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Sample records for non-antibacterial non-chelating hydroxypyrazoline

  1. Synthesis of (3-hydroxy-pyrazolin-5-yl)glycine based ligands interacting with ionotropic glutamate receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, A; Tamborini, L; Mastronardi, F

    2014-01-01

    Following the concept that increasing the molecular complexity may enhance the receptor selectivity, we replaced the 3-hydroxy-isoxazoline ring of model compound tricholomic acid with a 3-hydroxy-pyrazoline ring, which could be variously decorated at the N1 position, inserting groups characterize...

  2. Non-antibacterial tetracycline formulations: clinical applications in dentistry and medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1983, it was first reported that tetracyclines (TCs can modulate the host response, including (but not limited to inhibition of pathologic matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity, and by mechanisms unrelated to the antibacterial properties of these drugs. Soon thereafter, strategies were developed to generate non-antibacterial formulations (subantimicrobial-dose doxycycline; SDD and compositions (chemically modified tetracyclines; CMTs of TCs as host-modulating drugs to treat periodontal and other inflammatory diseases. This review focuses on the history and rationale for the development of: (a SDD which led to two government-approved medications, one for periodontitis and the other for acne/rosacea and (b CMTs, which led to the identification of the active site of the drugs responsible for MMP inhibition and to studies demonstrating evidence of efficacy of the most potent of these, CMT-3, as an anti-angiogenesis agent in patients with the cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma, and as a potential treatment for a fatal lung disease (acute respiratory distress syndrome; ARDS. In addition, this review discusses a number of clinical studies, some up to 2 years’ duration, demonstrating evidence of safety and efficacy of SDD formulations in humans with oral inflammatory diseases (periodontitis, pemphigoid as well as medical diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, post-menopausal osteopenia, type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and a rare and fatal lung disease, lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

  3. Extraction of actinides and fission products ions by non-chelating N,N'-tetraalkyldiamides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonnel, M.C.; Musikas, C.

    1986-09-01

    N,N-dialkylmonoamides, are good extractants of metallic ions. They were considered as alternative to TBP in nuclear fuels reprocessing. The present paper deals with the extractive properties of N,N'-tetrabutylglutaramide. N,N'-tetraalkyldiamides of dicarboxylic acids except malonamides do not extract the trivalent actinides and lanthanides from aqueous HNO, solutions probably because there is no favourable ligand conformation to chelate the metallic ions. This feature is interesting for the nuclear fuel reprocessing since the presence of a second amide group could lead to new selectivities and to radiolytic and solvolytic degradation products easier to handle. We will present the investigation results of HNO 3 U(VI), Pu(IV) and fission products extraction by TBGA in toluene from HNO 3 aqueous solution. 5 figs, 6 refs

  4. Efficacy and mechanisms of non-antibacterial, chemical plaque control by dentifrices - An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, Henk J.; White, Don J.; Atema-Smit, Jelly; van der Mei, Henny C.

    Objectives: The provision of antiplaque benefits to dentifrices assists patients in improving hygiene and reducing susceptibility to gingivitis and caries. Chemical plaque control involves different mechanisms and is mostly associated with antibacterial effects, but also includes effects on pellicle

  5. In-vitro experimental evaluation of skin-to-surface recovery of four bacterial species by antibacterial and non-antibacterial medical examination gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Eng, Aik-Hwee; Yee, Bit-New; Teh, Yee-Peng; Dosch, Verena; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-10-11

    The number of bacteria recovered from a stainless steel coupon after touching a pigskin substrate with an examination glove coated on its outside with polyhexanide (PHMB), as compared to the number of bacteria recovered in the same manner with non-coated control gloves was evaluated. Suspensions containing 1 × 109 colony-forming units of 4 clinically relevant bacterial species (Enterococcus faecium ATCC #51559; Escherichia coli ATCC #25922; Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC #4352; and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC #33591) were used to contaminate Gamma-irradiated pigskin substrates. Bacterial recoveries from the pigskin substrate, stainless steel coupons, and each glove swatch were performed. A difference in the bacterial recovery from the stainless steel coupons after touching with coated and uncoated control gloves was measured. For E. faecium, the coated glove showed a reduction of 4.63 log10 cfu recovery, when compared to control gloves. For E. coli, the coated glove showed 5.48 log10 cfu, for K. pneumoniae 5.03 log10 cfu, and for S. aureus 5.72 log10 cfu recovery, when compared to the non-coated control glove. An in-vitro experiment designed to mimic cross-contamination of clinically relevant bacteria in a simulated healthcare setting following glove contact with a contaminated biological surface and cross-transfer to a stainless steel surface has demonstrated that an examination glove coated on its outside surface with PHMB was able to reduce bacterial recovery from a contaminated surface by > 4 log10 cfu, compared to a control non-coated examination glove. These elaborated results may encourage further clinical investigation on the clinical impact of an antibacterial examination glove.

  6. Is copper(I) really soft? Probing the hardness of Cu(I) with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    (larger the pKa, stronger the donation) than that of 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde are expected to compete with the chelated structure. A four-fold excess of a non chelating pyridine was used to probe the strength of the chelating ligand in complex 1. The binding of pyridine and their pKa values show a clear relationship (figure 6 ...

