WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-chromate talc conversion

  1. Assessment of Some Advanced Protective Schemes, Including Chromate and Non-Chromate Conversion Coatings for Mg Alloy ZE41A-T5 Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chang, Frank

    1994-01-01

    .... Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests have been employed to compare the corrosion behavior in chloride containing solutions of Mg alloy ZE41A-T5 which has been coated with various combinations of a conversion coating...

  2. Implementing New Non-Chromate Coatings Systems (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    Initiate Cr6+ authorization process for continued Cr6+ use using the form, Authorization to Use Hexavalent Chromium. YES NO • Approval of...Aluminum and magnesium anodizing • Hard Chrome Plating • Type II conversion coating on aluminum alloys under chromated primer • Type II conversion coating...Elimination of Hexavalent Chromium 80% 5% 14% 1% Type II Type III Type IC Type IC Fatigue Critical 50% 50% Type II Type IC FRC-SE (JAX) Fully Integrated FRC

  3. Scientific Understanding of Non-Chromated Corrosion Inhibitors Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Some of these conversion coatings are alkaline and can contain potassium permanganate and strontium chloride.[21] A Ce-Mo process has also been...precipitation of aluminum dissolved during the pretreatment process, and commonly a polymer (e.g. polyacrylic acid, carboxyl vinyl polymer, ammonium... polyacrylate ) [31]. Polymers improve adhesion and corrosion resistance [21]. In addition, small amounts of HF are added to aid in the removal of the aluminum

  4. Single center experience on talc poudrage morbidity: focus on high talc dosage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congedo Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant pleural effusion (MPE is a common clinical problem of concern for most of the pneumologists and thoracic surgeons. A general consensus regarding the use of talc poudrage in treatment of MPE exists, but only few studies analyzed in detail talc insufflation related pulmonary morbidity. In particular, ARDS talc-related is caused by physical and chemical effects of the small talc particles (50% particle size

  5. Mineral Resource of the Month: Talc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virta, Robert L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    When people think of talc, they often think of talcum and baby powder. However, these uses of talc are minor compared to its use in industrial manufacturing. The leading use of talc in the United States is in the production of ceramics, where it is a source of magnesium oxide, serves as a flux to reduce firing temperatures, and improves thermal shock characteristics of the final product. Worldwide, the major use of talc is as a paper constituent, where it fills the interstices between cellulose paper fibers, reduces paper transparency, improves ink receptivity, and absorbs undesirable tree sap residues that can generate blemishes in the paper.

  6. Anphibole, an undesirable presence in cosmetic talc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, M.A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A semi-quantitative X-ray diffractometric study, compared to CaO analysis, for the evaluation of the percentage of amphibole present in cosmetic talcs is presented. Scanning electron images show these needle-like minerals togheter with talc; these minerals can cause from simple allergies to serious health problems to the human being. (Author) [pt

  7. Pulmonary talc granulomatosis in a cocaine sniffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubeid, M; Bickel, J T; Ingram, E A; Scott, G C

    1990-07-01

    The development of pulmonary granulomatosis following intravenous injection of medications intended for oral use has been well described previously. Talc is the most commonly implicated agent. We present a case of talc granulomatosis which developed in a patient following cocaine sniffing and suggest that this may be the cause of development of granulomata in drug addicts who deny any history of intravenous drug abuse.

  8. Talc

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and high priced products, along with some from “niche” markets, in order to cover as broad a ... Raspberry Bronzer NAD NAD Black Radiance Pressed Powder Rich Mahogany Acajou riche 8607B NAD NAD Posner Finishing ...

  9. Safety Assessment of Talc as Used in Cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Adhesion and corrosion studies of a lithium based conversion coating film on the 2024 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, M.R.S.; Nogueira, J.C.; Thim, G.P.; Oliveira, M.A.S.

    2004-01-01

    AA2024-T3-aluminum alloy surfaces were coated using non-chromate and chromate conversion coatings. All coatings were painted with the 10P4-2-primer epoxy resin. Independent on the film formation process, films passed on the substrate/conversion coating wet tape adhesion test. However, only the chromate conversion coating passed on the conversion coating/primer epoxy resin adhesion test. Electrochemical corrosion measurements showed that non-chromate conversion coated surfaces present lower corrosion current density, bigger polarization resistance and less negative corrosion potential than chromate conversion coated surfaces

  11. Dehydration kinetics of talc at 1 bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, J.; Bose, K.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on the dehydration kinetics of talc, which is likely to be a major potential resource for water and hydrogen in carbonaceous chondrites, is presented. The rate of dehydration of an essentially pure Mg-end member natural talc, (Mg(.99)Fe(.01))3Si4O10(OH)2, was studied by measuring in situ weight change under isothermal condition at 1 bar as a function of time in the temperature range 775 to 985 C. The grain size of the starting material was 0.7 to 1 micron. It was found that the data up to 50 to 60 percent dehydration can be fitted by an equation of the form alpha = exp(-Kt(exp n)), where alpha is the weight fraction of talc remaining, K is a rate constant and n is a numerical constant for a given temperature. For any set of isothermal data, there is a major change in the value of n for larger dehydration. For up to approximately 50 percent dehydration, all rate constants can be described by an Arrheniun relation with an activation energy of 432 (+/- 30) kJ/mol; n has a nearly constant value of 0.54 between 775 and 875 C, but increases almost linearly according to n = -10.77 + 0.012T C at T greater than or equal to 875 C.

  12. NAVAIR Progress in Assessing, Validating and Implementing Non-Chromate Primers (Briefing charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    logistics for any new coating or coating system NAVAIR Application Areas for Hexavalent Chromium Alternatives: Status Components/ Structure... Hexavalent chromium alternatives Sacrificial Coating Post Treatment MIL-A-8625 Anodize Avionics/ Electronics Magnesium/Titanium Conversion Aluminum Anodizing...Aluminum Pretreatment Type IC Seal Type IIB Seal Type II Seal Phosphating Rinse (Aluminum)Rinse (Steel) Cadmium Zinc-Nickel Aluminum Bonding Chrome

  13. Hemoptysis following Talc Pleurodesis in a Pneumothorax Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Kakiuchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to report a case of hemoptysis occurring in combination with secondary spontaneous pneumothorax following chemical pleurodesis by talc. A Japanese male with cancer of renal pelvis was found with the left pneumothorax and multiple lung metastases. A computed-tomography scan revealed severe emphysema throughout the lungs. Talc pleurodesis was employed to arrest air leakage. The patient developed hemoptysis 45 minutes after talc injection into the thorax. This is the first report of hemoptysis following talc pleurodesis. The agent could induce severe inflammation in capillary vessels of the lung following visceral pleura infiltration.

  14. Non-Chromate, ZVOC Coatings for Steel Substrates on Army and Navy Aircraft and Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    been coated without any corrosion inhibitive pretreatment or conversion coating. The products demonstrated satisfy the hexavalent chrome ...that generates 2.4 million pounds of VOC; 852,000 pounds of HAPs; and 24,000 pounds of hexavalent chrome . Although effective at mitigating corrosion...satisfy the hexavalent chrome prohibition for both vehicles while minimizing environmental impact and promoting worker safety. This demonstration was

  15. Spontaneous doping on high quality talc-graphene-hBN van der Waals heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mania, E.; Alencar, A. B.; Cadore, A. R.; Carvalho, B. R.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Neves, B. R. A.; Chacham, H.; Campos, L. C.

    2017-09-01

    Steady doping, added to its remarkable electronic properties, would make graphene a valuable commodity in the solar cell market, as energy power conversion could be substantially increased. Here we report a graphene van der Waals heterostructure which is able to spontaneously dope graphene (p-type) up to n ~ 2.2  ×  1013 cm-2 while providing excellent charge mobility (μ ~ 25 000 cm2 V-1 s-1). Such properties are achieved via deposition of graphene on atomically flat layered talc, a natural and abundant dielectric crystal. Raman investigation shows a preferential charge accumulation on graphene-talc van der Waals heterostructures, which are investigated through the electronic properties of talc/graphene/hBN heterostructure devices. These heterostructures preserve graphene’s good electronic quality, verified by the observation of quantum Hall effect at low magnetic fields (B  =  0.4 T) at T  =  4.2 K. In order to investigate the physical mechanisms behind graphene-on-talc p-type doping, we performed first-principles calculations of their interface structural and electronic properties. In addition to potentially improving solar cell efficiency, graphene doping via van der Waals stacking is also a promising route towards controlling the band gap opening in bilayer graphene, promoting a steady n or p type doping in graphene and, eventually, providing a new path to access superconducting states in graphene, predicted to exist only at very high doping.

  16. High-temperature dehydration of talc: a kinetics study using in situ X-ray powder diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Duojun; Yi, Li; Huang, Bojin; Liu, Chuanjiang

    2015-06-01

    High-temperature in situ X-ray powder diffraction patterns were used to study the dehydration kinetics of natural talc with a size of 10-15 µm. The talc was annealed from 1073 to 1223 K, and the variations in the characteristic peaks corresponding to talc with the time were recorded to determine the reaction progress. The decomposition of talc occurred, and peaks corresponding to talc and peaks corresponding to enstatite and quartz were observed. The enstatite and talc exhibited a topotactic relationship. The dehydration kinetics of talc was studied as a function of temperature between 1073 and 1223 K. The kinetics data could be modeled using an Avrami equation that considers nucleation and growth processes ? where n varies from 0.4 to 0.8. The rate constant (k) equation for the natural talc is ? The reaction mechanism for the dehydration of talc is a heterogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism.

  17. Selective depression behavior of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-zhong; Gu, Guo-hua; Wu, Xiang-bin; Zhao, Kai-le

    2017-08-01

    The depression behavior and mechanism of guar gum on talc-type scheelite flotation were systematically investigated by flotation experiments, adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectroscopic analyses. The flotation results for monominerals, mixed minerals, and actual mineral samples indicated that guar gum exhibited much higher selective depression for talc than for scheelite. Bench-scale closed-circuit tests showed that a tungsten concentrate with a WO3 grade of 51.43% and a WO3 recovery of 76.18% was obtained. Adsorption tests, zeta-potential measurements, and infrared spectral analyses confirmed that guar gum absorbed more strongly onto the talc surface than onto the scheelite surface because of chemisorption between guar gum and talc. This chemisorption is responsible for the guar gum's highly selective depression for talc and small depression for scheelite. The flotation results provide technical support for talc-type scheelite flotation.

  18. Dry grinding of talc in a stirred ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayirli Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate micro fine size dry grindability of talc in a stirred ball mill. The effects of various parameters such as grinding time, stirrer speed, powder filling ratio and ball filling ratio were investigated. Alumina balls were used as grinding media. Experiments were carried out using the 24 full factorial design. The main and interaction effects were evaluated using the Yates method. Test results were evaluated on the basis of product size and surface area.

  19. Recurrence of Intravenous Talc Granulomatosis following Single Lung Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C Cook

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced pulmonary disease is an unusual consequence of the intravenous injection of oral medications, usually developing over a period of several years. A number of patients with this condition have undergone lung transplantation for respiratory failure. However, a history of drug abuse is often considered to be a contraindication to transplantation in the context of limited donor resources. A patient with pulmonary talc granulomatosis secondary to intravenous methylphenidate injection who underwent successful lung transplantation and subsequently presented with recurrence of the underlying disease in the transplanted lung 18 months after transplantation is reported.

  20. Non-Chromate Aluminum Pretreatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    2) Potassium permanganate, seal: polyacrylic acid, poly propylene glycol, fatty acid esters Two solution (coating and seal), elevated temp...OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for...reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of

  1. A SANS study of the adsorption of guar gum on talc surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cram, S.L.; Knott, R.; Hanley, H.

    2002-01-01

    Reagents based on guar gum are commonly used as 'gangue' depressants in the flotation of sulphides from ores containing naturally floating layer silicate minerals such as talc. Nickel sulphide ores processed by WMC Resources Ltd. at the Leinster Nickel Operations in Western Australia typically contain 1-2 % talc. Guar gum, added to the flotation cell, depresses the talc by adsorbing onto its surface, thereby reducing its hydrophobic nature. Guar gum is a long chain polysaccharide containing many hydroxyl functional groups along the length of its chain. The ratio of chain length to the number of hydroxyl and carboxyl groups causes the guar gum to be selective in depressing talc rather than nickel sulphide minerals. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) it is an excellent tool for probing structures in the nano length scale. Unlike X-rays, neutrons are sensitive to low atomic weight elements, especially hydrogen and therefore organics. Using SANS it is possible to contrast different parts of a composite sample to get information on spatial arrangements. These qualities make SANS an obvious choice for studying the adsorption of guar gum on the surface of talc in aqueous solutions. Complimentary SANS experiments were carried out in Australia at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) and in the United States at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Initially talc samples were studied 'as supplied', however as experiments proceeded attempts to reduce the particle size and distribution were carried out by milling and centrifuging procedures. Contrast matching techniques were used to observed the scattering behaviour of talc with and without the presence of guar gum and vice versa, over a total q range of 0.002 - 0.1 Angstroms -1 . The size of the talc particles appears to affect the scattering behaviour not only of talc but also of guar gum in the same solutions. This implies that the structure of the guar gum is strongly

  2. Possibility of the microbiological decontamination by irradiation of talc for pharmaceutical and industrial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, R.; Varela, A.

    1988-01-01

    The sterilization of talc is a demand of the national industry and health system. The results of a feasibility study on the radiosterilization of talc for industrial use and the manufacture of tablets using the Producto 1 facility are reviewed. It was found that a minimum dose of 25 kGy allows elimination of all microorganisms present. This assertion was proved through application of microbiological control according to the current Cuba standards. Physiochemical analysis of the irradiated talc demonstrated that the treatment did not cause detrimental changes of the product

  3. Survey of the respiratory health of the workers of a talc producing factory.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, P; Réfrégier, M; Auburtin, G; Carton, B; Moulin, J J

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To assess the effect of an occupational exposure to talc dust on respiratory health. METHODS--166 talc millers from a French factory underwent spirometry and filled in a standardised respiratory questionnaire during their annual medical visit in 1989. A full sized chest radiograph taken in 1987 for the subjects hired before 1982 was also available, for the others a radiograph taken when hired was used. Radiography was repeated in 1992 for all subjects still active at this date (n ...

  4. The Effect of Silane Coupling Agents on a Composite Polyamide-6/Talc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Wiebeck

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of the addition of silane agents on the mechanical properties (tensile strength, hardness and flexibility of the composite polyamide-6/talc. For this purpose, 30% and 40% of a talc with and without the addition of silane agents were incorporated into polyamide-6. Three kinds of silane agents were used, resulting in nine formulations. Comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that the silane agents improve the mechanical properties of the composite material.

  5. Production of talc nano sheets via fine grinding and sonication processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samayamutthirian Palaniandy; Noorina Hidayu Jamil Khairun Azizi Mohd Azizli; Syed Fuad Saiyid Hashim; Hashim Hussin

    2009-01-01

    Fine grinding of high purity talc in jet mill at low grinding pressure was carried out by varying the feed rate and classifier rotational speed. These ground particles were sonicated in laboratory ultrasonic bath by varying the soniction period at five levels. The ground and sonicated particles were characterized in terms of particle size and particle size distribution. Mechanochemical and sonochemical effect of talc was determine via X-ray diffraction. Particle shape and surface texture of the ground and sonicated product was determined via scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The ground particle size exhibited particle size below 10 μm with narrow size distribution. The reduction of peak intensity in (002) plane indicated the layered structure has been distorted. The sonicated talc shows that the thickness of the talc particles after the sonication process is 20 nm but the lateral particle size still remains in micron range. The reduction of the XRD peak intensity for (002) plane and thickness of sonicated talc as shown in SEM and TEM micrographs proves that fine grinding and sonication process produces talc nano sheets. (author)

  6. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in humans may be related to these changes as were observed in our rat model, and like talc, oxytetracycline must be used cautiously in patients

  7. Video-assisted thoracoscopic bullectomy and talc poudrage for spontaneous pneumothoraces: effect on short-term lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Luc; Malthaner, Richard A

    2010-12-01

    We measured lung function before and after video-assisted thoracoscopic apical bullectomy and talc poudrage in patients with spontaneous pneumothoraces. Seventy-two patients were prospectively followed up for 12 months. The indications for surgery were recurrent pneumothoraces (n = 58), bilateral pneumothoraces (n = 8), and persistent air leak (n = 6). There were 46 males and 26 females with mean age of 29 years (range 15-61 years). The results were analyzed using paired t tests. There were no recurrences. There were 4 complications (5.6%): 1 wound infection, 1 case of pneumonia, and 2 persistent air leaks each lasting 1 week. There were no conversions to open surgery. Preoperative and 6-month pulmonary function test results were available on 41 patients, and 35 patients completed 12-month pulmonary function tests. Twelve-month values (mean percent ± SD) were as follows: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second fell from 95 ± 19 to 89 ± 16 (P = .02); forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio was unchanged, 95 ± 12 versus 94 ± 13 (P = .9); total lung capacity fell from 106 ± 19 to 98 ± 12 (P = 0.002); vital capacity fell from 100 ± 22 to 96 ± 16 (P = .05); residual volume fell from 126 ± 32 to 107 ± 29 (P = .002); and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide corrected for alveolar volume was unchanged, 88 ± 15 versus 91 ± 17 (P = .07). Flow rates and diffusion capacities were preserved, but lung volumes were slightly reduced at 1 year. Video-assisted thoracoscopic apical bullectomy and talc poudrage is an effective treatment for spontaneous pneumothoraces with a low complication rate and recurrence rate and only minor changes in pulmonary function at 1 year. Copyright © 2010 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Pulmonary talc granulomatosis mimicking malignant disease 30 years after last exposure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krimsky William S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary talc granulomatosis is a rare disorder characterized by the development of foreign body granuloma secondary to talc exposure. Previous case reports have documented the illness in current intravenous drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. We present a rare case of the disease in a patient with a distant history of heroin abuse who presented initially with history and imaging findings highly suggestive of malignancy. Case presentation A 53-year-old man reported a 4-month history of increasing dyspnea and weight loss. He had a long history of smoking and admission chest X-ray revealed a density in the right hemithorax. Computed tomography confirmed a probable mass with further speculated opacities in both lung fields suspicious for malignant spread. Biopsies obtained using endobronchial ultrasound-guided aspiration returned negative for malignancy and showed bronchial epithelial cells with foreign body giant cell reaction and polarizable birefringent talc crystals. Conclusion This case demonstrates a rare presentation of talc granulomatosis three decades after the last likely exposure. The history and imaging findings in a chronic smoker were initially strongly suggestive of malignant disease, and we recommend that talc-induced lung disease is considered in any patient with multiple scattered pulmonary lesions and a history of intravenous drug use. Confirmation of the disease by biopsy is essential, but unfortunately there are few successful proven management options for patients with worsening disease.

  9. Crystallization kinetics of poly-(lactic acid) with and without talc: Optical microscopy and calorimetric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaa, Z.; Boutaous, M.; Rousset, F.; Fulchiron, R.; Zinet, M.; Xin, S.; Bourgin, P.

    2014-05-01

    Poly-(lactic acid) or PLA is a biodegradable polymer synthesized from renewable resources. Recently, the discovery of new polymerization routes has allowed increasing the produced volumes. As a consequence, PLA is becoming of great interest for reducing the dependence on petroleum-based plastics. Because of its interesting mechanical properties, PLA is seen as a potential substitute for some usual polymers. However, its relatively slow crystallization kinetics can be a disadvantage with regard to industrial applications. The crystallization kinetics of PLA can be enhanced by adding nucleating agents, which also influences on crystalline morphology and rheological behavior. In the present work, the isothermal quiescent crystallization kinetics of both neat PLA and PLA/talc composite (5 wt% talc) are investigated. The effects of talc on the overall crystallization kinetics and on the crystalline morphology are analyzed using both optical microscopy measurements and thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry.

  10. Mortality of Talc Miners and Millers From Val Chisone, Northern Italy: An Updated Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Enrico; Coggiola, Maurizio; Ciocan, Catalina; Romano, Canzio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to update the analysis of mortality of a cohort of talc miners and millers in Northern Italy. We analyzed the mortality during 1946 to 2013 of 1722 male workers in an asbestos-free talc mine (1166 miners and 556 millers) employed during 1946 to 1995. The overall standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.17 to 1.32]; no deaths were observed from pleural cancer; mortality from lung cancer was not increased. Mortality from pneumoconiosis was increased (SMR 26.62; 95% CI 20.71 to 33.69), in particular among miners, and was associated with duration of employment and time since first employment. We confirmed the lack of association between exposure to asbestos-free talc, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Increased mortality from pneumoconiosis among miners is attributable to past exposure to silica.

  11. Cosmetic talc as a risk factor for pleural mesothelioma: a weight of evidence evaluation of the epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Brent L; Benson, Stacey M; Marsh, Gary M

    2017-03-01

    Due to some historical (and inaccurate) reports that asbestos might be present in some cosmetic talc products, questions are occasionally raised regarding the potential pleural mesothelioma risks associated with cosmetic talc products. Our objective was to determine the incidence of pleural mesothelioma of individuals exposed to cosmetic talc. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiological literature for cosmetic talc miners and millers and found three occupational cohort studies that evaluated pleural mesothelioma incidence in workers in Italy, Norway, France, and Austria. We conducted a second literature review to evaluate the incidence and mortality of pleural mesothelioma among patients who received talc pleurodesis treatments before 1965 and found retrospective clinical studies including over 300 patients with follow-up ranging from 14 to 40 years. There were no mesotheliomas reported in any of the cosmetic talc miner and miller cohorts. A pooled analysis of data from the cohort mortality studies indicated that four mesothelioma deaths would have been expected from the 90,022 person-years of observation, and this was associated with 84% and 67% statistical power to observe a 3-fold or 2.5-fold increase in pleural mesothelioma mortality, respectively. None of the patients who received talc pleurodesis treatments developed mesothelioma. We conclude that there is no epidemiological evidence to support the hypothesis that exposure to cosmetic talc is associated with the development of pleural mesothelioma.

  12. Infrared spectroscopic study of the synthetic Mg-Ni talc series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Marc; Méheut, Merlin; Delon, Louise; Poirier, Mathilde; Micoud, Pierre; Le Roux, Christophe; Martin, François

    2018-05-01

    Five talc samples [(Mg,Ni)3Si4O10(OH)2] covering the entire Mg-Ni solid solution were synthesized following a recently developed and patented process (Dumas et al., Process for preparing a composition comprising synthetic mineral particles and composition, 2013a; Procédé de préparation d'une composition comprenant des particules minérales synthétiques et composition, 2013b), which produces sub-micron talc particles replying to industrial needs. Near- and mid-infrared spectra were collected and compared to infrared spectra modeled from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The good agreement between experimental and theoretical spectra allowed assigning unambiguously all absorption bands. We focused in particular on the four main OH stretching bands, which represent good probes of their local physical and chemical environment. The description of the vibrational modes at the origin of these absorption bands and the theoretical determination of absorption coefficients provide a firm basis for quantifying the talc chemical composition from infrared spectroscopy and for discussing the distribution of divalent cations in the octahedral sheet. Results confirm that these synthetic talc samples have a similar structure as natural talc, with a random distribution of Mg and Ni atoms. They only differ from natural talc by their hydrophilic character, which is due to their large proportion of reactive sites on sheet edges due to sub-micronic size of the particles. Therefore, the contribution on infrared spectra of hydroxyls adsorbed on edge sites has also been investigated by computing the infrared signature of hydroxyls of surface models.

  13. Talc-bearing serpentinite and the creeping section of the San Andreas fault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Diane E; Rymer, Michael J

    2007-08-16

    The section of the San Andreas fault located between Cholame Valley and San Juan Bautista in central California creeps at a rate as high as 28 mm yr(-1) (ref. 1), and it is also the segment that yields the best evidence for being a weak fault embedded in a strong crust. Serpentinized ultramafic rocks have been associated with creeping faults in central and northern California, and serpentinite is commonly invoked as the cause of the creep and the low strength of this section of the San Andreas fault. However, the frictional strengths of serpentine minerals are too high to satisfy the limitations on fault strength, and these minerals also have the potential for unstable slip under some conditions. Here we report the discovery of talc in cuttings of serpentinite collected from the probable active trace of the San Andreas fault that was intersected during drilling of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) main hole in 2005. We infer that the talc is forming as a result of the reaction of serpentine minerals with silica-saturated hydrothermal fluids that migrate up the fault zone, and the talc commonly occurs in sheared serpentinite. This discovery is significant, as the frictional strength of talc at elevated temperatures is sufficiently low to meet the constraints on the shear strength of the fault, and its inherently stable sliding behaviour is consistent with fault creep. Talc may therefore provide the connection between serpentinite and creep in the San Andreas fault, if shear at depth can become localized along a talc-rich principal-slip surface within serpentinite entrained in the fault zone.

  14. Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms for immobilization of high- level calcined waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinjamuri, K.

    1993-06-01

    Talc-silicon glass-ceramic waste forms are being evaluated as candidates for immobilization of the high level calcined waste stored onsite at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. These glass-ceramic waste forms were prepared by hot isostatically pressing a mixture of simulated nonradioactive high level calcined waste, talc, silicon and aluminum metal additives. The waste forms were characterized for density, chemical durability, and glass and crystalline phase compositions. The results indicate improved density and chemical durability as the silicon content is increased

  15. Automated calculations for massive fermion production with ai-bar Talc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorca, A.; Riemann, T.

    2004-01-01

    The package ai-bar Talc has been developed for the automated calculation of radiative corrections to two-fermion production at e + e - colliders. The package uses Diana, Qgraf, Form, Fortran, FF, LoopTools, and further unix/linux tools. Numerical results are presented for e + e - -> e + e - , μ + μ - , bs-bar , tc-bar

  16. Characterization of Minerals: From the Classroom to Soils to Talc Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Brittani D.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation addresses different methods and challenges surrounding characterizing and identifying minerals in three environments: in the classroom, in soils, and in talc deposits. A lab manual for a mineralogy and optical mineralogy course prepares students for mineral characterization and identification by giving them the methods and tools…

  17. Effects of talc and clay addition on pressureless sintering of porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Porous Si3N4 ceramics were successfully synthesized using cheaper talc and clay as sintering additives by pressureless sintering technology and the microstructure and mechanical properties of the ceramics were also investigated. The results indicated that the ceramics consisted of elongated -Si3N4 and small Si2N2O ...

  18. Effects of talc and clay addition on pressureless sintering of porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    costs as well as decreasing the sintering temperature are required ... In the glass ceramics, the talc and clay was widely used as a flux to decrease ... nitrogen–gas pressure of 0⋅3 MPa. .... rate-controlling for high diffusion velocity and diffusion.

  19. Interaction of divalent cations with basal planes and edge surfaces of phyllosilicate minerals: muscovite and talc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lujie; Masliyah, Jacob H; Xu, Zhenghe

    2013-08-15

    Smooth basal plane and edge surfaces of two platy phyllosilicate minerals (muscovite and talc) were prepared successfully to allow accurate colloidal force measurement using an atomic force microscope (AFM), which allowed us to probe independently interactions of divalent cations with phyllosilicate basal planes and edge surfaces. The Stern potential of basal planes and edge surfaces was obtained by fitting the measured force profiles with the classical DLVO theory. The fitted Stern potential of the muscovite basal plane became less negative with increasing Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentration but did not reverse its sign even at Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations up to 5 mM. In contrast, the Stern potential of the muscovite edge surface reversed at Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations as low as 0.1 mM. The Stern potential of the talc basal plane became less negative with 0.1 mM Ca(2+) addition and nearly zero with 1 mM Ca(2+) addition. The Stern potential of talc edge surface became reversed with 0.1 mM Ca(2+) or 1 mM Mg(2+) addition, showing not only a different binding mechanism of talc basal planes and edge surfaces with Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), but also different binding mechanism between Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions with basal planes and edge surfaces. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparing cost of indwelling pleural catheter vs talc pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penz, Erika D; Mishra, Eleanor K; Davies, Helen E; Manns, Braden J; Miller, Robert F; Rahman, Najib M

    2014-10-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is associated with short life expectancy and significant morbidity. A randomized controlled trial comparing indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) with talc pleurodesis found that IPCs reduced in-hospital time and the need for additional procedures but were associated with excess adverse events. Using data from the clinical trial, we compared costs associated with use of IPCs and with talc pleurodesis. Resource use and adverse events were captured through case report forms over the 1-year trial follow-up. Costs for outpatient and inpatient visits, diagnostic imaging, nursing, and doctor time were obtained from the UK National Health Service reference costs and University of Kent's Unit Costs of Health and Social Care 2011 and inflated to 2013 using the UK Consumer Price Index. Procedure supply costs were obtained from the manufacturer. Difference in mean costs was compared using nonparametric bootstrapping. All costs were converted to US dollars using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Purchasing Power Parity Index. Overall mean cost (SD) for managing patients with IPCs and talc pleurodesis was $4,993 ($5,529) and $4,581 ($4,359), respectively. The incremental mean cost difference was $401, with 95% CI of -$1,387 to $2,261. The mean cost related to ongoing drainage in the IPC group was $1,011 ($732) vs $57 ($213) in the talc pleurodesis group (P = .001). This included the cost of drainage bottles, dressing changes in the first month, and catheter removal. There was no significant difference in cost of the initial intervention or adverse events between the groups. For patients with survival < 14 weeks, IPC is significantly less costly than talc pleurodesis, with mean cost difference of -$1,719 (95% CI, -$3,376 to -$85). There is no significant difference in the mean cost of managing patients with IPCs compared with talc pleurodesis. For patients with limited survival, IPC appears less costly. isrctn.org; No.: ISRCTN

  1. Effects of the shape properties of talc and quartz particles on the wettability based separation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicyilmaz, C.; Ulusoy, U.; Yekeler, M.

    2004-01-01

    Shape properties of talc and quartz particles ground by a laboratory size ball, rod, and autogenous mills were studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM). More than 100 particles were measured to do the shape analysis of each mill product. The wettability behavior of (γ c ) a highly hydrophobic of talc mineral was determined by contact angle measurements and micro-flotation tests using a contact angle goniometer and EMDEE MicroFLOT test tube, respectively. On the other hand, wettability (γ c ) of quartz, which is a highly hydrophilic mineral, was determined by the micro-flotation method only. The results showed that the particles ground by rod mill gave higher flatness and elongation ratio, which meant higher hydrophobicity with lower γ c values in the separations by flotation method

  2. Surface-chemical and mineralogical properties relevant to the flotation of talc and other layer silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenberg, E.; Harris, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    Certain physicochemical and mineralogical properties of different talc and pyrophylite samples were measured to show whether differences in floatability could be related to these properties. An indication of the expected hydrophobic nature of the samples was obtained by X-ray-diffraction measurements. The various samples were characterized by measurement of their zeta potentials, contact angles, suspension stability, and flotation behaviour in small-scale flotation cells. All the talc samples proved to be highly floatable and therefore only small differences in recoveries were observed. However, there was some indication that the suspension stability was related to the X-ray-diffraction measurements of the hydrophobic nature of the samples. No trends were observable from the zeta potentials and contact angles measured

  3. Improving Settling Dynamics of Activated Sludge by Adding Fine Talc Powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Larsen, Torben; Clauss, F.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate. The ....... The settling velocity was measured with a recirculated settling column under different concentrations and turbulence levels. Numerical simulation of a secondary settling tank indicates that adding fine powder will improve the overall performance considerably.......The effect of adding varying mixtures of talc and chlorite powder to activated sludge in order to improve the settling characteristic has been studied. The powder is found to improve the settling velocity of the sludge, strictly by increasing the average density of the sludge floc aggregate...

  4. Experimental investigation of serpentine-talc-brucite associations not determined in the nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullayev, Z.B.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrothermal transformation of serpentinites of different mineral composition in the conditions of different valees of temperature and pressure is described. It was determined that mineral composition is independent, serpenites are stable within 520 degrees Celsius temperature and 35 kbar of pressure. There are formed talc-phorsterite association and then phorsterite-enstatite at high temperature up to 600 degrees Celsius and the pressure up to 50 kbar

  5. Industry and Cosmetic Uses of Talc with their Implication on Health

    OpenAIRE

    Davendralingam Sinniah

    2011-01-01

    Talc’s softness, whiteness, lamellarity, inertness andaffinity for organic chemicals make it valuable forindustrial and domestic applications. The largestconsumers are the paper and ceramic industry; only 5%is used as cosmetics. It is also used for preserving animalfeed, and a carrier for drugs, insecticides, pesticides andchemicals. Talc was introduced as baby powder in 1894and advertised aggressively worldwide. Widespreadand indiscriminate use soon raised concerns aboutits implications for ...

  6. Susceptibility to scratch surface damage of wollastonite- and talc-containing polypropylene micrometric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadal, R.; Dasari, A.; Rohrmann, J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the effect of wollastonite and talc on the scratch deformation behavior of low and high crystallinity polypropylenes under identical test conditions. The vertical resolution of atomic force microscopy and lateral resolution of scanning electron microscopy is utilized to examine the characteristics of scratch damage. Contrary to the expectations that high crystallinity and stiffness of polypropylene composites should increase resistance to scratch deformation, the susceptibility to mechanical deformation depends on bonding of mineral particles to the polymer matrix. Scratch deformed regions in neat polypropylenes were free of voids and grooves, while reinforced-polypropylenes exhibited voids and debonding/detachment of filler particles. The severity of plastic deformation in reinforced polypropylenes is a function of debonding/detachment of mineral particles, which is comparatively more for talc-reinforced polypropylenes than wollastonite-reinforced polypropylenes because of the layered structure of talc that encourages delamination. Usage of coating and coupling agents improved the resistance to scratch deformation by promoting adhesion and bonding between the reinforcement and matrix

  7. Cost-effectiveness of indwelling pleural catheter compared with talc in malignant pleural effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfert, Jordan A P; Penz, Erika D; Manns, Braden J; Mishra, Eleanor K; Davies, Helen E; Miller, Robert F; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Gao, Song; Rahman, Najib M

    2017-05-01

    Malignant pleural effusion is associated with morbidity and mortality. A randomized controlled trial previously compared clinical outcomes and resource use with indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) and talc pleurodesis in this population. Using unpublished quality of life data, we estimate the cost-effectiveness of IPC compared with talc pleurodesis. Healthcare utilization and costs were captured during the trial. Utility weights produced by the EuroQol Group five-dimensional three-level questionnaire and survival were used to determine quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) gained. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated over the 1-year trial period. Sensitivity analysis used patient survival data and modelled additional nursing time required per week for catheter drainage. Utility scores, cost and QALYs gained did not differ significantly between groups. The ICER for IPC compared with talc was favorable at $US10 870 per QALY gained. IPC was less costly with a probability exceeding 95% of being cost-effective when survival was pleural effusion in patients without history of prior pleurodesis, with consideration for patient survival, support and preferences. © 2016 The Authors. Respirology published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  8. Malignant pleural effusions and the role of talc poudrage and talc slurry: a systematic review and meta-analysis [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/52v

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Mummadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malignant Pleural Effusion (MPE is common with advanced malignancy. Palliative care with minimal adverse events is the cornerstone of management. Although talc pleurodesis plays an important role in treatment, the best modality of talc application remains controversial.   Objective: To compare rates of successful pleurodesis, rates of respiratory and non-respiratory complications between thoracoscopic talc insufflation/poudrage (TTI and talc slurry (TS.  Data sources and study selection: MEDLINE (PubMed, OVID,  EBM Reviews (Cochrane database of Systematic Reviews, ACP Journal Club, DARE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Methodology Register, Health Technology Assessment and NHS Economic Evaluation Database, EMBASE and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials published between 01/01/1980 - 10/1/2014 and comparing the two strategies were selected.  Results: Twenty-eight potential studies were identified of which 24 studies were further excluded, leaving four studies. No statistically significant difference in the probability of successful pleurodesis was observed between TS and TTI groups (RR 1.06; 95 % CI 0.99-1.14; Q statistic, 4.84. There was a higher risk of post procedural respiratory complications in the TTI group compared to the TS group (RR 1.91, 95% CI= 1.24-2.93, Q statistic 3.15. No statistically significant difference in the incidence of non-respiratory complications between the TTI group and the TS group was observed (RR 0.88, 95% CI= 0.72-1.07, Q statistic 4.61. Conclusions: There is no difference in success rates of pleurodesis based on patient centered outcomes between talc poudrage and talc slurry treatments.  Respiratory complications are more common with talc poudrage via thoracoscopy.

  9. Preparation of Mg-α SiAlON powder by carbothermal reduction-nitridation of talc and halloysite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qui, J.Y.; Zhang, C.; Komeya, K.; Meguro, T.; Tatami, J.; Cheng, Y.-B.

    2001-01-01

    Carbothermal reduction-nitridation (CRN) of talc (Mg 3 (Si 2 O 5 ) 2 (OH) 2 ) and halloysite (Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) clay provides a useful route for preparing low-cost Mg-α sialon powder. In this study, the chosen molecular ratios of talc to halloysite were 0.1:1, 0.2:1, 1.5:1.0 and 2.0:1. The CRN reaction was conducted at 1450 to 1520 deg C and 2 to 6h holding time using carbon black as a reducing agent in flowing N 2 (gas). The results showed the synthesized powder was composed of α-sialon, β-sialon and small amounts of SiC, 15R and AlN phases that greatly depended on the ratio of talc to halloysite, the reaction temperature and holding time. The highest content of Mg-α sialon, as much as 90wt%, was achieved at 1480 deg C for a holding time of 4h at a talc to halloysite ratio of 1.5:1.0. SiC was considered as an intermediate compound. We also discuss the evaporation loss of Mg caused by talc decomposing into MgSiN 2 intermediate phase in the CRN reaction. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  10. Non-Chromated Surface Pretreatments for Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    98001 G rum man Aircraft System s .................................................. I Attn: L. Troupia Bethpage, NY 11714-3582 Hughes Aircraft Co...1 Attn: R. lezzi 4636 Somerton Rd. Trevose, PA 19053-6783 Boeing Aerospace & Electronics

  11. Non-Chromate Passivation of Zinc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1993-01-01

    Phos). The treatments are within the same concentration region, and they have a mutual pat-ent pending. Although some tests still need to be conducted, the following aspects are clear at the present time: The general appearance of the passivated zinc surface is very similar to a standard yellow chromate treatment...... successfully. The corrosion resistance against white rust on zinc and zinc alloys is just as good as that of yellow chromate, although the result de-pends on the corrosion test method as well as on the nature of the zinc substrate pas-sivated. The passivation procedure is simply a dip for approxi-mately 2...

  12. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Influence of Particle Size in Talc Suppression by a Galactomannan Depressant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiang Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flotation behavior of different sizes of particles may follow different trends. The influence of particle size in talc suppression by a depressant galactomannan was studied in this research. The flotation response and mechanism were examined by flotation tests, modified flotation rate constant and entrainment recovery calculation, laser particle size experiments, adsorption tests, and advancing contact angle measurement as well as scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS. The maximum recovery increased with particle size increases in the absence of galactomannan FPY (Fenugreek polysaccharide. The obviously suppressed effect was observed for the size fraction of −74 + 38 μm after reacting with FPY, but low efficiency was received for −38 μm and −10 μm, respectively. Laser particle size analysis indicated that the FPY has a certain function for the flocculation of fine particles. It is beneficial for reducing recovery by entrainment. EDS and advancing contact angle test results showed that the difference in contact angles probably is a result of genuine differences in the quantity of O and Mg bearing surface species, while the contact angle varied with particle size fraction in the absence of FPY. Adsorption and SEM test results demonstrated that in the case of −74 + 38 μm, the depressant adsorption density on the mineral surface is higher than the other two size fractions. On the whole, FPY probably is not enough of a depressant for talc suppression.

  14. Optimizing the grain size distribution for talc-magnesite ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škvarla Jiøí

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Flotation is the only separation method with an universal utilization. Along with the separation of particulate valuable or hazardous components from primary and seconadry mineral raw materials, it is of usage in biotechnologies and water cleaning. The success of the flotation separation crucially depends on the particle size distribution or composition of the ore charge entering the process. The paper deals with the problem of flotation treatment of talc-magnesite ore. The main components of the ore, i.e. talc and magnesite are appreciably different in their grindability and floatability. For such a type of raw material, grinding of the charge plays a very important role in the process. The (unwanted influence of ultrafine particles on the course of the flotation process is well known. On the other hand, in order to liberate and subsequently to selectively separate both the components, a maximum particle size has to be respected.An influence of artificial samples of selected particle size fractions on the flotation efficiency has been studied experimentally by the quantitative evaluation of flotation products. The flotation experiments on the samples provided an information not obtainable from traditional flotation tests. An adverse effect of the size fraction 0 – 0.04 mm was revealed, decreasing the flotation selectivity appreciably. These results are of theoretical and practical importance.

  15. Assessment of Plant-Probiotic Performance of Novel Endophytic Bacillus sp. in Talc-Based Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Jasim; Ravi, Aswani; Mathew, Jyothis; Krishnankutty, Radhakrishnan Edayileveettil

    2018-01-25

    Endophytic bacteria are considered to have a plethora of plant growth promoting and anti-phytopathogenic traits to live within the plants. Hence, they have immense promises for plant probiotic development. In the current study, plant probiotic endophytic Bacillus sp. CaB5 which has been previously isolated from Capsicum annuum was investigated for its performance in talc-based formulation. For this, CaB5 was made into formulation with sterile talc, calcium carbonate, and carboxymethyl cellulose. The viability analysis of the formulation by standard plate count and fluorescence methods has confirmed the stable microbial count up to 45 days. Plant probiotic performance of the prepared formulation was analyzed on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and lady's finger (Abelmoschus esculentus). The results showed the formulation treatment to have enhancement effect on seed germination as well as plant growth in both selected plants. The results highlight the potential of CaB5-based formulation for field application to enhance growth of economically important plants.

  16. Environmental Particle Emissions due to Automated Drilling of Polypropylene Composites and Nanocomposites Reinforced with Talc, Montmorillonite and Wollastonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starost, K.; Frijns, E.; Laer, J. V.; Faisal, N.; Egizabal, A.; Elizextea, C.; Nelissen, I.; Blazquez, M.; Njuguna, J.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the effect on nanoparticle emissions due to drilling on Polypropylene (PP) reinforced with 20% talc, 5% montmorillonite (MMT) and 5% Wollastonite (WO) is investigated. The study is the first to explore the nanoparticle release from WO and talc reinforced composites and compares the results to previously researched MMT. With 5% WO, equivalent tensile properties with a 10 % weight reduction were obtained relative to the reference 20% talc sample. The materials were fabricated through injection moulding. The nanorelease studies were undertaken using the controlled drilling methodology for nanoparticle exposure assessment developed within the European Commission funded SIRENA Life 11 ENV/ES/506 project. Measurements were taken using CPC and DMS50 equipment for real-time characterization and measurements. The particle number concentration (of particles <1000nm) and particle size distribution (4.87nm - 562.34nm) of the particles emitted during drilling were evaluated to investigate the effect of the silicate fillers on the particles released. The nano-filled samples exhibited a 33% decrease (MMT sample) or a 30% increase (WO sample) on the average particle number concentration released in comparison to the neat polypropylene sample. The size distribution data displayed a substantial percentage of the particles released from the PP, PP/WO and PP/MMT samples to be between 5-20nm, whereas the PP/talc sample emitted larger particle diameters.

  17. Optimization of operating variables for production of ultra-fine talc in a stirred mill. Specific surface area investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toraman Oner Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to its properties such as chemical inertness, softness, whiteness, high thermal conductivity, low electrical conductivity and adsorption properties talc has wide industrial applications in paper, cosmetics, paints, polymer, ceramics, refractory materials and pharmaceutical. The demand for ultra-fine talc is emerging which drives the mineral industry to produce value added products. In this study, it was investigated how certain grinding parameters such as mill speed, ball filling ratio, powder filling ratio and grinding time of dry stirred mill affect grindability of talc ore (d97=127 μm. A series of laboratory experiments using a 24 full factorial design was conducted to determine the optimal operational parameters of a stirred mill in order to minimize the specific surface area. The main and interaction effects on the volume specific surface area (SV, m2.cm−3 of the ground product were evaluated using the Yates analysis. Under the optimal conditions at the stirrer speed of 600 rpm, grinding time of 20 min, sample mass of 5% and ball ratio of 70%, the resulting talc powder had larger volume specific surface area (i.e., 3.48 m2.cm−3 than the starting material (i.e., 1.84 m2.cm−3.

  18. Looking Like Gold: Chlorite and Talc Transformation in the Golden Slip Ware Production (Swat Valley, North-Western Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maritan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The archaeometric study of the “golden slip” ware (second century BCE—fourth century CE at the site of Barikot (Swat, north-western Pakistan aimed to define its manufacturing technology and provenance of the raw materials used. For this reason, a multianalytical approach consisting of the microscopic, microstructural and mineralogical analysis of both the golden slip and the ceramic paste was adopted. The slip was found to be composed by platy minerals, microchemically identified as talc and chlorite; their intimate association indicated clearly that they derived from a chlorite-talc schist. This rock is geologically available near the site in the “green stones” lenses within the Mingora ophiolites outcropping in the Swat valley. Due to the use of this stone also for the production of stone tools, it cannot be excluded that the chlorite-talc schist used for the golden slip can be derived from manufacturing residues of the Gandharan sculptures. In order to constrain the firing production technology, laboratory replicas were produced using a locally collected clay and coating them with ground chlorite-talc schist. On the basis of the mineralogical association observed in both the slip and the ceramic paste and the thermodynamic stability of the pristine mineral phases, the golden slip pottery underwent firing under oxidising conditions in the temperature interval between 800 °C and 850 °C. The golden and shining looks of the slip were here interpreted as the result of the combined light reflectance of the platy structure of the talc-based coating and the uniform, bright red colour of the oxidized ceramic background.

  19. Dehydration kinetics of talc and 10 Å phase: Consequences for subduction zone seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Mélanie; Daniel, Isabelle; Koga, Kenneth T.; Petitgirard, Sylvain; Morard, Guillaume

    2009-06-01

    The process of dehydration embrittlement is usually proposed as an explanation for the presence of intermediate-depth earthquakes in subduction zones. It assumes that the release of water by hydrous mineral breakdown is fast enough to provoke brittle failure. We performed high-pressure, high-temperature, dehydration experiments of talc and 10 Å phase coupled with in situ measurement of reaction kinetics using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Newly developed, X-ray transparent, pressure-sealed, titanium capsule ensured a closed thermochemical environment. From isothermal kinetics data fitted to the Avrami's equation and from the texture of reaction products, we conclude that dehydration rates of these minerals are limited by diffusion. Predicted minimum rates of fluid release range from 10 - 4 to 9 × 10 - 6 m 3fluid m - 3 rock s - 1 , and are fast enough to provoke hydraulic rupture since Maxwell relaxation rate of rocks relevant of subduction zones are slower than the rate of fluid release. These rates are comparable between talc, 10 Å phase and antigorite also [Perrillat, J.-P., Daniel, I., Koga, K.T., Reynard, B., Cardon, H., Crichton, W.A., 2005. Kinetics of antigorite dehydration: a real-time X-ray diffraction study. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 236, 899-913]. Consequently, we suggest that the dehydration of hydrous minerals may eventually be fast enough to trigger the intermediate-depth earthquakes, and that the deepest among intermediate-depth earthquakes may actually locate the limits for dehydration of hydrous minerals in the downgoing lithosphere.

  20. Effect of Hybrid Talc-Basalt Fillers in the Shell Layer on Thermal and Mechanical Performance of Co-Extruded Wood Plastic Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Runzhou; Mei, Changtong; Xu, Xinwu; Kärki, Timo; Lee, Sunyoung; Wu, Qinglin

    2015-12-08

    Hybrid basalt fiber (BF) and Talc filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and co-extruded wood-plastic composites (WPCs) with different BF/Talc/HDPE composition levels in the shell were prepared and their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties were characterized. Incorporating BFs into the HDPE-Talc composite substantially enhanced the thermal expansion property, flexural, tensile and dynamic modulus without causing a significant decrease in the tensile and impact strength of the composites. Strain energy estimation suggested positive and better interfacial interactions of HDPE with BFs than that with talc. The co-extruded structure design improved the mechanical properties of WPC due to the protective shell layer. The composite flexural and impact strength properties increased, and the thermal expansion decreased as BF content increased in the hybrid BF/Talc filled shells. The cone calorimetry data demonstrated that flame resistance of co-extruded WPCs was improved with the use of combined fillers in the shell layer, especially with increased loading of BFs. The combined shell filler system with BFs and Talc could offer a balance between cost and performance for co-extruded WPCs.

  1. Deposition of talc - kerolite-smectite - smectite at seafloor hydrothermal vent fields: Evidence from mineralogical, geochemical and oxygen isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, V.M.; Cuadros, J.; Shanks, Wayne C.; Koski, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Talc, kerolite-smectite, smectite, chlorite-smectite and chlorite samples from sediments, chimneys and massive sulfides from six seafloor hydrothermal areas have been analyzed for mineralogy, chemistry and oxygen isotopes. Samples are from both peridotite- and basalt-hosted hydrothermal systems, and basaltic systems include sediment-free and sediment-covered sites. Mg-phyllosilicates at seafloor hydrothermal sites have previously been described as talc, stevensite or saponite. In contrast, new data show tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicates ranging from pure talc and Fe-rich talc, through kerolite-rich kerolite-smectite to smectite-rich kerolite-smectite and tri-octahedral smectite. The most common occurrence is mixed-layer kerolite-smectite, which shows an almost complete interstratification series with 5 to 85% smectitic layers. The smectite interstratified with kerolite is mostly tri-octahedral. The degree of crystal perfection of the clay sequence decreases generally from talc to kerolite-smectite with lower crystalline perfection as the proportion of smectite layers in kerolite-smectite increases. Our studies do not support any dependence of the precipitated minerals on the type/subtype of hydrothermal system. Oxygen isotope geothermometry demonstrates that talc and kerolite-smectite precipitated in chimneys, massive sulfide mounds, at the sediment surface and in open cracks in the sediment near seafloor are high-temperature (> 250????C) phases that are most probably the result of focused fluid discharge. The other end-member of this tri-octahedral Mg-phyllosilicate sequence, smectite, is a moderate-temperature (200-250????C) phase forming deep within the sediment (??? 0.8??m). Chlorite and chlorite-smectite, which constitute the alteration sediment matrix around the hydrothermal mounds, are lower-temperature (150-200????C) phases produced by diffuse fluid discharge through the sediment around the hydrothermal conduits. In addition to temperature, other two

  2. Dosification of a cement-talc-chamotte refractory mortar subjected to thermal shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittl, P.

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available A cement-talc-chamotte refractory mixture was dosified by subjecting the same to thermal shock. To this end, specimens compacted to 350 Kg/cm2 through compression as well as specimens compacted manually were prepared. All the specimens were submitted to an initial working temperature of 1000ºC and then left to cool down to room temperature. The thermal shock was originated by heating the specimens in an oven till reaching a certain temperature T¡ and then quenching the same through immersion in water at 20ºC; temperature T¡ was varied between 170ºC and 970ºC by means of 100ºC increments. The optimum dosification amounting to 90 % cement-talc and 10 % chamotte was obtained by studying mean stress at compression fracture of five cement-talc-chamote mixtures as a function of thermal shock. In addition, thermal fatigue exhibited by the optimum dosification was studied through the determination of mean loss in compressive strength, which amounted to 52% after 7 cycles with ΔT = 500ºC.

    Se dosificó una mezcla refractaria cemento-talco-chamota sometiéndola a un choque térmico. Con este objeto se fabricaron probetas compactadas a 350 kg/cm2 mediante compresión y probetas compactadas manualmente. Se aplicó a todas ellas una temperatura inicial de trabajo a 1.000 ºC, luego se las dejó enfriar hasta que alcanzaran la temperatura de sala del laboratorio. El choque térmico se originó calentando las probetas en un horno hasta una temperatura T¡ y luego se las enfrió súbitamente sumergiéndolas en agua a 20 ºC; la temperatura T¡ varió entre 170 ºC y 970 ºC con incrementos de 100 ºC. La dosificación óptima, 90% cemento-talco y 10% chamota, se obtuvo estudiando la tensión media de fractura a la compresión de cinco mezclas de cemento-talco-chamota en función del choque térmico. Se estudió además la fatiga térmica de la dosificación óptima determinando la

  3. TALC, a new deployable concept for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Reveret, Vincent; Aussel, Herve; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jerome; Motte, Frederique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Scola, Loris; Carty, Michael

    2014-01-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20 m and ring thickness of 3 m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryo-cooler at 0.3 K as one of the main instruments. This

  4. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  5. Phyllosilicate weathering pathways in chlorite-talc bearing soil parent materials, D.R. Congo: early findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, Mathijs; Oostermeyer, Fran; Timmermans, Els; De Meulemeester, Aschwin; Mees, Florias; Van Driessche, Isabel; Erens, Hans; Bazirake Mujinya, Basile; Van Ranst, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The study of the formation and transformation of clay minerals is of the upmost importance to understand soil formation and to adjust land-use management to the land surface conditions. These clay minerals determine to a large extent the soil physical and chemical properties. It is commonly observed that over time the mineralogy of any parent material is transformed to a simple assemblage composed mostly of Al and Fe oxides and low-activity clays, e.g. kaolinite. This is especially obvious in the humid tropics, which have been protected from glacial erosion, allowing deep, highly weathered soils to form. Despite the abundant presence of kaolinite in these soils, its formation pathways are still under debate: either neoformation by dissolution-crystallisation reactions or solid-state transformation of 2:1 phyllosilicates. To elucidate this, weathering sequences in a unique 40 m core taken below a termite mound, reaching a talc-chlorite bearing substrate in the Lubumbashi area, Katanga, DR Congo are being investigated in detail using a.o. quantitative X-ray diffraction analysis, chemical characterization, micromorphology and µXRF-scanning with the main objective to improve the understanding of the formation pathways of kaolinite subgroup minerals in humid tropical environments. Based on an initial characterization of the core, two zones of interest were selected for more detailed analysis, for which the early findings will be presented. The first zone extends from ca. 9 m to 11 m below the surface is dominated by kaolinite but shows early traces of primary talc and micas. The second zone extends from 34 to 36 m below the surface and contains large amounts of chlorite, with smaller amounts of talc, micas and kaolinite.

  6. Protocol of the Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial: a multicentre randomised study comparing indwelling pleural catheter versus talc pleurodesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fysh, Edward T H; Thomas, Rajesh; Read, Catherine A; Lam, Ben C H; Yap, Elaine; Horwood, Fiona C; Lee, Pyng; Piccolo, Francesco; Shrestha, Ranjan; Garske, Luke A; Lam, David C L; Rosenstengel, Andrew; Bint, Michael; Murray, Kevin; Smith, Nicola A; Lee, Y C Gary

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant pleural effusion can complicate most cancers. It causes breathlessness and requires hospitalisation for invasive pleural drainages. Malignant effusions often herald advanced cancers and limited prognosis. Minimising time spent in hospital is of high priority to patients and their families. Various treatment strategies exist for the management of malignant effusions, though there is no consensus governing the best choice. Talc pleurodesis is the conventional management but requires hospitalisation (and substantial healthcare resources), can cause significant side effects, and has a suboptimal success rate. Indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) allow ambulatory fluid drainage without hospitalisation, and are increasingly employed for management of malignant effusions. Previous studies have only investigated the length of hospital care immediately related to IPC insertion. Whether IPC management reduces time spent in hospital in the patients’ remaining lifespan is unknown. A strategy of malignant effusion management that reduces hospital admission days will allow patients to spend more time outside hospital, reduce costs and save healthcare resources. Methods and analysis The Australasian Malignant Pleural Effusion (AMPLE) trial is a multicentred, randomised trial designed to compare IPC with talc pleurodesis for the management of malignant pleural effusion. This study will randomise 146 adults with malignant pleural effusions (1:1) to IPC management or talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary end point is the total number of days spent in hospital (for any admissions) from treatment procedure to death or end of study follow-up. Secondary end points include hospital days specific to pleural effusion management, adverse events, self-reported symptom and quality-of-life scores. Ethics and dissemination The Sir Charles Gairdner Group Human Research Ethics Committee has approved the study as have the ethics boards of all the participating hospitals. The

  7. Hydrothermal Upflow, Serpentinization and Talc Alteration Associated with a High Angle Normal Fault Cutting an Oceanic Detachment, Northern Apennines, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, J.; Crispini, L.; Gaggero, L.; Shanks, W. C., III; Gulbransen, C.; Lavagnino, G.

    2017-12-01

    Normal faults cutting oceanic core complexes are observed at the seafloor and through geophysics, and may act as flow pathways for hydrothermal fluids, but we know little about such faults in the subsurface. We present bulk rock geochemistry and stable isotope data for a fault that acted as a hydrothermal upflow zone in a seafloor ultramafic-hosted hydrothermal system in the northern Apennines, Italy. Peridotites were exposed on the seafloor by detachment faulting, intruded by MORB gabbros, and are overlain by MORB lavas and pelagic sediments. North of the village of Reppia are fault shear zones in serpentinite, oriented at a high angle to the detachment surface and extending 300 m below the paleo-seafloor. The paleo-seafloor strikes roughly east-west, dipping 30˚ to the north. At depth the fault zone occurs as an anticlinal form plunging 40˚ to the west. A second fault strikes approximately north-south, with a near vertical dip. The fault rock outcrops as reddish weathered talc + sulfide in 0.1-2 m wide anastomosing bands, with numerous splays. Talc replaces serpentinite in the fault rocks, and the talc rocks are enriched in Si, metals (Fe, Cu, Pb), Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE), have variable Eu anomalies, and have low Mg, Cr and Ni contents. In some cases gabbro dikes are associated with talc-alteration and may have enhanced fluid flow. Sulfide from a fault rock has d34S=5.7‰. The mineralogy and chemistry of the fault rocks indicate that the fault acted as the upflow pathway for high-T black-smoker type fluids. Traverses away from the fault (up to 1 km) and with depth below the seafloor (up to 500 m) reveal variable influences of hydrothermal fluids, but there are no consistent trends with distance. Background serpentinites 500 m beneath the paleoseafloor have LREE depleted trends. Other serpentinites exhibit correlations of LREE with HFSE as the result of melt percolation, but there is significant scatter, and hydrothermal effects include LREE enrichment

  8. A development roadmap for critical technologies needed for TALC: a deployable 20m annular space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Marc; Amiaux, Jérome; Austin, James; Bello, Mara; Bianucci, Giovanni; Chesné, Simon; Citterio, Oberto; Collette, Christophe; Correia, Sébastien; Durand, Gilles A.; Molinari, Sergio; Pareschi, Giovanni; Penfornis, Yann; Sironi, Giorgia; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Verpoort, Sven; Wittrock, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Astronomy is driven by the quest for higher sensitivity and improved angular resolution in order to detect fainter or smaller objects. The far-infrared to submillimeter domain is a unique probe of the cold and obscured Universe, harboring for instance the precious signatures of key elements such as water. Space observations are mandatory given the blocking effect of our atmosphere. However the methods we have relied on so far to develop increasingly larger telescopes are now reaching a hard limit, with the JWST illustrating this in more than one way (e.g. it will be launched by one of the most powerful rocket, it requires the largest existing facility on Earth to be qualified). With the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC) project, a concept of a deployable 20 m annular telescope, we propose to break out of this deadlock by developing novel technologies for space telescopes, which are disruptive in three aspects: • An innovative deployable mirror whose topology, based on stacking rather than folding, leads to an optimum ratio of collecting area over volume, and creates a telescope with an eight times larger collecting area and three times higher angular resolution compared to JWST from the same pre-deployed volume; • An ultra-light weight segmented primary mirror, based on electrodeposited Nickel, Composite and Honeycomb stacks, built with a replica process to control costs and mitigate the industrial risks; • An active optics control layer based on piezo-electric layers incorporated into the mirror rear shell allowing control of the shape by internal stress rather than by reaction on a structure. We present in this paper the roadmap we have built to bring these three disruptive technologies to technology readiness level 3. We will achieve this goal through design and realization of representative elements: segments of mirrors for optical quality verification, active optics implemented on representative mirror stacks to characterize the shape correction

  9. GLASS FORMATION AND PROPERTIES OF CORDIERITE COMPOSITIONS FROM TALC-BASED NATURAL RAW MATERIALS WITH BORON OXIDE ADDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin GÜNAY

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the glass forming behaviour of cordierite compositions in MAS (MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 system with added B2O3 content up to 3% were studied by melting the natural raw materials such as; talc, kaolin, alumina and boric acid as the source of MgO, SiO2, Al2O3 and B2O3 respectively. XRD analysis revealed the glass formation. Optical properties of the glasses were measured using UV-VIS spectrophotometer and structural changes were monitored by using FT-IR spectrometer. Physical properties such as density, colour, thermal expansion coefficients and hardness were measured according to the standard test methods. Glasses with a green colour were produced and this was attributed to the Fe content in the glass up to 0.5% coming from talc and kaolin. The addition of B2O3 to the glasses increased the glass transition temperatures (Tg values and reduced the thermal expansion coefficient values of the glasses from 5.2226 to 5.0072ºCx10-6, for MAS-T-0 and MAS-T-3, respectively.

  10. Rapid adsorption of heavy metals by Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite and optimization study using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Katayoon; Ahmad, Mansor B; Masoumi, Hamid Reza Fard; Shameli, Kamyar; Basri, Mahiran; Khandanlou, Roshanak

    2014-07-21

    Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was used for removal of Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions. Experiments were designed by response surface methodology (RSM) and a quadratic model was used to predict the variables. The adsorption parameters such as adsorbent dosage, removal time, and initial ion concentration were used as the independent variables and their effects on heavy metal ion removal were investigated. Analysis of variance was incorporated to judge the adequacy of the models. Optimal conditions with initial heavy metal ion concentration of 100, 92 and 270 mg/L, 120 s of removal time and 0.12 g of adsorbent amount resulted in 72.15%, 50.23%, and 91.35% removal efficiency for Cu(II), Ni(II), and Pb(II), respectively. The predictions of the model were in good agreement with experimental results and the Fe3O4/talc nanocomposite was successfully used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

  11. Separation of aflatoxin B1 from synthetic physiological fluids using talc and diatomite: Kinetic and isotherm aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Krzemień-Konieczka, Iwona; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine adsorption of the aflatoxin B1 from synthetic gastric fluid and synthetic intestinal fluid by talc, raw and calcined diatomite. The kinetic and equilibrium adsorption processes were studied in the batch adsorption experiments applying high performance liquid chromatography for the aflatoxin B1 determination. The kinetic study showed a very fast adsorption of the aflatoxin B1 onto the selected adsorbents from the both physiological fluids with reaching equilibrium within 1-15min. The aflatoxin B1 was almost completely adsorbed in initial linear step of the kinetic process that can be described well by the zero-order kinetics model. The experimental data of the equilibrium adsorption were characterized using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The high adsorption effectiveness was found in a range of 90%-100% and 60%-100% for the diatomite samples and the talc respectively at the initial concentrations of the aflatoxin B1 as 31-300ng/mL. The possible mechanisms of the aflatoxin adsorption onto the used mineral adsorbents are also discussed in the work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Removal of zearalenone toxin from synthetics gastric and body fluids using talc and diatomite: a batch kinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprynskyy, Myroslav; Gadzała-Kopciuch, Renata; Nowak, Karolina; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2012-06-01

    Adsorption kinetics of zearalenone (ZEA) toxin from synthetic gastric fluid (SGF) and synthetic body fluid (SBF) by talc and diatomite was studied in the batch experiments. Chemical composition, morphology and structure of the used adsorbents were examined by scanning electron microscopy, FTIR spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption/desorption method. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was used for ZEA determining. The study results showed that ZEA is more effectively adsorbed on the talc (73% and 54% from SGF and SBF respectively). The efficiency on the diatomite was lower (53% and 42% from SGF and SBF respectively). The first order kinetics model was applied to describe the adsorption process. Rate of the ZEA adsorption from SGF is very rapid initially with about 95% of amount of the toxin adsorbed during first 5 min, while ZEA is adsorbed from SBF in two steps. The values of determined Gibbs free energy of adsorption (from -13 to -17 kJ/mol) indicated that adsorption of ZEA toxin by the both adsorbents are spontaneous and exothermic. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvakumar, D.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai – 600025 (India); Thenammai, A. N.; Hemamalini, R. [Department of Physics, Queen Mary’s College, Chennai – 600004 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  14. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakumar, D.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Jayavel, R.; Thenammai, A. N.; Hemamalini, R.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application

  15. Enriched adhesion of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on cotton fabric assisted by aloe-vera for bio-medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, D.; Thenammai, A. N.; Yogamalar, N. R.; Hemamalini, R.; Jayavel, R.

    2015-06-01

    Synthesis and characterization of talc/ZnO nanocomposites with the assistance of aloe-vera are investigated by structural and morphological studies. The crystal structure and the phase analysis of ZnO and talc are characterized and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The average crystallite size estimation from the Scherrer formula and the particle size analysis clearly predicts that the size of the ZnO declines when aloe-vera is used as a capping molecule in comparison to the commercially available ZnO. The reduced crystallite size of ZnO renders a stable cohesion with the talc composition and the presence of distinct functional group pyridines/ammonia in the synthesized nanocomposites enriches the good adhesion between the as-synthesized material and cotton fabric. The adhesion and homogeneous distribution of talc/ZnO nanocomposites on the cotton fabric are inferred from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. The basic studies and characterizations would pave way for futuristic bio-medical application.

  16. Uranium conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina

    2006-03-01

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF 6 and UF 4 are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material

  17. Geologic feasibility of talc and serpentinite bodies from the Appalachian Mountain region of eastern United States with regard to siting of radioactive-waste repositories. Part I. Additional conclusions relating to ultramafic rocks. Part II. Field investigations of talc and serpentinite deposits. Supplementary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenner, D.B.

    1976-01-01

    Ultramafic rocks and serpentinites appear to have many favorable features that make them worthy of further consideration. Such rock types are widely distributed in this country and display wide variations in their physical properties, based largely on the degree of serpentinization and mineral content. For example, serpentinite has certain self-sealing and flowage characteristics that render it impermeable at depth, whereas unserpentinized ultramafic rocks are structurally very rigid and strong. Another favorable property of ultramafic rocks is the relatively low thermal expansion coefficient. Talc also has some favorable features and characteristics such as a high thermal stability and a low porosity and permeability. This present study has verified that very little ground water influx occurs in talcose rocks except in large fault zones. A major drawback for the usage of talc for containment of radioactive wastes is due to the relatively small sizes of most bodies. However, some of the large talc-carbonate units in the Missisquoi Valley Region of Vermont has potential. Consideration should also be given to other crystalline rocks as well, particularly schists, since they commonly contain micaceous materials which have similar properties to talc and serpentine. In considering various types of rocks for containment of radioactive wastes, the important properties are thermal conductivities, thermal expansion coefficients, thermal stabilities, and how high radiation fluxes affect these properties

  18. Non-chromate Passivation for LHE ZnNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    corrosion coatings for aerospace applications”, Metal Finishing, pp. 28-31, February 2010. 15. M. J. O’Keefe, W. G. Fahrenholtz, J. O. Stoffer, and E. L...coatings (CeCCs) developed at Missouri S&T using cerium chloride and cerium nitrate sources. Electrical components, low contact resistance passivation...13 Trivalent and Hexavalent Chromium Based Passivation Deposition ................................... 14 Corrosion

  19. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  20. Preservation in microbial mats: mineralization by a talc-like phase of a fish embedded in a microbial sarcophagus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesto, Miguel; Zeyen, Nina; López-Archilla, Ana; Bernard, Sylvain; Buscalioni, Ángela; Guerrero, M. Carmen; Benzerara, Karim

    2015-09-01

    Microbial mats have been repeatedly suggested to promote early fossilization of macroorganisms. Yet, experimental simulations of this process remain scarce. Here, we report results of 5 year-long experiments performed onfish carcasses to document the influence of microbial mats on mineral precipitation during early fossilization. Carcasses were initially placed on top of microbial mats. After two weeks, fishes became coated by the mats forming a compact sarcophagus, which modified the microenvironment close to the corpses. Our results showed that these conditions favoured the precipitation of a poorly crystalline silicate phase rich in magnesium. This talc-like mineral phase has been detected in three different locations within the carcasses placed in microbial mats for more than 4 years: 1) within inner tissues, colonized by several bacillary cells; 2) at the surface of bones of the upper face of the corpse buried in the mat; and 3) at the surface of several bones such as the dorsal fin which appeared to be gradually replaced by the Mg-silicate phase. This mineral phase has been previously shown to promote bacteria fossilization. Here we provide first experimental evidence that such Mg-rich phase can also be involved in exceptional preservation of animals.

  1. Pictorial Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Kristina

    1982-01-01

    Provides the rationale for considering communication in a graphic domain and suggests a specific goal for designing work stations which provide graphic capabilities in educational settings. The central element of this recommendation is the "pictorial conversation", a highly interactive exchange that includes pictures as the central elements.…

  2. Some features associated with organosilane groups grafted by the sol-gel process onto synthetic talc-like phyllosilicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, José A A; Petrucelli, Giovanni C; Oliveira, Fernando J V E; Airoldi, Claudio

    2006-05-01

    Two new lamellar inorganic-organic magnesium silicates have been successfully synthesized by using sol-gel based processes under mild temperature conditions. The talc-organosilicates derived using two silylating agents as the silicon source, (i) 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane, and (ii) from the attachment of 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol molecule to this precursor agent, yielded PhMg-Cl and PhMg-Tz phyllosilicates. These organoclays were characterized through elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, surface area, thermogravimetry, and carbon and silicon solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results confirmed the presence of organic moieties covalently bonded to the inorganic silicon sheet network of the 2:1 class of phyllosilicates, with a density of organic molecules of 6.6+/-0.1 and 2.7+/-0.2 mmol g(-1) anchored on the inorganic layer and with interlayer distances of 1158 and 1628 pm, respectively. The nuclear magnetic resonances results in the solid state are in agreement with the sequence of carbons distributed in the pendant chains of the original silylating agents and the silicon bonded to oxygen atoms or carbon atoms of the inorganic sheets, as expected for the organically functionalized phyllosilicates. The enhanced potential of the new compound PhMg-Tz as a multi property material was explored in adsorbing cations from aqueous solution. The basic sulfur and nitrogen centers attached to the pendant chains inside the lamellar cavity can coordinate mercury, by presenting an isotherm saturated at 0.19 mmol g(-1) of this heavy metal. The functionality of this organoclay-like material expresses its potential for heavy cation removal from an ecosystem.

  3. Quantum conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Mazilu, Michael

    2015-01-01

    ICOAM 2015 The electromagnetic momentum transferred transferred to scattering particles is proportional to the intensity of the incident fields, however, the momentum of single photons ℏk does not naturally appear in these classical expressions. Here, we discuss an alternative to Maxwell's stress tensor that renders the classical electromagnetic field momentum compatible to the quantum mechanical one. This is achieved through the introduction of the quantum conversion which allows the tran...

  4. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  5. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  6. OPTIMUM: a protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing Out Patient Talc slurry via Indwelling pleural catheter for Malignant pleural effusion vs Usual inpatient Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, P; Douiri, A; West, A; Rao, D; Warwick, G; Chen, T; Ahmed, L

    2016-10-18

    The development of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) results in disabling breathlessness, pain and reduced physical capability with treatment a palliative strategy. Ambulatory management of MPE has the potential to improve quality of life (QoL). The OPTIMUM trial is designed to determine whether full outpatient management of MPE with an indwelling pleural catheter (IPC) and pleurodesis improves QoL compared with traditional inpatient care with a chest drain and talc pleurodesis. OPTIMUM is currently open for any centres interested in collaborating in this study. OPTIMUM is a multicentre non-blinded randomised controlled trial. Patients with a diagnosis of MPE will be identified and screened for eligibility. Consenting participants will be randomised 1:1 either to an outpatient ambulatory pathway using IPCs and talc pleurodesis or standard inpatient treatment with chest drain and talc pleurodesis as per British Thoracic Society guidelines. The primary outcome measure is global health-related QoL at 30 days measured using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Secondary outcome measures include breathlessness and pain measured using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale and health-related QoL at 60 and 90 days. A sample size of 142 patients is needed to demonstrate a clinically significant difference of 8 points in global health status at 30 days, for an 80% power and a 5% significance level. The study has been approved by the NRES Committee South East Coast-Brighton and Sussex (reference 15/LO/1018). The trial results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at scientific conferences. UKCRN19615 and ISRCTN15503522; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Si-metasomatism in serpentinized peridotite: The effects of talc-alteration on strontium and boron isotopes in abyssal serpentinites from Hole 1268a, ODP Leg 209

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Savov, Ivan P.; Agostini, Samuele; Cliff, Robert A.; Walshaw, Richard

    2014-02-01

    Ultramafic rocks recovered from Hole 1268a, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 209, to the south of the 15°20‧N Fracture Zone on the Mid-Atlantic ridge have experienced a complex history of melt depletion and subsequent interaction with a series of fluids under varying temperature and pH conditions. After intense melt depletion, varying degrees of serpentinization at 100-200 °C took place, initially under seawater-like pH conditions. Subsequently, interaction with a higher temperature (300-350 °C) fluid with low (4-5) pH and low MgO/SiO2 resulted in the heterogeneous alteration of these serpentinites to talc-bearing ultramafic lithologies. The proximity of the currently active, high temperature Logatchev hydrothermal field, located on the opposite flank of the Mid-Atlantic ridge, suggests that unlike more distal localities sampled during ODP Leg 209, Hole 1268a has experienced Si-metasomatism (i.e. talc-alteration) by a Logatchev-like hydrothermal fluid. Serpentinite strontium isotope ratios were not materially shifted by interaction with the subsequent high-T fluid, despite the likelihood that this fluid had locally interacted with mid-ocean ridge gabbro. 87Sr/86Sr in the ultramafic lithologies of Hole 1268a are close to that of seawater (c.0.709) and even acid leached serpentinites retain 87Sr/86Sr in excess of 0.707, indistinguishable from Logatchev hydrothermal fluid. On the other hand, boron isotope ratios appear to have been shifted from seawater-like values in the serpentinites (δ11B = c.+40‰) to much lighter values in talc-altered serpentinites (δ11B = +9 to +20‰). This is likely a consequence of the effects of changing ambient pH and temperature during the mineralogical transition from serpentine to talc. Heterogeneous boron isotope systematics have consequences for the composition of ultramafic portions of the lithosphere returned to the convecting mantle by subduction. Inhomogeneities in δ11B, [B] and mineralogy introduce significant uncertainties in

  8. The science case and data processing strategy for the Thinned Aperture Light Collector (TALC): a project for a 20 m far-infrared space telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvage, Marc; Durand, Gilles A.; Rodriguez, Louis R.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Ronayette, Samuel; Aussel, Herve; Minier, Vincent; Motte, Frederique; Pantin, Eric J.; Sureau, Florent

    2014-01-01

    The future of far-infrared observations rests on our capacity to reach sub-arc-second angular resolution around 100 μm, in order to achieve a significant advance with respect to our current capabilities. Furthermore, by reaching this angular resolution we can bridge the gap between capacities offered by the JWST in the near infrared and those allowed by ALMA in the submillimeter, and thus benefit from similar resolving capacities over the whole wavelength range where interstellar dust radiates and where key atomic and molecular transitions are found. In an accompanying paper, we present a concept of a deployable annular telescope, named TALC for Thinned Aperture Light Collector, reaching 20 m in diameter. Being annular, this telescope features a main beam width equivalent to that of a 27 m telescope, i.e. an angular resolution of 0.92'' at 100 μm. In this paper we focus on the science case of such a telescope as well on the aspects of unconventional data processing that come with this unconventional optical configuration. The principal science cases of TALC revolve around its imaging capacities, that allow resolving the Kuiper belt in extra-solar planetary systems, or the filamentary scale in star forming clouds all the way to the Galactic Center, or the Narrow Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei of the Local Group, or breaking the confusion limit to resolve the Cosmic Infrared Background. Equipping this telescope with detectors capable of imaging polarimetry offers as well the extremely interesting perspective to study the influence of the magnetic field in structuring the interstellar medium. We will then present simulations of the optical performance of such a telescope. The main feature of an annular telescope is the small amount of energy contained in the main beam, around 30% for the studied configuration, and the presence of bright diffraction rings. Using simulated point spread functions for realistic broad-band filters, we study the observing

  9. A review of mortality associated with elongate mineral particle (EMP) exposure in occupational epidemiology studies of gold, talc, and taconite mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeffrey H; Alexander, Bruce H; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    Mining of gold, taconite, and talc may involve exposure to elongate mineral particles (EMP). The involved EMPs are typically non-asbestiform, include dimensions that regulatory definitions exclude, and have been less studied. A review of the literature was undertaken for this exposure and occupational epidemiological studies that occur in gold, talc, and taconite mining. Quantitative EMP exposure information in these industries is incomplete. However, there are consistent findings of pneumoconiosis in each of these types of mining. A recent case-control study suggests a possible association between this exposure and mesothelioma. Lung cancer is inconsistently reported in these industries and is an unlikely outcome of non-asbestiform EMP exposure. There is evidence of cardiovascular mortality excess across all of these types of mining. Non-malignant respiratory disease and cardiovascular mortality have been consistently increased in these industries. Further investigation, including additional insights for the role of non-asbestiform EMP, is warranted. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1047-1060, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Efficacy of short-term versus long-term chest tube drainage following talc slurry pleurodesis in patients with malignant pleural effusions: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Anna; Davies, Christopher W H

    2006-10-01

    Talc pleurodesis is commonly used in the palliative treatment of malignant pleural effusions but the shortest and most effective regime has not been determined. In particular, it is not clear when the intercostal drain should be removed following the insertion of sclerosant. We conducted a single-centre, randomised, open trial of drain removal at 24 h versus 72 h following talc slurry pleurodesis. The primary outcome measure was success of pleurodesis (no recurrence of effusion on chest radiograph at 1-month follow-up) and secondary outcome measures included length of hospital stay and mortality. We found no difference between recurrence of pleural effusion in those randomised to drain removal at 24 h and those randomised to drain removal at 72 h (p>0.5). However, length of stay was significantly reduced when the chest drain was removed at 24 h (4 days versus 8 days; p<0.01). Mortality did not differ between the two groups. We conclude that this shorter pleurodesis regime is safe and effective.

  11. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  12. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  13. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  14. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  15. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  16. Non Chromate, ZVOC Coatings for Steel Substrates on Army and Navy Aircraft and Ground Vehicles: Non Chromate Sealers for Zinc Phosphate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    2.2 TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION: PPG CHEMSEAL 100 ......................................... 4 2.3 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF THE TECHNOLOGY...after 80 Cycles of GM 9540P Exposure ......................................................................... 21 Figure 6-5. LCS (left) and HHA...right) with MIL-DTL-53022/MIL-DTL-64159, Scraped after 80 Cycles of GM 9540P Exposure

  17. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  18. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  19. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  20. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  1. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt

  2. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  3. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  4. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  5. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  6. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  7. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  9. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    and in regards to rehabilitation efforts. In the context of prisons UDI is inspired by the complexity approach (Stacey 2005). We seek to facilitate freely flowing conversations between inmates, staff and managers – pushing the boundaries of existing norms, roles and beliefs. In the end however we rely...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  10. Mining Conversational Social Video

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, Joan-Isaac

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of social media in our daily life, the intense user participation, and the explo- sion of multimedia content have generated an extraordinary interest from computer and social scientists to investigate the traces left by users to understand human behavior online. From this perspective, YouTube can be seen as the largest collection of audiovisual human behavioral data, among which conversational video blogs (vlogs) are one of the basic formats. Conversational vlogs have evolved fro...

  11. Persuasion detection in conversation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, Henry T.

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited In this thesis, we present a system for annotating persuasion in conversation based on a social-psychological model. We augmented the social model developed by James Cialdini with some of our own categories for annotators to label. The conversations consisted of 37 hostage negotiation transcripts from private and public sources, with all personal information removed from the private source transcripts. We evaluated the level of agre...

  12. Perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1963-10-15

    The objective of direct conversion is high electrical output for minimum total cost, and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment, and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy, and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (auth)

  13. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  14. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namkje Koudenburg

    Full Text Available Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here. The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay. Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  15. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  16. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  17. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    a renewable route to aromatics. The conversion of biomass by high temperature processes is a desirable prospect due to the high volumetric production rates which can be achieved, and the ability of these types of processes to convert a wide range of substrates. Current processes however typically have rather...... with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were...... to be an efficient initial conversion step in the utilization of biomass for chemicals production. The shift from an oil based chemical industry to one based on renewable resources is bound to happen sooner or later, however the environmental problems associated with the burning of fossil resources means...

  19. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Sato, Nobuo; Yano, Kazuo; Masuda, Naoki

    2011-08-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song , ScienceSCIEAS0036-8075 327, 1018 (2010)] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  20. Predictability of Conversation Partners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Takaguchi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in sensing technologies have enabled us to examine the nature of human social behavior in greater detail. By applying an information-theoretic method to the spatiotemporal data of cell-phone locations, [C. Song et al., Science 327, 1018 (2010SCIEAS0036-8075] found that human mobility patterns are remarkably predictable. Inspired by their work, we address a similar predictability question in a different kind of human social activity: conversation events. The predictability in the sequence of one’s conversation partners is defined as the degree to which one’s next conversation partner can be predicted given the current partner. We quantify this predictability by using the mutual information. We examine the predictability of conversation events for each individual using the longitudinal data of face-to-face interactions collected from two company offices in Japan. Each subject wears a name tag equipped with an infrared sensor node, and conversation events are marked when signals are exchanged between sensor nodes in close proximity. We find that the conversation events are predictable to a certain extent; knowing the current partner decreases the uncertainty about the next partner by 28.4% on average. Much of the predictability is explained by long-tailed distributions of interevent intervals. However, a predictability also exists in the data, apart from the contribution of their long-tailed nature. In addition, an individual’s predictability is correlated with the position of the individual in the static social network derived from the data. Individuals confined in a community—in the sense of an abundance of surrounding triangles—tend to have low predictability, and those bridging different communities tend to have high predictability.

  1. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  2. Dose conversion factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1992-01-01

    The following is discussed in this report: concepts and quantities used in calculating radiation dose from internal and external exposure. Tabulations of dose conversion factor for internal and external exposure to radionuclides. Dose conversion factors give dose per unit intake (internal) or dose per unit concentration in environment (external). Intakes of radionuclides for internal exposure and concentrations of radionuclides in environment for external exposure are assumed to be known. Intakes and concentrations are obtained, e.g., from analyses of environmental transport and exposure pathways. differences between dosimetry methods for radionuclides and hazardous chemicals are highlighted

  3. Ocean wave energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    McCormick, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    This volume will prove of vital interest to those studying the use of renewable resources. Scientists, engineers, and inventors will find it a valuable review of ocean wave mechanics as well as an introduction to wave energy conversion. It presents physical and mathematical descriptions of the nine generic wave energy conversion techniques, along with their uses and performance characteristics.Author Michael E. McCormick is the Corbin A. McNeill Professor of Naval Engineering at the U.S. Naval Academy. In addition to his timely and significant coverage of possible environmental effects associa

  4. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  5. Non-Chromate/No-VOC Coating System for DoD Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-31

    coaxial load applied during the removal stage does not distort the substrate material and cause a bulging or “ trampolining ” effect. On a thin... head -to- head performance across the gamut of metal finishing applications. Newer CFP chemistries have been developed in an attempt to improve overall...Previous NAVSEA testing showed good head -to- head performance for TCP post-treated ZnNi versus chromate post-treated ZnNi under neutral salt fog accelerated

  6. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    This thesis describes the catalytic conversion of bioethanol into higher value chemicals. The motivation has been the unavoidable coming depletion of the fossil resources. The thesis is focused on two ways of utilising ethanol; the steam reforming of ethanol to form hydrogen and the partial oxida...

  7. Electrochemical solar energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerischer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The principles of solar energy conversion in photoelectrochemical cells are briefly reviewed. Cells for the generation of electric power and for energy storage in form of electrochemical energy are described. These systems are compared with solid state photovoltaic devices, and the inherent difficulties for the operation of the electrochemical systems are analyzed. (author). 28 refs, 10 figs

  8. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...

  9. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  10. Conversation and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuurman, Jan Gerrit; Veermans, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Gordon Pask’s conversation theory was created in the 1970s. The theory encompasses a high-level framework for studying interactions between actors in artificial situations where people co-operate, have conflicts, follow rules, negotiate outcomes, invent new rules together, etc. Sadly, the theory is

  11. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  12. The Nanticoke conversion study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    A study was conducted to assess the conversion of the Nanticoke coal-fired power plant to cleaner burning natural gas combined-cycle gas turbines. The Nanticoke Generating Station on Lake Erie is responsible for more than 50 per cent of Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) coal-fired electricity production. The OPG is proposing to work towards compliance with the newly signed Ozone Annex to the 1991 Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement which will require fossil-fueled power plants in southern Ontario to reduce their smog-causing nitrogen oxides emissions by about 50 per cent by 2007. This study assessed the emission reduction benefits and financial costs of conversion compared to continuing to operate Nanticoke as a coal-fired plant. The analysis includes a base case set of data on fuel prices, retrofit costs, fuel efficiencies, annual capacity factors and other parameters. It was determined that conversion would cost the average household less than $3 per month on their electricity bill. Conversion would also reduce emissions nitrogen oxide, a major smog pollutant, by 83 per cent and the particulates that form the most health-threatening portion of smog would be reduced by 100 per cent. 15 tabs., 1 fig.

  13. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  14. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  15. Conversion tables. Appendix I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKerrell, H.

    1975-01-01

    Tables are presented for the conversion of standard (5568 year half-life) C-14 dates to calendar years. The major part of the data converts C-14 dates to tree-ring years: additional data are given, based on the Egyptian historical curve. (U.K.)

  16. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  17. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  18. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  19. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  20. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  1. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  2. Nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde

    OpenAIRE

    Chapovsky, Pavel L.

    2000-01-01

    Theoretical model of the nuclear spin conversion in formaldehyde (H2CO) has been developed. The conversion is governed by the intramolecular spin-rotation mixing of molecular ortho and para states. The rate of conversion has been found equal 1.4*10^{-4}~1/s*Torr. Temperature dependence of the spin conversion has been predicted to be weak in the wide temperature range T=200-900 K.

  3. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  4. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...

  5. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...

  6. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  7. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugama, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  8. The FLIC conversion codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, J C [General Reactor Physics Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1965-05-15

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  9. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  10. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  11. Lessons Learned in Technology Transition (Briefing Charts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    recertification • Environmental regulations • Federal clean air act • OSHA and EPA requirements – Cadmium, hexavalent chromium, VOC reduction • ReaCH Copyright...Efforts • Non-Chromated Exterior System Non-chromated conversion coat and primer • Non- Chrome for other areas • Chemical topcoat reactivation Future

  12. Conversion program in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, E.B. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The conversion of the Swedish 50 MW R2 reactor from HEU to LEU fuel has been successfully accomplished over a 16 cycles long process. The conversion started in January 1991 with the introduction of 6 LEU assemblies in the 8*8 core. The first all LEU core was loaded in March 1993 and physics measurements were performed for the final licensing reports. A total of 142 LEU fuel assemblies have been irradiated up until September 1994 without any fuel incident. The operating licence for the R2 reactor was renewed in mid 1994 taking into account new fuel type. The Swedish Nuclear Inspectorate (SKI) pointed out one crucial problem with the LEU operation, that the back end of the LEU fuel cycle has not yet been solved. For the HEU fuel Sweden had the reprocessing alternative. The country is now relying heavily on the success of the USDOEs Off Site Fuels Policy to take back the spent fuel from the research reactors. They have in the meantime increased their intermediate storage facilities. There is, however, a limit both in time and space for storage of MTR-type of assemblies in water. The penalty of the lower thermal neutron flux in LEU cores has been reduced by improvements of the new irradiation rigs and by fine tuning the core calculations. The Studsvik code package, CASMO-SIMULATE, widely used for ICFM in LWRs has been modified to suit the compact MTR type of core.

  13. Microbial conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, P. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Bioconversion and Sustainable Development

    2006-07-01

    Microbes are a biomass and an valuable resource. This presentation discussed microbial conversion technologies along with background information on microbial cells, their characteristics and microbial diversity. Untapped opportunities for microbial conversion were identified. Metagenomic and genome mining approaches were also discussed, as they can provide access to uncultivated or unculturable microorganisms in communal populations and are an unlimited resource for biocatalysts, novel genes and metabolites. Genome mining was seen as an economical approach. The presentation also emphasized that the development of microbial biorefineries would require significant insights into the relevant microorganisms and that biocatalysts were the ultimate in sustainability. In addition, the presentation discussed the natural fibres initiative for biochemicals and biomaterials. Anticipated outputs were identified and work in progress of a new enzyme-retting cocktail to provide diversity and/or consistency in fibre characteristics for various applications were also presented. It was concluded that it is necessary to leverage understanding of biological processes to produce bioproducts in a clean and sustainable manner. tabs., figs.

  14. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  15. Conversation with Meir Sternberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Pianzola

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Below are the videos of the interview recorded the 21st May 2011 in Fribourg (CH, in occasion of the first RRN conference. Conversation with Meir Sternberg. Part 1 of 8 - Narratology: classical and postclassical studies. Part 2 of 8 - The development of an original theoretical framework. Part 3 of 8 - Sternberg and Genette: different ways for the same problems. Part 4 of 8 - «There are no forms except in terms of functions». Part 5 of 8 - A life writing articles: so many papers and just four books. Part 6 of 8 - Two arguments against mimetical approaches to narrative. Part 7 of 8 - «Narrative is not given, it is a construct». Part 8 of 8 - The proteus principle. the many-to-many correspondence between forms and functions.

  16. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  17. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Nielsen, J.B.; Huntingford, S.; Halberg, N.

    1993-03-01

    The aim was to show the agricultural advantages of farmers being in connection with Communal Biogas Plant. Whether a more environmentally protectire distribution of plant nutrients from animal manure takes place through a biogas plants distribution system, whether the nitrogen in the digested slurry is better utilized and whether the connection results in slurry transportation-time reduction, are discussed. The average amount of nitrogen from animal manure used per hectare was reduced. The area of manure distribution was larger. The nitrogen efficiency was increased when using digested slurry and purchase of N mineral fertilizer decreased, resulting in considerable reduction in nitrogen leaching. The amount of slurry delivered to the local storage tanks was approximately 45 per cent of the total amount treated on the biogas plant. Conditions of manure transport improved greatly as this was now the responsibility of the communal biomass conversion plant administrators. (AB) (24 refs.)

  18. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  19. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  20. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  1. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  2. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  3. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  4. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  5. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  6. Career conversations in vocational schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mittendorff, K.M.; Brok, den P.J.; Beijaard, D.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career conversations between teachers and students in competence-based vocational education in the Netherlands. A total of 32 career conversations were observed and analysed with respect to four elements: content, teacher activities, student activities and

  7. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  8. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hoon [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future.

  9. Improvement of skeleton conversion in ICRP reference phantom conversion project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhao Jun; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Thang, Nguyen Tat; Kim, Han Sung; Han, Min Cheol; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seong Hoon

    2014-01-01

    In the previous skeleton conversion, most bones were directly converted from the ICRP voxel phantoms by using the 3D rendering method whereas several complex-shape bones (cranium, ribs, spines, feet, and hands) were not able to be directly converted. We alternatively employed the corresponding well-defined polygonal models and attempted to adjust them to match the voxel models. However, this approach was unsatisfactory. The shapes of the alternative models were significantly different from those of the voxel models, making it virtually impossible to exactly match the voxel models as shown in Fig. 3 (left). In order to overcome the difficulty in the complex bone conversion, the present study developed a new conversion method and converted these complex bones voxel models of the ICRP male phantom to polygonal models. The present study developed the new conversion method and successfully improved polygonal models for cranium, ribs, and spines for the ICRP male phantom. The new conversion method will be also applied to the complex bone conversion for the ICRP female phantom as well as other complex organ conversion in the future

  10. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D- 3 He reaction and the p- 11 B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger βB 2 0 to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high β values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D- 3 He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D 3 He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D 3 He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion or liquid metal MHD conversion (LMMHD). For a D

  11. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  12. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  13. 5 CFR 317.302 - Conversion procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion. (2) Pay. Upon conversion to the Senior Executive Service, an employee's SES rate will be... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion procedures. 317.302 Section... IN THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE Conversion to the Senior Executive Service § 317.302 Conversion...

  14. Conversational evidence in therapeutic dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Tom; Busch, Robbie; Couture, Shari

    2008-07-01

    Family therapists' participation in therapeutic dialogue with clients is typically informed by evidence of how such dialogue is developing. In this article, we propose that conversational evidence, the kind that can be empirically analyzed using discourse analyses, be considered a contribution to widening psychotherapy's evidence base. After some preliminaries about what we mean by conversational evidence, we provide a genealogy of evaluative practice in psychotherapy, and examine qualitative evaluation methods for their theoretical compatibilities with social constructionist approaches to family therapy. We then move on to examine the notion of accomplishment in therapeutic dialogue given how such accomplishments can be evaluated using conversation analysis. We conclude by considering a number of research and pedagogical implications we associate with conversational evidence.

  15. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Hydrokinetic energy conversion systems utilize the kinetic energy of flowing water bodies with little or no head to generate ... generator. ... Its principle of operation is analogous to that of wind ..... Crisis-solar and wind power systems, 2009,.

  16. Conversion electrons in the SDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicklund, A.B.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize a preliminary analysis of the rates for conversion electrons in the SDC detector, relative to other interesting sources of prompt electrons. We have used Papageno V3.30, and other available NLO calculations to estimate inclusive rates in the central region (η less than 2.0), and we have cross checked these using CDF data at 1.8 TeV. We have considered three sources of ''isolated'' electrons, namely inclusive W/Z production; top quark (Mt=140); and QCD prompt photon production, followed by conversion in 10% XO. This value approximates the inner silicon detector at SDC. Additional conversions will occur in the outer tracking chamber, but the trigger and track reconstruction efficiency will be lower. We have also considered ''nonisolated'' leptons coming from inclusive bottom production, photon conversions resulting from π 0 ,η production in jets, and high pt hadrons faking electrons

  17. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  18. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  19. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  20. Hydrogen photoproduction by photoelectrochemical conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    The water-splitting reaction by photoelectrochemical processes has gained much more attention than any of many reactions proposed for solar generation of energy-rich molecules (fuels). The conversion efficiency of the photosystem is the key factor. The higher the efficiency, the more economically feasible will be the conversion scheme. The conversion efficiency is a function of the semiconductor properties, light intensity, spectral quality, properties of the electrolyte, counterelectrode, cell configuration, etc. The semiconductor parameters include band gap, absorption coefficient and diffusion length. The area and material used for a counterelectrode are important when considering polarization losses in a two-electrode system. Besides, the stability problem is also a very important one to meet the requirement for practical applications. This paper reviews some important issues on photoelectrochemical generation of hydrogen by water splitting. It includes energy conversion efficiency, market assessment and cost goal, state of the technology, and future directions for research

  1. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  2. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  3. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  4. Computer code conversion using HISTORIAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Kumakura, Toshimasa.

    1990-09-01

    When a computer program written for a computer A is converted for a computer B, in general, the A version source program is rewritten for B version. However, in this way of program conversion, the following inconvenient problems arise. 1) The original statements to be rewritten for B version are lost. 2) If the original statements of the A version rewritten for B version would remain as comment lines, the B version source program becomes quite large. 3) When update directives of the program are mailed from the organization which developed the program or when some modifications are needed for the program, it is difficult to point out the part to be updated or modified in the B version source program. To solve these problems, the conversion method using the general-purpose software management aid system, HISTORIAN, has been introduced. This conversion method makes a large computer code a easy-to-use program for use to update, modify or improve after the conversion. This report describes the planning and procedures of the conversion method and the MELPROG-PWR/MOD1 code conversion from the CRAY version to the JAERI FACOM version as an example. This report would provide useful information for those who develop or introduce large programs. (author)

  5. Frequency conversion of structured light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlechner, Fabian; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Pruneri, Valerio; Torres, Juan P

    2016-02-15

    Coherent frequency conversion of structured light, i.e. the ability to manipulate the carrier frequency of a wave front without distorting its spatial phase and intensity profile, provides the opportunity for numerous novel applications in photonic technology and fundamental science. In particular, frequency conversion of spatial modes carrying orbital angular momentum can be exploited in sub-wavelength resolution nano-optics and coherent imaging at a wavelength different from that used to illuminate an object. Moreover, coherent frequency conversion will be crucial for interfacing information stored in the high-dimensional spatial structure of single and entangled photons with various constituents of quantum networks. In this work, we demonstrate frequency conversion of structured light from the near infrared (803 nm) to the visible (527 nm). The conversion scheme is based on sum-frequency generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a 1540-nm Gaussian beam. We observe frequency-converted fields that exhibit a high degree of similarity with the input field and verify the coherence of the frequency-conversion process via mode projection measurements with a phase mask and a single-mode fiber. Our results demonstrate the suitability of exploiting the technique for applications in quantum information processing and coherent imaging.

  6. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers

  7. Information for Consumers about Alternative Fuel Conversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here are some factors to be aware of if you are considering fuel conversion, including background information on fuel conversion, instructions for demonstrating compliance, and other related information.

  8. Analysis of internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursol, N.; Gorozhankin, V.M.; Yakushev, E.A.; Briancon, C.; Vylov, Ts.

    2000-01-01

    An extensive database has been assembled that contains the three most widely used sets of calculated internal conversion coefficients (ICC): [Hager R.S., Seltzer E.C., 1968. Internal conversion tables. K-, L-, M-shell Conversion coefficients for Z=30 to Z=103, Nucl. Data Tables A4, 1-237; Band I.M., Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1978. Tables of gamma-ray internal conversion coefficients for the K-, L- and M-shells, 10≤Z≤104, Special Report of Leningrad Nuclear Physics Institute; Roesel F., Fries H.M., Alder K., Pauli H.C., 1978. Internal conversion coefficients for all atomic shells, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 21, 91-289] and also includes new Dirac-Fock calculations [Band I.M. and Trzhaskovskaya M.B., 1993. Internal conversion coefficients for low-energy nuclear transitions, At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 55, 43-61]. This database is linked to a computer program to plot ICCs and their combinations (sums and ratios) as a function of Z and energy, as well as relative deviations of ICC or their combinations for any pair of tabulated data. Examples of these analyses are presented for the K-shell and total ICCs of the gamma-ray standards [Hansen H.H., 1985. Evaluation of K-shell and total internal conversion coefficients for some selected nuclear transitions, Eur. Appl. Res. Rept. Nucl. Sci. Tech. 11.6 (4) 777-816] and for the K-shell and total ICCs of high multipolarity transitions (total, K-, L-, M-shells of E3 and M3 and K-shell of M4). Experimental data sets are also compared with the theoretical values of these specific calculations

  9. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  10. [Conversation analysis for improving nursing communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Myungsun

    2007-08-01

    Nursing communication has become more important than ever before because quality of nursing services largely depends on the quality of communication in a very competitive health care environment. This article was to introduce ways to improve nursing communication using conversation analysis. This was a review study on conversation analysis, critically examining previous studies in nursing communication and interpersonal relationships. This study provided theoretical backgrounds and basic assumptions of conversation analysis which was influenced by ethnomethodology, phenomenology, and sociolinguistic. In addition, the characteristics and analysis methods of conversation analysis were illustrated in detail. Lastly, how conversation analysis could help improve communication was shown, by examining researches using conversation analysis not only for ordinary conversations but also for extraordinary or difficult conversations such as conversations between patients with dementia and their professional nurses. Conversation analysis can help in improving nursing communication by providing various structures and patterns as well as prototypes of conversation, and by suggesting specific problems and problem-solving strategies in communication.

  11. Energy conversion and utilization technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The DOE Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies (ECUT) Program continues its efforts to expand the generic knowledge base in emerging technological areas that support energy conservation initiatives by both the DOE end-use sector programs and US private industry. ECUT addresses specific problems associated with the efficiency limits and capabilities to use alternative fuels in energy conversion and end-use. Research is aimed at understanding and improving techniques, processes, and materials that push the thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion and usage beyond the state of the art. Research programs cover the following areas: combustion, thermal sciences, materials, catalysis and biocatalysis, and tribology. Six sections describe the status of direct contact heat exchange; the ECUT biocatalysis project; a computerized tribology information system; ceramic surface modification; simulation of internal combustion engine processes; and materials-by-design. These six sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the database. (CK)

  12. Environmental effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansmeyer, K.H.; Fortak, H.; Knoepp, H.; Lindackers, K.H.; Schafhausen, F.; Schoedel, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of energy conversion systems by the ''Council of Environmental Experts'' in order to correct the erroneous assumption that small energy conversion systems will also be small-scale and negligible emitters of pollutants. The additional pollution caused by Neurath power plant is considered to be low, at least in its immediate vicinity, owing to the implementation of the most recent technical developments. The environmental effects of energy conversion processes are discussed, including the waste heat problem and processes for water-cooling of power plants. General aspects of a new concept of energy taxation are discussed which is to reduce energy consumption. The problem of radioactive waste is discussed from spent fuel storage and reprocessing to the decommissioning of older power plants. The author points out that also new fossil-fuel technologies will pollute the environment. (orig.) [de

  13. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  14. [Hydroxylamine conversion by anammox enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Anhui; Zheng, Ping; Lu, Huifeng; Ding, Shuang; Wang, Caihua

    2010-04-01

    Hydroxylamine is an important intermediate product of anammox. This study was focused on the characteristics of hydroxylamine and nitrite conversions by anammox enrichment. The changes of nitrogenous substrates and related products with time were measured using batch tests with anammox enrichment as inoculum. Since hydroxylamine didn't react with nitrite in uninoculated control culture, these two compounds were chemically stable. Both of them decreased with time in anammox enrichment inoculated cultures, in which ammonia as intermediate product would be produced and converted with the maximum concentration being 0.338 mg/L. The total nitrogen concentration decreased from 4.694 mmol/L to 0.812 mmol/L with conversion rate 82.7% in the end. When hydroxylamine and nitrite concentrations were about 2.5 mmol/L respectively, the maximum specific sludge conversion rates of hydroxylamine was 0.535 mmol/(gVSS.h), which was 1.81 times bigger than that of ammonia in ammonia reaction system; the maximum specific sludge rate of total nitrogen was slightly higher than that in ammonia reaction system. When hydroxylamine concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 26.7% and 120.7% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 1.810 mmol/L. When nitrite concentration increased to 5.0 mmol/L, the hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates promoted by 6.9% and 9.0% respectively; and the maximum ammonia accumulated was 0.795 mmol/L. Anammox enrichment was capable of converting hydroxylamine and nitrite simultaneously and had the higher conversion rate of hydroxylamine than ammonia conversion rate. Hydroxylamine and nitrite conversion rates were less affected by increase in nitrite concentration, but more significantly influenced by increase in hydroxylamine. The maximum ammonia concentration accumulated would rise as the result of increasing both hydroxylamine and nitrite. The result of experiment was consistent with pathway

  15. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  16. Solar energy conversion. Chemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz [Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Beersheba (Israel). Dept. of Chemistry

    2012-07-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist's view of this hot topic, Professor Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understand solar energy conversion, and so ultimately help this promising, multibillion euro/dollar field to expand. (orig.)

  17. A perspective on direct conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W. B.

    1963-10-15

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  18. A perspective on direct conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1963-10-01

    As flowing energy, electricity is sought for its versatility. Its generation from some other flow or release of energy without mechanical power, or even sometimes heat, as intermediary is called direct conversion. The objective is high electrical output for minimum total cost and not always high conversion efficiency. The wide range of techniques embracing cryogenics and hot plasma derives from the special requirements of source, environment and application. Sources include solar and other radiation, nuclear fission and fusion, chemical energy and heat. Environments and applications range from space vehicles to submarines and from giant power networks to isolated buoys and pocket devices. (author)

  19. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  20. Evolution of energy conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osnaghi, C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper concerns the evolution and the future development of energy conversion plants and puts into evidence the great importance of the scientific and technological improvement in machines design, in order to optimize the use of energy resources and to improve ambient compatibility [it

  1. Direct digital conversion detector technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandl, William J.; Fedors, Richard

    1995-06-01

    Future imaging sensors for the aerospace and commercial video markets will depend on low cost, high speed analog-to-digital (A/D) conversion to efficiently process optical detector signals. Current A/D methods place a heavy burden on system resources, increase noise, and limit the throughput. This paper describes a unique method for incorporating A/D conversion right on the focal plane array. This concept is based on Sigma-Delta sampling, and makes optimum use of the active detector real estate. Combined with modern digital signal processors, such devices will significantly increase data rates off the focal plane. Early conversion to digital format will also decrease the signal susceptibility to noise, lowering the communications bit error rate. Computer modeling of this concept is described, along with results from several simulation runs. A potential application for direct digital conversion is also reviewed. Future uses for this technology could range from scientific instruments to remote sensors, telecommunications gear, medical diagnostic tools, and consumer products.

  2. Restarts in Conversation and Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Raymond F., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes restarts, a common feature of conversation, in literary discourse. The term "restart" refers to the repetition of a word or words within an utterance by the same speaker. Restarts in literary discourse are of two types: (1) those produced by the characters in their "real" narrative world and (2) those produced by the narrators themselves.…

  3. Direct Energy Conversion Literature Abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1962-12-01

    TMMOELECTRIC 6 CONVERSION SYSTEMS. compiled by Edda 7p.. Aug.1960. (Spec. Bibl. 430) Barber. 48p., Mar. 1962. (Lit. Search 392) (Contract NAS 7-100) Covers...2865 BaranskiiP.I ............... 2905, 2945 Brogan, T.R. .............. 3322 Barber, Edda ................. . 2866 Brooklyn Polytechnic

  4. Photovoltaic conversion of laser energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirn, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Schottky barrier photovoltaic converter is suggested as an alternative to the p/n junction photovoltaic devices for the conversion of laser energy to electrical energy. The structure, current, output, and voltage output of the Schottky device are summarized. The more advanced concepts of the multilayer Schottky barrier cell and the AMOS solar cell are briefly considered.

  5. Conversations to Transform Geometry Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szydlik, Jennifer Earles; Parrott, Amy; Belnap, Jason Knight

    2016-01-01

    Classroom culture is negotiated and established through both conversations and practices. Traditionally, teachers and researchers have focused primarily on the individual and social construction of mathematical content--that is, students' conceptual understanding and procedural skills--through mathematical actions and practices. This article…

  6. Conversation Analysis and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schegloff, Emanuel A.; Koshik, Irene; Jacoby, Sally; Olsher, David

    2002-01-01

    Offers biographical guidance on several major areas of conversation-analytic work--turn-taking, repair, and word selection--and indicates past or potential points of contact with applied linguistics. Also discusses areas of applied linguistic work. (Author/VWL)

  7. Facilitating Conversations about Managerial Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    -based organization in the engineering consulting sector b) a reflection meeting, where the same three managers were gathered, and conversations were facilitated based on identity work in the context of earlier interviews. More specifically, three themes were discussed; flat organizational structure, tensions between...

  8. Humor and Embodied Conversational Agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus

    This report surveys the role of humor in human-to-human interaction and the possible role of humor in human-computer interaction. The aim is to see whether it is useful for embodied conversational agents to integrate humor capabilities in their internal model of intelligence, emotions and

  9. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  10. Autonomous renewable energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valtchev, V. [Technical University of Varna (Bulgaria). Dept. of Electronics; Bossche, A. van den; Ghijselen, J.; Melkebeek, J. [University of Gent (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Power Engineering

    2000-02-01

    This paper briefly reviews the need for renewable power generation and describes a medium-power Autonomous Renewable Energy Conversion System (ARECS), integrating conversion of wind and solar energy sources. The objectives of the paper are to extract maximum power from the proposed wind energy conversion scheme and to transfer this power and the power derived by the photovoltaic system in a high efficiency way to a local isolated load. The wind energy conversion operates at variable shaft speed yielding an improved annual energy production over constant speed systems. An induction generator (IG) has been used because of its reduced cost, robustness, absence of separate DC source for excitation, easier dismounting and maintenance. The maximum energy transfer of the wind energy is assured by a simple and reliable control strategy adjusting the stator frequency of the IG so that the power drawn is equal to the peak power production of the wind turbine at any wind speed. The presented control strategy also provides an optimal efficiency operation of the IG by applying a quadratic dependence between the IG terminal voltage and frequency V {approx} f{sup 2}. For improving the total system efficiency, high efficiency converters have been designed and implemented. The modular principle of the proposed DC/DC conversion provides the possibility for modifying the system structure depending on different conditions. The configuration of the presented ARECS and the implementation of the proposed control algorithm for optimal power transfer are fully discussed. The stability and dynamic performance as well as the different operation modes of the proposed control and the operation of the converters are illustrated and verified on an experimental prototype. (author)

  11. The national conversion pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Puy, M.; Francis, G.; Konczal, M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy is now faced with the prospect of terminating traditional defense production missions at several Department of Energy sites. Because of this, there is a critical need to develop a DOE process to convert former defense production facilities to private use so that underutilized workers and facilities may be used to minimize the impact on the United States economy. The purpose of the National Conversation Pilot Project (NCPP) at Rocky Flats near Denver, Colorado is to explore and demonstrate the feasibility of economic conversion of DOE facilities, in a manner consistent with ongoing site waste management and cleanup activities, and non-prejudicial to future land use planning decisions. The NCPP is divided into three stages: The first stage, now under way, is one of detailed planning for cleanup and building maintenance activities. The second stage involves building cleanup necessary to support the proposed industrial activities, maintenance of equipment and building infrastructure necessary to assure protection of human health and the environment, declassification work, and some small scale research and development activities. Stage III would involve DOE metals recycling. Specific approval from the DOE is required prior to each project stage. To ensure stakeholder involvement, a steering committee will advise the DOE on the desirability to proceed with the project from stage to stage. A key question in the conversion process is whether a competitive economic and regulatory environment can be created on a DOE facility, allowing an onsite conversion business to effectively compete with offsite businesses. If successful, the Rocky Flats project could become the model for economic conversion at other DOE facilities

  12. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog-to-digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters. It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation. This book presents an overview of the state of the art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, third edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 22-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy. Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include additional, new exercises, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate. Considerable background information and practical tips, from designing a PCB, to lay-o...

  13. Hemicellulose conversion by anaerobic digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S; Honry, M P; Christopher, R W

    1985-01-01

    This research was undertaken to study the digestibility of the hemicellulose fractions of an aquatic biomass, a land-based biomass and a biomass-waste blend under various fermentation conditions. The conversion of hemicellulose was higher than those of cellulose and protein under the mesophilic condition. Hemicellulose was converted at a much lower efficency than cellulose during thermophilic digestion. In contrast, cellulose conversion was about the same under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Cellulose was utilized in preference to hemicellulose during mesophilic fermentation of nitrogen-supplemented Bermuda grass. It was speculated that Bermuda grass cellulose was converted at a higher efficiency than hemicellulose in the pressure of external nitrogen because the metabolism of the breakdown product (glucose) of cellulose required the least investment of enzymes and energy. 4 references.

  14. IMAGE CONVERSION FOR LASER PYROGRAPHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian PETRU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All previous studies of pyrography have been focussed on colour obtained through modifying the work parameters. This paper analyses colour nuances obtained by laser woodworking by measuring colour changes digitally. The investigated parameter is colour reproduction by laser technology, using different image conversion methods (Halftone Round, Jarvis, and so on. The changes of image reproduction are analysed globally and colour by colour. The results show that the colour nuances are represented to a more and less degree, according to the conversion method selected. To evaluate the aesthetic changes, CIEL*a*b* colour measurements were applied. The results show that laser burning on wood surfaces has a great influence on wood colour. These findings will be useful to develop innovative design possibilities for wood surfaces for furniture and other products.

  15. Progress in understanding conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allin, Matthew; Streeruwitz, Anna; Curtis, Vivienne

    2005-01-01

    Conversion disorder has a history that may reach back into antiquity, and it continues to present a clinical challenge to both psychiatrists and neurologists. This article reviews the current state of knowledge surrounding the prevalence, etiology, and neurobiology of conversion disorder. There have been improvements in the accuracy of diagnosis that are possibly related to improved technologies such as neuroimaging. Once the diagnosis is made, it is important to develop a therapeutic alliance between the patient and the medical team, and where comorbid psychiatric diagnoses have been made, these need to be adequately treated. While there have been no formal trials of medication or psychoanalytic treatments in this disorder, case reports suggest that a combination of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and a multidisciplinary approach to rehabilitation may be beneficial. PMID:18568070

  16. Rating Instructional Conversations: A Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Rueda, Robert; Goldenberg, Claude; Gallimore, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    The current focus on more effective ways to foster literacy in school-age children, especially language minority students, has led to the development of alternative instructional approaches. One such approach is the instructional conversation (IC), based on early work in the Hawaiian Kamehameha Elementary Education Project (KEEP), on neo-Vygotskian theory, and on recent classroom-based research on reading comprehension. The present report outlines preliminary efforts to operationaliz...

  17. FRM-II conversion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaser, A.; Pistner, C.; Liebert, W.

    2000-01-01

    The possibilities for a conversion of the currently constructed research reactor FRM-II has been extensively discussed at various RERTR meetings over the past years. In order to support the ongoing decision-making process in Germany, we prepared computer simulations providing extra information on the scientific usability of the converted reactor based on designs proposed by ANL and TUM. The most important results of these calculations are presented and discussed. Special attention is thereby given to the specific German context. (author)

  18. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING A-ning; LI Fan; CUI Jing

    2015-01-01

    Conversation Analysis shows the evidence of the social nature of people’s action including talk-in-interaction from a micro-level perspective. The method for basing its analysis on the authentic data rather than the retrospective interviews for gain⁃ing the participants’perception makes it unique in discovering the emic perspective of the social interaction. CA, often called as a“micro”methodology, provides theoretical insights and useful analytical tool for exploring the interaction in classrooms.

  19. A Conversation with Adam Heller

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, A; Cairns, EJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr....

  20. The National Conversion Pilot Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The National Conversion Pilot Project (NCPP) is a recycling project under way at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) in Colorado. The recycling aim of the project is threefold: to reuse existing nuclear weapon component production facilities for the production of commercially marketable products, to reuse existing material (uranium, beryllium, and radioactively contaminated scrap metals) for the production of these products, and to reemploy former Rocky Flats workers in this process

  1. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCOFIELD C.F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4= were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and faujasite.

  2. Metylcyclohexane conversion to light olefins

    OpenAIRE

    SCOFIELD, C.F.; BENAZZI, E.; CAUFFRIEZ, H.; MARCILLY, C.

    1998-01-01

    This study consists in the evaluation of the catalytic properties of zeolites with different structures in the conversion of methylcyclohexane to light olefins. Results obtained suggest that the steric constrictions of the catalysts used play an important role in hydrogen transfer reactions. Higher selectivities for light olefins (C3= and C4=) were observed for zeolites having more closed structures, like MFI and ferrerite, when compared to those having more open ones, like beta, omega and fa...

  3. High conversion burner type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Masatoshi

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To simply and easily dismantle and reassemble densified fuel assemblies taken out of a high conversion ratio area thereby improve the neutron and fuel economy. Constitution: The burner portion for the purpose of fuel combustion is divided into a first burner region in adjacent with the high conversion ratio area at the center of the reactor core, and a second burner region formed to the outer circumference thereof and two types of fuels are charged therein. Densified fuel assemblies charged in the high conversion ratio area are separatably formed as fuel assemblies for use in the two types of burners. In this way, dense fuel assembly is separated into two types of fuel assemblies for use in burner of different number and arranging density of fuel elements which can be directly charged to the burner portion and facilitate the dismantling and reassembling of the fuel assemblies. Further, since the two types of fuel assemblies are charged in the burner portion, utilization factor for the neutron fuels can be improved. (Kamimura, M.)

  4. Measurements of weak conversion lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feoktistov, A.I.; Frantsev, Yu.E.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a new methods for measuring weak conversion lines with the help of the β spectrometer of the π √ 2 type which permits to increase the reliability of the results obtained. According to this method the measurements were carried out by short series with the storage of the information obtained on the punched tape. The spectrometer magnetic field was stabilized during the measuring of the conversion spectra with the help of three nmr recorders. Instead of the dependence of the pulse calculation rate on the magnetic field value was measured the dependence of the calculation rate on the value of the voltage applied between the source and the spectrometer chamber. A short description of the automatic set-up for measuring conversion lines according to the method proposed is given. The main set-up elements are the voltage multiplexer timer, printer, scaler and the pulse analyzer. With the help of the above methods obtained is the K 1035, 8 keV 182 Ta line. It is obtained as a result of the composition of 96 measurement series. Each measurement time constitutes 640 s 12 points are taken on the line

  5. Experimental techniques of conversion coefficient measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses briefly the history of conversion electron spectra measurements, and the interpretation of the collected data. Then provides a comprehensive review of techniques presently available to measure the conversion coefficients. (Auth.)

  6. Conversion Disorder Presenting As Neuritic Leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayal SK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is not normally listed amongst the conditions in differential diagnosis of leprosy neuropathy. A case conversion reaction who was initially diagnosed as neuritic leprosy is reported. Patient responded to narcosuggestion and psychotherapy.

  7. Interrogative suggestibility in patients with conversion disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foong, J; Lucas, P A; Ron, M A

    1997-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that increased interrogative suggestibility may contribute to the shaping and maintaining of conversions symptoms. Interrogative suggestibility was measured in 12 patients with conversion disorder and 10 control patients with confirmed neurological disease matched for age, premorbid intelligence, and as closely as possible in terms of their neurological symptoms to the patients with conversion disorder. Our observations do not support the contention that individual differences in interrogative suggestibility are of importance in the etiology of conversion disorders.

  8. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  9. Adaptive Feedback Improving Learningful Conversations at Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeta, Matteo; Mangione, Giuseppina Rita; Miranda, Sergio; Orciuoli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This work proposes the definition of an Adaptive Conversation-based Learning System (ACLS) able to foster computer-mediated tutorial dialogues at the workplace in order to increase the probability to generate meaningful learning during conversations. ACLS provides a virtual assistant selecting the best partner to involve in the conversation and…

  10. 5 CFR 534.506 - Conversion provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... conversion, other than to the minimum rate under 5 U.S.C. 5376, the increase must be approved by the head of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion provisions. 534.506 Section... OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Senior-Level and Scientific and Professional Positions § 534.506 Conversion...

  11. 5 CFR 536.303 - Geographic conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... after geographic conversion is the employee's existing payable rate of basic pay in effect immediately before the action. (b) Geographic conversion when a retained rate employee's official worksite is changed... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Geographic conversion. 536.303 Section...

  12. Valproate in Conversion Disorder: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Messina, Antonino; Fogliani, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    Few data are in literature about the pharmacological treatment of conversion disorder and there are not any studies about the use of Valproate extended release (ER) in treating conversion disorder. In this article, we are reporting a case of an Italian woman with a diagnosis of conversion disorder treated effectively and quickly by Valproate ER.

  13. 47 CFR 80.761 - Conversion graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.761 Conversion graphs. The following graphs must be employed where conversion from one to the other of the indicated types of units is... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conversion graphs. 80.761 Section 80.761...

  14. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  15. Conversion of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu. S.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the former defense enterprises of STS (Semipalatinsk Test Sate) started under very difficult conditions, when not only research and production activity, but all social life of Kurchatov city were conversed which was caused by a fast curtailment and restationing of Russian military units from the test site. A real risk of a complete destruction of the whole research and production structure of the city existed. From this point of view, the decision of the Republic of Kazakhstan Government to create the National Nuclear Center on the base of the test site research enterprises was actual and timely. During 1993, three research institutes of NNC RK - Institute of Atomic Energy, Institute of Geophysics Research and Institute of Radiation Safety and Environment were established. This decision, under conditions of the Ussr disintegration and liquidation of the test site military divisions, allowed to preserve the qualified personnel, to provide and follow-up the operation of nuclear dangerous facilities, to develop and start the realization of the full scale conversion program.At present time, directions and structure of basic research work in NNC RK are as follows: - liquidation of nuclear explosions consequences; - liquidation of technological infrastructure used for preparation and conduction of nuclear weapon testing; - creation of technology, equipment and places for acceptance and storage of radioactive wastes; - working out of atomic energy development conception in Kazakhstan; - study of reactor core melt behavior under severe accidents in NPP; - development of methods and means of nuclear testing detection, continuous monitoring of nuclear explosions; - experimental work on a study of structure materials behavior of ITER thermonuclear reactor; - creation of industries requiring a lage implementation of science

  16. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  17. Conversion disorder: a problematic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Timothy R J; Stone, Jon; Kanaan, Richard A A

    2011-11-01

    The diagnosis of conversion disorder is problematic. Since doctors have conceptually and practically differentiated the symptoms from neurological ('organic') disease it has been presumed to be a psychological disorder, but the psychological mechanism, and how this differs from feigning (conscious simulation), has remained elusive. Although misdiagnosis of neurological disease as conversion disorder is uncommon, it remains a concern for clinicians, particularly for psychiatrists who may be unaware of the positive ways in which neurologists can exclude organic disease. The diagnosis is anomalous in psychiatry in that current diagnostic systems require that feigning is excluded and that the symptoms can be explained psychologically. In practice, feigning is very difficult to either disprove or prove, and a psychological explanation cannot always be found. Studies of childhood and adult psychological precipitants have tended to support the relevance of stressful life events prior to symptom onset at the group level but they are not found in a substantial proportion of cases. These problems highlight serious theoretical and practical issues not just for the current diagnostic systems but for the concept of the disorder itself. Psychology, physiology and functional imaging techniques have been used in attempts to elucidate the neurobiology of conversion disorder and to differentiate it from feigning, but while intriguing results are emerging they can only be considered preliminary. Such work looks to a future that could refine our understanding of the disorder. However, until that time, the formal diagnostic requirement for associated psychological stressors and the exclusion of feigning are of limited clinical value. Simplified criteria are suggested which will also encourage cooperation between neurology and psychiatry in the management of these patients.

  18. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  19. Responsive turns in Indonesian informal conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. van Naerssen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available People have all sorts of expectations about how interlocutors will and should behave linguistically when engaged in a conversation. These conversational norms are usually implicit and are sometimes difficult to master in a language that is new to you. This paper presents a model of different types of responses in informal conversation, illustrated with Indonesian examples. It builds upon the conversation analytic notion of preference; distinguishing preferred – or constructive – responses and dispreferred – or competitive – responses. The model is meant as a tool to cross-linguistically compare response behaviour to gain insight in language specific expectations about interaction in informal conversation.

  20. Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

  1. Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  3. Bilingualism accentuates children's conversational understanding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Siegal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be relevant, and be polite. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, with increasing age, children showed greater sensitivity to maxim violations. Children in Italy who were bilingual in German and Italian (with German as the dominant language L1 significantly outperformed Italian monolinguals. In Experiment 2, children in England who were bilingual in English and Japanese (with English as L1 significantly outperformed Japanese monolinguals in Japan with vocabulary age partialled out. CONCLUSIONS: As the monolingual and bilingual groups had a similar family SES background (Experiment 1 and similar family cultural identity (Experiment 2, these results point to a specific role for early bilingualism in accentuating children's developing ability to appreciate effective communicative responses.

  4. Electromagnetic wave energy conversion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. L.; Callahan, P. S.

    1975-01-01

    Known electromagnetic wave absorbing structures found in nature were first studied for clues of how one might later design large area man-made radiant-electric converters. This led to the study of the electro-optics of insect dielectric antennae. Insights were achieved into how these antennae probably operate in the infrared 7-14um range. EWEC theoretical models and relevant cases were concisely formulated and justified for metal and dielectric absorber materials. Finding the electromagnetic field solutions to these models is a problem not yet solved. A rough estimate of losses in metal, solid dielectric, and hollow dielectric waveguides indicates future radiant-electric EWEC research should aim toward dielectric materials for maximum conversion efficiency. It was also found that the absorber bandwidth is a theoretical limitation on radiant-electric conversion efficiency. Ideally, the absorbers' wavelength would be centered on the irradiating spectrum and have the same bandwith as the irradiating wave. The EWEC concept appears to have a valid scientific basis, but considerable more research is needed before it is thoroughly understood, especially for the complex randomly polarized, wide band, phase incoherent spectrum of the sun. Specific recommended research areas are identified.

  5. Astrophysicists' conversational connections on Twitter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Holmberg

    Full Text Available Because Twitter and other social media are increasingly used for analyses based on altmetrics, this research sought to understand what contexts, affordance use, and social activities influence the tweeting behavior of astrophysicists. Thus, the presented study has been guided by three research questions that consider the influence of astrophysicists' activities (i.e., publishing and tweeting frequency and of their tweet construction and affordance use (i.e. use of hashtags, language, and emotions on the conversational connections they have on Twitter. We found that astrophysicists communicate with a variety of user types (e.g. colleagues, science communicators, other researchers, and educators and that in the ego networks of the astrophysicists clear groups consisting of users with different professional roles can be distinguished. Interestingly, the analysis of noun phrases and hashtags showed that when the astrophysicists address the different groups of very different professional composition they use very similar terminology, but that they do not talk to each other (i.e. mentioning other user names in tweets. The results also showed that in those areas of the ego networks that tweeted more the sentiment of the tweets tended to be closer to neutral, connecting frequent tweeting with information sharing activities rather than conversations or expressing opinions.

  6. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J. M

    2013-01-01

    This textbook is appropriate for use in graduate-level curricula in analog to digital conversion, as well as for practicing engineers in need of a state-of-the-art reference on data converters.  It discusses various analog-to-digital conversion principles, including sampling, quantization, reference generation, nyquist architectures and sigma-delta modulation.  This book presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in this field and focuses on issues of optimizing accuracy and speed, while reducing the power level. This new, second edition emphasizes novel calibration concepts, the specific requirements of new systems, the consequences of 45-nm technology and the need for a more statistical approach to accuracy.  Pedagogical enhancements to this edition include more than twice the exercises available in the first edition, solved examples to introduce all key, new concepts and warnings, remarks and hints, from a practitioner’s perspective, wherever appropriate.  Considerable background information and pr...

  7. [Neurology of hysteria (conversion disorder)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoo, Masahiro

    2014-07-01

    Hysteria has served as an important driving force in the development of both neurology and psychiatry. Jean Martin Charcot's devotion to mesmerism for treating hysterical patients evoked the invention of psychoanalysis by Sigmund Freud. Meanwhile, Joseph Babinski took over the challenge to discriminate between organic and hysterical patients from Charcot and found Babinski's sign, the greatest milestone in modern neurological symptomatology. Nowadays, the usage of the term hysteria is avoided. However, new terms and new classifications are complicated and inconsistent between the two representative taxonomies, the DSM-IV and ICD-10. In the ICD-10, even the alternative term conversion disorder, which was becoming familiar to neurologists, has also disappeared as a group name. The diagnosis of hysteria remains important in clinical neurology. Extensive exclusive diagnoses and over investigation, including various imaging studies, should be avoided because they may prolong the disease course and fix their symptoms. Psychological reasons that seem to explain the conversion are not considered reliable. Positive neurological signs suggesting nonorganic etiologies are the most reliable measures for diagnosing hysteria, as Babinski first argued. Hysterical paresis has several characteristics, such as giving-way weakness or peculiar distributions of weakness. Signs to uncover nonorganic paresis utilizing synergy include Hoover's test and the Sonoo abductor test.

  8. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  9. The conversational interface talking to smart devices

    CERN Document Server

    McTear, Michael; Griol, David

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the conversational interface, which is becoming the main mode of interaction with virtual personal assistants, smart devices, various types of wearables, and social robots. The book consists of four parts: Part I presents the background to conversational interfaces, examining past and present work on spoken language interaction with computers; Part II covers the various technologies that are required to build a conversational interface along with practical chapters and exercises using open source tools; Part III looks at interactions with smart devices, wearables, and robots, and then goes on to discusses the role of emotion and personality in the conversational interface; Part IV examines methods for evaluating conversational interfaces and discusses future directions. · Presents a comprehensive overview of the various technologies that underlie conversational user interfaces; · Combines descriptions of conversational user interface technologies with a gui...

  10. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staunton, R.H.

    2003-07-21

    In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to

  12. Conversation Simulation and Sensible Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Jason L.

    I have entered the Loebner Prize five times, winning the "most humanlike program" category in 1996 with a surly ELIZA-clone named HeX, but failed to repeat the performance in subsequent years with more sophisticated techniques. Whether this is indicative of an unanticipated improvement in "conversation simulation" technology, or whether it highlights the strengths of ELIZA-style trickery, is as an exercise for the reader. In 2000, I was invited to assume the role of Chief Scientist at Artificial Intelligence Ltd. (Ai) on a project inspired by the advice given by Alan Turing in the final section of his classic paper - our quest was to build a "child machine" that could learn and use language from scratch. In this chapter, I will discuss both of these experiences, presenting my thoughts regarding the Chinese Room argument and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in between.

  13. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  14. Supported Conversation for hospital staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Hysse B; Løvholt, Annelise P.; Mathiesen, Lone Lundbak

    in communication and interaction, Supported Conversation for Adults with Aphasia (SCA) was adapted and implemented in a large neurological department at Rigshospitalet-Glostrup in Copenhagen. Method 152 staff members representing different health professionals were assigned to one of eleven courses during a six...... month period. Each course had 10-12 participants and lasted 6 hours, including instruction in the SCA principles, video analysis, interdisciplinary group work, and practice sessions with PWAs. Self-assessed learning outcomes were evaluated with a brief questionnaire filled out by staff members...... in communication, also showed significant improvements across all staff groups. After the course, more time to spend with patients was perceived as the most important factor to further increase communication success with PWA. Conclusion The results show that interdisciplinary SCA-courses successfully increase...

  15. Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasper, Gabriele; Wagner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    on applied CA, the application of basic CA's principles, methods, and findings to the study of social domains and practices that are interactionally constituted. We consider three strands—foundational, social problem oriented, and institutional applied CA—before turning to recent developments in CA research...... on learning and development. In conclusion, we address some emerging themes in the relationship of CA and applied linguistics, including the role of multilingualism, standard social science methods as research objects, CA's potential for direct social intervention, and increasing efforts to complement CA......For the last decade, conversation analysis (CA) has increasingly contributed to several established fields in applied linguistics. In this article, we will discuss its methodological contributions. The article distinguishes between basic and applied CA. Basic CA is a sociological endeavor concerned...

  16. Tacit to explicit knowledge conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairó Battistutti, Osvaldo; Bork, Dominik

    2017-11-01

    The ability to create, use and transfer knowledge may allow the creation or improvement of new products or services. But knowledge is often tacit: It lives in the minds of individuals, and therefore, it is difficult to transfer it to another person by means of the written word or verbal expression. This paper addresses this important problem by introducing a methodology, consisting of a four-step process that facilitates tacit to explicit knowledge conversion. The methodology utilizes conceptual modeling, thus enabling understanding and reasoning through visual knowledge representation. This implies the possibility of understanding concepts and ideas, visualized through conceptual models, without using linguistic or algebraic means. The proposed methodology is conducted in a metamodel-based tool environment whose aim is efficient application and ease of use.

  17. Conversion of Ulba Metallurgy Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoprienko, O.

    1996-01-01

    General Information 'Ulba Metallurgical plant' Joint Stock Company successfully operates for more than 46 years. The plant was established by MINSREDMASH, USSR and at the present moment has finished complexes for production of nuclear fuel for atomic power stations, tantalum and superconducting materials production, beryllium, hydrofluoric acid manufacture and engineering production. Problem Essence In spite of the monopoly possession of tantalum manufacture, beryllium and uranium fuel, superconducting materials in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, company has serious financial problems due to the critical situation in Commonwealth of Independent States countries, production ties collapse and fast market demand decrease for the Ulba Metallurgical Plant Joint Stock Company products. The alternative decision is to create substitute productions, conversion integrating and introducing new products to the world market

  18. A Map Enters the Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    Over the past decade STS scholars have been engaged in a continuous dialogue about the performativity of their methods and the interventions of their research practices. A frequently posed question is how STS can make a difference to its fields of study, what John Law has called its different...... 'modes of mattering'. In this paper I explore what difference digital cartography can make to STS practice. I draw on three examples from my own work where digitally mediated maps have entered the conversation and made critical, often surprising, differences to the research process. In my first example...... the map is brought along as an ethnographic device on a piece of fieldwork, in my second example it serves as the central collaborative object in a participatory design project, and in my third example the map becomes the object of contestation as it finds itself centre stage in the controversy...

  19. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-01-01

    Background Graves’ disease and Hashimoto’s thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. Case presentation We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian female...

  20. U.S. Domestic Reactor Conversion Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolstenhulme, Eric

    2008-01-01

    The Conversion Projects Include: the revision of the facilities safety basis documents and supporting analysis, the fabrication of new LEU fuel, the change-out of the reactor core, and the removal of the used HEU fuel (by INL University Fuels Program or DOE-NE). The major entities involved are: the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the University reactor department, the fuel and hardware fabricators, the Spent fuel receipt facilities, the Spent fuel shipping services, and the U.S. Department of Energy and their subcontractors. Three major Reactor Conversion Program milestones have been accomplished since 2006: the conversion of the TRIGA reactor at Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center, the conversion of the University of Florida Training Reactor, and the conversion of the Purdue University Reactor. Four Reactor Conversion Program milestones yet to be accomplished in 2008 and 2009: the Washington State University Nuclear Radiation Center reactor, the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor, the University of Wisconsin Nuclear Reactor, and the Neutron Radiography Reactor Facility. NNSA is committed to doing things cheaper, better, smarter, safer through a 'Lessons Learned' process. The conversion team assessed each major activity grouping: Project Initiation, Conversion Proposal Development, Fuel Fabrication and Hardware, Core Conversion, and Spent Nuclear Fuel Removal. Issues were identified and recommendations were given

  1. Neurologists' understanding and management of conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, Richard A; Armstrong, David; Wessely, Simon Charles

    2011-09-01

    Conversion disorder is largely managed by neurologists, for whom it presents great challenges to understanding and management. This study aimed to quantify these challenges, examining how neurologists understand conversion disorder, and what they tell their patients. A postal survey of all consultant neurologists in the UK registered with the Association of British Neurologists. 349 of 591 practising consultant neurologists completed the survey. They saw conversion disorder commonly. While they endorsed psychological models for conversion, they diagnosed it according to features of the clinical presentation, most importantly inconsistency and abnormal illness behaviour. Most of the respondents saw feigning as entangled with conversion disorder, with a minority seeing one as a variant of the other. They were quite willing to discuss psychological factors as long as the patient was receptive but were generally unwilling to discuss feigning even though they saw it as their responsibility. Those who favoured models in terms of feigning were older, while younger, female neurologists preferred psychological models, believed conversion would one day be understood neurologically and found communicating with their conversion patients easier than it had been in the past. Neurologists accept psychological models for conversion disorder but do not employ them in their diagnosis; they do not see conversion as clearly different from feigning. This may be changing as younger, female neurologists endorse psychological views more clearly and find it easier to discuss with their patients.

  2. Conversational Agents in E-Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Alice; Ellis, Richard; Bull, Susan

    This paper discusses the use of natural language or 'conversational' agents in e-learning environments. We describe and contrast the various applications of conversational agent technology represented in the e-learning literature, including tutors, learning companions, language practice and systems to encourage reflection. We offer two more detailed examples of conversational agents, one which provides learning support, and the other support for self-assessment. Issues and challenges for developers of conversational agent systems for e-learning are identified and discussed.

  3. Single conversion stage amplifier - SICAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljusev, P.

    2005-12-15

    This Ph.D. thesis presents a thorough analysis of the so called SICAM - SIngle Converter stage AMplifier approach to building direct energy conversion audio power amplifiers. The mainstream approach for building isolated audio power amplifiers today consists of isolated DC power supply and Class D amplifier, which essentially represents a two stage solution, where each of the components can be viewed as separate and independent part. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio output, by dedicating the operation of the components one to another and integrating their functions, so that the final audio power amplifier represents a single-stage topology with higher efficiency, lower volume, less board space, lower component count and subsequently lower cost. The SICAM approach is both applicable to non-isolated and isolated audio power amplifiers, but the problems encountered in these two cases are different. Non-isolated SICAM solutions are intended for both AC mains-connected and battery-powered devices. In non-isolated mains-connected SICAMs the main idea is to simplify the power supply or even provide integrated power factor correction (PFC) functions, while still maintaining low component stress and good audio performance by generally decreasing the input voltage level to the Class D audio power amplifier. On the other hand, non-isolated battery-powered SICAMs have to cope with the ever changing battery voltage and provide output voltage levels which are both lower and higher than the battery voltage, while still being simple and single-stage energy conversion solutions. In isolated SICAMs the isolation transformer adjusts the voltage level on the secondary side to the desired level, so the main challenges here are decreasing the size of the magnetic core and reducing the number and size of bulky reactive components as much as possible. The main focus of this thesis is directed towards the isolated SICAMs and

  4. Keep Meaning in Conversational Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Clare Cuffari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coordination is a widely employed term across recent quantitative and qualitative approaches to intersubjectivity, particularly approaches that give embodiment and enaction central explanatory roles. With a focus on linguistic and bodily coordination in conversational contexts, I review the operational meaning of coordination in recent empirical research and related theorizing of embodied intersubjectivity. This discussion articulates what must be involved in treating linguistic meaning as dynamic processes of coordination. The coordination approach presents languaging as a set of dynamic self-organizing processes and actions on multiple timescales and across multiple modalities that come about and work in certain domains (those jointly constructed in social, interactive, high-order sense-making. These processes go beyond meaning at the level that is available to first-person experience. I take one crucial consequence of this to be the ubiquitously moral nature of languaging with others. Languaging coordinates experience, among other levels of behavior and event. Ethical effort is called for by the automatic autonomy-influencing forces of languaging as coordination.

  5. NASA thermionic-conversion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    NASA's program for applied research and technology (ART) in thermionic energy conversion (TEC) has made worthwhile contributions in a relatively short time: Many of these accomplishments are incremental, yet important. And their integration has yielded gains in performance as well as in the knowledge necessary to point productive directions for future work. Both promise and problems derive from the degrees of freedom allowed by the current programmatic emphasis on out-of-core thermionics. Materials and designs previously prohibited by in-core nucleonics and geometries now offer new potentialities. But as a result a major TEC-ART responsibility is the efficient reduction of the glitter of diverse possibilities to the hard glint of reality. As always high-temperature material effects are crucial to the level and duration of TEC performance: New electrodes must increase and maintain power output regardless of emitter-vapor deposition on collectors. They must also serve compatibly with hot-shell alloys. And while space TEC must face high-temperature vaporization problems externally as well as internally, terrestrial TEC must tolerate hot corrosive atmospheres outside and near-vacuum inside. Furthermore, some modes for decreasing interelectrode losses appear to require rather demanding converter geometries to produce practical power densities. In these areas and others significant progress is being made in the NASA TEC-ART Program

  6. Phase conversion for fusion lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, T.; Castle, W.; Sampat, N.; Skupsky, S.; Smith, D.; Swales, S.

    1988-01-01

    An essential requirement for direct drive laser fusion is the uniform irradiation of spherical targets that are located in the quasi-far field of a laser system. A major impediment to irradiation uniformity with high-power solid-state laser systems is the presence of a hot-spot structure at the target plane. The hot-spot intensity nonuniformities are caused by spatial variations in the near-field phase front of each laser beam. Although for many tabletop applications diffraction-limited laser performance can be obtained through static phase correction, adaptive optics, or phase conjugation, such approaches are either excessively expensive, difficult to implement, or not yet available for large-aperture, high-peak-power laser beams. An alternative to phase correcting a wavefront involves modifying the laser beam's coherence properties thereby changing its focusing characteristics. The method of induced spatial incoherence (ISI) involves a reduction in both spatial and temporal coherence. Other methods are based on modifications of only the spatial coherence of a laser beam. A phase conversion technology which incorporates a distribution of near-field phases to either perform static phase correction or induce spatial incoherence offers a route toward increasingly higher levels of irradiation uniformity

  7. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  8. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  9. Energy conversion in polyelectrolyte hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Erbas, Aykut; Olvera de la Cruz Team

    Energy conversion and storage have been an active field of research in nanotechnology parallel to recent interests towards renewable energy. Polyelectrolyte (PE) hydrogels have attracted considerable attention in this field due to their mechanical flexibility and stimuli-responsive properties. Ideally, when a hydrogel is deformed, applied mechanical work can be converted into electrostatic, elastic and steric-interaction energies. In this talk, we discuss the results of our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of PE hydrogels. We demonstrate that, on deformation, hydrogels adjust their deformed state predominantly by altering electrostatic interactions between their charged groups rather than excluded-volume and bond energies. This is due to the hydrogel's inherent tendency to preserve electro-neutrality in its interior, in combination with correlations imposed by backbone charges. Our findings are valid for a wide range of compression ratios and ionic strengths. The electrostatic-energy alterations that we observe in our MD simulations may induce pH or redox-potential changes inside the hydrogels. The resulting energetic difference can be harvested, for instance, analogously to a Carnot engine, or facilitated for sensor applications. Center for Bio-inspired Energy Science (CBES).

  10. Ocean thermal-energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, G; Niblett, C; Walker, L

    1983-03-01

    Ocean thermal-energy conversion (OTEC) is a novel 'alternative' energy technology that has created much interest in a number of countries; namely, the USA, Japan, France, Sweden, Holland, India and most recently, the UK. In particular, the first three of these have had programmes to develop the required technology. However, most interest has been centred in the USA, where the current hiatus in Federal funding provides a timely opportunity to assess progress. This paper offers a survey of the prevailing position there; outlining the outstanding technical and associated problems, and likely future developments. Non-USA programmes are only mentioned to contrast them with the American position. At present, it does not appear that OTEC plants will be commercially viable on a widespread basis even in the tropics. This is particularly true of the larger plants (400 MWe, MWe = megawatts of electrical energy, the final output of a power station) towards which the American programme is ultimately geared. There does seem to be a strong possibility that small OTEC plants, around 40 MWe or less, can be commercial in certain circumstances. This would be possible when one or, preferably, more of the following conditions are met: (i) where a land-based rather than 'at sea' plant is possible, (ii) where alternative energy supplies are at a premium, i.e. islands or regions without indigenous energy supplies, and (iii) where conditions are such that an OTEC plant could operate in conjunction with either or both an aquaculture or desalination plant.

  11. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  12. Analog-to-digital conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Pelgrom, Marcel J M

    2010-01-01

    The design of an analog-to-digital converter or digital-to-analog converter is one of the most fascinating tasks in micro-electronics. In a converter the analog world with all its intricacies meets the realm of the formal digital abstraction. Both disciplines must be understood for an optimum conversion solution. In a converter also system challenges meet technology opportunities. Modern systems rely on analog-to-digital converters as an essential part of the complex chain to access the physical world. And processors need the ultimate performance of digital-to-analog converters to present the results of their complex algorithms. The same progress in CMOS technology that enables these VLSI digital systems creates new challenges for analog-to-digital converters: lower signal swings, less power and variability issues. Last but not least, the analog-to-digital converter must follow the cost reduction trend. These changing boundary conditions require micro-electronics engineers to consider their design choices for...

  13. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  14. The Conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes. I. The Conversion of Ring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Charles E.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    The computerized conversion of Wiswesser Line Notations to Ring Codes, using a two-part approach, and the set of computer programs generated for the conversion of ring systems are described. (9 references) (Author)

  15. Discourse analysis: Conversational analysis of the internal conversation in Oracle Corporation Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa Marwa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study highlights the internal conversation which takes place in Oracle CorporationMalaysia. Through the study, it will be shown how conversational analysis is used toanalyze the transcription of a telephone conversation between Oracle staffs. The analysisof the transcriptions will apply a few basic concepts of conversational analysis; turntakingorganization, and the adjacency pair. The objective of the study is to find out howthe internal conversations takes place by focusing on the conversation itself, that is, theconversational structures spontaneously produced by people during talk ranging fromturn-taking strategies, how topics are introduced, conversation closings and so on. Bylooking in detail at such talk, we can gain a detailed understanding of how the staffs seethemselves in relation to the company that influence their daily lives.Keywords: conversational analysis, turn-taking, adjacency pairs

  16. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  17. Optimization theory for ballistic energy conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Michel; Van Den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  18. Bilingualism and Conversational Understanding in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Michael; Iozzi, Laura; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the two experiments reported here was to investigate whether bilingualism confers an advantage on children's conversational understanding. A total of 163 children aged 3-6 years were given a Conversational Violations Test to determine their ability to identify responses to questions as violations of Gricean maxims of conversation…

  19. Critical Exchange: Religion and Schooling in Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Julian

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex and messy contexts of schooling, conversations between religion and schooling can be "admitted" as examples of the sort of situated conversation that goes beyond the "false necessity" of universal state-controlled school-based education. There are distinct claims to be made about religion and schooling in…

  20. Jensen's operator inequality and its converses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Frank; Pecaric, Josip; Peric, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities......We give a general formulation of Jensen's operator inequality for unital fields of positive linear mappings, and we consider different types of converse inequalities...

  1. Improving Teamwork through Awareness of Conversational Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehling, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Conversational styles can sometimes cause conflicts on problem-solving writing teams. In self-defense, students often resort to blaming and shaming around conversational styles, which can just worsen unproductive group behaviors, limiting idea exchanges and deflecting attention from substantive issues and onto what is often labeled "personality…

  2. Conversion Disorder in Stroke: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien-Yeh Chou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is caused by previous severe stress, emotional conflict, or an associated psychiatric disorder, and usually presents with one or more neurologic symptoms. Clinically, it is challenging to diagnose diseases such as transient ischemia attack, stroke, brain tumor, spinal cord injury, and neuropathy. In this case report, we present a male stroke patient who had a typical conversion disorder.

  3. Hypnotic susceptibility in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.; Sandijck, P.

    2002-01-01

    Conversion disorder has been associated with hypnotic susceptibility for over a century and is currently still believed to be a form of autohypnosis. There is, however. little empirical evidence for the relation between hypnotic susceptibility and conversion symptoms. The authors compared 50

  4. Reflection during Portfolio-Based Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterbaan, Anne E.; van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the occurrence of reflection (and non-reflection) and thinking activities (e.g., orientating, selecting, analysing) during portfolio-based conversations. Analysis of 21 transcripts of portfolio-based conversations revealed that 20% of the segments were made up of reflection (content reflection…

  5. Exergy conversion in the Japanese society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, G.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper exergy concept is reviewed as a tool for resource accounting. Conversions of energy and material resources in the Japanese society are described in terms of exergy. Necessary concepts and conventions are introduced. Exergy losses in transformations of material resources and in conversions of various forms of energy are described in some detail

  6. Conversational Memory Employing Cued and Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Pamela J.; Benoit, William L.

    1988-01-01

    Tests two hypotheses: (1) that cued recall elicits significantly more conversational information than free recall; and (2) that conversational interactants recall more of their partner's utterances than their own. Finds cued recall produced significantly higher amounts of remembering than free recall. (MS)

  7. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study

  8. Provoking Reflective Thinking in Post Observation Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younhee; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2016-01-01

    We present a micro-analysis of post observation conversations between classroom teachers and mentors. Using the approach of conversation analysis, we show how the sequential organization of an episode (i.e., who initiates the interaction, question format used by mentors) could potentially serve to provoke or hinder teacher reflection. Our analysis…

  9. Enhancing Classroom Conversation for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, William

    2013-01-01

    The author, a 5th-grade teacher, offers strategies intended to assist and encourage ELL students to participate in academic conversations. They include insisting that children take part in conversations despite their apprehension and teaching them the language they need to communicate their ideas. One strategy is Think, Pair, Share--a simple…

  10. Large-video-display-format conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de G.

    2000-01-01

    High-quality video-format converters apply motion estimation and motion compensation to prevent jitter resulting from picture-rate conversion, and aliasing due to de-interlacing, in sequences with motion. Although initially considered as too expensive, high-quality conversion is now economically

  11. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses...

  12. Conversion Disorder in Australian Pediatric Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowska, Kasia; Nunn, Kenneth P.; Rose, Donna; Morris, Anne; Ouvrier, Robert A.; Varghese, John

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the incidence and clinical features of children presenting to Australian child health specialists with conversion disorder. Method: Active, national surveillance of conversion disorder in children younger than 16 years of age during 2002 and 2003. Results: A total of 194 children were reported on. The average age was 11.8…

  13. Pleurodesis induced by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in rabbits: can it be used in humans? Pleurodese induzida pela injeção intrapleural de nitrato de prata ou talco em coelhos: há perspectivas para o uso em humanos?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Vargas

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pleuropulmonary alterations caused by intrapleural injection of silver nitrate or talc in an experimental model, in order to consider its use in human beings. METHOD: 112 rabbits were randomly selected to receive intrapleural 0.5% silver nitrate or 400 mg/kg talc slurry in 2 ml saline. Eight rabbits of each group were sacrificed after 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, or 12 months. Regarding the pleural cavity, the degree of macroscopic pleurodesis (adherences and microscopic alterations, represented by inflammation and pleural fibrosis, were analyzed. The parenchyma was evaluated regarding the degree of alveolar collapse, intra-alveolar septum edema, and cellularity, on a 0 to 4 scale. RESULTS: Intrapleural injection of silver nitrate produced earlier and more intense pleurodesis than talc slurry injection. The parenchymal damage was more evident with silver nitrate, considered as moderate, and limited to the first evaluation (after one month. From the second month on and throughout the entire one-year follow-up, the parenchymal damage was similar with both substances, only the pleural adherences were more intense with silver nitrate. CONCLUSIONS: Intrapleural silver nitrate produces better and longer-lasting than intrapleural talc injection. The parenchymal alterations, although discreet, are more pronounced when silver nitrate is used, but minimal after two months, and similar to those produced by talc injection during the entire one-year observation period. These effects on the pulmonary parenchyma do not contraindicate the use in humans. Thus, the use of intrapleural silver nitrate to produce fast and effective pleurodesis can be considered in patients in which pleural cavity symphysis is desired.OBJETIVO DE ESTUDO: Avaliar as alterações pleuropulmonares causadas pela injeção intrapleural de talco ou nitrato de prata em modelo experimental, com o intuito de considerar sua utilização em humanos. MÉTODO: 112 coelhos foram

  14. The organization of digital conversation on MSN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artarxerxes Tiago Tácito Modesto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the Internet has caused a revolution with regard to new forms of interaction between people, offering experiences of real-time communication in so-called virtual environments. Given this scenario, new textual genres emerge, making room for innumerous possibilities of analysis under various approaches. In this paper, we aim at analyzing digital conversations, trying to verify, at first, the extent to which they approach or move away from face-to-face conversations. We also seek to identify, describe and analyze some interactional strategies inherent in this new genre. We base our analyzes on Conversation Analysis theory and Interactional Sociolinguistics to define conversational strategies of the “spoken written text” on the Internet. The corpus used in this work consists of digital conversations coming from the MSN instant messaging software from Microsoft Corporation, chosen because of its wide use among people who use the internet for communication.

  15. Measuring Online Dialogic Conversations: A Scale Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romenti, Stefania; Valentini, Chiara; Murtarelli, Grazia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The scope of this paper is to develop and test a measurement scale for assessing the quality of dialogic conversations among companies and digital publics in social media. It is argued that dialogic conversations are the drivers of dialogic engagement and the result of dialogic...... interactivity. Dialogic conversations are defined as sequences of communicative actions and counteractions taken by social actors for different purposes based on specific linguistic choices and characterised by diverse communicative approaches and the role played by the involved parties. Design....../methodology/approach: A multidimensional scale for measuring dialogic conversations is developed from relevant literature concerning dialogue and public engagement in the fields of corporate communication, public relations, management studies and conversation analysis. The scale was pre-tested to redefine and purify it from irrelevant...

  16. [Management of patients with conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marinus; Hoekstra, Jan; Kuipers-van Kooten, Mariëtte J; van der Linden, Els A M

    2014-01-01

    The symptoms of conversion disorder are not due to conscious simulation. There should be no doubt that the symptoms of conversion disorder are genuine, even if scans do not reveal any abnormalities. The management of patients with conversion disorder starts with an explanation of the diagnosis. The essence of this explanation is that patients first hear about what the diagnosis actually means and only after this about what they do not have. When explaining the diagnosis it is a good idea to use metaphors. The treatment of patients with conversion disorder is carried out together with a physical therapist. The collaboration of healthcare professionals who are involved in the treatment of a patient with conversion disorder should preferably be coordinated by the patient's general practitioner.

  17. Conversion Disorder- Mind versus Body: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shahid; Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder.

  18. Conversion Disorder— Mind versus Body: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabeen, Shagufta; Pate, Rebecca J.; Shahid, Marwah; Chinala, Sandhya; Nathani, Milankumar; Shah, Rida

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors accentuate the signs and symptoms of conversion disorder and the significance of clinical judgment and expertise in order to reach the right diagnosis. The authors review the literature and provide information on the etiology, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, and the treatment methods currently employed in the management of conversion disorder. Of note, the advancements of neuropsychology and brain imaging have led to emergence of a relatively sophisticated picture of the neuroscientific psychopathology of complex mental illnesses, including conversion disorder. The available evidence suggests new methods with which to test hypotheses about the neural circuits underlying conversion symptoms. In context of this, the authors also explore the neurobiological understanding of conversion disorder. PMID:26155375

  19. Does pedagogical documentation support maternal reminiscing conversations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany Fleck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available When parents talk with their children about lessons learned in school, they are participating in reminiscing of an unshared event. This study sought to understand if pedagogical documentation, from the Reggio Approach to early childhood education, would support and enhance the conversation. Mother–child dyads reminisced two separate times about preschool lessons, one time with documentation available to them and one time without. Transcripts were coded extracting variables indicative of high and low maternal reminiscing styles. Results indicate that mother and child conversation characteristics were more highly elaborative when documentation was present than when it was not. In addition, children added more information to the conversation supporting the notion that such conversations enhanced memory for lessons. Documentation could be used as a support tool for conversations and children’s memory about lessons learned in school.

  20. A Conversation with Adam Heller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Adam; Cairns, Elton J

    2015-01-01

    Adam Heller, Ernest Cockrell Sr. Chair in Engineering Emeritus of the John J. McKetta Department of Chemical Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin, recalls his childhood in the Holocaust and his contributions to science and technology that earned him the US National Medal of Technology and Innovation in a conversation with Elton J. Cairns, Professor of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at the University of California, Berkeley. Dr. Heller, born in 1933, describes the enslavement of his father by Hungarians in 1942; the confiscation of his family's home, business, and all its belongings in 1944; and his incarceration in a brick factory with 18,000 Jews who were shipped by the Hungarians to be gassed by Germans in Auschwitz. Dr. Heller and his immediate family survived the Holocaust and arrived in Israel in 1945. He studied under Ernst David Bergmann at the Hebrew University, and then worked at Bell Laboratories and GTE Laboratories, where he headed Bell Lab's Electronic Materials Research Department. At GTE Laboratories, he built in 1966 the first neodymium liquid lasers and in 1973 with Jim Auborn conceived and engineered the lithium thionyl chloride battery, one of the first to be manufactured lithium batteries, which is still in use. After joining the faculty of engineering of The University of Texas at Austin, he cofounded with his son Ephraim Heller TheraSense, now a major part of Abbott Diabetes Care, which produced a microcoulometer that made the monitoring of glucose painless by accurately measuring the blood glucose concentration in 300 nL of blood. He also describes the electrical wiring of enzymes, the basis for Abbott's state-of-the-art continuous glucose monitoring system. He discusses his perspective of reducing the risk of catastrophic global warming in a wealth-accumulating, more-energy-consuming world and provides advice for students entering careers in science or engineering.

  1. Ownership conversions and nursing home performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Stevenson, David G

    2008-08-01

    To examine the effects of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Online Survey, Certification, and Reporting system data from 1993 to 2004, and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) facility reports from 1998 to 2004. Regression specification incorporating facility fixed effects, with terms to identify trends in the pre- and postconversion periods. The annual rate of nursing home conversions almost tripled between 1994 and 2004. Our regression results indicate converting facilities are generally different throughout the pre/postconversion years, suggesting little causal effect of ownership conversions on nursing home performance. Before and after conversion, nursing homes converting from nonprofit to for-profit status generally exhibit deterioration in their performance, while nursing homes converting from for-profit to nonprofit status generally exhibit improvement. Policy makers have expressed concern regarding the implications of ownership conversions for nursing home performance. Our results imply that regulators and policy makers should not only monitor the outcomes of nursing home conversions, but also the targets of these conversions.

  2. Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht

    2008-02-01

    Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.

  3. Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellsten, T.

    1980-05-01

    Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)

  4. Entropy fluxes, endoreversibility, and solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, A.; Landsberg, P. T.; Baruch, P.; Parrott, J. E.

    1993-09-01

    A formalism illustrating the conversion of radiation energy into work can be obtained in terms of energy and entropy fluxes. Whereas the Landsberg equality was derived for photothermal conversion with zero bandgap, a generalized inequality for photothermal/photovoltaic conversion with a single, but arbitrary, bandgap was deduced. This result was derived for a direct energy and entropy balance. The formalism of endoreversible dynamics was adopted in order to show the correlation with the latter approach. It was a surprising fact that the generalized Landsberg inequality was derived by optimizing some quantity W(sup *), which obtains it maximum value under short-circuit condition.

  5. Conversion electron spectroscopy in transfermium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzberg, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron spectroscopy is an essential tool for the spectroscopy of heavy deformed nuclei. The conversion electron spectrometer SACRED has been used in conjunction with the gas-filled recoil separator RITU to study conversion electron cascades in 254 No. The spectra reveal the ground state rotational bands down to low spin. A detailed analysis of the background seen for 254 No shows that approximately 40% of the decay path goes via excited high K bands which may be built on an isomer. (orig.)

  6. The conversion factor of α radiation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weida; Zhou Zhixin; Xia Junding

    1997-01-01

    It is important in fine-grain TL dating that the full α dose must be converted into the equivalent β dose. Although the conversion coefficient K for internal radiation efficiency can not be measured directly for each sample, it is possible to measure the external radiation efficiency K 3.7 . For this purpose a special study for the conversion factor of K to K 3.7 has been made using ultrathin TLD. The results show that the conversion factor of the TLD for archaeological samples is 0.847, which is in agreement with the calculated value 0.85

  7. Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1994-06-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

  8. Energy conversion and management principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Petrecca, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an overall view of energy conversion and management in industry and in buildings by following the streams of energy from the site boundaries to the end users. Written for an audience of both practitioners and faculty/students, Energy Conversion and Management: Principles and Applications presents general principles of energy conversion and energy sources, both traditional and renewable, in a broad range of facilities such as electrical substations, boiler plants, heat and power plants, electrical networks, thermal fluid distributions lines and insulations, pumps and fans, ai

  9. [Conversion disorder : functional neuroimaging and neurobiological mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, J; Piette, C; Salmon, E; Scantamburlo, G

    2017-04-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder often encountered in neurology services. This condition without organic lesions was and still is sometimes referred as an imaginary illness or feigning. However, the absence of organic lesions does not exclude the possibility of cerebral dysfunction. The etiologic mechanisms underlying this disorder remain uncertain even today.The advent of cognitive and functional imaging opens up a field of exploration for psychiatry in understanding the neurobiological mechanisms underlying mental disorders and especially the conversion disorder. This article reports several neuroimaging studies of conversion disorder and attempts to generate hypotheses about neurobiological mechanisms.

  10. Talcose entre artesãos em pedra-sabão em uma localidade rural do Município de Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil Talc pneumoconiosis among soapstone handicraft workers in a rural area of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olívia Maria de Paula Alves Bezerra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A talcose é uma pneumoconiose ainda pouco estudada em nosso meio. Sua ocorrência foi investigada no Distrito de Mata dos Palmitos, Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais, Brasil, entre artesãos em pedra-sabão, que trabalham em produção de base familiar, de caráter informal. Na localidade, vivem cerca de 180 habitantes, dos quais 108 se ocupam com o artesanato em pedra-sabão e 15 alternam a produção de peças artesanais com as atividades nas minas. Foram realizados exames clínicos, enfatizando a história ocupacional; questionário padronizado de sintomas respiratórios; radiografia de tórax (padrão OIT e espirometria. Observou-se baixa prevalência de queixas respiratórias, e a dispnéia foi o sintoma mais freqüente. A ocorrência de bronquite crônica foi identificada em 12 trabalhadores adultos. O exame radiológico de tórax evidenciou pequenas opacidades pulmonares em cinco trabalhadores, e 11 foram considerados suspeitos. Um trabalhador apresentou espessamento pleural em placa. Alterações na espirometria foram observadas em sete trabalhadores. O estudo da composição da poeira revelou a presença de fibras respiráveis de asbesto do grupo dos anfibólios (tremolita-actinolita. Esses resultados sugerem a ocorrência de talcoasbestose entre os artesãos em pedra-sabão.Talc pneumoconiosis in Brazil has received little research attention to date. The disease was investigated in Mata dos Palmitos, a district of Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais State, among soapstone handicraft workers. The district has some 180 inhabitants, of whom 108 are engaged in handicrafts production, while 15 alternate handicrafts production with work in the soapstone quarries. A clinical and occupational investigation was conducted, along with a respiratory symptoms standardized questionnaire, chest x-ray (ILO standard, and spirometry. Clinical data showed a low prevalence of respiratory complaints. Dyspnea was the most frequent symptom. Chronic bronchitis was identified in

  11. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  12. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of Community Paralegals in Addressing Impacts of Land Use Change in Asia. This project addresses the ... Pays d' institution. United States. Site internet.

  13. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  14. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conversion Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    . Conversion systems must meet the same emissions standards that gasoline or diesel products do. Refer to EPA's manufacturer that holds the relevant emissions-related certifications and tampering exemptions. New and

  16. FLOUTING MAXIMS IN INDONESIA LAWAK KLUB CONVERSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati Sukmaningrum

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the types of maxims flouted in the conversation in famous comedy show, Indonesia Lawak Club. Likewise, it also tries to reveal the speakers‘ intention of flouting the maxim in the conversation during the show. The writers use descriptive qualitative method in conducting this research. The data is taken from the dialogue of Indonesia Lawak club and then analyzed based on Grice‘s cooperative principles. The researchers read the dialogue‘s transcripts, identify the maxims, and interpret the data to find the speakers‘ intention for flouting the maxims in the communication. The results show that there are four types of maxims flouted in the dialogue. Those are maxim of quality (23%, maxim of quantity (11%, maxim of manner (31%, and maxim of relevance (35. Flouting the maxims in the conversations is intended to make the speakers feel uncomfortable with the conversation, show arrogances, show disagreement or agreement, and ridicule other speakers.

  17. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  18. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  19. Expertise in Everyday Nurse–Patient Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Macdonald

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of nursing activity is embedded in what is considered to be everyday conversation. These conversations are important to health professionals because communication can affect health outcomes, and they are important to patients who want to know they are being heard and cared for. How do nurses talk with patients and what are the features of effective communication in practice? In this exploratory study, two expert nurses recorded conversations with patients during domiciliary visits. Linguistic discourse analysis, informed by contextual knowledge of domiciliary nursing shows the nurses skillfully used small talk to support their clinical work. In their conversations, nurses elicit specific information, normalize unpleasant procedures, manage the flow of the interaction, and strengthen the therapeutic relationship. Small talk can be big talk in achieving nursing goals. Critically reflecting on recorded clinical interactions can be a useful method of professional development and a way of demonstrating nursing expertise.

  20. NASA-OAST photovoltaic energy conversion program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, J. P.; Loria, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA program in photovoltaic energy conversion research is discussed. Solar cells, solar arrays, gallium arsenides, space station and spacecraft power supplies, and state of the art devices are discussed.

  1. Trends and Challenges in Catalytic Biomass Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup; Egeblad, Kresten; Taarning, Esben

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to the plethora of chemicals used in modern society is one of the major challenges of the 21st century. Due to the significant differences between biomass resources and the current feedstock, crude oil, new technologies need to be developed encompassing all steps...... in the value chain, from pretreatment to purification. Heterogeneous catalysis is at the heart of the petrochemical refinery and will likely play an equally important role in the future biomass-based chemical industry. Three potentially important routes to chemicals from biomass are highlighted in this chapter....... The conversion of biomass-derived substrates, such as glycerol, by hydrogenolysis to the important chemicals ethylene glycol and propane diols. Secondly, the conversion of carbohydrates by Lewis acidic zeolites to yield alkyl lactates, and finally the conversion of lignin, an abundant low value source of biomass...

  2. Advances in wind energy conversion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Sathyajith, Mathew

    2011-01-01

    The technology of generating energy from wind has significantly changed during the past five years. The book brings together all the latest aspects of wind energy conversion technology - from wind resource analysis to grid integration of generated electricity.

  3. Interfacing feedstock logistics with bioenergy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Oak Ridge National Lab

    2010-07-01

    The interface between biomass production and biomass conversion platforms was investigated. Functional relationships were assembled in a modeling platform to simulate the flow of biomass feedstock from farm and forest to a densification plant. The model considers key properties of biomass for downstream pre-processing and conversion. These properties include moisture content, cellulose, hemicelluloses, lignin, ash, particle size, specific density and bulk density. The model simulates logistical operations such as grinding to convert biomass to pellets that are supplied to a biorefinery for conversion to heat, power, or biofuels. Equations were developed to describe the physical aspects of each unit operation. The effect that each of the process variables has on the efficiency of the conversion processes was described.

  4. 49 CFR 1018.7 - Conversion claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Conversion claims. These procedures are directed primarily to the recovery of money on behalf of the Government. The Board may demand: (a) The return of specific property; or (b) Either the return of property or the payment of its value. ...

  5. Condenser design for AMTEC power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    The condenser and the electrodes are the two elements of an alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion (AMTEC) cell which most greatly affect the energy conversion performance. A condenser is described which accomplishes two critical functions in an AMTEC cell: management of the fluid under microgravity conditions and optimization of conversion efficiency. The first function is achieved via the use of a controlled surface shape, along with drainage grooves and arteries to collect the fluid. Capillary forces manage the fluid in microgravity and dominate hydrostatic effects on the ground so the device is ground-testable. The second function is achieved via a smooth film of highly reflective liquid sodium on the condensing surface, resulting in minimization of parasitic heat losses due to radiation heat transfer. Power conversion efficiencies of 25 percent to 30 percent are estimated with this condenser using present technology for the electrodes.

  6. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction

  7. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  8. Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Land Conversion, Social Impacts, and Legal Remedies: Understanding the Role of ... There is a recognized need for intermediary institutions, such as media, ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  9. Persuasive Conversational Agent with Persuasion Tactics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tatsuya; Kitamura, Yasuhiko

    Persuasive conversational agents persuade people to change their attitudes or behaviors through conversation, and are expected to be applied as virtual sales clerks in e-shopping sites. As an approach to create such an agent, we have developed a learning agent with the Wizard of Oz method in which a person called Wizard talks to the user pretending to be the agent. The agent observes the conversations between the Wizard and the user, and learns how to persuade people. In this method, the Wizard has to reply to most of the user's inputs at the beginning, but the burden gradually falls because the agent learns how to reply as the conversation model grows.

  10. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  11. Conversion Rate Optimization through Evolutionary Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Miikkulainen, Risto; Iscoe, Neil; Shagrin, Aaron; Cordell, Ron; Nazari, Sam; Schoolland, Cory; Brundage, Myles; Epstein, Jonathan; Dean, Randy; Lamba, Gurmeet

    2017-01-01

    Conversion optimization means designing a web interface so that as many users as possible take a desired action on it, such as register or purchase. Such design is usually done by hand, testing one change at a time through A/B testing, or a limited number of combinations through multivariate testing, making it possible to evaluate only a small fraction of designs in a vast design space. This paper describes Sentient Ascend, an automatic conversion optimization system that uses evolutionary op...

  12. μ- conversion via doubly charged Higgs scalar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, C.E.; Zahir, M.S.

    1982-10-01

    A new mechanism is used to calculate μ - → e + conversion in nuclei, based on the existence of a doubly charged Higgs scalar. The scalar is part of a triplet which generates the spontaneous breakdown of B-L symmetry in an extension of the standard model, as proposed by Gelmini and Roncadelli. We find a limit for conversion rates which is comparable to those of earlier calculations

  13. Measuring international relations in social media conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, GA; Xu, WW; Chu, J; Jiang, K; Huh, C; Park, JY; Park, HW

    2017-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Inc. This paper examines international relations as perceived by the public in their social media conversations. It examines over 1.8 billion Facebook postings in English and 51 million Chinese posts on Weibo, to reveal the relations among nations as expressed in social media conversations. It argues that social media represent a transnational electronic public sphere, in which public discussions reveal characteristics of international relations as perceived by a foreign publi...

  14. A simple theory of linear mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cairns, R.A.; Lashmore-Davies, C.N.; Woods, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is given of the basic theory of linear mode conversion involving the construction of differential equations for the mode amplitudes based on the properties of the dispersion relation in the neighbourhood of the mode conversion point. As an example the transmission coefficient for tunneling from the upper hybrid resonance through the evanescent region to the adjacent cut-off is treated. 7 refs, 3 figs

  15. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-01-01

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the open-quotes cradle to graveclose quotes ownership liabilities

  16. A Converse of Fermat's Little Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, P. S.

    2007-01-01

    As the name of the paper implies, a converse of Fermat's Little Theorem (FLT) is stated and proved. FLT states the following: if p is any prime, and x any integer, then x[superscript p] [equivalent to] x (mod p). There is already a well-known converse of FLT, known as Lehmer's Theorem, which is as follows: if x is an integer coprime with m, such…

  17. Development of high conversion boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Jun-ichi; Mochida, Takaaki; Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1988-01-01

    It is expected that the period of LWRs being the main source of electric power supply becomes long, therefore, the development of next generation LWRs placing emphasis on the effective utilization of uranium resources and the improvement of economical efficiency is necessary. In this paper, as the next generation BWRs subsequent to ABWRs, the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs is reported, in which emphasis is placed on the saving of natural uranium resources by raising the rate of conversion to plutonium. This core is that of realizing the high rate of conversion by utilizing the void in the core, which is the feature of BWRs, and the case of making the change of the core structure relatively small by using cross type control rods and the case of changing the core structure for further heightening the rate of conversion and making control rods into cluster type are described. In order to meet the demand like this, Hitachi Ltd. has engaged in the development of the concept of the core of next generation LWRs. In the high conversion type BWRs, there is not large change in the reactor system and turbine system from the current BWRs. The features and the concept of the core of high conversion type BWRs are described. (Kako, I.)

  18. Conversational AI: The Science Behind the Alexa Prize

    OpenAIRE

    Ram, Ashwin; Prasad, Rohit; Khatri, Chandra; Venkatesh, Anu; Gabriel, Raefer; Liu, Qing; Nunn, Jeff; Hedayatnia, Behnam; Cheng, Ming; Nagar, Ashish; King, Eric; Bland, Kate; Wartick, Amanda; Pan, Yi; Song, Han

    2018-01-01

    Conversational agents are exploding in popularity. However, much work remains in the area of social conversation as well as free-form conversation over a broad range of domains and topics. To advance the state of the art in conversational AI, Amazon launched the Alexa Prize, a 2.5-million-dollar university competition where sixteen selected university teams were challenged to build conversational agents, known as socialbots, to converse coherently and engagingly with humans on popular topics ...

  19. Sexy gene conversions: locating gene conversions on the X-chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Mark J; Zhang, Liqing

    2009-08-01

    Gene conversion can have a profound impact on both the short- and long-term evolution of genes and genomes. Here, we examined the gene families that are located on the X-chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), mouse (Mus musculus) and rat (Rattus norvegicus) for evidence of gene conversion. We identified seven gene families (WD repeat protein family, Ferritin Heavy Chain family, RAS-related Protein RAB-40 family, Diphosphoinositol polyphosphate phosphohydrolase family, Transcription Elongation Factor A family, LDOC1-related family, Zinc Finger Protein ZIC, and GLI family) that show evidence of gene conversion. Through phylogenetic analyses and synteny evidence, we show that gene conversion has played an important role in the evolution of these gene families and that gene conversion has occurred independently in both primates and rodents. Comparing the results with those of two gene conversion prediction programs (GENECONV and Partimatrix), we found that both GENECONV and Partimatrix have very high false negative rates (i.e. failed to predict gene conversions), which leads to many undetected gene conversions. The combination of phylogenetic analyses with physical synteny evidence exhibits high resolution in the detection of gene conversions.

  20. Teaching Spanish Pragmatics Through Colloquial Conversations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albelda Marco, Marta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the advantages of teaching and learning a foreign language with and through spoken discursive corpora, and especially colloquial and conversational ones. The benefits of developing oral competence and communicative skills in language learners using colloquial conversations will be exposed and discussed. In this paper, we characterise the colloquial conversation and the features that define this register and discursive genre. Being the most natural and original way to communicate among human beings, the colloquial conversation is the most common means to communicate, and therefore, this genre should have a greater presence in foreign-language classrooms. Secondly, we expound on the advantages of teaching using colloquial conversations corpora, particularly resulting from its contextualisation (the linguistic input is learnt in its real and authentic context and from its oral and conversational features (prosodic elements and interactional mechanisms. Thirdly, the paper provides a list of corpora of colloquial conversations that are available in Spanish, focusing on Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus (peninsular Spanish oral corpus, Briz et al., 2002; Cabedo & Pons online, www.valesco.es. Finally, a set of pragmatic applications of corpora in foreign-language classroom is offered, in particular using the Val.Es.Co. colloquial corpus: functions of discourse markers and interjections (whose meanings change depending on the context, strategies of turn-takings, ways of introducing new topic in the dialogues, mechanisms of keeping or “stealing” the turn, devices to introduce direct speech, attitudes expressed by the falling and rising intonations, hedges and intensifiers, and so on. In general, this paper pretends to offer ideas, resources and materials to make the students more competent in communication using authentic discursive oral corpora.

  1. Graphical comparison of calculated internal conversion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewbank, W.B.

    1980-11-01

    Calculated values of the coefficients of internal conversion of gamma rays in the K shell and L 1 , L 2 , L 3 subshells from published tabulations by Band and Trzhaskovskaya and by Roesel et al. at Data Nucl. Data Tables, 21, 92-514(1978) are compared with values obtained by computer interpolation among tabulated values of Hager and Seltzer Nucl. Data, A4, 1-235(1968). In some cases, agreement among the three calculations is remarkably good, and differences are generally less than 5%. In a few cases, there are differences as large as 20 to 50%, corresponding to the threshold effect described by Roesel et al. The Z-dependent resonance minimum described by Roesel et al. is also observed in the comparison of E1-E4 conversion in the L 1 subshell. In several cases (notably M1-M4 conversion in the K shell and L 1 subshell), the Band and Roesel calculations show dramatically different dependence on gamma energy and atomic number. For Z = 100, the Band calculation for E4 conversion in the L 3 subshell shows irregular behavior at energies below the K-shell binding energy. A few high-quality measurements of internal conversion coefficients (+-5%) would help greatly to establish a basis for choice among the theoretical calculations. 32 figures

  2. TFTR power conversion and plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    1985-01-01

    Major components of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) power conversion system include 39 thyristor rectifier power supplies, 12 energy storage capacitor banks, and 6 ohmic heating interrupters. These components are connected in various series/parallel configurations to provide controlled pulses of current to the Toroidal Field (TF), Ohmic Heating (OH), Equilibrium (vertical) Field (EF), and Horizontal Field (HF) magnet coil systems. Real-time control of the power conversion system is accomplished by a centralized dedicated computer; local control is minimal. Power supply firing angles, capacitor bank charge and discharge commands, interrupter commands, etc., are all determined and issued by the central computer. Plasma Position and Current Control (PPCC) reference signals to power conversion (OH, EF, HF) are determined by separate analog electronics but invoked through the power conversion computer. Real-time fault sensing of plasma parameters, gas injection, neutral beams, etc., are monitored by a separate Discharge Fault System (DFS) but routed through the power conversion computer for pre-programmed shutdown response

  3. Kinetics of Scheelite Conversion in Sulfuric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Leiting; Li, Xiaobin; Zhou, Qiusheng; Peng, Zhihong; Liu, Guihua; Qi, Tiangui; Taskinen, Pekka

    2018-02-01

    Complete conversion of scheelite in H2SO4 solution plays a key role in exploration of cleaner technology for producing ammonium paratungstate. In this work, the factors influencing scheelite conversion were investigated experimentally to model its kinetics. The results indicated that the conversion rate increases with increasing temperature and reducing particle size, but is almost independent of stirring speed. Moreover, although the conversion rate increases with increasing initial H2SO4 concentration (≤ 1.25 mol/L), it decreases rapidly at 1.5 mol/L H2SO4 after 10 min due to formation of a H2WO4 layer. The experimental data agree quite well with the shrinking core model under chemical reaction control in ≤ 1.25 mol/L H2SO4 solution, and the kinetic equation was established as: 1- ( 1- α )^{ 1 / 3} = 2 2 2 5 4 6. 6\\cdot C_{{{H}_{ 2} {SO}_{ 4} }}^{ 1. 2 2 6} \\cdot r_{ 0}^{ - 1} \\cdot e^{{ - 3 9 2 6 0/RT}} \\cdot t (t, min). This work could contribute to better understanding of scheelite conversion in H2SO4 solution and development of a new route for ammonium paratungstate production.

  4. VIOLATION OF CONVERSATION MAXIM ON TV ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desak Putu Eka Pratiwi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxim is a principle that must be obeyed by all participants textually and interpersonally in order to have a smooth communication process. Conversation maxim is divided into four namely maxim of quality, maxim of quantity, maxim of relevance, and maxim of manner of speaking. Violation of the maxim may occur in a conversation in which the information the speaker has is not delivered well to his speaking partner. Violation of the maxim in a conversation will result in an awkward impression. The example of violation is the given information that is redundant, untrue, irrelevant, or convoluted. Advertisers often deliberately violate the maxim to create unique and controversial advertisements. This study aims to examine the violation of maxims in conversations of TV ads. The source of data in this research is food advertisements aired on TV media. Documentation and observation methods are applied to obtain qualitative data. The theory used in this study is a maxim theory proposed by Grice (1975. The results of the data analysis are presented with informal method. The results of this study show an interesting fact that the violation of maxim in a conversation found in the advertisement exactly makes the advertisements very attractive and have a high value.

  5. Abnormal parietal function in conversion paresis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije van Beilen

    Full Text Available The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms.

  6. Study on carbon dioxide conversion by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Hyun; Park, Geun Il; Cho, Il Hoon; Choi, Sang Do; Hong, Kwang Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    1999-09-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the synergistic effects on the CO 2 conversion by the application of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray. Gamma-ray irradiation was performed to examine the effects of semiconductor application on CO 2 conversion in water and the formation of organic material from carbonate solution. From experimental results it is clear that the supplication of semiconductor in the field of gamma-ray increases the efficiency for CO 2 conversion to organic matter. Based on the obtained experimental results it is obvious that the synergistic effects of semiconductor materials in the gamma-ray field leads to increase of the CO 2 conversion yield to organic matter up to 50 percent compared to the gamma-ray irradiation. The way of achieving higher activity is due to the catalytic action of semiconductor by gamma-ray irradiation. Zr-doped TiO 2 catalyst prepared by sol-gel method exhibits the higher efficiency for CO 2 conversion in aqueous solution and carbonate containing solution. This effect of Zr-doping can be explained by the formation of additional defects in surface of TiO 2 film. (author)

  7. Response inhibition in motor conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Ekanayake, Vindhya; Wiggs, Edythe; Kranick, Sarah; Ameli, Rezvan; Harrison, Neil A; Hallett, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Conversion disorders (CDs) are unexplained neurological symptoms presumed to be related to a psychological issue. Studies focusing on conversion paralysis have suggested potential impairments in motor initiation or execution. Here we studied CD patients with aberrant or excessive motor movements and focused on motor response inhibition. We also assessed cognitive measures in multiple domains. We compared 30 CD patients and 30 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy volunteers on a motor response inhibition task (go/no go), along with verbal motor response inhibition (color-word interference) and measures of attention, sustained attention, processing speed, language, memory, visuospatial processing, and executive function including planning and verbal fluency. CD patients had greater impairments in commission errors on the go/no go task (P conversion. Patients with nonepileptic seizures, a different form of conversion disorder, are commonly reported to have lower IQ and multiple cognitive deficits. Our results point toward potential differences between conversion disorder subgroups. © 2013 Movement Disorder Society. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.

  8. Conversion disorder: towards a neurobiological understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Stanton, Biba R; David, Anthony S

    2006-01-01

    Conversion disorders are a common cause of neurological disability, but the diagnosis remains controversial and the mechanism by which psychological stress can result in physical symptoms “unconsciously” is poorly understood. This review summarises research examining conversion disorder from a neurobiological perspective. Early observations suggesting a role for hemispheric specialization have not been replicated consistently. Patients with sensory conversion symptoms have normal evoked responses in primary and secondary somatosensory cortex but a reduction in the P300 potential, which is thought to reflect a lack of conscious processing of sensory stimuli. The emergence of functional imaging has provided the greatest opportunity for understanding the neural basis of conversion symptoms. Studies have been limited by small patient numbers and failure to control for confounding variables. The evidence available would suggest a broad hypothesis that frontal cortical and limbic activation associated with emotional stress may act via inhibitory basal ganglia–thalamocortical circuits to produce a deficit of conscious sensory or motor processing. The conceptual difficulties that have limited progress in this area are discussed. A better neuropsychiatric understanding of the mechanisms of conversion symptoms may improve our understanding of normal attention and volition and reduce the controversy surrounding this diagnosis. PMID:19412442

  9. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  10. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  11. evaluation of commercial FCC catalysts for hydrocarbon conversion. I. Physicochemical characterization and n-hexane conversion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brait, A.; Brait, A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lercher, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of six steam-stabilized, commercial FCC catalysts were compared in respect of their catalytic activity for n-hexane conversion. The conversion of n-hexane over these catalysts could be fully explained by three reaction pathways: protolytic cracking, protolytic

  12. Surface Plasmon-Assisted Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodekatos, Georgios; Schünemann, Stefan; Tüysüz, Harun

    2016-01-01

    The utilization of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) from plasmonic noble metals in combination with semiconductors promises great improvements for visible light-driven photocatalysis, in particular for energy conversion. This review summarizes the basic principles of plasmonic photocatalysis, giving a comprehensive overview about the proposed mechanisms for enhancing the performance of photocatalytically active semiconductors with plasmonic devices and their applications for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion. The main focus is on gold and, to a lesser extent, silver nanoparticles in combination with titania as semiconductor and their usage as active plasmonic photocatalysts. Recent advances in water splitting, hydrogen generation with sacrificial organic compounds, and CO2 reduction to hydrocarbons for solar fuel production are highlighted. Finally, further improvements for plasmonic photocatalysts, regarding performance, stability, and economic feasibility, are discussed for surface plasmon-assisted solar energy conversion.

  13. Steam generated conversion coating on aluminium alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    Aluminium and its alloys are widely used in aerospace industry owing to their high strength to weight ratio. The surface of aluminium under normal conditions has a thin oxide film (2.5-10 nm) responsible for its inherent corrosion resistance. This oxide film can further be converted or transformed...... into functional conversion coatings in order to enhance corrosion resistance and adhesion to paint systems. Chromium based conversion coatings have been extensively used on aluminium alloys to improve adhesion of subsequent paint layers and corrosion resistance. However, the use of hexavalent chromium is strictly...... regulated due to its toxic nature and suspected carcinogenicity. So, it is highly imperative to develop other alternatives for chrome conversion coatings. Treatment of aluminium with natural water at elevated temperatures results in the formation of different forms of aluminium oxide (γ-AlO(OH) , Al(OH)3...

  14. Postoperative conversion disorder in a pediatric patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Amy; Spielman, Fred

    2010-11-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV), conversion disorder is classified as a somatoform illness and defined as an alteration or loss of physical function because of the expression of an underlying psychological ailment. This condition, previously known as hysteria, hysterical neurosis, or conversion hysteria occurs rarely, with an incidence of 11-300 cases per 100,000 people (American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 4th edn. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Presentation after an anesthetic is exceptional. After thorough review of the literature, fewer than 20 cases have been documented, with only two instances in patients younger than 18 years of age after general anesthesia; both were mild in nature. We present a severe case of postoperative conversion disorder that developed upon emergence from anesthesia in a previously healthy 16-year-old girl following direct laryngoscopy with vocal fold injection. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Political Conversation in Everyday Communicative Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Cristina Salgueiro Marques

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article looks at forms of interaction and communicative exchanges in discussion groups composed of beneficiaries of a Brazilian income transfer program (Bolsa-Família Program and at how these forms contribute to the deliberative process. Discussion groups are used as a method for showing how everyday conversation and political discussion are interrelated. Our interest is not to analyze this program, but rather represents an attempt to capture and research moments in which group participants establish their own position relative to one another. At such moments, conversations on everyday subjects and personal dramas shift towards attitudes that include taking the risk of expressing dissonant opinions, explaining background assumptions, and producing counter-narratives. Eight discussion groups were established in two Brazilian cities in the Southeastern region: four in Belo Horizonte (MG and four in Campinas (SP. Keywords: everyday conversation; political discussion; deliberative process; discussion groups; poor women.

  16. Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1996-06-01

    The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

  17. Biomass Conversion over Heteropoly Acid Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jizhe

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is a natural resource that is both abundant and sustainable. Its efficient utilization has long been the focus of research and development efforts with the aim to substitute it for fossil-based feedstock. In addition to the production of biofuels (e.g., ethanol) from biomass, which has been to some degree successful, its conversion to high value-added chemicals is equally important. Among various biomass conversion pathways, catalytic conversion is usually preferred, as it provides a cost-effective and eco-benign route to the desired products with high selectivities. The research of this thesis is focused on the conversion of biomass to various chemicals of commercial interest by selective catalytic oxidation. Molecular oxygen is chosen as the oxidant considering its low cost and environment friendly features in comparison with commonly used hydrogen peroxide. However, the activation of molecular oxygen usually requires high reaction temperatures, leading to over oxidation and thus lower selectivities. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop effective catalysts for such conversion systems. We use kegging-type heteropoly acids (HPAs) as a platform for catalysts design because of their high catalytic activities and ease of medication. Using HPA catalysts allows the conversion taking place at relatively low temperature, which is beneficial to saving production cost as well as to improving the reaction selectivity. The strong acidity of HPA promotes the hydrolysis of biomass of giant molecules (e.g. cellulose), which is the first as well as the most difficult step in the conversion process. Under certain circumstances, a HPA combines the merits of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, acting as an efficient homogeneous catalyst during the reaction while being easily separated as a heterogeneous catalyst after the reaction. We have successfully applied HPAs in several biomass conversion systems. Specially, we prepared a HPA-based bi-functional catalyst

  18. Power production with direct energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, C. [Morrow Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anghaie, S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Beller, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Brown, L. [General Atomic Co., San Diego, CA (United States); Parish, T. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  19. Power production with direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.; Lipinski, R.; Polansky, G.; Seidel, D.; Slutz, S.; Morrow, C.; Anghaie, S.; Beller, D.; Brown, L.; Parish, T.

    2001-01-01

    The direct energy conversion (DEC) project has as its main goal the development of a direct energy conversion process suitable for commercial development. We define direct energy conversion as any fission process that returns usable energy without using an intermediate thermal process. During the first phase of study, nine different concepts were investigated and 3 were selected: 1) quasi-spherical magnetically insulated fission electrode cell, 2) fission fragment magnetic collimator, and 3) gaseous core reactor with MHD generator. Selection was based on efficiency and feasibility. The realization of their potential requires an investment in both technically and commercially oriented research. The DEC project has a process in place to take one of these concepts forward and to outline the road map for further development. (A.C.)

  20. Conversation practices and network structure in Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossi, Luca; Magnani, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The public by default nature of Twitter messages, together with the adoption of the #hashtag convention led, in few years, to the creation of a digital space able to host worldwide conversation on almost every kind of topic. From major TV shows to Natural disasters there is no contemporary event...... that does not have its own #hashtag to gather together the ongoing Twitter conversation. These topical discussions take place outside of the Twitter network made of followers and friends. Nevertheless this topical network is where many of the most studied phenomena take place. Therefore Twitter based...... communication exists on two almost autonomous levels: the Twitter network made of followers and friends that shows a certain level of stability and the topical network, characterized by a high level of contingency, that appears and disappears following the rhythm of a worldwide conversation. Despite the fact...

  1. Superhydrophobic nanofluidic channels for enhanced electrokinetic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checco, Antonio; Al Hossain, Aktaruzzaman; Rahmani, Amir; Black, Charles; Doerk, Gregory; Colosqui, Carlos

    2017-11-01

    We present current efforts in the development of novel slit nanofluidic channels with superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces designed to enhance hydrodynamic conductivity and improve selective transport and electrokinetic energy conversion efficiencies (mechanical-electrical energy conversion). The nanochannels are fabricated on silicon wafers using UV lithography, and their internal surface is patterned with conical nanostructures (feature size and spacing 30 nm) defined by block copolymer self-assembly and plasma etching. These nanostructures are rendered superhydrophobic by passivation with a hydrophobic silane monolayer. We experimentally characterize hydrodynamic conductivity, effective zeta potentials, and eletrokinetic flows for the patterned nanochannels, comparing against control channels with bare surfaces. Experimental observations are rationalized using both continuum-based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Scientific and technical knowledge produced by this work is particularly relevant for sustainable energy conversion and storage, separation processes and water treatment using nanoporous materials. The ONR Contract # N000141613178 and NSF-CBET award# 1605809.

  2. Impact of defense conversion and US response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montanarelli, N.

    1994-01-01

    Conversion from military to civilian products due to defense conversion after the end of the Cold War takes a long as 20 years. In USA there are over 50 government programs funded to assist in defence conversion. This paper concentrates on the three major programs that will have the greatest impact on the economy, in the framework of the issues and needs of American industry. Federal government and US industry are making a considerable effort to transform how to do business today. One of the most important emerging themes in the federal program is international competitiveness. Large federal expenditures are made to support research and development that will increase productivity, thereby helping industry in global economic competition. This, in turn will play a key role in absorbing a large quantity od resources affected by the end of the Cold War

  3. Conversational routines in English convention and creativity

    CERN Document Server

    Aijmer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    It is surprising how much of everyday conversation consists of repetitive expressions such as 'thank you', 'sorry', would you mind?' and their many variants. However commonplace they may be, they do have important functions in communication.This thorough study draws upon original data from the London-Lund Corpus of Spoken English to provide a discoursal and pragmatic account of the more common expressions found in conversational routines, such as apologising, thanking, requesting and offering.The routines studied in this book range from conventionalized or idiomatized phrases t

  4. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  5. Polymers for energy storage and conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Mittal, Vikas

    2013-01-01

    One of the first comprehensive books to focus on the role of polymers in the burgeoning energy materials market Polymers are increasingly finding applications in the areas of energy storage and conversion. A number of recent advances in the control of the polymer molecular structure which allows the polymer properties to be more finely tuned have led to these advances and new applications. Polymers for Energy Storage and Conversion assimilates these advances in the form of a comprehensive text that includes the synthesis and properties of a large number of polymer systems for

  6. Conversion rate optimization in Finnish online businesses

    OpenAIRE

    Ratia, Miramaria; Ruoho, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    Conversion rate optimization (CRO) is an unfamiliar term to many online business owners even though it has become almost as important as search engine optimization is in e-commerce today. It is a method that is used to turn passive visitors into active users in order to improve a website’s performance. The main objective of this thesis was to find out what kinds of conversion rate optimization methods do Finnish small and medium-sized online businesses use. The thesis also studies what ar...

  7. Silicon nanowires for photovoltaic solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui-Qing; Lee, Shuit-Tong

    2011-01-11

    Semiconductor nanowires are attracting intense interest as a promising material for solar energy conversion for the new-generation photovoltaic (PV) technology. In particular, silicon nanowires (SiNWs) are under active investigation for PV applications because they offer novel approaches for solar-to-electric energy conversion leading to high-efficiency devices via simple manufacturing. This article reviews the recent developments in the utilization of SiNWs for PV applications, the relationship between SiNW-based PV device structure and performance, and the challenges to obtaining high-performance cost-effective solar cells.

  8. Rectenna session: Micro aspects. [energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Two micro aspects of the rectenna design are addressed: evaluation of the degradation in net rectenna RF to DC conversion efficiency due to power density variations across the rectenna (power combining analysis) and design of Yagi-Uda receiving elements to reduce rectenna cost by decreasing the number of conversion circuits (directional receiving elements). The first of these micro aspects involves resolving a fundamental question of efficiency potential with a rectenna, while the second involves a design modification with a large potential cost saving.

  9. A System for Electromagnetic Field Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A system is provided for conversion of a first electromagnetic field into a desired second electromagnetic field, for example for coupling modes between waveguides or into microstructured waveguides. The system comprises a complex spatial electromagnetic field converter that is positioned...... for reception of at least a part of the first electromagnetic field and that is adapted for conversion of the received field into the desired electromagnetic field, and wherein at least one of the first and second fields matches a mode of a microstructured waveguide. It is an important advantage of the present...

  10. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  11. Materials in energy conversion, harvesting, and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    First authored book to address materials' role in the quest for the next generation of energy materials Energy balance, efficiency, sustainability, and so on, are some of many facets of energy challenges covered in current research. However, there has not been a monograph that directly covers a spectrum of materials issues in the context of energy conversion, harvesting and storage. Addressing one of the most pressing problems of our time, Materials in Energy Conversion, Harvesting, and Storage illuminates the roles and performance requirements of materials in energy an

  12. Tritiated hydrogen conversion on heated metallic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionita, G.; Mihaila, V.; Purghel, L.; Rebigan, F.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports investigations on tritiated hydrogen conversion to tritiated water on heated metallic surfaces. The HT conversion process has been revealed for copper, aluminium and stainless steel W4541 surfaces in the temperature range 150 to 300 o C, in case of the static regime and in the range 250 to 400 o C for the dynamic case. The most significant catalytic activity was shown by the copper sample. Studies on this subject are used as input information for different nuclear accident scenarios implying tritium leakage

  13. MATERIALS REQUIREMENTS FOR THERMIONIC ENERGY CONVERSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R. C.; Skeen, C. H.

    1963-03-15

    The fundamentals of the thermionic energy conversion and its potential applications are reviewed. Materials problems associated with thermionic emitters are considered in relation to the following: work function; emissivity; vaporization; thermal, mechanical, and electrical properties; chemical stability; permeation; and stability under nuclear radiation. Cesium purity and materials suitable for collectors, electrical leads, support structures, insulators, and seals are also discussed. Experimental work on problems involved is reviewed. It is concluded that significant developments have occurred recently in all areas of thermionic energy conversion. (40 references) (A.G.W.)

  14. Conversion of hydrocarbon oils into motor fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-11-09

    The abstract describes a process for producing lower boiling hydrocarbon motor fuels with a starting material of wide boiling range composed primarily of hydrocarbon oils boiling substantially above the boiling range of the desired product. Separate catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are simultaneously maintained in an interdependent relationship. Higher boiling constituents are separated from residual constituents by fractionation while desirable reaction conditions are maintained. All or at least a portion of the products from the catalytic and pyrolytic conversion zones are blended to yield the desired lower boiling hydrocarbons or motor fuels.

  15. Conversion problems at the enterprises of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurodze, R.

    1998-01-01

    In the republic Georgia and other countries of former Soviet Union, various scientific research and experimental construction work for the production of special military techniques was conducted for Military Institutions. Much of the conversion work has been done and the brightest example was performed by Georgian aviation industry. Intensive research was conducted on improving the quality of the existing power systems as well as on search for new power sources and means of power savings. A number of significant projects were developed, the implementation of which will considerably improve the crisis situation in the sphere of power supply. A number of laboratories and research centres have submitted proposals for conversion programs

  16. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  17. The Finmeccania experience in military conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airaghi, A.; Corsi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Experience of the Italian aerospace, defense, energy, transportation and automation group Finmeccanica in military conversion is presented. The defence activities represent about 30% of the total turnover. The group involves 100 laboratories, 7000 fully dedicated employees and several centers of excellence. Since defense market is declining, production volumes are smaller, there is a decline in research and development public expenditures and there are less programs. The industry's challenge is how to survive since conversion in principle is not viable and diversification does not defend the high technology content. Some examples are described which show the possibility of convergence from military to commercial requirements

  18. High conversion HTRs and their fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, H.; Hansen, U.; Larsen, H.; Price, M.S.T.

    1975-01-01

    This report discusses the principles of the core design and the fuel cycle layout for High Conversion HTRs (HCHTRs). Though most of the principles apply equally to HTRs of the pebble-bed and the prismatic fuel element design types, the paper concentrates on the latter. Design and fuel cycle strategies for the full utilisation of the high conversion potential are compared with others that aim at easier reprocessing and the 'environmental' fuel cycle. The paper concludes by discussing operating and fuel cycle characteristics and economics of HCHTRs, and how the latter impinge on the allowable price for uranium ore and the available uranium resources. (orig./UA) [de

  19. Application of Facility Management in Brownfield Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernerová Eva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper covers two issues, namely the issue of brownfields and their conversion and the issue of Facility Management, which offers the possibility of applying its principles and tools for extending the benefit of the construction works as a tool for active access to care for the property. This paper aims to link these two topics and to identify the possibility of applying Facility Management in the conversation process of revitalization of brownfields so that subsequent commissioning eliminates the risk of future costly operation and relapse of the revitalized building into the category of brownfields.

  20. 24 CFR 972.109 - Conversion of developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... writing whether it has approved the conversion plan. Units that are vacant or vacated on or after the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conversion of developments. 972.109... DEVELOPMENT CONVERSION OF PUBLIC HOUSING TO TENANT-BASED ASSISTANCE Required Conversion of Public Housing...

  1. Teaching autistic children conversational speech using video modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlop, M H; Milstein, J P

    1989-01-01

    We assessed the effects of video modeling on acquisition and generalization of conversational skills among autistic children. Three autistic boys observed videotaped conversations consisting of two people discussing specific toys. When criterion for learning was met, generalization of conversational skills was assessed with untrained topics of conversation; new stimuli (toys); unfamiliar persons, siblings, and autistic peers; and other settings. The results indicated that the children learned through video modeling, generalized their conversational skills, and maintained conversational speech over a 15-month period. Video modeling shows much promise as a rapid and effective procedure for teaching complex verbal skills such as conversational speech. PMID:2793634

  2. In-beam conversion electron spectroscopy using the SACRED array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.; Cann, K.J.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Jones, G.D.; Julin, R.; Schulze, B.; Smith, J.F.; Wilson, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conversion electron studies of medium-heavy to heavy nuclear mass systems are important where the internal conversion process begins to dominate over gamma-ray emission. The use of a segmented detector array sensitive to conversion electrons has been used to study multiple conversion electron cascades from nuclear transitions. The application of the silicon array for conversion electron detection (SACRED) for in-beam measurements has successfully been implemented. (orig.). With 2 figs

  3. Unconventional fluoride conversion coating preparation and characterization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drábiková, J.; Fintová, Stanislava; Tkacz, J.; Doležal, P.; Wasserbauer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 6 (2017), s. 613-619 ISSN 0003-5599 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fluoride conversion coating * magnesium * corrosion Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials OBOR OECD: Coating and films Impact factor: 0.364, year: 2016 http://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/abs/10.1108/ACMM-02-2017-1757

  4. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  5. Perspectives for the uranium conversion market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaiser, Eduardo H.R.; Melo, Bruno [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: 213@ctemsp.mar.mil.br

    2007-07-01

    Uranium conversion is the last step to be technologically dominated by Brazil in the nuclear fuel cycle. Hence, it has a strategic importance for the Brazilian nuclear project, which is confirmed by the recent investment of the Science and Technology Department on the Brazilian Navy conversion plant project. This paper is an attempt to justify the necessity of the conversion and the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle projects, as well as identify future steps for the Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project. The paper objective is achieved performing a qualitative supply-demand balance for the past and the future and analysing the market structure, using the Porter five forces used on industry analysis. Both surveys have shown a promising future for the nuclear fuel industry, including the conversion due to the expected demand increase and reduction of inventories. Furthermore current suppliers have several mechanisms that work as a barrier to new entrants. Under this context, the a fully integrated Brazilian nuclear fuel cycle project is necessary, given the prosperous economical future of the sector and the possible future shortage of nuclear fuel products. Reprocessing and MOX fuel fabrication capabilities are important future steps for the program, given that there is a trend of increase of their use. (author)

  6. Opening the Door to Coaching Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheliotes, Linda Gross; Reilly, Marceta Fleming

    2012-01-01

    A leader doesn't have to solve every problem personally to be effective. In fact, helping others learn to resolve issues and implement their own solutions is the key to sustainable leadership and an empowered staff. This companion and follow-up book to "Coaching Conversations" brings the coaching style of leadership to life with stories from the…

  7. Real Communication through Interview and Conversation Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.

    1975-01-01

    A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)

  8. OSIRIS: an example of gradual conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Beylot, J.; Joly, C.

    1997-01-01

    The conversion of the OSIRIS core from 'Caramel' to silicide forms part of the move towards standardising a well-known fuel, developed in the context of the RERTR programme, and used by the majority of reactors. This standardisation makes it possible to anticipate reduced manufacturing and reprocessing costs in the long term. (author)

  9. Cavitation for improved sludge conversion into biogas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, A.H.; Bakker, T.W.; Kramer, H.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In several studies the beneficial influence of pre-treatment of waste activated sludge with cavitation on the biogas production was demonstrated. It is however, still not fully certain whether this effect should be mainly contributed to an increase in conversion rate of organics into biogas by

  10. Special involuntary conversion situations involving timberland

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegal

    2001-01-01

    If standing timber is destroyed or stolen, or if forest land is condemned for public use, the owner may be entitled to take a deduction on his or her income tax return. These types of losses are called involuntary conversions. In previous National Woodlands articles I've discussed in detail casualty losses, which represent the major type of timber involuntary...

  11. Occlusion classifiers for picture rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and

  12. Adaptive format conversion for scalable video coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wade K.; Lim, Jae S.

    2001-12-01

    The enhancement layer in many scalable coding algorithms is composed of residual coding information. There is another type of information that can be transmitted instead of (or in addition to) residual coding. Since the encoder has access to the original sequence, it can utilize adaptive format conversion (AFC) to generate the enhancement layer and transmit the different format conversion methods as enhancement data. This paper investigates the use of adaptive format conversion information as enhancement data in scalable video coding. Experimental results are shown for a wide range of base layer qualities and enhancement bitrates to determine when AFC can improve video scalability. Since the parameters needed for AFC are small compared to residual coding, AFC can provide video scalability at low enhancement layer bitrates that are not possible with residual coding. In addition, AFC can also be used in addition to residual coding to improve video scalability at higher enhancement layer bitrates. Adaptive format conversion has not been studied in detail, but many scalable applications may benefit from it. An example of an application that AFC is well-suited for is the migration path for digital television where AFC can provide immediate video scalability as well as assist future migrations.

  13. Student Emotions in Conversation-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Blair A.; Zapata-Rivera, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Students can experience a variety of emotions while completing assessments. Some emotions can get in the way of students performing their best (e.g., anxiety, frustration), whereas other emotions can facilitate student performance (e.g., engagement). Many new, non-traditional assessments, such as automated conversation-based assessments (CBA), are…

  14. Principles of energy conversion, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culp, A.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Energy classification, sources, utilization, economics and terminology; Principal fuels for energy conversion; Production of thermal energy; Fossil-fuel systems (such as steam generators, etc.); Nuclear reactor design and operation; The environmental impact of power plant operation; Production of mechanical energy; Production of electrical energy; and Energy storage

  15. Neuroimaging in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medically unexplained symptoms are not uncommon in the clinical setting. Conversion disorder is a psychological disorder in which there is no neurological explanation for patients’ physical symptoms. These physical symptoms can be both positive or negative, e.g. tremor or paresis. This

  16. 2009 Biochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Biochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  17. CALVIN'S SUDDEN CONVERSION (SUBITA CONVERSIO) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    his conversion, it could be fruitful to consider it from both historical and theological perspectives. ... logical positions of the interpreters. For example, a ..... God, but as the true method of worshipping was altogether unknown to me, I stumbled at ...

  18. A Conversation about Professionalism and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauch, Patricia A.; Crowson, Robert L.; Goldring, Ellen B.; Mawhinney, Hanne B.; Ogawa, Rodney T.; Driscoll, Mary Erina

    1998-01-01

    Presents an interactive electronic conversation among a group of scholars. Participants examined the nature of relationships between professionals and school communities and debated the degree to which conflict was either inevitable or useful in sustaining this connection. They tried to imagine the organizational structures and policies needed to…

  19. Conversion growth of Protestant churches in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M

    2008-01-01

    This study set out to answer the question what factors are conducive for church growth through conversion in Protestant Thai churches. After 180 years of unhindered Protestant missionary activity only 0.3% of ethnic Thai, about 185,000 people, have become Protestants. Though small, ethnic Thai

  20. Internal conversion mediated by specific nuclear motions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt; Sølling, Theis Ivan

    2014-01-01

    the excitation energies, and the excitation in all cases is by a 200 nm photon, the S1 density-of-states in the Franck-Condon region will be high for the more N-alkylated amine. This, according to standard models, should lead to faster internal conversion. The experimental results are in contrast to this...

  1. Frontiers of Energy Storage and Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajun Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Inorganics features a Forum for novel materials and approaches for electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Diminishing non-renewable fossil fuels and the resulting unattainability of environment have made us search new sustainable energy resources and develop technology for efficient utilization of such resources. Green energy sources, such as solar, hydroelectric, thermal and wind energy are partially replacing fossil fuels as means to generate power. Inorganic (solid state materials are key in the development of advanced devices for the efficient storage and conversion of energy. The grand challenge facing the inorganic chemist is to discover, design rationally and utilize advanced technological materials made from earth-abound elements for these energy storage and conversion processes. Recent spectacular progress in inorganic materials synthesis, characterization, and computational screening has greatly advanced this field, which drove us to edit this issue to provide a window to view the development of this field for the community. This special issue comprises research articles, which highlights some of the most recent advances in new materials for energy storage and conversion. [...

  2. The Sloping Land Conversion Program in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhen

    conversion program. Our results show that SLCP works as a valid external policy intervention on rural livelihood diversification. In addition, the findings demonstrate that there exist heterogeneous effects of SLCP implementation on livelihood diversification across different rural income groups. The lower...

  3. Market for natural uranium conversion. Commercial aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durret, L.F.

    1986-01-01

    The main activity of COMURHEX is the conversion into uranium hexafluoride of uranium concentrates from mines and owned by electricity producers. Capacities of the 5 uranium converters in the Western World are compared. About 50% of COMUREX turnover is exported. Evolution of the market and of stockpile are reviewed [fr

  4. Gender Differences in Family Dinnertime Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Natalie; Gallo, Emily; Fivush, Robyn

    2015-01-01

    Family dinnertime conversations are key settings where children learn behavior regulation, narrative skills, and knowledge about the world. In this context, parents may also model and socialize gender differences in language. The present study quantitatively examines gendered language use across a family dinnertime recorded with 37 broadly…

  5. Short Communication: Retrospective Conversion of Arabic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Jos Library, Nigeria had envisioned the computerisation of its functions and services since the 1980s, but it was not until 1992 that it had its first set of microcomputers. The retrospective conversion (RECON) of the library's collection is currently in progress, and the Integrated Technical Services (ITS) for

  6. Crossing the Aisle: Conversations about Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mark

    2011-01-01

    This article presents edited transcripts of separate Skype conversations with Richard Ungerer, AMS executive director, in his office at AMS headquarters in New York and Andre Roberfroid, president of AMI, at his home in Vetraz-Monthoux, France. It also presents a discussion of the ways the two organizations can join forces to strengthen the…

  7. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodagh Power

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. Case. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual’s emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. Conclusions. We propose that our patient’s adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that “primed” him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  8. Systems and methods for wave energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Daniel G.; Cantara, Justin; Nathan, Craig; Lopes, Amy M.; Green, Brandon E.

    2017-02-28

    Systems for wave energy conversion that have components that can survive the harsh marine environment and that can be attached to fixed structures, such as a pier, and having the ability to naturally adjust for tidal height and methods for their use are presented.

  9. Indirectness in Discourse: Ethnicity as Conversational Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    1981-01-01

    Examines social differences in expectations of indirectness in conversations between married couples, both Greek and Greek-American. Concludes that Greeks are more likely to expect indirectness in the context presented and that Greek-Americans have retained the Greek communicative patterns. (FL)

  10. Status of RA3 conversion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testoni, J.

    1983-01-01

    Studies carried out at CNEA in Argentina for the conversion of the RA3 3.5 MW reactor to LEU fuel dealt with neutronic, thermal hydraulic, safety analysis, as well as fuel manufacture. Some of the results for the neutronic studies are reported

  11. Conversion of autoimmune hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furqan, Saira; Haque, Naeem-ul; Islam, Najmul

    2014-08-03

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the two autoimmune spectrum of thyroid disease. Cases of conversion from hyperthyroidism to hypothyroidism have been reported but conversion from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism is very rare. Although such cases have been reported rarely in the past we are now seeing such conversions from hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism more frequently in clinical practice. We are reporting three cases of middle aged Asian females who presented with classical symptoms of hypothyroidism and the investigations showed elevated thyroid stimulating hormone with positive thyroid antibodies. Diagnosis of autoimmune hypothyroidism was made and thyroxine replacement therapy was initiated. Patients became asymptomatic with normalization of thyroid stimulating hormone level. After few years they developed symptoms of hyperthyroidism with suppressed thyroid stimulating hormone level. Over replacement of thyroxine was considered and the dose of thyroxine was decreased, but they remain symptomatic. After gradual decrease in the dose of thyroxine it was stopped finally. Even after few months of stopping thyroxine, the symptoms of hyperthyroidism did not improve and the biochemical and imaging modalities confirmed that the patients have developed hyperthyroidism. Anti-thyroid treatment was then started and the patients became symptom free. High index of suspicion should be there for possible conversion of hypothyroidism to hyperthyroidism if a patient with primary hypothyroidism develops persistent symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Otherwise it can be missed easily considering it as an over replacement with thyroid hormone.

  12. 2009 Thermochemical Conversion Platform Review Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrell, John [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent external panel of experts at the U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program’s Thermochemical Conversion platform review meeting, held on April 14-16, 2009, at the Sheraton Denver Downtown, Denver, Colorado.

  13. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Machin, Lizet; Perez Bermudez, Raul; Quintana Perez, Candido Enrique; Ocanna Guevara, Victor Samuel; Duffus Scott, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  14. Urban energy conversion and its effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The extent to which the building up and energy conversion affect the quality and energy economy of living space is shown by the example of Munich. The comparison of the energy economy of various ecological systems give qualified information for assessing the thermal loading in densely inhabited areas and show the basic differences between built-up and country areas. (DG) [de

  15. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of cellulosic biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into fermentable sugars. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the invention biomass is converted into

  16. Process and apparatus for conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.C.; Hazewinkel, J.H.O.; Groenestijn, van J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the conversion of biomass, in particular lignocellulose-containing biomass into a product that may be further processes in a fermentation step. The invention is further directed to apparatus suitable for carrying out such processes. According to the

  17. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Operant procedures applied to a conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kop, P.F.M.; Heijden, H.P. van der; Hoogduin, K.A.L.; Schaap, C.P.D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Conversion symptoms, as identified by the existing classification systems, do not form a single unitary class. It is therefore difficult to find an adequate treatment that closely connects to the basic characteristics of the disease. Instead, we designed a treatment method that closely relates to

  19. 5 CFR 534.605 - Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay for Administrative Appeals Judge Positions § 534.605 Conversion. On the first day of the first pay period beginning... appeals judge to the lowest rate of basic pay provided by § 534.603(a) of this subpart that equals or...

  20. Absorption and emission from mode conversion theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1995-02-01

    The effects of mode conversion theory on emission have led to some surprising results. The classical expressions were originally derived from models which did not include mode conversion or its attendant reflection. When mode conversion was included, the first surprise was that the transmission coefficient is totally independent of absorption and due exclusively to tunneling. The other surprise is that the observed emission arises from two distinct sources, one direct, and one from an indirect Bernstein wave source which is partially converted in the cyclotron layer to outgoing electromagnetic waves, with the net result that mode conversion cancels out for the electron case. The only corrections to electron cyclotron emission are then due to reflection effects, and these have been shown to be small for laboratory plasmas, leading to the validation of the classical formula, but via an entirely new paradigm in its interpretation. This paper includes a summary of the absorption process for electron cyclotron harmonics, and reviews the emission physics, including both potential error estimates and a discussion of the spatial emission source distribution

  1. The (μ-, e+) conversion with Majoron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahir, M.S.; Picciotto, C.E.

    1982-07-01

    We study the process of μ - → e + in nuclei with the emission of a Majoron with B-L symmetry spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation value of a Higgs triplet. We find that this mechanism may contribute to the μ - → e + conversion rate at the same level as predicted by earlier models

  2. Prosopagnosia as a Type of Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Clodagh; Hannigan, Oisin; Coen, Robert; Bruce, Irene; Gibb, Matthew; McCarthy, Marie; Robinson, David; Lawlor, Brian A

    2018-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a common and debilitating condition that remains poorly understood. We present a previously undescribed form of conversion disorder to highlight the complexity of the condition and consider the interplay of factors that produce conversion symptoms. A 50-year-old male presented with acquired prosopagnosia and language impairment. Neuropsychological testing indicated right temporal lobe dysfunction. Extensive work-up outruled an organic aetiology. Reactivation of childhood trauma coincided with the onset of his symptoms. Childhood trauma is known to have adverse effects on the developing brain which may affect an individual's emotional behaviour and coping style. Functional neuroimaging techniques suggest that conversion symptoms may be linked to the disruption of higher order neural circuitry involved in the integration of emotional processing and cortical functioning. We propose that our patient's adverse childhood experiences led to the development of a particular personality and coping style that "primed" him for a later abnormal emotional and behavioural response when confronted with reminders of his traumatic background. Further interdisciplinary studies are required to further elucidate the neurobiological basis for this condition.

  3. Case Study: Camptocormia, a Rare Conversion Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, Velayudhan; Thomas, Biju; Sreekumar, Kumaran

    2004-01-01

    Camptocormia is a condition characterized by severe frontal flexion of the spinal cord and knees, with passive drooping of both arms. It occurs as a form of conversion disorder. Some cases are associated with behavioral problems. A case of camptocormia of 2-year duration in a south Indian adolescent girl with oppositional defiant disorder and…

  4. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  5. Topical papers on uranium conversion and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium conversion and enrichment are discussed in 5 papers by representatives of the USA, Great Britain and Switzerland. The state of the art is reviewed, and future prospects are given. Supply assurance is directly related to the necessary production capacities and the supply agreements

  6. Problematic topic transitions in dysarthric conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Steven; Saldert, Charlotta; Ferm, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the nature of topic transition problems associated with acquired progressive dysarthric speech in the everyday conversation of people with motor neurone disease. Using conversation analytic methods, a video collection of five naturally occurring problematic topic transitions was identified, transcribed and analysed. These were extracted from a main collection of over 200 other-initiated repair sequences and a sub-set of 15 problematic topic transition sequences. The sequences were analysed with reference to how the participants both identified and resolved the problems. Analysis revealed that topic transition by people with dysarthria can prove problematic. Conversation partners may find transitions problematic not only because of speech intelligibility but also because of a sequential disjuncture between the dysarthric speech turn and whatever topic has come prior. In addition the treatment of problematic topic transition as a complaint reveals the potential vulnerability of people with dysarthria to judgements of competence. These findings have implications for how dysarthria is conceptualized and how specific actions in conversation, such as topic transition, might be suitable targets for clinical intervention.

  7. Introduction: Conversation Analysis in Applied Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sert, Olcay; Seedhouse, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This short, introductory paper presents an up-to-date account of works within the field of Applied Linguistics which have been influenced by a Conversation Analytic paradigm. The article reviews recent studies in classroom interaction, materials development, proficiency assessment and language teacher education. We believe that the publication of…

  8. A multicenter experience with generic tacrolimus conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt-Potter, Lisa M; Sadaka, Basma; Tichy, Eric M; Rogers, Christin C; Gabardi, Steven

    2011-09-27

    The first generic tacrolimus product gained Food and Drug Administration approval in August 2009. This prospective, observational trial sought to determine the need for dose titrations and measure drug cost savings on conversion to generic tacrolimus. Transplant recipients on stable tacrolimus doses were converted from brand to generic tacrolimus on a mg:mg basis. Data were collected at the time of generic conversion (study arm) and at a time point exactly 6 months before conversion (control arm) for all subjects. Seventy conversions from four centers are reported. Subjects were a mean of 70 months after kidney (n=37), liver (n=28), or multiorgan (n=5) transplant. In the study arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.4 and 4.5 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 5.8 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after conversion, respectively. In the control arm, mean tacrolimus doses were 4.6 and 4.6 mg/d and mean tacrolimus trough concentrations were 6.1 and 5.9 ng/mL before and after the control time point, respectively. Dose titrations occurred in five patients (7%) in the control arm and 15 patients (21%) in the study arm (P=0.028). Mean monthly drug costs were $645 for brand, $593 for generic, and $595 for generic after dose titrations. Mean monthly patient copays were $38 for brand and $15 for generic. These cumulative data show that dose requirements and trough levels are similar between brand and generic tacrolimus and that generic substitution allows for savings. However, postconversion monitoring is prudent as patients may require dose titration.

  9. Alexithymia in patients with conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulpek, Demet; Kelemence Kaplan, Figen; Kesebir, Sermin; Bora, Ozlem

    2014-07-01

    In the recent years, it has been observed that alexithymia is not specified for the psychosomatic disorders. It is known that alexithymia is observed frequently in various psychiatric disorders especially in the somatoform disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate alexithymia in the patients with the conversion disorder. The study was performed in the Psychiatry Outpatients Clinics of the Izmir Atatürk Training and Research Hospital and Erenköy Psychiatry Education and Research Hospital. A total of 93 cases-47 outpatients who were diagnosed with conversion disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria and 46 age, gender and educational level matched healthy controls-were included in the study. All the cases were assessed by a Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were evaluated with a questionnaire (which included demographics and clinical data), the Toronto Alexithymia Scale and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale. When the two groups were compared, the Toronto Alexithymia Scale scores (except "externally oriented thinking" subscale) and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale score of the conversion disorder group were statistically significantly higher than the control group. The number of the alexithymic cases of the patient group was significantly higher than the control group's. The level of alexithymia in conversion disorder patients, without any other psychiatric disorder, is higher than that of the healthy controls. During the evaluation of the psychological state of patients with conversion disorder, it could be useful to keep in mind the probability of them having alexithymia to determine the type of suitable therapy.

  10. Four questions and a conversation: Can theory enrich conversation partner training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pound, Carole; Ahlsén, Elisabeth; Simmons-Mackie, NIna

    Background and aimsConversation partner training (CPT) is an umbrella term for different approaches to intervention aiming to facilitate and improve communication between people with aphasia (PWA) and their conversation partners (CP). Some approaches are grounded in a bottom-up approach...... and interactions. Philosophically informed by existential-phenomenological perspectives, the humanisation framework encourages reflection on what practices can make people feel more (or less) human. Reviewing experiences of conversation against the eight suggested dimensions of what it means to be human may offer...

  11. Statistical thermodynamics foundation for photovoltaic and photothermal conversion. II. Application to photovoltaic conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Viorel; Landsberg, Peter T.

    1995-08-01

    The general theory developed in part I was applied to build up two models of photovoltaic conversion. To this end two different systems were analyzed. The first system consists of the whole absorber (converter), for which the balance equations for energy and entropy are written and then used to derive an upper bound for solar energy conversion. The second system covers a part of the absorber (converter), namely the valence and conduction electronic bands. The balance of energy is used in this case to derive, under additional assumptions, another upper limit for the conversion efficiency. This second system deals with the real location where the power is generated. Both models take into consideration the radiation polarization and reflection, and the effects of concentration. The second model yields a more accurate upper bound for the conversion efficiency. A generalized solar cell equation is derived. It is proved that other previous theories are particular cases of the present more general formalism.

  12. Changing the conversation: the influence of emotions on conversational valence and alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Hanneke; van den Putte, Bas; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Health campaign effects may be improved by taking interpersonal communication processes into account. The current study, which employed an experimental, pretest-posttest, randomized exposure design (N = 208), investigated whether the emotions induced by anti-alcohol messages influence conversational valence about alcohol and subsequent persuasion outcomes. The study produced three main findings. First, an increase in the emotion fear induced a negative conversational valence about alcohol. Second, fear was most strongly induced by a disgusting message, whereas a humorous appeal induced the least fear. Third, a negative conversational valence elicited healthier binge drinking attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, intentions, and behaviors. Thus, health campaign planners and health researchers should pay special attention to the emotional characteristics of health messages and should focus on inducing a healthy conversational valence.

  13. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, John R.; Kinsmen, Douglas; Regan, Thomas M.; Bobek, Leo M.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  14. Conversing as Metaphor of Human Thinking: Is Mind like a Conversation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2018-06-01

    How can researchers shape their ideas so that they understand the mind better? This theoretical paper discusses the merits of the conversation metaphor as a means of analyzing the human mind. We will develop arguments concerning conversation as i) a situated and distributed activity, ii) a "product" in perpetual construction, and iii) the amount of credence and belief we afford it. Finally, we will advocate for metaphorical tools that promote a more dynamic conceptualization of human thinking.

  15. Antecedents of hospital ownership conversions, mergers, and closures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Ostermann, Jan; Conover, Christopher J

    2003-01-01

    This study assesses the determinants of conversions in hospital ownership from 1986 through 1996. To place such changes in context, we also analyze causes of hospital mergers and closures, which are often alternatives to hospital ownership conversion. A consistent result from our analysis is that an important antecedent of ownership conversions is a low profit margin. Conversions from private nonprofit or government ownership to for-profit status are preceded by chronically low margins and high debt-to-asset ratios. By contrast, conversions from for-profit ownership occur quickly following declines in margins. Many mergers seem motivated by a desire to increase market power--a consideration not evident for conversions.

  16. Mold heating and cooling microprocessor conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D. P.

    1995-07-01

    Conversion of the microprocessors and software for the Mold Heating and Cooling (MHAC) pump package control systems was initiated to allow required system enhancements and provide data communications capabilities with the Plastics Information and Control System (PICS). The existing microprocessor-based control systems for the pump packages use an Intel 8088-based microprocessor board with a maximum of 64 Kbytes of program memory. The requirements for the system conversion were developed, and hardware has been selected to allow maximum reuse of existing hardware and software while providing the required additional capabilities and capacity. The new hardware will incorporate an Intel 80286-based microprocessor board with an 80287 math coprocessor, the system includes additional memory, I/O, and RS232 communication ports.

  17. The management and conversion of light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob

    methods. A key challenge in device fabrication is the development of a suitable electrolyte system, and two electrolyte systems are compared in fully printable and laminated devices on flexible substrates. Devices of various sizes are presented and the transmission contrast, when switched between...... the fully bleached and fully colored state, are found to be 43 % at Absmax with a response time of less than 10 seconds. To show possible applications, an electrochromic display powered by a printed organic photovoltaic device are demonstrated, that can switch between the two redox states during solar......; carbon dioxide reduction and water splitting. Practical solutions are presented, and the use of flexible substrates as carrier foils is explored. A key challenge in these conversion systems is the necessary precautions that must be taken when evaluating conversion and this is most convincingly done...

  18. Letter Knowledge in Parent–Child Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Sarah; Treiman, Rebecca; Rosales, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Learning about letters is an important component of emergent literacy. We explored the possibility that parent speech provides information about letters, and also that children’s speech reflects their own letter knowledge. By studying conversations transcribed in CHILDES (MacWhinney, 2000) between parents and children aged one to five, we found that alphabetic order influenced use of individual letters and letter sequences. The frequency of letters in children’s books influenced parent utterances throughout the age range studied, but children’s utterances only after age two. Conversations emphasized some literacy-relevant features of letters, such as their shapes and association with words, but not letters’ sounds. Describing these patterns and how they change over the preschool years offers important insight into the home literacy environment. PMID:25598577

  19. Biological conversion of coal gas to methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S; Vega, J L; Clausen, E C; Gaddy, J L

    1988-08-01

    Biological conversion of low-Btu coal synthesis gas to higher Btu methane was demonstrated using both pure co-cultures and/or adapted-mixed anaerobic bacteria. Peptostreptococcus productus metabolized coal gas to mainly acetate and CO/sub 2/. The co-cultures containing methanogens converted these products to methane. In mixed culture studies, CH/sub 4/ and small amounts of acetate were produced. Reactor studies using stirred-tank and immobilized cell reactors exhibited excellent potential to convert CO, CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ to methane at higher gas flow rates. Gas retention times ranging from 0.7 to 2 hours and high agitation were required for 90 percent CO conversion in these systems. This paper also illustrates the potential of biological methanation and demonstrates the need for good mass transfer in converting gas phase substrates. 21 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  20. [Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuljić, Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  1. Light distribution system comprising spectral conversion means

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    , longer wavelength,a spectral conversion characteristics of the spectral conversion fibre being essentially determined by the spectral absorption and emission properties of the photoluminescent agent, the amount of photo- luminescent agent,and the distribution of the photoluminescent agent in the spectral......System (200, 300) for the distribution of white light, having a supply side (201, 301, 401) and a delivery side (202, 302, 402), the system being configured for guiding light with a multitude of visible wavelengths in a propagation direction P from the supply side to the distribution side...... of providing a light distribution system and a method of correcting the spectral transmission characteristics of a light distribution system are disclosed....

  2. Nonlinear frequency conversion in fiber lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Ask Sebastian

    The concept of nonlinear frequency conversion entails generating light at new frequencies other than those of the source light. The emission wavelength of typical fiber laser systems, relying on rare-earth dopants, are constrained within specific bands of the infrared region. By exploiting...... nonlinear processes, light from these specific wavelength bands can be used to generate light at new frequencies otherwise not obtainable by rare-earth elements. This thesis describes work covering Raman fiber lasers (RFLs) and amplifiers for nonlinear frequency down-conversion, and also the method...... of fiberoptic Cherenkov radiation (FCR) using ultrafast pulses as a means for generating tunable visible (VIS) light at higher frequencies. Two different polarization maintaining (PM) RFL cavities are studied with an emphasis on stability and spectral broadening. The cavities are formed by inscription of fiber...

  3. Military conversion: A view from Brussels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macioti, M.

    1994-01-01

    Cuts in defence spending and a process of economic adjustment have been in progress since the ending og the cold war and beginning of new relations between East and West. Conversion defined as process by which skills, research, technology and equipment on the defence area are shifted into alternative economic applications, is not an easy process to implement. Dual-use approaches-technologies, processes and products with both military and commercial applications can be developed in several areas of industry. Research can cover fields common to both areas. Examples range from composite materials to sensors, information sciences, modeling and simulation, robotics and artificial intelligence, telemedicine, fibre optics and photonics, laser systems, to acoustics and mathematics. Success of conversion policy is highly dependent on the general economic context and a sound legislative framework

  4. Embodied Conversational Agents in Clinical Psychology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Provoost, Simon; Lau, Ho Ming; Ruwaard, Jeroen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Embodied conversational agents (ECAs) are computer-generated characters that simulate key properties of human face-to-face conversation, such as verbal and nonverbal behavior. In Internet-based eHealth interventions, ECAs may be used for the delivery of automated human support factors....... OBJECTIVE: We aim to provide an overview of the technological and clinical possibilities, as well as the evidence base for ECA applications in clinical psychology, to inform health professionals about the activity in this field of research. METHODS: Given the large variety of applied methodologies, types...... applications in the treatment of mood, anxiety, psychotic, autism spectrum, and substance use disorders were conducted in databases in the fields of psychology and computer science, as well as in interdisciplinary databases. Studies were included if they conveyed primary research findings on an ECA application...

  5. Energy conversion using hydrogen PEM fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoenescu, D.; Patularu, L.; Culcer, M.; Lazar, R.; Mirica, D.; Varlam, M.; Carcadea, E.; Stefanescu, I.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that hydrogen is the most promising solution of future energy, both for long and medium term strategies. Hydrogen can be produced using many primary sources (naphthalene, natural gas, methanol, coal, biomass), solar cells power, etc. It can be burned or chemically reacted having a high yield of energy conversion and is a non-polluted fuel. This paper presents the results obtained by ICSI Rm. Valcea in an experimental-demonstrative conversion energy system consisting in a catalytic methane reforming plant for hydrogen production and three synthesis gas purification units in order to get pure hydrogen with a CO level lower than 10 ppm that finally feeds a hydrogen fuel stock. (authors)

  6. EPR's energy conversion system. Alstom's solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledermann, P.

    2009-01-01

    ARABELLE steam turbines have been developed by Alstom to be used as the energy conversion system of light water reactors with high output power like the N4 PWR and the EPR. ARABELLE turbines cumulate 200.000 hours of service with a reliability ratio of 99.97 per cent. This series of slides presents the main features of the turbine including: the use of the simple flux, the very large shape of low pressure blades, the technology of welded rotors. The other main equipment like the alternator, the condenser, the moisture separator-reheaters, the circulating pumps that Alstom integrates in the energy conversion system have benefited with technological improvements that are also presented. (A.C.)

  7. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  8. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  9. Energy conversion in natural and artificial photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Iain; Li, Gonghu; Brudvig, Gary W

    2010-05-28

    Modern civilization is dependent upon fossil fuels, a nonrenewable energy source originally provided by the storage of solar energy. Fossil-fuel dependence has severe consequences, including energy security issues and greenhouse gas emissions. The consequences of fossil-fuel dependence could be avoided by fuel-producing artificial systems that mimic natural photosynthesis, directly converting solar energy to fuel. This review describes the three key components of solar energy conversion in photosynthesis: light harvesting, charge separation, and catalysis. These processes are compared in natural and in artificial systems. Such a comparison can assist in understanding the general principles of photosynthesis and in developing working devices, including photoelectrochemical cells, for solar energy conversion. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive-behavioral therapy of conversion aphonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuljić Blagoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a common disease, conversion disorder still calls attention in the clinical practice. A case of conversion disorder, diagnosed as a psychogenic aphonia that persisted for a week, was reported in this paper. A 21-year-old woman developed symptoms after breaking off a long-lasting relationship with her boy-friend. History revealed that she was introvert with high neuroticism and communication problems. Cognitive-behavioral therapy was used. After the positive reinforcement in the therapy of her aphonia, assertion training for the development of communication skills was performed. In the end, cognitive restructuring was used to prevent relapse in regard to her actual life situation of being a refugee preparing for immigration to Australia.

  11. Effects of participating in public conversation groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to analyze the effects of the participation of health, education and religious professionals in public conversation groups with LGBT people. Participants were interviewed some weeks after the groups for feedback. Professionals declared that this dialogic method (known as Public Conversations Project allowed a qualification of their practices, awareness about the challenges of talking about gender and sexual diversity at their professional’s contexts, and a broader contact with narratives of violence and discrimination against LGBT people. The structure of dialogue allowed participants to talk and listen in a less evaluative context. Differences in the effects produced by each group are discussed in relation to the differences in the group composition and to the specificities of the health, educational and religious contexts.

  12. Air Turbines for Wave Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Takao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the present status of the art on air turbines, which could be used for wave energy conversion. The air turbines included in the paper are as follows: Wells type turbines, impulse turbines, radial turbines, cross-flow turbine, and Savonius turbine. The overall performances of the turbines under irregular wave conditions, which typically occur in the sea, have been compared by numerical simulation and sea trial. As a result, under irregular wave conditions it is found that the running and starting characteristics of the impulse type turbines could be superior to those of the Wells turbine. Moreover, as the current challenge on turbine technology, the authors explain a twin-impulse turbine topology for wave energy conversion.

  13. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  14. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2003-07-25

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164186]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports (BSC 2003 [DIRS 160964]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160965]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 160976]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161239]; BSC 2003 [DIRS 161241]) contain detailed description of the model input parameters. This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs and conversion factors for the TSPA. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

  15. Conversion Rate Optimization : Visual Neuro Programming Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Berezhnaya, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the world wide web has already spread in every business. Consequently, it has become crucial to develop strong online presence and offer qualified user experience for website visitors. Website optimization undeniably has proved its importance in the recent decade. This research was conducted in order to study the practical application and structure of the stages of the CRO (Conversion Rate Optimization) framework that focuses on the most representative website metric – c...

  16. The weak conversion rate in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches

  17. Electrochemistry of Nanocomposite Materials for Energy Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Boni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Energy is the most relevant technological issue that the world experiences today, and the development of efficient technologies able to store and convert energy in different forms is urgently needed. The storage of electrical energy is of major importance and electrochemical processes are particularly suited for the demanding task of an efficient inter-conversion. A potential strategy is to store electricity into the chemical bonds of electrogenerated fuels, like hydrogen and/or energy-den...

  18. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  19. Research on spacecraft electrical power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    The history of spacecraft electrical power conversion in literature, research and practice is reviewed. It is noted that the design techniques, analyses and understanding which were developed make today's contribution to power computers and communication installations. New applications which require more power, improved dynamic response, greater reliability, and lower cost are outlined. The switching mode approach in electronic power conditioning is discussed. Technical aspects of the research are summarized.

  20. Throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, M.H.

    1996-10-01

    An engineering assessment is presented for factors that could significantly limit the throughput capacity of the Asbestos Conversion Unit. The assessment focuses mainly on volumetric throughput capacity (and related mass rate and feed density), and energy input. Important conclusions that were reached during this assessment are that the throughput is limited by feed densification capability and that the design energy input rating appears to be adequate

  1. Sixth underground coal-conversion symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The sixth annual underground coal conversion symposium was held at Shangri-la near Afton, Oklahoma, July 13 to 17, 1980. Sessions were developed to: Doe Field Programs, Major Industry Activity, Mathematical Modeling, Laboratory Studies, Environmental Studies, Economics, Instruments and Controls, and General Topics. Fifty-two papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. Thirteen papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  2. Economics of natural gas conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradassi, M.J.; Green, N.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the potential profitability of a selected group of possible natural gas conversion processes from the perspective of a manufacturing entity that has access to substantial low cost natural gas reserves, capital to invest, and no allegiance to any particular product. The analysis uses the revenues and costs of conventional methanol technology as a framework to evaluate the economics of the alternative technologies. Capital requirements and the potential to enhance cash margins are the primary focus of the analysis. The basis of the analysis is a world-scale conventional methanol plant that converts 3.2 Mm 3 per day (120 MMSCFD) of natural gas into 3510 metric tonnes (3869 shorts tons) per day of methanol. Capital and operating costs are for an arbitrary remote location where natural gas is available at 0.47 US dollars per GJ (0.50 US dollars per MMBtu). Other costs include ocean freight to deliver the product to market at a US Gulf Coast location. Payout time, which is the ratio of the total capital investment to cash margin (revenue less total operating expenses), is the economic indicator for the analysis. Under these conditions, the payout time for the methanol plant is seven years. The payout time for the alternative natural gas conversion technologies is generally much higher, which indicates that they currently are not candidates for commercialization without consideration of special incentives. The analysis also includes an evaluation of the effects of process yields on the economics of two potential technologies, oxidative coupling to ethylene and direct conversion to methanol. This analysis suggests areas for research focus that might improve the profitability of natural gas conversion. 29 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Environmental monitoring handbook for coal conversion facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salk, M.S.; DeCicco, S.G. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    The primary objectives of the Department of Energy's (DOE) coal conversion program are to demonstrate the environmental acceptability, technical feasibility, and economic viability of various technologies for gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels from coal. The Environmental Monitoring Handbook for Coal Conversion Facilities will help accomplish the objective of environmental acceptability by guiding the planning and execution of socioeconomic and environmental monitoring programs for demonstration facilities. These programs will provide information adequate to (1) predict, insofar as is possible, the potential impacts of construction and operation of a coal conversion plant, (2) verify the occurrence of these or any other impacts during construction and operation, (3) determine the adequacy of mitigating measures to protect the environment, (4) develop effluent source terms for process discharges, and (5) determine the effectiveness of pollution control equipment. Although useful in a variety of areas, the handbook is intended primarily for contractors who, as industrial partners with DOE, are building coal conversion plants. For the contractor it is a practical guide on (1) the methodology for developing site- and process-specific environmental monitoring programs, (2) state-of-the-art sampling and analytical techniques, and (3) impact analyses.To correspond to the phases of project activity, the subject matter is divided into four stages of monitoring: (1) a reconnaissance or synoptic survey, (2) preconstruction or baseline, (3) construction, and (4) operation, including process monitoring (prepared by Radian Corp., McLean, Va.). For each stage of monitoring, guidelines are given on socioeconomics, aquatic and terrestrial ecology, air quality and meteorology, surface and groundwater quality, geohydrology and soil survey, and surface water hydrology.

  4. Storytelling as a trigger for sharing conversations

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Louise Parfitt

    2014-01-01

    This article explores whether traditional oral storytelling can be used to provide insights into the way in which young people of 12-14 years identify and understand the language of emotion and behaviour. Following the preliminary analysis, I propose that storytelling may trigger sharing conversations. My research attempts to extend the social and historical perspectives of Jack Zipes, on fairy tales, into a sociological analysis of young people’s lives today. I seek to investigate the extent...

  5. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  6. The Energy Conversation: The First 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    emerging clear and present reality] 7“Facing the Hard Truths about Energy” National Petroleum Council, 2007. www.npchardtruthsreport.org 8 Verrastro and...commuting five days/week, dispersing eight tons of pollutants into the environment and using 233 hours for travel to and from work w Telecommuting three... The Energy Conversation the first 3 years Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of

  7. PriBots: Conversational Privacy with Chatbots

    OpenAIRE

    Harkous, Hamza; Fawaz, Kassem; Shin, Kang G.; Aberer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Traditional mechanisms for delivering notice and enabling choice have so far failed to protect users’ privacy. Users are continuously frustrated by complex privacy policies, unreachable privacy settings, and a multitude of emerging standards. The miniaturization trend of smart devices and the emergence of the Internet of Things (IoTs) will exacerbate this problem further. In this paper, we propose Conversational Privacy Bots (PriBots) as a new way of delivering notice and choice through a two...

  8. Measurement of conversion coefficients in 208Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendling, F.

    1976-06-01

    A electron spectrometer composed by a Li drifted Si detector and a uniform magnetic field was constructed. The magnetic field is used to focus the electrons on the detector and to filter the other radiations. After the construction the instrument was calibrated in absolute eficience and was used together with a Ge(Li) spectrometer also calibrated, in the measurement of internal conversion coeficients of the 433 and 453 keV transitions in 208 Tl [pt

  9. Solar spectrum conversion for photovoltaics using nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Sark, W.G.J.H.M. van; Meijerink, A.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility to tune chemical and physical properties in nanosized materials has a strong impact on a variety of technologies, including photovoltaics. One of the prominent research areas of nanomaterials for photovoltaics involves spectral conversion. Conventional single-junction semiconductor solar cells only effectively convert photons of energy close to the semiconductor band gap (Eg) as a result of the mismatch between the incident solar spectrum and the spectral absorption properties...

  10. Photocatalytic conversion of methane to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.E.; Noceti, R.P.; D`Este, J.R. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A long-term goal of our research group is the exploration of novel pathways for the direct oxidation of methane to liquid fuels, chemicals, and intermediates. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol is attractive. The products of reaction, methanol and hydrogen, are both commercially desirable, methanol being used as is or converted to a variety of other chemicals, and the hydrogen could be utilized in petroleum and/or chemical manufacturing. Methane is produced as a by-product of coal gasification. Depending upon reactor design and operating conditions, up to 18% of total gasifier product may be methane. In addition, there are vast proven reserves of geologic methane in the world. Unfortunately, a large fraction of these reserves are in regions where there is little local demand for methane and it is not economically feasible to transport it to a market. There is a global research effort under way in academia, industry, and government to find methods to convert methane to useful, more readily transportable and storable materials. Methanol, the initial product of methane oxidation, is a desirable product of conversion because it retains much of the original energy of the methane while satisfying transportation and storage requirements. Investigation of direct conversion of methane to transportation fuels has been an ongoing effort at PETC for over 10 years. One of the current areas of research is the conversion of methane to methanol, under mild conditions, using light, water, and a semiconductor photocatalyst. The use of three relatively abundant and inexpensive reactants, light, water, and methane, to produce methanol, is attractive. Research in the laboratory is directed toward applying the techniques developed for the photocatalytic splitting of the water and the photochemical conversion of methane.

  11. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Wasiolek

    2004-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose

  12. [Conversion Disorder in Children and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Paula Andrea; Vásquez, Rafael; Cote, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Conversion disorder is diagnosed late, by exclusion and with a high risk of complications. There is a wide experience in adults that is not extrapolated to paediatric patients. According to the literature, the prognosis is better in children, but this changes when other variables such are included, such as comorbidities, late diagnosis and a very convincing social image of the neurological disease. To review the medical literature on the clinical features, diagnosis, comorbidities and treatment of this disorder. A literature research was performed on Medline and Pubmed, the terms used were "conversion disorder", pseudoseizures, treatment, clinic, children ("conversion disorder" OR hysteria OR hysterical) (child OR children OR childhood OR pediatric OR paediatric). The most relevant material found is included in this review. Conversion disorder is often an imprecise diagnosis in high complexity paediatric services. No consensus was found in the literature search on how to treat patients after the initial diagnosis. The evidence that it becomes chronic is not strong enough, just as the evidence is not convincing enough to argue that comorbidity factors are those maintained over time. Clearly, there is no medical experience of the natural history of this disorder in children and adolescents. It is only known is that it is a complex condition, on which there is experience only in the diagnosis and treatment of the acute state, but not so in the long-term care. It is proposed that each patient is studied in detail in order to define the psychiatric diagnosis and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Low severity conversion of activated coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  14. Nuclear fuel conversion and fabrication chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.; Norman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Following irradiation and reprocessing of nuclear fuel, two operations are performed to prepare the fuel for subsequent reuse as fuel: fuel conversion, and fuel fabrication. These operations complete the classical nuclear fuel cycle. Fuel conversion involves generating a solid form suitable for fabrication into nuclear fuel. For plutonium based fuels, either a pure PuO 2 material or a mixed PuO 2 -UO 2 fuel material is generated. Several methods are available for preparation of the pure PuO 2 including: oxalate or peroxide precipitation; or direct denitration. Once the pure PuO 2 is formed, it is fabricated into fuel by mechanically blending it with ceramic grade UO 2 . The UO 2 can be prepared by several methods which include direct denitration. ADU precipitation, AUC precipitation, and peroxide precipitation. Alternatively, UO 2 -PuO 2 can be generated directly using coprecipitation, direct co-denitration, or gel sphere processes. In coprecipitation, uranium and plutonium are either precipitated as ammonium diuranate and plutonium hydroxide or as a mixture of ammonium uranyl-plutonyl carbonate, filtered and dried. In direct thermal denitration, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrates are heated causing concentration and, subsequently, direct denitration. In gel sphere conversion, solutions of uranium and plutonium nitrate containing additives are formed into spherical droplets, gelled, washed and dried. Refabrication of these UO 3 -PuO 2 starting materials is accomplished by calcination-reduction to UO 2 -PuO 2 followed by pellet fabrication. (orig.)

  15. Proposal concerning the absorbed dose conversion factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiragai, A [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1978-03-01

    New definitions of the absorbed dose conversion factors Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are proposed. The absorbed dose in water is given by the product of absorbed dose conversion factor, exposure calibration factor, ionisation chamber reading, cap displacement correction factor and perturbation correction factor. At exposure calibration the material of the build-up cap must be the same as that of the chamber wall. An ionisation chamber of which the wall material is water-equivalent or air-equivalent may be used. In the latter case the wall must be thin. For these two cases absorbed dose conversion factors are introduced and it is recommended that either of the two sets should be adopted. Furthermore, if the chamber wall is neither water- nor air-equivalent, the factor by which these currently defined values should be multiplied is also given: again the wall must be thin. The ICRU definitions of Csub(lambda) and Csub(E) are inconsistent, as recently pointed out, while the definitions presented here are consistent.

  16. Plasma Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Detering, Brent Alan; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a re-examination of a known process for the direct plasma thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. Conversion efficiencies (% methane converted) approached 100% and acetylene yields in the 90-95% range with 2-4% solid carbon production were demonstrated. Specificity for acetylene was higher than in prior work. Improvements in conversion efficiency, yield, and specificity were due primarily to improved injector design and reactant mixing, and minimization of temperature gradients and cold boundary layers. At the 60-kilowatt scale cooling by wall heat transfer appears to be sufficient to quench the product stream and prevent further reaction of acetylene resulting in the formation of heavier hydrocarbon products or solid carbon. Significantly increasing the quenching rate by aerodynamic expansion of the products through a converging-diverging nozzle led to a reduction in the yield of ethylene but had little effect on the yield of other hydrocarbon products. While greater product selectivity for acetylene has been demonstrated, the specific energy consumption per unit mass of acetylene produced was not improved upon. A kinetic model that includes the reaction mechanisms resulting in the formation of acetylene and heavier hydrocarbons, through benzene, is described

  17. Mode conversion in magneto photonic crystal fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otmani, Hamza; Bouchemat, Mohamed; Hocini, Abdesselam; Boumaza, Touraya; Benmerkhi, Ahlem

    2017-01-01

    The first concept of an integrated isolator was based on nonreciprocal TE–TM mode conversion, the nonreciprocal coupling between these modes is caused by the Faraday rotation if the magnetization is aligned along the z–axis, parallel to mode propagation. We propose to study this magneto-optical phenomenon, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF), it consists of a periodic triangular lattice of air-holes filled with magnetic fluid which consists of magnetic nanoparticles into a BIG (Bismuth Iron Garnet) fibre. We simulated the influence of gyrotropy and the wavelength, and calculated Faraday rotation and modal birefringence. In this fibre the light is guided by internal total reflection, like classical fibres. However it was shown that they could function on a mode conversion much stronger than conventional fibres. - Highlights: • We propose to study mode conversion TE–TM, by the simulation of magneto photonic crystal fibre (MPCF). • We simulated the influence of gyrotropy. • We simulated the wavelength. • We calculated Faraday rotation. • We calculated modal birefringence.

  18. Cellulose conversion of corn pericarp without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Orrego, David; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Ladisch, Michael R

    2017-12-01

    We report enzyme hydrolysis of cellulose in unpretreated pericarp at a cellulase loading of 0.25FPU/g pericarp solids using a phenol tolerant Aspergillus niger pectinase preparation. The overall protein added was 5mg/g and gave 98% cellulose conversion in 72h. However, for double the amount of enzyme from Trichoderma reesei, which is significantly less tolerant to phenols, conversion was only 16%. The key to achieving high conversion without pretreatment is combining phenol inhibition-resistant enzymes (such as from A. niger) with unground pericarp from which release of phenols is minimal. Size reduction of the pericarp, which is typically carried out in a corn-to-ethanol process, where corn is first ground to a fine powder, causes release of highly inhibitory phenols that interfere with cellulase enzyme activity. This work demonstrates hydrolysis without pretreatment of large particulate pericarp is a viable pathway for directly producing cellulose ethanol in corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-06-30

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

  20. External dose conversion factor from canal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, Pradeep; Chitra, S.; Mhatre, Arti S.; Singh, Kapil Deo

    2016-01-01

    External dose needs to be estimated for the radioactivity discharged into the canal, as it constitutes one of the pathways of exposure to the public. Two activities are considered here: i) a walk along the bank of the canal ii) and the walk on the bridge. A concentration of 1 Bq/l is assumed here for the gross beta activity for the estimation of the dose conversion factor. A canal of width 14.39 m and the depth of 2.5 m is considered for this study. Length of the canal is taken to be infinite. Canal side wall is assumed to be the 25 cm thick concrete. Two points are selected, one on the bank, and the second on a bridge 1 m above the top surface of canal water. Dose Conversion factors for the person moving on the Bridge (at one meter above the water surface) and standing on bank of canal is estimated by using the QAD CG code for 137 Cs. Dose conversion factors for the location mentioned above are found to be 1.11E-10 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) and 1.55 E-11 Sv/hr/(Bq/l) for bridge and bank of canal respectively. (author)

  1. Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

    2008-01-01

    Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores treated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcome the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better thermal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor

  2. Particle Discrimination Experiment for Direct Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaka, Y.; Kiriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Takeno, H.; Ishikawa, M.

    2005-01-01

    A direct energy conversion system designed for D- 3 He fusion reactor based on a field reversed configuration employs a venetian-blind type converter for thermal ions to produce DC power and a traveling wave type converter for fusion protons to produce RF power. It is therefore necessary to separate, discriminate, and guide the particle species. For this purpose, a cusp magnetic field is proposed, in which the electrons are deflected and guided along the field line to the line cusp, while the ions pass through the point cusp. A small-scale experimental device was used to study the basic characteristics of discrimination of electrons and ions in the cusp magnetic field. Ions separated from electrons are guided to an ion collector, which is operated as a one-stage direct energy converter. The conversion efficiency was measured for cases with different values of mean and spread of ion energy. These experiments successfully demonstrate direct energy conversion from plasma beams using particle discrimination by a cusp magnetic field

  3. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killough, G. G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed.

  4. Derivation of dose conversion factors for tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killough, G.G.

    1982-03-01

    For a given intake mode (ingestion, inhalation, absorption through the skin), a dose conversion factor (DCF) is the committed dose equivalent to a specified organ of an individual per unit intake of a radionuclide. One also may consider the effective dose commitment per unit intake, which is a weighted average of organ-specific DCFs, with weights proportional to risks associated with stochastic radiation-induced fatal health effects, as defined by Publication 26 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). This report derives and tabulates organ-specific dose conversion factors and the effective dose commitment per unit intake of tritium. These factors are based on a steady-state model of hydrogen in the tissues of ICRP's Reference Man (ICRP Publication 23) and equilibrium of specific activities between body water and other tissues. The results differ by 27 to 33% from the estimate on which ICRP Publication 30 recommendations are based. The report also examines a dynamic model of tritium retention in body water, mineral bone, and two compartments representing organically-bound hydrogen. This model is compared with data from human subjects who were observed for extended periods. The manner of combining the dose conversion factors with measured or model-predicted levels of contamination in man's exposure media (air, drinking water, soil moisture) to estimate dose rate to an individual is briefly discussed

  5. La conversion de Paul, regards croisés Paul’s conversion. Cross perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elian Cuvillier

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Au plan historique, les traditions relatives à la conversion de Paul, chutant de son cheval sur le chemin de Damas, confrontent l’exégète à trois problèmes importants : y avait-il un cheval, cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas et était-ce bien une conversion ? Entendues avec l’humour et la distance critique nécessaires, ces trois questions constituent les trois chapitres de cet article. Le premier « Y avait-il un cheval ? » s’intéresse à l’histoire de la réception de l’épisode de la conversion de Paul, en particulier dans la peinture et la littérature. Le second « Cela se passait-il sur le chemin de Damas ? » est consacrée au récit que l’auteur du livre des Actes propose de la conversion de Paul, récit qui constitue, bien souvent, la porte d’entrée exclusive pour aborder le thème. Le troisième « Etait-ce bien une conversion ? » analyse les témoignages de l’apôtre lui-même à travers deux passages clés de ses épîtres authentiques.Historically speaking, the traditions concerning the conversion of Paul, falling from his horse on the road to Damascus, confront the exegete with three important problems : was there a horse, did it happen on the road to Damacus and was it really a conversion ? These three questions, considered with humor and critical distance, constitute the three sections of this article. The first part « Was there a horse ? » considers the history of the reception of the episode of the conversion of Paul, particularly in art and literature. The second one « Did it happen on the road to Damascus ? » is devoted to the story of the conversion of Paul proposed by the author of the book of Acts, which is very often the exclusive entrance to the discussion of this theme. The third section « Was it really a conversion ? » analyzes the account given by the apostle himself in two key passages of his authentic epistles.

  6. Experiments on quantum frequency conversion of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramelow, S.

    2011-01-01

    Coherently converting photons between different states offers intriguing new possibilities and applications in quantum optical experiments. In this thesis three experiments on this theme are presented. The first experiment demonstrates the quantum frequency conversion of polarization entangled photons. Coherent frequency conversion of single photons offers an elegant solution for the often difficult trade-off of choosing the optimal photon wavelength, e.g. regarding optimal transmission and storage of photons in quantum memory based quantum networks. In our experiments, we verify the successful entanglement conversion by violating a Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) Bell inequality and fully characterised our close to unity fidelity entanglement transfer using quantum state- and process tomography. Our implementation is robust and flexible, making it a practical building block for future quantum technologies.The second part of the thesis introduces a deterministic scheme for photonic quantum information processing. While single photons offer many advantages for quantum information technologies, key unresolved challenges are scalable on-demand single photon sources; deterministic two-photon interactions; and near 100%-efficient detection. All these can be solved with a single versatile process - a novel four-wave mixing process that we introduce here as a special case of the more general scheme of coherent photon conversion (CPC). It can provide valuable photonic quantum processing tools, from scalably creating single- and multi-photon states to implementing deterministic entangling gates and high-efficiency detection. Notably, this would enable scalable photonic quantum computing. Using photonic crystal fibres, we experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear process suited for coherent photon conversion. We observe correlated photon-pair production at the predicted wavelengths and experimentally characterise the enhancement of the interaction strength by varying the pump

  7. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-04-28

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis

  8. Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Wasiolek

    2005-01-01

    This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the

  9. Managing Conversations: The Medium for Achieving "Breakthrough" Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Unlike traditional management development, use of conversations in coaching high-performance work teams addresses core processes of speaking and listening. Management of conversations aims to create learning that will lead to breakthroughs in team performance. (SK)

  10. Characterizing Pedophile Conversations on the Internet using Online Grooming

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Aditi; Kumaraguru, Ponnurangam; Sureka, Ashish

    2012-01-01

    Cyber-crime targeting children such as online pedophile activity are a major and a growing concern to society. A deep understanding of predatory chat conversations on the Internet has implications in designing effective solutions to automatically identify malicious conversations from regular conversations. We believe that a deeper understanding of the pedophile conversation can result in more sophisticated and robust surveillance systems than majority of the current systems relying only on sh...

  11. Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilga, Michael A.; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Zacher, Alan H.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Orth, Rick J.

    2010-03-30

    A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

  12. Improved picture rate conversion using classification based LMS-filters.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    An, L.; Heinrich, A.; Cordes, C.N.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent explosion of multimedia formats and the need to convert between them, more attention is drawn to picture rate conversion. Moreover, growing demands on video motion portrayal without judder or blur requires improved format conversion. The simplest conversion repeats the latest

  13. Conversion of U3O8 to UF6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodu, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Three main processes for the production of UF 6 from the uranium ores (yellow cake) is described. The economic aspects of the conversion - capital cost, operating costs and conversion market and the future of conversion - capacity and prices - are discussed. (HPH) [de

  14. The Use of Conversational Laughter by an Individual with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Brent Thomas; Muller, Nicole; Damico, Jack S.

    2007-01-01

    While laughter has been shown to play a significant role in any social interaction; its conversational usage by a person with dementia has rarely been investigated. This paper will investigate the functional aspects of laughter during conversation in an individual with dementia. Conversation analysis is used in order to investigate laughter as a…

  15. Two Impossibility Results on the Converse Consistency Principle in Bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Youngsub Chun

    1999-01-01

    We present two impossibility results on the converse consistency principle in the context of bargaining. First, we show that there is no solution satis-fying Pareto optimality, contraction independence, and converse consistency. Next, we show that there is no solution satisfying Pareto optimality, strong individual rationality, individual monotonicity, and converse consistency.

  16. Teaching Children with Autism to Respond to Conversation Partners' Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Lindsay C.; Thompson, Rachel H.

    2015-01-01

    Successful conversation requires that the speaker's behavior is sensitive to nonvocal listener responses. We observed children with autism spectrum disorder during conversation probes in which a listener periodically displayed nonvocal cues that she was uninterested in the conversation. We used behavioral skills training to teach conversation…

  17. Psychosocial Factors in Children and Adolescents with Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, I.; Giri, D.; Dutta, Anna; Mazumder, P.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the limited studies on the psychosocial environment of children presenting with conversion disorders, the present study was carried out to study the psychosocial factors in children with conversion disorders. Method: 40 patients of Conversion Disorder, who presented with "pseudo seizures" and were diagnosed…

  18. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG&G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock & Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B&W) and the fuel designer (EG&G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B&W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. [Screening and optimization of cholesterol conversion strain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dan; Xiong, Bingjian; Pang, Cuiping; Zhu, Xiangdong

    2014-10-04

    Bacterial strain SE-1 capable of transforming cholesterol was isolated from soil and characterized. The transformation products were identified. Fermentation conditions were optimized for conversion. Cholesterol was used as sole carbon source to isolate strain SE-1. Morphology, physiological and biochemical characteristics of strain SE-1 were studied. 16S rRNA gene was sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Fermentation supernatants were extracted with chloroform, the transformation products were analyzed by silica gel thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH20. Their structures were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Fermentation medium including carbon and nitrogen, methods of adding substrates and fermentation conditions for Strain SE-1 were optimized. Strain SE-1 was a Gram-negative bacterium, exhibiting the highest homologs to Burkholderia cepacia based on the physiological analysis. The sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene of SE-1 strain and comparison with related Burkholderia show that SE-1 strain was very close to B. cepacia (Genbank No. U96927). The similarity was 99%. The result of silica gel thin layer chromatography shows that strain SE-1 transformed cholesterol to two products, 7beta-hydroxycholesterol and the minor product was 7-oxocholesterol. The optimum culture conditions were: molasses 5%, (NH4 )2SO4 0.3%, 4% of inoculation, pH 7.5 and 36 degrees C. Under the optimum culture condition, the conversion rate reached 34.4% when concentration of cholesterol-Tween 80 was 1 g/L. Cholesterol 7beta-hydroxylation conversion rate under optimal conditions was improved by 20.8%. Strain SE-1 isolated from soil is capable of converting cholesterol at lab-scale.

  20. HEU to LEU fuel conversion. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, R.U.

    1994-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a ruling, effective March 27, 1986, that all U.S. non-power reactors convert from HEU fuel to LEU fuel. A Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors Program was conducted by the Department of Energy at Argonne National Laboratory to coordinate the development of the high density LEU fuel and assist in the development of Safety Analysis Reports for the smaller non-power reactors. Several meetings were held at Argonne in 1987 with the non-power reactor community to discuss the conversion and to set up a conversion schedule for university reactors. EG ampersand G at Idaho was assigned the coordination of the fuel element redesigns. The fuel elements were manufactured by the Babcock ampersand Wilcox Company in Lynchburg, Virginia. The University of Virginia was awarded a grant by the DOE Idaho Operations Office in 1988 to perform safety analysis studies for the LEU conversion for its 2 MW UVAR and 100 Watt CAVALIER reactors. The University subsequently decided to shut down the CAVALIER reactor. A preliminary SAR on the UVAR, along with Technical Specification changes, was submitted to the NRC in November, 1990. An updated SAR was approved by the NRC in January, 1991. In September, 1992, representatives from the fuel manufacturer (B ampersand W) and the fuel designer (EG ampersand G, Idaho) came to the UVAR facility to observe trial fittings of new 22 plate LEU mock fuel elements. B ampersand W fabricated two non-fuel bearing elements, a regular 22 plate element and a control rod element. The elements were checked against the drawings and test fitted in the UVAR grid plate. The dimensions were acceptable and the elements fit in the grid plate with no problems. The staff made several suggestions for minor construction changes to the end pieces on the elements, which were incorporated into the final design of the actual fuel elements. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology