoterpenes increased for the first six or eight days and decreased afterwards. All sesquiteroenes, p-cymene, p-cymen-9-ol,2-ethyl-1,4-dimethl benzene also increased during ripening and peaked on day four, six or eight of ripening. Ketones, aldehydes alkane and cis-3-hexenol, on the other hand, decreased during ripening. Ethanol, esters and norisoprenoid increased quite sharply at the end of ripening period.

  20. Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiling Reveals Long Noncoding RNA Expression and Alternative Splicing Regulation during Fruit Development and Ripening in Kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Zheng, Yi; Dong, Jing; Yu, Jia; Yue, Junyang; Liu, Fangfang; Guo, Xiuhong; Huang, Shengxiong; Wisniewski, Michael; Sun, Jiaqi; Niu, Xiangli; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jia; Fei, Zhangjun; Liu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    Genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. Previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit RNA-Seq libraries of A. chinensis "Hongyang" at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages of fruit development, and generated over 66.2 million paired-end and 24.4 million single-end reads. From this dataset, here we have identified 7051 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), 29,327 alternative splicing (AS) events and 2980 novel protein-coding genes that were not annotated in the draft genome of "Hongyang." AS events were demonstrated in genes involved in the synthesis of nutritional metabolites in fruit, such as ascorbic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, and chlorophylls, and also in genes in the ethylene signaling pathway, which plays an indispensable role in fruit ripening. Additionally, transcriptome profiles and the contents of sugars, organic and main amino acids were compared between immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages in kiwifruits. A total of 5931 differentially expressed genes were identified, including those associated with the metabolism of sugar, organic acid, and main amino acids. The data generated in this study provide a foundation for further studies of fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit, and identify candidate genes and regulatory elements that could serve as targets for improving important agronomic traits through marker assisted breeding and biotechnology.

  1. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling reveals long noncoding RNA expression and alternative splicing regulation during fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Tang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Genomic and transcriptomic data on kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis in public databases are very limited despite its nutritional and economic value. Previously, we have constructed and sequenced nine fruit RNA-Seq libraries of A. chinensis ‘Hongyang’ at immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages of fruit development, and generated over 66.2 million paired-end and 24.4 million single-end reads. From this dataset, here we have identified 7,051 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs, 29,327 alternative splicing (AS events and 2,980 novel protein-coding genes that were not annotated in the draft genome of ‘Hongyang’. AS events were demonstrated in genes involved in the synthesis of nutritional metabolites in fruit, such as ascorbic acids, carotenoids, anthocyanins and chlorophylls, and also in genes in the ethylene signaling pathway, which plays an indispensable role in fruit ripening. Additionally, transcriptome profiles and the contents of sugars, organic and main amino acids were compared between immature, mature, and postharvest ripening stages in kiwifruits. A total of 5,931 differentially expressed genes were identified, including those associated with the metabolism of sugar, organic acid and main amino acids. The data generated in this study provide a foundation for further studies of fruit development and ripening in kiwifruit, and identify candidate genes and regulatory elements that could serve as targets for improving important agronomic traits through marker assisted breeding and biotechnology.

  2. Targeted systems biology profiling of tomato fruit reveals coordination of the Yang cycle and a distinct regulation of ethylene biosynthesis during postclimacteric ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Bulens, Inge; Markoula, Aikaterina; Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Dreesen, Rozemarijn; Wirtz, Markus; Vandoninck, Sandy; Oppermann, Yasmin; Keulemans, Johan; Hell, Ruediger; Waelkens, Etienne; De Proft, Maurice P; Sauter, Margret; Nicolai, Bart M; Geeraerd, Annemie H

    2012-11-01

    The concept of system 1 and system 2 ethylene biosynthesis during climacteric fruit ripening was initially described four decades ago. Although much is known about fruit development and climacteric ripening, little information is available about how ethylene biosynthesis is regulated during the postclimacteric phase. A targeted systems biology approach revealed a novel regulatory mechanism of ethylene biosynthesis of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) when fruit have reached their maximal ethylene production level and which is characterized by a decline in ethylene biosynthesis. Ethylene production is shut down at the level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase. At the same time, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity increases. Analysis of the Yang cycle showed that the Yang cycle genes are regulated in a coordinated way and are highly expressed during postclimacteric ripening. Postclimacteric red tomatoes on the plant showed only a moderate regulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase and Yang cycle genes compared with the regulation in detached fruit. Treatment of red fruit with 1-methylcyclopropane and ethephon revealed that the shut-down mechanism in ethylene biosynthesis is developmentally programmed and only moderately ethylene sensitive. We propose that the termination of autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis of system 2 in ripe fruit delays senescence and preserves the fruit until seed dispersal.

  3. Changes in the sensory perception of 'Hass' avocado during fruit maturation and ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avocado flavor improves dramatically during maturation and also changes as a result of ripening, but prior research had focused almost entirely on alterations in oil content as a means of explaining the differences in flavor. Other factors beyond just oil content are likely involved that act to alt...

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Li

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future.

  5. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongdong; Li, Li; Luo, Zisheng; Mou, Wangshu; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2015-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker) treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA) and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future.

  6. Correlation of Rutin Accumulation with 3-O-Glucosyl Transferase and Phenylalanine Ammonia-lyase Activities During the Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Beekwilder, J.; Matros, A.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Mock, H.P.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at

  7. All-in-one: a versatile gas sensor based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for monitoring postharvest fruit conservation and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochum, Tobias; Rahal, Leila; Suckert, Renè J; Popp, Jürgen; Frosch, Torsten

    2016-03-21

    In today's fruit conservation rooms the ripening of harvested fruit is delayed by precise management of the interior oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels. Ethylene (C2H4), a natural plant hormone, is commonly used to trigger fruit ripening shortly before entering the market. Monitoring of these critical process gases, also of the increasingly favored cooling agent ammonia (NH3), is a crucial task in modern postharvest fruit management. The goal of this work was to develop and characterize a gas sensor setup based on fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy for fast (time resolution of a few minutes) and non-destructive process gas monitoring throughout the complete postharvest production chain encompassing storage and transport in fruit conservation chambers as well as commercial fruit ripening in industrial ripening rooms. Exploiting a micro-structured hollow-core photonic crystal fiber for analyte gas confinement and sensitivity enhancement, the sensor features simultaneous quantification of O2, CO2, NH3 and C2H4 without cross-sensitivity in just one single measurement. Laboratory measurements of typical fruit conservation gas mixtures showed that the sensor is capable of quantifying O2 and CO2 concentration levels with accuracy of 3% or less with respect to reference concentrations. The sensor detected ammonia concentrations, relevant for chemical alarm purposes. Due to the high spectral resolution of the gas sensor, ethylene could be quantified simultaneously with O2 and CO2 in a multi-component mixture. These results indicate that fiber enhanced Raman sensors have a potential to become universally usable on-site gas sensors for controlled atmosphere applications in postharvest fruit management.

  8. Cell wall glycosidase activities and protein content variations during fruit development and ripening in three texture contrasted tomato cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konozy, Emadeldin H.E.; Causse, Mathilde; Faurobert, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Excessive softening is the main factor limiting fruit shelf life and storage. It is generally acceptable now that softening of fruit which occurs during the ripening is due to synergistic actions of several enzymes on cell wall polysaccharides. As a subject for this study, we have assayed some glycosidase activities using three tomato species (Lycopersicon esculentum) contrasted for their texture phenotypes; the cherry tomato line Cervil (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme), a common taste tomato line Levovil (S. lycopersicum Mill.) and VilB a modern line, large, firmer and with good storage capability. Four glycosidase activities namely α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, β-mannosidase and β-glucosidase were extracted from tomato’s cell wall of the three species. Cell wall protein from fruits pericarp was extracted and compared among the three cultivars at the following stages; 14 days post anthesis (14DPA) fruit; 21 days post anthesis (21DPA), turning (breaker), red and over ripe. When glycolytic activities were also compared among these cultivars at the precited development stages, gross variations were noticed from stage to stage and also from species to species in accordance with the fruit firmness status. Interestingly, VilB cultivar, the firmer among the other two, though possessed the highest total protein content, exhibited the lowest enzymatic activities. Taken together, these results may therefore allow us to conclude that studies of glycolytic activities in a single tomato cultivar cannot be generalized to all species. On the other hand, relating fruit development to glycosidase activities should logically be coupled to these enzymes from cell wall compartment. PMID:23961187

  9. Cloning and Expression Analysis of an XET cDNA in the Peel and Pulp of Banana Fruit Ripening and Softening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUWang-Jin; RyoheiNAKANO; YasutakaKUBO; AkitsuguINABAt; JIANGYue-Ming

    2004-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) is thought to be involved in fruit softening throughdisassembly of xyloglucan, which is the predominant hemicellulose of cell wall. To study the relationshipbetween fruit softening and XET during banana (Musa acuminata Colla cv. Grand Nain) fruit ripening, a fulllength cDNA (1 095 bp) encoding an XET, MA-XET1, was isolated from ripening banana fruit using RT-PCRand RACE-PCR (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) methods. Sequence analysis showed that the cDNAcontains 5' untranslated region of 66 bp, 3' untranslated region of 189 bp and ORF of 840 bp, encoding apredicted polypeptide of 280 amino acids, including DE|DFEFL motif, which is a presumptive catalyticdomain conserved in XETs. DNA gel blot analysis demonstrated that MA-XET1 is encoded by a multi-copyfamily in the banana genome. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that the level of MA-XET1 transcript in thepulp was undetectable, increased and decreased slightly at the preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimactericstages, respectively. In the peel, accumulation of MA-XET1 transcript was low, increased dramatically andthen decreased rapidly, at preclimacteric, climacteric and postclimacteric stages, respectively. Treatmentof fruit with propylene, an analog of ethylene, decreased the firmness and enhanced the accumulation ofMA-XET1 transcript in the peel and pulp. These results suggest that MA-XET1 is involved in softening ofthe peel and pulp during banana fruit ripening and its expression is regulated by ethylene at transcriptionallevel.

  10. Phenolic compounds in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruits: Composition in 27 cultivars and changes during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Kjersti; Mazur, Sebastian; Nes, Arnfinn; Skrede, Grete

    2012-05-01

    Phenolic compounds in fruits of 27 cultivars of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) grown in Norway were characterised and quantified by HPLC-DAD-MS(n). Total phenolic content, calculated as the sum of the individual compounds, varied 2.3-fold among cultivars, i.e., from 57 to 133mg/100g of fw. There were significant differences among cultivars in concentration of all phenolic compounds. The highest variation between cultivars was found for cinnamoyl glucose (0.6-24.9mg/100g of fw). Concentration of anthocyanins, the most abundant class of phenolic compounds in the majority of the cultivars, varied from 8.5 to 65.9mg/100g of fw. Flavan-3-ols (11-45mg/100g of fw) and ellagitannins (7.7-18.2mg/100g of fw) contributed on average 28% and 14% to total phenolic contents in the strawberry cultivars, respectively. In three cultivars harvested at three stages of ripeness, anthocyanins and cinnamic acid conjugates were the compounds most affected by ripening. The anthocyanin profile for the individual cultivars was only slightly affected by ripening and growing conditions.

  11. Solar ultraviolet radiation is necessary to enhance grapevine fruit ripening transcriptional and phenolic responses

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonell-Bejerano, Pablo; Diago, Maria-Paz; Martínez-Abaigar, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Tardáguila, Javier; Núñez-Olivera, Encarnación

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultraviolet (UV) radiation modulates secondary metabolism in the skin of Vitis vinifera L. berries, which affects the final composition of both grapes and wines. The expression of several phenylpropanoid biosynthesis-related genes is regulated by UV radiation in grape berries. However, the complete portion of transcriptome and ripening processes influenced by solar UV radiation in grapes remains unknown. Results Whole genome arrays were used to identify the berry skin transcriptome...

  12. Heterogeneous expression pattern of tandem duplicated sHsps genes during fruit ripening in two tomato species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, DP; Krsticevic, FJ; Ezpeleta, J.; Ponce, SD; Pratta, GR; Tapia, E.

    2016-04-01

    The small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) have been found to play a critical role in physiological stress conditions in protecting proteins from irreversible aggregation. To characterize the gene expression profile of four sHsps with a tandem gene structure arrangement in the domesticated Solanum lycopersicum (Heinz 1706) genome and its wild close relative Solanum pimpinellifolium (LA1589), differential gene expression analysis using RNA-Seq was conducted in three ripening stages in both cultivars fruits. Gene promoter analysis was performed to explain the heterogeneous pattern of gene expression found for these tandem duplicated sHsps. In silico analysis results contribute to refocus wet experiment analysis in tomato sHsp family proteins.

  13. Characterization of fruit development and potential health benefits of arrayan (Luma apiculata), a native berry of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Lida; Valdenegro, Mónika; Gómez, María-Graciela; Ayala-Raso, Aníbal; Quiroga, Evelyn; Martínez, Juan-Pablo; Vinet, Raúl; Caballero, Eduardo; Figueroa, Carlos R

    2016-04-01

    The arrayan berry (Luma apiculata) is a native fruit from South America that belongs to the Myrtaceae family. To elucidate and characterize the developmental process and the potential health benefits of this edible fruit, quality and physiological parameters, along with antioxidant capacity, were evaluated during four clearly defined developmental stages of the fruit in two seasons. Fruit firmness slowly decreases during fruit development, whereas the solid soluble content/titratable acidity ratio (SSC/TA) increases significantly in the final stages of development. The measurement of low respiration rates and low ethylene production during growth and ripening suggested that the arrayan berry should be classified as a non-climacteric fruit. Arrayan berries show a significant increase in their antioxidant capacity from small green to black ripe fruit. FRAP and TEAC assays showed high correlations with total polyphenolic content (TPC) during ripening and high antioxidant capacity at all fruit stages, showing greater values in ripe fruit (FRAP: 24 ± 2 and 28 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 18 ± 2 and 20 ± 1 Eq. Trolox/gFW for each season, respectively) than those observed in the blueberry (FRAP: 10 ± 2 and 19 ± 3 μM FeSO4/gFW; TEAC: 10 ± 2 and 17 ± 3). In addition, bioactive assays using ripe fruit extracts show presence of flavonol and anthocyanins, a high ORAC value (62,500 ± 7000 μmol/gDW) and a concentration-dependent vascular protection under high glucose conditions. The results obtained show that these endemic berry fruits have a promising potential as functional food.

  14. A new tomato NAC (NAM/ATAF1/2/CUC2) transcription factor, SlNAC4, functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening and carotenoid accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingku; Chen, Guoping; Zhou, Shuang; Tu, Yun; Wang, Yi; Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli

    2014-01-01

    Fruit ripening in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is a complicated development process affected by both endogenous hormonal and genetic regulators and external signals. Although the role of NOR, a member of the NAC domain family, in mediating tomato fruit ripening has been established, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore further the role of NAC transcription factors in fruit ripening, we characterized a new tomato NAC domain protein, named SlNAC4, which shows high accumulation in sepal and at the onset of fruit ripening. Various stress treatments including wounding, NaCl, dehydration and low temperature significantly increased the expression of SlNAC4. Reduced expression of SlNAC4 by RNA interference (RNAi) in tomato resulted in delayed fruit ripening, suppressed Chl breakdown and decreased ethylene synthesis mediated mainly through reduced expression of ethylene biosynthesis genes of system-2, and reduced carotenoids by alteration of the carotenoid pathway flux. Transgenic tomato fruits also displayed significant down-regulation of multiple ripening-associated genes, indicating that SlNAC4 functions as a positive regulator of fruit ripening by affecting ethylene synthesis and carotenoid accumulation. Moreover, we also noted that SlNAC4 could not be induced by ethylene and may function upstream of the ripening regulator RIN and positively regulate its expression. Yeast two-hybrid assay further revealed that SlNAC4 could interact with both RIN and NOR protein. These results suggested that ethylene-dependent and -independent processes are regulated by SlNAC4 in the fruit ripening regulatory network.

  15. Changes in the n-alkane composition of avocado pulp oil ( Persea americana, Mill. during fruit ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuffrè, A. M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The n-alkane composition of Avocado pulp oil (cv. Hass was investigated during fruit ripening. Three samples of fruit were harvested on March 3, 2003, March 18, 2003 and April 2, 2003. Glass gravity column chromatography was employed to separate n-alkanes from other minor components contained in the unsaponifiable fraction. Gas chromatography was used to analyze the eluate. Fourteen compounds were detected ranging from n -C21 to n -C34; mainly n -C24, followed by n -C25 and then by n -C23. Quantities of n -C21, n -C22, n -C23, n -C27 and n -C28 progressively increased during ripening, whereas n -C24, n -C25, n -C26, n -C29, n -C30 and n -C34 decreased from the first harvest date to the third harvest date. While odd-numbered carbon n-alkanes increased (52.38 %, 52.85 % and 53.06 % for the three samples respectively, even-numbered carbon n-alkanes decreased as the fruit ripened (47.62 %, 47.15 % and 46.94 %. The total n-alkane content decreased during ripening, from 25.20 mg/Kg (first harvest date to 16.77 mg/Kg (third harvest date. In order to minimize.Se ha analizado la composición en hidrocarburos lineales saturados del aceite de la pulpa de aguacate (variedad Hass. Tres muestras fueron recolectadas: el 3 de marzo 2003, el 18 de marzo 2003 y el 2 de abril 2003. La separación de los hidrocarburos lineales saturados se realizó mediante fraccionamiento del insaponificable por cromatografía gravimétrica de adsorción en columna y la determinación de los mismos hidrocarburos por cromatografía gaseosa. 14 compuestos fueron detectados del n- C21 al n- C34. El n- C24 fue el mayoritario, seguido del n- C25 y el n- C23. El porcentaje de n- C21, n- C22, n- C23, n- C27 y n- C28, aumentó durante la maduración, mientras que el porcentaje de n- C24, n- C25, n- C26, n- C29, n- C30 y C34 disminuyó desde el 3 de marzo 2003 hasta el 2 de abril 2003. Los hidrocarburos lineales saturados con número impar de átomos de carbono aumentaron (52.38 %, 52

  16. Genome-Wide Differentiation of Various Melon Horticultural Groups for Use in GWAS for Fruit Firmness and Construction of a High Resolution Genetic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmakayala, Padma; Tomason, Yan R.; Abburi, Venkata L.; Alvarado, Alejandra; Saminathan, Thangasamy; Vajja, Venkata G.; Salazar, Germania; Panicker, Girish K.; Levi, Amnon; Wechter, William P.; McCreight, James D.; Korol, Abraham B.; Ronin, Yefim; Garcia-Mas, Jordi; Reddy, Umesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a phenotypically diverse eudicot diploid (2n = 2x = 24) has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and show wide variation for fruit firmness, an important trait for transportation and shelf life. We generated 13,789 SNP markers using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) and anchored them to chromosomes to understand genome-wide fixation indices (Fst) between various melon morphotypes and genomewide linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay. The FST between accessions of cantalupensis and inodorus was 0.23. The FST between cantalupensis and various agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.19–0.53 and between inodorus and agrestis accessions was in a range of 0.21–0.59 indicating sporadic to wide ranging introgression. The EM (Expectation Maximization) algorithm was used for estimation of 1436 haplotypes. Average genome-wide LD decay for the melon genome was noted to be 9.27 Kb. In the current research, we focused on the genome-wide divergence underlying diverse melon horticultural groups. A high-resolution genetic map with 7153 loci was constructed. Genome-wide segregation distortion and recombination rate across various chromosomes were characterized. Melon has climacteric and non-climacteric morphotypes and wide variation for fruit firmness, a very important trait for transportation and shelf life. Various levels of QTLs were identified with high to moderate stringency and linked to fruit firmness using both genome-wide association study (GWAS) and biparental mapping. Gene annotation revealed some of the SNPs are located in β-D-xylosidase, glyoxysomal malate synthase, chloroplastic anthranilate phosphoribosyltransferase, and histidine kinase, the genes that were previously characterized for fruit ripening and softening in other crops. PMID:27713759

  17. Cause of Formation and Correct Understanding of Accelerating the Ripening of Vegetables and Fruits%催熟蔬果的产生原因及正确认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玲玲

    2013-01-01

    Types of ripening agents, reasons for accelerating the ripening of vegetables and fruits, impact of ripening vegetables and fruits on human health, i-dentification of ripened vegetables and fruits were introduced. This study pro-posed that a dialectical view is needed in dealing with ripened vegetables and fruits. On the one hand, excessive appli-cation and abuse of ripening agents, and improper ripening must be prohibited;on the other hand, accelerating the ripening of vegetables and fruits plays a positive role in human health. It deepens correct understanding of accelerating the ripen-ing of vegetables and fruits, and also en-hances consumers’ confidence in food security and their sense of security.%主要介绍蔬果催熟常用的催熟剂种类、催熟蔬果的产生原因、催熟蔬果对人体健康的影响、常见催熟蔬果的鉴别等相关知识,提出对待催熟蔬果需持辩证的态度,一方面反对过量、滥用催熟剂及用非正当手段催熟蔬果的行为,另一方面也要认识到催熟蔬果可对人体健康发挥积极作用。深化了人们对催熟水果的正确认识,增强了消费者对食品安全的信心和安全感。

  18. Manipulation of fruit ripening in "Hass" avocado using 1-Methylcyclopropene(1-MCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The state of Michoacán is the principal producer of ‘Hass’ avocado in Mexico with production of over 1 million tons annually. Hass avocado has excellent fruit characteristics and shelf-life. However, fruits harvested from January to May have a high dry matter content (>30%) and exhibit skin blackeni...

  19. Mango fruit aroma volatile production following quarantine hot water treatment and subsequent ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangos are an important tropical fruit crop worldwide that are appreciated for their attractive peel and flesh colors, juicy texture, sweetness, and unique aroma. Mangos exported to the U.S. receive quarantine hot water treatment (QHWT) at 46.1 °C for 65 to 110 min (depending on fruit shape and size...

  20. Changes in carotenoid profiles and in the expression pattern of the genes in carotenoid metabolisms during fruit development and ripening in four watermelon cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Pin; Li, Na; Liu, Hui; Gu, Huihui; Zhao, Wen-En

    2015-05-01

    Changes in carotenoid profiles during fruit ripening were investigated in four watermelon cultivars: red-fleshed "CN66", pink-fleshed "CN62", yellow-fleshed "ZXG381" and white-fleshed "ZXG507". The expression pattern of twelve genes (GGPS, PSY, PSY-A, PDS, ZDS, CRTISO, LCYB, CHYB, ZEP, NCED1, NCED2 and NCED3) was analysed. In "CN66" and "CN62", lycopene appeared at 12 DAP and became a main carotenoid increased at the later stages. The transcript levels of carotenogenic genes in "CN66" sharply increased during 18-30 DAP, and concomitantly, fruit accumulated the massive amounts of carotenoids. In "ZXG381", violaxanthin and lutein contents were positively correlated, respectively, with CHYB and ZEP transcript levels during fruit ripening. The trace amounts of carotenoids in "ZXG507" were accompanied with the low transcript levels of most biosynthetic genes. The results suggest that differential transcriptional regulation of carotenoid metabolic genes is very important in determining the amount and type of specific carotenoids accumulated during fruit development and ripening.

  1. PHYSICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES CORRELATION OF COFFEE FRUIT (Coffea arabica) DURING ITS RIPENING

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ivan Dario Aristizabal Torres; Jose Jaime Carvajal Herrera; Carlos Eugenio Oliveros Tascón

    2012-01-01

      There were correlated CIEL*a*b* color coordinates and reflectance in the visible spectrum of the exocarp of Coffea arabica coffee fruits, of the Colombia variety, in nine different development stages, with physical properties...

  2. Climate change conditions (elevated CO2 and temperature) and UV-B radiation affect grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Tempranillo) leaf carbon assimilation, altering fruit ripening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lüscher, J; Morales, F; Sánchez-Díaz, M; Delrot, S; Aguirreolea, J; Gomès, E; Pascual, I

    2015-07-01

    The increase in grape berry ripening rates associated to climate change is a growing concern for wine makers as it rises the alcohol content of the wine. The present work studied the combined effects of elevated CO2, temperature and UV-B radiation on leaf physiology and berry ripening rates. Three doses of UV-B: 0, 5.98, 9.66 kJm(-2)d(-1), and two CO2-temperature regimes: ambient CO2-24/14 °C (day/night) (current situation) and 700 ppm CO2-28/18 °C (climate change) were imposed to grapevine fruit-bearing cuttings from fruit set to maturity under greenhouse-controlled conditions. Photosynthetic performance was always higher under climate change conditions. High levels of UV-B radiation down regulated carbon fixation rates. A transient recovery took place at veraison, through the accumulation of flavonols and the increase of antioxidant enzyme activities. Interacting effects between UV-B and CO2-temperature regimes were observed for the lipid peroxidation, which suggests that UV-B may contribute to palliate the signs of oxidative damage induced under elevated CO2-temperature. Photosynthetic and ripening rates were correlated. Thereby, the hastening effect of climate change conditions on ripening, associated to higher rates of carbon fixation, was attenuated by UV-B radiation.

  3. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Effects of Exogenous Hematin on Anthocyanin Biosynthesis during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin in strawberries has a positive effect on fruit coloration. In this study, the role of exogenous hematin on anthocyanin biosynthesis was investigated. Our result showed that the white stage of strawberries treated with exogenous hematin had higher anthocyanin content, compared to the control group. Among all treatments, 5 μM of hematin was the optimal condition to promote color development. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of fruit coloring regulated by hematin, transcri...

  4. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Effects of Exogenous Hematin on Anthocyanin Biosynthesis during Strawberry Fruit Ripening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayin; Li, Jingjuan; Zhang, Yihui

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin in strawberries has a positive effect on fruit coloration. In this study, the role of exogenous hematin on anthocyanin biosynthesis was investigated. Our result showed that the white stage of strawberries treated with exogenous hematin had higher anthocyanin content, compared to the control group. Among all treatments, 5 μM of hematin was the optimal condition to promote color development. In order to explore the molecular mechanism of fruit coloring regulated by hematin, transcriptomes in the hematin- and non-hematin-treated fruit were analyzed. A large number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in regulating anthocyanin synthesis, including the DEGs involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, hormone signaling transduction, phytochrome signaling, starch and sucrose degradation, and transcriptional pathways. These regulatory networks may play an important role in regulating the color process of strawberries treated with hematin. In summary, exogenous hematin could promote fruit coloring by increasing anthocyanin content in the white stage of strawberries. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis suggests that hematin-promoted fruit coloring occurs through multiple related metabolic pathways, which provides valuable information for regulating fruit color via anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberries. PMID:28074176

  5. The Effect of Ethylene and Propylene Pulses on Respiration, Ripening Advancement, Ethylene-Forming Enzyme, and 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid Synthase Activity in Avocado Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-03-01

    When early-season avocado fruit (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) were treated with ethylene or propylene for 24 hours immediately on picking, the time to the onset of the respiratory climacteric, i.e. the lag period, remained unchanged compared with that in untreated fruit. When fruit were pulsed 24 hours after picking, on the other hand, the lag period was shortened. In both cases, however, a 24 hour ethylene or propylene pulse induced a transient increase in respiration, called the pulse-peak, unaccompanied by ethylene production (IL Eaks [1980] Am Soc Hortic Sci 105: 744-747). The pulse also caused a sharp rise in ethylene-forming enzyme activity in both cases, without any increase in the low level of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase activity. Thus, the shortening of the lag period by an ethylene pulse is not due to an effect of ethylene on either of the two key enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis. A comparison of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis polypeptide profiles of in vitro translation products of poly(A(+)) mRNA from control and ethylene-pulsed fruit showed both up- and down-regulation in response to ethylene pulsing of a number of genes expressed during the ripening syndrome. It is proposed that the pulse-peak or its underlying events reflect an intrinsic element in the ripening process that in late-season or continuously ethylene-treated fruit may be subsumed in the overall climacteric response. A computerized system that allows continuous readout of multiple samples has established that the continued presentation of exogeneous ethylene or propylene to preclimacteric fruit elicits a dual respiration response comprising the merged pulse-peak and climacteric peak in series. The sequential removal of cores from a single fruit has proven an unsatisfactory sampling procedure inasmuch as coring induces wound ethylene, evokes a positive respiration response, and advances ripening.

  6. Volatile compounds in medlar fruit (Mespilus germanica L. at two ripening stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veličković Milovan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Medlar is the fruit of Mespilus germanica L. in the family of Rosaceae. The fruit can be eaten only if ‘bletted’ (softened by frost or longer storage. The effect of the maturation stages on the volatile compounds of the medlar fruit was investigated during two different stages. Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of unripe and full ripe medlar fruits by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE with methilen chloride as the extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-FID-MS. Hexanoic and hexadecanoic acids were the predominant acids, hexanal and (E-2-hexenal were the predominant aldehydes, (Z-3-hexenol and hexanol were the predominant alcohols, with p-cymene, terpinen-4-ol, and γ-terpiene (the terpenes responsible for the characteristic medlar flavour being also present. The C6 aliphatic compounds, such as hexanal and (E-2-hexenal, were observed as the major volatile constituents in the green stage. In contrast, hexanol and (Z-3-hexenol were the main volatiles in ripe fruits.

  7. Phenolic and volatile compounds of extra virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L. Cv. Cornicabra) with regard to fruit ripening and irrigation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Salvador, M Desamparados; La Greca, Marta; Fregapane, Giuseppe

    2006-09-20

    This study investigated the effect of both the degree of ripening of the olive fruit and irrigation management-rain-fed, two different regulated deficit irrigations (RDI), the method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (known as FAO), and 125 FAO (125% FAO)-on the phenolic and volatile composition of Cornicabra virgin olive oils obtained during two crop seasons. Secoiridoid phenolic derivatives greatly decreased upon increase of both irrigation and ripening, for example, the 3,4-DHPEA-EDA content decreased from 770 to 450 mg/kg through fruit ripening under rain-fed conditions and from 676 to 388 mg/kg from rain-fed conditions to FAO irrigation treatment (at a ripeness index of approximately 4). Moreover, secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol decreased more than those of tyrosol. The levels of major volatile components decreased in the course of ripening but were higher in irrigated olive oils: for example, the E-2-hexenal content ranged between 4.2 and 2.6 mg/kg (expressed as 4-methyl-2-pentanol) over fruit maturation under rain-fed conditions and between 8.0 and 3.5 mg/kg under FAO scheduling. It is important to note that where water was applied only from the beginning of August (RDI-2), when oil begins to accumulate in the fruit, the resulting virgin olive oil presented a phenol and volatile profile similar to those of the FAO and 125 FAO methods, but with a considerable reduction in the amount of water supplied to the olive orchard.

  8. Physio-Biochemical Changes in Jujube Fruits(Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao) at Mature Stage%灵武长枣果实发育成熟期生理生化变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏天军; 窦云萍

    2008-01-01

    The changes of physiological and biochemical indices in jujube fruits during the late development were investigated from 6-year-old jujube trees (Zizyphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao). The results showed that the flesh firmness decreased slowly from white-green stage to full-red stage, being significantly related with the developmental maturity of jujube fruits negatively, the correlation coefficient reached -0.980 3**. The contents of ascorbic acid and titratable acid in jujube fruits were significantly related with the developmental process of jujube fruits negatively or positively, the correlation coef-ficients were -0.973 1** and + 0.974 6** respectively. The contents of soluble solids, total sugar, and sucrose increased with jujube ripening, while the relative sweetness of jujube fruits showed the same variation pattern, the correlation coefficients were 0.996 6** , 0.988 0** , and 0.982 8**, respec-tively. Befcre white-green stage during fruit development,the accumulation d moncsaccharide was predom/nant in jujube fruits, following a fast accumula-tion of sucrose, indicating that the main component of sugars is sucrose at the crisp-ripe stage. Furthermore, the starch content of the flesh reached the peak at about thirty percentage of jujube maturity, being 51.54 mg/100 g · FW. The respiratory rates varied between 10 mg/(kg·h) and CO2 26 mg/(kg·h) after fruit turning red and before softening, indicating a non-climacteric respiratory type.

  9. Optimum yields of dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans from Cynareae fruits, during their ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes, determined by on-line chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szokol-Borsodi, Lilla; Sólyomváry, Anna; Molnár-Perl, Ibolya; Boldizsár, Imre

    2012-01-01

    Dibenzylbutyrolactone-type lignans are the physiologically active constituents of the achene fruits of Cynareae. These lignans occur in glycoside/aglycone forms: in the highest quantity of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin pairs found in the fruits of Arctium lappa L., Centaurea scabiosa L. and Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. To optimise the extraction yield of the arctiin/arctigenin, matairesinoside/matairesinol and tracheloside/trachelogenin glycoside/aglycone pairs, from the fruits of Arctium lappa, Centaurea scabiosa and Cirsium arvense, under the ripening, germination and enzymatic hydrolysis processes of the fruits. Identification and quantification of lignans were performed with on-line gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), both with UV and mass selective detections (HPLC-UV/MS). As novelties to the field it was confirmed that: (i) the unripe fruits provide a high amount of lignans, similar to the ripe fruit; (ii) the fruits of Arctium lappa and Cirsium arvense do have glycosidase activity to hydrolyse their lignan glycosides into free lignans; (iii) the glycosidase of Centaurea scabiosa fruit becomes activated under its germination process only; and (iv) the overwhelming part of the fruits lignan contents (80-94%) in all three species are accumulated in the embryo. The best sources of (i) lignan aglycones are the enzyme-hydrolysed embryos, separating spontaneously during the germination process, and (ii) lignan glycosides are the unripe fruits. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Phenolics profiles of olive fruits (Olea europaea L.) and oils from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik varieties at different ripening stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dağdelen, Ayhan; Tümen, Gülendam; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dündar, Ekrem

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds in olive fruit and oils obtained from Ayvalık, Domat and Gemlik olive varieties collected at different ripening periods were evaluated by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Gallic acid and p-cumaric acid were identified for Ayvalık and Domat at each period of ripening, respectively. In addition, gallic acid, p-cumaric acid, sinapinic and apigenin acids were detected in Gemlik olive fruit. Hydroxytyrosol, rutin, oleoropein, luteolin, tyrosol, vanilic acid and gallic acid in Ayvalık olive fruit in all ripening periods were determined. The tyrasol contents varied between 0.18 to 1.57mg/kg. Luteolin contents of olive oils ranged at the levels between 0.12 to 2.28mg/kg. In contrast, oils had the lowest syringic, p-cumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids. Vanillic acid contents of oils ranged between 0.08 to 2.38mg/kg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Postharvest ripening and fermentation of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  12. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  13. Fingerprinting of polysaccharides attacked by hydroxyl radicals in vitro and in the cell walls of ripening pear fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, S C; Dumville, J C; Miller, J G

    2001-08-01

    Hydroxyl radicals (*OH) may cause non-enzymic scission of polysaccharides in vivo, e.g. in plant cell walls and mammalian connective tissues. To provide a method for detecting the action of endogenous *OH in vivo, we investigated the products formed when polysaccharides were treated with *OH (generated in situ by ascorbate-H(2)O(2)-Cu(2+) mixtures) followed by NaB(3)H(4). Treatment with *OH increased the number of NaB(3)H(4)-reacting groups present in citrus pectin, homogalacturonan and tamarind xyloglucan. This increase is attributed partly to the formation of glycosulose and glycosulosuronic acid residues, which are then reduced back to the original (but radioactive) sugar residues and their epimers by NaB(3)H(4). The glycosulose and glycosulosuronic acid residues were stable for >16 h at 20 degrees C in ethanol or buffer (pH 4.7), but were destroyed in alkali. Driselase-digestion of the radiolabelled polysaccharides yielded characteristic patterns of (3)H-products, which included galactose and galacturonate from pectin, and isoprimeverose, galactose, glucose and arabinose from xyloglucan. Pectin yielded at least eight (3)H-labelled anionic products, separable by electrophoresis at pH 3.5. The patterns of radioactive products form useful 'fingerprints' by which *OH-attacked polysaccharides may be recognized. Applied to the cell walls of ripening pear (Pyrus communis) fruit, the method gave evidence for progressive *OH radical attack on polysaccharides during the softening process.

  14. Comparative transcriptome analysis of unripe and mid-ripe fruit of Mangifera indica (var. “Dashehari”) unravels ripening associated genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Smriti; Singh, Rajesh K.; Pathak, Garima; Goel, Ridhi; Asif, Mehar Hasan; Sane, Aniruddha P.; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2016-01-01

    Ripening in mango is under a complex control of ethylene. In an effort to understand the complex spatio-temporal control of ripening we have made use of a popular N. Indian variety “Dashehari” This variety ripens from the stone inside towards the peel outside and forms jelly in the pulp in ripe fruits. Through a combination of 454 and Illumina sequencing, a transcriptomic analysis of gene expression from unripe and midripe stages have been performed in triplicates. Overall 74,312 unique transcripts with ≥1 FPKM were obtained. The transcripts related to 127 pathways were identified in “Dashehari” mango transcriptome by the KEGG analysis. These pathways ranged from detoxification, ethylene biosynthesis, carbon metabolism and aromatic amino acid degradation. The transcriptome study reveals differences not only in expression of softening associated genes but also those that govern ethylene biosynthesis and other nutritional characteristics. This study could help to develop ripening related markers for selective breeding to reduce the problems of excess jelly formation during softening in the “Dashehari” variety. PMID:27586495

  15. Fruit-specific overexpression of wound-induced tap1 under E8 promoter in tomato confers resistance to fungal pathogens at ripening stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesanakurti, Divya; Kolattukudy, Pappachan E; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bhardwaja

    2012-10-01

    Based on high economic importance and nutritious value of tomato fruits and as previous studies employed E8 promoter in fruit ripening-specific gene expression, we have developed transgenic tomato plants overexpressing tomato anionic peroxidase cDNA (tap1) under E8 promoter. Stable transgene integration was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern analysis for nptII. Northern blotting confirmed elevated tap1 levels in the breaker- and red-ripe stages of T(1) transgenic fruits, whereas wild-type (WT) plants did not show tap1 expression in these developmental stages. Further, tap1 expression levels were significantly enhanced in response to wounding in breaker- and red-ripe stages of transgenic fruits, whereas wound-induced expression of tap1 was not detected in WT fruits. Confocal microscopy revealed high accumulation of phenolic compounds at the wound site in transgenic fruits suggesting a role of tap1 in wound-induced phenolic polymerization. Total peroxidase activity has increased remarkably in transgenic pericarp tissues in response to wounding, while very less or minimal levels were recorded in WT pericarp tissues. Transgenic fruits also displayed reduced post-harvest decay and increased resistance toward Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani infection with noticeable inhibition in lesion formation. Conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. solani were severely inhibited when treated with E8-tap1 fruit extracts compared to WT fruits. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed reduced spore viability when incubated in E8-tap1 fruit extracts. Thus, fruit-specific expression of tap1 using E8 promoter is associated with enhanced total peroxidase activity and high phenolic accumulation in fruits with minimized post-harvest deterioration caused by wounding and fungal attack in tomato fruits.

  16. Developmental changes in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and pigments in fruit exocarp of four tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) genotypes: beta-carotene, high pigment-1, ripening inhibitor, and 'Rutgers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C A; Andrews, P K

    2006-01-01

    In surface cell layers of fleshy fruit, antioxidants must limit photooxidative reactions that generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in high light. Our objective was to measure changes in the concentrations of antioxidant metabolites and pigments, and the activities of enzymes of the Mehler-peroxidase, ascorbate-glutathione cycle in fruit exocarp tissue under non-stress conditions of the following fruit-specific tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.=Solanum lycopersicum) mutants and their parent: (1) beta-carotene (B), (2) high pigment (hp-1), (3) ripening inhibitor (rin), and (4) the nearly isogenic wild-type 'Rutgers'. Developmental variables included days after anthesis (DAA) and fruit surface color. The highest total ascorbic acid (AsA) concentration was in the exocarp of immature green fruit of hp-1, being 32% higher than 'Rutgers'. The hp-1 mutant also had the highest chlorophyll and total carotenoid concentrations, comprised mostly of lycopene in red ripe fruit; whereas, beta-carotene comprised 90% of the carotenoids in B. Although enzyme activities varied within genotype, they generally increased with development, then decreased as fruit maturity was reached, being coupled with AsA and glutathione (GSH) concentrations. In all mutants, dark-green (DG) exocarp had more chlorophyll and protein, higher concentrations of reduced AsA and GSH, and usually lower enzyme activities than light-green (LG) exocarp taken from the same fruit.

  17. Gene expression of monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase during fruit ripening and in response to environmental stresses in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltelib, Hani A; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2011-04-15

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra) is an exotic fruit cultivated primarily for its abundant ascorbic acid (AsA) content. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the metabolism of AsA in acerola have yet to be defined. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are key enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain reduced pools of ascorbic acid and serve as important antioxidants. cDNAs encoding MDHAR and DHAR were isolated from acerola using RT-PCR and RACE. Phylogenetic trees associated acerola MDHAR and DHAR with other plant cytosolic MDHARs and DHARs. Expressions of the two genes correlated with their enzymatic activities and were differentially regulated during fruit ripening. Interestingly, MDHAR expression was only detected in overripe fruits, whereas the transcript level of DHAR was highest at the intermediate stage of fruit ripening. Under dark conditions, there was a sharp and significant decline in the total and reduced ascorbate contents, accompanied by a decrease in the level of transcripts and enzyme activities of the two genes in acerola leaves. MDHAR and DHAR transcripts and enzyme activities were significantly up-regulated in the leaves of acerola under cold and salt stress conditions, indicating that expression of both genes are transcriptionally regulated under these stresses.

  18. Effects of the Fruit Ripening Stage on Antioxidant Capacity, Total Phenolics, and Polyphenolic Composition of Crude Palm Oil from Interspecific Hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juanita C; Gómez, Daniela; Pacetti, Deborah; Núñez, Oscar; Gagliardi, Riccardo; Frega, Natale G; Ojeda, Myriam L; Loizzo, Monica R; Tundis, Rosa; Lucci, Paolo

    2016-02-03

    In the present study, we assessed for the first time the changes in the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and polyphenolic composition of interspecific hybrid palm oil extracted from Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis (O × G, Coari × La Mé cultivar) during the fruit ripening process 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis. A progressive decrease (p < 0.05) of phenolic content occurred during fruit development together with marked changes in polyphenol profiles. Significant negative correlations were established between antioxidant activity measured by TEAC (R = -0.954; p < 0.05) and ORAC (R = -0.745; p < 0.05) and the fruit ripening stage, while a positive correlation between total phenolic content was found using either the TEAC assay or the ORAC assay. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was also obtained with oils extracted at 18 WAA. These results highlight that O × G fruits of early ripeness represent a better source of phenolic compounds and may provide extracts with higher antioxidant activities when hybrid palm oil is aimed to be used as a functional ingredient for the development of food or food products with antioxidant properties.

  19. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-Related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) during Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhi-Zhen; Zhou, Dan-Rong; Ye, Xin-Fu; Jiang, Cui-Cui; Pan, Shao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5816 and 8585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in “biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites.” Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors, and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum. PMID:27630660

  20. Identification of Candidate Anthocyanin-related Genes by Transcriptomic Analysis of ‘Furongli’ Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. During Fruit Ripening Using RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhen Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are important pigments and are responsible for red coloration in plums. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation in plum fruits. In this study, the RNA-seq technique was used to analyze the transcriptomic changes during fruit ripening in the red-fleshed plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar ‘Furongli’. Over 161 million high-quality reads were assembled into 52,093 unigenes and 49.4% of these were annotated using public databases. Of these, 25,681 unigenes had significant hits to the sequences in the NCBI Nr database, 17,203 unigenes showed significant similarity to known proteins in the Swiss-Prot database and 5,816 and 8,585 unigenes had significant similarity to existing sequences in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and the Cluster of Orthologous Groups databases, respectively. A total of 3,548 unigenes were differentially expressed during fruit ripening and 119 of these were annotated as involved in ‘biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites’. Biological pathway analysis and gene ontology term enrichment analysis revealed that 13 differentially expressed genes are involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, transcription factors such as MYB and bHLH, which may control anthocyanin biosynthesis, were identified through coexpression analysis of transcription factors and structural genes. Real-time qPCR analysis of candidate genes showed good correlation with the transcriptome data. These results contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin biosynthesis in plum flesh. The transcriptomic data generated in this study provide a basis for further studies of fruit ripening in plum.

  1. Effect of fruit ripening on content and chemical composition of oil from three oil palm cultivars (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Fausto; Ayala-Diaz, Iván M; Delgado, Wilman; Ruiz-Romero, Rodrigo; Romero, Hernán M

    2011-09-28

    A series of physical and chemical changes occur as oil palm fruits ripen in the bunch. We evaluated changes in lipid content in the mesocarp and fruits, and the chemical composition of fatty acids (FA), triacylglycerol (TAG), tocols, and carotenes of the lipids extracted from fruits of three commercial tenera cultivars, namely, Deli×La Mé, Deli×Ekona, and Deli×Avros, planted in two different geographical regions in Colombia, during the ripening process 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, and 24 weeks after anthesis (WAA). It was found that 12 WAA the mesocarp contained less than 6% of total lipids. Oil content increased rapidly after 16 WAA, reaching the maximum oil content of 55% in fresh mesocarp and 47% in fresh fruits at 22 WAA, which was found the optimal time for harvesting. Changes in FA and TAG showed that total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and triunsaturated triacylglycerols (TUTAG) decreased, while total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and disaturated triacylglycerols (DSTAG) increased, over the ripening period. Changes in FA were mainly observed in palmitic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, and in POP, POO, POL, and OLL for the TAGs evaluated. Levels of tocols changed depending on whether they were tocopherols or tocotrienols. In the earliest stages tocopherols were predominant but decreased rapidly from 6600 mg kg(-1) of oil at 14 WAA to 93 mg kg(-1) of oil at 22 WAA. Tocotrienols appeared at the same time as oil synthesis started, and became the main source of total tocols, equivalent to 87% in total lipids extracted.

  2. Temporal and spatial expression of polygalacturonase gene family members reveals divergent regulation during fleshy fruit ripening and abscission in the monocot species oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roongsattham Peerapat

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell separation that occurs during fleshy fruit abscission and dry fruit dehiscence facilitates seed dispersal, the final stage of plant reproductive development. While our understanding of the evolutionary context of cell separation is limited mainly to the eudicot model systems tomato and Arabidopsis, less is known about the mechanisms underlying fruit abscission in crop species, monocots in particular. The polygalacturonase (PG multigene family encodes enzymes involved in the depolymerisation of pectin homogalacturonan within the primary cell wall and middle lamella. PG activity is commonly found in the separation layers during organ abscission and dehiscence, however, little is known about how this gene family has diverged since the separation of monocot and eudicots and the consequence of this divergence on the abscission process. Results The objective of the current study was to identify PGs responsible for the high activity previously observed in the abscission zone (AZ during fruit shedding of the tropical monocot oil palm, and to analyze PG gene expression during oil palm fruit ripening and abscission. We identified 14 transcripts that encode PGs, all of which are expressed in the base of the oil palm fruit. The accumulation of five PG transcripts increase, four decrease and five do not change during ethylene treatments that induce cell separation. One PG transcript (EgPG4 is the most highly induced in the fruit base, with a 700–5000 fold increase during the ethylene treatment. In situ hybridization experiments indicate that the EgPG4 transcript increases preferentially in the AZ cell layers in the base of the fruit in response to ethylene prior to cell separation. Conclusions The expression pattern of EgPG4 is consistent with the temporal and spatial requirements for cell separation to occur during oil palm fruit shedding. The sequence diversity of PGs and the complexity of their expression in the oil palm fruit

  3. Correlation of rutin accumulation with 3-O-glucosyl transferase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activities during the ripening of tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanoglu, Esra; Beekwilder, Jules; Matros, Andrea; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Hall, Robert D; Mock, Hans Peter

    2012-12-01

    In tomato, the predominant flavonoid is quercetin-3-rutinoside (rutin). In this study, we aim to investigate the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and the quercetin-3-O-glucosyl transferase (3-GT) reactions in the formation of rutin during tomato fruit ripening. Tomatoes of the Moneymaker variety at different development stages (green, breaker, turning, pink, red, and deep red) were divided into flesh and peel fractions. In each sample, both the content of rutin and the enzymatic activities for PAL and 3-GT were recorded. The highest activities of PAL were recorded in the peel of turning fruit (3,000 μkat/mg fresh weight). In fruit flesh, maximal activity was observed in red fruit (917.3 μkat/mg). For both tissues, PAL activity strongly decreased at the final (deep red) fruit stage. The activity of 3-GT in peel peaked in the turning fruit stage (50.7 pkat/mg), while in flesh maximal activity (33.4 pkat/mg) was observed in green fruit, which rapidly declined at the turning stage. Higher levels of rutin were detected in the tomato peel compared to the flesh part with the highest level being found at the green stage. The relation of PAL and 3-GT activities to rutin content is also evaluated.

  4. A MYB transcription factor regulates anthocyanin biosynthesis in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapol, Yossapol; Ketsa, Saichol; Lin-Wang, Kui; Ferguson, Ian B; Allan, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) fruit undergo rapid red colour development, both on the tree and after harvest, resulting in high anthocyanin production in the pericarp. Here, we report the isolation of three full-length mangosteen MYB transcription factors (GmMYB1, GmMYB7 and GmMYB10) and all the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway genes (GmPal to GmUFGT). Phylogenetic analysis at the protein level of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family showed GmMYB10 had a high degree of similarity with production of anthocyanin pigment1 in Arabidopsis and as well as sequences from other plant species related to the elevation of anthocyanin pigmentation. In transient transactivation assays, GmMYB10, co-expressed with AtbHLH2, strongly activated the GmDFR and AtDFR promoters. Transcripts of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT were highly abundant with onset of pigmentation and subsequently during red colouration. Our results suggest that GmMYB10 plays an important role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis both on the tree and after harvest, while GmUFGT may be a key biosynthetic gene in mangosteen pigmentation. The expression patterns of GmMYB10 and GmUFGT correlated with ethylene production that increased linearly until stage 5 (dark purple) and decreased thereafter. 1-Methycyclopropene (1-MCP) clearly delayed red colouration with resulting down-regulation of GmMYB10. These results suggest that the effect of ethylene on anthocyanin biosynthesis may be via the regulation of GmMYB10 expression.

  5. Pyrophosphate Fructose-6-P 1-Phosphotransferase from Tomato Fruit : Evidence for Change during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J H; Kiss, F; Wu, M X; Buchanan, B B

    1990-10-01

    Three forms of pyrophosphate fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase (PFP) were purified from both green and red tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) fruit: (a) a classical form (designated Q(2)) containing alpha- (66 kilodalton) and beta- (60 kilodalton) subunits; (b) a form (Q(1)) containing a beta-doublet subunit; and (c) a form (Q(0)) that appeared to contain a beta-singlet subunit. Several lines of evidence suggested that the different forms occur under physiological conditions. Q(2) was purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity; Q(1) and Q(0) were highly purified, but not to homogeneity. The distribution of the PFP forms from red (versus green) tomato was: Q(2), 29% (90%); Q(1), 47% (6%); and Q(0), 24% (4%). The major difference distinguishing the red from the green tomato enzymes was the fructose-2,6-bisphosphate (Fru-2,6-P(2))-induced change in K(m) for fructose-6-phosphate (Fru-6-P), the ;green forms' showing markedly enhanced affinity on activation (K(m) decrease of 7-9-fold) and the ;red forms' showing either little change (Q(0), Q(1)) or a relatively small (2.5-fold) affinity increase (Q(2)). The results extend our earlier findings with carrot root to another tissue and indicate that forms of PFP showing low or no affinity increase for Fru 6-P on activation by Fru-2,6-P(2) (here Q(1) and Q(0)) are associated with sugar storage, whereas the classical form (Q(2)), which shows a pronounced affinity increase, is more important for starch storage.

  6. Cloning and molecular characterization of an ethylene receptor gene, MiERS1, expressed during mango fruitlet abscission and fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ish-Shalom, Mazal; Dahan, Yardena; Maayan, Inbar; Irihimovitch, Vered

    2011-08-01

    We isolated and characterized a mango (Mangifera indica L.) cDNA homolog of the ethylene receptor gene ERS1, designated MiERS1. Genomic Southern blot analysis suggested the existence of a second gene with homology to MiERS1. Spatial and temporal expression patterns of MiERS1 were first studied during fruitlet drop and compared with those of a previously identified MiETR1 gene that encodes an ETR1-type ethylene receptor. Experiments were conducted on developing fruitlet explants in which fruitlet abscission was induced by ethephon treatment. Northern analysis revealed a notable increase in MiERS1 mRNA levels in the fruitlet's activated abscission zone within 24 h of ethephon application, followed by a decreasing pattern 48 h post-treatment. A transient, albeit lesser, increase in MiERS1 mRNA levels was also observed in treated fruitlet seed and mesocarp tissues. In contrast, in the abscission zone, accumulation of MiETR1 transcript remained unchanged; a temporal increase in MiETR1 transcript level was observed in the fruitlet mesocarp, whereas in the seed, MiETR1 expression had already dropped by 24 h. Expression profiles of MiERS1 and MiETR1 were then studied during fruit ripening. In agreement with a previous study and coinciding with the climacteric rise in ethylene production, RNA blot analysis revealed that during fruit ripening, MiETR1 mRNA level increases in both mesocarp and seed tissues. Unexpectedly, however, in those same tissues, MiERS1 transcript accumulation was barely detected. Collectively, our data highlight MiERS1's possible specific function in regulating fruitlet abscission rather than fruit ripening.

  7. Expression patterns, activities and carbohydrate-metabolizing regulation of sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and neutral invertase in pineapple fruit during development and ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Mei; Wang, Wei; Du, Li-Qing; Xie, Jiang-Hui; Yao, Yan-Li; Sun, Guang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Differences in carbohydrate contents and metabolizing-enzyme activities were monitored in apical, medial, basal and core sections of pineapple (Ananas comosus cv. Comte de paris) during fruit development and ripening. Fructose and glucose of various sections in nearly equal amounts were the predominant sugars in the fruitlets, and had obvious differences until the fruit matured. The large rise of sucrose/hexose was accompanied by dramatic changes in sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) activities. By contrast, neutral invertase (NI) activity may provide a mechanism to increase fruit sink strength by increasing hexose concentrations. Furthermore, two cDNAs of Ac-sps (accession no. GQ996582) and Ac-ni (accession no. GQ996581) were first isolated from pineapple fruits utilizing conserved amino-acid sequences. Homology alignment reveals that the amino acid sequences contain some conserved function domains. Transcription expression analysis of Ac-sps, Ac-susy and Ac-ni also indicated distinct patterns related to sugar accumulation and composition of pineapple fruits. It suggests that differential expressions of multiple gene families are necessary for sugar metabolism in various parts and developmental stages of pineapple fruit. A cycle of sucrose breakdown in the cytosol of sink tissues could be mediated through both Ac-SuSy and Ac-NI, and Ac-NI could be involved in regulating crucial steps by generating sugar signals to the cells in a temporally and spatially restricted fashion.

  8. Research on Changes of Vc Content and Soluble Solid Concentration Content during Strawberry Fruit Ripening%草莓果实成熟过程中Vc和可溶性固形物含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张桂霞; 王英超; 石璐

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] The purpose was to investigate the proper harvest stage of the strawberry fruit. [ Method ] Taking pot strawberry fruit as research materials,the changes of fruit hardness and contents of the Vc and the soluble solid concentration during strawberry fruit ripening were studied. [ Result ] As strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced, the content of Vc decreased, the soluble solid concentration was first increasing and then reclucing. [ Conclusion ] During strawberry fruit ripening, the fruit hardness reduced and the internal quality of fruit increased.%[目的]探索草莓的最佳采收期.[方法]以盆栽草莓果实为试验材料,研究草莓成熟过程中果肉硬度、维生素C含量和可溶性固形物含量的变化规律.[结果]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度逐渐下降,维生素C含量逐渐上升,可溶性固形物含量呈先上升后下降的趋势.[结论]随着草莓果实的成熟,果肉硬度下降,内在品质提高.

  9. Combined anti-ages and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanacea) fruits during ripening and related to their phytochemical compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houda, Mejri; Derbré, Séverine; Jedy, Ahmed; Tlili, Nizar; Legault, Jean; Richomme, Pascal; Limam, Ferid; Saidani-Tounsi, Moufida

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known as key factors for the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy, cataract as well as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s diseases. In this context, natural products have been previously identified as promising sources for antioxidant and anti-glycation compounds. The current study focuses on the evaluation of antioxidant and glycation inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanaceae) fruits at different ripening stages. The results showed that antioxidant and anti-AGEs activities were significantly influenced by solvents polarities and ripening stages of S. elaeagnifolium Cav. With one exception, methanolic extract of overripe S. elaeagnifolium Cav fruit showed important protective effects against cellular oxidative stress. The aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS+ scavenging ability. Principal component analysis showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents correlated well with observed antioxidants and anti-glycation activities. These results bring attention to the possible use of S. elaeagnifolium Cav as a valuable source of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant effects and potentially alleviating diabetic complications. PMID:26417319

  10. Combined anti-ages and antioxidant activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanacea) fruits during ripening and related to their phytochemical compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houda, Mejri; Derbré, Séverine; Jedy, Ahmed; Tlili, Nizar; Legault, Jean; Richomme, Pascal; Limam, Ferid; Saidani-Tounsi, Moufida

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are known as key factors for the development of diabetic complications such as retinopathy, cataract as well as atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's diseases. In this context, natural products have been previously identified as promising sources for antioxidant and anti-glycation compounds. The current study focuses on the evaluation of antioxidant and glycation inhibitory activities of different solvent extracts of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav (Solanaceae) fruits at different ripening stages. The results showed that antioxidant and anti-AGEs activities were significantly influenced by solvents polarities and ripening stages of S. elaeagnifolium Cav. With one exception, methanolic extract of overripe S. elaeagnifolium Cav fruit showed important protective effects against cellular oxidative stress. The aqueous extract showed the highest ABTS(+) scavenging ability. Principal component analysis showed that total phenolic and flavonoid contents correlated well with observed antioxidants and anti-glycation activities. These results bring attention to the possible use of S. elaeagnifolium Cav as a valuable source of bioactive compounds exhibiting antioxidant effects and potentially alleviating diabetic complications.

  11. Methyl de-esterification as a major factor regulating the extent of pectin depolymerization during fruit ripening: a comparison of the action of avocado (Persea americana) and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) polygalacturonases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hoson, Takayuki; Huber, Donald J

    2003-06-01

    Pectinmethylesterase (PME, EC 3.2.1.11) and polygalacturonase (PG, EC 3.2.1.15) are known to operate in tandem to degrade methylesterified polyuronides. In this study, PGs purified from tomato and avocado fruit were compared in terms of their capacity to hydrolyze water-soluble polyuronides from avocado before and following enzymic or chemical de-esterification. When assayed using polygalacturonic acid or polyuronides from avocado fruit, the activity of PG from tomato fruit was 3-4 times higher than that from avocado fruit. High molecular mass, low methylesterified (33%) water-soluble polyuronides (WSP) from pre-ripe avocado fruit (day 0) were partially depolymerized upon incubation with purified avocado and tomato PGs. In contrast, middle molecular mass, highly methylesterified (74%) WSP from day 2 fruit were largely resistant to the action of both PGs. PME or weak alkali treatment of highly methylesterified WSP decreased the methylesterification values to 11 and 4.5%, respectively. Treatment of de-esterified WSP with either avocado or tomato PGs caused extensive molecular mass downshifts, paralleling those observed during avocado fruit ripening. Although PME and PG are found in many fruits, the pattern of depolymerization of native polyuronides indicates that the degree of cooperativity between these enzymes in vivo differs dramatically among fruits. The contribution of PME to patterns of polyuronide depolymerization observed during ripening compared with physically compromised fruit tissues is discussed.

  12. Ripening of fruits of 'Dwarf Prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group)irradiated and treated with calcium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martineli, Maristella [Instituto de Quimica. Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Coneglian, Regina C.C.; Vasconcellos, Marco A.S.; Silva, Eduardo, E-mail: rccconeg@ufrrj.br, E-mail: masv@ufrrj.br [Departamento de Fitotecnia. Instituto de Agronomia. Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Vital, Helio C., E-mail: vital@ctex.eb.br [Secao de Defesa Nuclear. Divisao de Defesa Quimica, Biologica e Nuclear. Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The competing effects resulting from the exposure of fruits of 'warf prata' banana (Musa acuminata x Musa balbisiana, AAB group) to gamma radiation and to calcium carbide have been investigated in this work. The fruits were harvested in a pre-climateric stage (green colored though physiologically developed) in the city of Jaiba, state of Minas Gerais, and gamma irradiated with doses of 0.25 or 0.50 kGy in a research irradiating facility at the Brazilian Army Technology Center (CTEx) in the city of Rio de Janeiro. Some samples were also exposed to calcium carbide for 32 hours in order to accelerate ripening. Quantitative estimates of peel color, disease index and fresh mass loss were performed for 9 days while the fruits were kept at an average temperature of 23 deg C. The analyses were performed in the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, located in the city of Seropedica. The following treatments or combination of processes have been tested: untreated (control); treated only with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy; treated with irradiation with doses of 0.25 kGy or 0.50 kGy and then exposed to calcium carbide. The fruits treated solely with irradiation with 0.25 kGy exhibited a better response during the first days of storage, although their initial green coloration vanished with time. In addition, the fungi Colletotrichum musae and Lasidioplodia theobroma were detected in samples submitted to the combination of both processes. In contrast, such fungi were not observed in fruits that had only been exposed to 0.25 kGy and exhibited low disease indices. Also, 1-2 cm lesions were detected on fruits.(author)

  13. Branched-chain and aromatic amino acid catabolism into aroma volatiles in Cucumis melo L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Itay; Bar, Einat; Portnoy, Vitaly; Lev, Shery; Burger, Joseph; Schaffer, Arthur A; Tadmor, Ya'akov; Gepstein, Shimon; Giovannoni, James J; Katzir, Nurit; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2010-02-01

    The unique aroma of melons (Cucumis melo L., Cucurbitaceae) is composed of many volatile compounds biosynthetically derived from fatty acids, carotenoids, amino acids, and terpenes. Although amino acids are known precursors of aroma compounds in the plant kingdom, the initial steps in the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles have received little attention. Incubation of melon fruit cubes with amino acids and alpha-keto acids led to the enhanced formation of aroma compounds bearing the side chain of the exogenous amino or keto acid supplied. Moreover, L-[(13)C(6)]phenylalanine was also incorporated into aromatic volatile compounds. Amino acid transaminase activities extracted from the flesh of mature melon fruits converted L-isoleucine, L-leucine, L-valine, L-methionine, or L-phenylalanine into their respective alpha-keto acids, utilizing alpha-ketoglutarate as the amine acceptor. Two novel genes were isolated and characterized (CmArAT1 and CmBCAT1) encoding 45.6 kDa and 42.7 kDa proteins, respectively, that displayed aromatic and branched-chain amino acid transaminase activities, respectively, when expressed in Escherichia coli. The expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 was low in vegetative tissues, but increased in flesh and rind tissues during fruit ripening. In addition, ripe fruits of climacteric aromatic cultivars generally showed high expression of CmBCAT1 and CmArAT1 in contrast to non-climacteric non-aromatic fruits. The results presented here indicate that in melon fruit tissues, the catabolism of amino acids into aroma volatiles can initiate through a transamination mechanism, rather than decarboxylation or direct aldehyde synthesis, as has been demonstrated in other plants.

  14. Ripening pattern of guava cv. Pedro Sato Padrão de amadurecimento de goiaba cv. Pedro Sato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Guava is a fruit with high respiration rates and a very short shelf life. Since information on its respiration pattern is contradictory, the objective was to study the changes occurring in the fruit during ripening and to relate them to the respiration behavior of this fruit. Guavas were picked at the half-ripe stage and stored for 8 days at 22 ± 1 ºC and 78 ± 1% relative humidity. The analyses conducted were: peel and pulp coloration, firmness, total soluble solids (TSS, total titratable acidity (TTA, and ethylene production. According to the results, it was verified that the parameters analyzed apparently do not coincide and are ethylene-independent. There was an accentuated ethylene production during ripening, starting from the 4th day. The ethylene synthesis continued increasing up to the 8th day, when the fruits were already decomposing. It was observed that the firmness decreased sharply in the first three days of ripening, and the skin and pulp color changed during ripening. The TSS, total soluble solids, and the TTA, total titratable acidity, practically did not change during the ripening, even with the increased ethylene production. It can be concluded that guava is a fruit that presents characteristics of climacteric and non-climacteric fruits.A goiaba apresenta altas taxas de respiração e uma vida útil muito curta, e como as informações sobre o padrão respiratório são contraditórias, objetivou-se estudar mudanças ocorridas no fruto durante o amadurecimento e relacioná-las ao comportamento respiratório desses frutos. Foram colhidas goiabas no estádio "de vez" e armazenadas por 8 dias à temperatura ambiente (22 ± 1 ºC e umidade relativa de 78 ± 1%. As análises realizadas foram: coloração da casca e polpa, firmeza, sólidos solúveis totais (SST, acidez total titulável (ATT e produção de etileno. Pelos resultados, verificou-se que todas as variáveis analisadas aparentemente não coincidem e independem da s

  15. Protein kinase activities in ripening mango, Mangifera indica L., fruit tissue. I: Purification and characterization of a calcium-stimulated casein kinase-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frylinck, L; Dubery, I A

    1998-01-15

    A Ca(2+)-stimulated protein kinase (PK-I), active with dephosphorylated casein as exogenous substrate, was purified from ripening mango fruit. The purification procedure involved 30-70% ammonium sulphate fractionation and sequential anion exchange-, affinity-, hydrophobic interaction- and gel filtration chromatography. PK-I was purified ca. 40-fold with an overall yield of inhibition studies with ADP as product inhibitor best fit an ordered bi-bi kinetic mechanism with the Mg(2+)-ATP complex binding first to the enzyme followed by binding of the protein substrate. The K(m)ATP and K(m)casein of PK-I were 9 microM and 0.26 mg ml-1, respectively. The KiADP of PK-I was 9 microM.

  16. Characterization of differential ripening pattern in association with ethylene biosynthesis in the fruits of five naturally occurring banana cultivars and detection of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Saha, Progya Paramita; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-07-01

    MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 are the two major ripening genes in banana and play crucial role in the regulation of ethylene production during ripening. Here, we report a comparative ripening pattern in five different naturally occurring banana cultivars namely Cavendish (AAA), Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), Poovan (AAB) and Monthan (ABB), which have distinct genome composition. We found a distinct variation in the climacteric ethylene production and in-vivo ACC oxidase activity level during the ripening stages in the five cultivars. We identified the cDNAs for MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 from the five cultivars and studied the transcript accumulation patterns of the two genes, which correlated well with the differential timing in the expression of these two genes during ripening. The GCC-box is one of the ethylene-responsive elements (EREs) found in the promoters of many ethylene-inducible genes. We have identified a GCC-box motif (putative ERE) in the promoters of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 in banana cultivars. DNA-protein interaction studies revealed the presence of a GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity in the fruit nuclear extract and such DNA-binding activity was enhanced following ethylene treatment. South-Western blotting revealed a 25-kDa nuclear protein that binds specifically to GCC-box DNA in the climacteric banana fruit. Together, these results indicate the probable involvement of the GCC-box motif as the cis-acting ERE in the regulation of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 during ripening in banana fruits via binding of specific ERE-binding protein.

  17. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: II. Multivariate statistical profiling of pineapple aroma compounds based on comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Jutzi, Manfred; Müller, Jenny; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied in a nontargeted profiling analysis. Volatiles were isolated via headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive 2D gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Profile patterns presented in the contour plots were evaluated applying image processing techniques and subsequent multivariate statistical data analysis. Statistical methods comprised unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to classify the samples. Supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and partial least squares (PLS) regression were applied to discriminate different ripening stages and describe the development of volatiles during postharvest storage, respectively. Hereby, substantial chemical markers allowing for class separation were revealed. The workflow permitted the rapid distinction between premature green-ripe pineapples and postharvest-ripened sea-freighted fruits. Volatile profiles of fully ripe air-freighted pineapples were similar to those of green-ripe fruits postharvest ripened for 6 days after simulated sea freight export, after PCA with only two principal components. However, PCA considering also the third principal component allowed differentiation between air-freighted fruits and the four progressing postharvest maturity stages of sea-freighted pineapples.

  18. Histochemistry and morphoanatomy study on guava fruit during ripening Histoquímica e morfoanatomia em frutos de goiaba durante amadurecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato de Abreu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Guava (Psidium guajava L. is a highly perishable fruit due to its intense metabolism during ripening. Information on the enzyme activities that degrade pectic substances, as well as the amount of pectin, is very contradictory and not clearly defined. Thus, this study aimed to monitor the changes occurred in the fruit during ripening through histochemical, physical, and scanning microscopy processes. Guavas were picked at the half-mature stage and stored for 9 days at 22 ± 1 °C and 78 ± 1% RH. The analyses conducted on the day of harvest (0 and each day of storage (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 days were: firmness and histochemical analyses (ferric chloride, lugol, comassie blue, vanillin hydrochloric, and ruthenium red observed under an optic microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Ruthenium red showed a high amount of pectin in the cell wall on day zero as well as its decrease in the wall during ripening and its accumulation in the central area of the cell. Scanning microscopy showed loss of the cell structure during ripening. Those observations suggest that the pectin is the main polymer responsible for firmness maintenance in the guava fruit.A goiaba (Psidium guajava L. é um fruto altamente perecível devido ao seu intenso metabolismo durante o amadurecimento. As informações sobre a atividade das enzimas que degradam substâncias pécticas, bem como a quantidade de pectina, são bem contraditórias e não claramente definidas. Assim, objetivou-se monitorar as mudanças ocorridas no fruto durante o amadurecimento, por meio de processos histoquímicos, físico e de microscopia de varredura. Foram colhidas goiabas no estágio "de vez" e armazenadas por 9 dias a uma temperatura de 22 ± 1 °C e UR de 78% ± 1%. As análises realizadas no dia da colheita (dia 0 e a cada dia do armazenamento (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 dias foram: firmeza, análises histoquímicas (cloreto férrico, lugol, comassie blue, vanilina clorídrica e vermelho de

  19. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  20. Redirection of flavonoid biosynthesis through the down-regulation of an anthocyanidin glucosyltransferase in ripening strawberry fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griesser, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Bellido, M.L.; Rosati, C.; Fink, B.; Kurtzer, R.; Aharoni, A.; Munoz-Blanco, J.; Schwab, W.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit contains several anthocyanins that give the ripe fruits their attractive red color. The enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the first stable intermediate in the anthocyanin pathway is anthocyanidin-3-O-glucosyltransferase. A putative glycosyltransferase sequ

  1. Alteration of the interconversion of pyruvate and malate in the plastid or cytosol of ripening tomato fruit invokes diverse consequences on sugar but similar effects on cellular organic acid, metabolism, and transitory starch accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Sonia; Vallarino, José G; Szecowka, Marek; Ufaz, Shai; Tzin, Vered; Angelovici, Ruthie; Galili, Gad; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of decreased cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and plastidic NADP-dependent malic enzyme (ME) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) ripening. Transgenic tomato plants with strongly reduced levels of PEPCK and plastidic NADP-ME were generated by RNA interference gene silencing under the control of a ripening-specific E8 promoter. While these genetic modifications had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield and size, they had strong effects on fruit metabolism. Both transformants were characterized by lower levels of starch at breaker stage. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase correlated with the decrease of starch in both transformants, which suggests that it is due to an altered cellular redox status. Moreover, metabolic profiling and feeding experiments involving positionally labeled glucoses of fruits lacking in plastidic NADP-ME and cytosolic PEPCK activities revealed differential changes in overall respiration rates and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux. Inactivation of cytosolic PEPCK affected the respiration rate, which suggests that an excess of oxaloacetate is converted to aspartate and reintroduced in the TCA cycle via 2-oxoglutarate/glutamate. On the other hand, the plastidic NADP-ME antisense lines were characterized by no changes in respiration rates and TCA cycle flux, which together with increases of pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities indicate that pyruvate is supplied through these enzymes to the TCA cycle. These results are discussed in the context of current models of the importance of malate during tomato fruit ripening.

  2. Polyphenols Variation in Fruits of the Susceptible Strawberry Cultivar Alba during Ripening and upon Fungal Pathogen Interaction and Possible Involvement in Unripe Fruit Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpala, Ellaine Grace; Guidarelli, Michela; Gasperotti, Mattia; Masuero, Domenico; Bertolini, Paolo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Baraldi, Elena

    2016-03-09

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit contains high concentrations of health-promoting phenolic compounds, playing important roles for the fruit ontogenic tolerance to fungi. In the highly susceptible cultivar Alba, the two major strawberry fungal pathogens, Colletotrichum acutatum and Botrytis cinerea, displayed disease symptoms only at red ripe stages because immature fruits are tolerant to diseases. We analyzed and compared the variation of 47 polyphenols in the surface of unripe and ripe Alba fruits upon 24 and 48 h of C. acutatum and B. cinerea infection or mock inoculation. Significant alteration in phenolic content was detected only in white infected fruit, with differences specific for each pathogen. The expression analysis of phenylpropanoid, flavonoid, and shikimate pathway genes showed in only a few cases correlation with the relative metabolite abundance. The alteration in phenolic content and the lack of consistency with gene expression data are discussed in light of previously reported metabolome data of different susceptible and resistant strawberry genotypes.

  3. Ripening-dependent metabolic changes in the volatiles of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) fruit: I. Characterization of pineapple aroma compounds by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingass, Christof Björn; Carle, Reinhold; Schmarr, Hans-Georg

    2015-03-01

    Qualitative ripening-dependent changes of pineapple volatiles were studied via headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography quadrupole mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-qMS). Early green-ripe stage, post-harvest ripened, and green-ripe fruits at the end of their commercial shelf-life were compared to air-freighted pineapples harvested at full maturity. In total, more than 290 volatiles could be identified by mass spectrometry and their linear retention indices. The majority of compounds comprise esters (methyl and ethyl esters of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, acetates), terpenes, alcohols, aldehydes, 2-ketones, free fatty acids, and miscellaneous γ- and δ-lactones. The structured separation space obtained by GC×GC allowed revealing various homologous series of compound classes as well as clustering of sesquiterpenes. Post-harvest ripening increased the diversity of the volatile profile compared to both early green-ripe maturity stages and on-plant ripened fruits.

  4. The size and germination of eggplant seed in relation to fruit maturity at harvest, after-ripening and ethylene application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despoina MAKROGIANNI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In eggplant cultivars Black Beauty, Emi, Long Negro and Tsakoniki cultivated for seed, flower induction and flower weight decreased in the presence of developing fruit on the plant. Harvesting prior to maturity (25-35 days after anthesis, aimed at increasing flower induction and fruit set, resulted in small seeds that failed to germinate or germinated poorly. When these fruit were stored for 20 days at 25±30C before seed extraction, seed size and germination increased indicating seed filling and maturation (‘after-ripening’ within the harvested fruit. In year 1, a single application of ethylene before storage increased the germination of Black Beauty and Long Negro harvested 25-35 days after anthesis, but reduced that of Emi and Tsakoniki. In year 2, ethylene application once before the storage of fruits harvested 35 days after anthesis promoted the germination of Tsakoniki and Emi, and when ethylene was applied three times germination was increased further. The possible applications of early harvest, fruit storage prior to seed extraction and ethylene treatment to eggplant seed production are discussed.

  5. Textural properties of mango cultivars during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Jaiswal, Pranita; Narsaiah, Kairam; Kaur, Poonam Preet; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Ramesh

    2013-12-01

    Firmness and toughness of fruit, peel and pulp of seven different mango cultivars were studied over a ripening period of ten days to investigate the effects of harvesting stages (early, mid and late) on fruit quality. Parameters were measured at equatorial region of fruits using TA-Hdi Texture Analyzer. The textural characteristics showed a rapid decline in their behaviour until mangoes got ripened and thereafter, the decline became almost constant indicating the completion of ripening. However, the rate of decline in textural properties was found to be cultivar specific. In general, the changes in textural attributes were found to be significantly influenced by ripening period and stage of harvesting, but firmness attributes (peel, fruit and pulp) of early harvested mangoes did not differ significantly from mid harvested mangoes, while peel, fruit and pulp firmness of late harvested mangoes were found to be significantly lower than early and mid harvested mangoes.

  6. Influence of atmospheric oxygen and ozone on ripening indices of normal (Rin) and ripening inhibited (rin) tomato cultivars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Y.P.; Solberg, M.; Haard, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ethylene (10 ppm) dependent mediation of normal and mutant (rin) tomato fruit ripening was promoted by 100% oxygen, 3.7 pphm ozone, or their combination. All ripening indices studied (respiration, chlorophyll degradation, carotenoid accumulation, softening, and aroma development) were promoted by oxygen and/or ozone. Ozone also acted independent of ethylene in promoting chlorophyll degradation and aroma development in normal fruit, but did not appreciably affect these quality attributes in mutant fruit. Lycopene accumulation in normal and mutant fruit and aroma formation in normal fruit were promoted to a greater extent by ozone than were other ripening indices. Mutant (rin) fruit contained 27% of the lycopene that was present in normal (Rin) fruit after ripening in O/sub 2/ containing 10ppm ethylene and 3.7 pphm ozone, whereas they contained only 3% of the lycopene in normal fruit after ripening in air containing 10ppm ethylene.

  7. Induced point mutations in the phytoene synthase 1 gene cause differences in carotenoid content during tomato fruit ripening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gady, A.L.F.; Vriezen, W.; Wal, van de M.H.B.J.; Huang, P.; Bovy, A.G.; Visser, R.G.F.; Bachem, C.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    In tomato, carotenoids are important with regard to major breeding traits such as fruit colour and human health. The enzyme phytoene synthase (PSY1) directs metabolic flux towards carotenoid synthesis. Through TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), we have identified two point mutatio

  8. Analysis of the speckle pattern produced by mixtures of polystyrene microspheres: an attempt to explain fruits ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Nader, Christelle; Nassif, Rana; Pellen, Fabrice; Le Jeune, Bernard; Le Brun, Guy; Abboud, Marie

    2015-08-01

    Changes in scatterers dimensions, size proportions, scattering coefficients, refractive index etc. can be detected and quantified using laser speckle analysis. In this study, we consider samples designed for this study with controlled scatterers sizes and proportions. A good agreement between experimental results performed on media with controlled parameters, fruits undergoing maturation, and Monte Carlo simulations is demonstrated.

  9. Cloning and expression of lipoxygenase genes and enzyme activity in ripening persimmon fruit in response to GA and ABA treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two genes of the lipoxygenase (LOX) family, DkLox1 and DkLox3 (GenBank accession No. JF436951 and JF436950), were cloned from persimmon fruit (Diospyros kaki L. ‘Fuping Jianshi’). Sequence analysis indicated that they belong to the 9-LOX sub-group. Heterologous expression of DkLox1 in E. coli produc...

  10. Ethylene and carbon dioxide production by developing strawberries show a correlative pattern that is indicative of ripening climacteric fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannetta, P.P.M.; Laarhoven, L.J.J.; Medina-Escobar, N.; James, E.K.; McManus, M.T.; Davies, H.; Harren, F.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Laser photoacoustic spectroscopy continuously quantified the ethylene (C2H4) produced by strawberry flowers and fruits developing in planta. C2H4 was first detected as flower buds opened and exhibited diurnal oscillations (to approximately 200 pl flower(-1) h(-1)) before petal abscission. Exogenous

  11. Postharvest ripening of noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and the microbial and chemical properties of its fermented juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) is a tropical plant used traditionally in Polynesia, Southeast Asia and other regions for medicinal purposes. Noni fruit and juice extracts are reportedly therapeutic for diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer. Research was conducted to determine the phy...

  12. Physiological and molecular features of FAD gene family members during fruit ripening and senescence%脂肪酸去饱和酶基因家族与果实成熟衰老研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏雯雯; 张波; 徐昌杰; 陈昆松

    2011-01-01

    脂肪酸去饱和酶(FAD)是一种膜结合蛋白,参与催化不饱和脂肪酸的生物合成。植物中的FAD主要存在于内质网和质体,根据反应底物和催化产物可以分为ω-3和ω-6两种类型。FAD通常以基因家族形式存在,它们通过影响脂肪酸组分变化进而参与植物生长发育过程,不同家族成员在逆境胁迫反应和果实成熟衰老过程中具有功能差异,相关结果已经引起了研究者的关注。综述了FAD基因家族在果实成熟衰老过程中的功能与调控机制,概述了FAD基因家族成员与果实脂肪酸组分变化,以及果实采后低温贮藏适应性和香气物质生物合成过程中的作用。在已有研%Fatty acid desaturation enzyme(FAD),as a membrane bound protein,catalyzes the biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids.In plants,FAD is located in endoplasmic reticulum and plastid,and can be divided into omega-3 and omega-6 types according to substrates and catalytic products.FAD usually exists as gene family,which is involved in the process of plant development and growth by influencing the composition of fatty acids.More and more studies have shown that there were functional differences of FAD gene family members in response to stresses and during fruit ripening and senescence.Recent advances in physiological and molecular features of FAD during fruit ripening and senescence were reviewed in the present paper.The present review covered function and regulation mechanism of FAD gene family during fruit ripening and senescence,reviewed the relationship between FAD genes expression and fatty acids profile,adaption to low temperature storage,and biosynthesis of aroma-related volatile compounds in fruit during ripening and senescence.Based on results from the past decade,scientific questions in terms of regulation of FAD gene family during fruit ripening and senescence were suggested for further study.

  13. Biosynthesis of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and ethylene from delta-aminolevulinic acid in ripening tomato fruits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Rayes, D.E.D.A.

    1987-01-01

    A new pathway for ethylene (C/sub 2/H/sub 4/) biosynthesis, which utilizes delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a precursor of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the immediate precursor of C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, is presented. ALA enhanced ACC accumulation to 410% and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production to 232% of the control. The C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate varied with the ALA concentration and the stage of tomato fruit development. As the ALA concentration increased from zero to 40 mM, the C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate increased. Both treated and untreated pericarp discs from fruits at the pink stage of development yielded the largest C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ production rate. Radioactivity from (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA was detected in both ACC and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/, and radioactivity from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in ACC and CO/sub 2/ but not in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/. However, radioactivity from (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was detected in CO/sub 2/, and its amount was greater than that obtained from (4-/sup 14/C)ALA. Neither ACC nor C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ showed any radioactivity when (5-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs. In addition, when (2,3-/sup 3/H)ALA or (4-/sup 14/C)ALA was supplied to the fruit discs, radioactivity was detected in other metabolites such as fumarate, succinate, malate, glutamate, glutamine, ..cap alpha..-ketoglutarate, and methionine, but the amount of radioactivity was insignificant as compared with the amount of radioactivity found in C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ and ACC.

  14. 利用蛋白质组学研究水果采后成熟的分子机理%Proteomics as an approach to the understanding of the molecular physiology of fruit development and ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莉; 李善宏; 班兆军

    2012-01-01

    果实成熟是发生在高等植物中复杂而有序的过程,由于植物种类和环境条件的不同,果实从不成熟到发育成熟过程包括了众多阶段。近年来,植物本身的生理过程与农业产业息息相关,继而影响经济效益,因此果实成熟过程的研究日益重要。果实成熟过程中,伴随着不同色素水平变化和糖等物质含量增加,果实色泽发生变化,大量生理代谢过程例如颜色、质地、风味和香气等受到外因(光照、温度)和内因(发育相关基因和激素)调控而发生变化。因而利用差异蛋白质组学方法系统研究果实从未成熟到成熟的不同生理过程和阶段分子水平上的动态变化具有十分重要的意义。到目前为止,一些重要果实及其不同发育和成熟过程的蛋白质组数据库日益完善和更新。%Fruit ripening is a developmental complex process which occurs in higher plants and involves a number of stages displayed from immature to mature fruits that depend on the plant species and the environmental conditions. Nowadays, the importance of fruit ripening comes mainly from the link between this physiological process in plants and the economic repercussions as a result of one of the human activities, the agricultural industry. In most cases, fruit ripening is accompanied by colour changes due to different pigment content and increases in sugar levels, among others. Major physiological modifications that affect colour, texture, flavour, and aroma are under the control of both external (light and temperature) and internal (developmental gene regulation and hormonal control) factors. Differential proteomics of immature and mature fruits would be a useful tool to gain information on the molecular changes which occur during ripening, but also the investigation of fruits at different ripening stages will provide a dynamic picture of the whole transformation of fruits. Thus far different

  15. Study of phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of date fruit as a function of ripening stages and drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdadi, F; Mirzaei, H O; Daraei Garmakhany, A

    2015-03-01

    Edible parts of two varieties of date palm (Mazfati and Kalute varieties) (Phoenix dactylifera) fruits (DPF) from Iran were analyzed to determine their phenolic compound and antioxidant activities (AA). Antioxidant activity evaluated using typical methods such as 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and total antioxidant method. The total phenolic content (TPC) of the DPF was measured using Folin-Ciocalteau method. The samples used in this study included samples were gathered at three stages of khalaal, rutab, tamr and dried date from Bam and Jiroft date. The TPC ranged from 2.89 to 4.82, 1074 to 856.4 and 782.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE/100 gdw sample) for khalal, rutab and tamr stage of Mozafati variety, respectively. This work demonstrates the potential of Iranian dates as good sources of antioxidant which can be used as functional food ingredients. The influence of sun drying process and oven drying at temperature ranged 50-80 °C on phenolic compounds and AA of date palm fruits were investigated. Result of drying process showed that TPC and AA varied with temperature and decreased by increase of drying temperature (from 667.3 to 610.5 mg galic acid in sun dried dates of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively to 314.2 and 210.4 in dried dates (80 °C) of Mozafati and Kaluteh respectively).

  16. Pear 14-3-3a gene (Pp14-3-3a) is regulated during fruit ripening and senescense, and involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Haiyan Shi; Yuxing Zhang

    2014-12-01

    14-3-3 proteins play important roles in regulating plant development and phytohormone (abscisic acid, gibberellin and brassinosteroids) signalling. However, their regulation in fruit ripening and senescense, and response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling are yet to be illustrated. One cDNA encoding putative 14-3-3 protein was isolated from pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) and designated Pp14-3-3a. Phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a belonged to -like group of 14-3-3 super-families. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of Pp14-3-3a gene was developmentally regulated in the fruit. Further study demonstrated that Pp14-3-3a expression was inhibited by salicylic acid and induced by ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid in pear fruit. These data suggested that Pp14-3-3a might be involved in response to salicylic acid and ethylene signalling during fruit ripening and senescence of pear.

  17. Polyamine metabolism in ripening tomato fruit. I. Identification of metabolites of putrescine and spermidine. [Lycopersicon esculentum Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastogi, R.; Davies, P.J. (Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The metabolism of (1,4-{sup 14}C)putrescine and (terminal methylene-{sup 3}H)spermidine was studied in the fruit pericarp (breaker stage) discs of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv Rutgers, and the metabolites identified by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The metabolism of both putrescine and spermidine was relatively slow; in 24 hours about 15% of each amine was metabolized. The {sup 14}C label from putrescine was incorporated into spermidine, {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamic acid, and a polar fraction eluting with sugars and organic acids. In the presence of gabaculine, a specific inhibitor of GABA:pyruvate transminase, the label going into glutamic acid, sugars and organic acids decreased by 80% while that in GABA increased about twofold, indicating that the transamination reaction is probably a major fate of GABA produced from putrescine in vivo. ({sup 3}H)Spermidine was catabolized into putrescine and {beta}-alanine. The conversion of putrescine into GABA, and that of spermidine into putrescine, suggests the presence of polyamine oxidizing enzymes in tomato pericarp tissues. The possible pathways of putrescine and spermidine metabolism are discussed.

  18. Molecular characterization and expression studies during melon fruit development and ripening of L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pateraki, Irene; Sanmartin, Maite; Kalamaki, Mary S.

    2004-01-01

    The last step of ascorbic acid (AA) biosynthesis is catalysed by the enzyme L-galactono-1,4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH, EC 1.3.2.3), located on the inner mitochondrial membrane. The enzyme converts L-galactono-1,4-lactone to ascorbic acid (AA). In this work, the cloning and characterization...... of a GalLDH full-length cDNA from melon (Cucumis melo L.) are described. Melon genomic DNA Southern analysis indicated that CmGalLDH was encoded by a single gene. CmGalLDH mRNA accumulation was detected in all tissues studied, but differentially expressed during fruit development and seed germination......GalLDH expression is regulated by light. Finally, various stresses and growth regulators resulted in no significant change in steady state levels of CmGalLDH mRNA in 20-d-old melon seedlings. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of GalLDH transcript induction in seed germination and differential gene...

  19. Uso do 1-metilciclopropeno para retardar a maturação de tomate Use of 1-methycyclopropene to delay fruit ripening of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Golin Krammes

    2003-12-01

    results show the high potential of commercial use of 1-MCP to delay fruit ripening of 'Santa Clara' and 'Carmen' tomatoes at ambient temperatures.

  20. Acid Phosphatase Development during Ripening of Avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacher, J A

    1975-02-01

    The activity and subcellular distribution of acid phosphatase were assayed during ethylene-induced ripening of whole fruit or thick slices of avocado (Persea americana Mill. var. Fuerte and Hass). The activity increased up to 30-fold during ripening in both the supernatant fraction and the Triton X-100 extract of the precipitate of a 30,000g centrifugation of tissue homogenates from whole fruit or slices ripening in moist air. Enzyme activity in the residual precipitate after Triton extraction remained constant. The development of acid phosphatase in thick slices ripened in moist air was similar to that in intact fruit, except that enzyme development and ripening were accelerated about 24 hours in the slices. The increase in enzyme activity that occurs in slices ripening in moist air was inhibited when tissue sections were infiltrated with solutions, by aspiration for 2 minutes or by soaking for 2 hours, anytime 22 hours or more after addition of ethylene. This inhibition was independent of the presence or absence of cycloheximide or sucrose (0.3-0.5m). However, the large decline in enzyme activity in the presence of cycloheximide, as compared with the controls, indicated that synthesis of acid phosphatase was occurring at all stages of ripening.

  1. Pigments analysis on skin tomato fruits during ripening by mean fluorescence techniques; Analisi mediante utilizzo di tecniche di fluorescenza dei pigmenti presenti sulla superficie di bacche di pomodoro durante la maturazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, A.; Fantoni, R. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Different spectroscopic techniques, based on visible fluorescence emission upon excitation in the same spectral region or in the ultraviolet, have been utilized to characterize tomato fruit ripening stages in order to analyze surface pigments which correspond to optimal conditions for fruit harvesting. The main fluorescence spectral features belonging to antochyanin, flavonoids, carotenoids and chlorophyll a after excitation of skin tomato pigments at different laser wavelength have been identified. For tomato ripening stage LIF detection, the {lambda}{sub e}xc266nm was established as the optimal laser wavelength. [Italian] Mediante diverse tecniche spettroscopiche, basate sulla emissione di fluorescenza visibile a seguito di eccitazione nella stessa regione o nell'ultravioletto, e' stato condotto uno studio su bacche di pomodoro a diversi stadi di maturazione Lo scopo del lavoro e' quello di potere attribuire, attraverso l'analisi degli spettri di fluorescenza dei pigmenti superficiali presenti nel frutto, lo stadio ottimale di maturazione al momento della raccolta. I risultati ottenuti hanno permesso di distinguere spettri di fluorescenza attribuiti ai principali gruppi di pigmenti fluorescenti presenti nella superficie esterna del pomodoro: antociani, flavonoidi, carotenoidi e clorofilla a.

  2. Characterization of transcriptional profiles of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding, cold and different photoperiods during ripening in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Swarup Roy; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2008-12-01

    The ripening-specific genes MA-ACS1 (Musa acuminata ACC synthase1) and MA-ACO1 (M. acuminata ACC oxidase 1) are regulated in response to a wide variety of factors. Here, we have studied the differential transcript accumulation pattern and protein levels of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to ethylene, auxin, wounding and low temperature in preclimacteric banana fruit. We have shown that exogenous application of ethylene and auxin induced the expression of MA-ACS1, while MA-ACO1 showed marginal expression following ethylene treatment in preclimacteric stage. Auxin did not induce MA-ACO1 expression. Thus, auxin-treated banana fruits showed lower ethylene production rate as compared to ethylene-treated fruits. Conversely, wounding and cold treatment down-regulated the expression of both the genes and thus inhibited ethylene production. Furthermore, we have detected a GCC-box putative ethylene-responsive element (ERE)- and an auxin-responsive element (ARE)-specific DNA-binding activity in the banana pulp and studied the ethylene and auxin responsive characteristics of the GCC-box and ARE (TGTCTC) containing synthetic promoter fragments. In addition, we have detected an enhanced ethylene production rate and expression level of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes along with a strong GCC-box-specific DNA-binding activity following exposure to constant dark period for 8d at the preclimacteric stage. Together, our study provides interesting information about the regulation of expression of MA-ACS1 and MA-ACO1 genes in response to various factors during ripening in banana fruit, which may have physiological relevance concerning ethylene biosynthesis during post-harvest conditions.

  3. Influência dos estádios de maturação na qualidade do suco do maracujá-amarelo Influence of the ripening stages on quality of the yellow passion fruit juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Vianna Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, foi avaliada a influência dos estádios de maturação sobre as características químicas do suco de maracujá-amarelo (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener, durante o período que antecedeu a mudança de cor da casca até o período de abscisão dos frutos, quando apresentavam coloração da casca totalmente amarelada. Durante o amadurecimento dos frutos, foi observado aumento progressivo dos parâmetros de Hunter L e b, sendo que a região inferior do fruto apresentou aumento de luminosidade e do amarelecimento mais rapidamente do que a superior. O conteúdo de Sólidos Solúveis Totais (SST aumentou progressivamente, desde a condição de frutos imaturos, com 52 Dias Após Antese (DAA, até os 76 DAA, quando apresentaram cerca de 65% de cor amarela, permanecendo constante após este período. As medidas de acidez titulável e de pH indicaram pequeno acúmulo de ácidos orgânicos até os 60 DAA e, posteriormente, durante o amadurecimento dos frutos de maracujazeiro, ocorreu um consumo parcial desses ácidos, confirmados pela redução da acidez titulável e aumento de pH. Observou-se também, neste período, que a relação SST/AT aumentou progressivamente.This work evaluated the influence of the ripening stages on the chemical characteristics of the yellow passion fruit juice (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa Degener., during the period that precedes the peel color change until the period of fruits abscission, when they show the peel totally yellowish. During the ripening of the fruits was observed a progressive increase in the Hunter L and b parameter, in a way that the lower area of the fruit presented higher brightness and yellowing indexes than the upper area. The content of SST showed a progressive increase from an immature condition of the fruits (52 DAA until a ripening stage with 65% of yellowish peel, in 76 DAA, staying constant after this period. The measures of total acidity and pH indicated a small

  4. Proteome analysis of grape skins during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deytieux, Christelle; Geny, Laurence; Lapaillerie, Delphine; Claverol, Stéphane; Bonneu, Marc; Donèche, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The characterization of proteins isolated from skin tissue is apparently an essential parameter for understanding grape ripening as this tissue contains the key compounds for wine quality. It has been particularly difficult to extract proteins from skins for analysis by two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and, therefore, a protocol for this purpose has been adapted. The focus was on the evolution of the proteome profile of grape skin during maturation. Proteome maps obtained at three stages of ripening were compared to assess the extent to which protein distribution differs in grape skin during ripening. The comparative analysis shows that numerous soluble skin proteins evolve during ripening and reveal specific distributions at different stages. Proteins involved in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolisms, and stress response are identified as being over-expressed at the beginning of colour-change. The end of colour-change is characterized by the over-expression of proteins involved in anthocyanin synthesis and, at harvest, the dominant proteins are involved in defence mechanisms. In particular, increases in the abundance of different chitinase and beta-1,3-glucanase isoforms were found as the berry ripens. This observation can be correlated with the increase of the activities of both of these enzymes during skin ripening. The differences observed in proteome maps clearly show that significant metabolic changes occur in grape skin during this crucial phase of ripening. This comparative analysis provides more detailed characterization of the fruit ripening process.

  5. Changes in Contents of Soluble Sugar during Fruit Ripening of Jackfruit%菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中可溶性糖含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小强; 刘鑫泉; 刘胜辉; 李映志; 叶春海

    2016-01-01

    Objective] The aim was to analyze soluble sugar accumulation mechanism during fruit ripening of jackfruit, and provide theoreti-cal basis for cultivation and breeding of jackfruit. [Method] Using 4 genotypes of jackfruit (12E, 148-4, 12As, 12Cs) as materials, contents of total soluble sugar were determined by anthrone colorimetry method and contents of fructose, glucose and sucrose were determined by HPLC. [Result] During fruit ripening of jackfruit, contents of soluble sugar increased constantly, and the percentages of sucrose to total solu-ble sugar contents were 43. 47% -76. 81%;an extremely significant positive correlation between changes in contents of glucose and fructose and between changes in contents of sucrose and total soluble sugar contents were observed;the ratios of fructose to glucose content were low in unripe fruits, with the highest value among fruits investigated being 0. 689 9, while the ratios in fully ripe fruits were close to 1. 000 0. [Con-clusion] During fruit ripening of jackfruit, total soluble sugar contents, mainly consisted of sucrose, increased constantly and contents of fruc-tose and glucose were similar in fully ripe fruits.%[目的]分析菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中的可溶性糖分积累机制,为菠萝蜜栽培和育种提供理论依据。[方法]以4个不同基因型的菠萝蜜种质(12E、148-4、12As、12Cs)为材料,采用蒽酮比色法测定菠萝蜜果实中可溶性总糖含量,采用高效液相色谱法( HPLC)测定果糖、葡萄糖及蔗糖含量。[结果]菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中,可溶性糖含量不断增加,其中蔗糖占可溶性总糖含量的比例为43.47%~76.81%;果糖含量与葡萄糖含量之间以及蔗糖含量与可溶性总糖含量之间存在极显著正相关关系;未成熟果实中,果肉果糖含量与葡萄糖含量的比值较低,最高仅为0.6899,当果实完全成熟后,比值接近1.0000。[结论]菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中,可溶性糖逐渐积累,可溶性糖以蔗

  6. Identification of genes differentially expressed during ripening of banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Trujillo, Sandra Mabel; Ramírez-López, Ana Cecilia; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Gómez-Lim, Miguel Angel

    2007-08-01

    The banana (Musa acuminata, subgroup Cavendish 'Grand Nain') is a climacteric fruit of economic importance. A better understanding of the banana ripening process is needed to improve fruit quality and to extend shelf life. Eighty-four up-regulated unigenes were identified by differential screening of a banana fruit cDNA subtraction library at a late ripening stage. The ripening stages in this study were defined according to the peel color index (PCI). Unigene sequences were analyzed with different databases to assign a putative identification. The expression patterns of 36 transcripts confirmed as positive by differential screening were analyzed comparing the PCI 1, PCI 5 and PCI 7 ripening stages. Expression profiles were obtained for unigenes annotated as orcinol O-methyltransferase, putative alcohol dehydrogenase, ubiquitin-protein ligase, chorismate mutase and two unigenes with non-significant matches with any reported sequence. Similar expression profiles were observed in banana pulp and peel. Our results show differential expression of a group of genes involved in processes associated with fruit ripening, such as stress, detoxification, cytoskeleton and biosynthesis of volatile compounds. Some of the identified genes had not been characterized in banana fruit. Besides providing an overview of gene expression programs and metabolic pathways at late stages of banana fruit ripening, this study contributes to increasing the information available on banana fruit ESTs.

  7. Involvement of wound and climacteric ethylene in ripening avocado discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrett, D A; Laties, G G

    1991-10-01

    Avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) discs (3 mm thick) ripened in approximately 72 hours when maintained in a flow of moist air and resembled ripe fruit in texture and taste. Ethylene evolution by discs of early and midseason fruit was characterized by two distinct components, viz. wound ethylene, peaking at approximately 18 hours, and climacteric ethylene, rising to a peak at approximately 72 hours. A commensurate respiratory stimulation accompanied each ethylene peak. Aminoethoxyvinyl glycine (AVG) given consecutively, at once and at 24 hours following disc preparation, prevented wound and climacteric respiration peaks, virtually all ethylene production, and ripening. When AVG was administered for the first 24 hours only, respiratory stimulation and softening (ripening) were retarded by at least a day. When AVG was added solely after the first 24 hours, ripening proceeded as in untreated discs, although climacteric ethylene and respiration were diminished. Propylene given together with AVG led to ripening under all circumstances. 2,5-Norbornadiene given continuously stimulated wound ethylene production, and it inhibited climacteric ethylene evolution, the augmentation of ethylene-forming enzyme activity normally associated with climacteric ethylene, and ripening. 2,5-Norbornadiene given at 24 hours fully inhibited ripening. When intact fruit were pulsed with ethylene for 24 hours before discs were prepared therefrom, the respiration rate, ethylene-forming enzyme activity buildup, and rate of ethylene production were all subsequently enhanced. The evidence suggests that ethylene is involved in all phases of disc ripening. In this view, wound ethylene in discs accelerates events that normally take place over an extended period throughout the lag phase in intact fruit, and climacteric ethylene serves the same ripening function in discs and intact fruit alike.

  8. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes:Endopolygalacturonase,ACC oxidase and ACC synthase from apple(Malus x domestica) in an apple rootstock A106(Malus sieboldii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJIMEI; SEGARDINER; 等

    1995-01-01

    The apple rootstock,A106(Malus sieboldii),had 17 bivalents in pollen mother cells at meiotic metaphase 1,and 17 chromosomes in a haploid pollen cell.Karyotypes were prepared from root-tip cells with 2n=34 chromosomes,Seven out of 82 karyotypes(8.5%) showed one pari of satellites at the end of the short arm of chromosome 3.C-bands were shown on 6 pairs of chromosomes 2,4,6,8,14,and 16 near the telomeric regions of short arms.Probes for three ripening-related genes from Malus x domestica:endopolygalacturonase(EPG,0.6kb),ACC oxidase(1.2kb),and ACC synthase(2kb)were hybridized in situ to metaphase chromosomes of A106.Hybridization sites for the EPG gene were observed on the long arm of chromosome 14 in 15 out of 16 replicate spreads and proximal to the centromere of chromosomes 6 and 11.For the ACC oxidase gene,hylridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosomes 5 and 11 in 87% and 81% of 16 spreads respectively,proxiaml to the centromere of chromosome 1 in 81% of the spreads,and on the long arm of chromosome 13 in 50% of the spreads. Physical mapping of three fruit ripening genes in an apple rootstock A106.Twenty five spreads were studied for the ACC synthase gene and hybridization sites were observed in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 12 in 96% of the spreads.chromosomes 9 and 10 in 76% of the spreads,and chromosome 17 in 56% of the spreads.

  9. Comportamento pós-colheita das características químicas, bioquímicas e físicas de frutos de tomateiros heterozigotos nos locos alcobaça e ripening inhibitort Post-harvest behaviour of chemical, biochemical and physical aspects of tomato fruits heterozygous in alcobaça and ripening inhibitor loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Militão dos Santos Junior

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Os alelos mutantes alc e rin retardam o processo de amadurecimento do tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill., interferindo principalmente na síntese de pigmentos carotenóides e na firmeza dos frutos. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar e comparar os efeitos dos alelos mutantes alc e rin, em heterozigose (alc+/alc e rin+/rin sobre características químicas, bioquímicas e físicas de frutos de tomateiro em três estádios de maturação. Os alelos alc e rin em heterozigose não exerceram influência marcante sobre o teor de sólidos solúveis totais dos frutos nos estádios de maturação apropriados para o consumo. O genótipo rin+/rinatuou mais intensamente no sentido de reduzir os teores de licopeno e, conseqüentemente, promover maior deficiência na coloração vermelha dos frutos quando comparado ao efeito do genótipo alc+/alc. Nos frutos maduros, a atividade da enzima pectinametilesterase sofreu maior redução pela ação do genótipo rin+/rin. O genótipo alc+/alc foi mais eficiente em reduzir a atividade da poligalacturonase. No estádio breaker, não houve influência dos alelos em heterozigose sobre os teores de celulose, hemicelulose e pectina dos frutos. No estádio intermediário, o genótipo rin+/rin promoveu redução na fração hemicelulose. No estádio maduro, o alelo rin em heterozigose promoveu redução significativa nos teores de celulose e pectina do material da parede celular.The ripening mutants alc and rin delay tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. ripening and affect synthesis of carotenoids pigments and fruit firmness. This paper reports on the comparative effects of heterozygous alc and rin genotipes (alc+/alc and rin+/rin on chemical, biochemical and physical aspects of tomato fruit during three ripening stages. Neither alc+/alc nor rin+/rin influenced total solids contents in the intermediary or fully ripe stages. The genotype rin+/rin brought about a more marked reduction in lycopene than alc

  10. 柑橘果实成熟特异基因CsPMEI/InvI的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of fruit ripening-specific gene CsPMEI/InvI from citrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国立; 安华明; 秦巧平; 李孟娇; 刘真真; 陈佳莹; 周倩; 张岚岚

    2013-01-01

    Fruit-ripening-specific expression genes play important roles on the regulation of fruit ripening and quality formation.A full-length cDNA of fruit ripening-specific gene,designated as CsPEMI/InvI (GenBank accession No.KC198084),was isolated from Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis ‘Newhall’) by RT-PCR and RACE.The full-length of CsPMEI/InvI was 945 bp,containing an open reading frame of 618 bp and encoding 205 amino acids.The molecular formula of encoded protein was C977H1568N296O282S10 with a calculated molecular of 22.29 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.84.The encoded protein belonged to InvI/PMEI family including highly-conserved Cys residue in the protein sequence,one cAMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site,three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites,two casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites and three N-myristoylation sites.In its secondary structure,α-helix was the main structural conformation.%果实成熟特异基因对于调控果实成熟及其品质形成具有重要的作用.在前期获得柑橘Citrus果实成熟特异基因片段的基础上,以纽荷尔脐橙Citrus sinensis ‘Newhall’成熟果实为试材,应用RT-PCR和RACE技术,分离获得果实成熟特异基因的cDNA全长序列,命名为Cs PMEI/InvI,GenBank登录号:KC 198084;生物信息学分析表明:该基因全长945 bp,包含618 bp完整的开放阅读框,编码205个氨基酸,其编码的蛋白质分子式为C977H1568N296O282S10,相对分子量为22.29 kDa,理论等电点为9.84,属于InvI/PMEI(转化酶抑制子/果胶甲酯酶抑制子)家族成员,含有该家族严格保守的Cys残基,存在1个cAMP和cGMP-蛋白激酶磷酸化位点、3个蛋白激酶C磷酸化位点、2个酪蛋白激酶Ⅱ磷酸化位点和3个N-酰基化位点,其二级结构主要以α-螺旋为主.Cs PMEI/InvI基因的分离为进一步研究柑橘果实的成熟机制提供了基础.

  11. First attempts of linking modelling, Postharvest behaviour and Melon Genetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Santos, Don N.; Obando-Ulloa, J.M.; Moreno, E.; Schouten, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    The onset of climacteric is associated with the end of melon fruit shelf-life. The aim of this research was to develop practical and applicable models of fruit ripening changes (hardness, moisture loss) also able to discriminate between climacteric and non-climacteric behaviour. The decrease in firm

  12. Physical and chemical changes during ripening of blackberry fruits Mudanças físicas e químicas durante a maturação de frutos de amora preta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkay Tosun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Blackberry (Rubus L. is a naturally growing fruit in Anatolia. Consumption of fresh and frozen blackberries has increased in the past few years in Turkey. The aim of this study is to analyze blackberry at three levels of ripeness taking into account some physical and chemical properties (color, dry matter, soluble solids, total sugar, titratable acidity, pH, total phenolics, total anthocyanin, and minerals in order to understand this behavior during the ripening process. Blackberry fruits were harvested at green, red and ripe (mature stages. The determination of fruit maturity was based on fruit surface color. The dry matter, total phenolics and Hunter L, b values decreased but soluble solids, total sugar and total anthocyanins increased with maturity. In the early fruit ripening stages, pH decreased, titratable acidity and Hunter a value increased while in the later stages, pH increased, titratable acidity and Hunter a value decreased considerably. Analysis of variance revealed (P Amora preta (blackberry, Rubus L. é uma fruta que cresce naturalmente na península de Anatolia. O consumo de suas frutas frescas ou congeladas aumentou nos últimos anos na Turquia. Este estudo teve por objetivo analisar amoras pretas colhidas em três níveis de maturação, levando em conta propriedades físicas e químicas das frutas (cor, matéria seca, sólidos solúveis, açúcar total, acidez titulável, pH, fenóis totais, antocianina total e sais minerais para melhor compreender o processo de maturação. As frutas foram colhidas nos estágios verde, vermelho e maduro. A determinação do estágio maduro foi baseada na cor da superfície das frutas. A materia seca, os fenóis totais e os valores de Hunter L, b diminuiram mas os sólidos solúveis, açúcares totais e total de antocianina decresceram em função do nível de maturação. Nos estágios iniciais de maturação, o pH decresceu, a acidez titulável e o valor a de Hunter aumentaram enquanto nos

  13. Analysis of softening in air- and ethylene-treated rin, nor and wild-type tomato fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rin; ripening-inhibitor and nor; non-ripening are previously identified spontaneous mutations that affect the primary regulation of tomato fruit ripening. Mutations at these loci result in fruit that are either partially or completely inhibited in their ability to ripen. Both internal and whole frui...

  14. Effect of chlormequat (CCC on the accumulation of ethephon in tomatoes and on ethephon-stimulated ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, tomato seedlings were treated with CCC (250 mg·l-1 twice before transplanting. When about 10% of fruits were showing signs of ripening (pink fruits, ethephon solution (960 mg·l-1 was applied either to leaves only or to fruits only, in order to make ripening more uniform. CCC treatment delayed the process of fruit ripening and lowered the ethephon accumulation in ripe fruits as compared to the control (CCC untreated plants. The results were similar when ethephon was applied to leaves only or to fruits only.

  15. Effect of tomato pleiotropic ripening mutations on flavour volatile biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, K.; Fray, R.G.; Tikunov, Y.M.; Graham, N.; Bradley, G.; Seymour, G.B.; Bovy, A.G.; Grierson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Ripening is a tightly controlled and developmentally regulated process involving networks of genes, and metabolites that result in dramatic changes in fruit colour, texture and flavour. Molecular and genetic analysis in tomato has revealed a series of regulatory genes involved in fruit development a

  16. Aminoethoxivinilglicina no controle do amadurecimento de frutos de caqui cv. Fuyu Aminoethoxyvinylglycine in the ripening control of persimmon fruits cv. Fuyu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Fuentes Fagundes

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de aminoethoxivinilglicina (AVG, aplicado na pós-colheita, no amadurecimento de frutos de caqui (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu, armazenados à temperatura de 0 ± 2 ºC. Os frutos foram imersos durante dois minutos em solução de AVG, na concentração de 0; 415; 830 e 1.200 g ha-1 e dissolvidos em água destilada e adição de espalhante adesivo (óleo vegetal a 0,02% (v/v, secos à temperatura ambiente no barracão e armazenados em câmara fria a 0 ± 2 ºC e 95±2 % UR, e avaliados aos 32 e 52 dias com relação à firmeza, sólidos solúveis, pH da polpa, acidez titulável e injúria por frio. O AVG mostrou-se promissor no uso pós-colheita em caqui, onde os frutos tratados conservaram índices de firmeza linear em função da dose e teores de AT, SS e pH aceitáveis para o 'Fuyu'. Porém os frutos apresentaram translucidez, característica de injúria por frio, indicando a necessidade de novos estudos para se compreender a fisiologia pós-colheita deste fruto.An experiment was carried out to analyze the effect of the application of Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG in post harvest application in persimmon fruits (Diospyros kaki L. cv. Fuyu stored at a temperature of 0 ± 2ºC. The fruits were immersed for two minutes into an AVG solution at a concentration of 0; 415; 830; 1200 g ha-1 and dissolved in distillated water. Then it was added adhesive spreader (vegetable oil 0.02% (v/v, dried at room temperature and stored at 0 ± 2 ºC and 95±2 % humidity. The treatments were evaluated on the 32nd and 52nd days to check the firmness, soluble solids, pH of the pulp, tritable acidity and chilling injury. The AVG may be promising in post harvest use with persimmon fruits, where treated fruits preserved linear levels of firmness in function of the doses and TA, SS and pH levels are acceptable for cv. Fuyu. However, fruits showed translucency, which are characteristics of chilling injury, indicating that new studies are

  17. CATALASA, PEROXIDASA Y POLIFENOLOXIDASA EN PITAYA AMARILLA (Acanthocereus pitajaya: MADURACIÓN Y SENESCENCIA Catalase, Peroxidase and Polyphenoloxidase from Pitaya Amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya Fruits: Ripening and Senescense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS EDUARDO NARVÁEZ CUENCA

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la relación entre algunos síntomas de deterioro y la actividad de enzimas vinculadas tanto con el pardeamiento como con el sistema antioxidante en frutos de pitaya amarilla (Acanthocereus pitajaya cosechados en su madurez fisiológica y almacenados durante 15 días a 24 °C y 85% de humedad relativa. En los frutos enteros se evaluaron la intensidad respiratoria y el color externo; en la corteza se determinaron la actividad de catalasa (CAT, peroxidasa (POD y polifenoloxidasa (PFO. Los frutos exhibieron un comportamiento climatérico luego de seis días de la cosecha. El pardeamiento de la corteza tuvo una relación directa con la actividad de POD y PFO. La máxima actividad de CAT observada en el climaterio responde al balance adecuado con la alta producción de H2O2 esperada en ese momento.We evaluate the relation between some symptoms of deterioration and the activity of enzymes entailed with both the browning and the antioxiding system in fruits of yellow pitaya (Acanthocereus pitajaya, harvested in its physiological maturity and stored for 15 days at 24°C and 85% of relative humidity. In the whole fruits, the respiratory intensity and the external colors were evaluated; further, the activity of catalase (CAT, peroxidase (POD and polyphenoloxidase (PPO was studied in the peel of the fruit. The fruit exhibited a climacteric behavior six days after the date of the harvest. The browning of the peel had a direct relation with the activity of POD and PPO. The maximum observed activity of CAT in the climacterium, responds to the proper balance with the high production of H2O2 expected at that moment.

  18. Changes in color-related compounds in tomato fruit exocarp and mesocarp during ripening using HPLC-APcI+-mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Carrillo-López, A.; Yahia, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato is an important agricultural crop world-wide. Their pigments are very important in many ways. They have been associated with health benefits such as lowering the risk of some chronic diseases. Quantification of chlorophylls by spectrophotometry and Identification of carotenoids using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, and quantification by HPLC-DAD was carried out in the exocarp and mesocarp of tomato fruit during 6 different ripeness stages (mature-green, breakers, tu...

  19. On-field monitoring of fruit ripening evolution and quality parameters in olive mutants using a portable NIR-AOTF device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirilli, Marco; Bellincontro, Andrea; Urbani, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Esposto, Sonia; Mencarelli, Fabio; Muleo, Rosario

    2016-05-15

    This study optimizes the application of portable Near Infrared-Acousto Optically Tunable Filter (NIR) device to meet the increasing demand for cost-effective, non-invasive and easy-to-use methods for measuring physical and chemical properties during olive fruit development. Fruits from different phenotypically cultivars were sampled for firmness, total and specific phenols detection by HPLC, total anthocyanins, chlorophyll and carotenoids detection by spectrophotometry. On the same fruits, a portable NIR device in diffuse reflectance mode was employed for spectral detections. Predictive models for firmness, chlorophyll, anthocyanins, carotenoids and rutin were developed by Partial Least Square analysis. Oleuropein, verbascoside, 3,4-DHPEA-EDA, and total phenols were used to develop a validation model. Internal cross-validation was applied for calibration and predictive models. The standard errors for calibration, cross-validation, prediction, and RPD ratios (SD/SECV) were calculated as references for the model effectiveness. The determination of the optimal harvesting time facilitates the production of high quality extra virgin olive oil and table olives.

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO FRUTO DA VARIEDADE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: UMA TANGERINA DO TIPO 'PONCÃ' DE MATURAÇÃO PRECOCE FRUIT CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SPAN AMERICANA (Citrus reticulata Blanco: AN EARLY RIPENING 'PONKAN' LIKE MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSE MARY PIO

    2001-08-01

    with accompanying of the ripening levels, involving accesses of the germplasm bank of the CCSM, were carried out. Among the studied varieties in regard to earliness and fruit quality, the Span Americana was outstanding. The 'Ponkan' mandarin has its maturing period for the edafoclimatic conditions of the CCSM, in May and June. The Span Americana variety, that produces fruits similar to the traditional Ponkan, matures very early, and might be harvested in the beginning of March, which could be an alternative to enlarge the disponibility of mandarin fruit during the year.

  1. Produção e qualidade de frutos de tomateiros portadores de alelos mutantes de amadurecimento e coloração Yield and fruit quality of tomato hybrids heterozygous for ripening and color mutant alleles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Carvalho de Andrade Júnior

    2005-06-01

    traits. The genotype nor+/norª decreased fruit mass mean. Genotypes nor+/norª, nor+/nor and rin+/rin delayed the loss of fruit firmness and the development of color. The relative size of the peduncular scar was not affected by these genotypes. The constitution og c+/og c hp+/hp contributed for higher yield and higher fruit mass in the nor+/norª hybrid. Fruit firmness and external color in og c+/og c hp+/hp remained unaffected by nor+/norª. In og c+/og c hp+/hp fruit, early yield was reduced and shelf life was improved by nor+/norª. Genotypic backgrounds and the interaction background x ripening mutant genes must be taken into consideration when developing new tomato long-shelf life hybrids.

  2. MaCaM在采后香蕉果实温度胁迫及后熟中的作用%The Role ofMaCaM Gene in Temperature Stress and Fruit Ripening of Harvested Banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海波; 龚家建; 苏新国; 张昭其

    2015-01-01

    程。%Objective]The objective of this experiment is to study the expression ofCaM gene in temperature stress and fruit ripening of banana. Which is helpful to understand the effect ofCaM gene in enhance the adaptation to temperature stress and reveal the mechanism of peel degreening during the ripening process of banana fruit.[Method]Degenerated primers were designed by comparative analysis of some species’CaM amino acid sequence in NCBI database. The total RNA was extracted from banana peel by using hot borate method. In banana fruit, the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR techniques were used for 3’-UTR and fragment sequences cloning of the cDNA. The amino acid sequence ofCaM was analyzed by using DNAMAN software and the NCBI website. Probe with DIG markers was made by using PCR DIG Probe Synthesis Kit. Northern blotting was performed to compare the expression ofMaCaM gene in banana fruit under different temperature stresses and during ripening process. EGTA and calcium signal recovery treatment by using banana peelsin vitro culture. The banana peel were treated by vacuum infiltration. The h values were measured by the color difference meter.[Result]A novelCaM gene, 648 bp, encoding 138 amino acids, namedMaCaM (HM061077), was cloned from banana in this study. Sequence analysis showed thatMaCaM gene contains 4 EF-Hand calcium binding regions.MaCaM gene has a high sequence similarity with MaCaM, OsCaM, ZmCaM, AtCaM3 and TaCaM1-2. Northern blotting results showed that theMaCaM gene expression was up-regulated rapidly at 0.5-24 h after heat shock (52℃ 3min). Banana fruits were stored at 7℃(chilling injury temperature) for 10 days, theMaCaMgene expression increased gradually in the 7-10 d. When the banana fruits were stored at 7℃ after heat shock,MaCaM expression was higher in the 4 d and 7 d than those of at 7℃ alone. Ethylene was also observed to arouse the expression ofMaCaM gradually. Furthermore, 30 mmol·L-1 calcium ion chelator EGTA treatment inhibited fruit ripening

  3. Prediction of optimal harvest date for processing tomato based on the accumulation of daily heat units over the fruit ripening period.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Author Affiliation: Universidade de Évora, Departamento de Fitotecnia, Mitra 7002-554 Évora, Portugal. Editors: No editors Document Title: Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology Abstract: For maximum yield of processing tomato by once-over mechanical harvesting, an optimum date for harvest has to be selected at the time when the factory-graded fruit yield is at its maximum. By recording the proportion of green, ripe (i.e. turning and red) and rotten (i.e. over-ripe a...

  4. 蟠桃果实发育成熟过程中果肉细胞超微结构的变化%Ultrastructural Change of Flat Peach Fruit during Fruit Development and Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李银; 张辉; 骆建敏; 袁海英; 薛珊珊; 张茜

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Ultrasructural changes were determined in the flesh of the two different flat peach fruits . [Method] Changes of fresh weight on flat peach fruit ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Zaolu, cv Yingger) were determined during the fruit development after fully blossom. And the fruits were sampled, fixed and their sections were observed under transmission electron microscopy. [ Result] The results showed that there was no significant ultrastructural difference between the early stage and the fresh weight rapid - increasing stage of fruit development in Zaolu fruit. Striking changes in the structure of the cell wall were noted during the later stage, beginning with dissolution of the middle lamella. In Yingger fruit, a large degree of ultrastructural organization, especially the mitochondria was retainedm the later stage of the fruit development and the structure of the cell wall was still kept after 110 days. [ Conclusion] Ultrastructural analysis shows that Yingger fruit has the higher storability than Zaolu fiuit and the optimum hawest dates would be decided by the different usages of the fruit.%[目的]研究两种不同熟期蟠桃果实发育成熟过程中细胞超微结构的变化.[方法]以早露蟠桃和英格尔蟠桃为材料,采取盛花后不同发育时期的果实确定单果重变化趋势,并据此对相应发育时期果实果肉组织进行固定切片、透射电镜观察.[结果]早露蟠桃在果实发育初期及果重迅速增大期超微结构差异不大,细胞壁结构完整;果实发育后期细胞壁中胶层开始溶解,至盛花后70 d时细胞壁明暗分区结构已丧失;英格尔蟠桃在果实发育后期可观察到结构完整的线粒体等细胞器,至盛花后110 d仍可观察到细胞壁的明暗分区结构.[结论]细胞超微结构分析认为英格尔蟠桃耐贮性优于早露蟠桃;英格尔蟠桃果实的适宜采收期可根据采后用途的不同来确定.

  5. Comprehensive RNA-Seq Analysis on the Regulation of Tomato Ripening by Exogenous Auxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayin Li

    Full Text Available Auxin has been shown to modulate the fruit ripening process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying auxin regulation of fruit ripening are still not clear. Illumina RNA sequencing was performed on mature green cherry tomato fruit 1 and 7 days after auxin treatment, with untreated fruit as a control. The results showed that exogenous auxin maintained system 1 ethylene synthesis and delayed the onset of system 2 ethylene synthesis and the ripening process. At the molecular level, genes associated with stress resistance were significantly up-regulated, but genes related to carotenoid metabolism, cell degradation and energy metabolism were strongly down-regulated by exogenous auxin. Furthermore, genes encoding DNA demethylases were inhibited by auxin, whereas genes encoding cytosine-5 DNA methyltransferases were induced, which contributed to the maintenance of high methylation levels in the nucleus and thus inhibited the ripening process. Additionally, exogenous auxin altered the expression patterns of ethylene and auxin signaling-related genes that were induced or repressed in the normal ripening process, suggesting significant crosstalk between these two hormones during tomato ripening. The present work is the first comprehensive transcriptome analysis of auxin-treated tomato fruit during ripening. Our results provide comprehensive insights into the effects of auxin on the tomato ripening process and the mechanism of crosstalk between auxin and ethylene.

  6. Changes of Malate Dehydrogenase and Malic Acid content during the Ripening of Banana Fruit%香蕉果实采后成熟过程中苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)及苹果酸含量的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓秋菊; 刘菊华; 金志强; 徐碧玉

    2011-01-01

    Th e changes of ethylene production,MDH activity,malic acid content,starch content and soluble sugar content were investigated during the ripening of banana fruit.The result showed that ethylene production started to increase at 10d after postharvest and peaked at 14d after postharvest.MDH activity rapidly enhanced at 10d after postharvest and peaked at 16d after postharvest.The malic content increased at early mature and decline at late mature.The soluble sugar content gradually increased,but starch content continually decreased during the ripening of banana fruit.This result suggested that MDH participated in the ripening of banana fruit by changing the quality of banana fruit.%以巴西香蕉果实为材料,研究果实采后正常成熟过程中乙烯释放速率,苹果酸脱氢酶(MDH)活性,苹果酸、淀粉以及可溶性总糖含量的变化。结果表明:香蕉果实采后成熟过程中乙烯释放速率在采后10d开始增加,到采后14d达到高峰;MDH酶活性在采后10d迅速增强,到采后16d达到峰值;苹果酸含量在果实成熟早期上升,晚期下降,可溶性总糖含量逐渐增加,而淀粉含量持续下降。推测MDH通过改变香蕉品质而参与果实成熟。

  7. Influence of cold storage prior to and after ripening on quality factors and sensory attributes of ‘Hass’ avocados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partially-ripened avocados are often held in cold storage in an attempt to enable the consistent delivery of ripe fruit to food service or retail outlets, although the effect on the quality of such fruit is incompletely understood. ‘Hass’ avocados were ripened to near ripeness (13.3 - 17.8 N) at 20 ...

  8. 温度对采后香蕉果实糖代谢及其酶活性的影响%Effect of Temperature on Sugar Metabolism and Enzyme Activities in Postharvest Ripening Banana Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁扬静; 胡玉林; 谢江辉

    2011-01-01

    speed of sugar accumulation. It affects on fruit ripening and quality, and is benefit for a long-term storage of fruits.

  9. Efficient Isolation of RNA from Fruit Peel and Pulp of Ripening Navel Orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck)%一种适合于成熟脐橙果皮和果肉的RNA提取方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永忠; 刘庆; 陶能国; 邓秀新

    2006-01-01

    An efficient RNA isolation method was established in the present paper. RNA extracted from peel and pulp collected at different ripening time was successfully used for reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) without DNase treatment, complementary DNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP), and RNA blotting. The A260/A230ratios were higher than 2. 0, and the A260/A280 ratios ranged from 1.65 to 1.92. In addition, the protocol is safe, convenient and proved to be widely applicable, since it was successfully employed for RNA extraction from citrus leaves, immature fruit, Poncirus seedling and citrus callus as well.%研究了一种适合脐橙果实成熟过程中有效的RNA提取方法.结果表明利用该方法从不同成熟时期果实的果皮和果肉中提取的RNA可以有效用于RT-PC,cDNA-AFLP和RNA杂交.其A260/A230的比值超过2.0,A260/A280的比值在1.65-1.92的范围之间.另外该方法也证明可以广泛用于柑橘叶片,未成熟的幼果,枳壳幼苗和柑橘愈伤组织的RNA提取,是一种安全、方便和适用性较广的RNA提取方法.

  10. Abscisic Acid Is a Major Regulator of Grape Berry Ripening Onset: New Insights into ABA Signaling Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Pilati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Grapevine is a world-wide cultivated economically relevant crop. The process of berry ripening is non-climacteric and does not rely on the sole ethylene signal. Abscisic acid (ABA is recognized as an important hormone of ripening inception and color development in ripening berries. In order to elucidate the effect of this signal at the molecular level, pre-véraison berries were treated ex vivo for 20 h with 0.2 mM ABA and berry skin transcriptional modulation was studied by RNA-seq after the treatment and 24 h later, in the absence of exogenous ABA. This study highlighted that a small amount of ABA triggered its own biosynthesis and had a transcriptome-wide effect (1893 modulated genes characterized by the amplification of the transcriptional response over time. By comparing this dataset with the many studies on ripening collected within the grapevine transcriptomic compendium Vespucci, an extended overlap between ABA- and ripening modulated gene sets was observed (71% of the genes, underpinning the role of this hormone in the regulation of berry ripening. The signaling network of ABA, encompassing ABA metabolism, transport and signaling cascade, has been analyzed in detail and expanded based on knowledge from other species in order to provide an integrated molecular description of this pathway at berry ripening onset. Expression data analysis was combined with in silico promoter analysis to identify candidate target genes of ABA responsive element binding protein 2 (VvABF2, a key upstream transcription factor of the ABA signaling cascade which is up-regulated at véraison and also by ABA treatments. Two transcription factors, VvMYB143 and VvNAC17, and two genes involved in protein degradation, Armadillo-like and Xerico-like genes, were selected for in vivo validation by VvABF2-mediated promoter trans-activation in tobacco. VvNAC17 and Armadillo-like promoters were induced by ABA via VvABF2, while VvMYB143 responded to ABA in a VvABF2

  11. Antioxidant Capacity and Total Phenolic Content in Fruit Tissues from Accessions of Capsicum chinense Jacq. (Habanero Pepper at Different Stages of Ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizbeth A. Castro-Concha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, there has been a renewed interest in studying a wide variety of food products that show beneficial effects on human health. Capsicum is an important agricultural crop, not only because its economic importance, but also for the nutritional values of its pods, mainly due to the fact that they are an excellent source of antioxidant compounds, and also of specific constituents such as the pungent capsaicinoids localized in the placental tissue. This current study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents from fruits tissues of two Capsicum chinense accessions, namely, Chak k’an-iik (orange and MR8H (red, at contrasting maturation stages. Results showed that red immature placental tissue, with a Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC value of 55.59 μmols TE g−1 FW, exhibited the strongest total antioxidant capacity using both the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and the CUPRAC methods. Placental tissue also had the highest total phenolic content (27 g GAE 100 g−1 FW. The antioxidant capacity of Capsicum was directly related to the total amount of phenolic compounds detected. In particular, placentas had high levels of capsaicinoids, which might be the principal responsible for their strong antioxidant activities.

  12. A Proteomic Analysis of the Chromoplasts Isolated from Sweet Orange Fruits [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] Revealed Clues to Their Ripening Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunliu Zeng; Zhiyong Pan; Yuduan Ding; Andan Zhu; Hongbo Cao; Qiang Xu; Xiuxin Deng

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoid biosynthesisis believed to occur in chromoplasts,which are non-photosynthetic plastids often present in flowers and fruits.We report a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the chromoplasts,which were purified from sweet orange by a novel protocol using Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation.Western blot analysis using polyclonal antibodies against marker proteins for different cell compartments suggested the chromoplast extraction were of high purity.Systematic analysis of the chromoplast proteome identified 493 proteins,of which 418 are putative plastid proteins based on in silico sequence homology and functional analyses.Based on the predicted functions of these identified plastid proteins,a large proportion (~60%) of the chromoplast proteome of sweet orange is constituted by proteins involved in carbohydrate metabolism,amino acid/protein synthesis,and secondary metabolism.Of note,HDS (hydroxymethylbutenyl 4-diphosphate synthase),PAP (plastid-lipid-associated protein),and psHSPs (plastid small heat shock proteins) involved in the synthesis or storage of carotenoid and stress response are among the most abundant proteins identified.A comparison of chromoplast proteomes between sweet orange and tomato suggested a high level of conservation in a broad range of metabolic pathways.However,the citrus chromoplast was characterized by more extensive carotenoid synthesis,extensive amino acid synthesis without nitrogen assimilation,and evidence for lipid metabolism concerning jasmonic acid synthesis.In conclusion,this study provides an insight into the major metabolic pathways as well as some unique characteristics of the sweet orange chromoplasts at the whole proteome level.

  13. Metabolomics analysis of postharvest ripening heterogeneity of ‘Hass' avocadoes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedreschi, R.; Munoz, P.; Robledo, P.; Becerra, C.; Defilippi, B.G.; Eekelen, van H.D.L.M.; Mumm, R.; Westra, E.H.; Vos, de R.C.H.

    2014-01-01

    The complex physiology of ‘Hass’ avocado renders its postharvest ripening heterogeneous and unpre-dictable. Several approaches have previously been undertaken to broaden our understanding of the causesof this postharvest ripening heterogeneity but without much success. In this study, a fruit biopsy

  14. Interactions among cooling, fungicide and postharvest ripening temperature on peaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Trujillo, J. Pablo; Cano, Antonio; Artes, Francisco [Postharvest and refrigeration Lab., Dept. of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Murcia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Peach fruit (Prunus persica L. cv. 'Miraflores') harvested at the firm-ripe stage, treated or not with 2 g l{sup -1} iprodione, were cooled or not at 1{sup o}C and ripened at 15 or 20{sup o}C and 95% RH for 10 days. During ripening, weight loss, fungal development and changes in quality parameters (firmness, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ground and flesh color), and carbon dioxide and ethylene production were monitored. Cooling alone or combined with iprodione avoided Rhizopus nigricans decay during ripening at either ripening temperatures. A skin damage not previously reported on fungicide treated peach was observed at 20{sup o}C. Cooled fruit ripened at 15{sup o}C showed an anomalous respiration rate and ethylene production after the climacteric peak, a loss of firmness and a drop in titratable acidity after 7 days of storage, and reduced endo-polygalacturonase activity in presence of continuous pectinmethylesterase activity during the first week. Cooling before ripening at 20{sup o}C led to the best flavor without excessive total losses. These results helped in the optimization of warming cycles during cold storage used to avoid chilling injuries development on peaches. (Author)

  15. Preinduction cervical ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M

    1983-01-01

    This work reviews the evolution of cervical ripening procedures and discusses the most effective current techniques. Current knowledge of the process of spontaneous ripening of the cervix is briefly assessed, but the review concentrates on methodological aspects and the clinical results of preinduction cervical ripening. The historical development of mechanical and pharmacologic ripening procedures is examined, including enzymes, oxytocin, relaxin, corticosteriods, estrogens administered parenterally or locally, and prostaglandins (PGs) administered intravenously, orally, locally, and intravaginally. 3 effective procedures for preinduction cervical ripening are identified and described in greater detail: the catheter technique and local and vaginal administration of PGs. The extraamniotic catheter technique is simple, effective, and safe and is recommended for patients with not totally unripe cervixes and for whom PGs are unavailable or contraindicated. Single-dose extraamniotic instillation of PGE2 in Tylose gel was found to be highly effective for priming the unfavorable cervix before conventional labor induction. In some patients the procedure induces labor. The technique is easy to use, well accepted by the woman, and safe when applied appropriately to carefully selected patients. PGF2alpha gel has been less thoroughly studied. Electronic monitoring at the ripening stage is recommended for patients at risk, and even in low-risk cases much larger series will require study before conclusions can be reached about safety. Injection of PG gel into the cervical canal is less invasive than extraamniotic instillation, but no definite conclusions about its safety are possible due to small series and dissimilar clinical protocols. Pericervical administration of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and intracervical and intraamniotic tablets of PGE2 are briefly assessed. Adoption of the intravaginal route has been a major step in the development of ripening techniques. 3 types of media

  16. Biochemical fate of N/sup 6/ substituted purines (cytokinins) in normal ripening and mutant tomatoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The initial rates of disappearance of cytokinins, as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography, for tomatoes which were vacuum infused with benzyladenine and isopentenyladenine were dissimilar between the normal ripening (Ohio CR-6 and Rutgers), ripening inhibited mutant (RIN) and non-ripening mutant (NOR) tomato varieties. Radiolabeled (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolism was followed during a 2 h period utilizing thin layer chromatography and visualization by fluorography. The (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolite patterns were different among the varieties. The (8-/sup 14/C)Benzyladenine metabolite pattern in Ohio CR-6 tomato changed as the fruit ripened.

  17. Influence of ripening stages of tomatoes in the analysis of pesticides by gas chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Flaviane A. de; Neves,Antônio A.; Maria Eliana L. R. Queiroz; Heleno,Fernanda F.; Teófilo, Reinaldo F.; Pinho,Gevany P.

    2014-01-01

    Some parameters of tomato fruits ripening such as color, pH, ºBrix, acidity and lycopene and β-carotene content were evaluated during the ripening of fruits. Five pesticides were quantified in organic extracts derived from tomatoes at different stages of maturation. The solid-liquid extraction technique with partition at low temperature (SLE-PLT) was used to obtain these organic extracts. The matrix effect of tomato was calculated from the results of analysis by gas chromatography with e...

  18. Increasing tomato fruit quality by enhancing fruit chloroplast function. A double-edged sword?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocaliadis, Maria Florencia; Fernández-Muñoz, Rafael; Pons, Clara; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Fruits are generally regarded as photosynthate sinks as they rely on energy provided by sugars transported from leaves to carry out the highly demanding processes of development and ripening; eventually these imported photosynthates also contribute to the fruit organoleptic properties. Three recent reports have revealed, however, that transcriptional factors enhancing chloroplast development in fruit may result in higher contents not only of tomato fruit-specialized metabolites but also of sugars. In addition to suggesting new ways to improve fruit quality by fortifying fruit chloroplasts and plastids, these results prompted us to re-evaluate the importance of the contribution of chloroplasts/photosynthesis to fruit development and ripening.

  19. Effect of Stages of Maturity and Ripening Conditions on the Physical Characteristics of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Moneruzzaman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to undertake the effect of different stages of maturity and ripening conditions on the physical characteristics of tomato fruit during the process of ripening. Fruit of three maturity stages viz., mature green, half ripen and full ripen were kept under three ripening conditions viz., floor without covering(control, covering with straw and CaC2+ straw covering. Data were taken on color development of fruit, firmness of tissue, decay or rotting percentage, weight loss percentage and Shelf life of tomato. Different maturity stages, ripening conditions and their combination showed highly significant variation in different physical characteristics of tomato were studied. The highest value of decay or rotting was shown by full ripen tomatoes. However, the highest weight loss and shelf life were found by mature green tomatoes. The percentage of decay or rotting and weight loss was increased with gradual advancement of time. The highest value of weight loss and shelf life were recorded in tomatoes of uncovered treatment and decay or rotting was recorded by CaC2+ straw covering treatment. The values of all the parameter were increased gradually with the advancement of ripening process irrespective of different keeping conditions. The tomato was placed over CaC2 and covered with straw has shown highest decay or rotting.

  20. 番茄果实成熟过程中不同部位类胡萝卜素和糖含量变化及其相关性%Changes in Contents of Carotenoids and Sugar in Peparate Tissues and their Correlation during Ripening of Tomato Fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 翁倩; 周宝利

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the changes of concentrations of carotenoids and carbohydrates in different positions of tomato fruit during fruit development stage and the correlation of them. The content of lycopene accumulated along with the ripening stage and reached the highest level in peripheral pericarp of mature fruit. The contents of beta-carotene and xanthophylls decreased first, then increased and the peripheral pericarp of mature fruit achieved the highest value. All the three sugars content reached the maximum level in the peripheral pericarp of mature fruit. The contents of lycopene and beta-carotene had significant significant positive correlation with the accumulations of fructose and glucose in each part of fruit, showed significant significant negative correlation with the accumulation of sucrose in pericarp, radical arms and locular gel in fruit. The content of xanthophylls had no correlation with the value of sugar in fruit.%研究了番茄果实不同部位类胡萝卜素和糖含量的动态变化,并对其相关性进行了分析.结果表明:果实成熟时,果皮中番茄红素含量最高;β-胡萝卜素和叶黄素在胶质胎座中含量最高;3种糖在果皮中含量最高.番茄红素、β-胡萝卜素与果实各部位果糖、葡萄糖呈显著或极显著正相关关系,与果皮、隔壁、胶质胎座中蔗糖含量呈显著或极显著的负相关关系.叶黄素含量与果实各部位中糖相关性很低.

  1. Desfolha em videiras americanas e viníferas na fase de pré-maturação dos frutos Defoliation of american and vinifera grapevines in the pre ripening of fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Anzanello

    2011-07-01

    2006/2007 harvesting. The experiment was disposed in a randomized block design, with four replications and four plants per plot. The following treatments were tested: T1 (no defoliation, T2 (removal of leaves located in the opposite side of the grapes, T3 (removal of leaves located under the grapes and T4 (removal of leaves located under and in the opposite side of the grapes. The Vitis labrusca received an additional treatment (T5 consisting of leaves removed above the grapes. These treatments were applied during the change of berries color for Concord, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot grapes and in the beginning of berries softening for Niagara Branca grape. After the harvesting, the grapevine production, cluster weight, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH were evaluated. It was observed that the defoliation until the grapes height did not influence the quantity and quality of grapes. However, when the defoliation was carried out above the clusters, there was a delay in the maturation of american grapes. This condition shows that is not necessary a selective desfolation until the clusters height on grapevines, when it is realized during the initial fruit ripening phase.

  2. Direct targets of the tomato-ripening regulator RIN identified by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Shima, Yoko; Higuchi, Naoki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Koyama, Yoshiyuki; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2012-06-01

    The physiological and biochemical changes in fruit ripening produce key attributes of fruit quality including color, taste, aroma and texture. These changes are driven by the highly regulated and synchronized activation of a huge number of ripening-associated genes. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a typical climacteric fruit, the MADS-box transcription factor RIN is one of the earliest-acting ripening regulators, required for both ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent pathways. Although we previously identified several direct RIN targets, many additional targets remain unidentified, likely including key ripening-associated genes. Here, we report the identification of novel RIN targets by transcriptome and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analyses. Transcriptome comparisons by microarray of wild-type and rin mutant tomatoes identified 342 positively regulated genes and 473 negatively regulated genes by RIN during ripening. Most of the positively regulated genes contained possible RIN-binding (CArG-box) sequences in their promoters. Subsequently, we selected six genes from the positively regulated genes and a ripening regulator gene, CNR, and assayed their promoters by quantitative ChIP-PCR to examine RIN binding. All of the seven genes, which are involved in cell wall modification, aroma and flavor development, pathogen defense and transcriptional regulation during ripening, are targets of RIN, suggesting that RIN may control multiple diverse ripening processes. In particular, RIN directly regulates the expression of the ripening-associated transcription factors, CNR, TDR4 and a GRAS family gene, providing an important clue to elucidate the complicated transcriptional cascade for fruit ripening.

  3. 菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中香气物质形成相关酶的活性变化%Research on the Activity of Lipoxygenase, Hydroperoxide Lyase, Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Alcohol Acyl Transferases in Jackfruit Fruit-ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫泉; 段小强; 李映志; 李莹; 覃芳; 叶春海

    2016-01-01

    [ Objective] The key enzymerelated to the aroma formation in jackfruit( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. ) fruit was determined through the analysis of the activitychange of enzymesduring its fruit ripening, which could provide the theoretical support for its cultivation and breed-ing. [ Method] The change in the activity of lipoxygenase, hydroperoxidelyase, alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol acyl transferases during jackfruits’ fruit ripeningwas tested based the linoleic acid, sodium hydroxide, sodium peroxide, linoleic acid, acetaldehyde and butanol being taken as a substrate respectively. [ Result] During jackfruit fruit ripening, the activity of LOX was high at early period of fruit maturity and for aroma formation the major role of LOX was in the synthetic substance in early jackfruit growth period. HPL was mainly involved in the forma-tion of aldehydes. The activity of ADH maintained at a high level. The activity of AAT existed difference among germplasm resources, it in-creased or slightly decreased at the end of fruit maturity period. [ Conclusion] AAT is the critical enzyme in the formation of characteristic aro-ma of jackfruit fruit.%[目的]分析菠萝蜜果实成熟过程中香气物质形成相关酶的活性变化,确定对菠萝蜜果实香气物质形成起关键性作用的酶,为菠萝蜜栽培及育种提供理论支撑。[方法]以不同基因型的菠萝蜜为材料,分别以亚油酸钠、氢过氧化亚油酸钠、乙醛和丁醇为底物,测定脂氧合酶( LOX)、氢过氧化物裂解酶( HPL)、醇脱氢酶( ADH)和醇酰基转移酶( AAT)在果实成熟过程中的活性变化。[结果]在果实成熟过程中,LOX在果实成熟早期具有较高活性,在香气物质合成的前期起主要作用;HPL主要参与菠萝蜜果实中醛类香气的形成;ADH活性水平较高;AAT活性变化在种质间存在差异,在果实成熟末期活性增强或略有下降。[结论] AAT是菠萝蜜果实特征香气物质形成的关键酶。

  4. Growth, ripening and storage of tomato fruits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, N.

    1976-01-01


    Publication I

    A non-destructive, automated, fast and portable softness measuring device is described. The non-destructivity of the meter was established.

    Factors that might influence the variation in softness-readings, e.g., temperature, relative humidity, the point of

  5. Effects of relative humidity on banana fruit drop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saengpook, C.; Ketsa, S.; Doorn, van W.G.

    2007-01-01

    Commercial ripening of banana fruit occurs at high relative humidity (RH), which prevents browning of damaged skin areas. In experiments with ripening at high RH (94 ± 1%) the individual fruit (fingers) of `Sucrier¿ (Musa acuminata, AA Group) banana exhibited a high rate of drop. The falling off of

  6. Reversing Ostwald Ripening

    CERN Document Server

    Burlakov, V M; Besong, T M D; Bakr, O M; Goriely, A

    2014-01-01

    The phenomenon of Ostwald Ripening is generally considered a limiting factor in the monodisperse production of nanoparticles. However, by analysing the free energy of a binary AB solution with precipitated A particles we show that there is a region in the parameter space of component concentrations and interaction energies where smaller particles are more stable than bigger ones. The strong binding of B species to surfaces of A particles significantly decreases the particle effective surface energy, making it negative. The global minimum of free energy in such a system is thus reached when mass is transferred from bigger particles to the smaller ones, such that all particles become identical in size. The process of mass transfer is opposite to Ostwald ripening, and can be used for generating monodisperse arrays of nanoparticles.

  7. Digestive ripening of nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irzhak, V. I.

    2017-08-01

    A relatively new method of regulating the size distribution function of nanoparticles—digestive ripening— was described. A hypothetical mechanism of dissolution of nanoparticles was proposed. It includes the effect of the ligand layer on the internal stability of the nanoparticle nucleus: the change in the structure of the ligand layer caused by a decrease in the nanoparticle size determines the kinetics of digestive ripening.

  8. Papaya pulp gelling: is it premature ripening or problems of water accumulation in the apoplast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurandi Gonçalves de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Gelled aspect in papaya fruit is typically confused with premature ripening. This research reports the characterization of this physiological disorder in the pulp of papaya fruit by measuring electrolyte leakage, Pi content, lipid peroxidation, pulp firmness, mineral contents (Ca, Mg and K - in pulp and seed tissues, and histological analysis of pulp tissue. The results showed that the gelled aspect of the papaya fruit pulp is not associated with tissue premature ripening. Data indicate a reduction of the vacuole water intake as the principal cause of the loss of cellular turgor; while the waterlogged aspect of the tissue may be due to water accumulation in the apoplast.

  9. Hemicellulose fine structure is affected differently during ripening of tomato lines with contrasted texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, Marc; Quemener, Bernard; Causse, Mathilde; Seymour, Graham B

    2012-11-01

    The impact of genetic and fruit ripening on hemicelluloses fine structure was studied in twelve near isogenic lines of tomato fruits harboring firmness QTL. The sugar composition and the MALDI-TOF MS oligosaccharides profile after glucanase hydrolysis of the cell walls were determined from all green and red fruits pericarp tissue. MS profiles showed two major series of oligomers attributed to xyloglucan (XG) and glucomannan (GM) with minor peaks for xylan and ions attributed to galacto-oligomers. The oligosaccharides MS intensity varied significantly with the fruit genetic and ripening status. Correlations between MS intensity indicated structural regulations of both XG and GM structures with genetics and ripening. These results point to a region on the tomato chromosome 9 controlling cell wall galactose metabolism.

  10. Biochemical and nutritional characterization of three prickly pear species with different ripening behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Pérez, Talia; Carrillo-López, Armando; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Cruz-Hernández, Andrés; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2005-12-01

    Biochemical and nutritional changes were studied during the ripening process of three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behavior: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Esmeralda (Opuntia sp.) of early, early-intermediate, and intermediate-late ripening, respectively. In loss of fresh weight, Naranjona showed the highest values, while in Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda, a discrete weight loss was found. No significant differences were found among morphospecies in soluble solids, total titratable acidity and pH during the postharvest days. Blanca Cristalina and Esmeralda showed an increase in the content of carotenoids, while these diminished in Naranjona. The cell wall enzymes evaluated showed particular behaviors during the ripening of each morphospecies suggesting a fine biochemical control and not a clear relationship between fruit softening and enzyme activity. This study provides basic information on prickly pear ripening, in order to understand this process for its control and for improving shelf life.

  11. Ethylene independent induction of lycopene biosynthesis in tomato fruits by jasmonates

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Lihong; Wei, Jia; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Liping; Li, Chuanyou; Wang, Qiaomei

    2012-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening is a massive accumulation of carotenoids (mainly lycopene), which may contribute to the nutrient quality of tomato fruit and its role in chemoprevention. Previous studies have shown that ethylene (ET) plays a central role in promoting fruit ripening. In this study, the role of jasmonic acid (JA) in controlling lycopene accumulation in tomato fruits was analysed by measuring fruit lycopene content and the expressio...

  12. Chemical and biochemical changes in prickly pears with different ripening behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silos-Espino, Héctor; Fabian-Morales, Lourdes; Osuna-Castro, Juan Alberto; Valverde, María Elena; Guevara-Lara, Fidel; Paredes-López, Octavio

    2003-10-01

    Chemical and biochemical changes were studied in ripening prickly pears from three Opuntia morphospecies with different ripening behaviour: Naranjona (O. ficus-indica), Blanca Cristalina (Opuntia sp.), and Charola (O. streptacantha), of early, intermediate, and late ripening, respectively. At fullyripe stage (commercial maturity), Blanca Cristalina showed the biggest fruits, the hardest texture, and its pulp had the highest protein content. There were no significant differences among morphospecies in pH or total soluble solids in fully ripe fruits. The three species exhibited considerable levels of vitamin C, dietary fibre, and minerals such as calcium, iron, and zinc. Protein expression was analysed in pulp and skin from every species at physiological and commercial maturity. Some proteins appeared at both stages, while many others expressed differentially. This study evaluated prickly pear components important for human nutrition and health, and provided basic information on pricky pear ripening, with a view to its control and to improving shelf life.

  13. Complex and shifting interactions of phytochromes regulate fruit development in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Sharma, Sulabha; Santisree, Parankusam; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Appenroth, Klaus; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2014-07-01

    Tomato fruit ripening is a complex metabolic process regulated by a genetical hierarchy. A subset of this process is also modulated by light signalling, as mutants encoding negative regulators of phytochrome signal transduction show higher accumulation of carotenoids. In tomato, phytochromes are encoded by a multi-gene family, namely PHYA, PHYB1, PHYB2, PHYE and PHYF; however, their contribution to fruit development and ripening has not been examined. Using single phytochrome mutants phyA, phyB1 and phyB2 and multiple mutants phyAB1, phyB1B2 and phyAB1B2, we compared the on-vine transitory phases of ripening until fruit abscission. The phyAB1B2 mutant showed accelerated transitions during ripening, with shortest time to fruit abscission. Comparison of transition intervals in mutants indicated a phase-specific influence of different phytochrome species either singly or in combination on the ripening process. Examination of off-vine ripened fruits indicated that ripening-specific carotenoid accumulation was not obligatorily dependent upon light and even dark-incubated fruits accumulated carotenoids. The accumulation of transcripts and carotenoids in off-vine and on-vine ripened mutant fruits indicated a complex and shifting phase-dependent modulation by phytochromes. Our results indicate that, in addition to regulating carotenoid levels in tomato fruits, phytochromes also regulate the time required for phase transitions during ripening.

  14. Discharge of surplus phloem water may be required for normal grape ripening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yun; Keller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Abstract At the onset of ripening, some fleshy fruits shift the dominant water import pathway from the xylem to the phloem, but the cause for the decline in xylem inflow remains obscure. This study found that xylem-mobile dye movement into grape berries decreased despite transient increases in berry growth and transpiration during early ripening, whereas outward dye movement continued unless the roots were pressurized. Modeling berry vascular flows using measurements of pedicel phloem sap sug...

  15. How does tomato quality (sugar, acid, and nutritional quality) vary with ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, Hélène; Diakou-Verdin, Vicky; Bénard, Camille; Reich, Maryse; Buret, Michel; Bourgaud, Frédéric; Poëssel, Jean Luc; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Génard, Michel

    2008-02-27

    The objective of this study was to understand the respective impact of ripening stage, temperature, and irradiance on seasonal variations of tomato fruit quality. During ripening, concentrations in reducing sugars, carotenes, ascorbate, rutin, and caffeic acid derivates increased, whereas those in titratable acidity, chlorophylls, and chlorogenic acid content decreased. Fruit temperature and irradiance affected final fruit composition. Sugars and acids (linked to fruit gustative quality) were not considerably modified, but secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties were very sensitive to fruit environment. Increased fruit irradiance enhanced ascorbate, lycopene, beta-carotene, rutin, and caffeic acid derivate concentrations and the disappearance of oxidized ascorbate and chlorophylls. Increasing the temperature from 21 to 26 degrees C reduced total carotene content without affecting lycopene content. A further temperature increase from 27 to 32 degrees C reduced ascorbate, lycopene, and its precursor's content, but enhanced rutin, caffeic acid derivates, and glucoside contents. The regulation by light and temperature of the biosynthesis pathways of secondary metabolites is discussed.

  16. 1-甲基环丙烯采后处理对樱桃番茄果实成熟过程的影响%Effect of 1-Methylcyclopropene Post-harvest Treatment on Ripening Process in Cherry Tomato Fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var.cerasiforme)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arnold M.Opiyo; 应铁进

    2005-01-01

    研究了不同浓度(0、0.035、0.07和0.11μL/L)的乙烯受体竞争性抑制剂1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)采后处理对绿熟期樱桃番茄的乙烯合成、果实软化、果实色素(叶绿素、茄红素、β-胡萝卜素)含量消长的影响.0.07 μL/L及其以上浓度的1-MCP降低了前期乙烯合成,同时推迟了乙烯释放高峰,但0.035 μL/L浓度的1-MCP处理并不能抑制内源乙烯合成.1-MCP显著延迟了果实软化和叶绿素降解,但并不影响这两个过程的启动.茄红素合成的启动和积累均受到了1-MCP抑制,而1-MCP并不推迟β-胡萝卜素合成的启动,只抑制其积累.这些结果提示了乙烯调节成熟生理过程的不同机制.对于绿熟期的樱桃番茄,0.07~0.11μL/L的1-MCP是实用的有效处理浓度.1-MCP有效浓度可能用于了解果实的乙烯受体水平和乙烯敏感性.%The responses of cherry tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated.The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG)cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 μL/L reduced fruit C2H4 production, delayed the C2H4 peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 μL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening,it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production.Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time,and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 μL/L or

  17. Analysis of ripening-related gene expression in papaya using an Arabidopsis-based microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabi João Paulo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Papaya (Carica papaya L. is a commercially important crop that produces climacteric fruits with a soft and sweet pulp that contain a wide range of health promoting phytochemicals. Despite its importance, little is known about transcriptional modifications during papaya fruit ripening and their control. In this study we report the analysis of ripe papaya transcriptome by using a cross-species (XSpecies microarray technique based on the phylogenetic proximity between papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Papaya transcriptome analyses resulted in the identification of 414 ripening-related genes with some having their expression validated by qPCR. The transcription profile was compared with that from ripening tomato and grape. There were many similarities between papaya and tomato especially with respect to the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in primary metabolism, regulation of transcription, biotic and abiotic stress and cell wall metabolism. XSpecies microarray data indicated that transcription factors (TFs of the MADS-box, NAC and AP2/ERF gene families were involved in the control of papaya ripening and revealed that cell wall-related gene expression in papaya had similarities to the expression profiles seen in Arabidopsis during hypocotyl development. Conclusion The cross-species array experiment identified a ripening-related set of genes in papaya allowing the comparison of transcription control between papaya and other fruit bearing taxa during the ripening process.

  18. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  19. Quality comparison of hydroponic tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) ripened on and off vine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, R.; Lee, T. C.; Specca, D.; Janes, H.

    2000-01-01

    There is a general belief that the quality of tomatoes ripened on vine is better than tomatoes ripened off the vine, influencing among other parameters, the price of this commodity. We compared the quality of hydroponic tomatoes ripened on and off vine by chemical, physical, and sensory evaluation to find what attributes are affected and to what extent. Lycopene, beta-carotene, total and soluble solids, moisture content, ascorbic acid, acidity, pH, texture, and color were analyzed. Tomatoes ripened on vine had significantly more lycopene, beta-carotene, soluble and total solids, higher a* and lower L*, and were firmer. However, a 100-judge panel rated only the color and overall liking of the vine-ripened tomatoes as more intense than the fruit ripened off vine. Therefore, the chemical and physical differences were mostly not large enough to influence the panelist's perception. The characterization of tomatoes ripened on and off vine may help to guide post-harvest handling and treatment and to improve the quality of tomatoes ripened off vine.

  20. Metabolic profiling of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) during fruit development and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Wang, Xin; Yu, Oliver; Tang, Juanjuan; Gu, Xungang; Wan, Xiaochun; Fang, Congbing

    2011-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch), a fruit of economic and nutritional importance, is also a model species for fleshy fruits and genomics in Rosaceae. Strawberry fruit quality at different harvest stages is a function of the fruit's metabolite content, which results from physiological changes during fruit growth and ripening. In order to investigate strawberry fruit development, untargeted (GC-MS) and targeted (HPLC) metabolic profiling analyses were conducted. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were employed to explore the non-polar and polar metabolite profiles from fruit samples at seven developmental stages. Different cluster patterns and a broad range of metabolites that exerted influence on cluster formation of metabolite profiles were observed. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found in both fruits turning red and fruits over-ripening in comparison with red-ripening fruits. The levels of free amino acids decreased gradually before the red-ripening stage, but increased significantly in the over-ripening stage. Metabolite correlation and network analysis revealed the interdependencies of individual metabolites and metabolic pathways. Activities of several metabolic pathways, including ester biosynthesis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the shikimate pathway, and amino acid metabolism, shifted during fruit growth and ripening. These results not only confirmed published metabolic data but also revealed new insights into strawberry fruit composition and metabolite changes, thus demonstrating the value of metabolomics as a functional genomics tool in characterizing the mechanism of fruit quality formation, a key developmental stage in most economically important fruit crops.

  1. Crescimento e mudanças físico-químicas durante a maturação de frutos de meloeiro (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis Naud. híbrido Torreon Growth and physicochemical changes during the ripening of hybrid Torreon muskmelon fruits (Cucumis melo var. cantalupensis Naud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fabiano Hettwer Giehl

    2008-04-01

    days. These fruits were individually assessed for ethylene synthesis, respiration rate, flesh firmness, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity and flesh colour. Fruits exhibited growth until approximately 26-29 DAA, when ripening process initiated. A large rise in ethylene synthesis was observed, reaching 44µL kg-1 h-1 at 34 DAA, which was accompanied by an increase in respiration and a decrease of total titratable acidity and flesh firmness of fruit. In addition, flesh colour of fruit became redder, as fruit ripened. Fruits slipped from vine at about 37 DAA showing mean values of total soluble solids of 10.5°Brix.

  2. Controle da maturação e conservação da qualidade pós-colheita de caqui 'Fuyu' pelo manejo do etileno Postharvest control of ripening and quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmon fruit by ethylene handling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Golin Krammes

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo avaliou o impacto do tratamento 1-MCP sobre a conservação da qualidade de caqui 'Fuyu', e como a exposição pós-colheita ao etileno pode afetar a eficácia do 1-MCP. Os frutos foram colhidos em quatro diferentes estádios de maturação conforme indicado pelo índice de coloração da casca, após a maturação fisiológica. Frutos foram tratados com 0,1 e 1 µL ·L-1 de 1-MCP, um dia após a colheita, e mantidos a 23ºC por até 45 dias, em ar ambiente contendo baixa (d" 0,1 µL ·L-1 ou alta (3 ± 2 µL ·L-1 concentração de etileno. O tratamento com 1-MCP retardou o amolecimento da polpa, o desenvolvimento da coloração dos frutos e o aumento da produção de etileno, mas não alterou o teor de açúcares solúveis e a acidez titulável. A vida pós-colheita (período entre a colheita e o amolecimento da polpa dos frutos foi aumentada por até 20 dias em relação aos frutos não-tratados. Frutos colhidos em estádio avançado de maturação apresentaram menor vida pós-colheita, independentemente do tratamento 1-MCP. O benefício do tratamento 1-MCP foi maior para frutos colhidos precocemente e para frutos expostos a 3 µL ·L-1 de etileno.The present study determined the impact of 1-mcp treatment on the quality maintenance of 'Fuyu' persimmons, and how the postharvest exposure to ethylene could influence the 1-MCP effectiveness. The fruits were harvested at four different ripening stages according to skin color, after physiologic maturity. Fruits were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 µL ·L-1 of 1-MCP one day after harvest, and then held at 23ºC for up to 45 days in air with low (d" 0,1 µL ·L-1 or high (3 ± 2 µL ·L-1 ethylene . 1-MCP treatment delayed fruit softening and changes of skin color and the increase in the ethylene production, whereas it had no effect on soluble solids content and on titratable acidity. The postharvest life (period between harvest and pulp softening of fruits was increased for up to 20 days

  3. An integrated approach for flavour quality evaluation in muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallone, Simona; Sivertsen, Hanne; Anthon, Gordon E; Barrett, Diane M; Mitcham, Elizabeth J; Ebeler, Susan E; Zakharov, Florence

    2013-08-15

    Numerous and diverse physiological changes occur during fruit ripening and maturity at harvest is one of the key factors influencing the flavour quality of fruits. The effect of ripening on chemical composition, physical parameters and sensory perception of three muskmelon (Cucumis melo L. reticulatus group) cultivars was evaluated. Significant correlations emerging from this extensive data set are discussed in the context of identifying potential targets for melon sensory quality improvement. A portable ultra-fast gas-chromatograph coupled with a surface acoustic wave sensor (UFGC-SAW) was also used to monitor aroma volatile concentrations during fruit ripening and evaluated for its ability to predict the sensory perception of melon flavour. UFGC-SAW analysis allowed the discrimination of melon maturity stage based on six measured peaks, whose abundance was positively correlated to maturity-specific sensory attributes. Our findings suggest that this technology shows promise for future applications in rapid flavour quality evaluation.

  4. Analysis of strawberry ripening by dynamic speckle measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulone, C.; Budini, N.; Vincitorio, F. M.; Freyre, C.; López Díaz, A. J.; Ramil Rego, A.

    2013-11-01

    This work seeks to determine the age of a fruit from observation of its dynamic speckle pattern. A mobile speckle pattern originates on the fruit's surface due to the interference of the wavefronts reflected from moving scatterers. For this work we analyzed two series of photographs of a strawberry speckle pattern, at different stages of ripening, acquired with a CMOS camera. The first day, we took ten photographs at an interval of one second. The same procedure was repeated the next day. From each series of images we extracted several statistical descriptors of pixel-to-pixel gray level variation during the observation time. By comparing these values from the first to the second day we noticed a diminution of the speckle activity. This decay demonstrated that after only one day the ripening process of the strawberry can be detected by dynamic speckle pattern analysis. For this study we employed a simple new algorithm to process the data obtained from the photographs. This algorithm allows defining a global mobility index that indicates the evolution of the fruit's ripening.

  5. Fruit Calcium: Transport and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradleigh eHocking

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Calcium has well-documented roles in plant signaling, water relations and cell wall interactions. Significant research into how calcium impacts these individual processes in various tissues has been carried out; however, the influence of calcium on fruit ripening has not been thoroughly explored. Here, we review the current state of knowledge on how calcium may impact fruit development, physical traits and disease susceptibility through facilitating developmental and stress response signaling, stabilizing membranes, influencing water relations and modifying cell wall properties through cross-linking of de-esterified pectins. We explore the involvement of calcium in hormone signaling integral to ripening and the physiological mechanisms behind common disorders that have been associated with fruit calcium deficiency (e.g. blossom end rot in tomatoes or bitter pit in apples. This review works towards an improved understanding of how the many roles of calcium interact to influence fruit ripening, and proposes future research directions to fill knowledge gaps. Specifically, we focus mostly on grapes and present a model that integrates existing knowledge around these various functions of calcium in fruit, which provides a basis for understanding the physiological impacts of sub-optimal calcium nutrition in grapes. Calcium accumulation and distribution in fruit is shown to be highly dependent on water delivery and cell wall interactions in the apoplasm. Localized calcium deficiencies observed in particular species or varieties can result from differences in xylem morphology, fruit water relations and pectin composition, and can cause leaky membranes, irregular cell wall softening, impaired hormonal signaling and aberrant fruit development. We propose that the role of apoplasmic calcium-pectin crosslinking, particularly in the xylem, is an understudied area that may have a key influence on fruit water relations. Furthermore, we believe that improved

  6. Polyamine content of long-keeping alcobaca tomato fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibble, A R; Davies, P J; Mutschler, M A

    1988-02-01

    Fruit of tomato landrace Alcobaca, containing the recessive allele alc, ripen more slowly, with a reduced level of ethylene production, and have prolonged keeping qualities. The levels of polyamines in pericarp tissues of alc and ;wild type' Alc (cv Rutgers and Alcobaca-red) fruit were measured by HPLC in relation to ripening. Putrescine was the predominant polyamine with a lower content of spermidine, while spermine was just detectable. The level of putrescine was high at the immature green stage and declined in the mature green stage. In Alc fruit the decline persisted but in alc fruit the putrescine level increased during ripening to a level similar to that present at the immature green stage. There was no pronounced change or difference in spermidine levels. The enhanced polyamine level in alc fruit may account for their ripening and storage characteristics.

  7. Influência dos estádios de maturação sobre as características físicas dos frutos de maracujá-amarelo Influence of the ripening stages on the physical characteristics of the yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais Vianna-Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a influência dos estádios de maturação sobre as características físicas dos frutos de maracujazeiro-amarelo para indicação do melhor momento de colheita na região Norte Fluminense. Iniciou-se a colheita aos 52 dias após a antese (DAA, antes das primeiras mudanças de cor da casca serem observadas, prosseguindo-se aos 54, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 68, 70, 76, 83 e aos 100 DAA. No último dia de colheita, nos frutos marcados ocorreu abscisão no período da noite. Durante o amadurecimento dos frutos, foi observado aumento progressivo dos parâmetros de Hunter L e b, e na região inferior do fruto ocorreu maior índice de luminosidade e de amarelecimento do que na superior. Houve redução da espessura da casca até o momento do início da mudança de sua cor (64 DAA. Neste período, houve aumento inversamente proporcional de rendimento de suco, atingindo valores superiores a 33%, adequado para a industrialização. Verificou-se tendência de aumento do rendimento de suco para 40% nos frutos com aproximadamente 30% de cor amarela da casca (68 DAA.The objective of this work is to evaluate the influence of maturation stage on physical characteristics of yellow passion fruits, in order to indicate the best moment for harvesting in the Fluminense North area. The samplings were accomplished in 52 days after anthesis (DAA, before the first changes of color of the peel has been observed, following in intervals of 54, 56, 58, 60, 64, 66, 68, 70, 76, 83 and 100 DAA. In the last harvest day the marked fruits had suffered abscission during the night. During fruits ripening occurred a progressive increase of Hunter L and b parameters where the inferior area of the fruit presented higher brightness and yellowing index than the superior. The fruits reduced the thickness of the peel until the moment of the color change (64 DAA, with inversely proportional increase of juice yield in this period, taking values higher

  8. Activation of ethylene-responsive p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase leads to increased tocopherol levels during ripening in mango

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh K.; Ali, Sharique A.; Nath, Pravendra; Sane, Vidhu A.

    2011-01-01

    Mango is characterized by high tocopherol and carotenoid content during ripening. From a cDNA screen of differentially expressing genes during mango ripening, a full-length p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (MiHPPD) gene homologue was isolated that encodes a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of tocopherols. The gene encoded a 432-amino-acid protein. Transcript analysis during different stages of ripening revealed that the gene is ripening related and rapidly induced by ethylene. The increase in MiHPPD transcript accumulation was followed by an increase in tocopherol levels during ripening. The ripening-related increase in MiHPPD expression was also seen in response to abscisic acid and to alesser extent to indole-3-acetic acid. The expression of MiHPPD was not restricted to fruits but was also seen in other tissues such as leaves particularly during senescence. The strong ethylene induction of MiHPPD was also seen in young leaves indicating that ethylene induction of MiHPPD is tissue independent. Promoter analysis of MiHPPD gene in tomato discs and leaves of stable transgenic lines of Arabidopsis showed that the cis elements for ripening-related, ethylene-responsive, and senescence-related expression resided within the 1590 nt region upstream of the ATG codon. Functionality of the gene was demonstrated by the ability of the expressed protein in bacteria to convert p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate to homogentisate. These results provide the first evidence for HPPD expression during ripening of a climacteric fruit. PMID:21430290

  9. Antioxidant compounds of kiwifruit during post-ripening process at ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, D.; Lv, X. L.; Wang, J.; Xia, H.; Xie, Y.; Li, M. Z.; Wang, Y. Z.

    2017-09-01

    Kiwifruit is well-known for an excellent source of antioxidants. In this study, contents of total phenolics (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total flavanols (TFAC) and vitamin C were investigated in different fruit tissues during post-ripening process at ambient temperature. The results explored that TPC and TFC showed declining trend with the increase in storage interval in different tissues. TFAC raised with the increase in storage interval in different fruit tissues, while was followed a decrease in later process. Vitamin C content was stable in outer and inner pericarp in prometaphase of post-ripening.

  10. Sugar demand of ripening grape berries leads to recycling of surplus phloem water via the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Markus; Zhang, Yun; Shrestha, Pradeep M; Biondi, Marco; Bondada, Bhaskar R

    2015-06-01

    We tested the common assumption that fleshy fruits become dependent on phloem water supply because xylem inflow declines at the onset of ripening. Using two distinct grape genotypes exposed to drought stress, we found that a sink-driven rise in phloem inflow at the beginning of ripening was sufficient to reverse drought-induced berry shrinkage. Rewatering accelerated berry growth and sugar accumulation concurrently with leaf photosynthetic recovery. Interrupting phloem flow through the peduncle prevented the increase in berry growth after rewatering, but interrupting xylem flow did not. Nevertheless, xylem flow in ripening berries, but not berry size, remained responsive to root or shoot pressurization. A mass balance analysis on ripening