WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-classical light generation

  1. Nonlinear coherent loss for generating non-classical states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalychev, A; Mogilevtsev, D; Kilin, S

    2011-01-01

    Here, we discuss a generation of non-classical states of bosonic mode with the help of artificially designed loss, namely the nonlinear coherent loss. We show how to generate superpositions of Fock states, and how it is possible to 'comb' the initial states leaving only states with certain properties in the resulting superposition (for example, a generation of a superposition of Fock states with odd number of particles). We discuss purity of generated states and estimate maximal achievable generation fidelity.

  2. Managing the spatial properties and photon correlations in squeezed non-classical twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Spatial photon correlations and mode content of the squeezed vacuum light generated in a system of two separated nonlinear crystals is investigated. The contribution of both the polar and azimuthal modes with non-zero orbital angular momentum is analyzed. The control and engineering of the spatial properties and degree of entanglement of the non-classical squeezed light by changing the distance between crystals and pump parameters is demonstrated. Methods for amplification of certain spatial modes and managing the output mode content and intensity profile of quantum twisted light are suggested.

  3. Non-classical light emission from single conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollars, Christopher; Lane, Stephen; Huser, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    Photon-antibunching from single, isolated molecules of collapsed-chain poly[2-methoxy,5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) has been observed using confocal microscopy techniques. Efficient inter-segment energy transfer in collapsed-chain conjugated polymers leads to emission from an average of only 2-3 active sites on a polymer chain that is composed of hundreds of quasi-chromophores. These few centers consist of the segments with the lowest excitation energy and are supplied by the efficient light-harvesting and energy transfer of the surrounding higher-energy segments. This effect depends on the conformation of the polymer molecules, which is controlled by solvent polarity. These results provide new insight into the controversial photophysics of conjugated polymers and their application in optoelectronic devices.

  4. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    1988-01-01

    The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...

  5. Cauchy–Schwarz inequality-based criteria for the non-classicality of sub-Poisson and antibunched light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovich, Igor V., E-mail: volovich@mi.ras.ru

    2016-01-08

    We discuss non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson photon statistics. The difference K between the variance and the mean of the particle number operator as a measure of non-classicality of a state is discussed. The non-classicality of quantum states, discussed here, is different from another non-classicality, related with Bell's inequalities and entanglement though both can be traced to the violation of an inequality implied by an assumption of classicality that utilized the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality in the derivation. - Highlights: • Non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson statistics are discussed. • The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality provides criteria for the non-classicality. • The vacuum contribution makes the superposition of quantum states more classical. • Experiments to generate non-classical superpositions of the Fock states are suggested.

  6. Chem/bio sensing with non-classical light and integrated photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Schwartz, M; Rengstl, U; Jetter, M; Michler, P; Mizaikoff, B

    2018-01-29

    Modern quantum technology currently experiences extensive advances in applicability in communications, cryptography, computing, metrology and lithography. Harnessing this technology platform for chem/bio sensing scenarios is an appealing opportunity enabling ultra-sensitive detection schemes. This is further facilliated by the progress in fabrication, miniaturization and integration of visible and infrared quantum photonics. Especially, the combination of efficient single-photon sources together with waveguiding/sensing structures, serving as active optical transducer, as well as advanced detector materials is promising integrated quantum photonic chem/bio sensors. Besides the intrinsic molecular selectivity and non-destructive character of visible and infrared light based sensing schemes, chem/bio sensors taking advantage of non-classical light sources promise sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. In the present review, recent achievements towards on-chip chem/bio quantum photonic sensing platforms based on N00N states are discussed along with appropriate recognition chemistries, facilitating the detection of relevant (bio)analytes at ultra-trace concentration levels. After evaluating recent developments in this field, a perspective for a potentially promising sensor testbed is discussed for reaching integrated quantum sensing with two fiber-coupled GaAs chips together with semiconductor quantum dots serving as single-photon sources.

  7. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  8. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  9. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Peter J., E-mail: peter.spence@awe.co.uk

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  10. An example of enhancement of a non-classical feature of a light beam by mixing with another classical light beam using a beam splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Hari; Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We present here an example where a non-classical feature of a light beam is enhanced simply by mixing with another classical coherent light beam using a beam splitter. This non-classical feature is amplitude-squared squeezing of a Gaussian light beam expressed by a negative value of Y e or a negative value of the normalized quantity W e which can become more negative on enhancement. Here, these values comprise the density, annihilation and creation operators, respectively

  11. Light Beam Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a set of controllable light beams by provision of a system for synthesizing a set of light beams, comprising a spatially modulated light source for generation of electromagnetic radiation with a set of replicas of a predetermined......(x-xs, y-ys), a Fourier transforming lens for Fourier transforming the electromagnetic radiation, a first spatial light modulator for phase shifting the Fourier transformed electromagnetic radiation with the phase -F(u, v) of S*, S* is the complex conjugate of the Fourier transformed symbol s, a Fourier...... transforming lens for Inverse Fourier transforming the spatially modulated radiation, whereby a set of light beams are formed propagating through the inverse Fourier plane (x', y') at desired positions (x's, y's), and a controller for controlling the position of a replica of the symbol, s, for movement...

  12. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  13. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-24

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  14. The POLIS interferometer for ponderomotive squeezed light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloni, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Conte, Andrea [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); De Laurentis, Martina, E-mail: martina.delaurentis@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli (Italy); Naticchioni, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Puppo, Paola [INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy); Ricci, Fulvio [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “Sapienza”, Roma (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Roma1 (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    POLIS (POnderomotive LIght Squeezer) is a suspended interferometer, presently under construction, devoted to the generation of ponderomotive squeezed light and to the study of the interaction of non classical quantum states of light and macroscopic objects. The interferometer is a Michelson whose half-meter long arms are constituted by high-finesse cavities, suspended to a seismic isolation chain similar to the Virgo SuperAttenuator. The mass of the suspended cavity mirrors are chosen to be tens of grams: this value is sufficiently high to permit the use of the well-tested Virgo suspension techniques but also sufficiently small to generate the coupling among the two phase quadratures with a limited amount of light in the cavity, of the order of few tens of kW. In this short paper the main features of the interferometer are shown, together with the expected sensitivity and squeezing factor.

  15. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  16. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  17. Next Generation Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full...... potential of this new ‘drone-like’ light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nano-robotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light...

  18. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  19. [Taxonomic theory for non-classical systematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2012-01-01

    Outlined briefly are basic principles of construing general taxonomic theory for biological systematics considered in the context of non-classical scientific paradigm. The necessity of such kind of theory is substantiated, and some key points of its elaboration are exposed: its interpretation as a framework concept for the partial taxonomic theories in various schools of systematics; elaboration of idea of cognitive situation including three interrelated components, namely subject, object, and epistemic ones; its construing as a content-wisely interpreted quasi-axiomatics, with strong structuring of its conceptual space including demarcation between axioms and inferring rules; its construing as a "conceptual pyramid" of concepts of various levels of generality; inclusion of a basic model into definition of the taxonomic system (classification) regulating its content. Two problems are indicated as fundamental: definition of taxonomic diversity as a subject domain for the systematics as a whole; definition of onto-epistemological status of taxonomic system (classification) in general and of taxa in particular.

  20. Next generation light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omoto, Akira

    1992-01-01

    In the countries where the new order of nuclear reactors has ceased, the development of the light water reactors of new type has been discussed, aiming at the revival of nuclear power. Also in Japan, since it is expected that light water reactors continue to be the main power reactor for long period, the technology of light water reactors of next generation has been discussed. For the development of nuclear power, extremely long lead time is required. The light water reactors of next generation now in consideration will continue to be operated till the middle of the next century, therefore, they must take in advance sufficiently the needs of the age. The improvement of the way men and the facilities should be, the simple design, the flexibility to the trend of fuel cycle and so on are required for the light water reactors of next generation. The trend of the development of next generation light water reactors is discussed. The construction of an ABWR was started in September, 1991, as No. 6 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Power Station. (K.I.)

  1. Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the d ouble Monte Carlo m odeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix

  2. Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.

  3. 30 years of squeezed light generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Gehring, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Squeezed light generation has come of age. Significant advances on squeezed light generation have been made over the last 30 years—from the initial, conceptual experiment in 1985 till today’s top-tuned, application-oriented setups. Here we review the main experimental platforms for generating...... quadrature squeezed light that have been investigated in the last 30 years....

  4. Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamar M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.

  5. Correspondence and canonicity in non-classical logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sourabh, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study correspondence and canonicity for non-classical logic using algebraic and order-topological methods. Correspondence theory is aimed at answering the question of how precisely modal, first-order, second-order languages interact and overlap in their shared semantic environment.

  6. Non classical sources of uranium and their extraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, V [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    1978-11-01

    Non classical uranium sources are reviewed: phosphates, sea water, porphyric copper tailings, minerals allowing in-situ lixiviation, black carbon shales, coals and lignites, granitic rocks. An economical study has shown which sources could be really operative (phosphates seem the most attractive). The situation of uranium supplies does not seem to be actually modified by exploitation of these resources.

  7. Non-classical Correlations and Quantum Coherence in Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Wei, Mei-Song; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; He, Qi-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We investigate non-classical correlations (entanglement and quantum discord) and quantum coherence for an open two-qubit system each independently coupled to a bosonic environment and a spin environment, respectively. The modulating effects of spin environment and bosonic environment are respectively explored. A relation among the quantum coherence, quantum discord and classical correlation is found during the sudden transition phenomenon. We also compare the case of mixed environments with that of the same environments, showing that the dynamics is dramatically changed.

  8. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  9. Significance of non-classical damping in seismic qualification of equipment and piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu; Bose, Mrinal K.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Damping in coupled building-piping or building-equipment systems is nonlclassical. • Significance of nonclassical damping is illustrated. • Classical damping assumption can over predict or under predict response. • Significance of nonclassical damping increases for very light secondary systems. • Composite modal damping is another form of classical damping. - Abstract: This paper presents a discussion on the significance of non-classical damping in coupled primary-secondary systems such as building-equipment or building-piping. Closed-form expressions are used to illustrate that the effect of non-classical damping is significant in systems with tuned or nearly tuned uncoupled modes when the mass-interaction is sufficiently small. Further, simple primary-secondary systems are used to illustrate that composite modal damping is another form of classical damping for which the transformed damping matrix, obtained after pre- and post-multiplication of the damping matrix with the modal matrix, contains only diagonal terms. Both the composite and the classical damping give almost identical results that can be much different from the corresponding results for non-classical damping. Finally, it is shown that consideration of classical damping (ignoring the off-diagonal terms) can give excessively conservative results in nearly tuned primary-secondary systems. For perfectly tuned primary-secondary systems, however, classical damping can give responses that are much lower than what they should be.

  10. Performance of new generation pole light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K C; Karunanithi, S; Thio, G

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a standalone photovoltaic power supply which caters for garden lighting scheme. New Generation Pole Light (NGPL) consists of three parts which are light dependent resistor (LDR) and pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensors, microcontroller and light emitting diode (LED) and finally, solar charging system. During the night, LED is switched on with two operating modes which are ultra-bright lighting for a predetermine period (when human presence is detected) and dim lighting. Meanwhile, LED is switched off at day time and solar charging system will recover the capacity of discharged battery. NGPL provides portable, sustainable, environmental friendly and requires minimal maintenance for outdoor lighting scheme for both urban and rural areas.

  11. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  12. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  13. Unification of Quantum and Gravity by Non Classical Information Entropy Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Fiscaletti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantum entropy space is suggested as the fundamental arena describing the quantum effects. In the quantum regime the entropy is expressed as the superposition of many different Boltzmann entropies that span the space of the entropies before any measure. When a measure is performed the quantum entropy collapses to one component. A suggestive reading of the relational interpretation of quantum mechanics and of Bohm’s quantum potential in terms of the quantum entropy are provided. The space associated with the quantum entropy determines a distortion in the classical space of position, which appears as a Weyl-like gauge potential connected with Fisher information. This Weyl-like gauge potential produces a deformation of the moments which changes the classical action in such a way that Bohm’s quantum potential emerges as consequence of the non classical definition of entropy, in a non-Euclidean information space under the constraint of a minimum condition of Fisher information (Fisher Bohm- entropy. Finally, the possible quantum relativistic extensions of the theory and the connections with the problem of quantum gravity are investigated. The non classical thermodynamic approach to quantum phenomena changes the geometry of the particle phase space. In the light of the representation of gravity in ordinary phase space by torsion in the flat space (Teleparallel gravity, the change of geometry in the phase space introduces quantum phenomena in a natural way. This gives a new force to F. Shojai’s and A. Shojai’s theory where the geometry of space-time is highly coupled with a quantum potential whose origin is not the Schrödinger equation but the non classical entropy of a system of many particles that together change the geometry of the phase space of the positions (entanglement. In this way the non classical thermodynamic changes the classical geodetic as a consequence of the quantum phenomena and quantum and gravity are unified. Quantum

  14. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  15. Socio-Cultural Dynamics of Education in the Context of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Ignatova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the interrelations between society, education and culture. Using the comparative analysis of classical approaches to defining the above spheres, the author comes to conclusion that the nature of socio-cultural processes can be explored and described most consistently by applying comprehensive models of the post-non-classical science and considering civilization, education and culture in the context of the unified dynamic flow of socio-cultural genesis. The research investigates the dialectics of socio-cultural processes in the light of systematic synergetic approach, the advancing role of education in socio-cultural dynamics being revealed and substantiated. The author emphasizes its inevitably rising priority due to sustained development of civilization bringing about the new environmentally-oriented meta-culture.The obtained results can be used in pedagogic research methodology, designing and modeling the educational process, its content, technology and organization. 

  16. Second Harmonic Generation of Unpolarized Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Changqin; Ulcickas, James R. W.; Deng, Fengyuan; Simpson, Garth J.

    2017-11-01

    A Mueller tensor mathematical framework was applied for predicting and interpreting the second harmonic generation (SHG) produced with an unpolarized fundamental beam. In deep tissue imaging through SHG and multiphoton fluorescence, partial or complete depolarization of the incident light complicates polarization analysis. The proposed framework has the distinct advantage of seamlessly merging the purely polarized theory based on the Jones or Cartesian susceptibility tensors with a more general Mueller tensor framework capable of handling partial depolarized fundamental and/or SHG produced. The predictions of the model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of z -cut quartz and mouse tail tendon obtained with polarized and depolarized incident light. The polarization-dependent SHG produced with unpolarized fundamental allowed determination of collagen fiber orientation in agreement with orthogonal methods based on image analysis. This method has the distinct advantage of being immune to birefringence or depolarization of the fundamental beam for structural analysis of tissues.

  17. Toward a fourth-generation light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncton, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, x-ray research has been propelled by the existence of urgent and compelling scientific questions and the push of powerful and exquisite source technology. These two factors have gone hand in hand since Rontgen discovered x-rays. Here we review the progress being made with existing third-generation synchrotron-radiation light sources and the prospects for a fourth-generation light source with dramatically improved laser-like beam characteristics. The central technology for high-brilliance x-ray beams is the x-ray undulator, a series of alternating-pole magnets situated above and below the particle beam. When the particle beam is oscillated by the alternating magnetic fields, a set of. interacting and interfering wave fronts is produced, which leads to an x-ray beam with extraordinary properties. Third-generation sources of light in the hard x-ray range have been constructed at three principal facilities: the European Synchrotrons Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France; the Super Photon Ring 8-GeV (or Spring-8) in Japan; and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the US. Undulator technology is also used on a number of low-energy machines for radiation in the ultraviolet and soft x-ray regimes. At the APS, these devices exceed all of our original expectations for beam brilliance, tunability, spectral range, and operational flexibility. Shown in Fig. 1 are the tuning curves of the first few harmonics, showing x-ray production from a few kV to better than 40 keV. High-brilliance radiation extends to over 100 keV

  18. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  19. The ALS [Advanced Light Source]: A third generation light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1989-09-01

    The Advanced Light Source, a third-generation national synchrotron-radiation facility now under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, is scheduled to begin serving qualified users across a broad spectrum of research areas in April 1993. Based on a low- emittance electron storage ring optimized to operate at 1.5 GeV, the ALS will have 11 long straight sections available for insertion devices (undulators and wigglers). Undulators will generate high- brightness soft x-ray and ultraviolet (XUV) radiation; wigglers will extend the spectrum generated into the hard x-ray region, but at a lower brightness. Up to 48 bending-magnet ports will also be available. Engineering design has begun on a complement of three undulators with periods of 8.0, 5.0, and 3.9 cm that between them will cover the photon-energy range from 5.4 eV to 2.5 keV when the first, third, and fifth harmonics are used, as well as a wiggler with a critical energy of 3.1 keV. Undulator beam lines will be based on high-resolution spherical-grating monochromators. A Call for Proposals has been issued for those who wish to participate in the design, development, commissioning, and operation of the initial complement of ALS experimental facilities (insertion devices, beam lines, and experimental stations) as members of a participating research team. The deadline for receipt of proposals was August 15, 1989. Proposals are expected to reflect the Letters of Interest received from potential PRTs during the previous year. 6 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  20. 4th generation light source instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.

    1998-01-01

    This working group on 4th Generation Light Source (4GLS) Instrumentation was a follow-up to the opening-discussion on Challenges in Beam Profiling. It was in parallel with the Feedback Systems session. We filled the SSRL Conference Room with about 25 participants. The session opened with an introduction by Lumpkin. The target beam parameter values for a few-angstrom, self-amplified spontaneous emissions (SASE) experiment and for a diffraction-limited soft x-ray storage ring source were addressed. Instrument resolution would of course need to be 2-3 times better than the value measured, if possible. The nominal targeted performance parameters are emittance (1-2π mm mrad), bunch length (100 fs), peak-current (l-5 kA), beam size (10 microm), beam divergence (1 microrad), energy spread (2 x 10 -4 ), and beam energy (10's of GeV). These are mostly the SASE values, and the possible parameters for a diffraction-limited soft x-ray source would be relaxed somewhat. Beam stability and alignment specifications in the sub-micron domain for either device are anticipated

  1. Non-classical structures of organic compounds: unusual stereochemistry and hypercoordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, Vladimir I; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Hoffmann, Roald

    2002-01-01

    Non-classical structures of organic compounds are defined as molecules containing non-tetrahedral tetracoordinate and/or hypercoordinate carbon atoms. The evolution of the views on this subject is considered and the accumulated theoretical and experimental data on the structures and dynamic transformations of non-classical organic compounds are systematised. It is shown that computational analysis using the methods and the software potential of modern quantum chemistry has now acquired high predictive capacity and is the most important source of data on the structures of non-classical compounds. The bibliography includes 227 references.

  2. Non-classical nonlinear feature extraction from standard resonance vibration data for damage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters.

  3. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  4. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinan Hu

    Full Text Available Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+ at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  5. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  6. Iranian Light Source Facility, A third generation light source laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahighi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF project is the first large scale accelerator facility which is currently under planning in Iran. On the basis of the present design, circumference of the 3 GeV storage ring is 528 m. Beam current and natural beam emittance are 400 mA and 0.477 nm.rad, respectively. Some prototype accelerator components such as high power solid state radio frequency amplifiers, low level RF system, thermionic RF gun, H-type dipole and quadruple magnets, magnetic measurement laboratory and highly stable magnet power supplies have been constructed at ILSF R&D laboratory

  7. Cerenkov light generated in optical fibres and other light pipes irradiated by electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddar, A.S.; Mackie, T.R.; Attix, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    The use of a small plastic scintillator coupled to an optical fibre bundle light pipe for the dosimetry of radiotherapy x-ray or electron beams in a phantom has been studied. Under such conditions, some light is generated by the direct action of the radiation on the optical fibres themselves, and this 'background' signal must be correctly accounted for. Electron beams were incident on fused silica optical fibres and other light pipes made of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polystyrene and water. The observed light signal generated in all cases was found to depend strongly on the angle between the electron direction and the light pipe axis, and to correlate well with the angular characteristics uniquely associated with Cerenkov radiation. The use of a parallel fibre bundle light pipe, identical to the one that carries light from the scintillator, offers a suitable means of generating a similar background Cerenkov light signal that can be subtracted to obtain output from the scintillation dosimeter alone. (author)

  8. Synchronization System for Next Generation Light Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavriyev, Anton [MagiQ Technologies, Inc., Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-03-27

    An alternative synchronization technique – one that would allow explicit control of the pulse train including its repetition rate and delay is clearly desired. We propose such a scheme. Our method is based on optical interferometry and permits synchronization of the pulse trains generated by two independent mode-locked lasers. As the next generation x-ray sources will be driven by a clock signal derived from a mode-locked optical source, our technique will provide a way to synchronize x-ray probe with the optical pump pulses.

  9. Non-classicality criteria: Glauber-Sudarshan P function and Mandel ? parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2018-01-01

    We calculate exactly the quantum mechanical, temporal Wigner quasiprobability density for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The Wigner function allows us to calculate the fluctuations in photon number and the quadrature variance. We contrast the difference between the non-classicality criteria, which is independent of the displacement parameter ?, based on the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability distribution ? and the classical/non-classical behaviour of the Mandel ? parameter, which depends strongly on ?. We find a phase transition as a function of ? such that at the critical point ?, ?, as a function of ?, goes from strictly classical, for ?, to a mixed classical/non-classical behaviour, for ?.

  10. Non-stationary pre-envelope covariances of non-classically damped systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, G.

    1991-08-01

    A new formulation is given to evaluate the stationary and non-stationary response of linear non-classically damped systems subjected to multi-correlated non-separable Gaussian input processes. This formulation is based on a new and more suitable definition of the impulse response function matrix for such systems. It is shown that, when using this definition, the stochastic response of non-classically damped systems involves the evaluation of quantities similar to those of classically damped ones. Furthermore, considerations about non-stationary cross-covariances, spectral moments and pre-envelope cross-covariances are presented for a monocorrelated input process.

  11. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  12. The 4th Generation Light Source at Jefferson Lab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen Benson; George Biallas; James Boyce; Donald Bullard; James Coleman; David Douglas; H. Dylla; Richard Evans; Pavel Evtushenko; Albert Grippo; Christopher Gould; Joseph Gubeli; David Hardy; Carlos Hernandez-Garcia; Kevin Jordan; John Klopf; Steven Moore; George Neil; Thomas Powers; Joseph Preble; Daniel Sexton; Michelle Shinn; Christopher Tennant; Richard Walker; Shukui Zhang; Gwyn Williams

    2007-01-01

    A number of 'Grand Challenges' in Science have recently been identified in reports from The National Academy of Sciences, and the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences. Many of these require a new generation of linac-based light source to study dynamical and non-linear phenomena in nanoscale samples. In this paper we present a summary of the properties of such light sources, comparing them with existing sources, and then describing in more detail a specific source at Jefferson Lab. Importantly, the JLab light source has developed some novel technology which is a critical enabler for other new light sources

  13. Laser light absorption and harmonic generation due to self-generated magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Estabrook, K.G.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that self-generated magnetic fields can play a significant role in laser light absorption. Even normally incident light will then be resonantly absorbed. Computer simulations and theoretical estimates for this absorption and the concomitant harmonic generation are given for parameters characteristic of some recent experiments

  14. Permanent magnet based dipole magnets for next generation light sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Watanabe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have developed permanent magnet based dipole magnets for the next generation light sources. Permanent magnets are advantageous over electromagnets in that they consume less power, are physically more compact, and there is a less risk of power supply failure. However, experience with electromagnets and permanent magnets in the field of accelerators shows that there are still challenges to replacing main magnets of accelerators for light sources with permanent magnets. These include the adjustability of the magnetic field, the temperature dependence of permanent magnets, and the issue of demagnetization. In this paper, we present a design for magnets for future light sources, supported by experimental and numerical results.

  15. EFFECTS OF PARAMETRIC VARIATIONS ON SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR NON-CLASSICALLY DAMPED COUPLED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; DEGRASSI, G.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive benchmark program was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform an evaluation of state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for performing seismic analyses of coupled systems with non-classical damping. The program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was designed to address various aspects of application and limitations of these state-of-the-art analysis methods to typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) structures with non-classical damping, and was carried out through analyses of a set of representative benchmark problems. One objective was to examine the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled systems. The examination was performed using parametric variations for three simple benchmark models. This paper presents the comparisons and evaluation of the program participants' results to the BNL exact solutions for the applicable ranges of modeling dynamic characteristic parameters

  16. Non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces observed in single crystals of Cu-Al-Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2009), s. 793-807 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloy s * martensitic microstructure * non-classical interfaces * crossing twins Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2009 http://www.informaworld.com

  17. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  18. IS THERE A NEED FOR THE POST-NON-CLASSICAL METHODOLOGY IN PEDAGOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav L. Benin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication continues the discussion, started by Yu.V. Larina in ≪Education in Search of the Congruity Principle≫ concerning the modern methodology of pedagogical science; and identifies the criteria of the given principle along with the limitations of the post-non-classical approaches to the humanities.Methods: The methodology involves the analysis of existing view points, formalization of characteristics of post-non-classical science, and reflection of pedagogical principle of cultural conformity.Results: The research outcomes demonstrate that the gradual undermining of the fundamental science results in erosion of methodological background. In case of interdisciplinary subjects, a researcher is forced to integrate different methods and techniques, which provokes further disruption of the methodology.Scientific novelty: The author classifies and extrapolates to the humanities sphere the main characteristics of post-non-classical science; and makes a conclusion about the gradual decline of researchers’ training quality due to the lack of methodological clarity, and aggressive forms of science vulgarization leading to spontaneous development of clipping methodology.The practical significance: Implementation of the research findings can activate both theoretical and methodological aspects of teacher’s training and selfeducation.

  19. Why aortic elasticity differs among classical and non-classical mitral valve prolapsed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat; Demirkol, Sait; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Balta, Sevket; Dogan, Umuttan; Kilicarslan, Baris; Ozeke, Ozcan; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular heart disease and characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are two types of MVP, broadly classified as classic (thickness ≥5 mm) and non-classic (thickness elastic properties of the aorta in young male patients with classical and non-classical MVP. In the present study, 63 young adult males (mean age: 22.7 ± 4.2) were included. Patients were divided into classic MVP (n = 27) and non-classic MVP (n = 36) groups. Aortic strain, aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated by using aortic diameters obtained by echocardiography and blood pressures measured by sphygmomanometer. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, left ventricular mass and ejection fraction. When comparing the MVP group it was found that aortic strain and aortic distensibility were increased (p = 0.0027, p = 0.016, respectively) whereas the aortic stiffness index was decreased (p = 0.06) in the classical MVP group. We concluded that the elastic properties of the aorta is increased in patients with classic MVP. Further large scale studies should be performed to understand of morphological and physiological properties of the aorta in patients with MVP.

  20. Pedagogy in the Era of the Post-Non-Classical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Benin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers over again the problem of the low quality of the scientific pedagogic research of the recent time. The author analyses numerous publications concerning the above problem and presents his opinion on the actual reasons for stagnation in the modern national pedagogy. Its crisis is primarily caused by ignoring the complications of the world perception, changing world outlook, as well as by long ago developed but rejected necessity for devising new methodological principles and value- and objective-oriented educational attitudes. The exact forms and methods of professional activity of pedagogic process participants are derived from the definite historically developed complex lying in their foundation. The educational system structure depends on the logic of cultural structure of the related era both from the methodological and organizational viewpoint. However, our pedagogy retains the position of the New Time classical methodology not complying with the non-classical paradigm, all the more so with the post-non-classical science. The demonstrative appeal to synergetics – the attempt of pedagogy to position itself in terms of post-non-classical science – still remains doubtful.Not persisting on the absolute correctness of his position, the author invites teaches and specialists from educational sphere to the scientific discussion to facilitate, even partially, the existing problem solving. 

  1. Sub-Poissonian-light generation by postselection from twin beams

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, O.; Michálek, Václav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 16 (2013), 19387-19394 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : twin beams * Sub-Poissonian-light generation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.525, year: 2013

  2. Real-time Image Generation for Compressive Light Field Displays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzstein, G; Lanman, D; Hirsch, M; Raskar, R

    2013-01-01

    With the invention of integral imaging and parallax barriers in the beginning of the 20th century, glasses-free 3D displays have become feasible. Only today—more than a century later—glasses-free 3D displays are finally emerging in the consumer market. The technologies being employed in current-generation devices, however, are fundamentally the same as what was invented 100 years ago. With rapid advances in optical fabrication, digital processing power, and computational perception, a new generation of display technology is emerging: compressive displays exploring the co-design of optical elements and computational processing while taking particular characteristics of the human visual system into account. In this paper, we discuss real-time implementation strategies for emerging compressive light field displays. We consider displays composed of multiple stacked layers of light-attenuating or polarization-rotating layers, such as LCDs. The involved image generation requires iterative tomographic image synthesis. We demonstrate that, for the case of light field display, computed tomographic light field synthesis maps well to operations included in the standard graphics pipeline, facilitating efficient GPU-based implementations with real-time framerates.

  3. Diamond Light Source - A Next Generation SR Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    2004-01-01

    After the very successful start and the by now almost 10 years operation of the 3rd generation x-ray sources ESRF, APS and Spring-8 smaller storage rings are being planned and constructed with properties emphasising applications with photon energies around the 10 keV spectral region. In the UK the Government and the medical foundation Wellcome Trust have decided to build the Diamond Light Source Facility in the South of Oxfordshire right next to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The joint venture company Diamond Light Source Limited has been created to plan, construct, and operate this facility. (author)

  4. Comparison of the heat generation of light curing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagis, Bora; Bagis, Yildirim; Ertas, Ertan; Ustaomer, Seda

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat generation of three different types of light curing units. Temperature increases were recorded from a distance of 1 mm from a thermocouple to the tip of three different types of light curing units including one quartz-tungsten halogen (QTH), one plasma arc (PAC), and one light emitting diode (LED) unit. An experimental model was designed to fix the 1 mm distance between the tip of the light curing units and the thermocouple wire. Temperature changes were recorded in 10 second intervals up to 40 seconds. (10, 20, 30, and 40 seconds). Temperature measurements were repeated three times for every light curing unit after a one hour standby period. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Bonferroni Test. The highest temperature rises (54.4+/-1.65 degrees C) occurred during activation of a PAC light curing unit for every test period (pdamage to the pulp.

  5. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  6. The homology groups of moduli spaces on non-classical Klein surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaw, Myint

    2001-08-01

    We describe the moduli space M-vector±(g,c) of non-classical directed Klein surfaces of genus g=h-c-1 with c≥0 distinguished points as a configuration space B ± (h,c) of classes h-slit pairs in C. Based on this model, we prove that M-vector ± (g,c) is non-orientable for any g and c and we compute the homology groups of the moduli spaces M-vector ± (g,c) for g≤2. (author)

  7. Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Guzev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models' results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.

  8. Dynamic generation of light states with discrete symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, S.; Nahmad-Achar, E.; Castaños, O.; López-Peña, R.

    2018-01-01

    A dynamic procedure is established within the generalized Tavis-Cummings model to generate light states with discrete point symmetries, given by the cyclic group Cn. We consider arbitrary dipolar coupling strengths of the atoms with a one-mode electromagnetic field in a cavity. The method uses mainly the matter-field entanglement properties of the system, which can be extended to any number of three-level atoms. An initial state constituted by the superposition of two states with definite total excitation numbers, |ψ〉 M1,and |ψ〉 M 2, is considered. It can be generated by the proper selection of the time of flight of an atom passing through the cavity. We demonstrate that the resulting Husimi function of the light is invariant under cyclic point transformations of order n =| M1-M2| .

  9. Status and prospect of third-generation light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kihara, Motohiro

    1997-01-01

    The third generation synchrotron radiation facilities, of which the constructions are advanced in the world, the present status in Japan centering around the SPring-8 which started the operation recently, and the expected researches are reported. Also the future prospect is described. PF (2.5 GeV), SRS (2 GeV) and NSLS (2.5 GeV) were the second generation facilities in Japan, Europe and USA, respectively. The new technology for the third generation appeared in latter 1970s, and one of them is 'inserted light source'. The epoch-making development is the concept of low emittance ring. The third generation facilities are the new facilities which enable high brilliance synchrotron radiation by combining undulator with this low emittance ring. The features of the third generation synchrotron radiation are shown. The third generation facilities in X-ray and soft X-ray regions in operation and planning stage in the world are listed. In Japan, the SPring-8 on the largest scale in the world was completed, and the plans of University of Tokyo and Tohoku University are presented. These are explained. As the expected researches using the third generation facilities, the research on phase type X-ray CT, the utilization of micro-beam and others are mentioned. (K.I.)

  10. Non-classic multiscale modeling of manipulation based on AFM, in aqueous and humid ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Homayooni, A.; Hefzabad, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a precise manipulation, it is important that an accurate model consisting the size effect and environmental conditions be employed. In this paper, the non-classical multiscale modeling is developed to investigate the manipulation in a vacuum, aqueous and humid ambient. The manipulation structure is considered into two parts as a macro-field (MF) and a nano-field (NF). The governing equations of the AFM components (consist of the cantilever and tip) in the MF are derived based on the modified couple stress theory. The material length scale parameter is used to study the size effect. The fluid flow in the MF is assumed as the Couette and Creeping flows. Moreover, the NF is modeled using the molecular dynamics. The Electro-Based (ELBA) model is considered to model the ambient condition in the NF. The nanoparticle in the different conditions is taken into account to study the manipulation. The results of the manipulation indicate that the predicted deflection of the non-classical model is less than the classical one. Comparison of the nanoparticle travelled distance on substrate shows that the manipulation in the submerged condition is close to the ideal manipulation. The results of humid condition illustrate that by increasing the relative humidity (RH) the manipulation force decreases. Furthermore, Root Mean Square (RMS) as a criterion of damage demonstrates that the submerged nanoparticle has the minimum damage, however, the minimum manipulation force occurs in superlative humid ambient.

  11. ON THE POLARIZATION OF CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN NON-CLASSICAL ERA OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of "branch" of the total flow of philosophical and aesthetic quest in Russian postsimbolism in the early 20th century and the implications of this polarization in the literary process in the following decades. Special attention is paid to the specifics of the non-classical consciousness, an important feature of which is the intention of the "targeting" of artistic expression. The main lines of development of Russian literature in the 20th century are briefly described. The subject of primary attention of the author are mental peculiarities, features of creative thinking inherited in individuals of every from ideological and artistic "vectors", forming a common paradigm of national literature in the non-classical era. The understanding the specifics of the "middle" line of creative research, defined by the concept of "neotraditionalism" becomes the center of the problem field in the article. In understanding and presentation of the essence of the neotraditional type of creative consciousness author moves into the mainstream, a paved by work of V.I. Tyupa, who proposed in the early 90s as the term itself, taken now adopted by many scientists and methodological principles of neotraditionalism identification as a special type of mental orientation in art. 

  12. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Rigovacca, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary {{R}_{A}} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B).

  14. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, A; De Pasquale, A; Giovannetti, V [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Rigovacca, L [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary R{sub A} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B). (paper)

  15. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, A; De Pasquale, A; Giovannetti, V; Rigovacca, L

    2014-01-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary R A whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B). (paper)

  16. Concrete damage diagnosed using the non-classical nonlinear acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Zhou; Xiao-Zhou, Liu; Xiu-Fen, Gong; E, Nazarov V; Li, Ma

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the strength of concrete is seriously affected by damage and cracking. In this paper, six concrete samples under different damage levels are studied. The experimental results show a linear dependence of the resonance frequency shift on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and approximate quadratic dependence of the amplitudes of the second and third harmonics on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency as well. In addition, the amplitude of the third harmonics is shown to increase with the increase of damage level, which is even higher than that of the second harmonics in samples with higher damage levels. These are three properties of non-classical nonlinear acoustics. The nonlinear parameters increase from 10 6 to 10 8 with damage level, and are more sensitive to the damage level of the concrete than the linear parameters obtained by using traditional acoustics methods. So, this method based on non-classical nonlinear acoustics may provide a better means of non-destructive testing (NDT) of concrete and other porous materials

  17. Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Observational study of differences in head position for high notes in famous classical and non-classical male singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Švec, Jan G

    2016-07-01

    Differences in classical and non-classical singing are due primarily to aesthetic style requirements. The head position can affect the sound quality. This study aimed at comparing the head position for famous classical and non-classical male singers performing high notes. Images of 39 Western classical and 34 non-classical male singers during live performances were obtained from YouTube. Ten raters evaluated the frontal rotational head position (depression versus elevation) and transverse head position (retraction versus protraction) visually using a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant difference for frontal rotational head position. Most non-classical singers in the sample elevated their heads for high notes while the classical singers were observed to keep it around the neutral position. This difference may be attributed to different singing techniques and phonatory system adjustments utilized by each group.

  19. Power generation versus fuel production in light water hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1977-06-01

    The economic potentials of fissile-fuel-producing light-water hybrid reactors (FFP-LWHR) and of fuel-self-sufficient (FSS) LWHR's are compared. A simple economic model is constructed that gives the capital investment allowed for the hybrid reactor so that the cost of electricity generated in the hybrid based energy system equals the cost of electricity generated in LWR's. The power systems considered are LWR, FSS-LWHR, and FFP-LWHR plus LWR, both with and without plutonium recycling. The economic potential of FFP-LWHR's is found superior to that of FSS-LWHR's. Moreover, LWHR's may compete, economically, with LWR's. Criteria for determining the more economical approach to hybrid fuel or power production are derived for blankets having a linear dependence between F and M. The examples considered favor the power generation rather than fuel production

  20. Non-Classical C–H···X Hydrogen Bonding and Its Role in Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-classical hydrogen bonds (NCHBs) have attracted significant interest in the past decade particularly because of their important role in asymmetric catalytic systems. These weak interactions (< 4 kcal/mol) offer much flexibility1 Introduction2 Hydrogen Bonds (HBs) and Non-Classical Hydrogen Bonds (NCHBs)3 Early Developments in NCHBs4 Selected Examples of NCHBs in Organic Transformations5 Recent Examples of NCHBs in Enantioselective Reactions6 Conclusions and Outlook

  1. Generating Selected Color using RGB, Auxiliary Lights, and Simplex Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim HyungTae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mixed light source generates various colors, with the potential to adjust intensities of multiple LEDs, which makes it possible to generate arbitrary colors. Currently, PCs and OSs provide color selection windows that can obtain the RGB or HSL color coordinates of a user’s selection. Mixed light sources are usually composed of LEDs in the primary colors, with LEDs in auxiliary colors such as white and yellow used in a few cases. When using auxiliary color LEDs, the number of LED inputs, the dimming levels, is larger than the number of elements in the color coordinate, which causes an under-determined problem. This study proposed how to determine the dimming levels of LEDs based on the selected color. Commercial LEDs have di_erent optical power values and impure color coordinates, even if they are RGB. Hence, the characteristics of the LEDs were described using a linear model derived from the tri-stimulus values (an XYZ color coordinate model and dimming levels. Color mixing models were derived for the arbitrary number of auxiliary color LEDs. The under-determined problem was solved using a simplex search method without an inverse matrix operation. The proposed method can be applied to a machine vision system and an RGBW light mixer for semiconductor inspection. The dimming levels, obtained using the proposed method were better than derived using other methods.

  2. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)

  3. New generation of light sources: Present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couprie, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Spectroscopy and imaging in the VUV–X-ray domain are very sensitive tools for the investigation of the properties of matter [1–3]. Time-resolved studies enable to follow the movies of ultra-fast reactions. More than fifty years after the laser discovery [4], VUVX light sources are actively developed around the world. Among them, high order harmonics generated in gas, X-ray lasers, synchrotron radiation, free electron lasers are providing a wide offer, from laboratory size sources to large scale facilities, with various features, suitable for different types of experiments. The properties of these sources are here reviewed. Quest of new performances and flexibility is also discussed

  4. Non-classical homogeneous precipitation mediated by compositional fluctuations in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, S.; Zheng, Y.; Williams, R.E.A.; Devaraj, A.; Boyne, A.; Wang, Y.; Collins, P.C.; Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J.S.; Muddle, B.C.; Banerjee, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence of homogeneous precipitation of the α-phase within the β matrix of a titanium alloy, and then accounts for this phase transformation by a new, non-classical mechanism involving compositional fluctuations, based on the pseudo-spinodal concept [1]. This mechanism involves local compositional fluctuations of small amplitude which, when of a certain magnitude, can favor thermodynamically certain regions of the β matrix to transform congruently to the α-phase but with compositions far from equilibrium. Subsequently, as measured experimentally using the tomographical atom probe, continuous diffusional partitioning between the parent β- and product α-phases during isothermal annealing drives their compositions towards equilibrium. For a given alloy composition, the decomposition mechanism is strongly temperature dependent, which would be expected for homogeneous precipitation via the compositional fluctuation-mediated mechanism but not necessarily for one based on classical nucleation theory. The applicability of this mechanism to phase transformations in general is noted.

  5. Is the anomalous magnetic moment the consequence of a non-classical transformation for rotating frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisin, B V

    2002-01-01

    We consider the anomalous magnetic moment from an 'optical viewpoint' using an analogy between the motion of a particle with a magnetic moment in a magnetic field and the propagation of an optical pulse through an electro-optical crystal in an electric field. We show that an optical experiment similar to electron magnetic resonance is possible in some electro-optical crystals possessing the Faraday effect. This phenomenon is described by an analogue of the Pauli equation extracted from the Maxwell equation in the slowly varied amplitude approximation. In such an experiment the modulation by rotating fields plays a significant role. From the optical viewpoint the modulation assumes introducing the concept of a point rotation frame with the rotation axis at every point originated from the concept of the optical indicatrix (index ellipsoid). We discuss the connection between the non-classical transformation by transition from one such frame to another and an anomalous magnetic moment

  6. New perspectives for "non-classical" molecules: heavy [1.1.1]propellanes of group 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Dominik; Breher, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Heavy analogues of hydrocarbons intrigue chemists for a number of reasons, not least because they are often fundamentally different from their carbon counterparts and have remained a challenge for both experimentalists and theoreticians for a long time. The appealing properties of [1.1.1]propellanes of group 14 consisting of inverted tetrahedral bridgehead atoms can mainly be attributed to the particular bonding between the latter. More than 20 years after the first member of this family has been published, several contributions to this area have impressively extended the spectrum of these so-called main-group biradicaloids. Still in its infancy, further perspectives for these "non-classical" molecules are now arising. In this tutorial review, early findings and recent developments in this area are presented. Particular attention is drawn on the relationship of unusual structures and unusual reactivities of main-group element compounds in general and in particular of heavy propellane scaffolds of group 14.

  7. Investigating β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy through computational approach: classical and non-classical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimeybodi, Ali; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2018-07-01

    The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy. The proposed computational model provides insights into the effects of β-adrenergic classical and non-classical pathways on the activity of hypertrophic transcription factors CREB and GATA4. The results illustrate that the model captures the dynamics of the main signaling mediators and reproduces the experimental observations well. The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. The model results illustrate that GSK3β deactivation after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation has a major influence on CREB and GATA4 activation and consequent cardiac hypertrophy. Also, it is found through sensitivity analysis that PKB (Akt) activation has both pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic effects in β-adrenergic signaling.

  8. Non-classical nuclear localization signal peptides for high efficiency lipofection of primary neurons and neuronal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Zhu, J; Maronski, M; Kotzbauer, P T; Lee, V M-Y; Dichter, M A; Diamond, S L

    2002-01-01

    Gene transfer into CNS is critical for potential therapeutic applications as well as for the study of the genetic basis of neural development and nerve function. Unfortunately, lipid-based gene transfer to CNS cells is extremely inefficient since the nucleus of these post-mitotic cells presents a significant barrier to transfection. We report the development of a simple and highly efficient lipofection method for primary embryonic rat hippocampal neurons (up to 25% transfection) that exploits the M9 sequence of the non-classical nuclear localization signal of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 for targeting beta(2)-karyopherin (transportin-1). M9-assistant lipofection resulted in 20-100-fold enhancement of transfection over lipofection alone for embryonic-derived retinal ganglion cells, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, embryonic rat ventral mesencephalon neurons, as well as the clinically relevant human NT2 cells or retinoic acid-differentiated NT2 neurons. This technique can facilitate the implementation of promoter construct experiments in post-mitotic cells, stable transformant generation, and dominant-negative mutant expression techniques in CNS cells.

  9. Squeezing and other non-classical features in k-photon anharmonic oscillator in binomial and negative binomial states of the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.; Lawande, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of squeezing obtained from k-photon anharmonic oscillator (with interaction hamiltonian of the form (a † ) k , k ≥ 2) interacting with light whose statistics can be varied from sub-Poissonian to poissonian via binomial state of field and super-Poissonian to poissonian via negative binomial state of field is presented. The authors predict that for all values of k there is a tendency increase in squeezing with increased sub-Poissonian character of the field while the reverse is true with super-Poissonian field. They also present non-classical behavior of the first order coherence function explicitly for k = 2 case (i.e., for two-photon anharmonic oscillator model used for a Kerr-like medium) with variation in the statistics of the input light

  10. The Concept of Post-Non-Classic al Methodological Strategy by Professor Olexander Oguy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olha Chervinska

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article under discussion is a survey of how a literary concept of a prominent Ukrainian German Studies expert Olexandr Dmytrovych Oguy has been developing on the pages of a scientific journal “Problems of Literary Criticism” from 1993 till 2013. The article traces up the stages of progress of scientist’s methodological strategy concerning the so-called concept of post-non-classicism, beginning with his first article in “The Issues”, where he presented an efficient sample of involving the timeless linguistic universals with the purpose of comparing the typologically similar genre forms. In this way, he managed to prove the authenticity of “The Tale of Igor’s Campaign” in historical-typological comparison with the medieval epic works (Issue 1, 1993. After a 15-year break, O. Oguy’s articles “A Three-Dimensional Poetic Space of ‘Lanzelet’ by Ulrich von Zatzikhoven” (review, 2010, “The Historical-Social Genres in Post-Non-Classical Methodology: the Principles of Classification” (2012, “The Principles of Formation of the Middle Age German Literature: Overcoming the Crisis Stages through New Genres” (2013 were published in the journal. Each of these works contains a distinct conceptual program. The review was not restricted by a mere critical analysis of the work by a German researcher Kai Lorenz. It also highlighted the difference between methodological fundamentals of European and Ukrainian scientific text analyses – “different paradigms of foreign and Ukrainian Medievalist Studies”. This scientific text is a topical “transplantation” of analytic methodology of K. Lorenz into Ukrainian philological practice. It was introduced into scientific circulation as the so-called “trichotomic model” of functional types of the interacting spatial structures. The article “The Historical-Social Genres in Post-Non-Classical Methodology: the Principles of Classification” (Issue 86, 2012 is a vivid example of

  11. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ∼2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  12. Development of next-generation light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Fumihiko; Yasuoka, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The Next-Generation Light Water Reactor Development Program, a national project in Japan, was inaugurated in April 2008. The primary objective of this program is to meet the need for the replacement of existing nuclear power plants in Japan after 2030. With the aim of setting a global standard design, the reactor to be developed offers greatly improved safety, reliability, and economic efficiency through several innovative technologies, including a reactor core system with uranium enrichment of 5 to 10%, a seismic isolation system, long-life materials, advanced water chemistry, innovative construction techniques, optimized passive and active safety systems, innovative digital technologies, and so on. In the first three years, a plant design concept with these innovative features is to be established and the effectiveness of the program will be reevaluated. The major part of the program will be completed in 2015. Toshiba is actively engaged in both design studies and technology development as a founding member of this program. (author)

  13. The potential and limitations of third generation light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hormes, Josef

    2011-01-01

    To date, 3rd generation Light Sources, i.e. electron storage rings where mainly radiation from insertion devices (wigglers and undulators) is used for synchrotron radiation experiments are the 'workhorses' for basic and applied VUV/X-ray research. Several machine parameters. i.e. the energy of the electrons, the emittance and the circumference of the machine, together with the specification of the corresponding insertion devices determine the 'quality' of a facility and a specific beamline. In this talk, several of these aspects are discussed mainly from a users' point of view, i.e. what are the required specifications to carry out 'state-of-the-art' experiments in various areas, e.g. protein crystallography, Resonant Elastic and Inelastic X-ray Scattering (REIXS), Micro-/nanospectroscopy, and time resolved experiments in the femtosecond time domain. (author)

  14. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  15. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brümmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Weiler, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking

  16. Light third-generation squarks from flavour gauge messengers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, Felix; McGarrie, Moritz; Univ. of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; Weiler, Andreas; CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    2014-04-01

    We study models of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking with a gauged horizontal SU(3) F symmetry acting on the quark superfields. If SU(3) F is broken non-supersymmetrically by F-term vacuum expectation values, the massive gauge bosons and gauginos become messengers for SUSY breaking mediation. These gauge messenger fields induce a flavour-dependent, negative contribution to the soft masses of the squarks at one loop. In combination with the soft terms from standard gauge mediation, one obtains large and degenerate first- and second-generation squark masses, while the stops and sbottoms are light. We discuss the implications of this mechanism for the superparticle spectrum and for flavour precision observables. We also provide an explicit realization in a model with simultaneous SUSY and SU(3) F breaking.

  17. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Pugalenthi, Ganesan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe [Centre for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Biology, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Moeller, Steffen [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Suganthan, P.N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Martinetz, Thomas, E-mail: martinetz@inb.uni-luebeck.de [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  18. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  19. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Prenucleation Clusters, Classical and Non-Classical Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2015-07-20

    Recent observations of prenucleation species and multi-stage crystal nucleation processes challenge the long-established view on the thermodynamics of crystal formation. Here, we review and generalize extensions to classical nucleation theory. Going beyond the conventional implementation as has been used for more than a century now, nucleation inhibitors, precursor clusters and non-classical nucleation processes are rationalized as well by analogous concepts based on competing interface and bulk energy terms. This is illustrated by recent examples of species formed prior to/instead of crystal nucleation and multi-step nucleation processes. Much of the discussed insights were obtained from molecular simulation using advanced sampling techniques, briefly summarized herein for both nucleation-controlled and diffusion-controlled aggregate formation. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  20. Imidazolines as Non-Classical Bioisosteres of N-Acyl homoserine lactones and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Montenegro-Sustaita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of selected 2-substituted imidazolines were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by a modification of protocols reported in the literature. They were evaluated as potential non-classical bioisosteres of AHL with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Imidazolines 18a, 18e and 18f at various concentrations reduced the violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum, suggesting an anti-quorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Imidazoline 18b did not affect the production of violacein, but had a bacteriostatic effect at 100 µM and a bactericidal effect at 1 mM. Imidazoline 18a bearing a hexyl phenoxy moiety was the most active compound of the series, rendering a 72% inhibitory effect of quorum sensing at 100 µM. Imidazoline 18f bearing a phenyl nonamide substituent presented an inhibitory effect on quorum sensing at a very low concentration (1 nM, with a reduction percentage of 28%. This compound showed an irregular performance, decreasing inhibition at concentrations higher than 10 µM, until reaching 100 µM, at which concentration it increased the inhibitory effect with a 49% reduction percentage. When evaluated on Serratia marcescens, compound 18f inhibited the production of prodigiosin by 40% at 100 μM.

  1. Non-classical neutron beams for fundamental and solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    2008-01-01

    The curious dual nature of the neutron, sometimes a particle, sometimes a wave, is wonderfully manifested in the various non-local interference and quantum contextuality effects observed in neutron interferometry. Non-classical states may become useful for novel fundamental and solid state research. Here we discuss unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments and we show how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality. In all cases of interactions, parasitic beams are produced which cannot be recombined completely with the original beam. This means that a complete reconstruction of the original state would, in principle, be impossible which causes a kind of intrinsic irreversibility. Even small interaction potentials can have huge effects when they are applied in quantum Zeno-like experiments. Recently, it has been shown that an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom exists even in single particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be discussed. (author)

  2. Coherent interference effects and squeezed light generation in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kenan

    My Ph.D. dissertation is on the fundamental effects in optomechanical systems (OMS) and their important applications. The OMS are based on the possibility of the mechanical motion produced by few photons incident on the mechanical device. This dissertation presents several applications of the OMS in the area of storage of light in long-lived phonons, single mode optomechanical Ramsey interferometry, and generation of large amount of squeezing in the output radiation. The long-lived phonons can be monitored and controlled via optical means as was experimentally demonstrated. To show this, I develop the theory of transient electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For further applications like state transfer, especially over very different frequency regimes, I consider double-cavity OMS, where the two cavities can correspond to different spectral domains, yet the state transfer is possible via phonons. The state transfer is based on a new effect, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), where one uses a second control field from the other cavity to produce an absorption peak inside the EIT window. All these involve the interference of various path ways via which a final state is reached. The following chapter shows how Fano-like interference can arise in OMS. A Fano asymmetry parameter for OMS was defined. The last two chapters deal with the question if OMS can be efficient generators of squeezed light. I show by blue and red tuning the two cavities in a double-cavity OMS, one can generate effectively a two-mode parametric interaction which yields two-mode squeezed output with the squeezing magnitude of the order of 10dB. This requires a bath temperature of 10mK. Such temperatures obtained by using Helium dilution refrigerator are routinely used with superconducting OMS. The major part of this dissertation is devoted to the dispersive optomechanical interaction. However, the interaction can also be dissipative, where the mechanical displacement modulates

  3. A non-classical view of the modulation of mineral precipitation by organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Questions persist on the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate or barium sulphate. Compared to CaCO3, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth in the CaC2O4-H2O or BaSO4-H2O systems have received less attention. These phases are important due to their relevance as biominerals and/or unwanted mineral deposits in technological applications. Growing evidence suggests that sparingly soluble salts form by non-classical nucleation and growth pathways, where pre-nucleation ion associates and amorphous (solid or liquid) precursor phase(s) play a critical role (e.g. Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2015), Ruiz-Agudo et al. (2015)). Indeed the identification of pre-nucleation species in these systems and their strong interactions with organic compounds (Verch et al. 2011) raises the possibility that the control of organics on biomineralization may begin even earlier than previously thought. A sound knowledge of the physical mechanisms by which acidic macromolecules affect nucleation and early growth may offer general insights concerning the molecular control of biomineralization, as well as being critical for improving strategies to control unwanted mineral deposition or for the synthesis of biomimetic materials. Here we present investigations on the initial stages of the precipitation of these relevant minerals in organic-free solutions to identify the precipitation pathway and to look for any potential precursor phase(s) to the final, crystalline polymorph. As well, we explore the effects that several acidic organic compounds have on the different precipitation stages identified. We find that organic additives such as citric acid, polyacrilic acid or a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups can be active at modifying pre-nucleation stages (destabilizing of pre-nucleation species or hampering the aggregation and growth of pre-nucleation associates) and subsequently strongly

  4. Review of third and next generation synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H; Elleaume, Pascal; Weckert, Edgar

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation (SR) is having a very large impact on interdisciplinary science and has been tremendously successful with the arrival of third generation synchrotron x-ray sources. But the revolution in x-ray science is still gaining momentum. Even though new storage rings are currently under construction, even more advanced rings are under design (PETRA III and the ultra high energy x-ray source) and the uses of linacs (energy recovery linac, x-ray free electron laser) can take us further into the future, to provide the unique synchrotron light that is so highly prized for today's studies in science in such fields as materials science, physics, chemistry and biology, for example. All these machines are highly reliant upon the consequences of Einstein's special theory of relativity. The consequences of relativity account for the small opening angle of synchrotron radiation in the forward direction and the increasing mass an electron gains as it is accelerated to high energy. These are familiar results to every synchrotron scientist. In this paper we outline not only the origins of SR but discuss how Einstein's strong character and his intuition and excellence have not only marked the physics of the 20th century but provide the foundation for continuing accelerator developments into the 21st century

  5. Simulation of white light generation and near light bullets using a novel numerical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Haider

    2018-01-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation has been devised, employing a new numerical technique to simulate the derivative generalised non-linear Schrödinger equation in all three spatial dimensions and time. The simulation models all pertinent effects such as self-steepening and plasma for the non-linear propagation of ultrafast optical radiation in bulk material. Simulation results are compared to published experimental spectral data of an example ytterbium aluminum garnet system at 3.1 μm radiation and fits to within a factor of 5. The simulation shows that there is a stability point near the end of the 2 mm crystal where a quasi-light bullet (spatial temporal soliton) is present. Within this region, the pulse is collimated at a reduced diameter (factor of ∼2) and there exists a near temporal soliton at the spatial center. The temporal intensity within this stable region is compressed by a factor of ∼4 compared to the input. This study shows that the simulation highlights new physical phenomena based on the interplay of various linear, non-linear and plasma effects that go beyond the experiment and is thus integral to achieving accurate designs of white light generation systems for optical applications. An adaptive error reduction algorithm tailor made for this simulation will also be presented in appendix.

  6. A method for the rapid generation of nonsequential light-response curves of chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serôdio, João; Ezequiel, João; Frommlet, Jörg; Laviale, Martin; Lavaud, Johann

    2013-11-01

    Light-response curves (LCs) of chlorophyll fluorescence are widely used in plant physiology. Most commonly, LCs are generated sequentially, exposing the same sample to a sequence of distinct actinic light intensities. These measurements are not independent, as the response to each new light level is affected by the light exposure history experienced during previous steps of the LC, an issue particularly relevant in the case of the popular rapid light curves. In this work, we demonstrate the proof of concept of a new method for the rapid generation of LCs from nonsequential, temporally independent fluorescence measurements. The method is based on the combined use of sample illumination with digitally controlled, spatially separated beams of actinic light and a fluorescence imaging system. It allows the generation of a whole LC, including a large number of actinic light steps and adequate replication, within the time required for a single measurement (and therefore named "single-pulse light curve"). This method is illustrated for the generation of LCs of photosystem II quantum yield, relative electron transport rate, and nonphotochemical quenching on intact plant leaves exhibiting distinct light responses. This approach makes it also possible to easily characterize the integrated dynamic light response of a sample by combining the measurement of LCs (actinic light intensity is varied while measuring time is fixed) with induction/relaxation kinetics (actinic light intensity is fixed and the response is followed over time), describing both how the response to light varies with time and how the response kinetics varies with light intensity.

  7. Improved CORF model of simple cell combined with non-classical receptive field and its application on edge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chai, Guobei; Liu, Wei; Bao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ming, Delie

    2018-02-01

    Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local edge information from a visual scene. In this paper, inspired by different receptive field properties and visual information flow paths of neurons, an improved Combination of Receptive Fields (CORF) model combined with non-classical receptive fields was proposed to simulate the responses of simple cell's receptive fields. Compared to the classical model, the proposed model is able to better imitate simple cell's physiologic structure with consideration of facilitation and suppression of non-classical receptive fields. And on this base, an edge detection algorithm as an application of the improved CORF model was proposed. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed algorithm to noise and background interference.

  8. Non-Classical C–H···X Hydrogen Bonding and Its Role in Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2016-08-17

    Non-classical hydrogen bonds (NCHBs) have attracted significant interest in the past decade particularly because of their important role in asymmetric catalytic systems. These weak interactions (< 4 kcal/mol) offer much flexibility in the preorganization of molecular entities required to achieve high enantioselectivity. Herein, we review some recent important organocatalytic asymmetric reactions where a NCHB serves as a critical factor in determining the stereoselectivity.

  9. Generation of an incident focused light pulse in FDTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoğlu, Ilker R; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2008-11-10

    A straightforward procedure is described for accurately creating an incident focused light pulse in the 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulation of the image space of an aplanatic converging lens. In this procedure, the focused light pulse is approximated by a finite sum of plane waves, and each plane wave is introduced into the FDTD simulation grid using the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) approach. The accuracy of our results is demonstrated by comparison with exact theoretical formulas.

  10. Photon correlation spectroscopy of classical and non-classical light fields and its debt to Glauber and Harvard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Union Gikon Company of Japan has designed their new photon-correlation spectrometer to the outside world with the aid of a number of Japanese Universities and Industrial Research Laboratories. It comes with a list of some two dozen Japanese Institutions who have been using it successfully since its recent launch in their home country. The cost of the system is some $60,000 and it will no doubt, find its place in the market alongside existing well-known photon correlation systems such as those from Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Hiac Royco, Coulter and Malvern Instruments. Although they may be used for other purposes, the main application of the instruments is the measurement of sizes of submicron particles such as proteins, enzymes, viruses, polymers and numerous other macro-molecular substances. A topical proposal, for example, is the detection of the immunological reactions of the AIDS virus. Photon correlation spectroscopy has become an important technique in modern laboratory practice

  11. Schrodinger cat state generation using a slow light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, B. S.; Kim, M. S.

    2003-01-01

    We show a practical application of giant Kerr nonlinearity to quantum information processing based on superposition of two distinct macroscopic states- Schrodinger cat state. The giant Kerr nonlinearity can be achieved by using electromagnetically induced transparency, in which light propagation should be slowed down so that a pi-phase shift can be easily obtained owing to increased interaction time.

  12. Non-classical signature of parametric fluorescence and its application in metrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamar, Martin; Michálek, Václav; Pathak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 227-236 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parametric fluorescence * photon number squeezed light * quantum efficiency Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2014

  13. Hydrogen generator from light hydrocarbons for stationary applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipiti, F.; Recupero, Vincenzo; Pino, L.; Vita, A.; Lagana, M.

    2006-01-01

    The present article describes the activities carried out in the CNR institute, particularly the development, realization and testing of one unit of hydrogen generation to integrate with fuel-cells for residential applications [it

  14. Using Nonuniform Fiber to Generate Slow Light via SBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhai Li

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The data pulse delay based on slow light induced by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS in a nonuniform dispersion decreasing fiber (DDF is demonstrated experimentally, and the distortions of data pulses at different beat frequencies are studied. We found that a delay exceeding a pulse width can be achieved at particular beat frequency, and the DDF has larger delay versus gain slope coefficient with much better output pulse quality than single-mode fiber.

  15. 3D computer generated medical holograms using spatial light modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sheet

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to electronically generate the diffraction patterns of medical images and then trying to optically reconstruct the corresponding holographs to be displayed in space. This method is proposed in a trial to find a smart alternative of the expensive and perishable recording plates.

  16. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2 addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  17. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; de Mets, Richard; Balland, Martial; Beauchef, Gallic; Vié, Katell; Chamot, Christophe; Lionnet, Claire; Ruggiero, Florence; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2) addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  18. Polarization holograms allow highly efficient generation of complex light beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, U; Pagliusi, P; Provenzano, C; Volke-Sepúlveda, K; Cipparrone, Gabriella

    2013-03-25

    We report a viable method to generate complex beams, such as the non-diffracting Bessel and Weber beams, which relies on the encoding of amplitude information, in addition to phase and polarization, using polarization holography. The holograms are recorded in polarization sensitive films by the interference of a reference plane wave with a tailored complex beam, having orthogonal circular polarizations. The high efficiency, the intrinsic achromaticity and the simplicity of use of the polarization holograms make them competitive with respect to existing methods and attractive for several applications. Theoretical analysis, based on the Jones formalism, and experimental results are shown.

  19. Safety reviews of next-generation light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudrick, J.A.; Wilson, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is reviewing three applications for design certification under its new licensing process. The U.S. Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) and System 80+ designs have received final design approvals. The AP600 design review is continuing. The goals of design certification are to achieve early resolution of safety issues and to provide a more stable and predictable licensing process. NRC also reviewed the Utility Requirements Document (URD) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and determined that its guidance does not conflict with NRC requirements. This review led to the identification and resolution of many generic safety issues. The NRC determined that next-generation reactor designs should achieve a higher level of safety for selected technical and severe accident issues. Accordingly, NRC developed new review standards for these designs based on (1) operating experience, including the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2; (2) the results of probabilistic risk assessments of current and next-generation reactor designs; (3) early efforts on severe accident rulemaking; and (4) research conducted to address previously identified generic safety issues. The additional standards were used during the individual design reviews and the resolutions are documented in the design certification rules. 12 refs

  20. Fundamental Scaling of Microplasmas and Tunable UV Light Generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manginell, Ronald P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sillerud, Colin Halliday [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hopkins, Matthew M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yee, Benjamin Tong [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Moorman, Matthew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schwindt, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, John Moses [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Nathaniel Bryant [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The temporal evolution of spectral lines from microplasma devices (MD) was studied, including impurity transitions. Long-wavelength emission diminishes more rapidly than deep UV with decreasing pulse width and RF operation. Thus, switching from DC to short pulsed or RF operation, UV emissions can be suppressed, allowing for real-time tuning of the ionization energy of a microplasma photo-ionization source, which is useful for chemical and atomic physics. Scaling allows MD to operate near atmospheric pressure where excimer states are efficiently created and emit down to 65 nm; laser emissions fall off below 200 nm, making MD light sources attractive for deep UV use. A first fully-kinetic three-dimensional model was developed that explicitly calculates electron-energy distribution function. This, and non-continuum effects, were studied with the model and how they are impacted by geometry and transient or DC operation. Finally, a global non-dimensional model was developed to help explain general trends MD physics.

  1. Amazon forest structure generates diurnal and seasonal variability in light utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas C. Morton; Jeremy Rubio; Bruce D. Cook; Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry; Marcos Longo; Hyeungu Choi; Maria Hunter; Michael Keller

    2016-01-01

    The complex three-dimensional (3-D) structure of tropical forests generates a diversity of light environments for canopy and understory trees. Understanding diurnal and seasonal changes in light availability is critical for interpreting measurements of net ecosystem exchange and improving ecosystem models. Here, we used the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART...

  2. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Versatile and Simple Approach to Generate Light Emission in Semiconductors Mediated by Electric Double Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang

    2017-04-18

    The light-emitting device is the primary device for current light sources. In principle, conventional light-emitting devices need heterostructures and/or intentional carrier doping to form a p-n junction. This junction formation is, however, very difficult to achieve for most emerging semiconductors, and the fabrication of light-emitting devices is invariably a significant challenge. This study proposes a versatile and simple approach to realize light-emitting devices. This proposed device requires only a semiconducting film with two electrodes that are covered with an electrolyte. This unique structure achieves light emission at a voltage slightly larger than the bandgap energy of materials. This study applies this concept to emerging direct bandgap semiconductors, such as transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers and zinc oxide single crystals. These devices generate obvious light emission and provide sufficient evidence of the formation of a dynamic p-i-n junction or tunneling junction, presenting a versatile technique to develop optoelectronic devices.

  4. Overview on methods for formulating explicit damping matrices for non-classically damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.

    1998-04-01

    In computing the dynamic response of a connected system with multiple components having dissimilar damping characteristics, which is often referred to as nonclassically damped system such as nuclear power plant piping systems supported by stiff structures, one needs to define the system-level damping based upon the damping information of components. This is frequently done in practice using approximate methods expressed as composite modal damping with weighting functions. However, when the difference in damping among components is substantial, the composite modal damping may become inappropriate in the characterization of the damping behavior of such systems. In recent years, several new methods have emerged with the expectation that they could produce more exact system-level damping for a group of nonclassically damped structures which are comprised of components that possess classical modal damping. In this paper, an overview is presented to examine these methods in the light of their theoretical basis, the technical merits, and practical applications. To this end, a synthesis method is described, which was shown to reduce to the other methods in the literature

  5. Fabrication of thin-film thermoelectric generators with ball lenses for conversion of near-infrared solar light

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Kondo, Tasuku; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    We designed and fabricated thin-film thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with ball lenses, which separated visible light and near-infrared (NIR) solar light using a chromatic aberration. The transmitted visible light was used as daylight and the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Solar light was estimated to be separated into the visible light and NIR light by a ray tracing method. 92.7% of the visible light was used as daylight and 9.9% of the NIR light was used for thermoelectri...

  6. Light ion beams generation in dense plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Okada, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The high energy deuterons and protons in a Mather type plasma focus device were measured by nuclear activation techniques. The radioactivity induced in graphite, aluminum and copper targets provided the deuteron intensity, energy spectra and angular dependence. High energy protons were measured by cellulose nitrate particle track detectors. The plasma focus device was operated at 30 kV for a stored energy of 18 kJ at 1.5 Torr D 2 (low pressure mode), and 5 Torr D 2 (high pressure mode). The yield ratio of N-13 and Al-28 showed the mean deuteron energy of 1.55 MeV under low pressure mode and of 1.44 MeV under high pressure mode. The deuteron energy spectra were measured by the stacks of 10 aluminum foils, and consisted of two components as well as the proton energy spectra measured by CN film technique. The angular spread of deuteron beam was within 30 degree under low pressure mode. Under high pressure mode, the distribution showed multi-structure, and two peaks were observed at the angle smaller than 20 degree and at 60 degree. The protons with energy more than 770 keV were directed in the angle of 10 degree. The high energy electron beam was also observed. A three-channel ruby laser holographic interferometry was used to see the spatial and temporal location of the generation of high energy ions. The ion temperature in plasma focus was estimated from D + He 3 mixture gas experiment. (Kato, T.)

  7. Light-Induced Acid Generation on a Gatekeeper for Smart Nitric Oxide Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyung Woo; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Jinhwan; Kim, Yonghwi; Song, Hyun Beom; Kim, Jeong Hun; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-04-26

    We report herein the design of a light-responsive gatekeeper for smart nitric oxide (NO) delivery. The gatekeeper is composed of a pH-jump reagent as an intermediary of stimulus and a calcium phosphate (CaP) coating as a shielding layer for NO release. The light irradiation and subsequent acid generation are used as triggers for uncapping the gatekeeper and releasing NO. The acids generated from a light-activated pH-jump agent loaded in the mesoporous nanoparticles accelerated the degradation of the CaP-coating layers on the nanoparticles, facilitating the light-responsive NO release from diazeniumdiolate by exposing a NO donor to physiological conditions. Using the combination of the pH-jump reagent and CaP coating, we successfully developed a light-responsive gatekeeper system for spatiotemporal-controlled NO delivery.

  8. Surface plasmon polariton generation by light scattering off aligned organic nanofibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Søndergaard, Thomas; Fiutowski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Leakage radiation spectroscopy has been applied to study surface plasmon polariton (SPP) generation by light scattered off aligned organic nanofibers deposited on a thin silver film. The efficiency of SPP generation was studied by angularly resolved leakage radiation spectroscopy as a function of...

  9. The formation the system of values in terms of post-non-classical rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chechelnitskiy

    2014-11-01

    Significant impact on the content, as well as the peculiarities of social rationality of postnonclassical type was made by the following factors: globalization, information revolution, philosophical writings of postmodernists, peculiarities of the post-nonclassical science development. Detailed study of rational activity in the context of post-nonclassical science involves access to the problems associated with the study of value attitude and how it ensures the development of human activity in the direction of the subject, how it transforms this content into a cultural experience that is realized in the system of certain standards, compliance with which determines the social character of the individual, his or her acts of thinking. Value orientations are relatively autonomous, as the representation of values is based primarily on the philosophical views. However, generated views affect the interests, goals, needs, activities, development of all aspects of human life and social structures. In value orientations is objectified not only the experience of the human himself, but also of the historical experience. Embodied in systems of norms, value orientations, and in the criteria, it becomes available to every individual and allows him or her to define the parameters of the cultural activities.

  10. Supplemental material: afterburner for generating light (anti-)nuclei with QCD-inspired event generators in pp collisions

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This note complements the paper titled: ``Production of deuterons, tritons, $^{3}$He nuclei and their anti-nuclei in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$~=~0.9, 2.76 and 7~TeV'' with additional material related to Monte Carlo simulations necessary to compare the results with lower energy experiments. It describes a coalescence-based afterburner for QCD-inspired event generators, which allows the generation of light nuclei, hyper-nuclei and their charge conjugates in proton--proton (pp) collisions at LHC energies. The event generators with the afterburner are able to reproduce the differential cross sections of light (anti-)nuclei ($A<4)$ with the same degree of agreement as those of protons and anti-protons at the same momentum per nucleon. They also explain the transverse momentum dependence of the coalescence parameters as the result of hard scattering effects.

  11. Spectral and spatial characteristics of third-harmonic generation in conical light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peet, V.E.; Shchemeljov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Generation of resonance-enhanced third harmonic in Bessel and other conical beams is analyzed from a simple picture, where the fundamental light field is decomposed into elementary configurations of crossed plain-wave sub-beams. We show that the overall harmonic output can be derived as a superposition of all partial harmonic components driven by elementary configurations of the fundamental field. Good agreement with experimental observations has been obtained in simulation of spectral and spatial characteristics of the generated third harmonic. Some peculiarities of harmonic generation in conical light fields are discussed

  12. Singly-resonant sum frequency generation of visible light in a semiconductor disk laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Thalbitzer; Schlosser, P.J.; Hastie, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a generic approach for visible light generation is presented. It is based on sum frequency generation between a semiconductor disk laser and a solid-state laser, where the frequency mixing is achieved within the cavity of the semiconductor disk laser using a singlepass of the solid......-state laser light. This exploits the good beam quality and high intra-cavity power present in the semiconductor disk laser to achieve high conversion efficiency. Combining sum frequency mixing and semiconductor disk lasers in this manner allows in principle for generation of any wavelength within the visible...

  13. Towards the unified non-classical physics: account for quantum fluctuations in equilibrium thermodynamics via the effective temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G.Rudoy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective temperature (ET T*(T0, T is used in order to approximately "quantize" the thermodynamic functions of the dynamical object which is in the thermal equilibrium with thermal bath being at constant temperature T (T0=E0/kB, where E0 is the ground-state energy, kB - Boltzmann constant, is the characteristic ``quantum'' temperature of the system itself. On these grounds the extensive comparative investigation is carried out for the ``standard model'' of statistical mechanics - the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO. Three well-known approaches are considered and their thermodynamic consequences thoroughly studied. These are: the exact quantum, or non-classical Planck-Einstein approach, intermediate, or semiclassical Bloch-Wigner approach and, finally, the pure classical, or Maxwell-Boltzmann approach.

  14. Nuclear translocation of glutathione S-transferase {pi} is mediated by a non-classical localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, Miho [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Goto, Shinji, E-mail: sgoto@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yoshida, Takako; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is abrogated by the deletion of the last 16 amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region, indicating that residues 195-208 of GST{pi} are required for nuclear translocation. {yields} The lack of a contiguous stretch of positively charged amino acid residues within the carboxy-terminal region of GST{pi}, suggests that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is mediated by a non-classical nuclear localization signal. {yields} An in vitro transport assay shows that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is dependent on cytosolic factors and ATP. -- Abstract: Glutathione S-transferase {pi} (GST{pi}), a member of the GST family of multifunctional enzymes, is highly expressed in human placenta and involved in the protection of cellular components against electrophilic compounds or oxidative stress. We have recently found that GST{pi} is expressed in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus in some cancer cells, and that the nuclear expression of GST{pi} appears to correlate with resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Although the mitochondrial targeting signal of GST{pi} was previously identified in the amino-terminal region, the mechanism of nuclear translocation remains completely unknown. In this study, we find that the region of GST{pi}195-208 is critical for nuclear translocation, which is mediated by a novel and non-classical nuclear localization signal. In addition, using an in vitro transport assay, we demonstrate that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} depends on the cytosolic extract and ATP. Although further experiments are needed to understand in depth the precise mechanism of nuclear translocation of GST{pi}, our results may help to establish more efficient anti-cancer therapy, especially with respect to resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  15. Characterization of novel StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mutations causing non-classic lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E Flück

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH. OBJECTIVE: StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. DESIGN: To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. SETTING: Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. RESULTS: StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (∼30% and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.

  16. Process for superheating the steam generated by a light water nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakil, H.B.; Brown, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    A process is submitted for superheating the pressurised steam generated in a light water nuclear reactor in which the steam is brought to 340 0 C at least. This superheated steam is used to operate a turbo-generator unit. The characteristic of the process is that an exothermal chemical reaction is used to generate the heat utilised during the superheating stage. The chemical reaction is a mechanisation, oxidation-reduction or hydrogenation reaction [fr

  17. Laser-produced plasma-extreme ultraviolet light source for next generation lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Katsunobu; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Gamada, Kouhei; Murakami, Masakatsu; Mochizuki, Takayasu; Sasaki, Akira; Sunahara, Atsushi

    2005-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the most promising candidate for the next generation lithography for the 45 nm technology node and below. EUV light sources under consideration use 13.5 nm radiations from multicharged xenon, tin and lithium ions, because Mo/Si multiplayer mirrors have high reflectivity at this wavelength. A review of laser-produced plasma (LPP) EUV light sources is presented with a focus on theoretical and experimental studies under the auspices of the Leading Project promoted by MEXT. We discuss three theoretical topics: atomic processes in the LPP-EUV light source, conversion efficiency from laser light to EUV light at 13.5 nm wave-length with 2% bound width, and fast ion spectra. The properties of EUV emission from tin and xenon plasmas are also shown based on experimental results. (author)

  18. Broadband light generation at ~1300 nm through spectrally recoiled solitons and dispersive waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Peter Andreas; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Bang, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation of broadband light at ~1300 nm from an 810 nm Ti:sapphire femtosecond pump laser. We use two photonic crystal fibers with a second infrared zero-dispersion wavelength (λZ2) and compare the efficiency of two schemes: in one fiber λZ2=1400 nm and the light...... at 1300 nm is composed of spectrally recoiled solitons; in the other fiber λZ2=1200 nm and the light at 1300 nm is composed of dispersive waves....

  19. Nonclassical-light generation in a photonic-band-gap nonlinear planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Sibilia, Concita; Tricca, Daniela; Bertolotti, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The optical parametric process occurring in a photonic-band-gap planar waveguide is studied from the point of view of nonclassical-light generation. The nonlinearly interacting optical fields are described by the generalized superposition of coherent signals and noise using the method of operator linear corrections to a classical strong solution. Scattered backward-propagating fields are taken into account. Squeezed light as well as light with sub-Poissonian statistics can be obtained in two-mode fields under the specified conditions

  20. Light activation of the LOV protein Vivid generates a rapidly exchanging dimer†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Brian D.; Crane, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    The fungal photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) plays an important role in the adaptation of blue-light responses in Neurospora crassa. VVD, an FAD-binding LOV (Light, Oxygen, Voltage) protein, couples light-induced cysteinyl-adduct formation at the flavin ring to conformational changes in the N-terminal cap (Ncap) of the VVD PAS domain. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), equilibrium ultracentrifugation, and static and dynamic light scattering show that these conformational changes generate a rapidly exchanging VVD dimer, with an expanded hydrodynamic radius. A three-residue N-terminal β-turn that assumes two different conformations in a crystal structure of a VVD C71V variant is essential for light-state dimerization. Residue substitutions at a critical hinge between the Ncap and PAS core can inhibit or enhance dimerization, whereas a Tyr to Trp substitution at the Ncap-to-PAS interface stabilizes the light-state dimer. Cross-linking through engineered disulfides indicates that the light-state dimer differs considerably from the dark-state dimer found in VVD crystal structures. These results verify the role of Ncap conformational changes in gating the photic response of Neurospora crassa, and indicate that LOV:LOV homo or hetero dimerization may be a mechanism for regulating light-activated gene expression. PMID:18553928

  1. Light activation of the LOV protein vivid generates a rapidly exchanging dimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Brian D; Crane, Brian R

    2008-07-08

    The fungal photoreceptor Vivid (VVD) plays an important role in the adaptation of blue-light responses in Neurospora crassa. VVD, an FAD-binding LOV (light, oxygen, voltage) protein, couples light-induced cysteinyl adduct formation at the flavin ring to conformational changes in the N-terminal cap (Ncap) of the VVD PAS domain. Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), equilibrium ultracentrifugation, and static and dynamic light scattering show that these conformational changes generate a rapidly exchanging VVD dimer, with an expanded hydrodynamic radius. A three-residue N-terminal beta-turn that assumes two different conformations in a crystal structure of a VVD C71V variant is essential for light-state dimerization. Residue substitutions at a critical hinge between the Ncap and PAS core can inhibit or enhance dimerization, whereas a Tyr to Trp substitution at the Ncap-PAS interface stabilizes the light-state dimer. Cross-linking through engineered disulfides indicates that the light-state dimer differs considerably from the dark-state dimer found in VVD crystal structures. These results verify the role of Ncap conformational changes in gating the photic response of N. crassa and indicate that LOV-LOV homo- or heterodimerization may be a mechanism for regulating light-activated gene expression.

  2. Design mechanic generator under speed bumper to support electricity recourse for urban traffic light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabri, M.; Lauzuardy, Jason; Syam, Bustami

    2018-03-01

    The electrical energy needs for the traffic lights in some cities of developing countries cannot be achieved continuously due to limited capacity and interruption of electricity distribution, the main power plant. This issues can lead to congestion at the crossroads. To overcome the problem of street chaos due to power failure, we can cultivate to provide electrical energy from other sources such as using the bumper to generate kinetic energy, which can be converted into electrical energy. This study designed a generator mechanic that will be mounted on the bumper construction to generate electricity for the purposes of traffic lights at the crossroads. The Mechanical generator is composed of springs, levers, sprockets, chains, flywheel and customize power generator. Through the rotation of the flywheel, we can earned 9 Volt DC voltage and electrical current of 5.89 Ampere. This achievement can be used to charge the accumulator which can be used to power the traffic lights, and to charge the accumulator capacity of 6 Ah, the generator works in the charging time for 1.01 hours.

  3. Structured light generation by magnetic metamaterial half-wave plates at visible wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinwei; Luk, Ting S.; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    Metamaterial or metasurface unit cells functioning as half-wave plates play an essential role for realizing ideal Pancharatnam-Berry phase optical elements capable of tailoring light phase and polarization as desired. Complex light beam manipulation through these metamaterials or metasurfaces unveils new dimensions of light-matter interactions for many advances in diffraction engineering, beam shaping, structuring light, and holography. However, the realization of metamaterial or metasurface half-wave plates in visible spectrum range is still challenging mainly due to its specific requirements of strong phase anisotropy with amplitude isotropy in subwavelength scale. Here, we propose magnetic metamaterial structures which can simultaneously exploit the electric field and magnetic field of light for achieving the nanoscale half-wave plates at visible wavelength. We design and demonstrate the magnetic metamaterial half-wave plates in linear grating patterns with high polarization conversion purity in a deep subwavelength thickness. Then, we characterize the equivalent magnetic metamaterial half-wave plates in cylindrical coordinate as concentric-ring grating patterns, which act like an azimuthal half-wave plate and accordingly exhibit spatially inhomogeneous polarization and phase manipulations including spin-to-orbital angular momentum conversion and vector beam generation. Our results show potentials for realizing on-chip beam converters, compact holograms, and many other metamaterial devices for structured light beam generation, polarization control, and wavefront manipulation.

  4. Photoluminescence from a Tb-doped photonic crystal microcavity for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yigang; Almeida, Rui M

    2010-01-01

    Terbium-doped one-dimensional triple microcavities have been prepared by sol-gel processing. The photoluminescence (PL) of Tb 3+ ions outside a microcavity structure, when excited by blue laser light at 488 nm, consisted of three distinct peaks at 542, 587 and 619 nm. When embedded in the microcavities, the three Tb 3+ PL peaks were enhanced, balanced and broadened by the photonic crystal structure and combined into a continuous broad band. An analysis in the CIE colour space showed that white light can be obtained by mixing the modified Tb 3+ PL with the blue exciting light, while this is impossible with the original PL profile. This novel technique may improve white light generation by enhancing and modifying the spontaneous emission of current phosphors. It may also lead to the development of new rare-earth phosphor materials based on 4f-4f transitions, able to generate white light more efficiently, via simpler and cheaper alternatives to the current phosphor compositions. A novel configuration to combine this kind of structure with a white light-emitting-diode (LED) is also proposed.

  5. Heavy-heavy and heavy-light quarks interactions generated by QCD vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musakhanov Mirzayusuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The QCD vacuum is populated by instantons that correspond to the tunneling processes in the vacuum. This mechanism creates the strong vacuum gluon fields. As result, the QCD vacuum instantons induce very strong interactions between light quarks, initially almost massless. Such a strong interactions bring a large dynamical mass M of the light quarks and bound them to produce almost massless pions in accordance with the spontaneous breaking of the chiral symmetry (SBCS. On the other hand, the QCD vacuum instantons also interact with heavy quarks and responsible for the generation of the heavy-heavy and heavy-light quarks interactions, with a traces of the SBCS. If we take the average instanton size ρ¯=0.33$\\bar \\rho = 0.33$ fm, and the average inter-instanton distance R¯=1$\\bar R = 1$ fm we obtain the dynamical light quark mass to be M = 365 MeV and the instanton media contribution to the heavy quark mass ΔM=70 MeV. These factors define the coupling between heavy-light and heavy-heavy quarks induced by the QCD vacuum instantons. We consider first the instanton effects on the heavy-heavy quarks potential, including its spin-dependent part. We also discuss those effects on the masses of the charmonia and their hyperfine mass splittings. At the second part we discuss the interaction between a heavy and light quarks generated by instantons and it’s effects.

  6. The synthesis of [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine: a non-classical, fast-acting antidepressant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.D.; Gjedde, A. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, PET Center, Aarhus (Denmark); Smith, D.F. [Aarhus Univ. Psychiatric Hospital, Inst. for Biological Psychiatry, Risskov (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    As part of our program to develop PET tracers for the 5-HT reuptake site, venlafaxine, a non-classical, fast-acting antidepressant, was selected as a candidate for labelling with {sup 11}C for in vivo evaluation. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was produced by the alkylation of O-desmethyl venlafaxine with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide followed by HPLC purification and formulation. Radiochemically pure [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was obtained in a 30 {+-} 5% decay corrected radiochemical yield and a specific activity > 50 GBq/{mu}mol(1.4 Ci/{mu}mol) at the end of synthesis. For a typical production starting with 46 GBq (1.3 Ci) [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, 5.2 GBq (140 mCi) [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was obtained as a sterile, formulated solution in a synthesis time of 30 min (counted from EOB). (Author).

  7. P2X7 receptors regulate multiple types of membrane trafficking responses and non-classical secretion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Dubyak, George R

    2009-06-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) triggers a remarkably diverse array of membrane trafficking responses in leukocytes and epithelial cells. These responses result in altered profiles of cell surface lipid and protein composition that can modulate the direct interactions of P2X7R-expressing cells with other cell types in the circulation, in blood vessels, at epithelial barriers, or within sites of immune and inflammatory activation. Additionally, these responses can result in the release of bioactive proteins, lipids, and large membrane complexes into extracellular compartments for remote communication between P2X7R-expressing cells and other cells that amplify or modulate inflammation, immunity, and responses to tissue damages. This review will discuss P2X7R-mediated effects on membrane composition and trafficking in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular organelles, as well as actions of P2X7R in controlling various modes of non-classical secretion. It will review P2X7R regulation of: (1) phosphatidylserine distribution in the PM outer leaflet; (2) shedding of PM surface proteins; (3) release of PM-derived microvesicles or microparticles; (4) PM blebbing; (5) cell-cell fusion resulting in formation of multinucleate cells; (6) phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes; (7) permeability of endosomes with internalized pathogen-associated molecular patterns; (8) permeability/integrity of mitochondria; (9) exocytosis of secretory lysosomes; and (10) release of exosomes from multivesicular bodies.

  8. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects a significant number of women during their reproductive years. More than two decades of research have been focused on the mechanisms associated with susceptibility or resistance to symptomatic infection. Adaptive immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells and downstream cytokine responses are considered the predominant host defense mechanisms against mucosal Candida infections. However, numerous clinical and animal studies have indicated no or limited protective role of cells and cytokines of the Th1 or Th2 lineage against vaginal infection. The role for Th17 is only now begun to be investigated in-depth for VVC with results already showing significant controversy. On the other hand, a clinical live-challenge study and an established animal model have shown that a symptomatic condition is intimately associated with the vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) but with no effect on vaginal fungal burden. Subsequent studies identified S100A8 and S100A9 Alarmins as key chemotactic mediators of the acute PMN response. These chemotactic danger signals appear to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells upon interaction and early adherence of Candida. Thus, instead of a putative immunodeficiency against Candida involving classical immune cells and cytokines of the adaptive response, the pathological inflammation in VVC is now considered a consequence of a non-productive innate response initiated by non-classical immune mediators. PMID:22182685

  9. In Vitro Characterization of the Two-Stage Non-Classical Reassembly Pathway of S-Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breitwieser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant bacterial surface layer (S-layer protein rSbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 is an ideal model system to study non-classical nucleation and growth of protein crystals at surfaces since the recrystallization process may be separated into two distinct steps: (i adsorption of S-layer protein monomers on silicon surfaces is completed within 5 min and the amount of bound S-layer protein sufficient for the subsequent formation of a closed crystalline monolayer; (ii the recrystallization process is triggered—after washing away the unbound S-layer protein—by the addition of a CaCl2 containing buffer solution, and completed after approximately 2 h. The entire self-assembly process including the formation of amorphous clusters, the subsequent transformation into crystalline monomolecular arrays, and finally crystal growth into extended lattices was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Moreover, contact angle measurements showed that the surface properties of S-layers change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as the crystallization proceeds. This two-step approach is new in basic and application driven S-layer research and, most likely, will have advantages for functionalizing surfaces (e.g., by spray-coating with tailor-made biological sensing layers.

  10. Conditional generation of arbitrary multimode entangled states of light with linear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiurasek, J.; Massar, S.; Cerf, N. J.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a universal scheme for the probabilistic generation of an arbitrary multimode entangled state of light with finite expansion in Fock basis. The suggested setup involves passive linear optics, single-photon sources, strong coherent laser beams, and photodetectors with single-photon resolution. The efficiency of this setup may be greatly enhanced if, in addition, a quantum memory is available

  11. Effect of loss on slow-light-enhanced second-harmonic generation in periodic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saravi, Sina; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Setzpfandt, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically analyze the dependence of second-harmonic generation efficiency on the group index in periodic optical waveguides with loss. We investigate different possible scenarios of using slow light to enhance the efficiency of this process and show that in some cases there exists a maxima...

  12. 76 FR 8724 - First Light Hydro Generating Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... recommendations filed. k. Description of Request: First Light Hydro Generating Company proposes to add a solar... Northfield Pump Storage Project (P-2485-059). The applicant states that the proposed 2MW utility grade photovoltaic solar array will provide power to Northfield Mountain Visitor's Center. The solar array would be...

  13. Ultraviolet Light Generation and Transport in the Final Optics Assembly of the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hackel, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Feit, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Parham, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kozlowski, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whitman, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-12

    The design of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) includes a Final Optics Assembly (FOA) subsystem for ultraviolet (UV) light generation and transport for each of the 192 beamlines. Analytical and experimental work has been done to help understand and predict the performance of FOA.

  14. Phase study of the generated surface plasmon waves in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Xiao, Sanshui; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Interference of surface plasmon (SP) waves plays a key role in light transmission through a subwavelength aperture surrounded by groove structures. In order to characterize interference of the hole and groove-generated SP waves, their phase information was carefully investigated using finite diff...

  15. Sub-nanosecond light-pulse generation with waveguide-coupled carbon nanotube transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Pyatkov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs have recently been integrated into optical waveguides and operated as electrically-driven light emitters under constant electrical bias. Such devices are of interest for the conversion of fast electrical signals into optical ones within a nanophotonic circuit. Here, we demonstrate that waveguide-integrated single-walled CNTs are promising high-speed transducers for light-pulse generation in the gigahertz range. Using a scalable fabrication approach we realize hybrid CNT-based nanophotonic devices, which generate optical pulse trains in the range from 200 kHz to 2 GHz with decay times below 80 ps. Our results illustrate the potential of CNTs for hybrid optoelectronic systems and nanoscale on-chip light sources.

  16. Modeling and Analysis of Entropy Generation in Light Heating of Nanoscaled Silicon and Germanium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ernesto Nájera-Carpio

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the irreversible processes in light heating of Silicon (Si and Germanium (Ge thin films are examined. Each film is exposed to light irradiation with radiative and convective boundary conditions. Heat, electron and hole transport and generation-recombination processes of electron-hole pairs are studied in terms of a phenomenological model obtained from basic principles of irreversible thermodynamics. We present an analysis of the contributions to the entropy production in the stationary state due to the dissipative effects associated with electron and hole transport, generation-recombination of electron-hole pairs as well as heat transport. The most significant contribution to the entropy production comes from the interaction of light with the medium in both Si and Ge. This interaction includes two processes, namely, the generation of electron-hole pairs and the transferring of energy from the absorbed light to the lattice. In Si the following contribution in magnitude comes from the heat transport. In Ge all the remaining contributions to entropy production have nearly the same order of magnitude. The results are compared and explained addressing the differences in the magnitude of the thermodynamic forces, Onsager’s coefficients and transport properties of Si and Ge.

  17. White Light Generation and Anisotropic Damage in Gold Films near Percolation Threshold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novikov, Sergey M.; Frydendahl, Christian; Beermann, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    in vanishingly small gaps between gold islands in thin films near the electrically determined percolation threshold. Optical explorations using two-photon luminescence (TPL) and near-field microscopies reveals supercubic TPL power dependencies with white-light spectra, establishing unequivocally...... that the strongest TPL signals are generated close to the percolation threshold films, and occurrence of extremely confined (similar to 30 nm) and strongly enhanced (similar to 100 times) fields at the illumination wavelength. For linearly polarized and sufficiently powerful light, we observe pronounced optical...

  18. Genotype-phenotype correlation in FMF patients: A "non classic" recessive autosomal or "atypical" dominant autosomal inheritance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopio, V; Manti, S; Bianco, G; Conti, G; Romeo, A; Maimone, F; Arrigo, T; Cutrupi, M C; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2018-01-30

    Uncertainty remains on the pathogenetic mechanisms, model of inheritance as well as genotype-phenotype correlation of FMF disease. To investigate the impact of genetic factors on the FMF phenotype and the disease inheritance model. A total of 107 FMF patients were enrolled. Patients were diagnosed clinically. All patients underwent genetic analysis of the FMF locus on 16p13.3. 9 distinct mutations were detected. Specifically, the 85.98% of patients showed a heterozygous genotype. The most common genotypes were p.Met680Ile/wt and p.Met694Val/wt. The most frequent clinical findings were fever, abdominal pain, joint pain, thoracic pain, and erysipelas-like erythema. Analysis of clinical data did not detect any significant difference in clinical phenotype among heterozygous, homozygous as well as compound homozygous subjects, further supporting the evidence that, contrary to the recessive autosomal inheritance, heterozygous patients fulfilled the criteria of clinical FMF. Moreover, subjects with p.Met694Val/wt and p.Met680Ile/wt genotype reported the most severe clinical phenotype. p.Ala744Ser/wt, p.Glu148Gln/Met680Ile, p.Met680Ile/Met680Ile, p.Met680Ile/Met694Val, p.Pro369Ser/wt, p.Met694Ile/wt, p.Glu148Gln/Glu148Gln, p.Lys695Arg/wt resulted in 100% pathogenicity. The existence of a "non classic" autosomal recessive inheritance as well as of an "atypical" dominant autosomal inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity cannot be excluded in FMF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A NRC-BNL benchmark evaluation of seismic analysis methods for non-classically damped coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; DeGrassi, G.; Chokshi, N.