  7. Synthesis of syn-gamma-amino-beta-hydroxyphosphonates by reduction of beta-ketophosphonates derived from L-proline and L-serine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, Mario; Lagunas-Rivera, Selene; Hernández-Núñez, Emanuel; Labastida-Galván, Victoria

    2010-03-04

    The reduction of gamma-N-benzylamino-beta-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB) in THF at -78 degrees C to produce the syn-gamma-N-benzylamino-beta-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  8. Synthesis of syn-γ-Amino-β-hydroxyphosphonates by Reduction of β-Ketophosphonates Derived from L-Proline and L-Serine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Ordóñez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of γ-N-benzylamino-β-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB in THF at -78 ºC to produce the syn-γ-N-benzylamino-β-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  9. Synthesis of syn-γ-Amino-β-hydroxyphosphonates by Reduction of β-Ketophosphonates Derived from L-Proline and L-Serine

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Ordóñez; Selene Lagunas-Rivera; Emanuel Hernández-Núñez; Victoria Labastida-Galván

    2010-01-01

    The reduction of γ-N-benzylamino-β-ketophosphonates 6 and 10, readily available from L-proline and L-serine, respectively, can be carried out in high diastereoselectivity with catecholborane (CB) in THF at -78 ºC to produce the syn-γ-N-benzylamino-β-hydroxyphosphonates 11 and 13 as a single detectable diastereoisomer, under non-chelation or Felkin-Anh model control.

  10. Effect of heating oxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin on microsomes oxidation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bou Novensà, Ricard; Hanquet, N.; Codony Salcedo, Rafael; Guardiola Ibarz, Francesc; Decker, E.A

    2010-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) has been proposed to be a major pro-oxidant in raw and cooked meats. To understand the mechanisms and differentiate between the pro-oxidant and antioxidant potential of oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb) and methemoglobin (MetHb), their pro-oxidant activity, protein solubility, radical scavenging capacity, iron content and contribution of non-chelatable iron on lipid oxidation were determined as a function of thermal treatments. The ability of native OxyHb and MetHb to promote lipid oxidat...

  11. Monothiodibenzoylmethane: Structural and vibrational assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Gorski, Alexander; Posokhov, Yevgen

    2007-01-01

    The vibrational structure of the title compound (1,3-diphenyl-3-thioxopropane-1-one, TDBM) was studied by a variety of experimental and theoretical methods. The stable ground state configuration of TDBM was investigated by IR absorption measurements in different media, by LD polarization spectros...... to an “open”, non-chelated enethiol form (t-TCC), thereby supporting the previous conclusions by Posokhov et al. No obvious indications of the contribution of other forms to the observed spectra could be found....

  12. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf-Peter Schmidt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1 handwashing with water, (2 handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3 no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp. were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p < 0.001. Handwashing with plain soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p < 0.001. The effect did not appear to depend on the bacteria species. Handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases.

  13. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mukadder; Çetinkol, Yeliz; Korkmaz, Hakan; Batmaz, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Conclusion: Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly. PMID:27403392

  14. Nasal Bacterial Colonization in Pediatric Epistaxis: The Role of Topical Antibacterial Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukaddder Korkmaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epistaxis is a common problem in childhood. It has been shown that children with recurrent epistaxis are more likely to have nasal colonization with Staphylococcus aureus. It has been suggested that low-grade inflammation, crusting and increased vascularity due to bacterial colonization contributes to the development of epistaxis in children. Aims: This study aimed to investigate the nasal colonization and treatment outcome in pediatric epistaxis patients. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study. Methods: Charts of the pediatric patients referred to our university hospital otolaryngology outpatient clinics for the evaluation of epistaxis were reviewed. The patients whose nasal cultures had been taken at the first clinical visit comprised the study group. Results: Staphylococcus aureus was the most common bacteria grown. The presence of crusting and hypervascularity was not dependent on the type of bacterial growth and there was no relation between hypervascularity and crusting of the nasal mucosa. Thirty-six patients were evaluated for the outcome analysis. Resolution of bleeding was not dependent on nasal colonization; in patients with colonization, there was no difference between topical antibacterial and non-antibacterial treatments. Conclusion: Despite the high colonization rates, topical antibacterial treatment was not found superior to non-antibacterial treatment. Our study does not support the belief that bacterial colonization results in hypervascularity of the septal mucosa causing epistaxis since no relation was found between nasal colonization, hypervascularity and crusting. The role of bacterial colonization in pediatric epistaxis need to be further investigated and treatment protocols must be determined accordingly.

  15. Intracavity lavage and wound irrigation for prevention of surgical site infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Atkinson, Ross A; Smith, Tanya A; Rowlands, Ceri; Rithalia, Amber D; Crosbie, Emma J; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-01-01

    possible. Main results We included 59 RCTs with 14,738 participants. Studies assessed comparisons between irrigation and no irrigation, between antibacterial and non-antibacterial irrigation, between different antibiotics, different antiseptics or different non-antibacterial agents, or between different methods of irrigation delivery. No studies compared antiseptic with antibiotic irrigation. Surgical site infection Irrigation compared with no irrigation (20 studies; 7192 participants): there is no clear difference in risk of SSI between irrigation and no irrigation (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.11; I2 = 28%; 14 studies, 6106 participants). This would represent an absolute difference of 13 fewer SSIs per 1000 people treated with irrigation compared with no irrigation; the 95% CI spanned from 31 fewer to 10 more SSIs. This was low-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias and imprecision. Antibacterial irrigation compared with non-antibacterial irrigation (36 studies, 6163 participants): there may be a lower incidence of SSI in participants treated with antibacterial irrigation compared with non-antibacterial irrigation (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.75; I2 = 53%; 30 studies, 5141 participants). This would represent an absolute difference of 60 fewer SSIs per 1000 people treated with antibacterial irrigation than with non-antibacterial (95% CI 35 fewer to 78 fewer). This was low-certainty evidence downgraded for risk of bias and suspected publication bias. Comparison of irrigation of two agents of the same class (10 studies; 2118 participants): there may be a higher incidence of SSI in participants treated with povidone iodine compared with superoxidised water (Dermacyn) (RR 2.80, 95% CI 1.05 to 7.47; low-certainty evidence from one study, 190 participants). This would represent an absolute difference of 95 more SSIs per 1000 people treated with povidone iodine than with superoxidised water (95% CI 3 more to 341 more). All other comparisons found low- or very low

  16. Bioactivity, Chemical Profiling, and 16S rRNA-Based Phylogeny of Pseudoalteromonas Strains Collected on a Global Research Cruise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vynne, Nikolaj Grønnegaard; Månsson, Maria; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2011-01-01

    retained antibacterial activity, 48 of which were pigmented, and another group (50 strains) of bacteria which lost antibacterial activity upon sub-culturing, two of which were pigmented. The group that retained antibacterial activity consisted of six clusters in which strains were identified...... detected in several species. HPLC-UV/VIS detected systematic intra-species differences for some groups, and testing several strains of a species was required to determine these differences. The majority of non-antibacterial, non-pigmented strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas agarivorans, and HPLC......-UV/VIS did not further differentiate this group. Pseudoalteromonas retaining antibacterial were more likely to originate from biotic or abiotic surfaces in contrast to planktonic strains. Hence, the pigmented, antibacterial Pseudoalteromonas have a niche specificity, and sampling from marine biofilm...

  17. Efficacy of two fluoride-free, alcohol-free mouthwashes containing 0.075% or 0.07% CPC in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis over a 6-week period on adults in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Mateo, Luis R; Ahmed, Rabab; Morrison, Boyce M; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pilch, Shira; Stewart, Bernal

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of two commercially available, fluoride-free, alcohol-free mouthwashes containing either 0.075% or 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis compared to a non-antibacterial control mouthwash. A 6-week double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in Trujillo Alto, Puerto Rico. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) a fluoride-free, alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC (TG); (2) a fluoride-free, alcohol-free mouthwash containing 0.07% CPC (PC); and (3) a fluoride-free, alcohol-free mouthwash without antibacterial agent (NC). Subjects were instructed to rinse with the assigned mouthwash, after tooth brushing, twice daily (morning and evening). After 4 and 6 weeks of product use, subjects were examined for gingivitis (Whole Mouth Gingival, Gingival Interproximal, Gingival Severity Indexes) and plaque (Whole Mouth Plaque, Plaque Interproximal, and Plaque Severity Indexes) parameters. ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey's pair-wise comparisons (α = 0.05) were performed for treatment group comparisons. A total of 132 subjects were screened; 120 were enrolled; and 116 completed the study. After 6 weeks of product use, participants who rinsed with the CPC-containing mouthwashes exhibited statistically significant (P plaque parameters evaluated, whereas in those using the non-antibacterial mouthwash, significant reductions were only observed in whole mouth and interproximal plaque scores. No statistically significant (P > 0.05) differences were observed, with respect to the gingival and plaque parameters, between the two CPC-containing mouthwashes.

  18. Randomized clinical trial of two oral care regimens in reducing and controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayad, Farid; Mateo, Luis R; Dillon, Rensi; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pilch, Shira; Stewart, Bernal

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a test regimen (TR) integrating the use of a commercially available triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and sodium fluoride containing toothpaste, an alcohol-free, fluoride-free cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouthwash, and a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner compared to a negative control regimen (NCR) integrating a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash in the reduction and control of established plaque and gingivitis after 4 weeks of product use. A 4-week, two-cell, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical study was conducted in Cedar Knolls, New Jersey, USA. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to two regimens: (1) a commercially available toothpaste containing triclosan, PVM/MA copolymer, and 0.243% sodium fluoride, a manual toothbrush with cheek and tongue cleaner, and commercially available mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC in a fluoride-free and alcohol-free base (TR), or (2) a commercially available 0.76% sodium monofluorophosphate toothpaste, a manual toothbrush with rounded/polished bristles, and a fluoride-free and alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash (NCR). Subjects were examined for dental plaque and gingivitis. Gingival, Gingival Severity, Gingival Interproximal, Plaque, Plaque Severity and Plaque Interproximal Index scores were calculated. For regimen comparison, independent t-test and ANCOVA analyses were performed. 130 subjects were screened; 120 enrolled; and 115 subjects completed the randomized clinical trial (RCT). After 4 weeks of product use, subjects using TR exhibited statistically significant (P Plaque, Plaque Severity and Plaque Interproximal Index scores, respectively, as compared to subjects using NCR.

  19. Exchangeable Ions Are Responsible for the In Vitro Antibacterial Properties of Natural Clay Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Caitlin C.; Haydel, Shelley E.

    2013-01-01

    We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD) and inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and – mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn, in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate generated antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the antibacterial clay mixture leachates. Speciation modeling revealed increased concentrations of soluble Cu2+ and Fe2+ in the antibacterial leachates, compared to the non-antibacterial leachates, suggesting these ionic species specifically are modulating the antibacterial activity of the leachates. Finally, linear regression analyses comparing the log10 reduction in bacterial viability to the concentration of individual ion species revealed positive correlations with Zn2+ and Cu2+ and antibacterial activity, a negative correlation with Fe3+, and no correlation with pH. Together, these analyses further indicate that the ion concentration of specific species (Fe2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+) are responsible for antibacterial activity and that killing activity is not solely attributed to pH. PMID:23691149

  20. Exchangeable ions are responsible for the in vitro antibacterial properties of natural clay mixtures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin C Otto

    Full Text Available We have identified a natural clay mixture that exhibits in vitro antibacterial activity against a broad spectrum of bacterial pathogens. We collected four samples from the same source and demonstrated through antibacterial susceptibility testing that these clay mixtures have markedly different antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Here, we used X-ray diffraction (XRD and inductively coupled plasma--optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES and--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS to characterize the mineralogical and chemical features of the four clay mixture samples. XRD analyses of the clay mixtures revealed minor mineralogical differences between the four samples. However, ICP analyses demonstrated that the concentrations of many elements, Fe, Co, Cu, Ni, and Zn, in particular, vary greatly across the four clay mixture leachates. Supplementation of a non-antibacterial leachate containing lower concentrations of Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn to final ion concentrations and a pH equivalent to that of the antibacterial leachate generated antibacterial activity against E. coli and MRSA, confirming the role of these ions in the antibacterial clay mixture leachates. Speciation modeling revealed increased concentrations of soluble Cu(2+ and Fe(2+ in the antibacterial leachates, compared to the non-antibacterial leachates, suggesting these ionic species specifically are modulating the antibacterial activity of the leachates. Finally, linear regression analyses comparing the log10 reduction in bacterial viability to the concentration of individual ion species revealed positive correlations with Zn(2+ and Cu(2+ and antibacterial activity, a negative correlation with Fe(3+, and no correlation with pH. Together, these analyses further indicate that the ion concentration of specific species (Fe(2+, Cu(2+, and Zn(2+ are responsible for antibacterial activity and that killing activity is not solely attributed to

  1. Influence of Formulation on the Cuticular Penetration and on Spray Deposit Properties of Manganese and Zinc Foliar Fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Foliar fertilization, or the application of nutrient solutions to the foliage of plants, has become a very important tool as a supplement to traditional soil fertilization. So far, knowledge about the real mechanisms of foliar nutrient uptake is still limited. In this study different manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn carriers differing in their solubility and chemical characteristics (chelated or non-chelated, with or without the presence of a surfactant-penetrant were compared with regard to their penetration characteristics through enzymatically-isolated cuticles. The experiments were explicitly conducted under high humidity conditions in order not to penalize compounds with a higher deliquescent point. The results show that Mn penetrates more rapidly through the cuticle than Zn ions for unknown reasons. The addition of a surfactant-penetrant enhances the penetration rate in the case of Mn ions. This trend is much less pronounced for zinc ions. Formulations based on insoluble carriers, such as carbonate or oxide, only poorly penetrate through the cuticle. In order to rapidly control micronutrient deficiency problems, only fully water soluble micronutrient carriers should be used.

  2. A thermodynamical and structural study on the complexation of trivalent lanthanides with a polycarboxylate based concrete superplasticizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Daniel R; Maiwald, Martin M; Taube, Franziska; Plank, Johann; Panak, Petra J

    2017-03-21

    The complexation of trivalent lanthanides with a commercial polycarboxylate based concrete superplasticizer (Glenium® 51) is investigated using different spectroscopic techniques. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in combination with a charge neutralization model is used to determine temperature dependent conditional stability constants (log β'(T)) for the complexation of Eu(iii) with Glenium® 51 in 0.1 mol kg -1 NaCl solution in the temperature range of 20-90 °C. Only one complex species is observed, and log β'(T) (given in kg per mol eq) shows a very slight increase with temperature from 7.5 to 7.9. The related conditional molar reaction enthalpy (Δ r H' m ) and entropy (Δ r S' m ) obtained using the Van't Hoff equation show that the complexation reaction is slightly endothermic and entropy driven. The thermodynamic investigations are complemented by structural data for complexes formed with Gd(iii) or Tb(iii) and Glenium® 51 using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results imply a non-chelate coordination of the trivalent metals through approximately three carboxylic functions of the polycarboxylate comb polymer which are attached predominantly in a bidentate fashion to the lanthanide under the given experimental conditions.

  3. Tetraammine(carbonato-κ2O,O′cobalt(III nitrate: a powder X-ray diffraction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armel Le Bail

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Practical chemistry courses at universities very frequently propose the synthesis and characterization of [Co(CO3(NH34]NO3, but this goal is never achieved since students only obtain the hemihydrated form. The anhydrous form can be prepared, however, and its structure is presented here. Similar to the hemihydrate form, the anhydrous phase contains the CoIII ion in an octahedral O2N4 coordination by a chelating carbonate group and four ammine ligands. The structure reveals an intricate array of N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving both the chelating and the non-chelating O atoms of the carbonate ligand as hydrogen-bond acceptors of the amine H atoms, which are also involved in hydrogen-bonding interactions with the nitrate O atoms. The structure of the anhydrous form is close to that of the hemihydrate phase, suggesting a probable topotactic reaction with relatively small rotations and translations of the [Co(CO3(NH34]+ and NO3− groups during the dehydration process, which produces an unusual volume increase of 4.3%.

  4. Tetra­ammine­(carbonato-κ2 O,O′)cobalt(III) nitrate: a powder X-ray diffraction study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bail, Armel

    2013-01-01

    Practical chemistry courses at universities very frequently propose the synthesis and characterization of [Co(CO3)(NH3)4]NO3, but this goal is never achieved since students only obtain the hemihydrated form. The anhydrous form can be prepared, however, and its structure is presented here. Similar to the hemihydrate form, the anhydrous phase contains the CoIII ion in an octahedral O2N4 coordination by a chelating carbonate group and four ammine ligands. The structure reveals an intricate array of N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving both the chelating and the non-chelating O atoms of the carbonate ligand as hydrogen-bond acceptors of the amine H atoms, which are also involved in hydrogen-bonding inter­actions with the nitrate O atoms. The structure of the anhydrous form is close to that of the hemihydrate phase, suggesting a probable topotactic reaction with relatively small rotations and translations of the [Co(CO3)(NH3)4]+ and NO3 − groups during the dehydration process, which produces an unusual volume increase of 4.3%. PMID:24046543

  5. Toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds. Progress report, December 1, 1975--November 30, 1976. [Tests made with rats and hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderman, F.W. Jr.

    1976-08-15

    The toxicology and metabolism of nickel compounds (NiCl/sub 2/, Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, NiS, Ni powder, and Ni(CO)/sub 4/) were investigated in rats and hamsters. Triethylenetetramine (TETA) and d-penicillamine are more effective than other chelating agents (Na-diethyldithiocarbamate, CaNa/sub 2/-versenate, diglycylhistidine-N-methylamide and ..cap alpha..-lipoic acid) as antidotes for acute Ni(II)-toxicity in rats. The antidotal efficacy of triethylenetetramine (TETA) in acute Ni(II)-toxicity is mediated by rapid reduction of the plasma concentration of Ni(II), consistent with renal clearance of the TETA-Ni complex at a rate more than twenty times greater than the renal clearance of non-chelated Ni(II). Fischer rats are more susceptible than other rat strains (Wistar-Lewis, Long-Evans and NIH-Black) to induction of erythrocytosis after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/, and elucidation of the serial pathologic changes that occur in rats after an intrarenal injection of Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/. When amorphous nickel monosulfide (NiS) and nickel subsulfide (Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/) were administered by im injection to randomly selected Fischer rats in equivalent amounts under identical conditions, NiS did not induce any tumors whereas Ni/sub 3/S/sub 2/ induced sarcomas in almost all of the rats.

  6. Efficacy of CPC and essential oils mouthwashes compared to a negative control mouthwash in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis: A 6-week, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Noboa, Joselyn; Romeu, Ferdinand Lugo; Mateo, Luis R; Ahmed, Rabab; Chaknis, Patricia; Morrison, Boyce M; Miller, Jeffrey M; Pilch, Shira; Stewart, Bernal

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy of a mouthwash containing 0.075% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in a fluoride-free, alcohol-free base and a mouthwash containing essential oils in a fluoride-free, 21.6% alcohol base as compared to a fluoride-free, alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash in controlling established dental plaque and gingivitis after 6 weeks of twice daily use. A 6-week, parallel-group, randomized double blind clinical trial was conducted in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Recruited subjects were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) a mouthwash containing 0.075% CPC in a fluoride-free, alcohol-free base (CPC); (2) a commercially-available mouthwash containing essential oils in a fluoride-free, 21.6% alcohol base (EO); or (3) a fluoride-free, alcohol-free non-antibacterial mouthwash (NC). Subjects were instructed to rinse with the assigned mouthwash, after tooth brushing, twice daily (morning and evening). After 4 and 6 weeks of product use, subjects were examined for gingivitis (Whole Mouth Gingival, Gingival Interproximal, Gingival Severity Indexes) and plaque (Whole Mouth Plaque, Plaque Interproximal, and Plaque Severity Indexes) parameters. For treatment group comparisons, ANCOVA and post hoc Tukey's pair-wise comparisons (α = 0.05) were performed. 132 subjects were screened; 120 were enrolled; and 116 completed the study. After 6 weeks of product use, subjects using the CPC and EO mouthwashes exhibited statistically significant (P plaque measurements compared to subjects using the NC mouthwash. Subjects using the CPC mouthwash did not exhibit a statistically significant (P > 0.05) reduction with respect to gingival severity and all plaque measures (Whole, Interproximal, and Severity) when compared to EO mouthwash. Subjects using the CPC mouthwash exhibited statistically significant (P < 0.05) reductions in Gingival Index scores of 5.1% (P = 0.005), and Gingival Interproximal Index scores of 5.5% (P = 0.016) relative to

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of antibacterial medical gloves in the ICU setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahar Bador, M; Rai, V; Yusof, M Y; Kwong, W K; Assadian, O

    2015-07-01

    Inappropriate use of medical gloves may support microbial transmission. New strategies could increase the safety of medical gloves without the risk of patient and surface contamination. To compare the efficacy of synthetic antibacterial nitrile medical gloves coated with polyhexamethylen-biguanid hydrochloride (PHMB) on the external surface with identical non-antibacterial medical gloves in reducing glove contamination after common patient care measures in an intensive care unit (ICU) setting. ICU staff wore either standard or antibacterial gloves during patient care activities. The number of bacteria on gloves was measured semi-quantitatively immediately after the performance of four clinical activities. There was a significant difference in mean bacterial growth [colony-forming units (cfu)] between control gloves and antibacterial gloves {60 [standard deviation (SD) 23] vs 16 (SD 23) cfu/glove imprint, P gloves had significantly less bacterial contamination compared with the control gloves (P = 0.011 and gloves showed lower bacterial contamination after changing linen compared with control gloves, the difference was not significant (P = 0.311). This study showed that use of antibacterial medical gloves significantly reduced bacterial contamination after typical patient care activities in 57% of the investigated clinical activities (P gloves may support reduction of cross-contamination in the ICU setting. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The International Liver Congress (ILC 2016: Rifaximin Use in Cirrhosis-Related Hepatological Disorders and New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Charles

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rifaximin (RFX-α is a broad-spectrum antibiotic that targets commensal gut bacteria and reduces the excess ammonia produced by the gut bacteria of patients with cirrhosis. This innovative agent has been approved in most European countries for several therapeutic indications, including the prevention of episodes of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE in adult patients. New data on RFX use in HE were presented at the International Liver Congress (ILC, namely the annual meeting of the European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL held in Barcelona, Spain, from 13th–17th April 2016. The beneficial effects of RFX have been attributed to the antibiotic action against a broad spectrum of gut bacteria, accompanied by the advantage of its very poor systemic absorption generating a gastrointestinal tropism. More recently, data are accumulating to suggest that other non-antibacterial effects contribute to RFX efficacy, making it a very interesting option for enteric diseases. RFX is thus explored outside of HE, in both cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients. This review aims to highlight the presentations from ILC 2016 focussing on RFX developments in clinical research.

  9. Improved secondary caries resistance via augmented pressure displacement of antibacterial adhesive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Niu, Li-na; Huang, Li; Fang, Ming; Chang, Gang; Shen, Li-juan; Tay, Franklin R; Chen, Ji-hua

    2016-03-01

    The present in vitro study evaluated the secondary caries resistance potential of acid-etched human coronal dentin bonded using augmented pressure adhesive displacement in conjunction with an experimental antibacterial adhesive. One hundred and twenty class I cavities were restored with a commercial non-antibacterial etch-and-rinse adhesive (N) or an experimental antibacterial adhesive (A) which was displaced by gentle air-blow (G) or augmented pressure air-blow (H). After bonding and restoration with resin composite, the resulted 4 groups (N-G, N-H, A-G and A-H) were exposed to Streptococcus mutans biofilm for 4, 8, 15, 20 or 25 days. The development of secondary caries in the bonding interface was then examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data acquired from 15, 20 and 25 days of artificial caries induction were analyzed with three-way ANOVA at α = 0.05. The depth of the artificial carious lesions was significantly affected by "adhesive type" (Single Bond 2 vs experimental antibacterial adhesive p = 0.003), "intensity of adhesive displacement" (gentle vs augmented-pressure adhesive displacement; p antibacterial adhesive reduces the progression of secondary caries.

  10. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boratyński Janusz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans. Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. Results In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. Conclusion We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  11. The effect of bacteriophages T4 and HAP1 on in vitro melanoma migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, Krystyna; Skaradziński, Grzegorz; Jończyk, Paulina; Kurzepa, Aneta; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Owczarek, Barbara; Zaczek, Maciej; Switała-Jeleń, Kinga; Boratyński, Janusz; Poźniak, Gryzelda; Maciejewska, Magdalena; Górski, Andrzej

    2009-01-20

    The antibacterial activity of bacteriophages has been described rather well. However, knowledge about the direct interactions of bacteriophages with mammalian organisms and their other, i.e. non-antibacterial, activities in mammalian systems is quite scarce. It must be emphasised that bacteriophages are natural parasites of bacteria, which in turn are parasites or symbionts of mammals (including humans). Bacteriophages are constantly present in mammalian bodies and the environment in great amounts. On the other hand, the perspective of the possible use of bacteriophage preparations for antibacterial therapies in cancer patients generates a substantial need to investigate the effects of phages on cancer processes. In these studies the migration of human and mouse melanoma on fibronectin was inhibited by purified T4 and HAP1 bacteriophage preparations. The migration of human melanoma was also inhibited by the HAP1 phage preparation on matrigel. No response of either melanoma cell line to lipopolysaccharide was observed. Therefore the effect of the phage preparations cannot be attributed to lipopolysaccharide. No differences in the effects of T4 and HAP1 on melanoma migration were observed. We believe that these observations are of importance for any further attempts to use bacteriophage preparations in antibacterial treatment. The risk of antibiotic-resistant hospital infections strongly affects cancer patients and these results suggest the possibility of beneficial phage treatment. We also believe that they will contribute to the general understanding of bacteriophage biology, as bacteriophages, extremely ubiquitous entities, are in permanent contact with human organisms.

  12. The Effect of Handwashing with Water or Soap on Bacterial Contamination of Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Maxine; Cobb, Emma; Donachie, Peter; Judah, Gaby; Curtis, Val; Schmidt, Wolf-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Handwashing is thought to be effective for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoea pathogens. However it is not conclusive that handwashing with soap is more effective at reducing contamination with bacteria associated with diarrhoea than using water only. In this study 20 volunteers contaminated their hands deliberately by touching door handles and railings in public spaces. They were then allocated at random to (1) handwashing with water, (2) handwashing with non-antibacterial soap and (3) no handwashing. Each volunteer underwent this procedure 24 times, yielding 480 samples overall. Bacteria of potential faecal origin (mostly Enterococcus and Enterobacter spp.) were found after no handwashing in 44% of samples. Handwashing with water alone reduced the presence of bacteria to 23% (p soap and water reduced the presence of bacteria to 8% (comparison of both handwashing arms: p soap and water is more effective for the removal of bacteria of potential faecal origin from hands than handwashing with water alone and should therefore be more useful for the prevention of transmission of diarrhoeal diseases. PMID:21318017

  13. Photoreactions of ruthenium(II) and osmium(II) complexes with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucheron, C; Kirsch-De Mesmaeker, A; Kelly, J M

    1997-09-01

    The design of Ru(II) and Os(II) complexes which are photoreactive with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) represents one of the main targets for the development of novel molecular tools for the study of DNA and, in the future, for the production of new, metal-based, anti-tumor drugs. In this review, we explain how it is possible to make a complex photoreactive with nucleobases and nucleic acids. According to the photophysical behaviour of the Ru(II) compounds, two types of photochemistry are expected: (1) photosubstitution of a ligand by a nucleobase and another monodentate ligand, which takes place from the triplet, metal-centred (3MC) state; this state is populated thermally from the lowest lying triplet metal to ligand charge transfer (3MLCT) state; (2) photoreaction from the 3MLCT state, corresponding to photoredox processes with DNA bases. The two photoreactivities are in competition. By modulating appropriately the redox properties of the 3MLCT state, an electron transfer process from the base to the excited complex takes place, and is directly correlated with DNA cleavage or the formation of an adduct of the complex to DNA. In this adduct, guanine is linked by N2 to the alpha-position of a non-chelating nitrogen of the polyazaaromatic ligand without destruction of the complex. Different strategies are explained which increase the affinity of the complexes for DNA and direct the complex photoreactivity to sites of special DNA topology or targeted sequences of bases. Moreover, the replacement of the Ru(II) ion by the Os(II) ion in the photoreactive complexes leads to an increased specificity of photoreaction. Indeed, only one type of photoreactivity (from the 3MLCT state) is present for the Os(II) complexes because the 3MC state is too high in energy to be populated at room temperature.

  14. Controlling interfacial properties in supported metal oxide catalysts through metal–organic framework templating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abney, Carter W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Patterson, Jacob T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Gilhula, James C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Wang, Li [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Hensley, Dale K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Chen, Jihua [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Science (CNMS); Foo, Guo Shiou [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Wu, Zili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical Sciences Division; Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-08

    Precise control over the chemical structure of hard-matter materials is a grand challenge of basic science and a prerequisite for the development of advanced catalyst systems. In this work we report the application of a sacrificial metal-organic framework (MOF) template for the synthesis of a porous supported metal oxide catalyst, demonstrating proof-of-concept for a highly generalizable approach to the preparation new catalyst materials. Application of 2,2’-bipyridine-5,5’-dicarboxylic acid as the organic strut in the Ce MOF precursor results in chelation of Cu2+ and affords isolation of the metal oxide precursor. Following pyrolysis of the template, homogeneously dispersed CuO nanoparticles are formed in the resulting porous CeO2 support. By partially substituting non-chelating 1,1’-biphenyl-4,4’-dicarboxylic acid, the Cu2+ loading and dispersion can be finely tuned, allowing precise control over the CuO/CeO2 interface in the final catalyst system. Characterization by x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and in situ IR spectroscopy/mass spectrometry confirm control over interface formation to be a function of template composition, constituting the first report of a MOF template being used to control interfacial properties in a supported metal oxide. Using CO oxidation as a model reaction, the system with the greatest number of interfaces possessed the lowest activation energy and better activity under differential conditions, but required higher temperature for catalytic onset and displayed inferior efficiency at 100 °C than systems with higher Cu-loading. This finding is attributable to greater CO adsorption in the more heavily-loaded systems, and indicates catalyst performance for these supported oxide systems to be a function of at least two parameters: size of adsorption site and extent of interface. In conclusion, optimization of catalyst materials thus requires precise control

  15. Exploring electronic and steric effects on the insertion and polymerization reactivity of phosphinesulfonato pdii catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Neuwald, Boris

    2013-11-21

    Thirteen different symmetric and asymmetric phosphinesulfonato palladium complexes ([{(X1-Cl)-μ-M}n], M=Na, Li, 1= X(P^O)PdMe) were prepared (see Figure 1). The solid-state structures of the corresponding pyridine or lutidine complexes were determined for (MeO)21-py, (iPrO)21-lut, (MeO,Me2)1-lut, (MeO)31-lut, CF31-lut, and Ph1-lut. The reactivities of the catalysts X1, obtained after chloride abstraction with AgBF4, toward methyl acrylate (MA) were quantified through determination of the rate constants for the first and the consecutive MA insertion and the analysis of β-H and other decomposition products through NMR spectroscopy. Differences in the homo- and copolymerization of ethylene and MA regarding catalyst activity and stability over time, polymer molecular weight, and polar co-monomer incorporation were investigated. DFT calculations were performed on the main insertion steps for both monomers to rationalize the effect of the ligand substitution patterns on the polymerization behaviors of the complexes. Full analysis of the data revealed that: 1) electron-deficient catalysts polymerize with higher activity, but fast deactivation is also observed; 2) the double ortho-substituted catalysts (MeO)21 and (MeO)31 allow very high degrees of MA incorporation at low MA concentrations in the copolymerization; and 3) steric shielding leads to a pronounced increase in polymer molecular weight in the copolymerization. The catalyst properties induced by a given P-aryl (alkyl) moiety were combined effectively in catalysts with two different non-chelating aryl moieties, such as cHexO/(MeO)21, which led to copolymers with significantly increased molecular weights compared to the prototypical MeO1. Catalyst control: The influence of steric and electronic effects on the reactivity of phosphinesulfonato PdII catalysts in polymerization and copolymerization is explored through experimental and DFT methods. A comparison of thirteen different X(P O)PdMe catalysts ((P O)= κ2-P

  16. Comparison of the antiseptic effects of Betadine and Sterillium on microbial load of surgical hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Entezari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Hand washing is an essential measure in controlling the infection in the operating room, the correct implementation of which requires time. Therefore, the use of fast-acting and safe disinfectant is of great importance in this regard. Regarding this, the present study aimed to compare the antiseptic effects of Betadine and Sterillium on the microbial load of the surgical hands. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 93 operating room staff working at teaching hospitals of Yazd, Iran, in 2013, using random sampling method. Hand washing was first performed uniformly using 5 ml of non-antibacterial soap for 1 min. Subsequently, the hand washing was performed on two separate occasions with an interval of one week with 12 ml of Betadine and Sterillum for 3 min following the instructions of each solution. The sampling was carried out immediately after hand washing. In order to evaluate the lasting effects of the disinfectants, another sampling was also performed after the surgery. The data were analysed using Chi-square tests, independent t-test, and repeated measures ANOVA through the SPSS version 17. Results: At post-intervention stage, the mean difference of microbial load of the hands washed with Betadine was 15.97±3.08 CFU/ml which decreased to -0.64±0.28 CFU/ml (P=0.012. Regarding the Sterillum, the mean microbial loads of the hands were 16.73±3.0 and -0.032±0.64 CFU/ml at the pre- and post-intervention stages, respectively (P=0.037. This difference between the two solutions was significant (P=0.04. Conclusion: The findings of the present study revealed that the Sterillum was more fast-acting, than the Betadine. However, Betadine showed more lasting effect as compared to the Sterillum. Therefore, it is suggested to choose the disinfectant with regard to the onset and duration of the surgery.

  17. Chelation-Assisted, Copper(II) Acetate-Accelerated Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Gui-Chao; Michaels, Heather A.; Simmons, J. Tyler; Clark, Ronald J.; Zhu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    We described in a previous communication (ref. 13) a variant of the popular CuI-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (AAC) process where 5 mol% Cu(OAc)2 in the absence of any added reducing agent is sufficient to enable the reaction. 2-Picolylazide (1) and 2-azidomethylquinoline (2) were found to be by far the most reactive carbon azide substrates that convert to 1,2,3-triazoles in as short as a few minutes under the discovered conditions. We hypothesized that the abilities of 1 and 2 to chelate CuII contribute significantly to the observed high reaction rates. The current work examines the effect of auxiliary ligands near the azido group other than pyridyl for CuII on the efficiency of the Cu(OAc)2-accelerated AAC reaction. The carbon azides capable of binding to the catalytic copper center at the alkylated azido nitrogen in a chelatable fashion were indeed shown to be superior substrates under the reported conditions. The chelation between carbon azide 11 and CuII was demonstrated in an X-ray single crystal structure. In a limited set of examples, the ligand tris(benzyltriazolylmethyl)amine (TBTA), developed by Fokin et al. for assisting the original CuI-catalyzed AAC reactions (ref. 8), also dramatically enhances the Cu(OAc)2-accelerated AAC reactions involving non-chelating azides. This observation leads to the hypothesis of an additional effect of chelating azides on the efficiencies of Cu(OAc)2-accelerated AAC reactions, which is to facilitate the rapid reduction of CuII to highly catalytic CuI species. Mechanistic studies on the AAC reactions with particular emphasis on the role of carbon azide/copper interactions will be conducted based on the observations reported in this work. Finally, the immediate utility of the product 1,2,3-triazole molecules derived from chelating azides as multidentate metal coordination ligands is demonstrated. The resulting triazolyl-containing ligands are expected to bind with transition metal ions via the N(2) nitrogen of the 1

  18. Antiseptics for burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Christie, Janice; Liu, Zhenmi; Westby, Maggie J; Jefferies, Jayne M; Hudson, Thomas; Edwards, Jacky; Mohapatra, Devi Prasad; Hassan, Ibrahim A; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-07-12

    Burn wounds cause high levels of morbidity and mortality worldwide. People with burns are particularly vulnerable to infections; over 75% of all burn deaths (after initial resuscitation) result from infection. Antiseptics are topical agents that act to prevent growth of micro-organisms. A wide range are used with the intention of preventing infection and promoting healing of burn wounds. To assess the effects and safety of antiseptics for the treatment of burns in any care setting. In September 2016 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE (In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations), Ovid Embase, and EBSCO CINAHL. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions based on language, date of publication or study setting. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with any burn wound and assessed the use of a topical treatment with antiseptic properties. Two review authors independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction. We included 56 RCTs with 5807 randomised participants. Almost all trials had poorly reported methodology, meaning that it is unclear whether they were at high risk of bias. In many cases the primary review outcomes, wound healing and infection, were not reported, or were reported incompletely.Most trials enrolled people with recent burns, described as second-degree and less than 40% of total body surface area; most participants were adults. Antiseptic agents assessed were: silver-based, honey, Aloe Vera, iodine-based, chlorhexidine or polyhexanide (biguanides), sodium hypochlorite, merbromin, ethacridine lactate, cerium nitrate and Arnebia euchroma. Most studies compared antiseptic with a topical antibiotic, primarily silver sulfadiazine (SSD); others compared antiseptic with a non-antibacterial