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a comprehensive program to evaluate state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) systems with non-classical damping. In this program, four benchmark models of coupled building-piping/equipment systems with different damping characteristics were developed and analyzed by BNL for a suite of earthquakes. The BNL analysis was carried out by the Wilson-θ time domain integration method with the system-damping matrix computed using a synthesis formulation as presented in a companion paper [Nucl. Eng. Des. (2002)]. These benchmark problems were subsequently distributed to and analyzed by program participants applying their uniquely developed methods and computer programs. This paper is intended to offer a glimpse at the program, and provide a summary of major findings and principle conclusions with some representative results. The participant's analysis results established using complex modal time history methods showed good comparison with the BNL solutions, while the analyses produced with either complex-mode response spectrum methods or classical normal-mode response spectrum method, in general, produced more conservative results, when averaged over a suite of earthquakes. However, when coupling due to damping is significant, complex-mode response spectrum methods performed better than the classical normal-mode response spectrum method. Furthermore, as part of the program objectives, a parametric assessment is also presented in this paper, aimed at evaluation of the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled NPP systems. It is believed that the findings and insights learned from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving license

  20. Cardiotonic steroids trigger non-classical testosterone signaling in Sertoli cells via the α4 isoform of the sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Lutz; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Kirch, Herbert; Eva, Alexander; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2011-12-01

    The α4 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is known to be expressed in spermatozoa and to be critical for their motility. In the investigation presented here, we find that the rat-derived Sertoli cell line 93RS2 also expresses considerable amounts of the α4 isoform in addition to the α1 isoform. Since Sertoli cells are not motile, one can assume that the function of the α4 isoform in these cells must differ from that in spermatozoa. Thus, we assessed a potential involvement of this isoform in signaling pathways that are activated by the cardiotonic steroid (CTS) ouabain, a highly specific sodium pump ligand. Treatment of 93RS2 cells with ouabain leads to activation of the c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2 signaling cascade. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the activation of this cascade by ouabain results in phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor CREB. This signaling cascade is induced at low nanomolar concentrations of ouabain, consistent with the involvement of the α4 isoform. This is further supported by experiments involving siRNA: silencing of α4 expression entirely blocks ouabain-induced activation of Erk1/2 whereas silencing of α1 has no effect. The findings of this study unveil new aspects in CTS/sodium pump interactions by demonstrating for the first time ouabain-induced signaling through the α4 isoform. The c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB cascade activated by ouabain is identical to the so-called non-classical signaling cascade that is normally triggered in Sertoli cells by testosterone. Taking into consideration that CTS are produced endogenously, our results may help to gain new insights into the physiological mechanisms associated with male fertility and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  2. Generation of Light Scattering States in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals by Optically Controlled Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Bunning

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized light was previously employed to stimulate the reversible and reconfigurable writing of scattering states in cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC cells constructed with a photosensitive layer. Such dynamic photodriven responses have utility in remotely triggering changes in optical constructs responsive to optical stimulus and applications where complex spatial patterning is required. Writing of scattering regions required the handedness of incoming radiation to match the handedness of the CLC and the reflection bandwidth of the CLC to envelop the wavelength of the incoming radiation. In this paper, the mechanism of transforming the CLC into a light scattering state via the influence of light on the photosensitive alignment layer is detailed. Specifically, the effects of: (i the polarization state of light on the photosensitive alignment layer; (ii the exposure time; and (iii the incidence angle of radiation on domain formation are reported. The photogenerated light-scattering domains are shown to be similar in appearance between crossed polarizers to a defect structure that occurs at a CLC/air interface (i.e., a free CLC surface. This observation provides strong indication that exposure of the photosensitive alignment layer to the circularly polarized light of appropriate wavelength and handedness generates an out-of-plane orientation leading to a periodic distortion of the original planar structure.

  3. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  4. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  5. Inverse Doppler shift and control field as coherence generators for the stability in superluminal light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, Fazal; Bacha, Bakht Amin; Khan, Salman

    2015-05-01

    A gain-based four-level atomic medium for the stability in superluminal light propagation using control field and inverse Doppler shift as coherence generators is studied. In regimes of weak and strong control field, a broadband and multiple controllable transparency windows are, respectively, identified with significantly enhanced group indices. The observed Doppler effect for the class of high atomic velocity of the medium is counterintuitive in comparison to the effect of the class of low atomic velocity. The intensity of each of the two pump fields is kept less than the optimum limit reported in [M. D. Stenner and D. J. Gauthier, Phys. Rev. A 67, 063801 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.063801] for stability in the superluminal light pulse. Consequently, superluminal stable domains with the generated coherence are explored.

  6. Generation of three wide frequency bands within a single white-light cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David; Al-Amri, M.

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically investigate the double-Λ scheme inside a Fabry-Pérot cavity employing a weak probe beam and two strong driving fields together with an incoherent pumping mechanism. By generating analytical expressions for the susceptibility and applying the white-light cavity conditions, we devise a procedure that reaches the white-light condition at a smaller gas density than the values typically cited in similar previous studies. Further, when the intensities of the two driving fields are equal, a single giant white band is obtained, while for unequal driving fields three white bands can be present in the cavity. Two additional techniques are then advanced for generating three white bands and a method is described for displacing the center frequency of the bands. Finally, some potential applications are suggested.

  7. Tandem white organic light-emitting diodes adopting a C60:rubrene charge generation layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Wen-Tao; Wu Xiao-Ming; Hua Yu-Lin; Sun Jin-E; Xiao Zhi-Hui; Wang Li; Yin Shou-Gen

    2014-01-01

    Organic bulk heterojunction fullerence (C 60 ) doped 5, 6, 11, 12-tetraphenylnaphthacene (rubrene) as the high quality charge generation layer (CGL) with high transparency and superior charge generating capability for tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) is developed. This CGL shows excellent optical transparency about 90%, which can reduce the optical interference effect formed in tandem OLEDs. There is a stable white light emission including 468 nm and 500 nm peaks from the blue emitting layer and 620 nm peak from the red emitting layer in tandem white OLEDs. A high efficiency of about 17.4 cd/A and CIE coordinates of (0.40, 0.35) at 100 cd/m 2 and (0.36, 0.34) at 1000 cd/m 2 have been demonstrated by employing the developed CGL, respectively. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Squeezed-light generation in a nonlinear planar waveguide with a periodic corrugation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Haderka, Ondrej; Sibilia, Concita; Bertolotti, Mario; Scalora, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Two-mode nonlinear interaction (second-harmonic and second-subharmonic generation) in a planar waveguide with a small periodic corrugation at the surface is studied. Scattering of the interacting fields on the corrugation leads to constructive interference that enhances the nonlinear process provided that all the interactions are phase matched. Conditions for the overall phase matching are found. Compared with a perfectly quasi-phase-matched waveguide, better values of squeezing as well as higher intensities are reached under these conditions. Procedure for finding optimum values of parameters for squeezed-light generation is described

  9. Next generation smart window display using transparent organic display and light blocking screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gyeong Woo; Lampande, Raju; Choe, Dong Cheol; Ko, Ik Jang; Park, Jin Hwan; Pode, Ramchandra; Kwon, Jang Hyuk

    2018-04-02

    Transparent organic light emitting diodes (TOLED) have widespread applications in the next-generation display devices particularly in the large size transparent window and interactive displays. Herein, we report high performance and stable attractive smart window displays using facile process. Advanced smart window display is realized by integrating the high performance light blocking screen and highly transparent white OLED panel. The full smart window display reveals a maximum transmittance as high as 64.2% at the wavelength of 600 nm and extremely good along with tunable ambient contrast ratio (171.94:1) compared to that of normal TOLED (4.54:1). Furthermore, the performance decisive light blocking screen has demonstrated an excellent optical and electrical characteristics such as i) high transmittance (85.56% at 562nm) at light-penetrating state, ii) superior absorbance (2.30 at 562nm) in light interrupting mode, iii) high optical contrast (85.50 at 562 nm), iv) high optical stability for more than 25,000 cycle of driving, v) fast switching time of 1.9 sec, and vi) low driving voltage of 1.7 V. The experimental results of smart window display are also validated using optical simulation. The proposed smart window display technology allows us to adjust the intensity of daylight entering the system quickly and conveniently.

  10. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  11. Screening non-classical 21-hydroxylase gene deficiency from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome by gene assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie HU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To screen non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC-21OHD from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS by gene assay. Methods  Ninety-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled according to 2003 Rotterdam criteria from Department of Endocrinology, Tangdu Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, and they were divided into three groups according to the modified Ferriman-Gallway (mF-G score as follows: group A with score 0-2; group B with score 3-5, and group C with score ≥6. Meanwhile, 30 healthy subjects from the Medical Center of the Hospital were recruited as control group. Peripheral blood of all subjects were collected for extracting DNA, the CYP21A2 gene were amplified by 5 pairs of specific primers, and then the PCR products were sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Co. The subjects would accept test for serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH at 8:00am if their CYP21A2 was proved to be abnormal. Results  Thirty subjects of control group had no any defects in CYP21A2, but 5 of 98 patients with PCOS were proved to be deficient in CYP21A2, and the genotypes were V281L/920-921insT (P1, V281L/I230M (P2, V281L/Normal (P3, P4, P5, respectively, and all of them were heterozygous mutations. The incidences of NC-21OHD in group C and B were 28.6% and 3.3%, respectively. Genotype P1 had been identified to belong to NC-21OHD, which was consistent with its clinical phenotype. All genotypes P3, P4 and P5 belonged to carriers. But for P2, since I230M hadn't been reported in literature, the patient with V281L/I230M couldn't be classified now. Serum biochemical results showed that only in P1 the cortisol was close to the normal lower level, and ACTH was close to the normal upper limit of the reported level in the literature, and the remainders were all normal. Conclusions  Although PCOS and NC-21OHD are very similar in clinical manifestations, they are different completely in the pathogenesis and treatment. So it

  12. Effect of generation on the electronic properties of light-emitting dendrimers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burn, Paul L.; Halim, Mounir; Pillow, Jonathan N. G.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.

    1999-12-01

    We have compared the optical and electronic properties of a series of porphyrin centered dendrimers containing stilbene dendrons. The first and second generation dendrimers could be spin-coated from solution to form good quality thin films. Incorporation into single layer light-emitting diodes gave red-light emission with maximum external quantum efficiencies of 0.02% and 0.04% for the first and second generation dendrimers respectively. We have determined by photoluminescence studies that energy can be transferred efficiently from the stilbene dendrons to the porphyrin core and that PL emission is from the core. Cyclic voltammetry studies on the dendrimers show that the reductions are porphyrin centered with the dendrons only affecting the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between the electrode and the dendrimers. This suggests that charge mobility within a dendrimer film in an LED will be affected by the porphyrin edge to porphyrin edge distance. We have studied the hydrodynamic radii of the dendrimers by gel permeation chromatography and found as expected that the average porphyrin edge to dendron edge distance increases with generation. This is consistent with the slowing of heterogeneous electron transfer observed in the cyclic voltammetry on increasing the generation number and suggests that the dendrons are interleaved in the solid state to facilitate charge transport.

  13. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  14. The ARC-EN-CIEL French 4th Generation Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruni, C.; Couprie, M. E.; Chubar, O.; Loulergue, A.; Nahon, L.; Carre, B.; Garzella, D.; Labat, M.; Lambert, G.; Monot, P.; Jablonka, M.; Meot, F.; Mosnier, A.; Marques, J. R.; Ortega, J. M.; Nutarelli, D.

    2007-01-01

    ARC-EN-CIEL (Accelerator-Radiation Complex for Enhanced Coherent Intense Extended Light) proposal is based on a CW 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator delivering high charge, subpicosecond, low emittance electron bunches with a high repetition rate (1 kHz). The FEL uses High Harmonics Generation in gases in a High Gain Harmonic Generation scheme, leading to a rather compact solution. The radiation extends down to 0.8 nm with the non-linear harmonics and reproduces the good longitudinal and transverse coherence of the harmonics generated in gas. Optional beam loops, foreseen to increase the beam current or the energy, will accommodate infrared CSR source, femtosecond undulator sources in the VUV and X-ray ranges, and a FEL oscillator in the 10 nm range. An important synergy is expected between accelerator and laser communities, in particular for electron plasma acceleration tests

  15. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisadi, Zahra; Acerbi, Fabio; Fontana, Giorgio; Zorzi, Nicola; Piemonte, Claudio; Pucker, Georg; Pavesi, Lorenzo

    2018-02-01

    A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED) coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST) suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  16. Compact Quantum Random Number Generator with Silicon Nanocrystals Light Emitting Device Coupled to a Silicon Photomultiplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Bisadi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A small-sized photonic quantum random number generator, easy to be implemented in small electronic devices for secure data encryption and other applications, is highly demanding nowadays. Here, we propose a compact configuration with Silicon nanocrystals large area light emitting device (LED coupled to a Silicon photomultiplier to generate random numbers. The random number generation methodology is based on the photon arrival time and is robust against the non-idealities of the detector and the source of quantum entropy. The raw data show high quality of randomness and pass all the statistical tests in national institute of standards and technology tests (NIST suite without a post-processing algorithm. The highest bit rate is 0.5 Mbps with the efficiency of 4 bits per detected photon.

  17. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, N. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Odame-Ankrah, C. A.; Huo, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Cairns, E.; Moussa, S. G.; Liggio, J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2015-01-01

    Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone) in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC) and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK), diisopropyl ketone (DIPK), or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK), respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN), peroxypropionic (PPN), peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN), or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN) from NO in high yield (> 90%). Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) were carried out to rationalize products yields and to identify side products. The use of UV-LED arrays offers many advantages over conventional Hg lamp setups, including greater light output over a narrower wavelength range, lower power consumption, and minimal generation of heat.

  18. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Ozel, Tuncay; Mutlugun, Evren; Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Sari, Emre; Holder, Elisabeth; Tian Nan

    2007-01-01

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs (λ PL =580 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of T c =6962 K and CRI of R a =53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs (λ PL =580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), T c =14395 K and R a =65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs (λ PL =580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene (λ PL =439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), T c =4052 K and R a = 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters

  19. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Amir; Thomas, Nithin; Sacerdote, Alan; Bahtiyar, Gül

    2013-03-18

    Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR). Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been associated with improvement in IR and amelioration of PCOS and may, therefore, be beneficial in NCAH. We report a case of a 39-year-old, deaf-mute, obese woman with NCAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency who underwent RYGBP followed by improvement of NCAH manifestations. She was initially treated with metformin and pioglitazone, which lowered serum 11-deoxycortisol from 198 ng/dl (irregular menses normalised as well. We conclude that RYGBP, like other interventions that reduce IR, may be another way of treating non-classic 11-hydroxylase deficiency in selected patients.

  20. Modernization of the Light generators voltage regulation systems and evaluation of the necessity of stabilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Paulo R.G.M. de; Oliveira Aires, Joao C. de; Nascimento, Anselmo R; Almeida, Antonio J.B. de [Light Servicos de Eletricidade SA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza Pedroso, Alquindar de [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents the studies and solutions adopted by Light to mitigate the problems relative to the lack of power and voltage oscillation damping in the Rio de Janeiro area (Southeast Brazil) for the contingencies of South/Southeast interconnection loss and 500 kV transmission line loss. The characteristics of Light generating system, comprised of the Fontes Velha, Fontes Nova, Ilha dos Pombos, Nilo Pecanha, and Pereira Passos hydroelectric plants are shown. Excitation/Voltage regulation alternatives are also presented. The performance of proposed equipment is discussed based on some simulation analysis. Finally, some alternatives for improvement of Rio de Janeiro area dynamic performance are suggested. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  1. IRIS - Generation IV Advanced Light Water Reactor for Countries with Small and Medium Electricity Grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carelli, M. D.

    2002-01-01

    An international consortium of industry, laboratory, university and utility establishments, led by Westinghouse, is developing a Generation IV Reactor, International Reactor Innovative and Secure (IRIS). IRIS is a modular, integral, light water cooled, low-to-medium power (100-350 MWe) reactor which addresses the requirements defined by the US DOE for Generation IV reactors, i.e., fuel cycle sustainability, enhanced reliability and safety, and improved economics. It features innovative, advanced engineering, but it does not require new technology development since it relies on the proven technology of light water reactors. This paper presents the current reference IRIS design, which features a 1000 MWt thermal core with proven 5%-enriched uranium oxide fuel and four-year long straight burn fuel cycle, integral reactor vessel housing helical tube steam generators and immersed spool pumps. Other major contributors to the high level of safety and economic attractiveness are the safety by design and optimized maintenance approaches, which allow elimination of some classes of accidents, lower capital cost, long operating cycle, and high capacity factors. The path forward for possible future extension to a eight-year cycle will be also discussed. IRIS has a large potential worldwide market because of its proven technology, modularity, low financing, compatibility with existing grids and very limited infrastructure requirements. It is especially appealing to developing countries because of ease of operation and because its medium power is more adaptable to smaller grids. (author)

  2. Designing Superoxide-Generating Quantum Dots for Selective Light-Activated Nanotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M.; Levy, Max; Li, Fei-Fei; Ding, Yuchen; Courtney, Colleen M.; Chowdhury, Partha P.; Erbse, Annette; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2018-03-01

    The rapid emergence of superbugs or multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms has prompted a search for novel antibiotics, beyond traditional small-molecule therapies. Nanotherapeutics are being investigated as alternatives, and recently superoxide-generating quantum dots (QDs) have been shown as important candidates for selective light-activated therapy and potentiating existing antibiotics against MDR superbugs. Their therapeutic action is selective, can be tailored by simply changing their quantum-confined conduction-valence bands and their alignment with different redox half-reactions, and hence their ability to generate specific radical species in biological media. Here, we show the design of superoxide-generating QDs using optimal QD material and size well matched to superoxide redox potential, charged ligands to modulate their uptake in cells and selective redox interventions, and core/shell structures to improve their stability for therapeutic action. We show that cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs with conduction band position at -0.5V with respect to Normal Hydrogen Electron (NHE) and visible 2.4 eV bandgap generate a large flux of selective superoxide radicals, thereby demonstrating the most effective light-activated therapy. Although the positively charged QDs demonstrate large cellular uptake, they bind indiscriminately to cell surfaces and cause non-selective cell death, while negatively charged and zwitterionic QD ligands reduce the uptake and allow selective therapeutic action via interaction with redox species. The stability of designed QDs in biologically-relevant media increases with the formation of core-shell QD structures, but an appropriate design of core-shell structures is needed to minimize any reduction in charge injection efficiency to adsorbed oxygen molecules (to form superoxide) and maintain similar quantitative generation of tailored redox species, as measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and electrochemical

  3. Light-Emitting Photon-Upconversion Nanoparticles in the Generation of Transdermal Reactive-Oxygen Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Martin; Rwei, Alina Y; Alejo, Teresa; Wei, Tuo; Lopez-Franco, Maria Teresa; Mendoza, Gracia; Sebastian, Victor; Kohane, Daniel S; Arruebo, Manuel

    2017-12-06

    Common photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy do not penetrate the skin effectively. In addition, the visible blue and red lights used to excite such photosensitizers have shallow penetration depths through tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have synthesized ultraviolet- and visible-light-emitting, energy-transfer-based upconversion nanoparticles and coencapsulated them inside PLGA-PEG (methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)) nanoparticles with the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. Nd 3+ has been introduced as a sensitizer in the upconversion nanostructure to allow its excitation at 808 nm. The subcytotoxic doses of the hybrid nanoparticles have been evaluated on different cell lines (i.e., fibroblasts, HaCaT, THP-1 monocytic cell line, U251MG (glioblastoma cell line), and mMSCs (murine mesenchymal stem cells). Upon NIR (near infrared)-light excitation, the upconversion nanoparticles emitted UV and VIS light, which consequently activated the generation of reactive-oxygen species (ROS). In addition, after irradiating at 808 nm, the resulting hybrid nanoparticles containing both upconversion nanoparticles and protoporphyrin IX generated 3.4 times more ROS than PLGA-PEG nanoparticles containing just the same dose of protoporphyrin IX. Their photodynamic effect was also assayed on different cell cultures, demonstrating their efficacy in selectively killing treated and irradiated cells. Compared to the topical application of the free photosensitizer, enhanced skin permeation and penetration were observed for the nanoparticulate formulation, using an ex vivo human-skin-permeation experiment. Whereas free protoporphyrin IX remained located at the outer layer of the skin, nanoparticle-encapsulated protoporphyrin IX was able to penetrate through the epidermal layer slightly into the dermis.

  4. Photocatalytic hydrogen generation from water under visible light using core/shell nano-catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Shih, K; Li, X Y

    2010-01-01

    A microemulsion technique was employed to synthesize nano-sized photocatalysts with a core (CdS)/shell (ZnS) structure. The primary particles of the photocatalysts were around 10 nm, and the mean size of the catalyst clusters in water was about 100 nm. The band gaps of the catalysts ranged from 2.25 to 2.46 eV. The experiments of photocatalytic H(2) generation showed that the catalysts (CdS)(x)/(ZnS)(1-x) with x ranging from 0.1 to 1 were able to produce hydrogen from water photolysis under visible light. The catalyst with x=0.9 had the highest rate of hydrogen production. The catalyst loading density also influenced the photo-hydrogen production rate, and the best catalyst concentration in water was 1 g L(-1). The stability of the nano-catalysts in terms of size, morphology and activity was satisfactory during an extended test period for a specific hydrogen production rate of 2.38 mmol g(-1) L(-1) h(-1) and a quantum yield of 16.1% under visible light (165 W Xe lamp, lambda>420 nm). The results demonstrate that the (CdS)/(ZnS) core/shell nano-particles are a novel photo-catalyst for renewable hydrogen generation from water under visible light. This is attributable to the large band-gap ZnS shell that separates the electron/hole pairs generated by the CdS core and hence reduces their recombinations.

  5. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator.

  6. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D.; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  7. Simulation of light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals using kinetic equations: Time-independent solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtykov, N. M., E-mail: nshtykov@mail.ru; Palto, S. P.; Umanskii, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    We report on the results of calculating the conditions for light generation in cholesteric liquid crystals doped with fluorescent dyes using kinetic equations. Specific features of spectral properties of the chiral cholesteric medium as a photonic structure and spatially distributed type of the feedback in the active medium are taken into account. The expression is derived for the threshold pump radiation intensity as a function of the dye concentration and sample thickness. The importance of taking into account the distributed loss level in the active medium for calculating the optimal parameters of the medium and for matching the calculated values with the results of experiments is demonstrated.

  8. Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-29

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0365 Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Jerome Moloney...SUBTITLE "Long Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10.6 micron CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0272 5b...Wavelength Electromagnetic Light Bullets Generated by a 10 µm CO2 Ultrashort Pulsed Source Grant/Contract Number AFOSR assigned control number. It must

  9. Latest Advances in the Generation of Single Photons in Silicon Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Boretti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The major barrier for optical quantum information technologies is the absence of reliable single photons sources providing non-classical light states on demand which can be easily and reliably integrated with standard processing protocols for quantum device fabrication. New methods of generation at room temperature of single photons are therefore needed. Heralded single photon sources are presently being sought based on different methods built on different materials. Silicon Carbide (SiC has the potentials to serve as the preferred material for quantum applications. Here, we review the latest advances in single photon generation at room temperatures based on SiC.

  10. Ebastine in the light of CONGA recommendations for the development of third-generation antihistamines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rico

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available S Rico1,2, RM Antonijoan1,3, MJ Barbanoj1,2,31Centre d’lnvestigació de Medicaments, Institut de Recerca; Servei de Farmacologia Clínica, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain; 2Departament de Farmacologia i Terapèutica, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Centro de investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental CIBERSAM, SpainAbstract: In 2003 a consensus group on new-generation antihistamines (CONGA defined the characteristics required for a third-generation H1 antihistamine as there had been much controversy about this issue since the early 1990s. One of the antihistamines that had been claimed to belong to such a group is the second-generation antihistamine, ebastine. The objective of this review is to analyze the pharmacology of ebastine, in light of the CONGA recommendations for the development of new-generation antihistamines: (1 anti-inflammatory properties, (2 potency, efficacy and effectiveness, (3 lack of cardiotoxicity, (4 lack of drug interactions, (5 lack of CNS effects, and (6 pharmacological approach. Ebastine seems to have anti-inflammatory properties that help to ameliorate nasal congestion, though this has not yet been conclusively demonstrated. Its pharmacological–therapeutic profile does not differ greatly from that of other second-generation antihistamines. Its cardiac safety has been widely assessed and no cardiac toxicity has been found at therapeutic doses despite initial concerns. The risk of potentially relevant drug interactions has been investigated and ruled out. Ebastine does not produce sedation at therapeutic doses and drug interaction studies with classical CNS depressants have not demonstrated a synergistic effect. Pharmacologically, ebastine is an H1 inverse agonist. Perhaps the answer to the quest for new-generation antihistamines lies not only in H1 but in a combined approach with other histamine receptors.Keywords: ebastine, antihistamines, third-generation, CONGA

  11. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasar, Parveen; Wilhelm, Amanda; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Thomas, Aaron J; Teng, Lihong; Shi, Bi; Davis, William C; Suarez, Carlos E; New, Daniel D; White, Kenneth L; Davies, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-classical MHC-I isoforms, we expressed the MHC proteins in murine P815 and human K562 (MHC-I deficient) cells. Following antibiotic selection, stably transfected cell lines were stained with H1A or W6/32 antibodies to detect expression of the MHC-I proteins by flow cytometry. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00501 and BoLA-NC3*00101) were expressed on the cell surface in both cell lines. Surprisingly, the BoLA-NC4*00201 protein was expressed on the cell membrane of human K562 but not mouse P815 cells. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00401, which lacks a transmembrane domain, and BoLA-NC2*00102) did not exhibit cell surface expression. Nevertheless, Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of the MHC-I heavy chain in all transfected cell lines. Ammonium-sulfate precipitation of proteins from culture supernatants showed that BoLA-NC1*00401 was secreted and that all surface expressed proteins where shed from the cell membrane by the transfected cells. Interestingly, the surface expressed MHC-I proteins were present in culture supernatants at a much higher concentration than BoLA-NC1*00401. This comprehensive study shows that bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins BoLA-NC1*00501, BoLA-NC3*00101, and BoLA-NC4*00201 are expressed as surface isoforms with the latter reaching the cell membrane only in K562 cells. Furthermore, it demonstrated that BoLA-NC1*00401 is a secreted isoform and that significant quantities of membrane associated MHC-I proteins can be shed from the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrication of thin-film thermoelectric generators with ball lenses for conversion of near-infrared solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshitaka; Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Kondo, Tasuku; Sakurai, Junpei; Hata, Seiichi

    2017-06-01

    We designed and fabricated thin-film thermoelectric generators (TEGs) with ball lenses, which separated visible light and near-infrared (NIR) solar light using a chromatic aberration. The transmitted visible light was used as daylight and the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Solar light was estimated to be separated into the visible light and NIR light by a ray tracing method. 92.7% of the visible light was used as daylight and 9.9% of the NIR light was used for thermoelectric generation. Then, the temperature difference of the pn junctions of the TEG surface was 0.71 K, determined by heat conduction analysis using a finite element method. The thin-film TEGs were fabricated using lithography and deposition processes. When the solar light (A.M. 1.5) was irradiated to the TEGs, the open-circuit voltage and maximum power were 4.5 V/m2 and 51 µW/m2, respectively. These TEGs are expected to be used as an energy supply for Internet of Things sensors.

  13. UV light-emitting-diode photochemical mercury vapor generation for atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoling; Ai, Xi; Jiang, Xiaoming; Deng, Pengchi; Zheng, Chengbin; Lv, Yi

    2012-02-07

    A new, miniaturized and low power consumption photochemical vapor generation (PVG) technique utilizing an ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV-LED) lamp is described, and further validated via the determination of trace mercury. In the presence of formic acid, the mercury cold vapor is favourably generated from Hg(2+) solutions by UV-LED irradiation, and then rapidly transported to an atomic fluorescence spectrometer for detection. Optimum conditions for PVG and interferences from concomitant elements were investigated in detail. Under optimum conditions, a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.01 μg L(-1) was obtained, and the precision was better than 3.2% (n = 11, RSD) at 1 μg L(-1) Hg(2+). No obvious interferences from any common ions were evident. The methodology was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in National Research Council Canada DORM-3 fish muscle tissue and several water samples.

  14. Second-generation PVCC design with a dielectric light injector and polyhedron interior cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortabasi, Ugur; Winston, Roland; Ellis, Scott

    2006-08-01

    The Photovoltaic Cavity Converter (PVCC) under development is a novel approach to convert highly concentrated solar radiation into electricity via a photon entrapment process and subsequent spectral stripping. Equipped with a multi-bandgap, single junction cell system PVCC circumvents most of the present limitations of the four (or more)-junction cell systems with vertical architecture. Our previous studies have shown that the PVCC concept has the potential to reach a collective conversion efficiency of 50% in the near term. Based on our past experiences regarding the cavity geometry and the light injection method we have developed a second generation design for the PVCC that overcomes the limitations of the first generation prototype.

  15. Highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huishan; Yu, Yaoyao; Wu, Lishuang; Qu, Biao; Lin, Wenyan; Yu, Ye; Wu, Zhijun; Xie, Wenfa

    2018-02-01

    We have realized highly efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) employing an easily fabricated charge generation unit (CGU) combining 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile with ultrathin bilayers of CsN3 and Al. The charge generation and separation processes of the CGU have been demonstrated by studying the differences in the current density-voltage characteristics of external-carrier-excluding devices. At high luminances of 1000 and 10000 cd/m2, the current efficiencies of the phosphorescent tandem device are about 2.2- and 2.3-fold those of the corresponding single-unit device, respectively. Simultaneously, an efficient tandem white OLED exhibiting high color stability and warm white emission has also been fabricated.

  16. Green bright squeezed light from a cw periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2002-01-01

    We present the experimental observation of bright amplitude squeezed light from a singly resonant second harmonic generator (SHG) based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) crystal. Contrary to conventional SHG, the interacting waves in this device couple efficiently using qu...... reduction is greater than what could be expected using normal birefringence phase matched KTP with the same experimental parameters. Excellent agreement between experiment and theory is found. (C)2002 Optical Society of America....... quasi phase matching (QPM) and more importantly QPM allows access to higher valued elements of the nonlinear tensor than is possible under the constraint of birefringence phase matching. We observe a noise reduction of 13% below the shot noise limit in the generated second harmonic field. This noise...

  17. Dye-sensitized solar cells for efficient power generation under ambient lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Marina; Teuscher, Joël; Saygili, Yasemin; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Giordano, Fabrizio; Liska, Paul; Hua, Jianli; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M.; Moser, Jacques-E.; Grätzel, Michael; Hagfeldt, Anders

    2017-06-01

    Solar cells that operate efficiently under indoor lighting are of great practical interest as they can serve as electric power sources for portable electronics and devices for wireless sensor networks or the Internet of Things. Here, we demonstrate a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) that achieves very high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs) under ambient light conditions. Our photosystem combines two judiciously designed sensitizers, coded D35 and XY1, with the copper complex Cu(II/I)(tmby) as a redox shuttle (tmby, 4,4‧,6,6‧-tetramethyl-2,2‧-bipyridine), and features a high open-circuit photovoltage of 1.1 V. The DSC achieves an external quantum efficiency for photocurrent generation that exceeds 90% across the whole visible domain from 400 to 650 nm, and achieves power outputs of 15.6 and 88.5 μW cm-2 at 200 and 1,000 lux, respectively, under illumination from a model Osram 930 warm-white fluorescent light tube. This translates into a PCE of 28.9%.

  18. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  19. Design of segmented thermoelectric generator based on cost-effective and light-weight thermoelectric alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Seok; Kikuchi, Keiko; Itoh, Takashi; Iida, Tsutomu; Taya, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Segmented thermoelectric (TE) module operating at 500 °C for combustion engine system. • Si based light-weight TE generator increases the specific power density [W/kg]. • Study of contact resistance at the bonding interfaces maximizing output power. • Accurate agreement of the theoretical predictions with experimental results. - Abstract: A segmented thermoelectric (TE) generator was designed with higher temperature segments composed of n-type Mg 2 Si and p-type higher manganese silicide (HMS) and lower temperature segments composed of n- and p-type Bi–Te based compounds. Since magnesium and silicon based TE alloys have low densities, they produce a TE module with a high specific power density that is suitable for airborne applications. A two-pair segmented π-shaped TE generator was assembled with low contact resistance materials across bonding interfaces. The peak specific power density of this generator was measured at 42.9 W/kg under a 498 °C temperature difference, which has a good agreement with analytical predictions

  20. Influence of generator structure on pinch reflex diode operation for light ion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, A.; Bourgeois, C.; Camarcat, N.; Tournier, B.

    1983-01-01

    Light ion beams with characteristics 1 MV, 185 kA, 100 ns FWHM have been accelerated in a pinch-reflex diode driven by the SIDONIX II generator pulsed in positive polarity. The diode impedance of 2 ohms remains higher than the water line impedance of 1.3 ohms, and consequently, the ion efficiency is limited to 25%. This effect is attributed to the slow current rise time and fast anode plasma expansion since the machine does not have an intermediate store to reduce the 100 ns FWHM power pulse. Published data on Hydra, Reiden IV, Gamble II A support this hypothesis. Preliminary results of focusing experiments, when the beam is injected into a 1 Torr air cell downstream the cathode, indicate that 60 kA end up on a 3 cm diameter target. These results should be improved by adding an intermediate store to the generator, giving a 1.3 TW, 45 ns FWHM power pulse for 180 kJ of stored energy in the Marx. We expect that the increase in diode electrical power will lead to an increase in total ion current. For GAMBLE II A, 500 kA of light ion are extracted when the diode power reaches 1.4 TW, for equivalent Marx energies

  1. Single-frequency blue light generation by single-pass sum-frequency generation in a coupled ring cavity tapered laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    A generic approach for generation of tunable single frequency light is presented. 340 mW of near diffraction limited, single-frequency, and tunable blue light around 459 nm is generated by sum-frequency generation (SFG) between two tunable tapered diode lasers. One diode laser is operated in a ring...... cavity and another tapered diode laser is single-passed through a nonlinear crystal which is contained in the coupled ring cavity. Using this method, the single-pass conversion efficiency is more than 25%. In contrast to SFG in an external cavity, the system is entirely self-stabilized with no electronic...

  2. White light generation tuned by dual hybridization of nanocrystals and conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Nizamoglu, Sedat [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Ozel, Tuncay [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Mutlugun, Evren [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Huyal, Ilkem Ozge [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Sari, Emre [Devices and Sensors Group and Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Holder, Elisabeth [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Tian Nan [Functional Polymers Group and Institute of Polymer Technology, University of Wuppertal, Gaussstrasse 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    Dual hybridization of highly fluorescent conjugated polymers and highly luminescent nanocrystals (NCs) is developed and demonstrated in multiple combinations for controlled white light generation with high color rendering index (CRI) (> 80) for the first time. The generated white light is tuned using layer-by-layer assembly of CdSe/ZnS core-shell NCs closely packed on polyfluorene, hybridized on near-UV emitting nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). The design, synthesis, growth, fabrication and characterization of these hybrid inorganic-organic white LEDs are presented. The following experimental realizations are reported: (i) layer-by-layer hybridization of yellow NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with tristimulus coordinates of (x, y)=(0.31, 0.27), correlated color temperature of T{sub c}=6962 K and CRI of R{sub a}=53.4; (ii) layer-by-layer assembly of yellow and green NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580 and 540 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.23, 0.30), T{sub c}=14395 K and R{sub a}=65.7; and (iii) layer-by-layer deposition of yellow, green and red NCs ({lambda}{sub PL}=580, 540 and 620 nm) and blue polyfluorene ({lambda}{sub PL}=439 nm) with (x, y)=(0.38, 0.39), T{sub c}=4052 K and R{sub a}= 83.0. The CRI is demonstrated to be well controlled and significantly improved by increasing multi-chromaticity of the NC and polymer emitters.

  3. Designing Superoxide-Generating Quantum Dots for Selective Light-Activated Nanotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Samuel M; Levy, Max; Li, Fei-Fei; Ding, Yuchen; Courtney, Colleen M; Chowdhury, Partha P; Erbse, Annette; Chatterjee, Anushree; Nagpal, Prashant

    2018-01-01

    The rapid emergence of superbugs, or multi-drug resistant (MDR) organisms, has prompted a search for novel antibiotics, beyond traditional small-molecule therapies. Nanotherapeutics are being investigated as alternatives, and recently superoxide-generating quantum dots (QDs) have been shown as important candidates for selective light-activated therapy, while also potentiating existing antibiotics against MDR superbugs. Their therapeutic action is selective, can be tailored by simply changing their quantum-confined conduction-valence band (CB-VB) positions and alignment with different redox half-reactions-and hence their ability to generate specific radical species in biological media. Here, we show the design of superoxide-generating QDs using optimal QD material and size well-matched to superoxide redox potential, charged ligands to modulate their uptake in cells and selective redox interventions, and core/shell structures to improve their stability for therapeutic action. We show that cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs with conduction band (CB) position at -0.5 V with respect to Normal Hydrogen Electron (NHE) and visible 2.4 eV bandgap generate a large flux of selective superoxide radicals, thereby demonstrating the effective light-activated therapy. Although the positively charged QDs demonstrate large cellular uptake, they bind indiscriminately to cell surfaces and cause non-selective cell death, while negatively charged and zwitterionic QD ligands reduce the uptake and allow selective therapeutic action via interaction with redox species. The stability of designed QDs in biologically-relevant media increases with the formation of core-shell QD structures, but an appropriate design of core-shell structures is needed to minimize any reduction in charge injection efficiency to adsorbed oxygen molecules (to form superoxide) and maintain similar quantitative generation of tailored redox species, as measured using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and

  4. Interactive Light Stimulus Generation with High Performance Real-Time Image Processing and Simple Scripting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Szécsi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Light stimulation with precise and complex spatial and temporal modulation is demanded by a series of research fields like visual neuroscience, optogenetics, ophthalmology, and visual psychophysics. We developed a user-friendly and flexible stimulus generating framework (GEARS GPU-based Eye And Retina Stimulation Software, which offers access to GPU computing power, and allows interactive modification of stimulus parameters during experiments. Furthermore, it has built-in support for driving external equipment, as well as for synchronization tasks, via USB ports. The use of GEARS does not require elaborate programming skills. The necessary scripting is visually aided by an intuitive interface, while the details of the underlying software and hardware components remain hidden. Internally, the software is a C++/Python hybrid using OpenGL graphics. Computations are performed on the GPU, and are defined in the GLSL shading language. However, all GPU settings, including the GPU shader programs, are automatically generated by GEARS. This is configured through a method encountered in game programming, which allows high flexibility: stimuli are straightforwardly composed using a broad library of basic components. Stimulus rendering is implemented solely in C++, therefore intermediary libraries for interfacing could be omitted. This enables the program to perform computationally demanding tasks like en-masse random number generation or real-time image processing by local and global operations.

  5. Efficient generation of 509 nm light by sum-frequency mixing between two tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tawfieq, Mahmoud; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a concept for visible laser sources based on sum-frequency generation of beam com- bined tapered diode lasers. In this specific case, a 1.7 W sum-frequency generated green laser at 509 nm is obtained, by frequency adding of 6.17 W from a 978 nm tapered diode laser with 8.06 W from...... a 1063 nm tapered diode laser, inside a periodically poled MgO doped lithium niobate crystal. This corresponds to an optical to optical conversion ef fi ciency of 12.1%. As an example of potential applica- tions, the generated nearly diffraction-limited green light is used for pumping a Ti:sapphire laser......, thus demonstrating good beam quality and power stability. The maximum output powers achieved when pumping the Ti:sapphire laser are 226 mW (CW) and 185 mW (mode-locked) at 1.7 W green pump power. The optical spectrum emitted by the mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser shows a spectral width of about 54 nm...

  6. Efficient green phosphorescent tandem organic light emitting diodes with solution processable mixed hosts charge generating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talik, N.A.; Yeoh, K.H.; Ng, C.Y.B [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); ItraMAS Corporation. Sdn. Bhd., 542A-B Mukim 1, Lorong Perusahaan Baru 2, Kawasan Perindustrian, Perai 13600, Penang (Malaysia); Yap, B.K. [Center of Microelectronic and Nanotechnology Engineering (CeMNE), College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Jln. Uniten-Ikram, 4300 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Woon, K.L., E-mail: ph7klw76@um.edu.my [Low Dimensional Research Center, Department of Physics, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-10-15

    A novel solution processable charge generating layer (CGL) that consists of 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN{sub 6})/Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK): 1,1-bis-(4-bis(4-tolyl)-aminophenyl) cyclohexene (TAPC) for a tandem green phosphorescent organic light emitting diode (PHOLED) is demonstrated. The use of orthogonal solvent to dissolve HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC is the key to overcome the interface erosion problem for the solution processed CGL. The current efficiency of the 2 wt% TAPC mixed with PVK is the highest at 24.2 cd/A, which is more than three-folds higher than that of the single device at 1000 cd/m{sup 2}. - Highlights: • A solution processable tandem OLED is built using a novel charge generating layer. • HATCN{sub 6} and PVK:TAPC are shown to be effective charge generating layers. • The turn on voltages for tandem devices are almost similar to single unit. • 2 wt% TAPC blended with PVK exhibits three-folds increase in efficiency.

  7. Technique for the comparison of light spectra from natural and laboratory generated lightning current arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchard, D.; Clark, D.; Carr, D.; Haddad, A.

    2016-01-01

    A technique was developed for the comparison of observed emission spectra from lightning current arcs generated through self-breakdown in air and the use of two types of initiation wire, aluminum bronze and nichrome, against previously published spectra of natural lightning events. A spectrograph system was used in which the wavelength of light emitted by the lightning arc was analyzed to derive elemental interactions. A lightning impulse of up to 100 kA was applied to a two hemispherical tungsten electrode configuration which allowed the effect of the lightning current and lightning arc length to be investigated. A natural lightning reference spectrum was reconstructed from literature, and generated lightning spectra were obtained from self-breakdown across a 14.0 mm air gap and triggered along initiation wires of length up to 72.4 mm. A comparison of the spectra showed that the generated lightning arc induced via self-breakdown produced a very similar spectrum to that of natural lightning, with the addition of only a few lines from the tungsten electrodes. A comparison of the results from the aluminum bronze initiation wire showed several more lines, whereas results from the nichrome initiation wire differed greatly across large parts of the spectrum. This work highlights the potential use for spectrographic techniques in the study of lightning interactions with surrounding media and materials, and in natural phenomena such as recently observed ball lightning.

  8. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  9. Interactive Light Stimulus Generation with High Performance Real-Time Image Processing and Simple Scripting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szécsi, László; Kacsó, Ágota; Zeck, Günther; Hantz, Péter

    2017-01-01

    Light stimulation with precise and complex spatial and temporal modulation is demanded by a series of research fields like visual neuroscience, optogenetics, ophthalmology, and visual psychophysics. We developed a user-friendly and flexible stimulus generating framework (GEARS GPU-based Eye And Retina Stimulation Software), which offers access to GPU computing power, and allows interactive modification of stimulus parameters during experiments. Furthermore, it has built-in support for driving external equipment, as well as for synchronization tasks, via USB ports. The use of GEARS does not require elaborate programming skills. The necessary scripting is visually aided by an intuitive interface, while the details of the underlying software and hardware components remain hidden. Internally, the software is a C++/Python hybrid using OpenGL graphics. Computations are performed on the GPU, and are defined in the GLSL shading language. However, all GPU settings, including the GPU shader programs, are automatically generated by GEARS. This is configured through a method encountered in game programming, which allows high flexibility: stimuli are straightforwardly composed using a broad library of basic components. Stimulus rendering is implemented solely in C++, therefore intermediary libraries for interfacing could be omitted. This enables the program to perform computationally demanding tasks like en-masse random number generation or real-time image processing by local and global operations.

  10. SESAME — A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Å°lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ˜133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  11. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    U˝Lkü, Dinçer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ~133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  12. SESAME - A 3rd Generation Synchrotron Light Source for the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulkue, Dincer; Rahighi, Javad; Winick, Herman

    2007-01-01

    SESAME (Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East) will be the Middle East's first international research center. It is a cooperative venture by the scientists and governments of the region with founding members Bahrain, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Pakistan, Palestine Authority, and Turkey. Iran is in the process of finalizing its formal membership. Other countries (Cyprus, Morocco, and the United Arab Emirates) are also expected to join. The permanent Council of member states has full responsibility for the project. Members provide the annual operating budget. Observer countries are Germany, Greece, Italy, Kuwait, Portugal, Russian Federation, Sweden, the UK, and the US. SESAME is being developed under the umbrella of UNESCO. Jordan was selected as the building site. SESAME will offer excellent opportunities for training of Middle East scientists and attract those working abroad to consider returning. SESAME will be a 2.5GeV 3rd Generation light source (emittance 26nm-rad, circumference ∼133m), providing excellent performance for structural molecular biology, molecular environmental science, surface and interface science, microelectromechanical devices, x-ray imaging, archaeological microanalysis, and materials characterization. It will cover a broad spectral range from the infrared to hard x-rays and will have 12 straight sections for insertion devices (average length 2.75m). The injector will be the BESSY I 0.8 GeV booster synchrotron which has been given as a gift from Germany. Four committees advise the Council and assist in developing the technical design, beam lines, user community, and scientific Program. The SESAME building, now in construction with funds and a site provided by Jordan, is scheduled for completion in late 2006 after which the BESSY I injector will be installed. First stored beam in the new 2.5 GeV ring is planned for 2009 with six initial beamlines planned. Some beamlines will be built by member countries

  13. Investigation of phase matching for third-harmonic generation in silicon slow light photonic crystal waveguides using Fourier optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monat, Christelle; Grillet, Christian; Corcoran, Bill; Moss, David J; Eggleton, Benjamin J; White, Thomas P; Krauss, Thomas F

    2010-03-29

    Using Fourier optics, we retrieve the wavevector dependence of the third-harmonic (green) light generated in a slow light silicon photonic crystal waveguide. We show that quasi-phase matching between the third-harmonic signal and the fundamental mode is provided in this geometry by coupling to the continuum of radiation modes above the light line. This process sustains third-harmonic generation with a relatively high efficiency and a substantial bandwidth limited only by the slow light window of the fundamental mode. The results give us insights into the physics of this nonlinear process in the presence of strong absorption and dispersion at visible wavelengths where bandstructure calculations are problematic. Since the characteristics (e.g. angular pattern) of the third-harmonic light primarily depend on the fundamental mode dispersion, they could be readily engineered.

  14. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non-classical

  15. Regulation of non-classical immune parameters in immune thrombocytopenic purpura mice by a spleen-invigorating, qi-replenishing and blood-containing formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Li

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The SQBF had a similar effect to prednisone with regards to enhancing peripheral blood platelet counts in ITP mice. Furthermore, it decreased β-EP levels and increased VIP and SIgA, and protected the thymus. This shows that, on base of the brain-gut axis functions, some non-classical immune vascular active factors or neurotransmitters are also involved in immune responses, and also have relationship with the onset of ITP and bleeding and/or hemostasis. It needs further study to determine whether a change in these active factors is related to immediate hemostasis.

  16. Development of Next-Generation LWR (Light Water Reactor) in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, T.; Kasai, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Next-Generation Light Water Reactor development program was launched in Japan in April 2008. The primary objective of the program is to cope with the need to replace existing nuclear power plants in Japan after 2030. The reactors to be developed are also expected to be a global standard design. Several innovative features are envisioned, including a reactor core system with uranium enrichment above 5%, a seismic isolation system, the use of long-life materials and innovative water chemistry, innovative construction techniques, safety systems with the best mix of passive and active concepts, and innovative digital technologies to further enhance reactor safety, reliability, economics, etc. In the first 3 years, a plant design concept with these innovative features is established and the effectiveness of the program is reevaluated. The major part of the program will be completed in 2015. (author)

  17. Review of single particle dynamics for third generation light sources through frequency map analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Nadolski

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Frequency map analysis [J. Laskar, Icarus 88, 266 (1990] is used here to analyze the transverse dynamics of four third generation synchrotron light sources: the ALS, the ESRF, the SOLEIL project, and Super-ACO. Time variations of the betatron tunes give additional information for the global dynamics of the beam. The main resonances are revealed; a one-to-one correspondence between the configuration space and the frequency space can be performed. We stress that the frequency maps, and therefore the dynamics optimization, are highly sensitive to sextupolar strengths and vary in a large amount from one machine to another. The frequency maps can thus be used to characterize the different machines.

  18. Charge generation layers for solution processed tandem organic light emitting diodes with regular device architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Stefan; Bernhard, Christoph; Bruns, Michael; Kübel, Christian; Scherer, Torsten; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2015-04-22

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) utilizing fluorescent polymers in both sub-OLEDs and a regular device architecture were fabricated from solution, and their structure and performance characterized. The charge carrier generation layer comprised a zinc oxide layer, modified by a polyethylenimine interface dipole, for electron injection and either MoO3, WO3, or VOx for hole injection into the adjacent sub-OLEDs. ToF-SIMS investigations and STEM-EDX mapping verified the distinct functional layers throughout the layer stack. At a given device current density, the current efficiencies of both sub-OLEDs add up to a maximum of 25 cd/A, indicating a properly working tandem OLED.

  19. Generation of single-frequency tunable green light in a coupled ring tapered diode laser cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-01-01

    in the broad wavelength range from 1049 nm to 1093 nm and the beam propagation factor is improved from M2 = 2.8 to below 1.1. The laser frequency is automatically locked to the cavity resonance frequency using optical feedback. Furthermore, we show that this adaptive external cavity approach leads to efficient......We report the realization of a tapered diode laser operated in a coupled ring cavity that significantly improves the coherence properties of the tapered laser and efficiently generates tunable light at the second harmonic frequency. The tapered diode laser is tunable with single-frequency output...... frequency doubling. More than 500 mW green output power is obtained by placing a periodically poled LiNbO3 crystal in the external cavity. The single frequency green output from the laser system is tunable in the 530 nm to 533 nm range limited by the LiNbO3 crystal. The optical to optical conversion...

  20. Modernized Approach for Generating Reproducible Heterogeneity Using Transmitted-Light for Flow Visualization Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Holt, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Image capturing in flow experiments has been used for fluid mechanics research since the early 1970s. Interactions of fluid flow between the vadose zone and permanent water table are of great interest because this zone is responsible for all recharge waters, pollutant transport and irrigation efficiency for agriculture. Griffith, et al. (2011) developed an approach where constructed reproducible "geologically realistic" sand configurations are deposited in sandfilled experimental chambers for light-transmitted flow visualization experiments. This method creates reproducible, reverse graded, layered (stratified) thin-slab sand chambers for point source experiments visualizing multiphase flow through porous media. Reverse-graded stratification of sand chambers mimic many naturally occurring sedimentary deposits. Sandfilled chambers use light as nonintrusive tools for measuring water saturation in two-dimensions (2-D). Homogeneous and heterogeneous sand configurations can be produced to visualize the complex physics of the unsaturated zone. The experimental procedure developed by Griffith, et al. (2011) was designed using now outdated and obsolete equipment. We have modernized this approach with new Parker Deadel linear actuator and programed projects/code for multiple configurations. We have also updated the Roper CCD software and image processing software with the latest in industry standards. Modernization of transmitted-light source, robotic equipment, redesigned experimental chambers, and newly developed analytical procedures have greatly reduced time and cost per experiment. We have verified the ability of the new equipment to generate reproducible heterogeneous sand-filled chambers and demonstrated the functionality of the new equipment and procedures by reproducing several gravity-driven fingering experiments conducted by Griffith (2008).

  1. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  2. Efficient photochemical generation of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides with ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, N. D.; Taha, Y. M.; Odame-Ankrah, C. A.; Huo, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Cairns, E.; Moussa, S. G.; Liggio, J.; Osthoff, H. D.

    2015-07-01

    Photochemical sources of peroxycarboxylic nitric anhydrides (PANs) are utilized in many atmospheric measurement techniques for calibration or to deliver an internal standard. Conventionally, such sources rely on phosphor-coated low-pressure mercury (Hg) lamps to generate the UV light necessary to photo-dissociate a dialkyl ketone (usually acetone) in the presence of a calibrated amount of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen (O2). In this manuscript, a photochemical PAN source in which the Hg lamp has been replaced by arrays of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LEDs) is described. The output of the UV-LED source was analyzed by gas chromatography (PAN-GC) and thermal dissociation cavity ring-down spectroscopy (TD-CRDS). Using acetone, diethyl ketone (DIEK), diisopropyl ketone (DIPK), or di-n-propyl ketone (DNPK), respectively, the source produces peroxyacetic (PAN), peroxypropionic (PPN), peroxyisobutanoic (PiBN), or peroxy-n-butanoic nitric anhydride (PnBN) from NO in high yield (> 90 %). Box model simulations with a subset of the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) were carried out to rationalize product yields and to identify side products. The present work demonstrates that UV-LED arrays are a viable alternative to current Hg lamp setups.

  3. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-06-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added that are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover point source and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49 per cent). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ± 50 per cent if it is trained on multiple PSFs. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  4. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B.; Smolin, Sergey Y.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gao, Ran; Apgar, Brent A.; Martin, Lane W.; Bowden, Mark E.; Baxter, Jason; Chambers, Scott A.

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO3 (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including high electron mobility, ferroelectricity—which may be valuable in photovoltaic applications—and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications, however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr3+ dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to between 2.4 and 2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance measurements confirm that optically generated carriers have a recombination lifetime comparable to that of STO and are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry. Finally, through photoelectrochemical yield measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  5. Visible light carrier generation in co-doped epitaxial titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comes, Ryan B., E-mail: ryan.comes@pnnl.gov; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Chambers, Scott A. [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States); Smolin, Sergey Y.; Baxter, Jason B. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Gao, Ran [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Apgar, Brent A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States); Martin, Lane W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bowden, Mark E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354 (United States)

    2015-03-02

    Perovskite titanates such as SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) exhibit a wide range of important functional properties, including ferroelectricity and excellent photocatalytic performance. The wide optical band gap of titanates limits their use in these applications; however, making them ill-suited for integration into solar energy harvesting technologies. Our recent work has shown that by doping STO with equal concentrations of La and Cr, we can enhance visible light absorption in epitaxial thin films while avoiding any compensating defects. In this work, we explore the optical properties of photoexcited carriers in these films. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we show that the Cr{sup 3+} dopants, which produce electronic states immediately above the top of the O 2p valence band in STO reduce the direct band gap of the material from 3.75 eV to 2.4–2.7 eV depending on doping levels. Transient reflectance spectroscopy measurements are in agreement with the observations from ellipsometry and confirm that optically generated carriers are present for longer than 2 ns. Finally, through photoelectrochemical methylene blue degradation measurements, we show that these co-doped films exhibit enhanced visible light photocatalysis when compared to pure STO.

  6. PSFGAN: a generative adversarial network system for separating quasar point sources and host galaxy light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Dominic; Launet, Barthelemy; Schawinski, Kevin; Zhang, Ce; Koss, Michael; Turp, M. Dennis; Sartori, Lia F.; Zhang, Hantian; Chen, Yiru; Weigel, Anna K.

    2018-03-01

    The study of unobscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars depends on the reliable decomposition of the light from the AGN point source and the extended host galaxy light. The problem is typically approached using parametric fitting routines using separate models for the host galaxy and the point spread function (PSF). We present a new approach using a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) trained on galaxy images. We test the method using Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) r-band images with artificial AGN point sources added which are then removed using the GAN and with parametric methods using GALFIT. When the AGN point source PS is more than twice as bright as the host galaxy, we find that our method, PSFGAN, can recover PS and host galaxy magnitudes with smaller systematic error and a lower average scatter (49%). PSFGAN is more tolerant to poor knowledge of the PSF than parametric methods. Our tests show that PSFGAN is robust against a broadening in the PSF width of ±50% if it is trained on multiple PSF's. We demonstrate that while a matched training set does improve performance, we can still subtract point sources using a PSFGAN trained on non-astronomical images. While initial training is computationally expensive, evaluating PSFGAN on data is more than 40 times faster than GALFIT fitting two components. Finally, PSFGAN it is more robust and easy to use than parametric methods as it requires no input parameters.

  7. Light ion beam experiments with pinch reflex diodes on KfK's pulse generator KALIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, H.; Buth, L.; Bohnel, K.; Harke, W.; Hoppe, P.; Karow, H.U.; Rusch, D.; Schulken, H.; Singer, J.

    1985-01-01

    The authors report on intense LI beam experiments currently performed with pinch reflex ion diodes on 2 ohms/1.4 TW-pulse generator KALIF (Karlsruhe Light Ion Facility). The goals of this work are the generation of highly focussed LI beams of well-defined ion composition, and the undertaking of beam-target experiments. The experimental studies with axial 6 cm phi-pinch reflex proton diodes have been aiming at the focussing characteristics of the diode, and at the ion species composition of the beam. Experiments have been performed using different diode geometries (anode/cathode/beam window foil shapes), and different anode return current paths, respectively. A variety of diagnostique techniques have been used in these studies: Electron pinch phenomena in the diode are observed by static and by gated X-ray cameras. Beam diagnostiques is based on measuring in the vacuum feed the electric parameters of the diode (electron and ion currents, diode voltage) on probing the ion composition and ion energy in the beam (by use of a Thomson Parabola spectrometer), and on the investigation of the beam focus (by use of different techniques: shadow box analysis, α-pin hole imaging, nuclear activation methods). Measurements of beam stopping power of ion beam-heated thin targets are underway using a streaked ion energy-spectrometer. The results obtained so far in these experimental efforts are presented

  8. Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Chatziathanasiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec = 10−18 s time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources.

  9. Comparison of two superconducting elliptical undulators for generating circularly polarized light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Hwang

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential use of two planar superconducting elliptical undulators—a vertically wound racetrack coil structure and a staggered array structure—to generate a circularly polarized hard x-ray source was investigated. The magnetic poles and wires of the up and down magnet arrays were rotated in alternating directions on the horizontal plane, an elliptical field is generated to provide circularly polarized light in the electron-storage ring and the energy-recovery linac accelerator. Rapid switching between right- and left-circularly polarized radiations is performed using two undulators with oppositely rotated wires and poles. Given a periodic length of 15 mm and a gap of 5 mm, the magnetic-flux densities in the elliptical undulator are B_{z}=1.2   T (B_{x}=0.6   T and B_{z}=0.35   T (B_{x}=0.15   T in the planar vertically wound racetrack coil and the staggered structure with poles rotated by 35° and 25°, respectively. In maximizing the merit of the flux and the width of the effective field region in the two superconducting elliptical undulators, the trade-off rotation angles of the coils and poles are 20° and 5°, for vertically wound racetrack coil and staggered undulators, respectively.

  10. Extremely short light pulses: generation; diagnostics, and application in attosecond spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, V.

    2003-06-01

    The scope of the thesis includes the design of chirped mirrors, as well as theoretical investigations in the fields of high-harmonic generation and laser-dressed Auger decay, the unifying aspect being the presence of extremely short light pulses and physical processes taking place on a femtosecond scale. The main results of the research are the following: 1) It was shown that efficient global optimization of chirped mirrors is possible with an adapted version of the memetic algorithm (also known as hybrid genetic algorithm). 2) The analysis of high-harmonic spectra generated by a few-cycle laser pulse can reveal the electric field of the pulse in the vicinity of its envelope peak. The method developed for this purpose can also be regarded as a method to measure the carrier-envelope phase of laser pulses, which is more robust and has a larger range of applicability compared to the simple analysis of the cut-off region of high-harmonic spectra. 3) A quantum theory of time-resolved Auger spectroscopy was developed. Based on the essential states method, closed-form expressions for probability amplitudes were derived. The theory lays the foundation for the interpretation of experiments that probe electronic motion during atomic excitation, deexcitation, and ionization. (author)

  11. Bipartite non-classical correlations for a lossy two connected qubit-cavity systems: trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Baset A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, some non-classical correlations are investigated for bipartite partitions of two qubits trapped in two spatially separated cavities connected by an optical fiber. The results show that the trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality introduce other quantum correlations beyond the entanglement. Moreover, the correlation functions of the trace distance discord and the Bell's non-locality are very sensitive to the initial correlations, the coupling strengths, and the dissipation rates of the cavities. The fluctuations of the correlation functions between their initial values and gained (loss) values appear due to the unitary evolution of the system. These fluctuations depend on the chosen initial correlations between the two subsystems. The maximal violations of Bell's inequality occur when the logarithmic negativity and the trace distance discord reach certain values. It is shown that the robustness of the non-classical correlations, against the dissipation rates of the cavities, depends on the bipartite partitions reduced density matrices of the system, and is also greatly enhanced by choosing appropriate coupling strengths.

  12. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Selhorst, Thomas; Tordo, Noël; Moore, Susan; Müller, Thomas

    2009-08-27

    Tissue-culture vaccines like purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) have been shown to provide protection against classical rabies virus (RABV) via pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross-neutralization study was conducted using a panel of 100 human sera, to determine, to what extent after vaccination with PCECV protection exists against non-classical bat lyssavirus strains like European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1 and 2 and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) concentrations against the rabies virus variants CVS-11, ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were determined by using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. For ABLV and EBLV-2, the comparison to CVS-11 revealed almost identical results (100% adequate VNA concentrations >or=0.5 IU/mL; correlation coefficient r(2)=0.69 and 0.77, respectively), while for EBLV-1 more scattering was observed (97% adequate VNA concentrations; r(2)=0.50). In conclusion, vaccination with PCECV produces adequate VNA concentrations against classical RABV as well as non-classical lyssavirus strains ABLV, EBLV-1, and EBLV-2.

  13. Economic analysis of self-generated plutonium recycling in light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Morimoto; Hirabayashi, Fumio; Yumoto, Ryozo

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes on the economics of plutonium recycle to light water reactors (LWRs). In the situation that plutonium market does not exist, it is realistic for utilities to recycle the self-generated plutonium to their own reactors. The economic incentive to recycle self-generated plutonium, plutonium fuel fabrication penalty, and the dependence of fuel cycle cost on fuel cycle cost parameters are considered. In recycling self-generated plutonium, two alternatives for fuel element design are feasible. Those are the all-plutonium design and the island design. In the present analysis, the all-plutonium design was chosen for PWRs. The calculation of reactivity variation along with burnup for both uranium fuel and plutonium fuel was done with LASER-PNC code. Plutonium inventory and other nuclear data were calculated with CHAIN code. It is expected that equilibrium composition is reached after 5 or 6 times of recycling. For the calculation of fuel cycle cost, MITCOST code was used. The recent increase in the prices of uranium ore, enrichment and reprocessing services was taken into account. The fuel cycle cost of plutonium recycle is lower than that of uranium fuel cycle within a certain limit of plutonium fabrication penalty. It is shown that the fabrication penalty of about 1250 dollar/kgHM for each plutonium successive recycle reduces the cost difference to zero. The change in other cost components affects break-even fabrication penalty, in which the fuel cycle cost of plutonium recycle is equal to that of uranium cycle. (Kato, T.)

  14. Generating shaped femtosecond pulses in the far infrared using a spatial light modulator and difference frequency generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available Femtosecond pulse shaping can be done by different kinds of pulse shapers, such as liquid crystal spatial light modulators (LC SLM), acousto optic modulators (AOM) and deformable and movable mirrors. A few applications where pulse shaping...

  15. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  16. Influence of pump-field scattering on nonclassical-light generation in a photonic-band-gap nonlinear planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Sibilia, Concita; Tricca, Daniela; Bertolotti, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Optical parametric process occurring in a nonlinear planar waveguide can serve as a source of light with nonclassical properties. The properties of the generated fields are substantially modified by scattering of the nonlinearly interacting fields in a photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. A general quantum model of linear operator amplitude corrections to the amplitude mean values and its numerical analysis provide conditions for efficient squeezed-light generation as well as generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics. The destructive influence of phase mismatch of the nonlinear interaction can fully be compensated using a suitable photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. Also an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio of the incident optical field can be reached in the waveguide

  17. Generating structured light with phase helix and intensity helix using reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface at 2 μm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yifan; Du, Jing; Zhang, Jinrun; Shen, Li; Wang, Jian

    2018-04-01

    Mid-infrared (2-20 μm) light has been attracting great attention in many areas of science and technology. Beyond the extended wavelength range from visible and near-infrared to mid-infrared, shaping spatial structures may add opportunities to grooming applications of mid-infrared photonics. Here, we design and fabricate a reflection-enhanced plasmonic metasurface and demonstrate efficient generation of structured light with the phase helix and intensity helix at 2 μm. This work includes two distinct aspects. First, structured light (phase helix, intensity helix) generation at 2 μm, which is far beyond the ability of conventional spatial light modulators, is enabled by the metasurface with sub-wavelength engineered structures. Second, the self-referenced intensity helix against environmental noise is generated without using a spatially separated light. The demonstrations may open up advanced perspectives to structured light applications at 2 μm, such as phase helix for communications and non-communications (imaging, sensing) and intensity helix for enhanced microscopy and advanced metrology.

  18. Magnetic field generation by circularly polarized laser light and inertial plasma confinement in a miniature 'Magnetic Bottle' induced by circularly polarized laser light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolka, E.

    1993-07-01

    A new concept of hot plasma confinement in a miniature magnetic bottle induced by circularly polarized laser light is suggested in this work. Magnetic fields generated by circularly polarized laser light may be of the order of megagauss. In this configuration the circularly polarized laser light is used to get confinement of a plasma contained in a good conductor vessel. The poloidal magnetic field induced by the circularly polarized laser and the efficiency of laser absorption by the plasma are calculated in this work. The confinement in this scheme is supported by the magnetic forces and the Lawson criterion for a DT plasma might be achieved for number density n=5*10 21 cm -3 and confinement time τ= 20 nsec. The laser and the plasma parameters required to get an energetic gain are calculated. (authors)

  19. A new approach to sum frequency generation of single-frequency blue light in a coupled ring cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2014-01-01

    We present a generic approach for the generation of tunable single-frequency light and demonstrate generation of more than 300 mW tunable light around 460 nm. One tapered diode laser is operated in a coupled ring cavity containing the nonlinear crystal and another tapered diode laser is sent thro...... through the nonlinear crystal in a single pass. A high conversion efficiency of more than 25 % of the single-pass laser is enabled by the high circulating power in the coupled cavity. The system is entirely self-stabilized with no need for electronic locking....

  20. A Versatile and Simple Approach to Generate Light Emission in Semiconductors Mediated by Electric Double Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Pu, Jiang; Fujimoto, Taiyo; Ohasi, Yuki; Kimura, Shota; Chen, Chang-Hsiao; Li, Lain-Jong; Sakanoue, Tomo; Takenobu, Taishi

    2017-01-01

    The light-emitting device is the primary device for current light sources. In principle, conventional light-emitting devices need heterostructures and/or intentional carrier doping to form a p-n junction. This junction formation is, however, very

  1. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  2. Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources (2/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at the first facilities have benefited to the most recently built ones. Most of the recent facilities are now featuring small emittances, high current together with high position stability. The small sizes of the electron beam at the source points impose achieving position stabilities in the sub micron range. The technology to build the insertion devices that produce the photon beams has reached a very mature state and enables 3 GeV medium energy /medium size machines to produce high brilliance beams up to the hard X-Ray range (10 - 30 keV). The designing of the optical set-up of a beamline includes now the choice of the best suited undulator. All these facilities are operated as “photon factories” and deliver their beams to many beamlines over several thousands hours per year. Some re...

  3. Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources (4/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at the first facilities have benefited to the most recently built ones. Most of the recent facilities are now featuring small emittances, high current together with high position stability. The small sizes of the electron beam at the source points impose achieving position stabilities in the sub micron range. The technology to build the insertion devices that produce the photon beams has reached a very mature state and enables 3 GeV medium energy /medium size machines to produce high brilliance beams up to the hard X-Ray range (10 - 30 keV). The designing of the optical set-up of a beamline includes now the choice of the best suited undulator. All these facilities are operated as “photon factories” and deliver their beams to many beamlines over several thousands hours per year. Some re...

  4. Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources (3/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at the first facilities have benefited to the most recently built ones. Most of the recent facilities are now featuring small emittances, high current together with high position stability. The small sizes of the electron beam at the source points impose achieving position stabilities in the sub micron range. The technology to build the insertion devices that produce the photon beams has reached a very mature state and enables 3 GeV medium energy /medium size machines to produce high brilliance beams up to the hard X-Ray range (10 - 30 keV). The designing of the optical set-up of a beamline includes now the choice of the best suited undulator. All these facilities are operated as “photon factories” and deliver their beams to many beamlines over several thousands hours per year. Some re...

  5. Recent developments at 3rd generation storage ring light sources (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, many 3rd generation storage ring light sources have been built and put into operation. Progressively, significant improvements have been brought to the machine performances and experiences developed at the first facilities have benefited to the most recently built ones. Most of the recent facilities are now featuring small emittances, high current together with high position stability. The small sizes of the electron beam at the source points impose achieving position stabilities in the sub micron range. The technology to build the insertion devices that produce the photon beams has reached a very mature state and enables 3 GeV medium energy /medium size machines to produce high brilliance beams up to the hard X-Ray range (10 - 30 keV). The designing of the optical set-up of a beamline includes now the choice of the best suited undulator. All these facilities are operated as “photon factories” and deliver their beams to many beamlines over several thousands hours per year. Some re...

  6. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  7. A critical experimental test of synchrotron radiation theory with 3rd generation light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2016-05-01

    A recent ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS apparently demonstrated that after a microbunched electron beam is kicked on a large angle compared to the divergence of the FEL radiation, the microbunching wave front is readjusted along the new direction of motion of the kicked beam. Therefore, coherent radiation from an undulator placed after the kicker is emitted along the kicked direction without suppression. This strong emission of coherent undulator radiation in the kicked direction cannot be explained in the framework of conventional synchrotron radiation theory. In a previous paper we explained this puzzle. We demonstrated that, in accelerator physics, the coupling of fields and particles is based, on the one hand, on the use of results from particle dynamics treated according to the absolute time convention and, on the other hand, on the use of Maxwell equations treated according to the standard (Einstein) synchronization convention. Here lies the misconception which led to the strong qualitative disagreement between theory and experiment. After the ''beam splitting'' experiment at LCLS, it became clear that the conventional theory of synchrotron radiation cannot ensure the correct description of coherent and spontaneous emission from a kicked electron beam, nor the emission from a beam with finite angular divergence, in an undulator or a bending magnet. However, this result requires further experimental confirmation. In this publication we propose an uncomplicated and inexpensive experiment to test synchrotron radiation theory at 3rd generation light sources.

  8. Dissecting the chloroplast proteome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) provides new insights into classical and non-classical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Nilesh Vikram; Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Gayen, Dipak; Keshava Prasad, T S; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-08-08

    Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map. To accurately assign the identified proteins, purity of chloroplast-enriched fraction was stringently monitored by multiple chemical and immunological indexes, besides pigment and enzyme analyses. The proteome analysis led to the identification of 2451 proteins, including 27 isoforms, which include predicted and novel chloroplast constituents. The identified proteins were validated through their sequence analysis. Extensive sequence based localization prediction revealed more than 50% proteins to be chloroplast resident by at least two different algorithms. Chromosomal distribution of identified proteins across nuclear and chloroplast genome unveiled the presence of 55 chloroplast encoded gene. In depth comparison of our dataset with the non-redundant set of chloroplast proteins identified so far across other species revealed novel as well as overlapping candidates. Pulses add large amount of nitrogen to the soil and has very low water footprint and therefore, contributes to fortification of sustainable agriculture. Chickpea is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and serves as an energy and protein source for humans and animals. Chloroplasts are the unique organelles which conduct photosynthesis. Investigation on chloroplast proteome is of particular significance, especially to plant biologists, as it would allow a better understanding of chloroplast function in plants. Generation of a saturated proteome map would not only

  9. Parity generator and parity checker in the modified trinary number system using savart plate and spatial light modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Amal K.

    2010-09-01

    The parity generators and the checkers are the most important circuits in communication systems. With the development of multi-valued logic (MVL), the proposed system with parity generators and checkers is the most required using the recently developed optoelectronic technology in the modified trinary number (MTN) system. This system also meets up the tremendous needs of speeds by exploiting the savart plates and spatial light modulators (SLM) in the optical tree architecture (OTA).

  10. Efficient generation of continuous-wave yellow-orange light using sum-frequency in periodically poled KTP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW 1064 and 1342 nm laser lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers using periodically poled KTP. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range....

  11. White light emission and second harmonic generation from secondary group participation (SGP) in a coordination network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Zeller, Matthias; Hunter, Allen D; Xu, Zhengtao

    2012-01-25

    We describe a white emitting coordination network solid that can be conveniently applied as a thin film onto a commercial UV-LED lamp for practical white lighting applications. The solid state material was discovered in an exercise of exploring molecular building blocks equipped with secondary groups for fine-tuning the structures and properties of coordination nets. Specifically, CH(3)SCH(2)CH(2)S- and (S)-CH(3)(OH)CHCH(2)S- (2-hydroxylpropyl) were each attached as secondary groups to the 2,5- positions of 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (bdc), and the resultant molecules (L1 and L2, respectively) were crystallized with Pb(II) into the topologically similar 3D nets of PbL1 and PbL2, both consisting of interlinked Pb-carboxyl chains. While the CH(3)S- groups in PbL1 are not bonded to the Pb(II) centers, the hydroxy groups in PbL2 participate in coordinating to Pb(II) and thus modify the bonding features around the Pb(II), but only to a slight and subtle degree (e.g., Pb-O distances 2.941-3.116 Å). Interestingly, the subtle change in structure significantly impacts the properties, i.e., while the photoluminescence of PbL1 is yellowish green, PbL2 features bright white emission. Also, the homochiral side group in PbL2 imparts significant second harmonic generation, in spite of its seemingly weak association with the main framework (the NLO-phore). In a broad perspective, this work showcases the idea of secondary group participation (SGP) in the construction of coordination networks, an idea that parallels that of hemilabile ligands in organometallics and points to an effective strategy in developing advanced functions in solid state framework materials. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Efficient concept for generation of diffraction-limited green light by sum-frequency generation of spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hasler, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power signific......In order to increase the power of visible diode laser systems in an efficient manner, we propose spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation. We show that this approach, in comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, can enhance the available power...... significantly. By combining two distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode lasers we achieve a 2.5–3.2 fold increase in power and a maximum of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light. At this power level, green diode laser systems have a high application potential, e.g., within the biomedical field. Our concept...

  13. Critical roles for LIGHT and its receptors in generating T cell-mediated immunity during Leishmania donovani infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Stanley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LIGHT (TNFSF14 is a member of the TNF superfamily involved in inflammation and defence against infection. LIGHT signals via two cell-bound receptors; herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM and lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR. We found that LIGHT is critical for control of hepatic parasite growth in mice with visceral leishmaniasis (VL caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. LIGHT-HVEM signalling is essential for early dendritic cell IL-12/IL-23p40 production, and the generation of IFNγ- and TNF-producing T cells that control hepatic infection. However, we also discovered that LIGHT-LTβR interactions suppress anti-parasitic immunity in the liver in the first 7 days of infection by mechanisms that restrict both CD4(+ T cell function and TNF-dependent microbicidal mechanisms. Thus, we have identified distinct roles for LIGHT in infection, and show that manipulation of interactions between LIGHT and its receptors may be used for therapeutic advantage.

  14. 1.5 W green light generation by single-pass second harmonic generation of a single-frequency tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    More than 1.5 W of green light at 531 nm is generated by singlepass second harmonic generation in periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. The pump laser is a high power tapered laser with a distributed Bragg reflector etched in the ridge section of the laser to provide wavelength selectivity. The output...... power of the single-frequency tapered laser is 9.3 W in continuous wave operation. A conversion efficiency of 18.5 % was achieved in the experiments....

  15. Fast and slow light generated by surface plasmon wave and gold grating coupling effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Iraj S.; Ariannejad, M. M.; Tajdidzadeh, M.; Sorger, Volker J.; Ling, Xi; Yupapin, P.

    2018-01-01

    We present here the results of a simulation of the effect of gold and graphene coatings on silicon micro-ring resonators. We studied the effect of different radii of graphene on the time delay, from which one an interesting aspect of light pulse behaviors, such as fast light, was numerically investigated. The obtained results indicate that the time delay can be varied, which is in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Fast and slow light pulse trains can be obtained by modifying the throughput port, which forms the gold grating length. The temporal gaps between the fast and slow light in the used graphene and gold are 140 and 168 fs, respectively, which can be tuned by varying the radius or grating length. The obtained results show that such a device may be useful in applications requiring fast and slow light pulse train pairs, such as optical switching, sensors, communications, and security applications.

  16. Quantum yield measurements of light-induced H₂ generation in a photosystem I-[FeFe]-H₂ase nanoconstruct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, Amanda M; Lubner, Carolyn E; Knörzer, Philipp; Happe, Thomas; Golbeck, John H

    2016-01-01

    The quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation was measured for a previously optimized bio-hybrid cytochrome c 6-crosslinked PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-[FeFe]-H2ase(C97G) (PSI-H2ase) nanoconstruct. The theoretical quantum yield for the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct is 0.50 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of two photons per H2 generated. Illumination of the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct with visible light between 400 and 700 nm resulted in an average quantum yield of 0.10-0.15 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to a requirement of 6.7-10 photons per H2 generated. A possible reason for the difference between the theoretical and experimental quantum yield is the occurrence of non-productive PSI(C13G)-1,8-octanedithiol-PSIC13G (PSI-PSI) conjugates, which would absorb light without generating H2. Assuming the thiol-Fe coupling is equally efficient at producing PSI-PSI conjugates as well as in producing PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs, the theoretical quantum yield would decrease to 0.167 molecules of H2 per photon absorbed, which equates to 6 photons per H2 generated. This value is close to the range of measured values in the current study. A strategy that purifies the PSI-H2ase nanoconstructs from the unproductive PSI-PSI conjugates or that incorporates different chemistries on the PSI and [FeFe]-H2ase enzyme sites could potentially allow the PSI-H2ase nanoconstruct to approach the expected theoretical quantum yield for light-induced H2 generation.

  17. Photonic linear chirped microwave signal generation based on the ultra-compact spectral shaper using the slow light effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Siqi; Gao, Shengqian; Zhou, Feng

    2017-01-01

    A novel concept to generate a linear chirped microwave signal is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The frequency to time mapping method is employed, where the photonic crystal waveguide Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure acts as the spectral shaper thanks to the slow light effect. By o....... The utilization of the slow light effect brings in significant advantages, including the ultra-small footprint of 0.096 mm(2) and simple structure to our scheme, which may be of great importance towards its potential applications. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  18. Adaptive Generation and Diagnostics of Linear Few-Cycle Light Bullets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently we introduced the class of highly localized wavepackets (HLWs as a generalization of optical Bessel-like needle beams. Here we report on the progress in this field. In contrast to pulsed Bessel beams and Airy beams, ultrashort-pulsed HLWs propagate with high stability in both spatial and temporal domain, are nearly paraxial (supercollimated, have fringe-less spatial profiles and thus represent the best possible approximation to linear “light bullets”. Like Bessel beams and Airy beams, HLWs show self-reconstructing behavior. Adaptive HLWs can be shaped by ultraflat three-dimensional phase profiles (generalized axicons which are programmed via calibrated grayscale maps of liquid-crystal-on-silicon spatial light modulators (LCoS-SLMs. Light bullets of even higher complexity can either be freely formed from quasi-continuous phase maps or discretely composed from addressable arrays of identical nondiffracting beams. The characterization of few-cycle light bullets requires spatially resolved measuring techniques. In our experiments, wavefront, pulse and phase were detected with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, 2D-autocorrelation and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER. The combination of the unique propagation properties of light bullets with the flexibility of adaptive optics opens new prospects for applications of structured light like optical tweezers, microscopy, data transfer and storage, laser fusion, plasmon control or nonlinear spectroscopy.

  19. Donor doping process and white light generation in CaMoO4 powders with multivalence Pr codoping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Fang; Xiao Zhisong; Zhang Feng; Yan Lu; Huang Anping

    2011-01-01

    Both trivalent praseodymium (Pr 3+ ) and quadrivalent praseodymium (Pr 4+ ) were doped in molybdate powders. Visible emission from matrix was enhanced by multivalent Pr codoping. It was proposed that Pr 3+ ions was donor and supplied quasi-free electron when Pr 3+ took place the Pr 4+ sites. The result showed that multivalence codoping would be an effective way to enhance emission of CaMoO 4 . White light can be generated from Ca 0.98 Pr 0.02 MoO 4 powder via combination of broadband emissions originated from CaMoO 4 matrix and radiative transition of Pr 3+ . It showed warm white light with T c of 3450 K that implies promising application in white light emitting diodes (LEDs).

  20. Real-time optical correlator using computer-generated holographic filter on a liquid crystal light valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Yu, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Limitations associated with the binary phase-only filter often used in optical correlators are presently circumvented in the writing of complex-valued data on a gray-scale spatial light modulator through the use of a computer-generated hologram (CGH) algorithm. The CGH encodes complex-valued data into nonnegative real CGH data in such a way that it may be encoded in any of the available gray-scale spatial light modulators. A CdS liquid-crystal light valve is used for the complex-valued CGH encoding; computer simulations and experimental results are compared, and the use of such a CGH filter as the synapse hologram in a holographic optical neural net is discussed.

  1. High-efficiency and flexible generation of vector vortex optical fields by a reflective phase-only spatial light modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meng-Qiang; Wang, Zhou-Xiang; Liang, Juan; Wang, Yan-Kun; Gao, Xu-Zhen; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian

    2017-08-01

    The scheme for generating vector optical fields should have not only high efficiency but also flexibility for satisfying the requirements of various applications. However, in general, high efficiency and flexibility are not compatible. Here we present and experimentally demonstrate a solution to directly, flexibly, and efficiently generate vector vortex optical fields (VVOFs) with a reflective phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) based on optical birefringence of liquid crystal molecules. To generate the VVOFs, this approach needs in principle only a half-wave plate, an LC-SLM, and a quarter-wave plate. This approach has some advantages, including a simple experimental setup, good flexibility, and high efficiency, making the approach very promising in some applications when higher power is need. This approach has a generation efficiency of 44.0%, which is much higher than the 1.1% of the common path interferometric approach.

  2. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  3. Efficient generation of 3.9 W of diffraction-limited green light with spectrally combined tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.

    We propose an efficient concept increasing the power of diode laser systems in the visible spectral range. In comparison with second harmonic generation of single emitters, spectral beam combining with subsequent sum-frequency generation enhances the available power significantly. Combining two...... 1060 nm tapered diode lasers, we achieve a 2.5-3.2 fold increase of green light with a maximum power of 3.9 Watts in a diffraction-limited beam. At this level, diode lasers have a high application potential, for example, within the biomedical field. In order to enhance the power even further, our...

  4. Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautzka, Zofia; Clement, Sandhya; Goldys, Ewa M.; Deng, Wei

    2018-02-01

    We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized by adjusting the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles while keeping the amount of RB constant. Gold nanoparticles were found to enhance the singlet oxygen generation rate, with a maximum enhancement factor of 1.75 obtained for the molar ratio of HSPC: PE-NH2: gold of 57:5:17 compared with liposomes loaded with RB alone. The experimental results could be explained by the local electric field enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles. We further assessed cellular cytotoxicity of these liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity, compared to the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may have improved therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.

  5. Enhancement of efficiencies for tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a p-type charge generation layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Byung Soo; Jeon, Young Pyo; Lee, Dae Uk; Kim, Tae Whan, E-mail: twk@hanayng.ac.kr

    2014-10-15

    The operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The maximum brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device at 21.9 V was 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. The dominant peak of the electroluminescence spectra for the devices was related to the fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine) iridium emission. - Highlights: • Tandem OLEDs with CGL were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. • The operating voltage of the tandem OLED with a HAT-CN layer was improved by 3%. • The efficiency and brightness of the tandem OLED were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}. • Efficiency of the OLED with a HAT-CN layer was lower than that with a MoO{sub 3} layer. - Abstract: Tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting devices with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile or a molybdenum trioxide charge generation layer were fabricated to enhance their efficiency. Current density–voltage curves showed that the operating voltage of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was improved by 3% over that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with a molybdenum trioxide layer. The efficiency and the brightness of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device were 13.9 cd/A and 26,540 cd/m{sup 2}, respectively. The current efficiency of the tandem green phosphorescent organic light-emitting device with a 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer was lower by 1.1 times compared to that of the corresponding organic light-emitting device with molybdenum trioxide layer due to the decreased charge generation and transport in the 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene-hexacarbonitrile layer resulting from triplet–triplet exciton annihilation.

  6. Parametric generation of high-energy 14.5-fs light pulses at 1.5 mum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, M; Stagira, S; De Silvestri, S; Svelto, O; Valiulis, G; Varanavicius, A

    1998-04-15

    High-energy light pulses that are tunable from 1.1 to 2.6 mum, with a duration as short as 14.5 fs were generated in a type II phase-matching beta-BaB(2)O(4) traveling-wave parametric converter pumped by 18-fs pulses obtained from a Ti:sapphire laser with chirped-pulse amplification, followed by a hollow-fiber compressor.

  7. Second Harmonic Generation of Violet Light in Femtosecond-Laser-Inscribed BiB3O6 Cladding Waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yuechen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We report on the second harmonic generation of violet light of a nonlinear cladding waveguide in BiB3O6 crystal produced by femtosecond laser inscription. Under continuous-wave pump laser at 800 nm, the guided second harmonic wave at 400 nm with a conversion efficiency of ~0.32% has been realized through the Type I birefringence phase matching configuration.

  8. Generation of uniform light by use of diode lasers and a truncated paraboloid with a Lambertian scatterer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahautala, Taito; Hernberg, Rolf

    2004-02-01

    Uniform illumination was generated by use of a large number of diode laser emitters and a single nonimaging paraboloid with a Lambertian scatterer in the truncation plane. Laser light traverses a path toward the Lambertian surface and back by total internal reflection. An overall efficiency of 69% was demonstrated. Improvements that would increase the efficiency to more than 85% are suggested. The illuminated area is circular, with 14-mm diameter. The spatial nonuniformity of the beam profile is less than +/- 2%.

  9. Characterization of light ion beams generated by a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon Cheul

    1999-02-01

    Plasma focus device has been studied as neutron and X-ray sources generated from the high pressure fusion reaction during Z-pinch. Recently, the scope of the device is focused on efficient neutron generation, X-ray lithography, preliminary fusion experiment, and ion/electron beam generation devices. A Hexagonal Beam Generator with six parallel capacitors has been developed and generated ion beams from 30kJ(C=6 μ F, V= 100kV) maximum energy. To find the optimum condition of ion beam generation, the correlation among charging voltage(20∼30kV), operation pressure of chamber(0.1∼5 torr), and length of electrode has been studied. To measure ion beam, a Faraday Cup and 3 Rogowski coils were installed. Energy of ion beam was obtained by adopting time-of -flight method between Rogowski coils

  10. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Crux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C, class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV. To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections.

  11. A prospective study of etiology of primary Amenorrhea with especial evaluation for non classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21 Hydroxylase deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moayeri H

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea, an absence of menses is a symptom that generally brings teenagers for evaluation. This study was undertaken to determine the etiology of primary amenorrhea with especial concern to non classic congential adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH-due 21 hydroxylase deficiency among female adolescents refered to clinics of Pediatric Endocrinology of Tehran and Iran University of Medical sciences and private office. One hundred and five female adolescents were studied. All patients were examined by pediatric endocrinologist.Routine lab tests, FSH, LH, prolactin, T4, TSH, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and in some cases ACTH Stimulation test for screening of NC-CAH due to 21 OH deficiency were performed. Chromosmal analysis, sonography of the ovaries and CT scan or MRI of the brain was performed in some of them. Forty-three patients (41% had ypergonaldotropic hypogonadism and sixty two patiens (59% ahd hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Turner’s syndrome and constitutional delay of puberty were the most common causes of primary amenorrhea in our study. The frequency of primary amenorrhea in our study. The frequency of primary amenorrhea due to 21-OH deficient NC-CAH was 6.6% in overall (105 cases. This study shows that in a population with high incidence of consanguineous marriages, some rare genetic disorders such as 21 OH deficient NC-CAH are relatively common

  12. The non-classical antigens of HLA-G and HLA-E as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in transplantation and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen HLA-G represents a tolerogenic molecule and is involved in the inhibition of natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. Under physiological conditions, HLA-G expression is mainly restricted to immune-privileged tissues, whereas it is overexpressed in tumors and transplants as well as in virus-infected cells. Due to its immunosuppressive features, HLA-G is important for pregnancy or organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer immune escape. This review focusses on the expression, regulation, and function of HLA-G in tumor cells andlor in transplants as well as therapeutic tools for enhancing (transplantation) or avoiding (tumor) tolerance. Thus, HLA-G or HLA-G-derived synthetic molecules might be used as therapeutic agents in combination with immunosuppressive drugs to enhance organ tolerance upon transplantation. In addition, HLA-G neoexpressing tumor cells could be targeted by HLA-G-specific microRNAs in order to enhance tumor immunogenicity.

  13. Design, fabrication and characterization of Computer Generated Holograms for anti-counterfeiting applications using OAM beams as light decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffato, Gianluca; Rossi, Roberto; Massari, Michele; Mafakheri, Erfan; Capaldo, Pietro; Romanato, Filippo

    2017-12-21

    In this paper, we present the design, fabrication and optical characterization of computer-generated holograms (CGH) encoding information for light beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Through the use of a numerical code, based on an iterative Fourier transform algorithm, a phase-only diffractive optical element (PO-DOE) specifically designed for OAM illumination has been computed, fabricated and tested. In order to shape the incident beam into a helicoidal phase profile and generate light carrying phase singularities, a method based on transmission through high-order spiral phase plates (SPPs) has been used. The phase pattern of the designed holographic DOEs has been fabricated using high-resolution Electron-Beam Lithography (EBL) over glass substrates coated with a positive photoresist layer (polymethylmethacrylate). To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first attempt, in a comprehensive work, to design, fabricate and characterize computer-generated holograms encoding information for structured light carrying OAM and phase singularities. These optical devices appear promising as high-security optical elements for anti-counterfeiting applications.

  14. White light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals hybridized with InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, S; Ozel, T; Sari, E; Demir, H V

    2007-01-01

    We introduce white light generation using CdSe/ZnS core-shell nanocrystals of single, dual, triple and quadruple combinations hybridized with InGaN/GaN LEDs. Such hybridization of different nanocrystal combinations provides the ability to conveniently adjust white light parameters including the tristimulus coordinates (x,y), correlated colour temperature (T c ) and colour rending index (R a ). We present the design, growth, fabrication and characterization of our white hybrid nanocrystal-LEDs that incorporate combinations of (1) yellow nanocrystals (λ PL = 580 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.25), T c = 2692 K and R a 14.69; (2) cyan and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 440 nm) with (x,y) = (0.37,0.28), T c = 3246 K and R a = 19.65; (3) green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.30,0.28), T c = 7521 K and R a = 40.95; and (4) cyan, green, yellow and red nanocrystals (λ PL = 500, 540, 580 and 620 nm) on a blue LED (λ EL = 452 nm) with (x,y) = (0.24,0.33), T c = 11 171 K and R a 71.07. These hybrid white light sources hold promise for future lighting and display applications with their highly adjustable properties

  15. Energy transfer and colour tunability in UV light induced Tm3+/Tb3+/Eu3+: ZnB glasses generating white light emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, V; Gupta, Kiran; Parthasaradhi Reddy, C; Ham, Byoung S

    2017-03-15

    A promising energy transfer (Tm 3+ →Tb 3+ →Eu 3+ ) approach is brought forward to generate white light emission under ultraviolet (UV) light excitation for solid state lightening. Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ ions are combinedly doped in zinc borate glass system in view of understanding energy transfer process resulting in white light emission. Zinc borate (host) glass displayed optical and luminescence properties due to formation of Zn(II) x -[O(-II)] y centres in the ZnB glass matrix. At 360nm (UV) excitation, triply doped Tm 3+ /Tb 3+ /Eu 3+ : ZnB glasses simultaneously shown their characteristic emission bands in blue (454nm: 1 D 2 → 3 F 4 ), green (547nm: 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 ) and red (616nm: 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 ) regions. In triple ions doped glasses, energy transfer dynamics is discussed in terms of Forster-Dexter theory, excitation & emission profiles, lifetime curves and from partial energy level diagram of three ions. The role of Tb 3+ in ET from Tm 3+ →Eu 3+ was discussed using branch model. From emission decay analysis, energy transfer probability (P) and efficiency (η) were evaluated. Colour tunability from blue to white on varying (Tb 3+ , Eu 3+ ) content is demonstrated from Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) chromaticity coordinates. Based on chromaticity coordinates, other colour related parameters like correlated colour temperature (CCT) and colour purity are also computed for the studied glass samples. An appropriate blending of such combination of rare earth ions could show better suitability as potential candidates in achieving multi-colour and warm/cold white light emission for white LEDs application in the field of solid state lightening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantum optical signatures in strong-field laser physics: Infrared photon counting in high-order-harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonoskov, I A; Tsatrafyllis, N; Kominis, I K; Tzallas, P

    2016-09-07

    We analytically describe the strong-field light-electron interaction using a quantized coherent laser state with arbitrary photon number. We obtain a light-electron wave function which is a closed-form solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). This wave function provides information about the quantum optical features of the interaction not accessible by semi-classical theories. With this approach we can reveal the quantum optical properties of high harmonic generation (HHG) process in gases by measuring the photon statistics of the transmitted infrared (IR) laser radiation. This work can lead to novel experiments in high-resolution spectroscopy in extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) and attosecond science without the need to measure the XUV light, while it can pave the way for the development of intense non-classical light sources.

  17. Photocatalytic generation of hydrogen under visible light on La2CuO4

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of Chemistry (USTHB),. B.P. 32, 16111 ... The energy diagram shows the feasibility of La2CuO4 for the H2 evolution under visible light. The best ... An efficient photocata-.

  18. Asymmetric Synthesis of Second-Generation Light-Driven Molecular Motors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Danowski, Wojciech; Otten, Edwin; Wezenberg, Sander J; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-01-01

    The enantiomeric homogeneity of light-driven molecular motors based on overcrowded alkenes is crucial in their application as either unidirectional rotors or as chiral multistate switches. It was challenging to obtain these compounds as single enantiomers via the established synthetic procedures due

  19. Phosphors for near UV-Emitting LED's for Efficacious Generation of White Light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKittrick, Joanna [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    1) We studied phosphors for near-UV (nUV) LED application as an alternative to blue LEDs currently being used in SSL systems. We have shown that nUV light sources could be very efficient at high current and will have significantly less binning at both the chip and phosphor levels. We identified phosphor blends that could yield 4100K lamps with a CRI of approximately 80 and LPWnUV,opt equal to 179 for the best performing phosphor blend. Considering the fact that the lamps were not optimized for light coupling, the results are quite impressive. The main bottleneck is an optimum blue phosphor with a peak near 440 nm with a full width half maximum of about 25 nm and a quantum efficiency of >95%. Unfortunately, that may be a very difficult task when we want to excite a phosphor at ~400 nm with a very small margin for Stokes shift. Another way is to have all the phosphors in the blend having the excitation peak at 400 nm or slightly shorter wavelength. This could lead to a white light source with no body color and optimum efficacy due to no self-absorption effects by phosphors in the blend. This is even harder than finding an ideal blue phosphor, but not necessarily impossible. 2) With the phosphor blends identified, light sources using nUV LEDs at high current could be designed with comparable efficacy to those using blue LEDs. It will allow us to design light sources with multiple wattages using the same chips and phosphor blends simply by varying the input current. In the case of blue LEDs, this is not currently possible because varying the current will lower the efficacy at high current and alter the color point. With improvement of phosphor blends, control over CRI could improve. Less binning at the chip level and also at the phosphor blend level could reduce the cost of SSL light sources. 3) This study provided a deeper understanding of phosphor characteristics needed for LEDs in general and nUV LEDs in particular. Two students received Ph.D. degrees and three

  20. Semi-intelligent trigger-generation scheme for Cherenkov light imaging cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, C.L.; Tickoo, A.K.; Koul, R.; Kaul, I.K.

    1994-01-01

    We propose here an improved trigger-generation scheme for TeV gamma-ray imaging telescopes. Based on a memory-based Majority Coincidence Circuit, this scheme involves deriving two-or three-pixel nearest-neighbour coincidences as against the conventional approach of generating prompt coincidences using any two photomultiplier detector pixels of an imaging-camera. As such, the new method can discriminate better against shot-noise-generated triggers and, to a significant extent, also against cosmic-ray and local-muon-generated background events, without compromising on the telescope response to events of γ-ray origin. An optional feature of the proposed scheme is that a suitably scaled-up value of the chance-trigger rate can be independently derived, thereby making it possible to use this parameter reliably for keeping a log of the ''health'' of the experimental system. (orig.)

  1. Semi-intelligent trigger-generation scheme for Cherenkov light imaging cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, C. L.; Tickoo, A. K.; Koul, R.; Kaul, I. K.

    1994-02-01

    We propose here an improved trigger-generation scheme for TeV gamma-ray imaging telescopes. Based on a memory-based Majority Coincidence Circuit, this scheme involves deriving two- or three-pixel nearest-neighbour coincidences as against the conventional approach of generating prompt coincidences using any two photomultiplier detector pixels of an imaging-camera. As such, the new method can discriminate better against shot-noise-generated triggers and, to a significant extent, also against cosmic-ray and local-muon-generated background events, without compromising on the telescope response to events of γ-ray origin. An optional feature of the proposed scheme is that a suitably scaled-up value of the chance-trigger rate can be independently derived, thereby making it possible to use this parameter reliably for keeping a log of the ``health'' of the experimental system.

  2. Towards efficient next generation light sources: combined solution processed and evaporated layers for OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, D.; Sarfert, W.; Meier, S.; Bolink, H.; García Santamaría, S.; Wecker, J.

    2010-05-01

    Typically high efficient OLED device structures are based on a multitude of stacked thin organic layers prepared by thermal evaporation. For lighting applications these efficient device stacks have to be up-scaled to large areas which is clearly challenging in terms of high through-put processing at low-cost. One promising approach to meet cost-efficiency, high through-put and high light output is the combination of solution and evaporation processing. Moreover, the objective is to substitute as many thermally evaporated layers as possible by solution processing without sacrificing the device performance. Hence, starting from the anode side, evaporated layers of an efficient white light emitting OLED stack are stepwise replaced by solution processable polymer and small molecule layers. In doing so different solutionprocessable hole injection layers (= polymer HILs) are integrated into small molecule devices and evaluated with regard to their electro-optical performance as well as to their planarizing properties, meaning the ability to cover ITO spikes, defects and dust particles. Thereby two approaches are followed whereas in case of the "single HIL" approach only one polymer HIL is coated and in case of the "combined HIL" concept the coated polymer HIL is combined with a thin evaporated HIL. These HIL architectures are studied in unipolar as well as bipolar devices. As a result the combined HIL approach facilitates a better control over the hole current, an improved device stability as well as an improved current and power efficiency compared to a single HIL as well as pure small molecule based OLED stacks. Furthermore, emitting layers based on guest/host small molecules are fabricated from solution and integrated into a white hybrid stack (WHS). Up to three evaporated layers were successfully replaced by solution-processing showing comparable white light emission spectra like an evaporated small molecule reference stack and lifetime values of several 100 h.

  3. Super-hydrophilic copper sulfide films as light absorbers for efficient solar steam generation under one sun illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhenzhen; Ming, Xin; Wang, Gang; Hou, Baofei; Liu, Xinghang; Mei, Tao; Li, Jinhua; Wang, Jianying; Wang, Xianbao

    2018-02-01

    Solar steam technology is one of the simplest, most direct and effective ways to harness solar energy through water evaporation. Here, we report the development using super-hydrophilic copper sulfide (CuS) films with double-layer structures as light absorbers for solar steam generation. In the double-layer structure system, a porous mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane is used as a supporting layer, which enables water to get into the CuS light absorbers through a capillary action to provide continuous water during solar steam generation. The super-hydrophilic property of the double-layer system (CuS/MCE) leads to a thinner water film close to the air-water interface where the surface temperature is sufficiently high, leading to more efficient evaporation (˜80 ± 2.5%) under one sun illumination. Furthermore, the evaporation efficiencies still keep a steady value after 15 cycles of testing. The super-hydrophilic CuS film is promising for practical application in water purification and evaporation as a light absorption material.

  4. Room-Temperature and Aqueous-Phase Synthesis of Plasmonic Molybdenum Oxide Nanoparticles for Visible-Light-Enhanced Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiayuan; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Wen, Meicheng; Navlani-García, Miriam; Mori, Kohsuke; An, Taicheng; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-09-06

    A straightforward aqueous synthesis of MoO3-x nanoparticles at room temperature was developed by using (NH4 )6 Mo7 O24 ⋅4 H2 O and MoCl5 as precursors in the absence of reductants, inert gas, and organic solvents. SEM and TEM images indicate the as-prepared products are nanoparticles with diameters of 90-180 nm. The diffuse reflectance UV-visible-near-IR spectra of the samples indicate localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties generated by the introduction of oxygen vacancies. Owing to its strong plasmonic absorption in the visible-light and near-infrared region, such nanostructures exhibit an enhancement of activity toward visible-light catalytic hydrogen generation. MoO3-x nanoparticles synthesized with a molar ratio of Mo(VI) /Mo(V) 1:1 show the highest yield of H2 evolution. The cycling catalytic performance has been investigated to indicate the structural and chemical stability of the as-prepared plasmonic MoO3-x nanoparticles, which reveals its potential application in visible-light catalytic hydrogen production. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sacrificial hydrogen generation from aqueous triethanolamine with Eosin Y-sensitized Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst in UV, visible and solar light irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Pankaj; Gomaa, Hassan; Ray, Ajay K

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have studied Eosin Y-sensitized sacrificial hydrogen generation with triethanolamine as electron donor in UV, visible, and solar light irradiation. Aeroxide TiO2 was loaded with platinum metal via solar photo-deposition method to reduce the electron hole recombination process. Photocatalytic sacrificial hydrogen generation was influenced by several factors such as platinum loading (wt%) on TiO2, solution pH, Eosin Y to Pt/TiO2 mass ratio, triethanolamine concentration, and light (UV, visible and solar) intensities. Detailed reaction mechanisms in visible and solar light irradiation were established. Oxidation of triethanolamine and formaldehyde formation was correlated with hydrogen generation in both visible and solar lights. Hydrogen generation kinetics followed a Langmuir-type isotherm with reaction rate constant and adsorption constant of 6.77×10(-6) mol min(-1) and 14.45 M(-1), respectively. Sacrificial hydrogen generation and charge recombination processes were studied as a function of light intensities. Apparent quantum yields (QYs) were compared for UV, visible, and solar light at four different light intensities. Highest QYs were attained at lower light intensity because of trivial charge recombination. At 30 mW cm(-2) we achieved QYs of 10.82%, 12.23% and 11.33% in UV, visible and solar light respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ouabain interactions with the α4 isoform of the sodium pump trigger non-classical steroid hormone signaling and integrin expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmanyu, Neha; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the ubiquitous α1 isoform of the sodium pump, sperm cells also express a male-specific α4 isoform whose function has been associated with sperm motility, fertility, and capacitation. Here we investigate in the murine spermatogenic cell line GC-2 interactions of the α4 isoform with the cardiotonic steroid ouabain in signaling cascades involved in the non-classical action of steroid hormones. Exposure of GC-2 cells to low concentrations of ouabain stimulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. As a consequence of this signaling cascade, ouabain stimulates on the mRNA level the expression of integrins αv, β3 and α5, whose expression is also modulated by the cAMP response element. Increased expression of integrins αv and β3 is also seen in cultures of seminiferous tubules exposed to 10nM ouabain. At the protein level we observed a significant stimulation of β3 integrin expression by ouabain. Abrogation of α4 isoform expression by siRNA leads to the complete suppression of all ouabain-induced signaling mentioned above, including its stimulatory effect on the expression of β3 integrin. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the induction of signaling cascades through the interaction of ouabain with the α4 isoform in a germ-cell derived cell line. The novel finding that these interactions lead to increased expression of integrins in GC-2 cells and the confirmation of these results in the ex vivo experiments indicate that hormone/receptor-like interactions of ouabain with the α4 isoform might be of significance for male physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Kinetic modeling sheds light on the mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa on thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-10-01

    The therapeutic potential of a hemostatic agent can be assessed by investigating its effects on the quantitative parameters of thrombin generation. For recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)--a promising hemostasis-inducing biologic--experimental studies addressing its effects on thrombin generation yielded disparate results. To elucidate the inherent ability of rFVIIa to modulate thrombin production, it is necessary to identify rFVIIa-induced effects that are compatible with the available biochemical knowledge about thrombin generation mechanisms. The existing body of knowledge about coagulation biochemistry can be rigorously represented by a computational model that incorporates the known reactions and parameter values constituting the biochemical network. We used a thoroughly validated numerical model to generate activated factor VII (FVIIa) titration curves in the cases of normal blood composition, hemophilia A and B blood, blood lacking factor VII, blood lacking tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and diluted blood. We utilized the generated curves to perform systematic fold-change analyses for five quantitative parameters characterizing thrombin accumulation. The largest fold changes induced by increasing FVIIa concentration were observed for clotting time, thrombin peak time, and maximum slope of the thrombin curve. By contrast, thrombin peak height was much less affected by FVIIa titrations, and the area under the thrombin curve stayed practically unchanged. Comparisons with experimental data demonstrated that the computationally derived patterns can be observed in vitro. rFVIIa modulates thrombin generation primarily by accelerating the process, without significantly affecting the total amount of generated thrombin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Injection of harmonics generated in gas in a free-electron laser providing intense and coherent extreme-ultraviolet light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G; Garzella, D; Labat, M; Carre, B; Bougeard, M; Salieres, P; Merdji, H; Gobert, O [CEA Saclay, DSM, DRECAM, Serv. Photons Atomes Mol., F-91191 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Lambert, G; Hara, T; Tanikawa, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Tanaka, Y; Tahara, K [RIKEN SPring Centre, Harima Inst., Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan); Lambert, G; Labat, M; Chubar, O; Couprie, M E [Groupe Magnetisme et Insertion, Synchrotron Soleil, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette, (France); Hara, T; Kitamura, H; Shintake, T; Inoue, S; Tanaka, Y [XFEL Project Head Office, RIKEN, Hyogo 679-5148, (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Conventional synchrotron radiation sources enable the structure of matter to be studied at near-atomic spatial resolution and picosecond temporal resolution. Free-electron lasers promise to extend this down to femtosecond timescales. The process by which free-electron lasers amplify synchrotron light-known as self-amplified spontaneous emission - is only partially temporally coherent, but this can be improved by seeding it with an external laser. Here we explore the use of seed light produced by high-order harmonic generation in a gas, covering wavelengths from the ultraviolet to soft X-rays. Using the SPring-8 Compact SASE Source test accelerator, we demonstrate an increase of three orders of magnitude in the intensity of the fundamental radiation at 160 nm, halving of the free-electron laser saturation length, and the generation of nonlinear harmonics at 54 nm and 32 nm. The low seed level used in this demonstration suggests that nonlinear harmonic schemes should enable the generation of fully coherent soft X-rays at wavelengths down to the so-called 'water window', vital for the study of biological samples. (authors)

  9. Design and Fabrication of the Second-Generation KID-Based Light Detectors of CALDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colantoni, I.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cruciani, A.; Bellini, F.; Castellano, M. G.; Cosmelli, C.; D'Addabbo, A.; Di Domizio, S.; Martinez, M.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M.

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the cryogenic wide-area light detectors with excellent resolution project is the development of light detectors with large active area and noise energy resolution smaller than 20 eV RMS using phonon-mediated kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). The detectors are developed to improve the background suppression in large-mass bolometric experiments such as CUORE, via the double readout of the light and the heat released by particles interacting in the bolometers. In this work we present the fabrication process, starting from the silicon wafer arriving to the single chip. In the first part of the project, we designed and fabricated KID detectors using aluminum. Detectors are designed by means of state-of-the-art software for electromagnetic analysis (SONNET). The Al thin films (40 nm) are evaporated on high-quality, high-resistivity (> 10 kΩ cm) Si(100) substrates using an electron beam evaporator in a HV chamber. Detectors are patterned in direct-write mode, using electron beam lithography (EBL), positive tone resist poly-methyl methacrylate and lift-off process. Finally, the chip is diced into 20 × 20 mm2 chips and assembled in a holder OFHC (oxygen-free high conductivity) copper using PTFE support. To increase the energy resolution of our detectors, we are changing the superconductor to sub-stoichiometric TiN (TiN x ) deposited by means of DC magnetron sputtering. We are optimizing its deposition by means of DC magnetron reactive sputtering. For this kind of material, the fabrication process is subtractive and consists of EBL patterning through negative tone resist AR-N 7700 and deep reactive ion etching. Critical temperature of TiN x samples was measured in a dedicated cryostat.

  10. Two stacked tandem white organic light-emitting diodes employing WO3 as a charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Jong-Kwan; Lee, Na Yeon; Lee, SeungJae; Seo, Bomin; Yang, JoongHwan; Kim, Jinook; Yoon, Soo Young; Kang, InByeong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, many studies have been conducted to improve the electroluminescence (EL) performance of organic lightemitting diodes (OLEDs) by using appropriate organic or inorganic materials as charge generation layer (CGL) for their application such as full color displays, backlight units, and general lighting source. In a stacked tandem white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs), a few emitting units are electrically interconnected by a CGL, which plays the role of generating charge carriers, and then facilitate the injection of it into adjacent emitting units. In the present study, twostacked WOLEDs were fabricated by using tungsten oxide (WO3) as inorganic charge generation layer and 1,4,5,8,9,11- hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HAT-CN) as organic charge generation layer (P-CGL). Organic P-CGL materials were used due to their ease of use in OLED fabrication as compared to their inorganic counterparts. To obtain high efficiency, we demonstrate two-stacked tandem WOLEDs as follows: ITO/HIL/HTL/HTL'/B-EML/ETL/N-CGL/P-CGL (WO3 or HAT-CN)/HTL″/YG-EML/ETL/LiF/Al. The tandem devices with blue- and yellow-green emitting layers were sensitive to the thickness of an adjacent layer, hole transporting layer for the YG emitting layer. The WOLEDs containing the WO3 as charge generation layer reach a higher power efficiency of 19.1 lm/W and the current efficiency of 51.2 cd/A with the white color coordinate of (0.316, 0.318) than the power efficiency of 13.9 lm/W, and the current efficiency of 43.7 cd/A for organic CGL, HAT-CN at 10 mA/cm2, respectively. This performance with inserting WO3 as CGL exhibited the highest performance with excellent CIE color coordinates in the two-stacked tandem OLEDs.

  11. Deep UV light generation by a fiber/bulk hybrid amplifier at 199 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yoshiharu; Shinozaki, Tatsuya; Wada, Yoshio; Kaneda, Yushi; Wada, Satoshi; Imai, Shinichi

    2009-01-01

    A high-pulse-repetition-frequency (PRF) pulsed light source in the deep ultraviolet region has been realized by a multiple wavelength conversion technique using a hybrid fiber/bulk amplifier system. Output of 199 nm with a power of 50 mW was achieved at 2.4 MHz PRF. The 1 μm amplifier consisted of a Yb-doped fiber amplifier and a Nd-doped YVO4 amplifier. A 1.5 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier was employed as the other fundamental source. The amplifiers exhibited good amplification properties in pulse energy, polarization extinction ratio, and spectrum for nonlinear wavelength conversion

  12. All-optical 3D atomic loops generated with Bessel light fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volke-Sepulveda, Karen; Jauregui, RocIo

    2009-01-01

    The propagation invariance of Bessel beams as well as their transversal structure is used to perform a comparative analysis of their effect on cold atoms for four different configurations and combinations thereof. We show that, even at temperatures for which the classical description of the atom's centre-of-mass motion is valid, the interchange of momentum, energy and orbital angular momentum between light and atoms yields efficient tools for all-optical trapping, transporting and, in general, manipulating the state of motion of cold atoms.

  13. Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image by Using a Far-Infrared Light Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Som Jeon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction

  14. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Wright, E. M.; Moloney, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse.

  15. Implementation of defence in depth for next generation light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The publication of this IAEA technical document represents the conclusion of a task, initiated in 1995, devoted to defence in depth in future reactors. It focuses mainly on the next generation of LWRs, although many general considerations may also apply to other types of reactors

  16. Update on the enhancement of Florida power and light 400 MW steam generator program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzarell, G.R.; Chang, P.S.

    1991-01-01

    Florida Power and Light has nine (9) 400 MW units, designed and installed by Foster Wheeler in the 1960's. These fossil units were designed as base loaded units with oil firing. However, natural gas capability was added and for more than seven years these units have been in a cycling mode of operation. The availability of these units has deteriorated over the same time period. This paper reports that Florida Power and Light instituted an enhancement program for improving the availability redundancy of all their fossil fired units. The 400 MW units were the main contributors to the system forced outage rate. Each design and operating problem of these units was studied in detail and the root causes of each problem were identified. The first two (2) units, Port Everglades units No. 3 and 4 have been modified and returned to service. Testing of these two (2) units with respect to performance guarantees and the effectiveness of each of the individual modifications, has been completed. The first unit modified, PPE No. 3 was returned to service May 1989, PPE No. 4 in May of 1990. Both units have performed satisfactorily during subsequent operation. Cape Canaveral Unit No. 2 is modified and scheduled to be returned to service in May 1991

  17. Nonlinearity-tailored fiber laser technology for low-noise, ultra-wideband tunable femtosecond light generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Iegorov, Roman

    2017-01-01

    supercontinuum, taking advantage of a simpler fiber technology: a fixed-wavelength pump laser pulse is converted into a spectrally very broadband output, from which the required resulting wavelength is then optically filtered. Unfortunately, this process is associated with an inherently poor noise figure, which...... often precludes many realistic applications of such supercontinuum sources. Here, we show that by adding only one passive optical element—a tapered photonic crystal fiber—to a fixed-wavelength femtosecond laser, one can in a very simple manner resonantly convert the laser emission wavelength......The emission wavelength of a laser is physically predetermined by the gain medium used.Consequently,arbitrary wavelength generation is a fundamental challenge in the science of light. Present solutions include optical parametric generation, requiring complex optical setups and spectrally sliced...

  18. Generation of 46 W green-light by frequency doubling of 96 W picosecond unpolarized Yb-doped fiber amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrated a high efficiency and high average power picosecond green light source based on SHG (second harmonic generation) of an unpolarized ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier chain. Using single-pass frequency doubling in two temperature-tuned type-I phase-matching LBO crystals, we were able to generate 46 W, >70 ps pulses at 532 nm from a fundamental beam at 1064 nm, whose output is 96 W, 4.8 μJ, with a repetition frequency of 20 MHz and nearly diffraction limited. The optical conversion efficiency was ∼48% in a highly compact design. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported on ps green source through SHG of an unpolarized fiber laser with such a high output and high efficiency.

  19. Tandem organic light-emitting diodes with buffer-modified C60/pentacene as charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Fei; Wang, Pei; Gan, Lin; Wang, Jing-jing

    2017-09-01

    Buffer-modified C60/pentacene as charge generation layer (CGL) is investigated to achieve effective performance of charge generation. Undoped green electroluminescent tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with multiple identical emissive units and using buffer-modified C60/pentacene organic semiconductor heterojunction (OHJ) as CGL are demonstrated to exhibit better current density and brightness, compared with conventional single-unit devices. The current density and brightness both can be significantly improved with increasing the thickness of Al. However, excessive thickness of Al seriously decreases the transmittance of films and damages the interface. As a result, the maximum current efficiency of 1.43 cd·A-1 at 30 mA·cm-2 can be achieved for tandem OLEDs with optimal thickness of Al. These results clearly demonstrate that Cs2CO3/Al is an effective buffer for C60/pentacene-based tandem OLEDs.

  20. Generation of the second harmonics of Bessel light beams in a KTP crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyi, V N; Kazak, N S; Kondratyuk, N V; Khilo, N A; Shagov, A A

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations were made of the characteristic features of doubling the frequency of Bessel light beams by the oe - e interaction in a KTP crystal. All possible and scalar interactions of plane-wave components of Bessel beams were observed experimentally. The spatial structure of the second harmonic in the far zone consisted of a central spot and a concentric ring. The diffraction divergence of the central beam was weak ( ∼ 1.7 mrad). The energy conversion efficiency was ∼ 21% for a Bessel beam, which was three times higher than the efficiency of conversion of the initial laser beam. A theoretical model was based on representation of the field of the second harmonic as a superposition of Bessel beams, which provided a correct description of the observed spatial and energy characteristics of the second harmonic. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  1. The PV LED Engine - a new generation of intelligent solar powered LED lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Thorsteinsson, Sune

    parameters are ltered mathematical by the optical properties of the materials in front of the solar panel and assumptions about the soiling parameters. Lab measurements of solar cells/panels underdierent lighting conditions (spectrally and intensity) makes it possible to simulate performance of realsolar...... projectat design and simulation tool for small PV applications for the urban environment is developed. The tool is advanced in its calculations on the solar irradiation parameters being very dierent in the urban environment compared to roof top applications both spectrally and in intensity variations...... panels of different technologies in the addressed environment since detailed electrical characteristicsis known by the measurements. Optical parameters for the protection layer (in front of the solar panel)are put into a material library so the optimal choice can be made for a given application...

  2. The next generation of IPPs: keeping the lights on in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Booker [PT Paiton Energy (Indonesia)

    2004-07-01

    The paper begins by looking at where Indonesia is going (National Electricity Master Plan, future electricity demand) before examining how Indonesia will get there (investment, government plans). Finally, where Paiton Energy is now (history and status today, after restructuring, problems to be overcome) and the next generation of IPPs (Paiton I expansion, risk structuring and allocation) are discussed. 6 figs. A separation file (James Booker.pdf, 15 pages) contains the overheads/viewgraphs of the presentation.

  3. Fundamental Understanding of Crack Growth in Structural Components of Generation IV Supercritical Light Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iouri I. Balachov; Takao Kobayashi; Francis Tanzella; Indira Jayaweera; Palitha Jayaweera; Petri Kinnunen; Martin Bojinov; Timo Saario

    2004-11-17

    This work contributes to the design of safe and economical Generation-IV Super-Critical Water Reactors (SCWRs) by providing a basis for selecting structural materials to ensure the functionality of in-vessel components during the entire service life. During the second year of the project, we completed electrochemical characterization of the oxide film properties and investigation of crack initiation and propagation for candidate structural materials steels under supercritical conditions. We ranked candidate alloys against their susceptibility to environmentally assisted degradation based on the in situ data measure with an SRI-designed controlled distance electrochemistry (CDE) arrangement. A correlation between measurable oxide film properties and susceptibility of austenitic steels to environmentally assisted degradation was observed experimentally. One of the major practical results of the present work is the experimentally proven ability of the economical CDE technique to supply in situ data for ranking candidate structural materials for Generation-IV SCRs. A potential use of the CDE arrangement developed ar SRI for building in situ sensors monitoring water chemistry in the heat transport circuit of Generation-IV SCWRs was evaluated and proved to be feasible.

  4. Plasmas generated by ultra-violet light rather than electron impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, R. N. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, The Open University, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Allen, J. E. [University College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4BH, United Kingdom and OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Thomas, D. M. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Benilov, M. S. [Departamento de Fisica, CCCEE, Universidade de Madeira, Largo do Municipio, 9000 Funchal (Portugal)

    2013-12-15

    We analyze, in both plane and cylindrical geometries, a collisionless plasma consisting of an inner region where generation occurs by UV illumination, and an un-illuminated outer region with no generation. Ions generated in the inner region flow outwards through the outer region and into a wall. We solve for this system's steady state, first in the quasi-neutral regime (where the Debye length λ{sub D} vanishes and analytic solutions exist) and then in the general case, which we solve numerically. In the general case, a double layer forms where the illuminated and un-illuminated regions meet, and an approximately quasi-neutral plasma connects the double layer to the wall sheath; in plane geometry, the ions coast through the quasi-neutral section at slightly more than the Bohm speed c{sub s}. The system, although simple, therefore has two novel features: a double layer that does not require counter-streaming ions and electrons, and a quasi-neutral plasma where ions travel in straight lines with at least the Bohm speed. We close with a précis of our asymptotic solutions of this system, and suggest how our theoretical conclusions might be extended and tested in the laboratory.

  5. In Situ Fluorine Doping of TiO2 Superstructures for Efficient Visible-Light Driven Hydrogen Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Tachikawa, Takashi; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Majima, Tetsuro

    2016-03-21

    With the aid of breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology, it is imperative to develop metal oxide semiconductors through visible light-driven hydrogen generation. In this study, TiOF2 was incorporated as an n-type F-dopant source to TiO2 mesocrystals (TMCs) with visible-light absorption during the topotactic transformation. The crystal growth, structural change, and dynamic morphological evolution, from the initial intermediate NH4 TiOF3 to HTiOF3, TiOF2, and F-doped TMCs, were verified through in situ temperature-dependent techniques to elucidate the doping mechanism from intermediate TiOF2. The visible-light efficiencies of photocatalytic hydrogen were dependent on the contents of the dopant as compared with the pure TMC and a controled reference. Using femtosecond time-resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the charge-transfer dynamics were monitored to confirm the improvement of charge separation after doping. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Multi-point laser spark generation for internal combustion engines using a spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, Elliott; Kuang, Zheng; Dearden, Geoff; Cheng, Hua; Page, Vincent; Shenton, Tom

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique demonstrating for the first time successful multi-point laser-induced spark generation, which is variable in three dimensions and derived from a single laser beam. Previous work on laser ignition of internal combustion engines found that simultaneously igniting in more than one location resulted in more stable and faster combustion – a key potential advantage over conventional spark ignition. However, previous approaches could only generate secondary foci at fixed locations. The work reported here is an experimental technique for multi-point laser ignition, in which several sparks with arbitrary spatial location in three dimensions are created by variable diffraction of a pulsed single laser beam source and transmission through an optical plug. The diffractive multi-beam arrays and patterns are generated using a spatial light modulator on which computer generated holograms are displayed. A gratings and lenses algorithm is used to accurately modulate the phase of the input laser beam and create multi-beam output. The underpinning theory, experimental arrangement and results obtained are presented and discussed. (paper)

  7. Generation of Sources of Light with Well Defined Orbital Angular Momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz y Cruz, S; Escamilla, N; Velazquez, V

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a technique to produce spatial electromagnetic modes with definite orbital angular momentum is presented. The method is based in the construction of binary diffractive gratings generated by computer. In the classical regime the gratings produce the well known Laguerre-Gaussian modes distributions when illuminated by a plane wave. In the quantum regime the grating is placed in the signal path of a spontaneous parametric down conversion layout and the diffraction pattern, observed in the coincidence count rate, shows that the single photons are projected onto spatial states consistent with a Laguerre-Gaussian modes distribution. (paper)

  8. White light generation from Dy3+-doped yttrium aluminium gallium mixed garnet nano-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveena, R.; Balasubrahmanyam, K.; Jyothi, L.; Venkataiah, G.; Basavapoornima, Ch.; Jayasankar, C.K.

    2016-01-01

    Yttrium aluminium gallium garnet (here after referred as YAGG), Y 3 Al 5−y Ga y O 12 (where y=1.0, 2.5 and 4.0), nano-powders doped with 1.0 mol% of dysprosium (Dy 3+ ) ions were synthesised by the citrate sol–gel method. The structure, phase evolution, morphology and luminescence properties of these nano-crytalline powders were characterized by means of XRD, FTIR, Raman, electron microscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. From the XRD results, the crystallite sizes were found to be in the range of 18–26 nm. Excitation spectra of YAGG nano-powders showed that the samples can be efficiently excited by near UV and blue LEDs. Upon excitation at 448 nm, the emission spectra of all these samples showed two bands centred at 485 (blue) and 585 nm (yellow) which corresponds to the 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 15/2 and 4 F 9/2 → 6 H 13/2 transitions of Dy 3+ ion, respectively. Intensity of blue emission was found to be stronger than the yellow emission in all the three samples. Integrated yellow to blue (Y/B) emission intensity was found to be increased with increasing the Ga content in the present YAGG host. Therefore, concentration (0.1, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 mol%) of Dy 3+ ions was varied in the Ga rich (Y 3 Ga 4 AlO 12 ) nano-powder. The chromaticity co-ordinates of all the prepared nano-powders were located in the white light region and also found to be dependent on Dy 3+ ion concentration and excitation wavelength. The decay curves for 4 F 9/2 level of Dy 3+ ion exhibited non-exponential nature in all the studied samples and the lifetime values remained constant (~1.0 ms) with increasing the Ga content, but were found to decrease with increasing the Dy 3+ ion concentration. The results indicated that 2.0 mol% of Dy 3+ -doped Y 3 Ga 4 AlO 12 nano-powder under 352 nm excitation is suitable for the white light emitting device applications.

  9. Parametric Processes for Generation and Low Noise Detection of Infrared Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgstedt, Lasse

    This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes. The investiga......This thesis describes an experimentally based, and application oriented investigation of sum- and difference frequency generation for photon conversion,from one spectral domain to another. The applications in focus are coherent gas spectroscopy in the near- and mid-infrared regimes...... upconversion modules are tested as part of a detection system in two different applications for spectroscopic gas measurements. The first test was done at Lund University together with the Combustion Physics Group, where the detection level of acetylene gas in a four-wave mixing setup was improved a factor...... of 500 compared to previous measurements. The second test was performed at the Atmospheric Physics Department at the German Aerospace Center in Oberpfaffenhofen. Here the upconversion detector was tested as an alternative to an InGaAs detector in a differential absorption lidar setup for long range...

  10. High Brightness Electron Guns for Next-Generation Light Sources and Accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Bluem; M.D. Cole; J. Rathke; T. Schultheiss; A.M.M. Todd; I. Ben-Zvi; T. Srinivasan-Rao; P. Colestock; D.C. Nguyen; R.L. Wood; L. Young; D. Janssen; J. Lewellen; G. Neil; H.L. Phillips; J.P. Preble

    2004-01-01

    Advanced Energy Systems continues to develop advanced electron gun and injector concepts. Several of these projects have been previously described, but the progress and status of each will be updated. The project closest to completion is an all superconducting RF (SRF) gun, being developed in collaboration with the Brookhaven National Laboratory, that uses the niobium of the cavity wall itself as the photocathode material. This gun has been fabricated and will shortly be tested with beam. The cavity string for a closely-coupled DC gun and SRF cavity injector that is expected to provide beam quality sufficient for proposed ERL light sources and FELs will be assembled at the Jefferson Laboratory later this year. We are also collaboration with Los Alamos on a prototype CW normal-conducting RF gun with similar performance, that will undergo thermal testing in late 2004. Another CW SRF gun project that uses a high quantum efficiency photocathode, similar to the FZ-Rossendorf approach, has just begun. Finally, we will present the RF design and cold test results for a fully axisymmetric, ultra-high-brightness x-band RF gun

  11. Linac-augmented light sources : an incremental concept for enhancing the capabilities of existing 3rd-generation storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewellen, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    Planned and proposed 4th-generation x-ray sources, such as energy-recovery linacs (ERLs) and single-pass x-ray free-electron lasers (X-FELs) offer a number of potential advantages, including small source size, higher peak brightness, ultrashort pulses, and potentially temporally and transversely coherent pulses. While offering unique capabilities, such facilities will also offer several important limitations, including limited numbers of user beamlines (for FELs) and a pulse-repetition rate that may be too high for many dynamics experiments (ERLs). In addition, there are many technical challenges associated with both types of facilities. A third type of facility, exemplified by the Short Pulse Photon Source (SPPS) at SLAC [1], would support neither a large number of users simultaneously nor generate coherent pulses, but would generate very intense, short x-ray pulses. Such a facility could serve as the starting point for either an ERL or an X-FEL, or a combined, hybrid machine. For the foreseeable future, however, existing 3rd-generation light source storage rings, such as the Advanced Photon Source, will continue to play important roles in supporting scientific research utilizing high-brightness x-rays. Existing facilities offer the powerful combination of a large number of user beamlines, efficient use of electron beam energy, and established user communities, and a program of incremental investment in, and improvements to, these facilities should continue to pay dividends into the future. This document discusses potential upgrade paths based on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) as a model 3rd-generation facility. If existing 3rd-generation facilities are to remain centers of excellence for light source-based research into the future, they must not only maintain and enhance their support of their existing user base, but also seek to expand their capabilities to support additional classes of users. There are several paths available toward this goal. The APS is

  12. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-15

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  13. Experimental and theoretical studies in non-linear optical applications. Fiber oscillatiors, regenerative amplifiers, simulations on white-light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Haider

    2015-12-01

    Compact and stable ultrafast laser sources for electron diffraction experiments are the first step in accomplishing the dream experiment of producing a molecular movie. This thesis work focuses on developing new robust laser sources to enable arbitrary scaling in laser repetition rate, pulse energy, duration and stability as needed to provide sufficient integrated detected electrons for high quality diffraction patterns that can be inverted to real space movies. In chapter 2, the construction of a novel stable and high power stretched pulse fiber oscillator outputting 300 mW at 31 MHz and compressible pulses to below 90 fs will be described. Chapter 3 describes the construction of a solid-state regenerative amplifier that was developed to achieve pulse energies above 1mJ with 0.40 mJ already achieved at 1 kHz. Novel simulation techniques were explored that aided the construction of the amplifier. Chapter 4 derives a new, fast and powerful numerical theory that is implemented for generalized non-linear Schrodinger equations in all spatial dimensions and time. This new method can model complicated terms in these equations that outperforms other numerical methods with respect to minimizing numerical error and increased speed. These advantages are due to this method's Fourier nature. A simulation tool was created, employing this numerical technique to simulate white-light generation in bulk media. The simulation matches extremely well with published experimental data, and is superior to the original simulation method used to match the experiment. The use of this tool enables accurate calculations of continuum or white light generation as needed for different experimental protocols and serves as the primary input to generate wide bandwidth coherent light.This work has solved the problem of predictably designing continuum generation within targeted wavelength ranges. This information is needed as part of an overall scheme in laser source development to coherently

  14. Infrared (IR) vs x-ray power generation in the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatchyn, R.

    1993-05-01

    The LCLS, a Free-Electron Laser (FEL) designed for operation at a first harmonic energy of 300 eV (λ congruent 40 Angstrom) in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime, will utilize electron bunches compressed down to durations of <0.5ps, or lengths of <150 μ. It is natural to inquire whether coherent radiation of this (and longer) wavelength will constitute a significant component of the total coherent output of the FEL. In this paper a determination of a simple upper bound on the IR that can be generated by the compressed bunches is outlines. Under the assumed operating parameters of the LCLS undulator, it is shown that that IR component of the coherent output should be strongly dominated by the x-ray component

  15. Influence of the light factor on the course of the cell cycle in the successive generations of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Maszewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposure to continuous light causes a rise of the mitotic index in the successive generations of the antheridial filaments of Chara vulgaris, whereas culture in darkness leads to a considerable depression of mitosis, and if prolonged, to its complete cessation. Light reverses the effect of the depression of mitosis caused by darkness: in the 16-, and 32-cell generations mitotic activity reappeares as early as after 3 h, but in the 2-, 4-, and 8-cell generations only after 18 h. The size of the cells in the antheridial filaments of plants exposed to continuous illumination is larger as compared with the control material. After being kept in darkness the cells become smaller. The analysis of the size of the latter suggests the inhibition of growth in initial and final periods of interphase. In all generations continuous light reduces the duration of the cell cycle while darkness protracts it. The duration of S phase is similar in all generations of antheridial filaments (ca. 16 h and is not modified by the light conditions. Thus, the light factor seems to interfere mainly with G2 phase, and its role in the regulation of the cell cycle is correlated with the duration of this phase. The role of light in the kinetics of the cell cycle of the particular generations of antheridial filaments in Chara is discussed in the aspect of the nutritional requirements of cells, hormonal regulation and phytochrome.

  16. Search for Pair Produced Heavy Quarks Decaying into a Z Boson and a Light Generation Jet

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)672562

    We present here our results from the search for the pair production of new massive quarks using $20\\ifb$ data collected by the ATLAS detector in 2012 proton-proton collisions at $\\rts=$8TeV centre of mass energy. There are many models extending beyond the well established Standard Model (SM) predicting additional massive quarks on top of the existing quark list. One of them is the grand unified theory (GUT) having the exceptional $E_{6}$ as its symmetry group. This model predicts an additional iso-singlet down type quark for each existing SM family with possible decay channels involving $\\Wpm,\\Zboson$ and $H$. Assuming a similar mass structure, the lightest of these quarks denoted by the letter $D$ would be the first one to be discovered at ATLAS. Our search focuses on the decay signature of $D$ quark decays via a $\\Zboson$ boson which would further decay into two leptons. The other heavy quark searches at ATLAS are carried out with the assumption that the new quarks should couple to the heavy generations $t$...

  17. The characteristics of electroplex generated from the organic light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Myung

    2010-10-01

    The color stability and purity from OLED is of current interest. Aggregation of dyes alters the device color after fabrication of the devices. The aggregates can be exciplex and electroplex, which is the excited complex that generated after electrically excited state under high electric field. Comparative study of emission spectra of exciplex and electroplex leads us to conclude that the new electroplex states causes the bathochromic shift of the electroluminescence spectrum from the devices with TPD/PBD layers. The photoluminescence maximum obtained from the TPD/PBD layers of the device was 420 nm, and the electroluminescence maximum obtained from the device became 480 nm. The bathochromic shift cannot be attained with photoluminescence study with highly concentrated TPD/PBD mixture. This clearly indicates that the 480 nm spectrum of the devices is not resulted from the exciplex formation with TPD and PBD. We observed the overshoot in EL spectrum from the OLEDs. The most intense overshoot was observed at 460 nm, which is due to the aggregate that are formed after the electric field has been removed from the devices.

  18. Novel DNA lesions generated by the interaction between therapeutic thiopurines and UVA light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Jeffs, Graham; Ren, Xiaolin; O'Donovan, Peter; Montaner, Beatriz; Perrett, Conal M; Karran, Peter; Xu, Yao-Zhong

    2007-03-01

    The therapeutic effect of the thiopurines, 6-thioguanine (6-TG), 6-mercaptopurine, and its prodrug azathioprine, depends on the incorporation of 6-TG into cellular DNA. Unlike normal DNA bases, 6-TG absorbs UVA radiation, and UVA-mediated photochemical damage of DNA 6-TG has potentially harmful side effects. When free 6-TG is UVA irradiated in solution in the presence of molecular oxygen, reactive oxygen species are generated and 6-TG is oxidized to guanine-6-sulfonate (G(SO3)) and guanine-6-thioguanine in reactions involving singlet oxygen. This conversion is prevented by antioxidants, including the dietary vitamin ascorbate. DNA G(SO3) is also the major photoproduct of 6-TG in DNA and it can be selectively introduced into DNA or oligonucleotides in vitro by mild chemical oxidation. Thermal stability measurements indicate that G(SO3) does not form stable base pairs with any of the normal DNA bases in duplex oligonucleotides and is a powerful block for elongation by Klenow DNA polymerase in primer extension experiments. In cultured human cells, DNA damage produced by 6-TG and UVA treatment is associated with replication inhibition and provokes a p53-dependent DNA damage response.

  19. Influence of light energy density on heat generation during photoactivation of dental composites with different dentin and composite thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Danil Guiraldo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the influence of different energy densities on the heat generated during photoactivation of Filtek Z250 (3M/ESPE and Z100 (3M/ESPE composite resins with different dentin and composite thickness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The temperature increase was registered with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46. A chemically polymerized acrylic resin base was prepared to serve as a guide for the thermocouple and as a support for 0.5-, 1.0-, and 1.5-mm-thick bovine dentin discs. Circular elastomer molds (1.0 mm-height x 3.0-mm diameter or 2.0-mm height x 3.0-mm diameter were adapted on the acrylic resin base to standardize the composite resin thickness. A conventional halogen light-curing unit (XL 2500, 3M/ESPE was used with light intensity of 700 mW/cm². Energy density was calculated by the light intensity applied during a certain time with values of 28 J/cm² for Z100 and 14 J/cm² for Filtek Z250. The temperature change data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% level. RESULTS: The higher energy density (Z100 promoted greater temperature increase (p<0.05 than the lower energy density (Filtek Z250. For both composites and all composite thicknesses, the lowest dentin thickness (0.5 mm yielded significantly higher (p<0.05 temperature increase than the other two dentin thicknesses. The 1-mm-thick composite resin layer yielded significantly higher (p<0.05 temperature changes for both composites and all dentin thicknesses. CONCLUSIONS: Temperature increase was influenced by higher energy density and dentin/composite thickness.

  20. Beyond the Lambertian limit: Novel low-symmetry gratings for ultimate light trapping enhancement in next-generation photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birkmire, Robert [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Hu, Juejun [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Richardson, Kathleen [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). College of Optics and Photonics, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL)

    2016-05-20

    This project aims at addressing the efficiency limit and high fabrication cost of current light trapping methods by developing novel low-symmetry gratings (LSG) for next-generation thin c-Si photovoltaic (PV) cells. The LSG design achieves light trapping enhancement exceeding the 4n2 Lambertian limit and can be fabricated over large areas using low-cost, single-step nanoimprint techniques. We further explored the use of deposited high-refractive-index glass materials for low-temperature LSG processing, which enables direct imprint sculpting of even complex grating geometries in glass without requiring an additional pattern transfer step, which minimizes processing cost and surface damage to PV cells. In the project, we have demonstrated fabrication and integration of sub-wavelength LSG with thin c-Si wafers and bifacial solar cells with low defect density. Optical absorption measurements indicate that LSGs demonstrated superior absorption enhancement compared to their traditional symmetric counterparts as predicted by our simulations. Efficiency enhancement was observed in solar cells integrated with LSGs although fabrication yield of the LSG-integrated cells remains a challenge

  1. Spin-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using femtosecond extreme ultraviolet light pulses from high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plötzing, M.; Adam, R., E-mail: r.adam@fz-juelich.de; Weier, C.; Plucinski, L.; Schneider, C. M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-6), 52425 Jülich (Germany); Eich, S.; Emmerich, S.; Rollinger, M.; Aeschlimann, M. [University of Kaiserslautern and Research Center OPTIMAS, 67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Mathias, S. [Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, I. Physikalisches Institut, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    The fundamental mechanism responsible for optically induced magnetization dynamics in ferromagnetic thin films has been under intense debate since almost two decades. Currently, numerous competing theoretical models are in strong need for a decisive experimental confirmation such as monitoring the triggered changes in the spin-dependent band structure on ultrashort time scales. Our approach explores the possibility of observing femtosecond band structure dynamics by giving access to extended parts of the Brillouin zone in a simultaneously time-, energy- and spin-resolved photoemission experiment. For this purpose, our setup uses a state-of-the-art, highly efficient spin detector and ultrashort, extreme ultraviolet light pulses created by laser-based high-order harmonic generation. In this paper, we present the setup and first spin-resolved spectra obtained with our experiment within an acquisition time short enough to allow pump-probe studies. Further, we characterize the influence of the excitation with femtosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses by comparing the results with data acquired using a continuous wave light source with similar photon energy. In addition, changes in the spectra induced by vacuum space-charge effects due to both the extreme ultraviolet probe- and near-infrared pump-pulses are studied by analyzing the resulting spectral distortions. The combination of energy resolution and electron count rate achieved in our setup confirms its suitability for spin-resolved studies of the band structure on ultrashort time scales.

  2. Effect of the coherent cancellation of the two-photon resonance on the generation of vacuum ultraviolet light by two-photon reasonantly enhanced four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, M.G.; Garrett, W.R.; Judish, J.P.; Wunderlich, R.

    1988-11-01

    Many of the most impressive demonstrations of the efficient generation of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light have made use of two- photon resonantly enhanced four-wave mixing to generate light at ω/sub VUV/ = 2ω/sub L1/ +- ω/sub L2/. The two-photon resonance state is coupled to the ground state both by two photons from the first laser, or by a photon from the second laser and one from the generated VUV beam. We show here that these two coherent pathways destructively interfere once the second laser is made sufficiently intense, thereby leading to an important limiting effect on the achievable conversion efficiency. 4 refs

  3. Generated carrier dynamics in V-pit enhanced InGaN/GaN light emitting diode

    KAUST Repository

    Ajia, Idris A.

    2017-12-18

    We investigate the effects of V-pits on the optical properties of a state-of-the art highly efficient, blue InGaN/GaN multi-quantum-well (MQW) light emitting diode (LED) with high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of > 80%. The LED is structurally enhanced by incorporating pre-MQW InGaN strain-relief layer with low InN content and patterned sapphire substrate. For comparison, a conventional (unenhanced) InGaN/GaN MQW LED (with IQE of 46%) grown under similar conditions was subjected to the same measurements. Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals the absence of V-pits in the unenhanced LED, whereas in the enhanced LED, V-pits with {10-11} facets, emerging from threading dislocations (TDs) were prominent. Cathodoluminescence mapping reveals the luminescence properties near the V-pits, showing that the formation of V-pit defects can encourage the growth of defect-neutralizing barriers around TD defect states. The diminished contribution of TDs in the MQWs allows indium-rich localization sites to act as efficient recombination centers. Photoluminescence and time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggest that the V-pits play a significant role in the generated carrier rate and droop mechanism, showing that the quantum confined Stark effect is suppressed at low generated carrier density, after which the carrier dynamics and droop are governed by the carrier overflow effect.

  4. Coherent generation of symmetry-forbidden phonons by light-induced electron-phonon interactions in magnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, S.; Baldini, E.; Katukuri, V. M.; Mann, A.; Parlinski, K.; Legut, D.; Arrell, C.; van Mourik, F.; Teyssier, J.; Kozlowski, A.; Piekarz, P.; Yazyev, O. V.; Oleś, A. M.; Lorenzana, J.; Carbone, F.

    2017-09-01

    Symmetry breaking across phase transitions often causes changes in selection rules and emergence of optical modes which can be detected via spectroscopic techniques or generated coherently in pump-probe experiments. In second-order or weakly first-order transitions, fluctuations of the ordering field are present above the ordering temperature, giving rise to intriguing precursor phenomena, such as critical opalescence. Here, we demonstrate that in magnetite (Fe3O4 ) light excitation couples to the critical fluctuations of the charge order and coherently generates structural modes of the ordered phase above the critical temperature of the Verwey transition. Our findings are obtained by detecting coherent oscillations of the optical constants through ultrafast broadband spectroscopy and analyzing their dependence on temperature. To unveil the coupling between the structural modes and the electronic excitations, at the origin of the Verwey transition, we combine our results from pump-probe experiments with spontaneous Raman scattering data and theoretical calculations of both the phonon dispersion curves and the optical constants. Our methodology represents an effective tool to study the real-time dynamics of critical fluctuations across phase transitions.

  5. Response of conifer species from three latitudinal populations to light spectra generated by light-emitting diodes and high-pressure sodium lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent G. Apostol; Kas Dumroese; Jeremy Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Light-emitting diode (LED) technology shows promise for supplementing photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest nurseries because of the potential reduction in energy consumption and an ability to supply discrete wavelengths to optimize seedling growth. Our objective was to examine the effects of light spectra supplied by LED and traditional high-pressure...

  6. The blue light indicator in rubidium 5S-5P-5D cascade excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Waseem; Ali, Md. Sabir; Chakrabarti, Alok; Ray, Ayan

    2017-07-01

    The cascade system has played an important role in contemporary research areas related to fields like Rydberg excitation, four wave mixing and non-classical light generation, etc. Depending on the specific objective, co or counter propagating pump-probe laser experimental geometry is followed. However, the stepwise excitation of atoms to states higher than the first excited state deals with increasingly much fewer number of atoms even compared to the population at first excited level. Hence, one needs a practical indicator to study the complex photon-atom interaction of the cascade system. Here, we experimentally analyze the case of rubidium 5S → 5P → 5D as a specimen of two-step excitation and highlight the efficacy of monitoring one branch, which emits 420 nm, of associated cascade decay route 5D → 6P → 5S, as an effective monitor of the coherence in the system.

  7. Next generation light robotic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Palima, Darwin; Banas, Andrew Rafael

    2017-01-01

    -assisted surgery imbibes surgeons with superhuman abilities and gives the expression “surgical precision” a whole new meaning. Still in its infancy, much remains to be done to improve human-robot collaboration both in realizing robots that can operate safely with humans and in training personnel that can work......Conventional robotics provides machines and robots that can replace and surpass human performance in repetitive, difficult, and even dangerous tasks at industrial assembly lines, hazardous environments, or even at remote planets. A new class of robotic systems no longer aims to replace humans...... with so-called automatons but, rather, to create robots that can work alongside human operators. These new robots are intended to collaborate with humans—extending their abilities—from assisting workers on the factory floor to rehabilitating patients in their homes. In medical robotics, robot...

  8. Comparison of the Amount of Temperature Rise in the Pulp Chamber of Teeth Treated With QTH, Second and Third Generation LED Light Curing Units: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahant, Rajesh Harivadanbhai; Chokshi, Shraddha; Vaidya, Rupal; Patel, Pruthvi; Vora, Asima; Mahant, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This in vitro study was designed to measure and compare the amount of temperature rise in the pulp chamber of the teeth exposed to different light curing units (LCU), which are being used for curing composite restorations. Methods: The study was performed in two settings; first, an in vitro and second was mimicking an in vivo situation. In the first setup of the study, three groups were formed according to the respective three light curing sources. i.e. quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) unit and two light-emitting diode (LED) units (second and third generations). In the in vitro setting, direct thermal emission from three light sources at 3 mm and 6 mm distances, was measured with a k-type thermocouple, and connected to a digital thermometer. For a simulation of an in vivo situation, 30 premolar teeth were used. Class I Occlusal cavity of all the teeth were prepared and they were restored with incremental curing of composite, after bonding agent application. While curing the bonding agent and composite in layers, the intrapulpal temperature rise was simultaneously measured with a k-type thermocouple. Results: The first setting of the study showed that the heat produced by irradiation with LCU was significantly less at 6 mm distance when compared to 3 mm distance. The second setting of the study showed that the rise of intrapulpal temperature was significantly less with third generation LED light cure units than with second generation LED and QTH light cure units. Conclusion: As the distance from the light source increases, less irradiation heat is produced. Third generation LED lights cause the least temperature change in the pulp chamber of single rooted teeth.

  9. Efficient 525 nm laser generation in single or double resonant cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shilong; Han, Zhenhai; Liu, Shikai; Li, Yinhai; Zhou, Zhiyuan; Shi, Baosen

    2018-03-01

    This paper reports the results of a study into highly efficient sum frequency generation from 792 and 1556 nm wavelength light to 525 nm wavelength light using either a single or double resonant ring cavity based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). By optimizing the cavity's parameters, the maximum power achieved for the resultant 525 nm laser was 263 and 373 mW for the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 8 and 77% for converting 1556 nm photons to 525 nm photons with the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The measured intra-cavity single pass conversion efficiency for both configurations was about 5%. The performances of the sum frequency generation in these two configurations was studied and compared in detail. This work will provide guidelines for optimizing the generation of sum frequency generated laser light for a variety of configurations. The high conversion efficiency achieved in this work will help pave the way for frequency up-conversion of non-classical quantum states, such as the squeezed vacuum and single photon states. The proposed green laser source will be used in our future experiments, which includes a plan to generate two-color entangled photon pairs and achieve the frequency down-conversion of single photons carrying orbital angular momentum.

  10. Full in-vitro analyses of new-generation bulk fill dental composites cured by halogen light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Tuçe Hazal; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Yılmaz Atalı, Pınar; Coşkuner Filiz, Bilge; Pişkin, Mehmet Burçin

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the full in-vitro analyses of new-generation bulk-fill dental composites cured by halogen light (HLG). Two types' four composites were studied: Surefill SDR (SDR) and Xtra Base (XB) as bulk-fill flowable materials; QuixFill (QF) and XtraFill (XF) as packable bulk-fill materials. Samples were prepared for each analysis and test by applying the same procedure, but with different diameters and thicknesses appropriate to the analysis and test requirements. Thermal properties were determined by thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis; the Vickers microhardness (VHN) was measured after 1, 7, 15 and 30days of storage in water. The degree of conversion values for the materials (DC, %) were immediately measured using near-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The surface morphology of the composites was investigated by scanning electron microscopes (SEM) and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) analyses. The sorption and solubility measurements were also performed after 1, 7, 15 and 30days of storage in water. In addition to his, the data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, and both the Newman Keuls and Tukey multiple comparison tests. The statistical significance level was established at pfill, resin-based dental composites. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of collimated blue-light generation in 85Rb atoms via the D1 and D2 lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Nikunj; Akulshin, Alexander M.; Novikova, Irina

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally studied the characteristics of the collimated blue light (CBL) produced in ${}^{85}$Rb vapor by two resonant laser fields exciting atoms into the $5D_{3/2}$ state, using either the $5P_{1/2}$ or the $5P_{3/2}$ intermediate state. We compared the CBL output at different values of frequency detunings, powers, and polarizations of the pump lasers in these two cases, and confirmed the observed trends using a simple theoretical model. We also demonstrated that the addition of the repump laser, preventing the accumulation of atomic population in the uncoupled hyperfine ground state, resulted in nearly an order of magnitude increase in CBL power output. Overall, we found that the $5S_{1/2} - 5P_{1/2} - 5D_{3/2}$ excitation pathway results in stronger CBL generation, as we detected up to $4.25~\\mu$W using two pumps of the same linear polarization. The optimum CBL output for the $5S_{1/2} - 5P_{3/2} - 5D_{3/2}$ excitation pathway required the two pump lasers to have the same circular polarization, but resulted only in a maximum CBL power of $450$~nW.

  12. Carbonate-based Janus micromotors moving in ultra-light acidic environment generated by HeLa cells in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guix, Maria; Meyer, Anne K.; Koch, Britta; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2016-02-01

    Novel approaches to develop naturally-induced drug delivery in tumor environments in a deterministic and controlled manner have become of growing interest in recent years. Different polymeric-based microstructures and other biocompatible substances have been studied taking advantage of lactic acidosis phenomena in tumor cells, which decrease the tumor extracellular pH down to 6.8. Micromotors have recently demonstrated a high performance in living systems, revealing autonomous movement in the acidic environment of the stomach or moving inside living cells by using acoustic waves, opening the doors for implementation of such smart microengines into living entities. The need to develop biocompatible motors which are driven by natural fuel sources inherently created in biological systems has thus become of crucial importance. As a proof of principle, we here demonstrate calcium carbonate Janus particles moving in extremely light acidic environments (pH 6.5), whose motion is induced in conditioned acidic medium generated by HeLa cells in situ. Our system not only obviates the need for an external fuel, but also presents a selective activation of the micromotors which promotes their motion and consequent dissolution in presence of a quickly propagating cell source (i.e. tumor cells), therefore inspiring new micromotor configurations for potential drug delivery systems.

  13. Generation of sinusoidal fringes with a holographic phase grating and a phase-only spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berberova, Natalia; Stoykova, Elena; Sainov, Ventseslav

    2012-01-01

    A variety of pattern projection methods for the three-dimensional capture of objects is based on the generation of purely sinusoidal fringes. This is not an easy task, especially when a portable non-interferometric system for outdoor usage is required. The use of phase gratings with coherent illumination as a possible solution has the advantage of providing good stability and a large measurement volume. In this work, we analyze the quality of fringes projected with two sinusoidal phase gratings. The first grating is recorded on a silver-halide holographic plate by means of a Michelson interferometer. The spatial resolution of the silver-halide material used is greater than 6000 lines per millimeter, and the recorded grating is practically analogous to a smooth variation of the phase profile. The second grating is formed as a sinusoidal phase variation on a liquid crystal-on-silicon phase-only reflective display with a resolution of 1920×1080 pixels, a pixel pitch of 8 μm and 256 phase levels. The frequency content of the fringes projected with both gratings is analyzed and compared on the basis of the calculated Fresnel diffraction pattern, taking into account that the sinusoidal phase distribution in the case of a spatial light modulator is both sampled and quantized. Experimental fringe patterns projected using both gratings are also provided.

  14. Detection of stably bright squeezed light with the quantum noise reduction of 12.6  dB by mutually compensating the phase fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenhai; Shi, Shaoping; Wang, Yajun; Ma, Weiguang; Zheng, Yaohui; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-11-01

    We present a mutual compensation scheme of three phase fluctuations, originating from the residual amplitude modulation (RAM) in the phase modulation process, in the bright squeezed light generation system. The influence of the RAM on each locking loop is harmonized by using one electro-optic modulator (EOM), and the direction of the phase fluctuation is manipulated by positioning the photodetector (PD) that extracts the error signal before or after the optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Therefore a bright squeezed light with non-classical noise reduction of π is obtained. By fitting the squeezing and antisqueezing measurement results, we confirm that the total phase fluctuation of the system is around 3.1 mrad. The fluctuation of the noise suppression is 0.2 dB for 3 h.

  15. The Information-Quantum Concept Of The State In The Political And Legal Views Of J. Locke As A Reflection Of The Post-NonClassical Type Of Scientific Rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy P. Ivanskiy

    2015-01-01

    In the present article author reveals the concept of State, contained in the doctrine of John Locke, but in line with the post-non-classical science, one of the research lines of the event information and quantum legal concept. Despite the diverse palette of the "state" definitions the most appropriate definition is the definition, where it is identified with the union of people - people living in the particular area. Due to the fact that the system of "people" is made up of interconnected co...

  16. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  17. Efficient generation of 3.5W laser light at 515nm by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Hansen, Anders Kragh; Müller, André

    2017-01-01

    More than 3.5 W of green light at 515 nm is generated by frequency doubling a single-frequency high power DBR tapered diode laser. The frequency doubling is performed in a cascade of PPMgLN and PPMgSLT crystals in order to reach high power and avoid thermal effects present in PPMgLN at high power...

  18. Dendritic multiporphyrin arrays as light-harvesting antennae: effects of generation number and morphology on intramolecular energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Seok; Aida, Takuzo; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Iwao

    2002-06-17

    A series of star- and cone-shaped dendritic multiporphyrin arrays, (nPZn)4PFB and (nPZn)1PFB, respectively, that contain energy-donating dendritic zinc porphyrin (PZn) wedges of different numbers (n = 1, 3, and 7) of the PZn units, attached to an energy-accepting free-base porphyrin (PFB) core, were synthesized by a convergent growth approach. For the cone-shaped series ((nPZn)1PFB), the efficiency of energy transfer (phi ENT) from the photoexcited PZn units to the focal PFB core, as evaluated from the fluorescence lifetimes of the PZn units, considerably decreased as the generation number increased: (1PZn)1PFB (86%), (3PZn)1PFB (66%), and (7PZn)1PFB (19%). In sharp contrast, the star-shaped series ((nPZn)4PFB) all showed high phi ENT values: (1PZn)4PFB (87%), (3PZn)4PFB (80%), and (7PZn)4PFB (71%). Energy transfer efficiencies of (3PZn)4-ester-PFB, (1PZn)4-ester-PFB, and (3PZn)1-ester-PFB, whose dendritic PZn wedges are connected by an ester linkage to the PFB core, were almost comparable to those of the corresponding ether-linked versions. Fluorescence depolarization (P) studies showed much lower P values for star-shaped (7PZn)4PFB and (3PZn)4PFB than cone-shaped (7PZn)1PFB and (3PZn)1PFB, respectively, indicating a highly efficient energy migration among the PZn units in the star-shaped series. Such a morphology-assisted photochemical event is probably responsible for the excellent light-harvesting activity of large (7PZn)4PFB molecules.

  19. Dual-channel operation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator for the generation of broadband mid-infrared coherent light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pei; Wang, Sicong; He, Puyuan; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2018-05-01

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, a novel approach for generating broadband mid-infrared (mid-IR) light by implementing a dual-channel scheme in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator (SPOPO). Two-channel operation was achieved by inserting a prism pair and two reflection mirrors inside an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) cavity. Pumped by a Yb-fiber laser, the OPO generated an idler wave at ∼3150  nm with a -10  dB bandwidth of ∼13.2  THz, which was twice as much as that of the pump source. This scheme represents a promising technical route to transform conventional SPOPOs into a device capable of generating mid-IR light with very broad instantaneous bandwidth.

  20. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  1. Generation of more than 300 mW diffraction-limited light at 405 nm by second-harmonic generation of a tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Holm, J.; Sumpf, B.

    2007-01-01

    We have constructed a blue laser source consisting of a single-frequency tapered diode laser with external cavity feedback that is frequency doubled by a quasi-phase matched KTP (PPKTP) in a bowtie ring cavity and extract more than 360 mW of power at 405 nm. The conversion efficiency from...... fundamental laser power to second harmonic power is 35 %, while it is 64 % from coupled fundamental power to extracted blue light. Thermal effects and gray tracking set an upper limit on the amount of generated blue light....

  2. Molecular design of light-responsive hydrogels, for in situ generation of fast and reversible valves for microfluidic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiphorst, ter J.; Coleman, S.; Stumpel, J.E.; Ben Azouz, A.; Diamond, D.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Reversible light-responsive hydrogel valves with response characteristics compatible for microfluidics have been obtained by optimization of molecular design of spiropyran photoswitches and gel composition. Self-protonating gel formulations were exploited, wherein acrylic acid was copolymerized in

  3. Searching for light Higgs scalar boson in the next generation of electron-positron collider at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chukwumah, G.C.

    1985-11-01

    The e + e - -collider facilities at LEP II, with the cm energy √S in the range 100-170 GeV may be able to detect ''light'' Higgs bosons, assuming a high luminosity. In this paper, we have calculated production cross-sections of a light Higgs boson H 0 in association with the neutral gauge boson Z 0 , for varying ranges of the cm energy expected to be available to LEP II and VLEEP (Novosibirsk) and for various values of the light Higgs mass. It is found out that production cross-sections are sizeable in comparison with those for the very massive Higgs bosons in proton-anti(proton) super-colliders, Tevatron, Spp-barS and SSC, respectively. The implication of this feature is pointed out. Further, prospects for light Higgs production in association with the charged gauge boson, W - in ultra energetic neutrino beams are examined. (author)

  4. Display device combining ambient light with magnified virtual images generated in the eye path of the observer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A display device positions an observer's eye (or eyes) to look in a particular direction (eye path). An electronically controlled image generating element in the eye path generates artificial images which are magnified to create a virtual image for the eye. The image generating element is

  5. Generation, amplification and propagation of partially coherent light in a Nd:glass laser driver for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Hitoshi; Tsubakimoto, Kouji; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kanabe, Tadashi.

    1992-01-01

    A partially coherent light source has been introduced into the high power twelve beam Nd:glass laser system, Gekko XII for obtaining the smooth intensity distribution of a focused beam pattern. An amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from Nd:glass was used as a partially coherent source. We adopted the angularly dispersed spectrum not only for beam smoothing but for efficient harmonic conversion. The temporal evolution of the speckle smoothing was experimentally evaluated and compared with a statistical model of speckle pattern. In the amplification of a partially coherent light in Gekko XII, no reduction of the energy gain was found at high power operation 1kJ level. The ASE light can be propagated using image relaying spatial filters, with maintaining the beam divergence up to 32 times diffraction limited. Irradiation nonuniformities on a spherical target were estimated from the focused beam patterns measured at an equivalent target plane. A partially coherent light is quite effective for reducing the nonuniformity from 19.7% (the coherent laser with random phase plate) to 3.8%. Doubling efficiency was found to be reduced at high intensity region due to the phase mismatching with the beam divergence of the ASE light. We discuss possible approaches to obtain the sufficient harmonic conversion with keeping the incoherency of the ASE light. (author)

  6. Independent and arbitrary generation of spots in the 3D space domain with computer generated holograms written on a phase-only liquid crystal spatial light modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Dong; Zhang, Jian; Xia, Yang; Wang, Hao

    2012-01-01

    An improved multiple independent iterative plane algorithm, based on a projection optimization idea, is proposed for the independent and arbitrary generation of one spot or multiple spots in a speckle-suppressed 3D work-area. Details of the mathematical expressions of the algorithm are given to theoretically show how it is improved for 3D spot generation. Both simulations and experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the algorithm for independent and arbitrary 3D spot generation in several different cases. Simulation results agree well with experimental results, which validates the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed. Several additional experiments are demonstrated for fast and independent generation of four or more spots in the 3D space domain, which confirms the capabilities and practicalities of the algorithm further. (paper)

  7. A BENCHMARK PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC RESPONSE OF COUPLED BUILDING-PIPING/EQUIPMENT WITH NON-CLASSICAL DAMPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Degrassi, G.; Chokshi, N.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a comprehensive program to evaluate state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) systems with nonclassical damping. In this program, four benchmark models of coupled building-piping/equipment systems with different damping characteristics were analyzed for a suite of earthquakes by program participants applying their uniquely developed methods and computer programs. This paper presents the results of their analyses, and their comparison to the benchmark solutions generated by BNL using time domain direct integration methods. The participant's analysis results established using complex modal time history methods showed good comparison with the BNL solutions, while the analyses produced with either complex-mode response spectrum methods or classical normal-mode response spectrum method, in general, produced more conservative results, when averaged over a suite of earthquakes. However, when coupling due to damping is significant, complex-mode response spectrum methods performed better than the classical normal-mode response spectrum method. Furthermore, as part of the program objectives, a parametric assessment is also presented in this paper, aimed at evaluation of the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled NPP systems. It is believed that the findings and insights learned from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems

  8. Theoretical study and experimental scheme for the generation of a 1064-nm continuous variable entangled light source with quasi-phase-matching PPKTP crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W.Y.; Bi, S.W.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning from Maxwell's equations, various factors required for the non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) to operate are considered step by step. Analytic expressions are obtained, generated from the experimental parameters and through the numerical simulation of the quantum-correlated spectrum between the signal and the idler modes from the NOPA operating below threshold. On this basis, an experimental program is designed for the generation of a 1064-nm continuous variable entanglement light source with a quasi-phase-matching periodical polarized KTiOPO 4 (PPKTP) crystal through a below-threshold optical parametric down-conversion process. This will play a crucial role in subsequent experiments.

  9. Dy3+-doped nano-glass ceramics comprising NaAlSiO4 and NaY9Si6O26 nanocrystals for white light generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagga, Ruchika; Achanta, Venu Gopal; Goel, Ashutosh; Ferreira, José M.F.; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Davinder Paul; Falconieri, Mauro; Sharma, Gopi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Environment safe glass ceramics were fabricated via heat treatment. ► Optical and structural properties were studied before and after heat treatment. ► White light generation with single RE 3+ ion-doping was observed under UV excitation. ► Emission color temperature was between fluorescent tube and daylight values. - Abstract: The radiative emission properties of the Dy 3+ ions in oxyfluoride glasses and glass ceramics have been investigated for the generation of white light. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the glass ceramics reveals the presence of NaAlSiO 4 nanocrystals along with secondary phase of NaY 9 Si 6 O 26 in the glass matrix after a suitable thermal treatment of the pristine glasses. Intense white light emission has been observed when the samples are excited with 350 nm light. Yellow to blue emission intensity ratios and chromaticity color coordinates have been determined from the visible luminescence spectra. All color coordinates are found to lie in the white region of the chromaticity color diagram proposing the suitability of the present studied materials for color display devices.

  10. Long-term stable stacked CsPbBr3 quantum dot films for highly efficient white light generation in LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hyun; Yoo, Jin Sun; Kang, Bong Kyun; Choi, Seung Hee; Ji, Eun Kyung; Jung, Hyun Suk; Yoon, Dae Ho

    2016-12-01

    We report highly efficient ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 perovskite QD films for white light generation in LED application. Ethyl cellulose with CsPbBr 3 quantum dots is applied with Sr 2 Si 5 N 8  : Eu 2+ red phosphor on an InGaN blue chip, achieving a highly efficient luminous efficacy of 67.93 lm W -1 under 20 mA current.

  11. Dynamic generation and coherent control of beating stationary light pulses by a microwave coupling field in five-level cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Yan; Cui, Cui-Li; Meng, Shao-Ying; Fang, You-Wei; Tian, Xue-Dong

    2018-04-01

    We propose an efficient scheme for generating and controlling beating stationary light pulses in a five-level atomic sample driven into electromagnetically induced transparency condition. This scheme relies on an asymmetrical procedure of light storage and retrieval tuned by two counter-propagating control fields where an additional coupling field, such as the microwave field, is introduced in the retrieval stage. A quantum probe field, incident upon such an atomic sample, is first transformed into spin coherence excitation of the atoms and then retrieved as beating stationary light pulses exhibiting a series of maxima and minima in intensity due to the alternative constructive and destructive interference. It is convenient to control the beating stationary light pulses just by manipulating the intensity and detuning of the additional microwave field. This interesting phenomenon involves in fact the coherent manipulation of dark-state polaritons and could be explored to achieve the efficient temporal splitting of stationary light pulses and accurate measurement of the microwave intensity.

  12. Exploiting light chains for the scalable generation and platform purification of native human bispecific IgG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicolas; Elson, Greg; Magistrelli, Giovanni; Dheilly, Elie; Fouque, Nicolas; Laurendon, Amélie; Gueneau, Franck; Ravn, Ulla; Depoisier, Jean-François; Moine, Valery; Raimondi, Sylvain; Malinge, Pauline; Di Grazia, Laura; Rousseau, François; Poitevin, Yves; Calloud, Sébastien; Cayatte, Pierre-Alexis; Alcoz, Mathias; Pontini, Guillemette; Fagète, Séverine; Broyer, Lucile; Corbier, Marie; Schrag, Delphine; Didelot, Gérard; Bosson, Nicolas; Costes, Nessie; Cons, Laura; Buatois, Vanessa; Johnson, Zoe; Ferlin, Walter; Masternak, Krzysztof; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies enable unique therapeutic approaches but it remains a challenge to produce them at the industrial scale, and the modifications introduced to achieve bispecificity often have an impact on stability and risk of immunogenicity. Here we describe a fully human bispecific IgG devoid of any modification, which can be produced at the industrial scale, using a platform process. This format, referred to as a κλ-body, is assembled by co-expressing one heavy chain and two different light chains, one κ and one λ. Using ten different targets, we demonstrate that light chains can play a dominant role in mediating specificity and high affinity. The κλ-bodies support multiple modes of action, and their stability and pharmacokinetic properties are indistinguishable from therapeutic antibodies. Thus, the κλ-body represents a unique, fully human format that exploits light-chain variable domains for antigen binding and light-chain constant domains for robust downstream processing, to realize the potential of bispecific antibodies. PMID:25672245

  13. The generation of flat-top beams by complex amplitude modulation with a phase-only spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hendriks, A

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available amplitude modulation of the light, i.e., in amplitude and phase. We outline the theoretical concept, and then illustrate its use with the example of the laser beam shaping of Gaussian beams into flat-top beams. We quantify the performance of this approach...

  14. MoS{sub 2}-coated microspheres of self-sensitized carbon nitride for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Quan [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Sun, Huaming; Xie, Zunyuan; Gao, Ziwei [Key Laboratory of Applied Surface and Colloid Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an, 710062 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Successful coating of MoS{sub 2} onto self-sensitized carbon nitride microspheres. • The carbon nitride@MoS{sub 2} core-shell structure show enhanced H{sub 2} generation in visible light. • Synergistic effect of surface dyes and MoS{sub 2} coating enhances photocatalytic activities. - Abstract: We have successfully coated the self-sensitized carbon nitride (SSCN) microspheres with a layer of MoS{sub 2} through a facile one-pot hydrothermal method by using (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}MoS{sub 4} as the precursor. The resulted MoS{sub 2}-coated SSCN photocatalyst appears as a core-shell structure and exhibits enhanced visible-light activities for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation as compared to the un-coated SSCN and the standard g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} reference with MoS{sub 2} coating. The photocatalytic test results suggest that the oligomeric s-triazine dyes on the SSCN surface can provide additional light-harvesting capability and photogenerated charge carriers, and the coated MoS{sub 2} layer can serve as active sites for proton reduction towards H{sub 2} evolution. This synergistic effect of surface triazine dyes and MoS{sub 2} coating greatly promotes the activity of carbon nitride microspheres for vishible-light-driven H{sub 2} generation. This work provides a new way of future development of low-cost noble-metal-free photocatalysts for efficient solar-driven hydrogen production.

  15. Combining the catalytic enantioselective reaction of visible-light-generated radicals with a by-product utilization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Luo, Shipeng; Burghaus, Olaf; Webster, Richard D; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2017-10-01

    We report an unusual reaction design in which a chiral bis-cyclometalated rhodium(iii) complex enables the stereocontrolled chemistry of photo-generated carbon-centered radicals and at the same time catalyzes an enantioselective sulfonyl radical addition to an alkene. Specifically, employing inexpensive and readily available Hantzsch esters as the photoredox mediator, Rh-coordinated prochiral radicals generated by a selective photoinduced single electron reduction are trapped by allyl sulfones in a highly stereocontrolled fashion, providing radical allylation products with up to 97% ee. The hereby formed fragmented sulfonyl radicals are utilized via an enantioselective radical addition to form chiral sulfones, which minimizes waste generation.

  16. SPM characterization of next generation solar cells under light irradiation: Optoelectronic study from nano to macroscopic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Nobuyuki; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Solar cells (SCs) that contain elaborate nanostructures, such as quantum dots and quantum wells, have been rigorously investigated as a way to harvest a wide range of the solar spectrum [1]. However, the energy conversion efficiency of those SCs still remains low. For the further improvement of the device performance, a much deeper understanding of the role of nanostructures in the photovoltaic conversion process is essential to gain the effective design criteria. To achieve this, local electronic properties including electrical potential, energy states, and charge distribution around the excitation centers have to be characterized under light irradiation since they govern the behavior of excited carriers. These properties have so far been indirectly deduced from macroscopic characterization such as current-voltage (I-V) measurement; however, it is not sufficient to clarify rather complicated roles of the nanostructures [2]. Thus, a direct measurement of those properties with high spatial resolution is required to understand the detailed mechanisms of the photovoltaic conversion process. To this end, we have been developing a platform for performing scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) working under light irradiation conditions.Here, we outline the characterization of a multiple quantum well (QW) SC based on III-V compounds that is expected to be a potential candidate of intermediate band type SC. First, we show the electrical potential measurements along the p-i-n junction of the SC using KPFM in air. Measurements were performed in open and short circuit configurations under light irradiation conditions [Fig.1]. We demonstrate that the dependence of the open circuit voltage on the intensity of light can be successfully measured by careful interpretation of the KPFM data. Second, we introduce some examples of the atomic scale characterization of the multiple QW using ultrahigh

  17. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiO{sub x} nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xin-Ling; Wang, Rong; Yuan, Yu-Peng, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, and Innovation Lab for Clean Energy and Green Catalysis, Anhui University, Hefei 230036 (China); Zhang, Ming-Yi [Key Laboratory for Photonic and Electronic Bandgap Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025 (China); Xue, Can, E-mail: yupengyuan@ahu.edu.cn, E-mail: cxue@ntu.edu.sg [Solar Fuels Lab, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-10-01

    The Ni/NiO{sub x} particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H{sub 2} generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H{sub 2} production rate of 125 μmol h{sup −1} was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg) and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiO{sub x} catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H{sub 2} generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiO{sub x} particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H{sub 2} generation.

  18. Dye-sensitized MIL-101 metal organic frameworks loaded with Ni/NiOx nanoparticles for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Ling Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni/NiOx particles were in situ photodeposited on MIL-101 metal organic frameworks as catalysts for boosting H2 generation from Erythrosin B dye sensitization under visible-light irradiation. The highest H2 production rate of 125 μmol h−1 was achieved from the system containing 5 wt. % Ni-loaded MIL-101 (20 mg and 30 mg Erythrosin B dye. Moreover, the Ni/NiOx catalysts show excellent stability for long-term photocatalytic reaction. The enhancement on H2 generation is attributed to the efficient charge transfer from photoexcited dye to the Ni catalyst via MIL-101. Our results demonstrate that the economical Ni/NiOx particles are durable and active catalysts for photocatalytic H2 generation.

  19. An adaptive-binning method for generating constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with Fermi-LAT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, B.; Escande, L.; Larsson, S.; Ballet, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we present a method enabling the creation of constant-uncertainty/constant-significance light curves with the data of the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The adaptive-binning method enables more information to be encapsulated within the light curve than with the fixed-binning method. Although primarily developed for blazar studies, it can be applied to any sources. Furthermore, this method allows the starting and ending times of each interval to be calculated in a simple and quick way during a first step. The reported mean flux and spectral index (assuming the spectrum is a power-law distribution) in the interval are calculated via the standard LAT analysis during a second step. In the absence of major caveats associated with this method Monte-Carlo simulations have been established. We present the performance of this method in determining duty cycles as well as power-density spectra relative to the traditional fixed-binning method.

  20. Generation and characterisation of murine monoclonal antibodies specific for cervine immunoglobulin light chain, IgM and IgG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibma, M.; Griffin, J.F.T.

    1992-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) which react with cervine immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain, IgM and IgG were produced using conventional cell fusion technology. Hybridoma supernatants were initially screened for specificity against cervine Ig using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The specificity of supernatants against size-fractionated cervine Ig was further determined. Supernatants were characterised using western blotting and autoradiographic techniques. The mAb OU1G, OU2G and OU3G were specific for cervine gamma-chain of IgG, whereas OU1L was specific for light chain of Ig. A further mAb (OU1M) bound IgM and not IgG. These mAb were found to have varying cross-reactivity against Ig from other species

  1. Generation of White Light from Dysprosium-Doped Strontium Aluminate Phosphor by a Solid-State Reaction Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bisen, D. P.; Brahme, N.; Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar

    2016-04-01

    A single-host lattice, white light-emitting SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. The crystal structure of prepared SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was in a monoclinic phase with space group P21. The chemical composition of the sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was confirmed by the energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy technique. Under ultra-violet excitation, the characteristic emissions of Dy3+ are peaking at 475 nm, 573 nm and 660 nm, originating from the transitions of 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 →&!nbsp; 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 in the 4f9 configuration of Dy3+ ions. Commission International de I'Eclairage color coordinates of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ are suitable for white light-emitting phosphor. In order to investigate the suitability of the samples as white color light sources for industrial uses, correlated color temperature (CCT) and color rendering index (CRI) values were calculated. Values of CCT and CRI were found well within the defined acceptable range. Mechanoluminescence (ML) intensity of SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor increased linearly with increasing impact velocity of the moving piston. Thus, the present investigation indicates piezo-electricity was responsible for producing ML in sintered SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor. Decay rates of the exponential decaying period of the ML curves do not change significantly with impact velocity. The photoluminescence and ML results suggest that the synthesized SrAl2O4:Dy3+ phosphor was useful for the white light-emitting diodes and stress sensor respectively.

  2. Transport from non-classical orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.

    2001-10-01

    From the guiding centre orbit invariants it is possible to construct a map of different orbit shapes in a phase space of three dimensionless variables: normalised toroidal radius y, particle pitch angle ξ, normalised orbit width ρ [1, 2, 3]. The map describes the link between two points in phase space: point 1 (y 1 , ξ 1 , ρ) and point 2 (y 2 , ξ 2 , ρ) where y 1 , y 2 denote the orbit intersection points 1 and 2 with the y(R) axis. An algorithm permits the rapid calculation of point 2 when point 1 is given. The orbit drift excursion Δy = y 2 - y 1 is calculated and converted to Δx = x 2 - x 1 where x denotes a dimensionless flux surface label for a given equilibrium. The mono-energetic distribution function f 0 (Δx) is calculated at fixed ρ 0 (energy) and with a uniform pitch distribution for three tokamaks PBX, JET, MAST. These have been selected because of their variation of inverse aspect ratio ε. A fourth and hypothetical tokamak labelled 'NEOC' (neoclassical) is introduced to compare the results obtained with those predicted by neoclassical theory. A strong dependence of f 0 upon ε is established. An appropriate thermal distribution f(Δx) is also calculated for the four tokamaks and this distribution depends on the profile shapes of normalised temperature and normalised density as well as on the topology of the equilibrium. The thermal distribution functions are shown to exceed the levels assumed in neoclassical transport theory: the mean values are two to four times larger. It is shown that one reason for this excess is due to orbits which traverse the central region of the tokamak. The implications of the results obtained for estimates of transport can then be studied. The magnitude of the drift excursion Δx from a given flux surface x yields by itself no transport. In the limit vertical bar δ vertical bar yξρ (Δx) and δ = (δy, δξ, δρ). The former vector can be calculated in the thermal case. The latter vector describes collisionless changes to y from gyrophase-scattering and changes to ξ, ρ caused by pitch angle scattering and momentum changes in Coulomb collisions. In order to calculate the dependence of this vector upon plasma variables it is necessary to impose the statistical properties associated with the aforementioned collisionless - collisional changes. However, this transport mechanism is augmented by changes δ which occur in the vicinity of those boundaries that separate different orbit topologies; such narrow regions act like 'loss cones' in phase space because the gradient of Δx becomes very large, reaching infinity on the boundaries. (author)

  3. Coherent generation and dynamic manipulation of double stationary light pulses in a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui

    2011-01-01

    We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.

  4. Coherent generation and dynamic manipulation of double stationary light pulses in a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-12-15

    We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.

  5. Photonics at the frontiers. Generation of few-cycle light pulses via NOPCPA and real-time probing of charge transfer in hybrid photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Daniel

    2011-11-11

    In the first part of this thesis the methodics of the non-collinear, optically parametric amplification of chirped light pulses (NOPCPA) for the generation of few-cycle light pulses in the visible (Vis) and near infrared (NIR) with of 5-8 fs half-width are essential further developed. Fundamental parametric influences, like the existence of a parametrically induced phase and the generation of optically parametric fluorescence (OPF), are studied both by theoretical analyses and numerical simulations and by concrete experiments. Experimentally in the framework of this thesis fwe-cycle light pulses with a pulse width of 7.9 fs, 130 mJ energy, at 805 nm central wavelength and a very high seed-pulse-limited prepulse contrast of 11 and 8 orders of magnitude are reached at 30 ps and approximately 3 ps. One the one hand it has been succeeded to accelerate with the broad-band pulse amplifier quasi-monoenergetic electrons with energies of up to 50 MeV. For this the light pulse is focussed to relativistic intensities of several W/cm{sup 2} in a helium gas jet. On the other hand XUV light was produced up to the 20th harmonic of the generated light pulse from the broad-band pulse amplifier by its sub-cycle interaction with solid surfaces. In the framework of this thesis furthermore new, extended concepts for still broader-band NOPCPA over one octave were developed and characterized, which contain the application of two pump pulses in one NOPCPA stage and the application of two different pump wavelength in two subsequent NOPCPA stages. In the second part of this thesis broad-band white-light spectra and by means of NOPCPA spectrally tunable light pulses are applied in order to realize a transient absorption spectrometer with multichannel detection. This new excitation-query construction combines a very broad-band UV-Vis-NIR query with a high time resolution of 40 fs and high sensitivity for the transient change of the optical density of less than 10{sup -4}. By this it has in

  6. Narrow-line, cw orange light generation in a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser using volume Bragg gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y L; Chen, W W; Du, C E; Chang, W K; Wang, J L; Chung, T Y; Chen, Y H

    2009-12-07

    We report on the demonstration of a narrow-line, cw orange 593-nm laser achieved via intracavity sum-frequency generation (SFG) of a diode-pumped dual-wavelength (1064 and 1342 nm) Nd:YVO(4) laser using two volume Bragg grating (VBG) reflectors. At diode pump power of up to 3.6 W, the 593-nm intracavity SFG laser radiates at the single longitudinal mode of spectral linewidth as narrow as approximately 15 MHz. More than 23-mW single-longitudinal-mode or 40-mW, diode pump power) 593-nm orange lights can be obtained from this compact laser system. Spectral tuning of the orange light was performed via the temperature tuning of the two VBGs in this system, achieving an effective tuning rate of ~5 pm/degrees C.

  7. White emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores hybridized on near-ultraviolet LEDs for high-quality white light generation and tuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizamoglu, Sedat; Mutlugun, Evren; Akyuz, Ozgun; Perkgoz, Nihan Kosku; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Liebscher, Lydia; Sapra, Sameer; Gaponik, Nikolai; Eychmueller, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    To generate white light using semiconductor nanocrystal (NC) quantum dots integrated on light emitting diodes (LEDs), multiple hybrid device parameters (emission wavelengths of the NCs and the excitation platform, order of the NCs with different sizes, amount of the different types of NCs, etc) need to be carefully designed and properly implemented. In this study, we introduce and demonstrate white LEDs based on simple device hybridization using only a single type of white emitting CdS quantum dot nanoluminophores on near-ultraviolet LEDs. Here we present their design, synthesis-growth, fabrication and characterization. With these hybrid devices, we achieve high color rendering index (>70), despite using only a single NC type. Furthermore, we conveniently tune their photometric properties including the chromaticity coordinates, correlated color temperature, and color rendering index with the number of hybridized nanoluminophores in a controlled manner

  8. Tandem organic light-emitting diodes with KBH4 doped 9,10-bis(3-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl) anthracene connected to the charge generation layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lian; Tsuboi, Taiju; Qiu, Yong; Li, Yanrui; Zhang, Guohui

    2012-06-18

    Tandem organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are ideal for lighting applications due to their low working current density at high brightness. In this work, we have studied an efficient electron transporting layer of KBH(4) doped 9,10-bis(3-(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl)anthracene (DPyPA) which is located adjacent to charge generation layer of MoO(3)/NPB. The excellent transporting property of the DPyPA:KBH(4) layer helps the tandem OLED to achieve a lower voltage than the tandem device with the widely used tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum:Li. For the tandem white OLED with a fluorescent blue unit and a phosphorescent yellow unit, we've achieved a high current efficiency of 75 cd/A, which can be further improved to 120 cd/A by attaching a diffuser layer.

  9. An evaluation of light water breeder reactor system (LWBR) as an alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, I.L.

    1981-01-01

    The LWBR system as an alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil, was technically and economically evaluated. The LWBR system has been characterized comparatively with the Pressurized Water Reactors through technological and investment cost analysis and through the analysis of the processes and unit costs of the fuel cycle stages. The characteristics of the LWBR system in comparison to the PWR system, with respect to utilization and cumulative consumption of uranium and thorium resources, fuel cycle processes and associated costs have been determined for possible alternatives of nuclear power participation in the Brazilian hidro-thermal electricity generating system. The analysis concluded that the LWBR system does not represent an attractive alternative for nuclear power generation in Brazil and even has no potential to compete with conventional Pressurized Water Reactors. (Author) [pt

  10. Reconsidering the European regulation of merchant transmission investment in light of the third energy package: The role of dominant generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauteclocque, Adrien de; Rious, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    The regulation of merchant transmission investment (MTI) has become an important issue in the EU electricity sector, subsequent to the granting of authorizations by European authorities to five merchant projects: BritNed, Estlink, the East West Cables, NorGer and recently a merchant line connecting Italy and Austria. The creation of a new Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators (ACER) at the EU level, which has decision-making powers on MTI, therefore presents a unique opportunity to question and re-design the current European policy. This paper shows that the recent decisions concerning MTI may suffer a strong bias against dominant electricity generators while incumbent Transmission System Operators (TSOs) or new entrant TSOs are generally favored by national regulators and the European Commission (EC). This strategy is misguided as it fails to recognize both the new incentives of generators to develop MTI and the conflict of interest between the regulated and non-regulated activities of incumbent TSOs. Letting dominant generators undertake MTI is indeed generally beneficial as long as potential abuses of dominance are mitigated. To deter possible anti-competitive effects, we propose a new and feasible allocation of regulatory powers based on a clear demarcation between the market monitoring powers of ACER and the antitrust powers of the EC. - Highlights: → We compare TSOs and generators as merchant transmission investors in Europe. → We find a bias among regulators against the involvement of generators. → The conflict of interest with the regulated activities of TSOs is under-estimated. → Investment by generators is preferable provided market manipulation is deterred. → We propose a new allocation of regulatory powers to make it possible.

  11. The Information-Quantum Concept Of The State In The Political And Legal Views Of J. Locke As A Reflection Of The Post-NonClassical Type Of Scientific Rationality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy P. Ivanskiy

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author reveals the concept of State, contained in the doctrine of John Locke, but in line with the post-non-classical science, one of the research lines of the event information and quantum legal concept. Despite the diverse palette of the "state" definitions the most appropriate definition is the definition, where it is identified with the union of people - people living in the particular area. Due to the fact that the system of "people" is made up of interconnected components - people, it is important to know the basis on which to build a state - of man, but under the cut parameters of post-non-classical paradigm. In the John Locke's opinion, birth of a nation as state is a constantly renewed process of transition from the natural state to the politically-legal, which is happened with every "I" subject individually by the closure of the social contract. However, conclusion of the public contract does not imply any written form. Settlement of the agreement, in terms of information and quantum legal concept implies legal transition of the "I" subject (homo juridicus from the vibration status of "ethnicity" to the system "people." In addition, on the basis of the social contract homo juridicus acquire political status by means of which they establish public institutions, giving them their natural rights. Locke divided all natural rights into two groups - primary (inalienable and secondary. Primary law, being the subject of the public contract, in our opinion, belongs to the system of “ethnicity” (legal proto-pattern “I” and is characterized by two aspects. Firstly, individuals did not have the authority to encroach on them. In other words, life, liberty, and property are universal values and are determined by collective archetypes of the unconscious sphere; secondly, the person has no right to transfer them to other people, because it violates the energy-informational balance of the whole of humanity. Therefore

  12. TH-CD-201-04: A Study of Cherenkov Light Generated and Collected in Plastic Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambault, L [CHUQ Pavillon Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Quebec, QC (Canada); Papaconstadopoulos, P [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); Seuntjens, J [McGill Montreal General Hospital, Montreal, QC (Canada); McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Bouchard, H [CHUM-Hospital Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study Cherenkov light emission in plastic scintillation detectors (PSDs) from a theoretical point of view to identify situations that may arise where the calibration coefficient obtained in one condition is not applicable to another condition. By identifying problematic situations, we hope to provide guidance on how to confidently use PSDs. Methods: Cherenkov light emission in PSD was modelled using basic physical principles. In particular, changes in refractive index as a function of wavelength were accounted for using the Sellmeier empirical equation. Both electron and photon beams were considered. For photons, realistic distributions of secondary charged particles were calculated using Klein-Nishina’s formula. Cherenkov production and collection in PSDs were studied for a range of parameters including beam energy, charged particle momentum distribution, detector orientation and material composition. Finally, experimental validation was made using a commercial plastic scintillation detector. Results: In specific situations, results show that the Cherenkov spectrum coupled in the PSD can deviate from its expected behaviour (i.e. one over the square of the wavelength). In these cases were the model is realistic it is possible to see a peak wavelength instead of a monotonically decreasing function. Consequences of this phenomenon are negligible when the momentum of charged particle is distributed randomly, but in some clinically relevant cases, such as an electron beam at depth close to R50 or for photon beams with minimal scatter component, the value of the calibration coefficient can be altered. Experimental tests with electron beams showed changes in the Cherenkov light ratio, the parameter used in the calibration of PSDs, up to 2–3% depending on the PSD orientation. Conclusion: This work is the first providing a physical explanation for apparent change in PSD calibration coefficient. With this new information at hand, it will be possible to

  13. Generation of human Fab antibody libraries: PCR amplification and assembly of light- and heavy-chain coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris-Widhopf, Jennifer; Steinberger, Peter; Fuller, Roberta; Rader, Christoph; Barbas, Carlos F

    2011-09-01

    The development of therapeutic antibodies for use in the treatment of human diseases has long been a goal for many researchers in the antibody field. One way to obtain these antibodies is through phage-display libraries constructed from human lymphocytes. This protocol describes the construction of human Fab (fragment antigen binding) antibody libraries. In this method, the individual rearranged heavy- and light-chain variable regions are amplified separately and are linked through a series of overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) steps to give the final Fab products that are used for cloning.

  14. Generation of human scFv antibody libraries: PCR amplification and assembly of light- and heavy-chain coding sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris-Widhopf, Jennifer; Steinberger, Peter; Fuller, Roberta; Rader, Christoph; Barbas, Carlos F

    2011-09-01

    The development of therapeutic antibodies for use in the treatment of human diseases has long been a goal for many researchers in the antibody field. One way to obtain these antibodies is through phage-display libraries constructed from human lymphocytes. This protocol describes the construction of human scFv (single chain antibody fragment) libraries using a short linker (GGSSRSS) or a long linker (GGSSRSSSSGGGGSGGGG). In this method, the individual rearranged heavy- and light-chain variable regions are amplified separately and are linked through a series of overlap polymerase chain reaction (PCR) steps to give the final scFv products that are used for cloning.

  15. Light-sheet generation in inhomogeneous media using self-reconstructing beams and the STED-principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohn-Kreuz, Cristian; Rohrbach, Alexander

    2016-03-21

    Self-reconstruction of Bessel beams in inhomogeneous media is beneficial in light-sheet based microscopy. Although the beam's ring system enables propagation stability, the resulting image contrast is reduced. Here, we show that by a combination of two self-reconstructing beams with different orbital angular momenta it is possible to inhibit fluorescence from the ring system by using stimulated emission depletion (STED) even in strongly scattering media. Our theoretical study shows that the remaining fluorescence γ depends non-linearly on the beams' relative radial and orbital angular momenta. For various scattering media we demonstrate that γ remains remarkably stable over long beam propagation distances.

  16. 75 FR 55317 - FirstLight Hydro Generating Company; City of Norwich Department of Public Utilities; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2662-002; Project No. 12968... with a crest elevation of 75.38 feet local datum; (d) an 18.83-foot-long gravity-type ungated spillway...-generator; (2) a 134-acre reservoir at an elevation of 77.9 feet local datum with a usable storage capacity...

  17. In-Situ Generated Graphene as the Catalytic Site for Visible-Light Mediated Ethylene Epoxidation on AG Nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xueqiang Alex; Jain, Prashant

    2017-06-01

    Despite the harsh conditions for chemical conversion, ethylene oxide produced from ethylene epoxidation on Ag-based heterogeneous catalyst constitutes one of the largest volume chemicals in chemical industry. Recently, photocatalytic epoxidation of ethylene over plasmonic Ag nanoparticles enables the chemical conversion under significantly decreased temperature and ambient pressure conditions. Yet a detailed understanding of the photocatalytic process at the reactant/catalyst interface is under debate. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful vibrational spectroscopy technique that enables the localized detection of rare and/or transient chemical species with high sensitivity under in situ and ambient conditions. Using SERS, we are able to monitor at individual sites of an Ag nanocatalyst the visible-light-mediated adsorption and epoxidation of ethylene. From detected intermediates, we find that the primary step in the photoepoxidation is the transient formation of graphene catalyzed by the Ag surface. Density functional theory (DFT) simulations that model the observed SERS spectra suggest that the defective edge sites of the graphene formed on Ag constitute the active site for C2H4 adsorption and epoxidation. Further studies with pre-formed graphene/Ag catalyst composites confirm the indispensable role of graphene in visible-light-mediated ethylene epoxidation. Carbon is often thought to be either an innocent support or a poison for metallic catalysts; however our studies reveal a surprising role for crystalline carbon layers as potential co-catalysts.

  18. Development of new generation of perovskite based noble metal/semiconductor photocatalysts for visible-light-driven hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Peichuan

    In recent decades, semiconductor photocatalysis has attracted a growing attention as a possible alternative to existing methods of hydrogen production, hydrocarbon conversion and organic compound oxidation. Many types of photocatalysts have been developed and tested for photocatalytic applications. However, most of them do not have notable activity in visible light region, which limits their practical applications. Development of photocatalysts, which can be activated by visible light provides a promising way forward to utilize both UV and visible portions of solar spectrum. In this thesis, two main methods to advance visible light driven photocatalysis, such as bandgap modification through doping and co-catalyst development, are investigated. The photocatalysts studied in this thesis included CdS and SrTiO3, which were extensively investigated and characterized. Rhodium doped strontium titanate was synthesized through different preparation methods. The synthesized samples have been investigated by various characterization techniques including XRD, TEM, STEM, XPS and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of preparation conditions, such as doping concentration, calcination temperature and pH have been investigated and optimized. In addition, the photocatalytic activities for hydrogen production of the samples synthesized by different preparation methods were also studied. Among the preparation methods, polymerizable complex (PC) method was found to be the most effective synthesis method for SrTiO3: Rh. The samples prepared by PC method had higher photocatalytic activity as compared to that of samples synthesized by solid state reaction method and hydrothermal method. The reasons might be attributed to more effective doping and higher surface area. The results of this work suggest that PC method can also be applied to develop other perovskite materials for photocatalytic applications. Co-catalyst development for enhancement of photocatalytic hydrogen production is also

  19. CCR6+ Th cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with multiple sclerosis are dominated by pathogenic non-classic Th1 cells and GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restorick, S M; Durant, L; Kalra, S; Hassan-Smith, G; Rathbone, E; Douglas, M R; Curnow, S J

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to CCR6 + IL-17-secreting CD4 + T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells. However, the relatively low frequency of Th17 cells suggests they cannot by themselves account for the high percentage of CCR6 + cells in MS CSF. Here we identify the dominant CCR6 + T cell subsets in both the blood and CSF as non-classic Th1 cells, including many that secrete GM-CSF, a key encephalitogenic cytokine. In addition, we show that Th cells secreting GM-CSF but not IFNγ or IL-17, a subset termed GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells, also accumulate in the CSF. Importantly, in MS the proportion of IFNγ- and GM-CSF-secreting T cells expressing CCR6 was significantly enriched in the CSF, and was elevated in MS, suggesting these cells play a pathogenic role in this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kellie; Cherezova, Lidia; DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2017-11-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser in a cascade of nonlinear crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Sumpf, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Many applications, e.g., within biomedicine stand to benefit greatly from the development of diode laser-based multi- Watt efficient compact green laser sources. The low power of existing diode lasers in the green area (about 100 mW) means that the most promising approach remains nonlinear...... frequency conversion of infrared tapered diode lasers. Here, we describe the generation of 3.5 W of diffraction-limited green light from SHG of a single tapered diode laser, itself yielding 10 W at 1063 nm. This SHG is performed in single pass through a cascade of two PPMgO:LN crystals with re...... power of 3.5 W corresponds to a power enhancement greater than 2 compared to SHG in each of the crystals individually and is the highest visible output power generated by frequency conversion of a single diode laser. Such laser sources provide the necessary pump power for biophotonics applications...

  2. RBS analysis of ions implanted in light substrates exposed to hot plasmas laser-generated at PALS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Picciotto, A.; Wolowski, J.; Krása, Josef; Láska, Leoš; Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 160, 10-12 (2005), s. 685-695 ISSN 1042-0150. [Workshop PIBHI 2005 /2./. Giardini Naxos, 08.06.06-11.06.06] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC528 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : RBS analysis * ion implantation * plasma-generated by lasers Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2005

  3. The influence of bubble populations generated under windy conditions on the blue-green light transmission in the upper ocean: An exploratory approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengan; Tan, Jianyu; Lai, Qingzhi

    2016-12-01

    The “blue-green window” in the ocean plays an important role in functions such as communication between vessels, underwater target identification, and remote sensing. In this study, the transmission process of blue-green light in the upper ocean is analyzed numerically using the Monte Carlo method. First, the effect of total number of photons on the numerical results is evaluated, and the most favorable number is chosen to ensure accuracy without excessive costs for calculation. Then, the physical and mathematical models are constructed. The rough sea surface is generated under windy conditions and the transmission signals are measured in the far field. Therefore, it can be conceptualized as a 1D slab with a rough boundary surface. Under windy conditions, these bubbles form layers that are horizontally homogeneous and decay exponentially with depth under the influence of gravity. The effects of bubble populations on the process of blue-green light transmission at different wind speeds, wavelengths, angle of incidence and chlorophyll-a concentrations are studied for both air-incident and water-incident cases. The results of this study indicate that the transmission process of blue-green light is significantly influenced by bubbles under high wind-speed conditions.

  4. Properties of photocatalytically generated oxygen species produced by Ag2Se-graphene oxide heterojunction and its application for the visible-light degradation of ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ze-Da; Zhao, Wei; Kim, Sukyoung

    2017-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be produced by the interactions between sunlight and light-absorbing substances in aqueous environments, and these ROS are capable of destroying various organic pollutants in wastewater. In this study, the photocatalytic degradation of ammonia in petrochemical wastewater was investigated by solar light photocatalysis. We used graphene oxide modified Ag2Se nanoparticles to enhance the activity of photochemically generated oxygen (PGO) species. There was a catastrophic decrease in the surface area and pore volume of the Ag2Se-graphene oxide (Ag2Se-G) samples because of the deposition of Ag2Se. The generation of ROS was detected by the oxidation of 1,5- diphenyl carbazide (DPCI) to 1,5-diphenyl carbazone (DPCO). It was revealed that the photocurrent density and PGO effect increased with the graphene oxide modified. The experimental results indicate that this heterogeneous catalyst achieved a degradation of 88.43% under visiblelight irradiation. The NH3 degradation product was N2 and neither NO2- nor NO3- were detected.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Efficient generation of 1.9  W yellow light by cascaded frequency doubling of a distributed Bragg reflector tapered diode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Kragh; Christensen, Mathias; Noordegraaf, Danny

    2016-01-01

    Watt-level yellow emitting lasers are interesting for medical applications, due to their high hemoglobin absorption, and for efficient detection of certain fluorophores. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact and robust diode-based laser system in the yellow spectral range. The system generates ...... of a laser diode enables the modulation of the pump wavelength by controlling the drive current. This is utilized to achieve a power modulation depth above 90% for the second harmonic light, with a rise time below 40  μs.......Watt-level yellow emitting lasers are interesting for medical applications, due to their high hemoglobin absorption, and for efficient detection of certain fluorophores. In this paper, we demonstrate a compact and robust diode-based laser system in the yellow spectral range. The system generates 1.......9 W of single-frequency light at 562.4 nm by cascaded single-pass frequency doubling of the 1124.8 nm emission from a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) tapered laser diode. The absence of a free-space cavity makes the system stable over a base-plate temperature range of 30 K. At the same time, the use...

  6. Start-to-end simulation of x-ray radiation of a next generation light source using the real number of electrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Qiang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on start-to-end simulation of a next generation light source based on a high repetition rate free electron laser (FEL driven by a CW superconducting linac. The simulation integrated the entire system in a seamless start-to-end model, including birth of photoelectrons, transport of electron beam through 600 m of the accelerator beam delivery system, and generation of coherent x-ray radiation in a two-stage self-seeding undulator beam line. The entire simulation used the real number of electrons (∼2 billion electrons/bunch to capture the details of the physical shot noise without resorting to artificial filtering to suppress numerical noise. The simulation results shed light on several issues including the importance of space-charge effects near the laser heater and the reliability of x-ray radiation power predictions when using a smaller number of simulation particles. The results show that the microbunching instability in the linac can be controlled with 15 keV uncorrelated energy spread induced by a laser heater and demonstrate that high brightness and flux 1 nm x-ray radiation (∼10^{12}  photons/pulse with fully spatial and temporal coherence is achievable.

  7. Breaking the Carnot limit without violating the second law: A thermodynamic analysis of off-resonant quantum light generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukobza, E.; Ritsch, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Carnot limit, formulated in 1824, represents the maximal efficiency of a classical heat engine. In this work we present a thermodynamical analysis of a light amplifier based on a three-level atom coupled off-resonantly to a single quantized cavity mode and to two heat reservoirs with positive temperatures. Based on standard work and heat flow equilibrium, we show that for a cavity blue-detuned with respect to the atomic resonance, the system can surpass the Carnot limit. Nevertheless, the second law of thermodynamics is still obeyed, as the total entropy always increases. By analyzing a semiclassical version of the model, we derive a formula for the critical frequency for which the Carnot limit is broken and a formula for the amplifier efficiency which agrees with its quantum counterpart. In the semiclassical regime, however, the second law is not satisfied and hence it does not offer a physically acceptable description of the system. Finally, we show that breaking the Carnot limit occurs also in a blue-detuned quantum amplifier with output coupling, which represents a realistic model of a laser or maser.

  8. Enhanced Emission by Accumulated Charges at Organic/Metal Interfaces Generated during the Reverse Bias of Organic Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soichiro Nozoe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A high frequency rectangular alternating voltage was applied to organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs with the structure ITO/TPD/Alq3/Al and ITO/CoPc/Alq3/Al, where ITO is indium-tin-oxide, TPD is 4,4′-bis[N-phenyl-N-(m-tolylamino]biphenyl, CoPc is cobalt phthalocyanine, and Alq3 is Tris(8-quinolinolatoaluminum, and the effect on emission of the reverse bias was examined. The results reveal that the emission intensity under an alternating reverse-forward bias is greater than that under an alternating zero-forward bias. The difference in the emission intensity (∆I increased both for decreasing frequency and increasing voltage level of the reverse bias. In particular, the change in emission intensity was proportional to the voltage level of the reverse bias given the same frequency. To understand ΔI, this paper proposes a model in which an OLED works as a capacitor under reverse bias, where positive and negative charges accumulate on the metal/organic interfaces. In this model, the emission enhancement that occurs during the alternating reverse-forward bias is rationalized as a result of the charge accumulation at the organic/metal interfaces during the reverse bias, which possibly modulates the vacuum level shifts at the organic/metal interfaces to reduce both the hole injection barrier at the organic/ITO interface and the electron injection barrier at the organic/Al interface under forward bias.

  9. Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction with pseudo-thermal light generated by means of a programmable SLM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capeluto, M G; Schmiegelow, C T; Francisco, D; Ledesma, S; Iemmi, C; Duisterwinkel, H

    2011-01-01

    Ghost imaging and ghost diffraction are techniques in which information about the object or about its diffraction pattern is extracted by measuring the correlation between a reference beam and a beam that passes through the object. Although first experiments were carried on by using entangled photons, it was demonstrated that this technique can be performed by splitting incoherent pseudo-thermal radiation such as that obtained with a laser passing through a moving diffuser. In this work we implemented the use of a programmable phase spatial light modulator (SLM) in order to replace the rotating ground glass. In this way the random phase distributions obtained from the moving diffuser can be emulated by displaying onto the SLM different realizations of a random function with uniform distribution. Based on the programmability of the modulator we have studied the influence of diverse parameters such as speckle size or phase distributions in the final image quality. We carry on the experiment for two different cases ghost imaging and far field ghost diffraction.

  10. Auger-generated hot carrier current in photo-excited forward biased single quantum well blue light emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenlaub, Andrew C.; Alhassan, Abdullah I.; Nakamura, Shuji; Weisbuch, Claude; Speck, James S.

    2018-04-01

    We report on measurements of the photo-modulated current-voltage and electroluminescence characteristics of forward biased single quantum well, blue InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes with and without electron blocking layers. Low intensity resonant optical excitation of the quantum well was observed to induce an additional forward current at constant forward diode bias, in contrast to the usual sense of the photocurrent in photodiodes and solar cells, as well as an increased electroluminescence intensity. The presence of an electron blocking layer only slightly decreased the magnitude of the photo-induced current at constant forward bias. Photo-modulation at constant forward diode current resulted in a reduced diode bias under optical excitation. We argue that this decrease in diode bias at constant current and the increase in forward diode current at constant applied bias can only be due to additional hot carriers being ejected from the quantum well as a result of an increased Auger recombination rate within the quantum well.

  11. Assessment of noise level and noise propagation generated by light-lift helicopters in mountain natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolato, Stefano; Mologni, Omar; Proto, Andrea Rosario; Zimbalatti, Giuseppe; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2018-01-20

    The use of helicopter rises discussion about environmental noise propagation especially when it operates in proximity of environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) for an extended period because of its potential implications in wildlife behaviours. In order to support decisions on helicopter logging operation management in proximity of ESAs, this study focused on (i) analysing the noise spectrum of a light-lift helicopter during logging operations and on (ii) assessing the noise propagation in the surrounding environments. This study investigated a helicopter logging operation for wood fuel extraction in the eastern part of the Italian Alps. The potential disturbance area covered for the entire helicopter logging operation was evaluated by a specific GIS application according to hearing sensitivity of the most sensitive wildlife species in the study area (different strigiform species). The noise level at the ground appeared to be affected by the location regardless both the use of equivalent continuous sound pressures level dB(A) (LAeq) and the single-event level (SEL) noise metrics. The lowest values were recorded when the helicopter was flown over the sound meter level located under the forest canopy, while the highest was recorded when the helicopter was unhooking the loads at the landing. The GIS application highlighted the consistent of the exceeded noise area (weighted to strigiform hearing range and sensitivity) for the lower frequency bands (0.016-0.250 kHz). A more restricted exceeded noise area concerned instead the most sensitive frequency bands" for the strigiform (1-2 kHz). Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  12. Novel InN/InGaN multiple quantum well structures for slow-light generation at telecommunication wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, F.B.; Valdueza-Felip, S.; Gonzalez-Herraez, M. [Grupo de Ingenieria Fotonica, Departamento de Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Alcala Campus Universitario, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Kandaswamy, P.K.; Lahourcade, L.; Calvo, V.; Monroy, E. [CEA-Grenoble, INAC/SP2M, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Martin-Lopez, S.; Corredera, P. [Departamento de Metrologia, Instituto de Fisica Aplicada (CSIC), 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    The third order susceptibility is responsible for a variety of optical non-linear phenomena - like self focusing, phase conjugation and four-wave mixing - with applications in coherent control of optical communication. InN is particularly attractive due to its near-IR bandgap and predicted high nonlinear effects. Moreover, the synthesis of InN nanostructures makes possible to taylor the absorption edge in the telecomunication spectral range and enhance nonlinear parameters thanks to carrier confinement. In this work, we assess the nonlinear optical behavior of InN/In{sub x}Ga{sub (1-x)}N (0.9 > x > 0.7) multiple-quantum-well (MQW) structures grown by plasma-assisted MBE on GaN-on-sapphire templates. Low-temperature (5 K) photoluminescence measurements show near-IR emission whose intensity increases with the In content in the barriers, which is explained in terms of the existence of piezoelectric fields in the structures. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient, {alpha}{sub 2}, were measured at 1.55 {mu}m using the Z-scan method. We observe a strong dependence of the nonlinear absorption coefficient on the In content in the barriers. Saturable absorption is observed for the sample with x = 0.9, with {alpha}{sub 2} {proportional_to} -9 x 10{sub 3} cm/GW. For this sample, an optically controlled reduction of the speed of light by a factor S {proportional_to} 80 is obtained at 1.55 {mu}m (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel J Beltrán-García

    Full Text Available In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg. Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg, a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg. A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  14. Singlet molecular oxygen generation by light-activated DHN-melanin of the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in black Sigatoka disease of bananas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-García, Miguel J; Prado, Fernanda M; Oliveira, Marilene S; Ortiz-Mendoza, David; Scalfo, Alexsandra C; Pessoa, Adalberto; Medeiros, Marisa H G; White, James F; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In pathogenic fungi, melanin contributes to virulence, allowing tissue invasion and inactivation of the plant defence system, but has never been implicated as a factor for host cell death, or as a light-activated phytotoxin. Our research shows that melanin synthesized by the fungal banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis acts as a virulence factor through the photogeneration of singlet molecular oxygen O2 (1Δg). Using analytical tools, including elemental analysis, ultraviolet/infrared absorption spectrophometry and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis, we characterized both pigment content in mycelia and secreted to the culture media as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin type compound. This is sole melanin-type in M. fijiensis. Isolated melanins irradiated with a Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm produced monomol light emission at 1270 nm, confirming generation of O2 (1Δg), a highly reactive oxygen specie (ROS) that causes cellular death by reacting with all cellular macromolecules. Intermediary polyketides accumulated in culture media by using tricyclazole and pyroquilon (two inhibitors of DHN-melanin synthesis) were identified by ESI-HPLC-MS/MS. Additionally, irradiation at 532 nm of that mixture of compounds and whole melanized mycelium also generated O2 (1Δg). A pigmented-strain generated more O2 (1Δg) than a strain with low melanin content. Banana leaves of cultivar Cavendish, naturally infected with different stages of black Sigatoka disease, were collected from field. Direct staining of the naturally infected leaf tissues showed the presence of melanin that was positively correlated to the disease stage. We also found hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) but we cannot distinguish the source. Our results suggest that O2 (1Δg) photogenerated by DHN-melanin may be involved in the destructive effects of Mycosphaerella fijiensis on banana leaf tissues. Further studies are needed to fully evaluate contributions of melanin-mediated ROS to microbial pathogenesis.

  15. Effects of radiant exposure values using second and third generation light curing units on the degree of conversion of a lucirin-based resin composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Kelly Antonieta Oliveira Rodrigues de Faria; Zarpellon, Driellen Christine; Madruga, Camila Ferreira Leite; Rodrigues, José Augusto; Arrais, Cesar Augusto Galvão

    2017-01-01

    Using Fourier transform infrared analysis (FTIR) in vitro, the effects of varying radiant exposure (RE) values generated by second and third generation LED LCUs on the degree of conversion (DC) and maximum rate of polymerization (Rpmax) of an experimental Lucirin TPO-based RC were evaluated. 1 mm or 2 mm thick silicon molds were positioned on a horizontal attenuated total reflectance (ATR) unit attached to an infrared spectroscope. The RC was inserted into the molds and exposed to varying REs (18, 36 and 56 J/cm2) using second (Radii Plus, SDI) and third generation LED LCUs (Bluephase G2/Ivoclar Vivadent) or a quartz tungsten based LCU (Optilux 501/SDS Kerr). FTIR spectra (n=7) were recorded for 10 min (1 spectrum/s, 16 scans/spectrum, resolution 4 cm-1) immediately after their application to the ATR. The DC was calculated using standard techniques for observing changes in aliphatic to aromatic peak ratios both prior to, and 10 min after curing, as well as during each 1 second interval. DC and Rpmax data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p=0.05). No significant difference in DC or Rpmax was observed between the 1 mm or 2 mm thick specimens when RE values were delivered by Optilux 501 or when the 1 mm thick composites were exposed to light emitted by Bluephase G2, which in turn promoted a lower DC when 18 J/cm2 (13 s) were delivered to the 2 mm thick specimens. Radii Plus promoted DC and Rpmax values close to zero under most conditions, while the delivery of 56 J/cm2 (40 s) resulted in low DC values. The third generation LCU provided an optimal polymerization of Lucirin TPO-based RC under most tested conditions, whereas the second generation LED-curing unit was useless regardless of the RE.

  16. Generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms in the framework of cavity-QED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonta, Denis

    2010-07-07

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics is a research field that studies electromagnetic fields in confined spaces and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. Experimentally, the simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with modes of a high-finesse resonator. Theoretically, such system bears an excellent framework for quantum information processing in which atoms and light are interpreted as bits of quantum information and their mutual interaction provides a controllable entanglement mechanism. In this thesis, we present several practical schemes for generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms which pass through one or more high-finesse resonators. In the first step, we propose two schemes for generation of one- and two-dimensional cluster states of arbitrary size. These schemes are based on the resonant interaction of a chain of Rydberg atoms with one or more microwave cavities. In the second step, we propose a scheme for generation of multipartite W states. This scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a chain of three-level atoms with an optical cavity and a laser beam. We describe in details all the individual steps which are required to realize the proposed schemes and, moreover, we discuss several techniques to reveal the non-classical correlations associated with generated small-sized entangled states. (orig.)

  17. Generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms in the framework of cavity-QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonta, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics is a research field that studies electromagnetic fields in confined spaces and the radiative properties of atoms in such fields. Experimentally, the simplest example of such system is a single atom interacting with modes of a high-finesse resonator. Theoretically, such system bears an excellent framework for quantum information processing in which atoms and light are interpreted as bits of quantum information and their mutual interaction provides a controllable entanglement mechanism. In this thesis, we present several practical schemes for generation of multipartite entangled states for chains of atoms which pass through one or more high-finesse resonators. In the first step, we propose two schemes for generation of one- and two-dimensional cluster states of arbitrary size. These schemes are based on the resonant interaction of a chain of Rydberg atoms with one or more microwave cavities. In the second step, we propose a scheme for generation of multipartite W states. This scheme is based on the off-resonant interaction of a chain of three-level atoms with an optical cavity and a laser beam. We describe in details all the individual steps which are required to realize the proposed schemes and, moreover, we discuss several techniques to reveal the non-classical correlations associated with generated small-sized entangled states. (orig.)

  18. Light-Induced C-H Arylation of (Hetero)arenes by In Situ Generated Diazo Anhydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, David; Mateos, Carlos; Rincon, Juan A; de Frutos, Oscar; Kappe, C Oliver

    2015-09-07

    Diazo anhydrides (Ar-N=N-O-N=N-Ar) have been known since 1896 but have rarely been used in synthesis. This communication describes the development of a photochemical catalyst-free C-H arylation methodology for the preparation of bi(hetero)aryls by the one-pot reaction of anilines with tert-butyl nitrite and (hetero)arenes under neutral conditions. The key step in this procedure is the in situ formation and subsequent photochemical (>300 nm) homolytic cleavage of a transient diazo anhydride intermediate. The generated aryl radical then efficiently reacts with a (hetero)arene to form the desired bi(hetero)aryls producing only nitrogen, water, and tert-butanol as byproducts. The scope of the reaction for several substituted anilines and (hetero)arenes was investigated. A continuous-flow protocol increasing selectivity and safety has been developed enabling the experimentally straightforward preparation of a variety of substituted bi(hetero)aryls within 45 min of reaction time. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Ultrastable, high efficiency picosecond green light generation using K3B6O10Br series nonlinear optical crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Z. Y.; Xia, M. J.; Wang, L. R.; Xu, B.; Yan, D. X.; Meng, L. P.; Liu, L. J.; Xu, D. G.; Zhang, L.; Wang, X. Y.; Li, R. K.; Chen, C. T.

    2017-09-01

    Two perovskite-structure K3B6O10Br1-x Cl x (x  =  0 and 0.5) series nonlinear optical crystals were thoroughly investigated for their picosecond 532 nm laser pulses abilities and high power outputs were achieved via second harmonic generation (SHG) technique for the first time. SHG conversion efficiency of 57.3% with a 13.2 mm length K3B6O10Br (KBB) crystal was achieved using a laser source of pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz and pulse width of 25 ps, which is the highest conversion efficiency of ps visible laser based on KBB crystal. And by employing an 80 MHz, 10 ps fundamental laser beam, maximum power outputs of 12 W with K3B6O10Br0.5Cl0.5 (KBBC) and 11.86 W with KBB crystals were successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the standard deviation jitters of the average power outputs are less than 0.6% and 1.17% by KBB and KBBC, respectively, showing ultrastable power stabilities favorable for practical applications. In addition, the other optical parameters including acceptance angle and temperature bandwidth were also investigated.

  20. Potential of the FLASH FEL technology for the construction of a kW-scale light source for the next generation lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneidmiller, E.A.; Vogel, V.F.; Weise, H.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2011-08-15

    The driving engine of the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is an L-band superconducting accelerator. It is designed to operate in burst mode with 800 microsecond pulse duration at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The maximum accelerated beam current during the macropulse is 9 mA. Our analysis shows that the FLASH technology has great potential since it is possible to construct a FLASH like free electron laser operating at the wavelength of 13.5 and 6.8 nanometer with an average power up to 2.6 kW. Such a source meets the physical requirements for the light source for the next generation lithography. (orig.)

  1. High-Efficiency Intracavity Continuous-Wave Green-Light Generation by Quasiphase Matching in a Bulk Periodically Poled MgO:LiNbO3 Crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaowei Chu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available 908 mW of green light at 532 nm were generated by intracavity quasiphase matching in a bulk periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 (PPMgLN crystal. A maximum optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 33.5% was obtained from a 0.5 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 5 mol% MgO:LiNbO3 crystal with an end-pump power of 2.7 W at 808 nm. The temperature bandwidth between the intracavity and single-pass frequency doubling was found to be different for the PPMgLN. Reliability and stability of the green laser were evaluated. It was found that for continuous operation of 100 hours, the output stability was better than 97.5% and no optical damage was observed.

  2. Efficiency enhancement of tandem organic light-emitting devices by a combined charge generation layer and organic n-type bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene-doped electron transport layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jin Taek; Kim, Dae Hun; Koh, Eun Im; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-11-03

    While the operating voltage of the tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with both an organic p-type 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile charge generation layer and a bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF)-doped 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimiazole-2-yl)benzene (TPBi) electron transport layer (ETL) was 1.3 V lower than that of the tandem OLEDs with a BEDT-TTF-undoped TPBi ETL. Luminance efficiency of the tandem OLEDs with a BEDT-TTF-doped TPBi ETL was 3.6 cd/A higher than that of the typical OLEDs. The increase in the luminance efficiency and the decrease in the operating voltage of the tandem OLEDs were attributed to improved electron injection due to the insertion of the BEDT-TTF-doped TPBi ETL. - Highlights: • Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) were fabricated. • OLED fabricated with an n-type bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene. • Operating voltage of the tandem OLED was decreased from 19.8 to 18.5 V. • Luminance efficiency of the tandem OLED was increased from 31.8 to 35.4 cd/A. • Enhancement of the luminance efficiency in the tandem OLED was achieved.

  3. Efficiency enhancement of tandem organic light-emitting devices by a combined charge generation layer and organic n-type bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene-doped electron transport layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jin Taek; Kim, Dae Hun; Koh, Eun Im; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-01-01

    While the operating voltage of the tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) with both an organic p-type 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile charge generation layer and a bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF)-doped 1,3,5-tris(N-phenylbenzimiazole-2-yl)benzene (TPBi) electron transport layer (ETL) was 1.3 V lower than that of the tandem OLEDs with a BEDT-TTF-undoped TPBi ETL. Luminance efficiency of the tandem OLEDs with a BEDT-TTF-doped TPBi ETL was 3.6 cd/A higher than that of the typical OLEDs. The increase in the luminance efficiency and the decrease in the operating voltage of the tandem OLEDs were attributed to improved electron injection due to the insertion of the BEDT-TTF-doped TPBi ETL. - Highlights: • Tandem organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) were fabricated. • OLED fabricated with an n-type bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene. • Operating voltage of the tandem OLED was decreased from 19.8 to 18.5 V. • Luminance efficiency of the tandem OLED was increased from 31.8 to 35.4 cd/A. • Enhancement of the luminance efficiency in the tandem OLED was achieved

  4. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  5. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  6. Photoactivation by visible light of CdTe quantum dots for inline generation of reactive oxygen species in an automated multipumping flow system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, David S.M.; Frigerio, Christian; Santos, Joao L.M. [Requimte, Department of Chemical Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Prior, Joao A.V., E-mail: joaoavp@ff.up.pt [Requimte, Department of Chemical Sciences, Laboratory of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, Rua de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira no. 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CdTe quantum dots generate free radical species upon exposure to visible radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A high power visible LED lamp was used as photoirradiation element. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The laboratory-made LED photocatalytic unit was implemented inline in a MPFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free radical species oxidize luminol producing a strong chemiluminescence emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epinephrine scavenges free radical species quenching chemiluminescence emission. - Abstract: Quantum dots (QD) are semiconductor nanocrystals able to generate free radical species upon exposure to an electromagnetic radiation, usually in the ultraviolet wavelength range. In this work, CdTe QD were used as highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) generators for the control of pharmaceutical formulations containing epinephrine. The developed approach was based on the chemiluminometric monitoring of the quenching effect of epinephrine on the oxidation of luminol by the produced ROS. Due to the relatively low energy band-gap of this chalcogenide a high power visible light emitting diode (LED) lamp was used as photoirradiation element and assembled in a laboratory-made photocatalytic unit. Owing to the very short lifetime of ROS and to ensure both reproducible generation and time-controlled reaction implementation and development, all reactional processes were implemented inline by using an automated multipumping micro-flow system. A linear working range for epinephrine concentration of up to 2.28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} mol L{sup -1} (r = 0.9953; n = 5) was verified. The determination rate was about 79 determinations per hour and the detection limit was about 8.69 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} mol L{sup -1}. The results obtained in the analysis of epinephrine pharmaceutical formulations by using the proposed methodology were in good agreement with those furnished by the reference procedure, with

  7. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. High-performance tandem organic light-emitting diodes based on a buffer-modified p/n-type planar organic heterojunction as charge generation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yukun; Sun, Ying; Qin, Houyun; Hu, Shoucheng; Wu, Qingyang; Zhao, Yi

    2017-04-01

    High-performance tandem organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs) were realized using a buffer-modified p/n-type planar organic heterojunction (OHJ) as charge generation layer (CGL) consisting of common organic materials, and the configuration of this p/n-type CGL was "LiF/N,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(1-napthyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine (NPB)/4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen)/molybdenum oxide (MoOx)". The optimized TOLED exhibited a maximum current efficiency of 77.6 cd/A without any out-coupling techniques, and the efficiency roll-off was greatly improved compared to the single-unit OLED. The working mechanism of the p/n-type CGL was discussed in detail. It is found that the NPB/Bphen heterojunction generated enough charges under a forward applied voltage and the carrier extraction was a tunneling process. These results could provide a new method to fabricate high-performance TOLEDs.

  9. Visible-light-driven TiO2/Ag3PO4/GO heterostructure photocatalyst with dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingqing; Ma, Ni; Wang, Yaping; Qiu, Yiwei; Hu, Haihua; Zhao, Jiahuan; Liang, Dayu; Xu, Sheng; Li, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Zhiyan; Cui, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO was synthesized with a facile two-step method. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibit superior photocatalytic activity and stability. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO has dual-channel for photo-generated charges separation. • TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO composite reduces the consumption of Ag. - Abstract: A novel triple-component TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /graphene oxide (TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO) photocatalyst with dual channels for photo-generated charges separation has been synthesized to improve the photocatalytic activity and stability of Ag 3 PO 4 under visible light. The synthesis involved in-situ growth of Ag 3 PO 4 nanoparticles on GO sheets to form Ag 3 PO 4 /GO, and then deposited TiO 2 nanocrystals on the surface of Ag 3 PO 4 by hydrolysis of Ti(SO 4 ) 2 at low-temperature hydrothermal condition. The TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity and stability to bare Ag 3 PO 4 , TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 and Ag 3 PO 4 /GO in degradation of Rhodamine B and phenol solutions under visible light. It is suggested that the photo-generated electrons in the conduction band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be quickly transferred to GO, while the holes in the valence band of Ag 3 PO 4 can be transferred to the valence band of TiO 2 . The dual transfer channels at the interfaces of TiO 2 /Ag 3 PO 4 /GO result in effective charges separation, leading to enhanced photocatalytic activity and stability. Furthermore, the content of noble metal Ag significantly reduces from 77 wt% in bare Ag 3 PO 4 to 55 wt% in the nanocomposite. The concept of establishing dual channels for charges separation in a triple-component heterostructure provides a promising way to develop photocatalysts with high efficiency

  10. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  11. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  12. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  13. Effect of some operational parameters on the hydrogen generation efficiency of Ni-ZnO/PANI composite under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsib, Mohamed Faouzi, E-mail: Mohamed.faouzi.ncib@gmail.com [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Naffati, Naima [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Rayes, Ali; Moussa, Noomen [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Houas, Ammar [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–vis spectra of PANI, ZnO, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O/PANI3 and Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.9}O/PANI{sub 10} nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/PANI{sub y} photocatalysts are synthesized by the impregnation method. • Ni{sup 2+} amount control the morphology of ZnO and enhances its photoactivity. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI extend the light absorption of ZnO toward the visible region. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI enhance the electron–hole separation. - Abstract: Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/Polyaniline hybrid photocatalysts are synthesized and used for the experiments of hydrogen production from water-splitting under visible irradiation. XRD, UV–vis DRS and SEM are used to characterize the prepared materials. It is shown that the Ni{sup 2+} amount doped into ZnO controls its morphology and enhances its photoactivity for H{sub 2} generation. Polyaniline (PANI) is shown to sensitize ZnO and to extend its light absorption toward the visible region. The hybrid photocatalyst with 10 mol% Ni{sup 2+} and 10 wt.% PANI shows the maximum photocatalytic H{sub 2} production for one hour of visible irradiation: ∼558 μmol while only ∼178 μmol in the presence of pure ZnO. Additives like sacrificial electron donors and carbonate salts are found to play a key role in the improvement of H{sub 2} evolution. Thus, the hydrogen photoproduction efficiency increases in the order: thiosulfate > sulfide > propanol and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} > CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}.

  14. Heat radiation approach for harnessing heat of the cook stove to generate electricity for lighting system and charging of mobile phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Rodrigo C., Jr.; Manansala, Chad Deo G.

    2018-01-01

    This study is based on the potential of thermoelectric coupling such as the thermoelectric cooler module. A thermoelectric cooler converts the heat coming from the cook stove into electricity and store in a battery. A dc-dc boost converter will be used to produce enough voltage to light a minimum house dwelling or charge phone battery. This device will be helpful to those that faces a problem on electricity especially in the isolated areas. The study aims (1) to harness heat from the cook stove up to 110 °C (2) To automatically cool-off the system to protect the thermoelectric cooler from damage due to excessive heat using an electronic solenoid; (3) To store energy harnessed in the battery; (4) To amplify the output voltages of the battery using DC to DC boost converter for lighting system and charging of mobile phone battery. From various tests conducted, it can fully charge a mobile phone in 3 hours observing the unit’s battery voltage drop from 4.06V to 3.98V. In the testing it used different orientation of steel rod by conduction to transfer heat and by radiation through tubular steel with its different dimensions. Most recent testing proved that the 2x2x9 tubular steel by radiation had the best result. The temperature reached more than a hundred degree Celsius that met the objective. The test resulted of boosting the voltage of the battery output from 3.7V to 4.96V on the average. The boosted voltage decrease as the system’s cool-off mechanism operated when the temperature reached above 110 degree Celsius decreasing output voltage to 0.8V resulting the boosted voltage to drop to zero. Therefore, the proponents concluded that heat waste can be converted to electrical energy by harnessing heat through radiation, with the help of TEC that generates voltage for lighting and can be boosted to be used for mobile charging. Furthermore, the study proved that the excess heat can damaged the TEC which was prevented by using of cooling-off mechanism, making it more

  15. A new approach for generating bispecific antibodies based on a common light chain format and the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardis, Camilla; Hendriks, Linda J A; Poirier, Emilie; Arvinte, Tudor; Gros, Piet; Bakker, Alexander B H; de Kruif, John

    2017-09-01

    Bispecific antibodies combine two different antigen-binding sites in a single molecule, enabling more specific targeting, novel mechanisms of action, and higher clinical efficacies. Although they have the potential to outperform conventional monoclonal antibodies, many bispecific antibodies have issues regarding production, stability, and pharmacokinetic properties. Here, we describe a new approach for generating bispecific antibodies using a common light chain format and exploiting the stable architecture of human immunoglobulin G 1 We used iterative experimental validation and computational modeling to identify multiple Fc variant pairs that drive efficient heterodimerization of the antibody heavy chains. Accelerated stability studies enabled selection of one Fc variant pair dubbed "DEKK" consisting of substitutions L351D and L368E in one heavy chain combined with L351K and T366K in the other. Solving the crystal structure of the DEKK Fc region at a resolution of 2.3 Å enabled detailed analysis of the interactions inducing CH3 interface heterodimerization. Local shifts in the IgG backbone accommodate the introduction of lysine side chains that form stabilizing salt-bridge interactions with substituted and native residues in the opposite chain. Overall, the CH3 domain adapted to these shifts at the interface, yielding a stable Fc conformation very similar to that in wild-type IgG. Using the DEKK format, we generated the bispecific antibody MCLA-128, targeting human EGF receptors 2 and 3. MCLA-128 could be readily produced and purified at industrial scale with a standard mammalian cell culture platform and a routine purification protocol. Long-term accelerated stability assays confirmed that MCLA-128 is highly stable and has excellent biophysical characteristics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Forma no clásica de hiperplasia adrenal congénita en la niñez y adolescencia Non-classic way of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carvajal Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hiperplasia adrenal congénita es un trastorno hereditario de la esteroidogénesis suprarrenal, trasmitido por mutaciones genéticas con carácter autosómico recesivo, las cuales afectan las enzimas que intervienen en la biosíntesis del cortisol. La causa la constituye en 90 a 95 % de los casos la deficiencia de la enzima 21 hidroxilasa. OBJETIVO: exponer la experiencia de los autores de este trabajo en la forma no clásica de esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: se realizó la caracterización de 7 pacientes diagnosticados en la sala de endocrinología pediátrica del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología, ubicada en el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro, durante el período 1998-2008. Todos los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino. RESULTADOS: los síntomas se iniciaron a una edad promedio de 8,8 años y más de la mitad de los casos presentaron pubarquia precoz. La menarquia se produjo a una edad media de 10,7 años. Se logró el diagnóstico bioquímico al obtenerse valores elevados de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (en condiciones basales. Se emplearon distintas modalidades de tratamiento según la edad de cada paciente y los síntomas predominantes en cada caso. CONCLUSIONES: se corroboró la mayor frecuencia de diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el sexo femenino, así como la importancia del estudio y el seguimiento ante un paciente con pubarquia precoz.INTRODUCTION: the congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder of suprarenal esteroidogenesis, transmitted by genetic mutations with a autosomal recessive character affecting the enzymes intervening in cortisol biosynthesis. In the 90 to 95% of cases, the cause is a deficiency of Hydroxylase enzyme 21. OBJECTIVE: to show the current paper authors' experience in the non-classic way of this entity. METHODS: we made a characterization of 7 female patients diagnosed in the Children Endocrinology Ward of the National Institute of Endocrinology located in the Children Hospital, Cerro

  17. On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements. (paper)

  18. On entanglement of light and Stokes parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żukowski, Marek; Laskowski, Wiesław; Wieśniak, Marcin

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to Stokes parameters, which enables one to see better non-classical properties of bright quantum light, and of undefined overall photon numbers. The crucial difference is as follows. The standard quantum optical Stokes parameters are averages of differences of intensities of light registered at the two exits of polarization analyzers, and one gets their normalized version by dividing them by the average total intensity. The new ones are averages of the registered normalized Stokes parameters, for the duration of the experiment. That is, we redefine each Stokes observable as the difference of photon number operators at the two exits of a polarizing beam splitter multiplied by the inverse of their sum. The vacuum eigenvalue of the operator is defined a zero. We show that with such an approach one can obtain more sensitive entanglement indicators based on polarization measurements.

  19. Applications of quantum electro-optic control and squeezed light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The control theory of electronic feedback or feedforward is a topic well understood by many scientists and engineers. With many of the modern equipment relying on automation and robotics, an understanding of this classical control theory is a common requisite for many technologists. In the field of optics, electronic control theory is also commonly used in many situations. From the temperature controlling of laser systems, the auto-alignment of optical elements, to the locking of optical resonators, all make use of electronic control theory in their operations. In this talk, we present the use the control theory in the context of quantum optics. In much the same as its classical counterpart, the 'quantum electro-optic' control loop consists simply of an optical beam splitter, a detector and an electro-optic modulator. This simple system, however, can offer many interesting applications when used in combination with nonclassical states of light. One well-known example of non-classical light is that of the squeezed state of light. A light beam is referred to as being amplitude 'squeezed' when its amplitude has less noise when compared to that of a coherent light state. In fact, the field fluctuation of such light states in some sense lower that the field fluctuation of the photonic vacuum state. Yet another interesting non-classical light state is the so-called 'Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen' entangled pair. This consists of two beams of light, each of which has properties that are highly dependent on each other. Using both the quantum electro-optic control loops and these light states, we demonstrate schemes which allow us to perform noiseless optical amplification, quantum non-demolition measurement and quantum teleportation. These schemes may be important building blocks to the realisation of future quantum communications and quantum information networks

  20. Blazards variability detected by the spatial Fermi-LAT telescope. Study of 3C454.3 and development of an optimised light curves generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope was launched on 2008 June 11, carrying the Large Area Telescope (LAT), sensitive to gamma-rays in the 20 MeV - 300 GeV energy range. The data collected since then allowed to multiply by a factor of 10 the number of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) detected in the GeV range. Gamma-rays observed in AGNs come from energetic precesses bringing into play very high energy charged particles. These particles are confined in a magnetized plasma jet rising in a region close to the supermassive black hole in the center of the host galaxy. This jet moves away with velocities as high as 0.9999 c, forming in many cases radio lobes on kilo-parsec or even mega-parsec scales. Among the AGNs, those whose jet inclination angle to the line of sight is small are called blazars. The combination of this small inclination angle with relativistic ejection speeds led to relativistic effects: apparent superluminal motions, amplification of the luminosity and modification of the time scales. Blazars are characterized by extreme variability at all wavelengths, on time scales from a few minutes to several months. A temporal and spectral study of the most luminous of those detected by the LAT, 3C 454.3, was done so as to constrain emission models. A new method for generating adaptive-binning light curves is also suggested in this thesis. It allows to extract the maximum of information from the LAT data whatever the flux state of the source. (author)

  1. New fluorophosphate glasses co-doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} as candidates for generating tunable visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, T.B. de, E-mail: thiago.branquinho-de-queiroz@uni-bayreuth.de [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Theoretical Physics IV, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Botelho, M.B.S. [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); University of Brasilia, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gonçalves, T.S.; Dousti, M. Reza [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Camargo, A.S.S. de, E-mail: andreasc@ifsc.usp.br [Physics Institute of São Carlos, University of São Paulo, 13566-590 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2015-10-25

    A series of optically active Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} doped fluorophosphate glasses with compositions (BaF{sub 2}){sub 0.25}(SrF{sub 2}){sub 0.25}(AlF{sub 3}){sub 0.10}[Al(PO{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 0.20}(YF{sub 3}){sub 0.20-x}(EuF{sub 3} and/or TbF{sub 3}){sub x} (x = 0 to 0.04) was prepared and characterized by optical spectroscopy. While embedded in the oxyfluoride host, the cited rare earth (RE) ions exhibit improved spectroscopic properties such as longer excited state lifetimes than in oxide glasses and intense emissions in the red ({sup 5}D{sub 0} → {sup 7}F{sub 2}, Eu{sup 3+}), green and blue ({sup 5}D{sub 4} → {sup 7}F{sub 5} and {sup 5}D{sub 3},{sup 5}G{sub 6} → {sup 7}F{sub 5},{sup 7}F{sub 4}, Tb{sup 3+}) spectral regions. Based on this fact, co-doped samples can be designed with appropriate concentrations of these two ions and generate tunable and white light upon excitation with suitable wavelengths, dispensing the need for a third blue emitting RE ion. Four co-doped samples with equal amounts of EuF{sub 3} and TbF{sub 3} and total concentration of 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mol% were tested. Their CIE chromaticity coordinates were calculated for various excitation wavelengths in the region from 350 to 360 nm allowing tuned emission from blue to red. The long lifetime values of the emitting levels in these co-doped samples (τ ≈ 3.1 ms for Eu{sup 3+5}D{sub 0}, and τ ≈ 4.0 ms for Tb{sup 3+5}D{sub 4}), associated with fairly high quantum yields (Q.Y. = 5–12%) of the samples indicate that these materials could be efficiently pumped by high power LEDs around 355 nm. - Highlights: • Fluorophosphate glasses doped with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} and excellent optical properties. • Tunable visible emission and white emission in co-doped samples. • Rare earth bonding preference to fluoride rather than phosphate ions.

  2. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T.; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Sinko, Patrick J.; Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm 2 ) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation

  3. The generation of 4-hydroxynonenal, an electrophilic lipid peroxidation end product, in rabbit cornea organ cultures treated with UVB light and nitrogen mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ruijin; Po, Iris; Mishin, Vladimir; Black, Adrienne T. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Heck, Diane E. [Environmental Science, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY (United States); Laskin, Debra L. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Sinko, Patrick J. [Pharmaceutics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Gerecke, Donald R.; Gordon, Marion K. [Pharmacology and Toxicology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D., E-mail: jlaskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The cornea is highly sensitive to oxidative stress, a process that can lead to lipid peroxidation. Ultraviolet light B (UVB) and nitrogen mustard (mechlorethamine) are corneal toxicants known to induce oxidative stress. Using a rabbit air-lifted corneal organ culture model, the oxidative stress responses to these toxicants in the corneal epithelium was characterized. Treatment of the cornea with UVB (0.5 J/cm{sup 2}) or nitrogen mustard (100 nmol) resulted in the generation of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a reactive lipid peroxidation end product. This was associated with increased expression of the antioxidant, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). In human corneal epithelial cells in culture, addition of 4-HNE or 9-nitrooleic acid, a reactive nitrolipid formed during nitrosative stress, caused a time-dependent induction of HO-1 mRNA and protein; maximal responses were evident after 10 h with 30 μM 4-HNE or 6 h with 10 μM 9-nitrooleic acid. 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid were also found to activate Erk1/2, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, as well as phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3)/Akt. Inhibition of p38 blocked 4-HNE- and 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1 expression. Inhibition of Erk1/2, and to a lesser extent, JNK and PI3K/Akt, suppressed only 4-HNE-induced HO-1, while inhibition of JNK and PI3K/Akt, but not Erk1/2, partly reduced 9-nitrooleic acid-induced HO-1. These data indicate that the actions of 4-HNE and 9-nitrooleic acid on corneal epithelial cells are distinct. The sensitivity of corneal epithelial cells to oxidative stress may be an important mechanism mediating tissue injury induced by UVB or nitrogen mustard. - Highlights: • UVB or nitrogen mustard causes rabbit corneal epithelial injury. • 4-Hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) was formed and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) was increased. • 4-HNE induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human corneal epithelial cells. • The induction of HO-1 by 4-HNE was through MAP kinase activation.

  4. Cold and warm white light generation using Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses activated by Ce{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldino, U., E-mail: cald@xanum.uam.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, 09340 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez, E. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora (UNISON), Boulevard Luis Encinas y Rosales s/n, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M. [Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Universita di Verona, and INSTM, UdR Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37314 Verona (Italy)

    2012-08-15

    The photoluminescence of zinc metaphosphate glasses activated by Dy{sup 3+}, Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} ions was investigated. Non-radiative energy transfers from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Ce{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} are observed upon 280 nm excitation. The non-radiative nature of these transfers is inferred from the increase in the decay rate of the Ce{sup 3+} emission when the glass is co-doped with Dy{sup 3+} or Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+}. It is demonstrated that zinc metaphosphate glasses can generate cold or warm white light emission when they are doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} or Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} and pumped at 280 nm (peak emission wavelength of AlGaN-based LEDs). The CIE1931 chromaticity coordinates and color temperature were (0.34, 0.35) and 5250 K for the cold light, and (0.47, 0.43) and 2700 K for the warm light. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-radiative energy transfer from Ce{sup 3+} to Dy{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+} takes place in Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+} can generate 5250 K cold white light emission. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zn(PO{sub 3}){sub 2} glasses doped with Ce{sup 3+}/Dy{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 2+} can generate 2700 K warm yellowish orange light emission.

  5. Molecular Engineering of UV/Vis Light-Emitting Diode (LED)-Sensitive Donor-π-Acceptor-Type Sulfonium Salt Photoacid Generators: Design, Synthesis, and Study of Photochemical and Photophysical Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xingyu; Jin, Ming; Xie, Jianchao; Malval, Jean-Pierre; Wan, Decheng

    2017-11-07

    A series of donor-π-acceptor-type sulfonium salt photoacid generators (PAGs) were designed and synthesized by systematically changing electron-donating groups, π-conjugated systems, electron-withdrawing groups, and the number of branches through molecular engineering. These PAGs can effectively decompose under UV/Vis irradiation from a light-emitting diode (LED) light source because of the matching absorption and emitting spectra of the LEDs. The absorption and acid-generation properties of these sulfonium salts were elucidated by UV/Vis spectroscopy and so forth. Results indicated that the PAG performance benefited from the introduction of strong electron-donating groups, specific π-conjugated structures, certain electron-withdrawing groups, or two-branched structures. Most sulfonium salts showed potential as photoinitiators under irradiation by a wide variety of UV and visible LEDs. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E. [ITESST, 52650 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  7. Hoechst 33258 dye generates DNA-protein cross-links during ultraviolet light-induced photolysis of bromodeoxyuridine in replicated and repaired DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xicang; Morgan, W.F.; Cleaver, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    Substitution of bromodeoxyuridine for thymidine in the DNA of mammalian cells sensitizes them to a range of wavelengths of ultraviolet light. Cells are also sensitized to photochemical reactions involving dyes such as Hoechst 33258, which is used to produce differential staining of chromatids according to their bromodeoxyuridine content. Irradiation with 313 nm light of human and hamster cells containing bromodeoxyuridine in their DNA produced single-strand breaks but no DNA-protein cross-links. Irradiation with 360 nm light in the presence of Hoechst 33258 produced extensive DNA-protein cross-linkage as well as single-strand breaks. These cross-links were observed in DNA containing bromodeoxyuridine incorporated by either semiconservative or repair replication. When the protein was removed with proteinase K, bromodeoxyuridine in repair patches after irradiation by doses of ultraviolet (254 nm) light as low as 0.26 J/m/sup 2/ could readily be detected. Hoechst 33258-mediated photolysis, therefore, provides a sensitive new technique for measuring repair replication after ultraviolet light irradiation.

  8. Review of light--water reactor safety studies. Volume 3 of health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Farnaam, M.R.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report summarizes and compares important studies of light-water nuclear reactor safety, emphasizing the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Reactor Safety Study, work on risk assessment funded by the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Report of the American Physical Society study group on light-water reactor safety. These reports treat risk assessment for nuclear power plants and provide an introduction to the basic issues in reactor safety and the needs of the reactor safety research program. Earlier studies are treated more briefly. The report includes comments on the Reactor Safety Study. The manner in which these studies may be used and alterations which would increase their utility are discussed

  9. Phototropism and Protein Phosphorylation in Higher Plants: Unilateral Blue Light Irradiation Generates a Directional Gradient of Protein Phosphorylation Across the Oat Coleoptile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomon, M.; Zacherl, M.; Rüdiger, W.

    1997-01-01

    Blue light induces the phosphorylation of a 116 kDa oat protein found in plasma membrane preparations from coleoptile tips. We developed a very sensitive in vitro method that allowed us to determine the tissue distribution of protein phosphorylation after applying unilateral and bilateral blue light pulses in vivo. We found that following unilateral in vivo irradiation the degree in phosphorylation of the 116 kDa protein is significantly higher at the irradiated than at the shaded side of the coleoptile tip. This asymmetry can be considered as previously missing criterion that protein phosphorylation represents an early event within the transduction chain for phototropism. (author)

  10. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  11. 2011 Gordon Research Conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinacht, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Quantum control of light and matter is the quest to steer a physical process to a desirable outcome, employing constructive and destructive interference. Three basic questions address feasibility of quantum control: (1) The problem of controllability, does a control field exist for a preset initial and target state; (2) Synthesis, constructively finding the field that leads to the target; and (3) Optimal Control Theory - optimizing the field that carries out this task. These continue to be the fundamental theoretical questions to be addressed in the conference. How to realize control fields in the laboratory is an ongoing challenge. This task is very diverse viewing the emergence of control scenarios ranging from attoseconds to microseconds. How do the experimental observations reflect on the theoretical framework? The typical arena of quantum control is an open environment where much of the control is indirect. How are control scenarios realized in dissipative open systems? Can new control opportunities emerge? Can one null decoherence effects? An ideal setting for control is ultracold matter. The initial and final state can be defined more precisely. Coherent control unifies many fields of physical science. A lesson learned in one field can reflect on another. Currently quantum information processing has emerged as a primary target of control where the key issue is controlling quantum gate operation. Modern nonlinear spectroscopy has emerged as another primary field. The challenge is to unravel the dynamics of molecular systems undergoing strong interactions with the environment. Quantum optics where non-classical fields are to be generated and employed. Finally, coherent control is the basis for quantum engineering. These issues will be under the limelight of the Gordon conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter.

  12. Intrinsically narrowband pair photon generation in microstructured fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Alex; Bell, Bryn; Fulconis, Jeremie; Halder, Matthaeus M; Cemlyn, Ben; Rarity, John G [Centre for Communications Research, Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Bristol, Merchant Venturers Building, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UB (United Kingdom); Alibart, Olivier [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee, Unite Mixte de Recherche 6622, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose 06108, Nice 2 (France); Xiong Chunle; Wadsworth, William J, E-mail: alex.clark@bristol.ac.uk [Centre for Photonics and Photonic Materials, Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    In this paper, we study the tailoring of photon spectral properties generated by four-wave mixing in a birefringent photonic crystal fibre (PCF). The aim is to produce intrinsically narrow-band photons and hence to achieve high non-classical interference visibility and generate high-fidelity entanglement without any requirement for spectral filtering, leading to high effective detection efficiencies. We show unfiltered Hong-Ou-Mandel interference visibilities of 77% between photons from the same PCF and 80% between separate sources. We compare results from modelling the PCF to these experiments and analyse photon purities.

  13. Ceria Supported Pt/PtO-Nanostructures: Efficient Photocatalyst for Sacrificial Donor Assisted Hydrogen Generation under Visible-NIR Light Irradiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Manwar, N.R.; Chilkalwar, A.A.; Nanda, K.K.; Chaudhary, Y.S.; Šubrt, Jan; Rayalu, S.S.; Labhsetwar, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 4 (2016), s. 2323-2332 ISSN 2168-0485 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : Pt/Ceria * Photocatalysis * Water splitting * Visible-NIR light Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.951, year: 2016

  14. Generation of fluorescence quenchers from the triplet states of chlorophylls in the major light-harvesting complex II from green plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barzda, V.; Vengris, M.; Valkunas, L.; van Amerongen, H.; van Grondelle, R.

    2000-01-01

    Laser flash-induced changes of the fluorescence yield were studied in aggregates of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) on a time scale ranging from microseconds to seconds. Carotenoid (Car) and chlorophyll (Chl) triplet states, decaying with lifetimes of several microseconds and hundreds of

  15. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    means of using filler gas with a higher atomic weight. Regarding fluorescent lamps, studies and developments for longer operating life and improvement in the lumen maintenance factor for the straight-type and circular-type fluorescent lamps were actively pursued. Regarding self-ballasted fluorescent lamps, the main stream of development was aimed at reducing lamp size and increasing energy conservation, and the development of new products that took advantage of these features proceeded. In regard to LED light sources, basic research and product development, including new application development, were vigorously implemented. In basic research, studies were reported, not only on efficacy improvements through optimization of the LED chips, phosphor layers, and packaging technology, but also on photometry, colorimetry, and visual psychology. In the field of application, applications were studied for general lighting sources and also for a wide range of fields, such as automotive headlights and visible light communication. Also, many academic conferences and exhibitions were held domestically and overseas, and the high level of interest suggests high expectations for this next-generation light source. Regarding HID lamps, there was much activity in research and development and in the commercialization of the ceramic metal halide lamp product, and products were commercialized with features such as higher efficiency (130 lm/W) and higher color rendering properties (R9 ≥ 90). In the high-pressure sodium lamps, there were many study reports concerning plant growth and insect pest control using its low insect-attracting characteristics. With high-pressure mercury lamps, there were many reports on reducing lamp size and increasing intensity for use as a light source for projectors.

  16. Tunable white light generation from Ce{sup 3+}-Tb{sup 3+}-Mn{sup 2+} doped metaphosphate glass for LED and solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debarati; Biswas, K.; Balaji, S. [CSIR-Network of Institute for Solar Energy (NISE) (India); Glass Division, Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Annapurna, K., E-mail: annapurnak@cgcri.res.in [CSIR-Network of Institute for Solar Energy (NISE) (India); Glass Division, Glass Science and Technology Section, CSIR-Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, 196, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Alkali free Ba-Al metaphosphate glasses doped with Ce, Tb and Mn are prepared and their concentration is tuned to achieve white light emission for production of LEDs and luminescent concentrator for Si-PV applications. The occurrence of a redox reaction among dopant ions (Ce{sup 4+}, Tb{sup 3+}→Ce{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 4+}) is observed from the absorption spectra while there is no change in oxidation state of Mn{sup 2+} ions. This is confirmed from ESR studies. Emission spectra indicated effective downshifting of radiation from near visible to green and red region of the spectrum. On tuning the concentration of Tb{sup 3+} and Mn{sup 2+}, bright white light emission (CIE coordinates: x=3.32, y=3.33) corresponding to CCT of 5900 K is obtained. This white light produced has been further tuned to different hues by varying the excitation wavelength of this triply doped glass.

  17. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  18. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  19. White light generation from YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors mixed with a blue dye under 340 nm excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); De la Rosa, E., E-mail: elder@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Diaz-Torres, L.A [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica, A.P. 1-948, León, Gto 37150, México (Mexico); Torres, A. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, A.P. 126-F, Monterrey, NL 66450, México (Mexico); Salas, P. [Centro de Física Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 1-1010, Juriquilla, Qro. 76000, México (Mexico); Meza, O. [Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, 4 Sur 104 Centro Historico, 72000 Puebla, México (Mexico)

    2014-10-15

    The structural and luminescent properties of Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Y{sub 4}Al{sub 2}O{sub 9}:Ce{sup 3+}(0.1%)–Pr{sup 3+}(0.1%) –Cr{sup 3+} (trace impurities) nanophosphors synthesized by a simple hydrothermal method were studied. The crystalline phase was composed of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (YAG) and Yttrium Aluminum Monoclinic (YAM) depending on the ammonia concentration and annealing temperature. Ammonia increased the stabilization of YAG from 55 wt% to 63 wt% in the samples annealed at 900 °C, and an increment of 83% of the overall emission under 460 nm excitation was observed. Quenching of the emitted signal after annealing at 1100 °C was observed in spite of single YAG crystalline phase stabilization, due to the formation of Ce{sup 4+}, Pr{sup 4+}, and color centers. In addition to the green–yellow emission from Ce{sup 3+}, all samples present a broad red emission band produced by the relaxations from the broad band {sup 4}T{sub 2} toward the {sup 4}A{sub 2} energy level of Cr{sup 3+} impurities, under 340 nm excitation. By taking advantage of this broad green–yellow–red emission and using a blue dye, white light with CIE coordinates of (0.30, 0.36) under 340 nm excitation was produced. - Highlights: • YAG/YAM:Ce{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Cr{sup 3+} nanophosphors were synthesized with a hydrothermal method. • Ammonia introduced during the synthesis increased the emission of nanophosphors. • White light was obtained by combining the emissions of a blue dye and nanophosphors. • The CIE coordinates for this white light are (0.30, 0.36)

  20. Effects of light irradiation upon photodynamic therapy based on 5-aminolevulinic acid–gold nanoparticle conjugates in K562 cells via singlet oxygen generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu H

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Hao Xu, Chen Liu, Jiansheng Mei, Cuiping Yao, Sijia Wang, Jing Wang, Zheng Li, Zhenxi ZhangKey Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Analytical Technology and Instrumentation, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shannxi, People’s Republic of ChinaPurpose: As a precursor of the potent photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, was conjugated onto cationic gold nanoparticles (GNPs to improve the efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT.Methods: Cationic GNPs reduced by branched polyethyleneimine and 5-ALA were conjugated onto the cationic GNPs by creating an electrostatic interaction at physiological pH. The efficacy of ALA-GNP conjugates in PDT was investigated under irradiation with a mercury lamp (central wavelength of 395 nm and three types of light-emitting diode arrays (central wavelengths of 399, 502, and 621 nm, respectively. The impacts of GNPs on PDT were then analyzed by measuring the intracellular PpIX levels in K562 cells and the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX under irradiation.Results: The 2 mM ALA-GNP conjugates showed greater cytotoxicity against K562 cells than ALA alone. Light-emitting diode (505 nm irradiation of the conjugates caused a level of K562 cell destruction similar to that with irradiation by a mercury lamp, although it had no adverse effects on drug-free control cells. These results may be attributed to the singlet oxygen yield of PpIX, which can be enhanced by GNPs.Conclusion: Under irradiation with a suitable light source, ALA-GNP conjugates can effectively destroy K562 cells. The technique offers a new strategy of PDT.Keywords: nonradiative energy transfer, photodamage, protoporphyrin IX, selective destruction, singlet oxygen sensor green reagent, surface plasmon resonance

  1. The effects of hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic performance of ZnIn2S4 for hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Fei; Zhu, Rongshu; Song, Kelin; Niu, Minli; Ouyang, Feng; Cao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ZnIn 2 S 4 (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) was prepared. • The activities splitting water to hydrogen under visible light were evaluated. • The activity achieved the best when hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. • The activity order is related to the surface morphology and surface defects. - Abstract: A series of ZnIn 2 S 4 photocatalysts were successfully synthesized using the hydrothermal method with different hydrothermal temperatures (120, 140, 160, 180, and 200 °C) and characterized by various analysis techniques, such as UV–vis, XRD, SEM, BET and PL. The results indicated that these photocatalysts had a similar band gap. The hydrothermal temperature had a huge influence on the properties of the photocatalysts such as the BET surface area, the total pore volume, the average pore diameter, the defects and the morphology. The photocatalytic activities of ZnIn 2 S 4 were evaluated based on photocatalytic hydrogen production from water under visible-light irradiation. The activity order is attributed to the coefficient of the surface morphology and the surface defects. The hydrogen production efficiency achieved the best when the hydrothermal temperature was 160 °C. On the basis of the characterization of the catalysts, the effects of the hydrothermal temperature on the photocatalytic activity of ZnIn 2 S 4 were discussed

  2. Light-focusing human micro-lenses generated from pluripotent stem cells model lens development and drug-induced cataract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patricia; Kabir, Md Humayun; Srivastava, Tarini; Mason, Michele E; Dewi, Chitra U; Lim, Seakcheng; Yang, Andrian; Djordjevic, Djordje; Killingsworth, Murray C; Ho, Joshua W K; Harman, David G; O'Connor, Michael D

    2018-01-09

    Cataracts cause vision loss and blindness by impairing the ability of the ocular lens to focus light onto the retina. Various cataract risk factors have been identified, including drug treatments, age, smoking and diabetes. However, the molecular events responsible for these different forms of cataract are ill-defined, and the advent of modern cataract surgery in the 1960s virtually eliminated access to human lenses for research. Here, we demonstrate large-scale production of light-focusing human micro-lenses from spheroidal masses of human lens epithelial cells purified from differentiating pluripotent stem cells. The purified lens cells and micro-lenses display similar morphology, cellular arrangement, mRNA expression and protein expression to human lens cells and lenses. Exposing the micro-lenses to the emergent cystic fibrosis drug Vx-770 reduces micro-lens transparency and focusing ability. These human micro-lenses provide a powerful and large-scale platform for defining molecular disease mechanisms caused by cataract risk factors, for anti-cataract drug screening and for clinically relevant toxicity assays. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Lighting system with illuminance control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an illumination control system comprising a plurality of outdoor luminaries and a motorized service vehicle. Each luminaire comprises a controllable light source producing a light illuminance. The motorized service vehicle comprises a light sensor configured...... to detect the light illuminance generated by the controllable light source at the motorized service vehicle. The motorized service vehicle computes light illuminance data based on the detected light illuminance and transmits these to the outdoor luminaire through a wireless communication link or stores...... the light illuminance data on a data recording device of the motorized service vehicle. The outdoor luminaire receives may use the light illuminance data to set or adjust a light illuminance of the controllable light source....

  4. LED lighting and the Next Generation of Greenhouse for Tomatoes. Proof of Principle; LED belichting en Het Nieuwe Telen bij tomaat. Proof of Principle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dueck, T.; Janse, J.; Eveleens, B. [Wageningen UR Glastuinbouw, Wageningen (Netherlands); Nieboer, S.; Valstar, W.; Grootscholten, M. [GreenQ Improvement Centre, Bleiswijk (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    In this Proof of Principle project a tomato crop was grown under artificial lighting with the aim of 30% energy saving at the same level of production. Tomatoes (cultivar Komeett) were illuminated with 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} HPS (High Pressure Sodium) above the crop and 85 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} LED interlighting. The LEDs hung in 2 rows, approximately 40 cm above the lower leaves and the second strand at 40 or 70 cm above that. There were two types of LEDs used: production LEDs (light efficiency 1.6 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 87% red/13% blue) and inter-lighting LEDs (light efficiency 1.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, 95% red/5% blue), with the same light intensity. At the start, the crop was given as much light as it could handle, and because the crop developed so well, the stem density was increased relatively early. This resulted in high fruit load, while insufficient light was available to compensate for the low levels of sunlight in the winter. In the 192 cm row spacing system the plants were too close to each other. Additional problems occurred with trace elements, lesser bumble bee activity, and a moist greenhouse climate which weakened the crop in the winter. Thus Botrytis occurred on the leaves and stems. The crop struggled with its recovery until early spring with more sunlight. Compared to a reference crop with 79 kg m{sup -2} tomatoes, 75 kg m{sup -2} were produced under-production LEDs, and 80 kg m{sup -2} under the interlighting LEDs, mainly because latter LEDs were used longer during the summer. 30% of the energy for dehumidification and heat energy, and 27% of the electricity was saved, relative to the reference crop. Thus it appears possible to save 30% energy with a near identical production [Dutch] In dit Proof of Principle project is een belichte tomatenteelt geteeld met als doel 30% energiebesparing bij een gelijke productie. Tomaten van het ras Komeett werden belicht met 110 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1} SON-T belichting boven

  5. 利用多余光照光伏发电的温室透明覆盖材料的研制%Development of transparent greenhouse cover with function of generating electricity by surplus light and photovoltaic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯朝卿; 郑宏飞; 王瑞

    2014-01-01

    The common cover materials of greenhouses are glass and transparent plastic film. Generally speaking, they have no significant advantage for adjusting incidence lights of greenhouses. Given that the light intensity above the light saturation point is meaningless for plant growth, as in summer, the strong sunlight at noon is surplus, that is, surplus light is unused, so a new kind of entity Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) transparent greenhouse cover is proposed. The cover consists of many entity CPCs, meaning that the material is plexiglass (polymethyl methacrylate) and has high transparency. This cover can change the light paths, and the compound parabolic cells that stick to the bottom of the CPC can generate electricity. Lights of different incidence angles are tracked by optical simulation software; and, the relationship between the lights of incidence angles and transmittance has been analyzed. A test sample has been produced and a test system has been built. Also, an experimental study of transmittance and power generation under actual weather has been conducted. The test system consisted of an integral box (using the integrating sphere principle), a transparent entity CPC cover material (size:30 cm × 27 cm × 2 cm), a light meter, a voltmeter, an ammeter, and so on. Test method:1) Put the test device on horizontal ground and make sure that the front edge of the cover is vertical in the south direction;2) Raise the back of the cover and make sure that the angle between the normal of the cover and ground is the biggest solar elevation angle (33.8°) on the test day, and ensure that the incidence angle is 0° at noon. It can be seen from the transmittance test that the transmittance is lowest at noon. With the increase of the absolute value of the incidence angle, the change of the transmittance curve presents a trend that is rapid before becoming slow. The turning point of the transmittance curve appears at 10:15 AM and 14:15 PM, while the incidence

  6. 7.5 W blue light generation at 452 nm by internal frequency doubling of a continuous-wave Nd-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leconte, Baptiste; Gilles, Hervé; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoit; Laroche, Mathieu

    2018-04-16

    We present the first frequency-doubled neodymium-doped fiber laser generating multi-watt CW power near 450 nm. A bow-tie resonator incorporating a LBO nonlinear crystal is integrated within a Nd-doped fiber laser emitting near 900 nm. This scheme achieves an IR to blue conversion efficiency close to 55% without any active control of the internal resonant cavity. As a result, up to 7.5 W of linearly-polarized blue power is generated, with beam quality factors M x 2 ~1.0 and M y 2 ~1.5. A simple numerical model has been developed to optimize and analyse the IR to blue conversion efficiency in the resonant cavity. Performance limitations and prospects for further improvements are discussed.

  7. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  8. The study of 670.7 nm red light generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a Q-switched Nd : YAlO3 laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Haiyong; Zhang Ge; Huang Chenghui; Wei Yong; Huang Lingxiong; Huang Yidong

    2009-01-01

    High-power 670.7 nm red light was obtained by intracavity frequency doubling of a Q-switched Nd : YAlO 3 (Nd : YAP) laser with a critical phase matching (θ = 85.9 0 , φ = 0 0 ) cut LBO. Experimental configurations using V-cavity and Z-cavity have been adopted for comparison. The highest output power of 19.7 W was achieved in the Z-cavity with optical-optical efficiency of 4%. Compared with the laser using an Nd : YAG crystal, the adoption of Nd : YAP simplified the laser system in the absence of a solid etalon and the Brewster plate. The output power stability of the red laser was investigated and the fluctuation was lower than 3% at the output power of 18 W an hour.

  9. Comparison of silorane and methacrylate-based composites on the polymerization heat generated with different light-curing units and dentin thicknesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Correr, Américo Bortolazzo; Sinhoreti, Mário Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the temperature variation in the pulp chamber during photoactivation of two restorative composite resins (Filtek P90 silorane-based composite and Heliomolar methacrylate-based composite) with either a quartz-tungsten-halogen (QTH) or light-emitting diodes (LED) light-curing unit (LCU) and using dentin thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm). Standardized cavities (2x2x2 mm) were prepared in 80 bovine incisors, which were randomly assigned to 8 groups according to the photoactivation method and dentin thickness. Filtek P90 and Heliomolar (both in shade A3) were used with their respective adhesive systems (P90 self-etch primer / P90 adhesive bond and Excite adhesive). All experiments were carried out in a controlled environment (37°C). The temperature variations (°C) were recorded using a digital thermometer attached to a K-type thermocouple. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). For composite/dentin thickness interaction, temperature increase was significantly higher in 0.5 mm dentin thickness (40.07°C) compared with 1.0 mm dentin thickness (39.61°C) for Filtek P90. For composite/LCU interaction, the temperature increase was significantly higher for Filtek P90 (39.21°C - QTH and 40.47°C - LED) compared with Heliomolar (38.40°C - QTH and 39.30°C - LED). The silorane-based composite promoted higher temperature increase in the pulp chamber than the methacrylate-based composite.

  10. Warm white light generation from single phase Sr3Y(PO4)3:Dy3+, Eu3+ phosphors with near ultraviolet excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, B.Y.; Feng, B.L.; Luo, L.; Han, C.L.; He, Y.T.; Qiu, Z.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel single phase phosphors were synthesized in an ambient air atmosphere. • A direct band gap about 4.5 eV of the host is calculated for the first time. • It is suitable for near UV chip excitation. • It emits warm white light with better CIE and lower CCT over previous reports. • The thermal quenching is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce 3+ commercial phosphor. - Abstract: Novel Sr 3 Y(PO 4 ) 3 :Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ (SYP:Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ ) phosphors were synthesized by a standard solid-state reaction under an ambient air atmosphere and their structural and optical properties were investigated. XRD and diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS) were used to explore structural properties. The former showed that single phase phosphors were obtained and that the rare earth ions entered into the cubic host by substituting the smaller Y 3+ ions and thereby enlarging the unit cell. The DRS indicated that the host has a direct bandgap of 4.5 eV. Under 393 nm excitation, a strong and stable warm white light emission with high color purity was achieved in SY 0.92 P:0.06Dy 3+ , 0.04Eu 3+ . The energy transfer from Dy 3+ to Eu 3+ ions was investigated and the related mechanism was discussed based on the optical spectra and emission decay curves. The thermal quenching of emission is similar to that of YAG:0.06Ce 3+ . The results show the single phase phosphor is potential in warm white LED.

  11. Modulation of neutrophil superoxide generation by inhibitors of protein kinase C, calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases, and peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, H; Eriksson, T; Hallberg, A; Johansson, B; Karabelas, K; Michelsen, P; Nybom, A

    1992-12-01

    To assess the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the respiratory burst of adherent human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNL), reduction of ferricytochrome C by cells triggered with a phorbol ester (PMA), ionophore A23187, serum-treated zymosan (STZ) or three lipid derivatives, 3-decanoyl-sn-glycerol (G-3-OCOC9), (R,R)-1,4-diethyl-2-O-decyl-L-tartrate (Tt-2-OC10) and 3-decyloxy-5-hydroxymethylphenol (DHP) was examined in a microtiter plate procedure in the presence of inhibitors of PKC and, for comparison, inhibitors of calmodulin, diacylglycerol and myosin light chain kinases and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity of fujiphilin. 1) Of the protein kinase inhibitors examined, Ro 31-7549 and staurosporine reduced responses to all stimuli except possibly STZ; in contrast, K252a and the myosin light chain kinase inhibitors ML-7 and ML-9 blocked responses to A23187 and STZ better than those triggered by PMA. H-7 reduced responses to A23187, DHP and G-3-OCOC9, and calphostin, palmitoyl carnitine, sphingosine and the multifunctional drugs TMB-8 and W-7 reduced A23187; they also, when examined, reduced decane derivative-induced O2- production more effectively than PMA- and STZ-triggered responses. Polymyxin B, 4 alpha-PMA and retinal displayed no inhibitory capacity. 2) Of the selective calmodulin antagonists, CGS 9343B, Ro 22-4839 and calmidazolium did not inhibit the oxidative response irrespective of the stimulus used, whereas metofenazate reduced those evoked by A23187, DHP, G-3-OCOC9 and STZ.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The role of the electron recoiling mechanism in coherent light high-order harmonics generation: from the source to the applications

    OpenAIRE

    Simoncig, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    2008/2009 I processi di generazione di armoniche di ordine superiore (High-order Harmonic Generation o HHG) in gas inerti rappresentano, attualmente, la tecnica piu` promettente per la creazione di impulsi di luce coerente nell'estremo ultra-violetto (EUV) in una configurazione table-top. I processi HHG si basano sull'interazione non-lineare, tra impulsi laser ultra-corti, tipicamente dell'ordine della decina di femtosecondi, e atomi di gas inerti. Le caratteristiche che distinguono i...

  13. Novel Transparent Phosphor Conversion Matrix with High Thermal Conductivity for Next Generation Phosphor-Converted LED-based Solid State Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockstaller, Michael [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The low thermal conductivity of state-of-the-art polymer encapsulants (k ~ 0.15 Wm-1K-1) limits the efficiency and power density of current phosphor conversion light emitting diodes (pc-LEDs). The technical objective of this project was to demonstrate synthesis and processing schemes for the fabrication of polymer hybrid encapsulants with a thermal conductivity exceeding k = 0.4 Wm-1K-1 for LED applications. The ‘hybrid polymer’ approach encompasses the dispersion of high thermal conductivity particle fillers (zinc oxide, ZnO as well as the alpha-polymorph of alumina, Al2O3) within a polysiloxane matrix (poly(dimethylsiloxane), PDMS as well as poly(phenyl methyl siloxane), PPMS) to increase the thermal conductivity while maintaining optical transparency and photothermal stability at levels consistent with LED applications. To accomplish this goal, a novel synthesis method for the fabrication of nanosized ZnO particles was developed and a novel surface chemistry was established to modify the surface of zinc oxide particle fillers and thus to enable their dispersion in poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) matrix polymers. Molecular dynamics and Mie simulations were used to optimize ligand structure and to enable the concurrent mixing of particles in PDMS/PPMS embedding media while also minimizing the thermal boundary resistance as well as optical scattering of particle fillers. Using this approach the synthesis of PDMS/ZnO hybrid encapsulants exhibiting a thermal conductivity of 0.64 Wm-1K-1 and optical transparency > 0.7 mm-1 was demonstrated. A forming process based on micromolding was developed to demonstrate the forming of particle filled PDMS into film and lens shapes. Photothermal stability testing revealed stability of the materials for approximately 4000 min when exposed to blue light LED (450 nm, 30 W/cm2). One postgraduate and seven graduate students were supported by the project. The research performed within this project led to fifteen publications in peer

  14. Broadband biphoton generation and statistics of quantum light in the UV-visible range in an AlGaN microring resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Soref, Richard A; Soltani, Mohammad; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2017-09-12

    We present a physical investigation on the generation of correlated photon pairs that are broadly spaced in the ultraviolet (UV) and visible spectrum on a AlGaN/AlN integrated photonic platform which is optically transparent at these wavelengths. Using spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in an AlGaN microring resonator, we show design techniques to satisfy the phase matching condition between the optical pump, the signal, and idler photon pairs, a condition which is essential and is a key hurdle when operating at short wavelength due to the strong normal dispersion of the material. Such UV-visible photon pairs are quite beneficial for interaction with qubit ions that are mostly in this wavelength range, and will enable heralding the photon-ion interaction. As a target application example, we present the systematic AlGaN microresonator design for generating signal and idler photon pairs using a blue wavelength pump, while the signal appears at the transition of ytterbium ion ( 171 Yb + , 369.5 nm) and the idler appears in the far blue or green range. The photon pairs have minimal crosstalk to the pump power due to their broad spacing in spectral wavelength, thereby relaxing the design of on-chip integrated filters for separating pump, signal and idler.

  15. Solidification of liquid concentrate and solid waste generated as by-products of the liquid radwaste treatment systems in light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.M. Jr.; Colombo, P.

    1977-01-01

    The treatment of liquid concentrate and solid waste produced in light-water reactors as by-products of liquid radwaste treatment systems consists of five basic operations: waste collection, waste pretreatment, solidification agent handling, mixing/packaging (solidification) and waste package handling. This paper will concern itself primarily with the solidification operation, however, the other operations enumerated as well as the types of wastes treated and their origins will be briefly described, especially with regards to their effects on solidification. During solidification, liquid concentrate and solid wastes are incorporated with a solidification agent to form a monolithic, free-standing solid. The basic solidification agent types either currently used in the United States or proposed for use include absorbants, hydraulic cement, urea-formaldehyde, other polymer systems, and bitumen. The operation, formulations and limitations of these agents as used for radwaste solidification will be discussed. Properties relevant to the evaluation of solidified waste forms will be identified and relative comparisons made for wastes solidified by various processes

  16. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate...... interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  17. Bunch by bunch beam monitoring in 3rd and 4th generation light sources by means of single crystal diamond detectors and quantum well devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Tallaire, A.; Achard, J.; Carrato, S.; Menk, R. H.; Cautero, G.; Giuressi, D.; Jark, W. H.; Biasiol, G.; Ganbold, T.; Oliver, K.; Callegari, C.; Coreno, M.; De Sio, A.; Pace, E.

    2012-10-01

    New generation Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources and Free Electron Lasers (FEL) require novel concepts of beam diagnostics to keep photon beams under surveillance, asking for simultaneous position and intensity monitoring. To deal with high power load and short time pulses provided by these sources, novel materials and methods are needed for the next generation BPMs. Diamond is a promising material for the production of semitransparent in situ X-ray BPMs withstanding the high dose rates of SR rings and high energy FELs. We report on the development of freestanding, single crystal CVD diamond detectors. Performances in both low and radio frequency SR beam monitoring are presented. For the former, sensitivity deviation was found to be approximately 2%; a 0.05% relative precision in the intensity measurements and a 0.1-μm precision in the position encoding have been estimated. For the latter, single-shot characterizations revealed sub-nanosecond rise-times and spatial precisions below 6 μm, which allowed bunch-by-bunch monitoring in multi-bunch operation. Preliminary measurements at the Fermi FEL have been performed with this detector, extracting quantitative intensity and position information for FEL pulses (~ 100 fs, energy 12 ÷ 60 eV), with a long-term spatial precision of about 85 μm results on FEL radiation damages are also reported. Due to their direct, low-energy band gap, InGaAs quantum well devices too may be used as fast detectors for photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Results are reported which show the capability of a novel InGaAs/InAlAs device to detect intensity and position of 100-fs-wide laser pulses.

  18. Non-Classical Order in Sphere Forming ABAC Tetrablock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Sides, Scott; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    AB diblock and ABC triblock copolymers have been studied thoroughly. ABAC tetrablock copolymers, representing the simplest variation from ABC triblock by breaking the molecular symmetry via inserting some of the A block in between B and C blocks, have been studied systematically in this research. The model system is poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (SISO) tetrablock terpolymers and the resulting morphologies were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Two novel phases are first discovered in a single component block copolymers: hexagonally ordered spherical phase and tentatively identified dodecagonal quasicrystalline (QC) phase. In particular, the discovery of QC phase bridges the world of soft matters to that of metals. These unusual sets of morphologies will be discussed in the context of segregation under the constraints associated with the tetrablock molecular architecture. Theoretical calculations based on the assumption of Gaussian chain statistics provide valuable insights into the molecular configurations associated with these morphologies. the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under contract number DEAC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC at Oak Ridge National Lab.

  19. Towards non-classical walks with bright laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available as scalability of the systems. Here we outline how to perform the QW due to interference characteristics inherent in the phenomenon, to mitigate these challenges. We utilize the properties of vector beams to physically implement such a walk in orbital angular...

  20. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    modulation and entanglement in a compound gradient echo memory, Physical Review A 93(2) 023809 2016. We present a theoretical model for a Kerr...Carvalho, M. Hedges and M R James, Analysis of the operation of gradient echo memories using a quantum input-output model, New Journal of Physics , 15...new structured uncertainty methods that ensure robust stability of quantum systems based on nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability

  1. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our traditional models for formal modeling, reasoning or computing are deterministic ..... breakthrough has been accomplished, making use of the versatility of electronic ... reasoning and decision theory, among others, have been explored.

  2. Probing the non-classicality of temporal correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ringbauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spacelike separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are stronger than any classical correlations and are at the heart of numerous quantum technologies. In practice, however, spacelike separation is often not guaranteed and we typically face situations where measurements have an underlying time order. Here we aim to provide a fair comparison of classical and quantum models of temporal correlations on a single particle, as well as timelike-separated correlations on multiple particles. We use a causal modeling approach to show, in theory and experiment, that quantum correlations outperform their classical counterpart when allowed equal, but limited communication resources. This provides a clearer picture of the role of quantum correlations in timelike separated scenarios, which play an important role in foundational and practical aspects of quantum information processing.

  3. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  4. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    has a history going back some 50 years, to the birth of modern control theory with Kalman’s foundational work on filtering and LQG optimal control...realizability conditions. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 8 Shi Wang, Matthew R James H- Infinity control of...physical model for a quantum measurement-based feedback control system with time delay is presented for the H- infinity control. Luis Augusto

  5. Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkiewicz, Radek; Li, Peizhe; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wieśniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-06-22

    In contrast to classical physics, quantum theory demands that not all properties can be simultaneously well defined; the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a manifestation of this fact. Alternatives have been explored--notably theories relying on joint probability distributions or non-contextual hidden-variable models, in which the properties of a system are defined independently of their own measurement and any other measurements that are made. Various deep theoretical results imply that such theories are in conflict with quantum mechanics. Simpler cases demonstrating this conflict have been found and tested experimentally with pairs of quantum bits (qubits). Recently, an inequality satisfied by non-contextual hidden-variable models and violated by quantum mechanics for all states of two qubits was introduced and tested experimentally. A single three-state system (a qutrit) is the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible; moreover, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement between subsystems, because such a three-state system is indivisible. Here we report an experiment with single photonic qutrits which provides evidence that no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements--and, therefore, no non-contextual theory--can exist. Specifically, we observe a violation of the Bell-type inequality found by Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu and Shumovsky. Our results illustrate a deep incompatibility between quantum mechanics and classical physics that cannot in any way result from entanglement.

  6. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  7. Is transparent intensional logic a non-classical logic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2014), s. 47-55 ISSN 1425-3305 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : anti- realism * bivalence * classicality * construction * expressivity * extensions * hyperintensionality * intensions * procedure * realism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  9. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  10. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  11. Integrated plant safety assessment: systematic evaluation program. Oyster Creek nuclear generating station. GPU Nuclear Corporation and Jersey Central Power and Light Company. Docket No. 50-219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1978 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to reconfirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generating Station (located in Ocean County, New Jersey), one of ten plants reviewed under Phase II of this program, and indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review. It is expected that this report will be one of the bases in considering the issuance of a full-term operating license in place of the existing provisional operating license

  12. The second-generation z (redshift) and early universe spectrometer. I. First-light observation of a highly lensed local-ulirg analog at high-z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Riechers, Dominik [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U. [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA 30460 (United States); Verma, Aprajita [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M. [NIST Boulder, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Niemack, Michael [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Hasselfield, Matthew, E-mail: carl.ferkinhoff@cornell.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); and others

    2014-01-10

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ∼ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10{sup –18} W m{sup –2}. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ∼ 2 × 10{sup 4} G {sub 0}, gas density, n ∼ 1 × 10{sup 3} cm{sup –3} and size between ∼0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  13. The Second-generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. I. First-light Observation of a Highly Lensed Local-ulirg Analog at High-z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Riechers, Dominik; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew; Wiebe, D. V.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Tucker, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ~ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ~ 2 × 104 G 0, gas density, n ~ 1 × 103 cm-3 and size between ~0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  14. The second-generation z (redshift) and early universe spectrometer. I. First-light observation of a highly lensed local-ulirg analog at high-z

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl; Brisbin, Drew; Parshley, Stephen; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.; Schoenwald, Justin; Riechers, Dominik; Higdon, James L.; Higdon, Sarah J. U.; Verma, Aprajita; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Menten, Karl M.; Güsten, Rolf; Weiß, Axel; Irwin, Kent; Cho, Hsiao M.; Niemack, Michael; Halpern, Mark; Amiri, Mandana; Hasselfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    We recently commissioned our new spectrometer, the second-generation z(Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2) on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment telescope. ZEUS-2 is a submillimeter grating spectrometer optimized for detecting the faint and broad lines from distant galaxies that are redshifted into the telluric windows from 200 to 850 μm. It uses a focal plane array of transition-edge sensed bolometers, the first use of these arrays for astrophysical spectroscopy. ZEUS-2 promises to be an important tool for studying galaxies in the years to come because of its synergy with Atacama Large Millimeter Array and its capabilities in the short submillimeter windows that are unique in the post-Herschel era. Here, we report on our first detection of the [C II] 158 μm line with ZEUS-2. We detect the line at z ∼ 1.8 from H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 with a line flux of (6.44 ± 0.42) × 10 –18 W m –2 . Combined with its far-IR luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [O I] 63 μm line, we model the line emission as coming from a photo-dissociation region with far-ultraviolet radiation field, G ∼ 2 × 10 4 G 0 , gas density, n ∼ 1 × 10 3 cm –3 and size between ∼0.4 and 1 kpc. On the basis of this model, we conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1–000322 is a high-redshift analog of a local ultra-luminous IR galaxy; i.e., it is likely the site of a compact starburst caused by a major merger. Further identification of these merging systems is important for constraining galaxy formation and evolution models.

  15. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  16. Lighting. Eclairage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Increasing energy costs have led to a review of the high costs of lighting. The use of new energy-efficient lighting equipment, coupled with the use of the proper quantity and quality of lighting only where it is needed, creates a potential for cost reduction. A manual is provided to aid the process of adapting Canadian industrial, commercial, and institutional enterprises to these higher costs. An introductory review of lighting fundamentals is presented, providing a basic understanding of concepts such as illumination, light output measurements, power requirements, lighting quality, and energy audit methods. The currently available lighting equipment used to achieve cost savings is then reviewed, including energy saving lamps and ballasts, controls, and automatic energy control systems. A number of energy management opportunities are identified, such as modification of lighting usage patterns, calculation of the optimum number of lighting fixtures, replacement of existing lamps, and the application of task lighting. Examples are included to show the cost savings possible when applying some of the techniques suggested. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. КОНЦЕПЦІЯ АНТРОПОЦЕНТРИЗМУ В НЕКЛАСИЧНІЙ ФІЛОСОФІЇ / The concept of anthropocentrism in the non-classical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Скакун Ігор

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Скакун Игорь. Концепция антропоцентризма в неклассической философии. В работе исследуется мировоззренческий и методологический потенциал антропоцентризма и его реализация в динамике парадигм человекомерности научного знания. Раскрывается суть идеи человекомерности и принципа антропоцентризма, формы их актуализации в постклассической парадигме знания. Ключевые слова: антропологизация, антропоцентризм, человек, методология, научная картина мира. Skakun Ihor. THE CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOCENTRISM IN THE NONCLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY. In the paper the ideological and methodological potential of anthropocentrism and its implementation in the dynamics of human dimensional paradigms of scientific knowledge is argued. The author reveals the essence of the idea of personality and principle of anthropocentrism, shapes their actualization in postclassical paradigms of knowledge. The concept of anthropocentrism became an independent philosophical concept, according to which man is the center and purpose of world creation. Anthropocentrism in non-classical philosophy outlined the importance of the qualitative change in the methodological approach of philosophical understanding of man. It should be emphasized that man-restructuring concept was only potential, as factors of its implementation (as it was in post-non-classical period to the just formed. Thinkers’ ideas of the transition period (from classic to non-classic and the ideas of thinkers formed a new era of post-non-classical objectivistic and subjectivist concepts of man. Awareness of the problem of man as the central

  18. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  19. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  20. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  1. Dynalight Next Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The project aims to develop the next generation of energy cost-efficient artificial lighting control that enables greenhouse growers to adapt their use of artificial lighting dynamically to fluctuations in the price of electricity. This is a necessity as fluctuations in the price of electricity c...

  2. High Brightness OLED Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spindler, Jeffrey [OLEDWorks LLC; Kondakova, Marina [OLEDWorks LLC; Boroson, Michael [OLEDWorks LLC; Hamer, John [OLEDWorks LLC

    2016-05-25

    In this work we describe the technology developments behind our current and future generations of high brightness OLED lighting panels. We have developed white and amber OLEDs with excellent performance based on the stacking approach. Current products achieve 40-60 lm/W, while future developments focus on achieving 80 lm/W or higher.

  3. Computational simulations of hydrogen circular migration in protonated acetylene induced by circularly polarized light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xuetao; Li, Wen; Schlegel, H. Bernhard, E-mail: hbs@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)

    2016-08-28

    The hydrogens in protonated acetylene are very mobile and can easily migrate around the C{sub 2} core by moving between classical and non-classical structures of the cation. The lowest energy structure is the T-shaped, non-classical cation with a hydrogen bridging the two carbons. Conversion to the classical H{sub 2}CCH{sup +} ion requires only 4 kcal/mol. The effect of circularly polarized light on the migration of hydrogens in oriented C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +} has been simulated by Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics. Classical trajectory calculations were carried out with the M062X/6-311+G(3df,2pd) level of theory using linearly and circularly polarized 32 cycle 7 μm cosine squared pulses with peak intensity of 5.6 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2} and 3.15 × 10{sup 13} W/cm{sup 2}, respectively. These linearly and circularly polarized pulses transfer similar amounts of energy and total angular momentum to C{sub 2}H{sub 3}{sup +}. The average angular momentum vectors of the three hydrogens show opposite directions of rotation for right and left circularly polarized light, but no directional preference for linearly polarized light. This difference results in an appreciable amount of angular displacement of the three hydrogens relative to the C{sub 2} core for circularly polarized light, but only an insignificant amount for linearly polarized light. Over the course of the simulation with circularly polarized light, this corresponds to a propeller-like motion of the three hydrogens around the C{sub 2} core of protonated acetylene.

  4. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  5. One pot hydrothermal synthesis of a novel BiIO4/Bi2MoO6 heterojunction photocatalyst with enhanced visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity for rhodamine B degradation and photocurrent generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hongwei; Liu, Liyuan; Zhang, Yihe; Tian, Na

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The efficient charge transfer occurred at the interface of BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 heterojunction results in the efficient separation of photoexcited electron–hole pairs and promotes the photocatalytic activity. - Highlights: • BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composites were synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method. • The BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite exhibits much better photoelectrochemical performance. • The highly improved photocatalytic activity is attributed to heterojunction structure. • Holes (h + ) are the main active species in the photodegradation process of RhB. - Abstract: A novel BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 heterojunction photocatalyst has been successfully developed by a one-step hydrothermal method for the first time. It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS). Compared to pure BiIO 4 and Bi 2 MoO 6 , the BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 composite exhibits the much better photoelectrochemical performance for Rhodamine B (RhB) degradation and photocurrent (PC) generation under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm). This enhancement on visible-light-responsive photocatalytic activity should be attributed to the fabrication of a BiIO 4 /Bi 2 MoO 6 heterojunction, thus resulting in the high separation and transfer efficiency of photogenerated charge carriers. The supposed photocatalytic mechanism dominated by holes (h + ) was verified by the photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) and active species trapping experiments

  6. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  7. Light front quantum chromodynamics: Towards phenomenology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Light front dynamics; quantum chromodynamics; deep inelastic scattering. PACS Nos 11.10. ... What makes light front dynamics appealing from high energy phenomenology point of view? .... given in terms of Poincarй generators by. MВ = W P ...

  8. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  9. Bili lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 things: Gestational age Bilirubin level in the blood Newborn's age (in hours) In severe cases of increased bilirubin, an exchange transfusion may be done instead. Alternative Names Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal ...

  10. Color-stable and efficient tandem white organic light-emitting devices using a LiF n-doping layer and a MoO{sub x} p-doping layer as charge generating unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Qingyang; Zhang, Zhensong; Yue, Shouzhen; Guo, Runda; Wang, Peng; Wu, Mingzhu; Gou, Changhua; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-10-31

    We have demonstrated color-stable and efficient tandem organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) using 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (Bphen):LiF/4,4′,4″-tris(N-3-methylphenyl-N-phenyl-amino)triphenylamine (m-MTDATA):molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub x}) as charge generating unit (CGU), which has the advantages of air stability and ease of fabrication; the working mechanism of Bphen:LiF/m-MTDATA:MoO{sub x} is also discussed through analysis of the electrical and spectral emission properties of tandem devices with different CGUs. The performance of tandem white OLED, comprising blue and yellow phosphorescent EL units, can be improved by optimizing the thickness of Bphen:LiF layer. The device comprised of 30 nm Bphen:LiF layer has a maximum current efficiency of 38.7 cd/A and it can still maintain 24.6 cd/A at the luminance of 10,370 cd/m{sup 2}. Moreover, the Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of the device are rather stable and the variation is only (± 0.003, ± 0.007) over a wide range of luminance (100–13,000 cd/m{sup 2}). - Highlights: • LiF n-doping layer and MoO{sub x} p-doping layer were used as charge generating units. • The device performance was improved by optimizing the thickness of n-doping layer. • High luminance and efficiency were both achieved at a very low current density. • The device showed rather stable spectra over a wide range of luminance.

  11. Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trojek, Pavel

    2007-09-15

    This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10{sup 6} pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties

  12. Efficient generation of photonic entanglement and multiparty quantum communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, Pavel

    2007-09-01

    This thesis deals largely with the problem of efficient generation of photonic entanglement with the principal aim of developing a bright source of polarization-entangled photon pairs, which meets the requirements for reliable and economic operation of quantum communication prototypes and demonstrators. Our approach uses a cor-related photon-pair emission in nonlinear process of spontaneous parametric downconversion pumped by light coming from a compact and cheap blue laser diode. Two alternative source configurations are examined within the thesis. The first makes use of a well established concept of degenerate non-collinear emission from a single type-II nonlinear crystal and the second relies on a novel method where the emissions from two adjacent type-I phase-matched nonlinear crystals operated in collinear non-degenerate regime are coherently overlapped. The latter approach showed to be more effective, yielding a total detected rate of almost 10 6 pairs/s at >98% quantum interference visibility of polarization correlations. The second issue addressed within the thesis is the simplification and practical implementation of quantum-assisted solutions to multiparty communication tasks. We show that entanglement is not the only non-classical resource endowing the quantum multiparty information processing its power. Instead, only the sequential communication and transformation of a single qubit can be sufficient to accomplish certain tasks. This we prove for two distinct communication tasks, secret sharing and communication complexity. Whereas the goal of the first is to split a cryptographic key among several parties in a way that its reconstruction requires their collaboration, the latter aims at reducing the amount of communication during distributed computational tasks. Importantly, our qubitassisted solutions to the problems are feasible with state-of-the-art technology. This we clearly demonstrate in the laboratory implementation for 6 and 5 parties

  13. Slow light invisibility, teleportation, and other mysteries of light

    CERN Document Server

    Perkowitz, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Slow Light is a popular treatment of today's astonishing breakthroughs in the science of light. Even though we don't understand light's quantum mysteries, we can slow it to a stop and speed it up beyond its Einsteinian speed limit, 186,000 miles/sec; use it for quantum telecommunications; teleport it; manipulate it to create invisibility; and perhaps generate hydrogen fusion power with it. All this is lucidly presented for non-scientists who wonder about teleportation, Harry Potter invisibility cloaks, and other fantastic outcomes. Slow Light shows how the real science and the fantasy inspire

  14. Signal processing for LED lighting systems : illumination rendering and sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.

    2010-01-01

    Solid state lighting, employing high brightness light emitting diodes (LEDs), is becoming increasingly widely used. The advantages of LEDs include high radiative efficiency, long lifetime, limited heat generation and superior tolerance to humidity. Another important advantage of LED lighting systems

  15. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  16. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Yeh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV LEDs and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED, have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450-480 nm and nUV (380-400 nm LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  17. Light Converting Inorganic Phosphors for White Light-Emitting Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Lin, Chun-Che; Yeh, Chiao-Wen; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2010-01-01

    White light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) have matched the emission efficiency of florescent lights and will rapidly spread as light source for homes and offices in the next 5 to 10 years. WLEDs provide a light element having a semiconductor light emitting layer (blue or near-ultraviolet (nUV) LEDs) and photoluminescence phosphors. These solid-state LED lamps, rather than organic light emitting diode (OLED) or polymer light-emitting diode (PLED), have a number of advantages over conventional incandescent bulbs and halogen lamps, such as high efficiency to convert electrical energy into light, reliability and long operating lifetime. To meet with the further requirement of high color rendering index, warm light with low color temperature, high thermal stability and higher energy efficiency for WLEDs, new phosphors that can absorb excitation energy from blue or nUV LEDs and generate visible emissions efficiently are desired. The criteria of choosing the best phosphors, for blue (450−480 nm) and nUV (380−400 nm) LEDs, strongly depends on the absorption and emission of the phosphors. Moreover, the balance of light between the emission from blue-nUV LEDs and the emissions from phosphors (such as yellow from Y3Al5O12:Ce3+) is important to obtain white light with proper color rendering index and color temperature. Here, we will review the status of phosphors for LEDs and prospect the future development.

  18. Third generation nuclear plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barré, Bertrand

    2012-05-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a new generation of Light Water Reactors has been designed and is being built. Third generation nuclear plants are equipped with dedicated systems to insure that if the worst accident were to occur, i.e. total core meltdown, no matter how low the probability of such occurrence, radioactive releases in the environment would be minimal. This article describes the EPR, representative of this "Generation III" and a few of its competitors on the world market.

  19. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  20. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor